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Sample records for hgi2 frisch collar

  1. Charge collection characteristics of Frisch collar CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Mark J. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: harrison@ksu.edu; Kargar, Alireza; McGregor, Douglas S. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2007-08-21

    A collimated {sup 198}Au source was used to determine the charge collection efficiency (CCE) at several locations along the length of a 3.4x3.4x5.5 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe bar detector, both in planar configuration and with Frisch collars of varying length. For each configuration, a 0.50-mm-long region spanning the width of the device was irradiated with 411-keV gamma rays produced by a neutron-activated gold foil. Irradiation began at the cathode and stepped in 0.50-mm steps toward the anode, with a spectrum being collected at each location. By observing the channel location of the full-energy peak in each collected spectrum, an average CCE was determined for each irradiated region. The CCE was found to vary nearly linearly along the length of the device in the planar configuration, starting at a peak value of 89% and dropping to a minimum measured value of 26% near the anode. The addition of a Frisch collar covering the entire length of the crystal greatly altered the CCE profile, which remained near 87% for approximately two-thirds of the length, then sharply dropped near the anode. Results were confirmed by theoretical models. Further CCE mapping was also completed for devices with Frisch collars of various lengths. Those results are reported as well.

  2. CdZnTe Frisch collar detectors for {gamma}-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargar, Alireza [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Jones, Andrew M. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McNeil, Walter J. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McGregor, Douglas S. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)]. E-mail: mcgregor@ksu.edu

    2006-03-15

    Low-energy {gamma}-ray spectra were collected from {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 198}Au, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 235}U using a 3.4x3.4x5.7 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe detector utilizing an insulated Frisch ring. The CdZnTe detector was fabricated from a single crystal and a copper shim was used as the Frisch collar. Room-temperature energy resolution of 1.45% full-width half-maximum (FWHM) was obtained for {sup 137}Cs at 661.7 keV without electronic correction. The detector fabrication process is described and the resulting energy spectra are discussed. The detector fabrication process is described and the resulting energy spectra are discussed. The detector full-energy-peak intrinsic efficiency is reported for different {gamma}-ray energies, specifically from {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 137}Cs.

  3. Angular response of a W-collimated room-temperature-operated CdZnTe Frisch collar spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargar, Alireza [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Jones, Andrew M. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McNeil, Walter J. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McGregor, Douglas S. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)]. E-mail: mcgregor@ksu.edu

    2006-06-15

    The spatial resolution of a collimated CdZnTe Frisch collar detector was experimentally investigated for two different tungsten collimator designs using a {sup 198}Au gamma-ray source at 412 keV. A two-dimensional model for the detector-collimator-source geometry was developed and applied with some simplifying assumptions. The CdZnTe detector was fabricated from a single crystal using a copper shim as the Frisch collar. The detector fabrication process is briefly described. Pulse height spectra were collected from {sup 241}Am, {sup 198}Au and {sup 137}Cs using a 3.4x3.4x5.8 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe detector utilizing an insulated Frisch collar mounted inside a tungsten collimator. The resulting energy spectra are presented. Room-temperature energy resolution of 1.72% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) was obtained for {sup 137}Cs at 662 keV without electronic correction. The two-dimensional model reasonably predicts the angular response of the CdZnTe detectors when inserted into two different collimators.

  4. Characterization of charge carrier collection in a CdZnTe Frisch collar detector with a highly collimated {sup 137}Cs source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargar, Alireza [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, 202 NSB, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Brooks, Adam C. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McGregor, Douglas S., E-mail: mcgregor@ksu.ed [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2010-08-21

    A 4.7 x4.7x9.5 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe Frisch collar device was characterized through probing the device with a highly collimated {sup 137}Cs 662 keV gamma ray source. In a systematic series of experiments, the detector was probed along the length and width with a {sup 137}Cs gamma ray source using a 43.0 mm long Pb-collimator with a 0.6 mm circular hole. The detector was probed along the central line under different operating voltages of 1200, 1000, 800, 600 and 400 V. The experimental results correlated well to charge collection calculations for a modeled device with the same size and operating conditions. It was proved that, unlike the planar configuration, the charge collection efficiency profile along the length of Frisch collar device is considerably improved. The CdZnTe raw materials for this study were acquired from Redlen Technologies, and the Frisch collar device was fabricated and characterized at S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory at Kansas State University.

  5. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of HgI2 nanoparticles for films nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthaburu, María Pérez; Galain, Isabel; Mombrú, Maia; Aguiar, Ivana; Olivera, Alvaro; Pereira, Heinkel Bentos; Fornaro, Laura

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of controlling the first steps in HgI2 film growth onto amorphous substrates, we employed HgI2 nanoparticles for nucleation. Hg(NO3)2 and NaI were used for obtaining HgI2 in water with and without citric or oxalic acid as capping agents. These samples were then subjected to a hydrothermal treatment at a constant temperature of 120 ºC during 2 h. All samples were washed, centrifuged and dried. This method presents a facile route for obtaining HgI2 nanoparticles and is easily scalable. HgI2 tetragonal phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles were characterized in their size and morphology by transmission electron microscopy and the capping agent presence was studied by infrared spectroscopy. HgI2 nanoparticles synthesized in octadecene, previously reported, as well as nanoparticles obtained in the present work, were used for nucleation onto amorphous substrates. They were deposited onto floating silica glass by spin coating and the morphology of the layer was studied by atomic force microscopy. The results we obtained are the first involving HgI2 nucleation by spin coating, and are very promising for improving the film growth orientation and therefore the current applications of this material, as well as for opening new ones.

  7. Growth and characterization of HgI2, PbI2 and PbI2:HgI2 layered semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the preparation of a-HgI2 by Physical Vapor Transport and of PbI2 crystals using the Bridgman technique. The results of the growth of HgI2 diluted in PbI2 by the Bridgman technique are shown for the first time, its limit of solubility having been determined at 600 ppm of HgI2 in the PbI2 matrix. Optical absorption, photoluminescence and electrical conductivity measurements show that the crystals prepared are of good crystalline quality.

  8. HgI2 nanostructures obtained hydrothermally for application in ionizing radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Barthaburu, María; Galain, Isabel; Aguiar, Ivana; Bentos Pereira, Heinkel; Fornaro, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The compound semiconductor HgI2 has been widely studied and employed as a material for ionizing radiation detection. Monocrystal growth is an intricate method for obtaining materials for this application. With the aim of finding a simpler and more effective way to develop ionizing radiation detectors, we employed HgI2 nanostructures subjected to a hydrothermal treatment and then pressed for this purpose. In the synthesis procedure, aqueous solutions of Hg(NO3)2 and NaI were mixed until their reaction completed and the suspension obtained was then placed in a homemade autoclave and heated at 120 °C for 2, 10 or 24 h. We confirmed the HgI2 tetragonal phase by powder XRD in all cases, independently of the synthesis conditions employed. Nanoparticles were characterized by their size and morphology by TEM. We used the HgI2 nanostructures to obtain a pellet by applying 0.7 GPa of pressure at room temperature. The pellet was then used to construct the detector, and we studied the electrical properties of the detector and its response to 241Am sources of different exposure rates. The resistivity and signal-to-noise ratio obtained are of the order of those reported for HgI2 detectors assembled with monocrystals. The results obtained in this work encourage us to work further on this topic, improving the method, scaling the detector’s size and studying its spectrometric grade.

  9. Photoelectronic properties of HgI2 crystals for nuclear radiation detection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S L Sharma; H N Acharya

    2002-04-01

    Photoelectronic properties of red mercuric iodide single crystals, grown from its saturated solution in tetrahydrofuran, have been studied for the wavelength range 450-700 nm at temperatures 80, 110, 175, 235 and 300 K. Various aspects of the optical generation of charge carriers have been discussed. The computer simulation of the room temperature photoconductivity has generated the optimized values of the mobility-lifetime products (ee = 5.67 × 10-5 cm2/V, hh = 0.18 × 10-5 cm2/V), and surface recombination velocities (e = 3.2 × 105 cm/s, h = 4.5 × 105 cm/s) of the charge carriers in these crystals. The estimated values of the electron and hole drift lengths for typical electric fields suggest that, under the negative electrode illumination, THF -HgI2 crystals have high potential as regards to their use as phptodetectors in most of the scintillation spectrometers.

  10. Electrical properties of solid iodo mercurates resulting from the reaction of HgI2 with alcaline iodides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponpon, J. P.; Amann, M.

    2005-01-01

    Potassium iodide solutions are currently used during the fabrication process of mercuric iodide based nuclear radiation detectors. However, KI treatment leaves the HgI2 surface covered with a residual compound (namely the potassium tri-iodo mercurate) which has a significant influence on the surface properties and stability of mercuric iodide devices and therefore on the detectors characteristics. Looking for other solutions to etch mercuric iodide, we found it interesting to investigate the electrical properties of the compounds which may form when etching HgI2 in NH4I, NaI, and RbI. For this purpose, solid iodo mercurates with the cations ammonium, sodium, and rubidium, have been prepared by reacting HgI2 with the solutions of interest. Study of the electrical properties of these samples and comparison with those of potassium tri-iodo mercurate ones, especially with respect to humidity, indicates noticeable stability differences in presence of water vapour. This could have interesting consequences on the surface cleaning of mercuric iodide.

  11. Influence of water and water vapour on the characteristics of KI treated HgI 2 detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponpon, J. P.; Amann, M.; Sieskind, M.

    After being cleaned using a potassium iodide solution in water followed by a water rinse, the surface of mercuric iodide is covered by a chemical complex identified as being KHgI 3·H 2O. This compound can adsorb large quantities of water and its electrical properties are strongly sensitive to water and water vapour. The consequences on the manufacturing and storing conditions (especially the relative humidity), of mercuric iodide-based devices are therefore of great concern. They are illustrated by the study of the electrical and spectrometric properties of HgI 2 nuclear radiation detectors.

  12. Thermal radiation and low-temperature-vapour growth of HgI 2 crystal in production furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, A.; Fedoseyev, A.; Roux, B.

    1993-06-01

    Heat exchanges in a sealed ampoule in the LTVG (low temperature vapour growth) furnace have been modelled in order to compute temperature fields and control the growth of HgI 2 crystals from vapour phase at low temperatures. We use a coupled conductive-radiative model to determine the shapes of the source and the crystal at different equilibrium states (i.e. without growth rate). The model involves conductivity anisotropy in the crystal and radiative exchanges between grey and diffuse surfaces (source and crystal interfaces, Pyrex walls), which are considered as opaque. Internal buoyancy effect is not taken into account as the pressure inside the ampoule is very small. The source temperature is fixed. For different undercoolings, i.e. for different cold finger temperatures, the "equilibrium" isotherm between the source/gas and crystal/gas interface has been numerically obtained. This "equilibrium" isotherm, which is associated with the stop of the growing process, gives a crystal shape. This shape is compared with experimental results given by the ETH-Zürich group. The model would permit a better understanding and control of the future HgI 2 crystal growth experiment. The computations are performed using a finite element package (FIDAP).

  13. Conductive-radiative model for predicting the shape of HgI2 crystal grown in the LTVG furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, A.; Fedoseyev, A.; Roux, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    The modeling of heat exchanges in a sealed ampoule in the LTVG (Low Temperature Vapor Growth) furnace is focused upon, in order to compute temperature fields and control the growth of HgI2 crystals from vapor phase at low temperatures. A coupled conductive radiative model was used to determine the shape of the source and the crystal at different equilibrium states (that is, without growth rate). The model involves conductivity anisotropy in the crystal and radiative exchanges between grey and diffuse surfaces (source and crystal interfaces, pyrex walls), which are considered as opaque. Internal buoyancy effect is not taken into account as the pressure inside the ampoule is very small. The source temperature is fixed. For different undercoolings, that is, for different cold finger temperatures, the 'equilibrium' isotherm between the source/gas and crystal/gas interfaces was numerically obtained. This 'equilibrium' isotherm, which is associated with the stop of the growing process, gives a crystal shape. This shape is compared with experimental results given by the ETH-Zurich group. The model would permit a better understanding and control of the future HgI2 crystal growth experiment. The computations are performed using a finite element package (FIDAP).

  14. Enhanced R200 with Frisch-Grid CZT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Current technology using hand-held NaI scintillators with poor energy resolution can be greatly improved upon by using Virtual Frisch Grid-CZT detectors. The CZT semiconductor detectors will provide more reliable isotope identification and more precise measurement of photopeak areas in the presence of strong Compton background. The Virtual Frisch Grid design allows for correction of charge losses that occur at defects with much less expensive industrial grade crystals.

  15. One-dimensional Zigzag Chain Composed of HgI2 Unit and 2,5-Bis(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole: [HgI2(C12H8N4S)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-Juan; MENG Ze-Rong; ZHANG Quan-Zheng; WU Xiao-Yuan; LU Can-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    The title compound, [HgI2(C12H8N4S)], has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a =14.086(2), b = 6.0365(6), c = 20.286(2) (A), β = 108.818(5)°, V = 1632.7(3) (A)3, Mr = 694.67, Z = 4,Dc. = 2.826 g/cm3,μ - 13.331 mm1, F(000) = 1240, S = 1.108, the final R = 0.0438 and wR =0.0934 for 3085 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). The Hg(Ⅱ) atom is coordinated by two 2,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (L) molecules and two iodine anions in a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry. Mercury atoms are linked by the organic ligands to form a one-dimensional zigzag chain. It is noteworthy that such 1D zigzag chains are extended into a two-dimensional double layer framework through I…I interactions.

  16. CZT Virtual Frisch-grid Detector: Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui,Y.; Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, G.; Hossain, A.; James, R. B.

    2009-03-24

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) is a very attractive material for using as room-temperature semiconductor detectors, because it has a wide bandgap and a high atomic number. However, due to the material's poor hole mobility, several special techniques were developed to ensure its suitability for radiation detection. Among them, the virtual Frisch-grid CZT detector is an attractive option, having a simple configuration, yet delivering an outstanding spectral performance. The goal of our group in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is to improve the performance of Frisch-ring CZT detectors; most recently, that effort focused on the non-contacting Frisch-ring detector, allowing us to build an inexpensive, large-volume detector array with high energy-resolution and a large effective area. In this paper, the principles of virtual Frisch-grid detectors are described, especially BNL's innovative improvements. The potential applications of virtual Frisch-grid detectors are discussed, and as an example, a hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer using a CZT virtual Frischgrid detector array is introduced, which is a self-contained device with a radiation detector, readout circuit, communication circuit, and high-voltage supply. It has good energy resolution of 1.4% (FWHM of 662-keV peak) with a total detection volume of {approx}20 cm{sup 3}. Such a portable inexpensive device can be used widely in nonproliferation applications, non-destructive detection, radiation imaging, and for homeland security. Extended systems based on the same technology have potential applications in industrial- and nuclear-medical-imaging.

  17. Hybrid Contacts for CZT Virtual Frisch-grid Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarda G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chan, W.; Cui, Y.; Gul R.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Yang, G.; James, R.B.

    2011-08-22

    In our previous design of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, the charge drift-lines can be terminated at the side surfaces before the carriers reach the collecting anode; this results in a loss of signal from the interacting events near the detector's edges. Here, we describe our new design for the anode contact that reduces these edge effects by focusing the electric field towards the detectors' central axes. Four detectors were fabricated with the new hybrid anode contact, and their performances were evaluated and compared to those from the previous design for our virtual Frisch-grid detectors. The results obtained for all four showed similar improvement: therefore, we illustrate them with the findings from one detector.

  18. READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O' CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B.; KARGAR, A.; HARRISON, M.J.; MCGREGOR, D.S.

    2006-10-29

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.

  19. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  20. Collaring of Po Superconducting Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows the placing of a stack of stainless steel collars around the superconducting coils.Pre-assembled collar stacks were placed under and on top of the coils,the collars interleaving as comb teeth. During the following collaring operation of compression under a press the collars were locked together by means of side wedges. See also photos 8211532X, 7903168

  1. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  2. The vein collar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect...

  3. A Frisch-Newton Algorithm for Sparse Quantile Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roger Koenker; Pin Ng

    2005-01-01

    Recent experience has shown that interior-point methods using a log barrier approach are far superior to classical simplex methods for computing solutions to large parametric quantile regression problems.In many large empirical applications, the design matrix has a very sparse structure. A typical example is the classical fixed-effect model for panel data where the parametric dimension of the model can be quite large, but the number of non-zero elements is quite small. Adopting recent developments in sparse linear algebra we introduce a modified version of the Frisch-Newton algorithm for quantile regression described in Portnoy and Koenker[28].The new algorithm substantially reduces the storage (memory) requirements and increases computational speed.The modified algorithm also facilitates the development of nonparametric quantile regression methods. The pseudo design matrices employed in nonparametric quantile regression smoothing are inherently sparse in both the fidelity and roughness penalty components. Exploiting the sparse structure of these problems opens up a whole range of new possibilities for multivariate smoothing on large data sets via ANOVA-type decomposition and partial linear models.

  4. On the Frisch-Grid signal in ionization chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Adili, A. [EC-JRC - Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, S-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Hambsch, F.-J., E-mail: Franz-Josef.HAMBSCH@ec.europa.eu [EC-JRC - Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Bencardino, R. [EC-JRC - Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Pomp, S. [Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, S-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Oberstedt, S. [EC-JRC - Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Zeynalov, Sh. [JINR - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, R-141980 (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-11

    A recent theoretical approach concerning the grid-inefficiency (GI) problem in Twin Frisch-Grid Ionization Chambers was validated experimentally. The experimental verification focused on the induced signal on the anode plate. In this work the investigation was extended by studying the grid signal. The aim was to verify the grid-signal dependency on the grid inefficiency {sigma}. The measurements were made with fission fragments from {sup 252}Cf(sf), using two different grids, with 1 and 2 mm wire distances, leading to the GI values: {sigma}=0.031 and {sigma}=0.083, respectively. The theoretical grid signal was confirmed because the detected grid pulse-height distribution was smaller for the larger {sigma}. By applying the additive GI correction approach, the two grid pulse heights were consistent. In the second part of the work, the corrected grid signal was used to deduce emission angles of the fission fragments. It is inconvenient to treat the grid signal by means of conventional analogue electronics, because of its bipolarity. Therefore, the anode and grid signals were summed to create a unipolar, angle-dependent pulse height. Until now the so-called summing method has been the well-established approach to deduce the angle from the grid signal. However, this operation relies strongly on an accurate and stable calibration between the two summed signals. By application of digital-signal processing, the grid signal's bipolarity is no longer an issue. Hence one can bypass the intermediate summation step of the two different pre-amplifier signals, which leads to higher stability. In this work the grid approach was compared to the summing method in three cases: {sup 252}Cf(sf), {sup 235}U(n,f) and {sup 234}U(n,f). By using the grid directly, the angular resolution was found equally good in the first case but gave 7% and 20% improvements, respectively, in the latter cases.

  5. Offshoring White-Collar Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: to explain why white-collar service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on work integration mechanisms. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of Danish...... manufacturers. First, the chapter finds that drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring, that is, cost minimisation and resource seeking. Second, due to the interdependence of white-collar tasks with the rest...... of the organisation, our results suggest that white-collar offshoring in manufacturing firms poses higher requirements to the organisational configuration and capabilities compared with blue-collar work. We conceptualise the effects of white-collar work offshoring in a framework relating white-collar work...

  6. Offshoring White-Collar Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: to explain why white-collar service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on work integration mechanisms. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of Danish...... manufacturers. First, the chapter finds that drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring, that is, cost minimisation and resource seeking. Second, due to the interdependence of white-collar tasks with the rest...... of the organisation, our results suggest that white-collar offshoring in manufacturing firms poses higher requirements to the organisational configuration and capabilities compared with blue-collar work. We conceptualise the effects of white-collar work offshoring in a framework relating white-collar work...

  7. Simulation of the anode structure for capacitive Frisch grid CdZnTe detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Jiahua; SHI Zhubin; QIAN Yongbiao; SANG Wenbin; ZHAO Hengyu; TENG Jianyong; LIU Jishan

    2009-01-01

    CdZnTe (CZT) capacitive Frisch grid detectors can achieve a higher detecting resolution.The anode structure might have an important role in improving the weighting potential distribution of the detectors.In this paper,four anode structures of capacitive Frisch grid structures have been analyzed with FE simulation,based on a 3-dimensional weighting potential analysis.The weighting potential distributions in modified anode devices (Model B,C and D) are optimized compared with a square device (Model A).In model C and D,the abrupt weighting potential can be well modified.However,with increased radius of the circular electrode in Model C the weighting potential platform away from the anode becomes higher and higher and in Model D,the weighting potential does not vary too much.

  8. The blue-collar brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    .... This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body...

  9. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with...

  11. Collar nut and thrust ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Guy B.

    1991-01-01

    A collar nut comprises a hollow cylinder having fine interior threads at one end for threadably engaging a pump mechanical seal assembly and an inwardly depending flange at the other end. The flange has an enlarged portion with a groove for receiving an O-ring for sealing against the intrusion of pumpage from the exterior. The enlarged portion engages a thrust ring about the pump shaft for crushing a hard O-ring, such as a graphite O-ring. The hard O-ring seals the interior of the mechanical seal assembly and pump housing against the loss of lubricants or leakage of pumpage. The fine threads of the hollow cylinder provide the mechanical advantage for crushing the hard O-ring evenly and easily with a hand tool from the side of the collar nut rather than by tightening a plurality of bolts from the end and streamlines the exterior surface of the mechanical seal. The collar nut avoids the spatial requirements of bolt heads at the end of a seal and associated bolt head turbulence.

  12. HAND-HELD GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER BASED ON HIGH-EFFICIENCY FRISCH-RING CdZnTe DETECTORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CUI,Y.

    2007-05-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution, el% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. This technique facilitates the application of CdZnTe materials for high efficiency gamma-ray detection. A hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8x8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so that detection efficiency is significantly improved. By using the front-end ASICs developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy resolution. The spectrometer includes signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuit, high-voltage module, and USB interface. In this paper, we introduce the details of the system structure and report our test results with it.

  13. Array of virtual Frisch-grid CZT detectors with common cathode readout and pulse-height correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, E.U.; Fochuk, P.M.; Fuerstnau, M.; Gul, R.; Hossain, A.; Jones, F.; Kim, K.; Kopach, O.V.; Taggart, R.; Yang, G.; Ye, Z.; Xu, L.; and James, R.B.

    2010-08-01

    We present our new results from testing 15-mm-long virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors with a common-cathode readout for correcting pulse-height distortions. The array employs parallelepiped-shaped CdZnTe (CZT) detectors of a large geometrical aspect ratio, with two planar contacts on the top and bottom surfaces (anode and cathode) and an additional shielding electrode on the crystal's sides to create the virtual Frisch-grid effect. We optimized the geometry of the device and improved its spectral response. We found that reducing to 5 mm the length of the shielding electrode placed next to the anode had no adverse effects on the device's performance. At the same time, this allowed corrections for electron loss by reading the cathode signals to obtain depth information.

  14. The "shirt collar sign" of cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Michael R; Hanfelt, John; Factor, Stewart A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnosis of cervical dystonia (CD) is clinical. We describe a physical examination observation that has been noted in CD patients. There is a tendency for their shirt collars to be shifted to one side. We validated this apparently consistent finding by having blinded evaluators rating the symmetry of the shirt collars in CD and non-cervical dystonia control subjects. A high correlation was found between the physical finding which we call "shirt collar sign" and the diagnosis. "Shirt collar sign" may be a helpful sign in diagnosing CD.

  15. Study on the Application of Turndown Collar Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖芳; 尚笑梅

    2001-01-01

    The relation between lining collar and face collar in the collar pattern designed by experiments and theoretical calculation is elucidated. In spite of the same constructions, the collar's shape and the fabric's thickness influence on the pattern of lining collar and the face collar, especially on the back center of the Iining and the two collar angles. The thicker the fabric, the more, with a proportional relation, the total variation. It is supposed that this work has made some contribution to the collar pattern design.

  16. Study on the Application of Standing Collar Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖芳; 尚笑梅

    2001-01-01

    The relations between the lining collar and the face collar in pattern design of standing collar by experiments and theoretical calculation is elucidated. The collar's shape and the fabric thickness, although with the same construction, influence the lining collar and the face collar, especially the back center of the lining and the two collar angles. With a proportional relation, the thicker the fabric is, the more the total variation is. It is supposed to have some practical value to the collar pattern design, as well as to the fashion CAD.

  17. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  18. Gold-Collar Workers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    The gold-collar worker has problem-solving abilities, creativity, talent, and intelligence; performs non-repetitive and complex work difficult to evaluate; and prefers self management. Gold-collar information technology workers learn continually from experience; recognize the synergy of teams; can demonstrate leadership; and are strategic thinkers…

  19. Collar stud abscess an interesting case report

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Kameshwaran Punniyakodi

    2012-01-01

    Cervical Lymphadenopathy with collar stud abscess of tuberculous etiology is uncommon nowadays. This case is being reported for clinical interest and for the purpose of documentation.Introduction Tubercular Lymphadenopathy is a common extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis.Collar stud abscess are rarely seen in OPD nowadays. Tuberculosis remains a problem throughout the world and is still a common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy.

  20. A method for measuring the electron drift velocity in working gas using a Frisch-grid ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Huaiyong; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Luyu; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-12-01

    A method for measuring the electron drift velocity in working gas is proposed. Based on the cathode and the anode signal waveforms of the Frisch-grid ionization chamber, the electron drift velocity is extracted. With this method, the electron drift velocities in Ar + 10% CH4, Ar + 3.5% CO2 and Kr + 2.7% CO2 gases have been measured and the results are compared with the existing measurements and the simulating results. Using this method, the electron drift velocity can be monitored throughout the experiment of charged particle without bothering the measurement of other parameters, such as the energy and orientation.

  1. Use of cervical collar after whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak-Wójtowicz, Anna; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Materek, Magdalena; Pietras, Marta; Bażant, Katarzyna

    2014-08-08

    Whiplash injuries, also known as neck sprains and strains, are currently some of the most common injuries of the cervical spine. Mechanism of injury is still controversial and current treatment methods do not provide satisfactory results. In this article we present QTF classification of related disorders, epidemiological data and treatment methods. We described basic principles of using a soft collar, goals and effects of collar use and potential complications ensuing from immobilization. Authors reviewed publications comparing the effects of collar use with other methods of treatment and physiotherapy following whiplash injury.

  2. Linguistic Diversity in Blue‐Collar Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Kraft, Kamilla

    In this paper we examine the management of linguistic diversity in blue‐collar workplaces and its implications. The blue‐collar context is somewhat neglected in studies of globalisation and its consequences for the workplace. Hence, our focus here is on blue‐collar workplaces in the context of th...... now."Harvard Business Review 90(5): 116–124........Kraft, Kamilla and Dorte Lønsmann. Forthcoming. A language ideological landscape: The complex map in international companies in Denmark. English in Business and Commerce: Interactions and Policies. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Neeley, Tsedal. 2012. Global business speaks English: Why you need a language strategy...

  3. Expert System for 3D Collar Intelligent Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; GENG Zhao-feng

    2004-01-01

    A method to set up 3D collar prototype is developed in this paper by using the technique of cubic spline and bicubic surface patch. Then the relationship between the parameters of 3D collar prototype and different collar styles are studied. Based on the relationship, we can develop some algorithms of transferring style requirements to the parameters value of the collar prototype, and obtain some generation rules for the design of 3D collar style. As such, the knowledge base can be constructed, and the intelligent design system of 3D collar style is built. Using the system, various 3D collar styles can be designed automatically to satisfy various style requirements.

  4. Insulating coupling for drill collars and method of manufacture thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, F.A.; Maron, R.J.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an insulating drill collar joint, including: a first metallic drill collar segment having a first threaded section with a coating of electrically insulating ceramic material; insulating coating in the range of from 0.002 to 0.006 inch thick; and a second metallic drill collar segment connected to first drill collar segment; second drill collar segment having a second threaded section engaged with the insulation coated section of the first drill collar section. An electrically insulated drill collar joint is formed.

  5. COLLAR STUD ABSCESS AN INTERESTING CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Lymphadenopathy with collar stud abscess of tuberculous etiology is uncommon nowadays. This case is being reported for clinical interest and for the purpose of documentation.Introduction Tubercular Lymphadenopathy is a common extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis.Collar stud abscess are rarely seen in OPD nowadays. Tuberculosis remains a problem throughout the world and is still a common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy.

  6. Boron-Coated Straw Collar for Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design and optimize, in simulation space, an active neutron coincidence counter (or collar) using boron-coated straws (BCSs) as a non-3He replacement to the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL). UNCL has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since the 1980s to verify the 235U content in fresh light water reactor fuel assemblies for safeguards purposes. This report documents the design and optimization of the BCS collar.

  7. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  8. Generalized collar waves in acoustic logging while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Ming; He, Xiao; Zhang, Xiu-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Tool waves, also named collar waves, propagating along the drill collars in acoustic logging while drilling (ALWD), strongly interfere with the needed P- and S-waves of a penetrated formation, which is a key issue in picking up formation P- and S-wave velocities. Previous studies on physical insulation for the collar waves designed on the collar between the source and the receiver sections did not bring to a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we investigate the propagation features of collar waves in different models. It is confirmed that there exists an indirect collar wave in the synthetic full waves due to the coupling between the drill collar and the borehole, even there is a perfect isolator between the source and the receiver. The direct collar waves propagating all along the tool and the indirect ones produced by echoes from the borehole wall are summarized as the generalized collar waves. Further analyses show that the indirect collar waves could be relatively strong in the full wave data. This is why the collar waves cannot be eliminated with satisfactory effect in many cases by designing the physical isolators carved on the tool. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11134011 and 11374322) and the Foresight Research Project, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Characterization of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te based virtual Frisch grid detectors for high energy gamma ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, R.M.; Chaudhuri, S.K.; Zavalla, K.J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Mandal, K.C., E-mail: mandalk@cec.sc.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-02-11

    Detector grade CZT single crystals have been grown from zone refined Cd, Zn, and Te (∼7 N) precursor materials using a tellurium solvent method. Infrared transmission imaging has shown an average tellurium inclusion size of ∼8 μm in the as-grown crystal. Radiation detectors were fabricated in planar and virtual Frisch grid geometry and characterized for their spectroscopic performance. Charge transport properties revealed a high drift mobility of∼1200 cm{sup 2}/V s and a mobility–lifetime product of ∼2.8×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V. A detector with planar configuration (dimensions 6.9×6.9×4.8 mm{sup 3}) showed an energy resolution of 4.7% for 59.5 keV gamma rays. The detector in a Frisch grid configuration (dimensions 4.2×6.2×6.5 mm{sup 3}) exhibited an energy resolution of 1.4% for 662 keV gamma rays. Digital spectroscopic measurements were carried out using a high-resolution digitizer card. A biparametric correlation scheme was employed to study the effect of charge loss on energy resolution of the planar detector. Based on this correlation scheme, a digital correction method was applied and improved pulse-height spectrum was obtained for 662 keV gamma rays using the planar detector with spectral features comparable to those of the virtual Frisch grid detector.

  10. White-Collar Crimes and Financial Corruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.

  11. LHC collars - 12 million high technology gems

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Some 12 million steel collars will keep the LHC dipole magnet structures rigid. Their production has just begun. A huge job began last week: the high speed manufacturing of twelve million steel collars for the 1250 dipole magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. The challenge is not only a matter of quantity: these collars are very high technology components because of the important role they play in the way the collider works. One of the main difficulties with the accelerator is that the magnetic field that keeps particles in orbit must have the same configuration and intensity in all the dipoles. But when the 8.33 tesla magnetic field is on -100.000 times the earth magnetic field - it produces a very strong force that can deform the 'soft' parts of the magnets, such as superconducting coils. The force loading one metre of dipole is almost comparable with the weight of a Boeing 747 - about 400 tonnes - so a huge deformation would occur without a mechanical component to keep the whole structure rigid...

  12. Three-dimensional Simulation and Pattern Making of Collar Using Geometric Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Mingjie(张明杰); Hou Dongyu(侯东昱); Zhou Aiying(周爱英); Yoshio Shimizu

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for computationally simulating collars and drafting patterns. The collar shape was modeled by three-dimensional Bezier patch. Changing the position of consol points of the patch can interactively control the collar shape. Using triangular surface developing method, patterns of various styles of stand collar and separating collar were drafted. As the subsystem of 3D apparel design system, an interactive collar design system is constructed. To inspect the practical usage, we reproduced the collars using these patterns drafted by the interactive collar design system.Comparing with simulated collars, the system demonstrated well and we found it is more reliable and accurate than the method of handwork.

  13. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blue-collar workers have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis, but epidemiological studies are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To investigate allergic contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers with dermatitis registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. METHODS: A retrospective...... analysis of patch test data from 1471 blue-collar workers and 1471 matched controls tested between 2003 and 2012 was performed. A logistic regression was used to test for associations. RESULTS: The blue-collar workers often had occupational hand dermatitis (p ... observed among blue-collar workers (19.6%) than among controls (23.9%) (p = 0.005). Allergens with a statistically significant association with the occupational group of blue-collar workers were epoxy resins, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, potassium dichromate...

  14. Federal Blue-Collar Employees: A Workforce in Transistion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    should include example, a GAO study of the Mare Island explicit consideration of the needs of the blue-collar downsizing in 1990 noted that the layoff ...setting personnel policies. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES Federal Government, blue-collar workforce, downsizing , performance managem pg...Federal BIW-Colar Emp£lo .: A Workforn in Transition v contents Downsizing in the Blue-Collar W orkforce

  15. Solving the problem of pressure ulcers resulting from cervical collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B

    1996-05-01

    Cervical orthotic devices (cervical collars) are integral to the treatment of patients with suspected or confirmed fracture of the cervical spine. Pressure ulcers can develop under the cervical collar on the occipital protuberance and on the chin due to both prolonged immobilization and the collar construction. A multidisciplinary team at a Northwest Ohio trauma center led an investigation of this problem when a one day study of pressure ulcer prevalence revealed that of 4% of nosocomial pressure ulcers, 2% were attributed to cervical collars. To solve this problem, the team visualized risk factors using a fishbone diagram, investigated by calling manufacturers and other institutions and by searching the literature, developed educational programs on skin care and correct collar fitting, conducted a product trial on a new collar, and continuously monitored the results. The conclusions of the team were that the pressure ulcers were the result of the construction of the previous cervical collars used. The product trial resulted in zero skin breakdown for the 20 patients involved. Changes implemented as a result were an improved skin care regimen, education on proper fitting and appropriate choice of collars, and implementation of the new collar for trauma patients.

  16. 30 CFR 56.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not be collared in bootlegs. Rotary...

  17. Orbivirus infections in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Galinari, Grazielle C F; Cortez, Adriana; Paula, Cátia D; Lobato, Zélia I P; Heinemann, Marcos B

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed 49 free-living collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) in Brazil for antibodies against bluetongue virus (BTV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). Antibodies against BTV were detected in 19/49 (39%) samples. All samples were negative for PCV2. The importance of antibodies to BTV in collared peccaries remains to be determined.

  18. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54912). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2011... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22,...

  19. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  20. OBSTACLES TO BLUE-COLLAR PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONDON, JACK; WENKERT, ROBERT

    WITH THE INCREASING LEISURE TIME OF BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS, CONCERN IS GROWING OVER THEIR LOW PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MYTHS ABOUT BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS WHICH STAND IN THEIR WAY INCLUDE--LOWER CLASS APATHY, INCAPABILITY OF SUSTAINED INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, AND LACK OF APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF EDUCATION. OBSTACLES INHERING IN SOCIAL…

  1. Setup and characterization of a Frisch grid ionization chamber for the spectroscopy of low specific activities; Aufbau und Charakterisierung einer Frisch-Gitterionisationskammer fuer die Spektroskopie niedrigster spezifischer Aktivitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Felix

    2013-12-19

    The realization of this work was the usage of a Frisch grid ionization chamber for measuring the lowest specific alpha activity. In the practical case the detector should be used to remeasure the half life of {sup 144}Nd. Only very thin targets can be used, due to the extreme long half life and the very short range of alpha particles in matter. The area of the samples must be big enough to get the required activity. In comparison gridded ionization chambers are the most practical devices. The chamber was realized in that way, that two gridded chambers shares a common anode. This could be used to minimize the detector background. The charge, which was induced in the detector electrodes, is acquired by an analog to digital converter. The full analysis of the data is done after the measurement. With the pulse form analysis it is possible to extract information about every event occurring in the detector. It is also possible to correct the grid inefficiency and the correlated angle dependence of the pulse height. This improves the energy resolution. A resolution of 0.86 % at 5.1 MeV is possible. The characterization of the events is also used for the suppression of the detector background. Due to different conditions for an assumed alpha event the majority of the events which disturbs the measurement could be removed. So it is possible to suppress the background in the range between 1 MeV to 2.2 MeV of 435 events per day without the characterization to 21.6 events per day with characterization, which is a factor of roughly 20. The detection efficiency is not noticeably effected. For sufficiently long measurements a lowest limit of detection of 10 counts per day is expectable. For a target geometry which can be used with this setup, about 50 alpha decays of {sup 144}Nd per day will occur. With a detection efficiency a bit below 50 % the measurement on {sup 144}Nd should be possible.

  2. [Parameters influencing the preclinical application of cervical collars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinest, M; Goller, S; Rauch, G; Gliwitzky, B; Frank, C; Matschke, S; Wölfl, C G; Münzberg, M

    2016-06-29

    The application of cervical collars is a standard procedure in emergency care of trauma patients. It is often observed that the application of cervical collars is performed incorrectly, which may lead to reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of professional emergency care providers concerning the application of cervical collars. Emergency care professionals (n = 104) were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll. Each performance step was assessed separately. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire. The study participants included professional rescue personnel and emergency physicians. The average occupational experience of all study participants in out-of-hospital emergency care was 11.1 ± 8.9 years. Most participants had already received training on trauma care (61 %) and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84 %). The application of the cervical collar was performed correctly in 11 % of the performances. The most common error was incorrect size adjustment of the cervical collar (66 %). No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and possible parameters of influence, such as working experience in emergency care or participation in trauma courses. Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study shows that there are general deficits in the practical skills of applying cervical collars. Therefore, a critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must be demanded.

  3. Lithography process for patterning HgI2 photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark J.; James, Ralph B.; Hermon, Haim

    2004-11-23

    A photolithographic process forms patterns on HgI.sub.2 surfaces and defines metal sublimation masks and electrodes to substantially improve device performance by increasing the realizable design space. Techniques for smoothing HgI.sub.2 surfaces and for producing trenches in HgI.sub.2 are provided. A sublimation process is described which produces etched-trench devices with enhanced electron-transport-only behavior.

  4. Freshwater systems; Frisch gezapft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.P.

    2008-06-09

    Increasingly, providers of solar systems are also offering freshwater systems, although these are more costly than combined storage systems. The contribution discusses the pros and cons of these systems as well as the freshwater quality. (orig.)

  5. Cervical collar-related pressure ulcers in trauma patients in intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, H.W.; Schoonhoven, L.; Galer, A.A.; Shortridge-Baggett, L.L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The application of a cervical collar (C-collar) in trauma patients can be life-saving. Previous studies, however, describe development of pressure ulcers related to C-collars. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare collar-related pressure ulcers (CRPUs) occurring in trauma patients admi

  6. Cervical collar-related pressure ulcers in trauma patients in intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, H.W.; Schoonhoven, L.; Galer, A.A.; Shortridge-Baggett, L.L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The application of a cervical collar (C-collar) in trauma patients can be life-saving. Previous studies, however, describe development of pressure ulcers related to C-collars. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare collar-related pressure ulcers (CRPUs) occurring in trauma patients

  7. 1:100k Digital Raster Graphic - Collars Removed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — A digital raster graphic (DRG) is a scanned image of an U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard series topographic map, including all map collar information. The...

  8. MONEY LAUNDERING: RING AROUND THE WHITE COLLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In mine study I will deal with money laundering as a leading factor in white-collar criminality. The purpose of the present study and the guiding line in this article is to legislative upgrade of white-collar criminality fighting that might be of great importance as we intend to plan the policy of reduction of money Laundering criminality in Israel and Moldova. In order to deal with mine research subject I will express the lookout which I have conducted over a period three years and have included public sector tenders, with the CFE (Collection for the Environment Recycling Corporation in Israel. It has been found white-collar criminals are usually conventional people who deal with rises or opportunity that leads them to transgress the border temporarily and perpetrate a crime, and it is likely that they would be affected strongly by the punishment process. Therefore the outcome of the study is to produce the necessary steps to reduce the phenomenon of money Laundering crime in Israel and the Republic of Moldova. In order to obtain this purposes and the author has performed some new steps to upgrade and supplement the Law with subjects as: Punishment Origin offences Entities obligated to report, Expanding of the duties of Money Laundering Prohibition Authority as a regulator and with authority to assign fines, etc. Those practical frameworks are necessary steps to reduce the phenomenon of Money Laundering in Israel and the Republic of Moldova by constitutional - legal standpoints.SPĂLAREA BANILOR CA INFRACŢIUNE A GULERELOR ALBEÎn studiul efectuat se demonstrează că spălarea de bani constituie factorul principal al criminalităţii gulerelor albe. Scopul propus în acest articol este de a realiza o analiză complexă a propunerilor legislative îndreptate spre lupta cu cri-minalitatea gulerelor albe şi de a propune noi politici menite să reducă criminalitatea gulerelor albe atât în Republica Moldova, cât şi în Israel. Întru a

  9. Why Do We Put Cervical Collars On Conscious Trauma Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Blackham Julian; Benger Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this commentary we argue that fully alert, stable and co-operative trauma patients do not require the application of a semi-rigid cervical collar, even if they are suspected of underlying cervical spine fracture, unless their conscious level deteriorates or they find the short-term support of a cervical collar helpful. Despite the historical and cultural barriers that exist, the potential benefits are such that this hypothesis merits rigorous testing in well-designed research trials.

  10. Proposal for classification of the circumaortic renal collar's morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Totlis, Trifon; Levva, Sofia; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, we propose a classification of the different forms of the circumaortic renal collar based on the findings of 319 patients and on a literature review. The patients underwent a CT angiography scan of the abdomen for various diagnostic reasons. The different forms in which the circumaortic renal collar may appear were categorized. The renal collar was observed in eight of the 319 (2.5%) patients. The classification we propose is the following: Type I, one left renal vein splitting into two branches, a preaortic and a retroaortic, draining into the inferior vena cava; Type II, two different left renal veins, the one preaortic and the other retroaortic, draining into the inferior vena cava; and Type III, either anastomoses between the preaortic and retroaortic vein, being multiple or not, or multiple preaortic or retroaortic renal veins without anastomoses. Although the circumaortic renal collar is usually asymptomatic, the knowledge of this variation is useful, mainly before abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery and renal transplantation. Failure to recognize the collar's retroaortic component may lead to hemorrhage and death during retroperitoneal surgery. We believe that our classification contributes to recognize the circumaortic renal collar's morphology both preoperatively and intraoperatively.

  11. Parasites of the collared peccary from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, W M; Low, W A

    1970-01-01

    Results of a survey of the parasites of the collared peccary (Dicotyles tajacu angulatus) in Texas are presented. Three ectoparasites, Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor variabilis, and Pulex porcinus were very common on peccaries from south Texas, but less common or absent in arid west Texas. Sucking lice, Pecaroecus javalii, were common on peccaries from west Texas, but were not found in south Texas. The known range of this louse in Texas is extended into the Big Bend area. Two ticks, Amnblyomma inornatumn and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris, were found infrequently. Five of nine species of endoparasites found in this survey (Dirofilaria acutiuscula, Parabronema pecatriae, Parostertagia heterospiculum, Physocephalus sp., and Texicospirura turki) were prevalent. Three species, D. acutiuscula, Gongylonema baylisi, and Fascioloides magna, are reported from North American peccaries for the first time. The geographic distribution of the large American liver fluke, F. magna, coincided with an area where the parasite is enzootic in white-tailed deer. It is concluded that parasitism was of little importance in population control of peccaries during the period of the study.

  12. Use of cervical collar in temporomandibular dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisani, Mehul R; Pradhan, Leeza; Sagtani, Alok

    2015-06-01

    Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint represents 3 % of all reported dislocated joints. In the last 3 decades many cases of TMJ dislocation have been reported with a wide variety of treatment options ranging from non-surgical conservative approaches to open joint procedures. The question remains whether one method is superior to the others. Conservative treatments are still the option in this part of the continent due to financial constraints and as well as due to availability of skilled manpower. A variety of conservative techniques have been described for reducing dislocations, all of which require 10-14 days of immobilization of the jaw post reduction so as to prevent further episodes of dislocation. Immobilization of the jaw can be done in the form of barrel bandage, barton bandage, head chin cap or maxillomandibular fixation using arch bars. We suggest the use of a cervical collar as a form of post reduction immobilization technique to overcome the inherent disadvantages of conventional forms of immobilization techniques.

  13. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail H Collins

    Full Text Available Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS and very high frequency (VHF radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  14. Revisiting white collar criminality from a social harm perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Vasilantonopoulou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Social harm approach seems to be the only promising proposal to deal with white collar crimes. By overwhelming the “crime – schema” an end is straightly put to a long lasting “war” of the white-collar crime criminologists, arguing since the late of ‘40s whether white collar crime is a crime or not, while the harmful results from white collar activities follow an uncontrollable trajectory. A second “end” is destined for the stalemate that critical criminology is remained locked since the deconstruction of crime. The critical arguments about the systemic origins of the crimes of powerful loose not only faith but also validity when the proclaiming solutions end up at the same tools and structures with their very cause. Under this prism, social harm approach does not represent the “anti-paradigm” of critical criminology but a new step beyond. White collar crime may be used as a typical example of the allegation that crime lacks any ontological substance while the reality of its social harms may function as stable basis even for seemingly utopian goals.

  15. 76 FR 34978 - Petition Supplement Requesting Cancellation of Propoxur Pet Collar Uses; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... AGENCY Petition Supplement Requesting Cancellation of Propoxur Pet Collar Uses; Notice of Availability... pet collar uses for the pesticide propoxur. The petitioner, NRDC, initially requested these...-methyl Carbamate (NMC) Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) underestimate exposure to propoxur from...

  16. Gendered role communication in marketing blue-collar occupational gear and clothing in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Min, Seoha

    2015-01-01

    ...) for women working in blue-collar occupations. To explore the phenomenon, a content analysis of products and advertising images in seven websites selling blue-collar work clothes and PPE was used...

  17. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless.

  18. Why Do We Put Cervical Collars On Conscious Trauma Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackham Julian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this commentary we argue that fully alert, stable and co-operative trauma patients do not require the application of a semi-rigid cervical collar, even if they are suspected of underlying cervical spine fracture, unless their conscious level deteriorates or they find the short-term support of a cervical collar helpful. Despite the historical and cultural barriers that exist, the potential benefits are such that this hypothesis merits rigorous testing in well-designed research trials.

  19. Pseudofractures due to Nec-Loc cervical immobilization collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daffner, R.H.; Khoury, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    The plastic rivets attached to the commonly used Nec-Loc cervical immobilization collar produce linear lucencies which often traverse the cervical vertebrae. Linear lucencies in this location often simulate a fracture. In most instances, the complete outline of the object causing the artifact may be identified. However, identification may not be possible in all cases. Radiologists should familiarize themselves with the appearance of the artifact produced by this particular immobilization device so as to avoid the erroneous diagnosis of a cervical fracture. Whenever the diagnosis is in doubt, the collar should be removed and a repeat radiograph should be obtained.

  20. A stiff collar can restrict atlantoaxial instability in rheumatoid cervical spine in selected cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppi, M; Anttila, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the efficiency of a stiff collar in restricting the instability of anterior atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS). METHODS--Twenty two successive patients with an unstable AAS were studied. Lateral view radiographs were taken of the cervical spine in flexion, extension, and neutral positions without a collar, and in full flexion with a custom made stiff collar. RESULTS--The collar restricted more than 30% of the maximal instability of the AAS in 50% of the patients. These patient...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not...

  2. The Origin of Black Smock and White Collar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesapcioglu, Muhsin; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many empirical studies on the functions of school uniform, studies which focus on the origins of school uniform are neglected. Purpose of this study is to reveal historical origins of black smock and white collar. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was adopted. As a result of the research, it was determined…

  3. SEXUAL IMPRINTING IN THE COLLARED DOVE (STREPTOPELIA-DECAOCTO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENCATE, C; HILBERS, J; HALL, M

    1992-01-01

    Although the occurrence of sexual imprinting has been demonstrated for doves, it is less well known how strong this effect is and which factors contribute to it. Therefore we examined whether cross-fostering collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) to white ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) affected l

  4. Filter holder assembly having extended collar spacer ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A filter holder assembly is provided that utilizes a fail-safe regenerator unit with an annular spacer ring having an extended metal collar for containment and positioning of a compliant ceramic gasket used in the assembly. The filter holder assembly is disclosed for use with advanced composite, filament wound, and metal candle filters.

  5. Hydrodynamic analysis of elastic floating collars in random waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Yun-peng; Dong, Guo-hai; Li, Yu-cheng

    2015-06-01

    As the main load-bearing component of fish cages, the floating collar supports the whole cage and undergoes large deformations. In this paper, a mathematical method is developed to study the motions and elastic deformations of elastic floating collars in random waves. The irregular wave is simulated by the random phase method and the statistical approach and Fourier transfer are applied to analyze the elastic response in both time and frequency domains. The governing equations of motions are established by Newton's second law, and the governing equations of deformations are obtained based on curved beam theory and modal superposition method. In order to validate the numerical model of the floating collar attacked by random waves, a series of physical model tests are conducted. Good relationship between numerical simulation and experimental observations is obtained. The numerical results indicate that the transfer function of out-of-plane and in-plane deformations increase with the increasing of wave frequency. In the frequency range between 0.6 Hz and 1.1 Hz, a linear relationship exists between the wave elevations and the deformations. The average phase difference between the wave elevation and out-of-plane deformation is 60° with waves leading and the phase between the wave elevation and in-plane deformation is 10° with waves lagging. In addition, the effect of fish net on the elastic response is analyzed. The results suggest that the deformation of the floating collar with fish net is a little larger than that without net.

  6. Histological organization of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, T S; Silva, A F; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2007-06-01

    Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) belongs to the Tayassuidae family that is characterized by a dorsal scent gland located in the middle of the hump. It can be found from south-west United States to Argentina. It is a very well-adapted animal that can survive different environments, having a varied diet. Very little morphological information of the animal is available, except that concerning the reproductive tract. This study describes the histological organization of the collared peccary lip. The lip marks the junction between the integument and digestive system. It is lined by skin on the outer surface and mucosa on the inner surface. Skin appendages such as hair follicles and glands are usually found on the outer surface. The collared peccary's lip shows, on the outer surface, simple and sinus hair follicles as well as sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands. No salivary gland is found on the inner surface, and deep in the connective tissue pacinian corpuscles can be found. The connective tissue is rich in collagen and elastic fibres. The collared peccary's lip may be used not only for food prehension but also functions as a sensitive structure giving tactile input to the central nervous system.

  7. Gender Differences in Coping with Involuntary White Collar Job Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Buch, Kimberly

    Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated gender differences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…

  8. Performance Characteristics of Small Global-Positioning-System Tracking Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dennis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances have made possible the development of animal-tracking devices based on the global positioning system (GPS that are much smaller than what were available previously. However, potential limitations in size-dependent technologies and differences in patterns of behavior between small and large animals could mean that miniaturized GPS tracking devices may not function as well as their larger counterparts. Here, we evaluate the performance characteristics of 105-g GPS collars suitable for prolonged use on animals weighing as little as 2.5 kg. We tested 9 collars in stationary trials at a single reference site and in field deployments on common brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula/ , a semi-arboreal, nocturnal marsupial. We found in both trials that individual collars differed in several measures of positional accuracy and precision, yet overall the small collars compared favorably with published results of larger devices in similar habitats. Differences in operational characteristics between the two trials were mainly in the number and spatial configuration of satellites used to calculate position fixes, resulting in an increase in median location error from 9.8 m in the stationary tests to an estimated 14.7 m in the field trials. Most probably, these effects were due to dissimilarities in microhabitat features and variation in the orientation of GPS antennae which occurred when the possums changed their body posture during movement. The collars evaluated in this study promise to be a valuable tool for the study of the ecology, behavior, and conservation of many small-to-medium sized animals.

  9. Men's mobility into management from blue collar and white collar jobs: race differences across the early work-career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George; Maume, David

    2014-07-01

    Within the context of the "particularistic mobility thesis" we examine racial differences in the incidence, and determinants of, as well as timing to, mobility into management across the critical early career years at a refined level, namely, when groups share similar white collar and blue collar jobs. Findings from a Panel Study of Income Dynamics sample of men support theory and indicate that from both job levels a racial hierarchy exists: African Americans have the lowest rate of mobility, reach management through a route that is relatively formal and structured by a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors and take longest to reach management. Whites, in contrast, have the highest mobility rate, reach management through a relatively informal path that is less structured by traditional stratification-based factors, and reach management the quickest, and, across all three issues Latinos occupy an intermediate ground between African Americans and Latinos. Further, as predicted by theory, racial differences, particularly, relative to whites, are greater among those tracked from blue collar jobs than white collar jobs. Discussed are implications of the findings for understanding racial disadvantage in the American labor market across the work-career and on an inter-generational basis.

  10. A comparative study of the effect of soft and hard cervical collars on static postural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Khalkhali Zavieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Aim: Using cervical collars is one of the treatment methods for releaving cervical pain. The effect of limb orthotics on proprioception and postural stability has been suggested. There is not sufficient studies about the effect of cervical collars on static and dynamic stability, and the effect of soft and hard collars have not been compared with one another. The objective of this study is investigating and comparing the immediate effect of soft and hard cervical collars on static postural stability in healthy young subjects. Methods & Materials: In standing position on firm surface with closed eyes, both soft and hard collars decreased the stability and there was not any significant difference among collars. In standing positions on soft surface with closed and opened eyes, using none of the soft and hard collars did not change the stability. This quasi experimental study through repeated measure method has been conducted on 65 healthy young male and female college students. Static stability was evaluated by modified Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB in conditions without collar and by soft and hard cervical collars and were compared between the conditions. Results: Conclusion: Our results suggest that in static conditions, without vision, both collars decrease the stability in healthy young subjects. So considering the evaluation of stability and prevention of balance disturbance during the collar prescription seems to be necessary.

  11. Dependence of Magnetic Field Quality on Collar Supplier and Dimensions in the Main LHC Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Santoni, C; Todesco, E

    2006-01-01

    In order to keep the electro-magnetic forces and to minimize conductor movements, the superconducting coils of the main Large Hadron Collider dipoles are held in place by means of austenitic steel collars. Two suppliers provide the collars necessary for the whole LHC production, which has now reached more than 800 collared coils. In this paper we first assess if the different collar suppliers origin a noticeable difference in the magnetic field quality measured at room temperature. We then analyze the measurements of the collar dimensions carried out at the manufacturers, comparing them to the geometrical tolerances. Finally we use a magneto-static model to evaluate the expected spread in the field components induced by the actual collar dimensions. These spreads are compared to the magnetic measurements at room temperature over the magnet production in order to identify if the collars, rather than other components or assembly process, can account for the measured magnetic field effects. It has been found tha...

  12. Numerical study of the collar wave characteristics and the effects of grooves in acoustic logging while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yufeng; Guan, Wei; Hu, Hengshan; Xu, Minqiang

    2017-05-01

    Large-amplitude collar wave covering formation signals is still a tough problem in acoustic logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements. In this study, we investigate the propagation and energy radiation characteristics of the monopole collar wave and the effects of grooves on reducing the interference to formation waves by finite-difference calculations. We found that the collar wave radiates significant energy into the formation by comparing the waveforms between a collar within an infinite fluid, and the acoustic LWD in different formations with either an intact or a truncated collar. The collar wave recorded on the outer surface of the collar consists of the outward-radiated energy direct from the collar (direct collar wave) and that reflected back from the borehole wall (reflected collar wave). All these indicate that the significant effects of the borehole-formation structure on collar wave were underestimated in previous studies. From the simulations of acoustic LWD with a grooved collar, we found that grooves broaden the frequency region of low collar-wave excitation and attenuate most of the energy of the interference waves by multireflections. However, grooves extend the duration of the collar wave and convert part of the collar-wave energy originally kept in the collar into long-duration Stoneley wave. Interior grooves are preferable to exterior ones because both the low-frequency and the high-frequency parts of the collar wave can be reduced and the converted inner Stoneley wave is relatively difficult to be recorded on the outer surface of the collar. Deeper grooves weaken the collar wave more greatly, but they result in larger converted Stoneley wave especially for the exterior ones. The interference waves, not only the direct collar wave but also the reflected collar wave and the converted Stoneley waves, should be overall considered for tool design.

  13. MINIMALLY INVASIVE LOW-COLLAR INCISION IN THYROID LOBECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝国; 王成学; 张乃嵩

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report the development of a technique for minimally invasive thyroid lobectomy. Method: The procedure was accepted by 200 patients with a nodule of the lobe of the thyroid. We performed hemithyroidectomys through a 2-4 cm low-collar horizontal skin incision by conventional instrumentation. Results: The recurrent laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands were easily identified and preserved. The amount of bleeding ranged from 5 to 50 ml (mean 15 ml). Mean Operation time was 52.2 minutes (ranged 32 to 80 minutes). No complication occurred. Mean postoperative stay was 5.5 days (ranged 4 to 7 days). The incision provided excellent cometic results because the small and lower incisions were completely hidden by clothing collar. Conclusion: The above technique is feasible, safe, minimally invasive, less time and cost consuming and cosmetical.

  14. Generalizing a study of a rotating rod carrying a collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, I [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 21-939, Mexico 04000 D.F. (Mexico); Del Valle, G; Hernandez, M G [Area de Fisica, Division de Ciencias Basicas e IngenierIa, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Apartado Postal 21-939, Mexico 04000 D.F. (Mexico); Jimenez, J L, E-mail: jlj@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Fisica, Division de Ciencias Basicas e IngenierIa, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 21-939, Mexico 04000 D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The present work is a generalization of the work of Ribberfors and Reitz (2000 Eur. J. Phys. 21 151-7). These authors study a system consisting of a collar that is restricted to move in a path defined by a rod of some prescribed form which passes through the collar. We generalize the analysis of this system by means of canonical treatment. We show in this way that this excellent example can also be used in advanced courses on mechanics to show the power of the methods of analytical mechanics. We have that the present treatment of this example will be useful for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for the teachers of these courses on classical mechanics. (letters and comments)

  15. Fix success and accuracy of GPS radio collars in old-growth temperate coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager-Fradkin, Kimberly A.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Happe, P.; Beecham, J.; Wright, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry is used extensively to study animal distribution and resource selection patterns but is susceptible to biases resulting from data omission and spatial inaccuracies. These data errors may cause misinterpretation of wildlife habitat selection or spatial use patterns. We used both stationary test collars and collared free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) to quantify systemic data loss and location error of GPS telemetry in mountainous, old-growth temperate forests of Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We developed predictive models of environmental factors that influence the probability of obtaining GPS locations and evaluated the ability of weighting factors derived from these models to mitigate data omission biases from collared bears. We also examined the effects of microhabitat on collar fix success rate and examined collar accuracy as related to elevation changes between successive fixes. The probability of collars successfully obtaining location fixes was positively associated with elevation and unobstructed satellite view and was negatively affected by the interaction of overstory canopy and satellite view. Test collars were 33% more successful at acquiring fixes than those on bears. Fix success rates of collared bears varied seasonally and diurnally. Application of weighting factors to individual collared bear fixes recouped only 6% of lost data and failed to reduce seasonal or diurnal variation in fix success, suggesting that variables not included in our model contributed to data loss. Test collars placed to mimic bear bedding sites received 16% fewer fixes than randomly placed collars, indicating that microhabitat selection may contribute to data loss for wildlife equipped with GPS collars. Horizontal collar errors of >800 m occurred when elevation changes between successive fixes were >400 m. We conclude that significant limitations remain in accounting for data loss and error inherent in using

  16. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  17. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary, Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Diva Anelie; de Garcia, Sylvia Cristina Garcia; Ferreira, Maria Auxiliadora Pantoja; da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2012-03-01

    The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was-to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin's solution and sectioned into 7 microm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (pcollared peccary.

  18. Effect of rigid cervical collar on tracheal intubation using Airtraq®

    OpenAIRE

    Padmaja Durga; Chiranjeevi Yendrapati; Geeta Kaniti; Narmada Padhy; Kiran Kumar Anne; Gopinath Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Cervical spine immobilisation with rigid cervical collar imposes difficulty in intubation. Removal of the anterior part of the collar may jeopardize the safety of the cervical spine. The effect of restricted mouth opening and cervical spine immobilisation that result from the application of rigid cervical collar on intubation using Airtraq ® was evaluated. Methods: Seventy healthy adults with normal airways included in the study were intubated Using Airtraq® with (group C...

  19. A beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to nutria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; White, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an approximately 85-g beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to semi-aquatic nutria (Myocastor coypus). Prototype collars were tested on captive nutria and refined during field trials. Central to the design was novel use of the VHF transmitter antenna as a collar. A circular collar was formed by passing the 44-cm antenna cable through a pre-made hole in the transmitter, leaving an approximately 16-cm upright antenna. GPS units were mounted separately via a hole in the base of each unit. For good satellite contact, GPS units (28 g) were maintained at the nape of the neck by counterbalance of the heavier VHF transmitters (50 g) positioned under the neck. To reduce friction, we lined the collar with alternate-sized plastic and, later, more durable nylon beads. The final collar configuration was worn for approximately 1 month deployments with only minor neck abrasion; one collar was worn successfully for 5 months. Foot entanglement remained the greatest risk of injury from the collar. By fitting collars tightly, we reduced the incidence of foot entanglement to 2 of 33 deployments (6%). Successful GPS tracks were acquired on 29 of 33 deployments (88%).

  20. Use and perception of collars for companion cats in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, M; Keown, A J; Farnworth, M J

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the use and utility of collars for companion cats in New Zealand, and to explore public perception of collar use. An online questionnaire was distributed using emails and social media to members of the general public in New Zealand. The questionnaire collected details of respondents, cat ownership status, and responses to a number of questions regarding collar use in cats. A total of 511 responses were collected. Of these, 393/511 (76.9%) reported owning ≥1 cat at the time of the survey, and 141/393 (35.9%) stated that ≥1 of their cats wore collars and 211/393 (53.7%) had ≥1 of their cats micro-chipped. Of the respondents with a pet cat, 351/393 (89.3%) allowed their cats some outdoor access. Respondents mainly used collars for identification and to reduce predation. Reasons for not using collars included cat intolerance of collars, repeated collar loss and concern over collar safety. Differences were found between cat owners and non-owners regarding whether they agreed that cats were important for pest control (43 vs. 25%, pownership and management may be of use to veterinarians to promote responsible pet ownership and to develop national policies and practices to improve cat welfare.

  1. The unusual floatation collar around nauplii of certain parasitic barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Møller, Ole Sten; Rybakov, Alexey V.

    2004-01-01

    Nauplii of the rhizocephalan families Peltogastridae and Lernaeodiscidae carry a torus-shaped collar around the body. It consists of an exceedingly thin cuticle connected to the general body cuticle along a continuous narrow ridge. In nauplii of some species, the collar is very large and its...... of the general body as separate objects. The collar must have a profound influence on the hydrodynamic properties of the nauplius, both when swimming and passively sinking. We therefore consider it as a floatation device, a view supported by the absence of the collar in the rapidly swimming cypris larvae...

  2. Organizational justice is related to heart rate variability in white-collar workers, but not in blue-collar workers-findings from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Raphael M; Bosch, Jos A; van Vianen, Annelies E M; Jarczok, Marc N; Thayer, Julian F; Li, Jian; Schmidt, Burkhard; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    Perceived injustice at work predicts coronary heart disease. Vagal dysregulation represents a potential psychobiological pathway. We examined associations between organizational justice and heart rate variability (HRV) indicators. Grounded in social exchange and psychological contract theory, we tested predictions that these associations are more pronounced among white-collar than among blue-collar workers. Cross-sectional data from 222 blue-collar and 179 white-collar men were used. Interactional and procedural justice were measured by questionnaire. Ambulatory HRV was assessed across 24 h. Standardized regression coefficients (β) were calculated. Among white-collar workers, interactional justice showed positive relationships with 24-h HRV, which were strongest during sleeping time (adjusted βs≥0.26; p values≤0.01). No associations were found for blue-collar workers. A comparable but attenuated pattern was observed for procedural justice. Both dimensions of organizational injustice were associated with lowered HRV among white-collar workers. The impact of justice and possibly its association with health seems to differ by occupational groups.

  3. The company man: a case of white-collar crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brottman, Mikita

    2009-06-01

    Insider trading scandals on Wall Street have focused public attention on the abuse of money and power in the service of greed. The analytic situation described in this paper involves a patient who was involved in a major white-collar crime in the 1990s and imprisoned on charges of fraud. Release from prison brought his anxieties about money, work, and masculinity into sharp focus. The paper explores the some of the emotional conflicts and confusion around corporate success and failure, and the particular issues that arise when people identify themselves with the company they work for, something that corporate culture has always encouraged.

  4. Techniques for collecting blood from collared peccaries, Dicotyles tajacu (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Robinson, R M; Grant, W E

    1984-01-01

    Four methods are described for obtaining blood samples from the collared peccary. This animal lacks prominent superficial veins which makes the procedure of taking blood difficult for inexperienced persons. Large volumes of blood (greater than 20 ml) can be obtained easily via anterior vena cava venipuncture. Moderate amounts of blood (less than 20 ml) can be obtained from the orbital sinus. Lesser volumes of blood can be obtained from superficial veins located on the ear and the hind limb. The saphenous vein is distended easily due to its unique location across the cranial face of the tibia.

  5. Subjective and Objective Cancer Screening Knowledge Among White- and Blue-Collar Chinese Midlife Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2016-08-26

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Chinese, yet little is known about cancer knowledge among this population. The study described the subjective and objective cancer screening knowledge among white- versus blue-collar Chinese midlife adults. A convenient sample of white-collar adults age 40+ years was recruited from government and academic agencies; and blue-collar adults age 40+ years were recruited from manufactory companies in Taiwan. An eight-item cancer screening knowledge test (CSKT) was used to measure objective knowledge and one five-point Likert scale item for assessing subjective (perceived) cancer screening knowledge. A total of 208 white- and 533 blue-collar workers completed the survey during 2008-2011. Mean ages between groups were comparable (41.1 versus 46.3 years), as well as family cancer history (41.5 %). About 76 % of the white-collar and 43 % of the blue-collar adults had college education. The mean score of the CSKT was lower in the blue-collar versus white-collar workers, 5.4 (SD = 1.76) versus 6.1 (SD = 1.40), indicating on average, 68 versus 76 % of the participants answered the cancer knowledge correctly. The subjective knowledge levels were, however, higher among the blue-collar workers (mean rating of 3.22 versus 2.78). The CSKT showed a good mix of relatively easy and moderately difficult items in both groups. Study showed that overall cancer screening knowledge was low among Chinese midlife adults. Although blue-collar workers scored lower on CSKT, the perceived knowledge level was higher. Results also suggest attention to communicating cancer screening information among Chinese blue-collar midlife workers in particular.

  6. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A. E., E-mail: bolotnik@bnl.gov; Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.; Cherches, C.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Mahler, G.; Maritato, M.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11793 (United States); Hodges, D. [University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Lee, W. [Korea University, Seoul 136-855 (Korea, Republic of); Petryk, M. [SUNY Binghamton, Vestal, New York 13902 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors coupled to a front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6 × 6 × 15 mm{sup 3} detectors grouped into 3 × 3 sub-arrays of 2 × 2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays’ performance and reduction of their cost are possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.

  7. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, A E; Ackley, K; Camarda, G S; Cherches, C; Cui, Y; De Geronimo, G; Fried, J; Hodges, D; Hossain, A; Lee, W; Mahler, G; Maritato, M; Petryk, M; Roy, U; Salwen, C; Vernon, E; Yang, G; James, R B

    2015-07-01

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors coupled to a front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6 × 6 × 15 mm(3) detectors grouped into 3 × 3 sub-arrays of 2 × 2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays' performance and reduction of their cost are possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.

  8. Career and Technical Education: Pursuing a Pipeline for the New Green-Collar Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Sally E.; Kozlowski, Patti; Peach, Peggy; Varela, Erika

    2009-01-01

    As the white- and blue-collar jobs are thinning because of the economic downturn, the economy is being rejuvenated by a new color of collar jobs--green. Green jobs encompass a range of skills, educational backgrounds and occupational profiles. The green industry has been recognized as a high-growth workforce sector because of the demand for…

  9. Does patency after a vein collar and PTFE-bypass depend on sex and age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect...

  10. The Accumulation of Educational Capital among Young Blue-Collar Workers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on young blue-collar workers in Russia indicates that a large percentage of them continue to improve their educational qualifications during the first five years of employment, but that it declines after that time. The two most frequent reasons for upgrading their skills are a desire to leave blue-collar employment, and to increase the…

  11. 78 FR 23592 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation AGENCY: U.S... certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 5....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic...

  12. Determining the Specific Status of Korean Collared Scops Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jee Hong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The collared scops owl that occurs in Korea is a protected species but its exact specific status has been questioned. To resolve the species status, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted using two fragments of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome b (cyt b, 891 bp and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2, 627 bp genes. Phylogenetic trees of cyt b revealed that all Korean specimens formed a monophyletic group with Japanese scops owl Otus semitorques with very low sequence divergence (d=0.008. We obtained a similar ND2 tree as well (d=0.003; however, the genetic distance between Korean individuals and O. lempiji from GenBank (AJ004026-7, EU348987, and EU601036 was very high and sufficient enough to separate them as species (cyt b, d=0.118; ND2, d=0.113. We also found that Korean species showed high differentiation from O. bakkamoena (AJ004018-20 and EU601034; cyt b, d=0.106; ND2, d=0.113 and O. lettia (EU601109 and EU601033, cyt b, d=0.110; ND2, d=0.117 as well. Therefore, we suggest that the Korean collared scops owl should be designated as Otus semitorques.

  13. Collarín para soportes metálicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Miguel, J. L.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available In architectural works, structural calculations are usually few and simple, they mostly corroborate what is already known. Calculations are made for the most part with the purpose of exploring solutions. When working in a specific case operations ought to be framed in the practical understanding, with predictable values and tabulated solutions, with no surprises. To write numbers and trust them blindly, is like a reckless appointment, something that should not be done in structures. This article shows how to use the structural knowledge in order to explore a specific solution: a collar for metal supports.

    En las obras de arquitectura los cálculos estructurales suelen ser pocos y sencillos, más bien para corroborar algo que se sabía de antemano. Los números se hacen, en su mayor parte, para explorar soluciones; cuando se trabaja en un caso particular debe operarse en un marco conocido, con valores predictables y soluciones tabuladas, sin sorpresas. Hacer números para fiarse a pies juntillas de ellos, es como una cita a ciegas, algo no recomendable en estructuras. Este artículo muestra cómo usar los conocimientos estructurales para explorar una solución: la de un collarín para soportes metálicos.

  14. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberio G. Olinda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An extramedullary plasmacytoma case in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu is reported. The animal, a female aging three years old, had a medical history of diffusely distributed skin and mucocutaneous junction lesions, associated with swollen lymph nodes. Clinical examination and complementary exams (complete blood count, biochemical analysis, skin scraping to search mites and fungal culture were performed. Thirty days after examination, the animal died. At necropsy, multiple consistent nodules, aseptic pustules and swollen lymph nodes were found. On histological exams of the skin and oral mucosa, we observed a large number of round cells forming masses organized in nests, sheets, and cords of cells in a well-vascularized fibrovascular tissue. Neoplastic plasma cells infiltrated between the fibers and the lamina propria of smooth muscle. Spaces among the cell masses were filled with some eosinophil and fluid. Most of the cells were well differentiated, presenting a perinuclear clear zone. In some points, the cells were pleomorphic. The plasma cells presented eccentric, basophilic and spherical nuclei, showing a dense to organized chromatin with distinct nucleoli. Binucleate cells were observed, but multinucleated giant cells were rare. Oral mucosa and lymph nodes tested by immunohistochemical analyses were positive for Mb-1, with a multifocal distribution. In regard to Bcl-2, the neoplastic cells were intermittent weakly positive. So, an extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed in the collared peccary considering the location, the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.

  15. Social structure of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu): does relatedness matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Cibele; Izar, Patrícia; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Bussab, Vera S R

    2014-11-01

    Relatedness is considered an important factor in shaping social structure as the association among kin might facilitate cooperation via inclusive fitness benefits. We addressed here the influence of relatedness on the social structure of a Neotropical ungulate, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu). As peccaries are highly social and cooperative, live in stable cohesive herds and show certain degree of female philopatry and high mean relatedness within herds, we hypothesized that kin would be spatially closer and display more amicable and less agonistic interactions than non-kin. We recorded spatial association patterns and rates of interactions of two captive groups. Pairwise relatedness was calculated based on microsatellite data. As predicted, we found that kin were spatially closer than non-kin, which suggests that relatedness is a good predictor of spatial association in peccaries. However, relatedness did not predict the rates of social interactions. Although our results indirectly indicate some role of sex, age and familiarity, further studies are needed to clarify the factors that shape the rates of interactions in collared peccaries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.

  16. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head, neck, shoulder, and arm muscles reproduces pain symptoms in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gröbli, Christian; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fischer, Christine Stebler; Boesch, Daniel; Froidevaux, Philippe; Stocker, Lilian; Weissmann, Richard; González-Iglesias, Javier

    2012-07-01

    To describe the prevalence and referred pain area of trigger points (TrPs) in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers, and to analyze if the referred pain pattern elicited from TrPs completely reproduces the overall spontaneous pain pattern. Sixteen (62% women) blue-collar and 19 (75% women) white-collar workers were included in this study. TrPs in the temporalis, masseter, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, oblique capitis inferior, levator scapulae, scalene, pectoralis major, deltoid, infraspinatus, extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus, extensor digitorum communis, and supinator muscles were examined bilaterally (hyper-sensible tender spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response with snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain pattern with palpation) by experienced assessors blinded to the participants' condition. TrPs were considered active when the local and referred pain reproduced any symptom and the patient recognized the pain as familiar. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomic maps, digitized, and measured. Blue-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 3) active and 10 (SD: 5) latent TrPs, whereas white-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 4) active and 11 (SD: 6) latent TrPs (P>0.548). No significant differences in the distribution of active and latent TrPs in the analyzed muscles between groups were found. Active TrPs in the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, levator scapulae, and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles were the most prevalent in both groups. Significant differences in referred pain areas between muscles (Pmuscles showed the largest referred pain areas (Pmuscles showed the smallest (Pmuscle TrPs in blue-collar and white-collar workers.

  17. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary: Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Anelie Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin’s solution and sectioned into 7μm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (pLa sustentabilidad y la producción de pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu han sido estudiados en los últimos años, sin embargo, más información sobre su reproducción es necesaria para el éxito de los sistemas de crianza . La comprensión de los aspectos relacionados con la foliculogénesis contribuirá con la aplicación de biotécnicas de reproducción, las cuales son útiles en la preservación y la producción de la vida silvestre. El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener datos sobre la población folicular del ovario de pecarí de collar. En relación con la población folicular en el ovario derecho, los valores de los folículos primordiales y primarios fueron similares, pero se observó que había una diferencia significativa (p<0.05 con el secundario. En el ovario izquierdo, la fase folicular presentó diferencias significativas (p<0

  18. Application of Cervical Collars - An Analysis of Practical Skills of Professional Emergency Medical Care Providers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kreinest

    Full Text Available The application of a cervical collar is a standard procedure in trauma patients in emergency medicine. It is often observed that cervical collars are applied incorrectly, resulting in reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of trained professional rescue personnel concerning the application of cervical collars.Within emergency medical conferences, n = 104 voluntary test subjects were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll, wherein each step that was performed received an evaluation. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire.The test subjects included professional rescue personnel (80.8% and emergency physicians (12.5%. The average occupational experience of all study participants in pre-clinical emergency care was 11.1±8.9 years. Most study participants had already attended a certified training on trauma care (61% and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84%. 11% applied the cervical collar to the training doll without errors. The most common error consisted of incorrect adjustment of the size of the cervical collar (66%. No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and the occupational group of the test subjects (trained rescue personnel vs. emergency physicians or the participation in certified trauma courses.Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study allows the conclusion that there are general deficits in practical skills when cervical collars are applied. A critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must, therefore, be demanded.

  19. Application of Cervical Collars – An Analysis of Practical Skills of Professional Emergency Medical Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinest, Michael; Goller, Sarah; Rauch, Geraldine; Frank, Christian; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Wölfl, Christoph G.; Matschke, Stefan; Münzberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective The application of a cervical collar is a standard procedure in trauma patients in emergency medicine. It is often observed that cervical collars are applied incorrectly, resulting in reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of trained professional rescue personnel concerning the application of cervical collars. Material and Methods Within emergency medical conferences, n = 104 voluntary test subjects were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll, wherein each step that was performed received an evaluation. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire. Results The test subjects included professional rescue personnel (80.8%) and emergency physicians (12.5%). The average occupational experience of all study participants in pre-clinical emergency care was 11.1±8.9 years. Most study participants had already attended a certified training on trauma care (61%) and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84%). 11% applied the cervical collar to the training doll without errors. The most common error consisted of incorrect adjustment of the size of the cervical collar (66%). No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and the occupational group of the test subjects (trained rescue personnel vs. emergency physicians) or the participation in certified trauma courses. Conclusion Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study allows the conclusion that there are general deficits in practical skills when cervical collars are applied. A critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must, therefore, be demanded. PMID:26587650

  20. Decent Work in the Chinese Apparel Industry: Comparative Analysis of Blue-Collar and White-Collar Garment Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Addressing labor issues in the apparel industry is significantly important due to customers’ increasing awareness of poor working conditions and growing labor crises in apparel production locations worldwide. Decent work is a key element to achieving fair and harmonious employment, but is not always evident in global apparel production networks. This study examines the working conditions in China’s garment manufacturing industry, which employs more than 10 million workers. A survey was administered to 313 blue-collar workers and 228 white-collar workers on issues related to decent work, including workers’ concerns, satisfaction levels and attitudes towards decent work. Regression analysis showed that workers’ attitudes are significantly related to age, education level, service length and monthly wage. Gap analysis revealed poor understanding of decent work and low satisfaction with primary indicators of decent work. However, results suggest that workers increasingly value soft factors and the overall work experience, not only financial benefits. Cluster analysis identified four clusters of workers. This study contributes to understanding garment worker perceptions of decent work and provides implications for the operationalization of decent work in China’s garment manufacturing industry.

  1. Female ornamentation and territorial conflicts in collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Gergely; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2008-10-01

    Female ornaments in species with conventional sex roles often indicate individual quality, but the evolutionary forces maintaining them are less clear. Sexual competition for breeding opportunities may represent an important role for female signals, especially in polygynous species, but there is little experimental evidence for this. The wing patch size (WPS) of female collared flycatchers indicates age and body condition and predicts social mating patterns. We challenged nest-building females with decoy females of varying WPS and found that the aggressive response of residents increased with decoy WPS, suggesting a role for this female ornament in territorial competition. Our results explain why female WPS predicts territorial distances when mated to a polygynous male and indicate that the role of WPS in female competitive interactions is similar to that in males of the same population.

  2. Serum chemistry of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Grant, W E

    1984-04-01

    Values of serum biochemistry were obtained for 33 adult (16 male and 17 female) and six juvenile (four male and two female) collared peccaries collected by trapping and drugging animals from southern Texas during the period July through September 1982. Only cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations differed significantly with respect to sex. Juvenile peccaries had significantly lower concentrations of total protein and globulins, but had higher concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and calcium, and a higher albumin/globulin ratio than did adults. Effects of method of capture on biochemical attributes of serum from five gunshot and nine trapped adult peccaries collected from a single herd during March 1983 also were examined. Trapped peccaries had significantly higher levels of serum urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, glucose, and chloride concentrations. Levels of uric acid, calcium, and potassium were significantly lower among the trapped animals.

  3. Gastrostomy with peritoneal collar versus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, C; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; El-Khatib, A; Pantu, H; Nica, A; Dascalu, A M; Masoumeh, B; Tudor, A S; Oprescu, S M; Serban, D

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The present study aimed to perform a medico-surgical comparative analysis of the 2 most widely used techniques: gastrostomy with peritoneal collar versus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, based on the vast clinical experience in an Upper Digestive Surgery Clinic. Materials and method. A retrospective study was carried out between January 2010 and January 2015 on the patients admitted for a surgical solution for feeding. The indications, preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Results. Out of the 94 cases admitted for a surgical solution for feeding, 67 underwent gastrostomy with peritoneal collar (GPC) and in 27 cases percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed. The indications for GPC were benign or malign causes of dysphagia, the most frequent being malign tumors of tongue, pharynx and larynx (47.76%), advanced inoperable esophageal or eso-cardiac cancers (26,86%), post-caustic esophageal stenosis (10.44%). PEG was performed in patients with functional difficulties of swallowing: sequelae of cerebral vascular accidents (44.44%), low Glasgow Coma Scale Score (29.62%) of different etiologies, Parkinson disease (18.51%) advanced dementia (7.4%), early nasopharyngeal cancer (2 cases). The intraoperatory and postoperatory complications were few and of minor importance in both techniques, but PEG allowed an immediate retake of alimentation (vs. at least 48 hours wait in GPC), with less gastric stasis, biliary reflux and aspiration related respiratory problems. Conclusions. Both techniques are easy and safe to perform, but an appropriate selection is required according to the cause of the swallowing difficulty. In cases with permeable digestive tube, PEG may be an excellent minimally invasive solution, but the costs and availability of the PEG kit and prehydrolyzed nutritive solution, as well as the co-existence of an upper digestive endoscopy service were limitations that had to be taken into account.

  4. Effect of Metal Collar on Marginal Distortion of Base Metal Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grami Panah F

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that noble alloys require metal collar to resist distortion when subjected to"nrepeat firing cycle of porcelain. Metal collar is undesirable due to esthetic concerns. Since base metal"nalloys have superior physical properties, it seems that metal collar would not be necessary for obtaining"nbetter marginal adaptation of base metal crowns. The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of"nmetal collar on marginal distortion of base metal- ceramic crowns, Twenty base metal copings were"nconstructed and divided into two groups with and without collars. After surface preparation, porcelain"nwas applied onto the surface of specimens. Marginal gap was measured by scanning electron microscope"nduring three stages of crown fabrication: before degassing, after degassing and after glazing. The mean"nmeasurements in collarless group were; 21.4±13.4, 2I.4±14.9 and 21.9±11.9 u_m, respectively, and in-"ngroup with collar; 24.7±11.4, 24.0±! 1.5 and 26.6±11.7 urn, respectively. Two- way ANOVA revealed"nno significant difference in the mean values between two groups and among different stages of crown"nfabrication. The results of this study showed that base metal alloys did not distort during crown"nfabrication and metal collar had no effect on the amount of marginal opening (gap.

  5. Effect of hair and clothing on neck immobilization using a cervical collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Fong-Gong; Tsai, Shu-Hui; Wang, Chun-Hsiang; Stern, Susan A

    2005-05-01

    An important step during spine immobilization is application of a cervical collar. Clothing or hair covering the neck may impinge on this process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clothing and hair covering the neck on immobilization using a cervical collar. Study participants were 18 female volunteers with long hair aged 20 to 28 years. Cervical range of motion (ROM) was tested in 6 directions (flexion, extension, right and left lateral bending, right and left axial rotation) using a cervical ROM (CROM) device. After measuring unrestricted ROM (no cervical collar), a 1-piece rigid cervical collar was placed the neck (1) covered by hair and clothing; (2) covered by clothing; (3) covered by hair; or (4) uncovered. Range of motion was retested under all 4 conditions. Data were compared using crossover-design analysis of variance (Pcervical collar placement under all conditions. Unrestricted ROM in all directions ranged from 41.50 degrees (7.25 degrees) to 70.76 degrees (15.4 degrees). In contrast, ROM with a cervical collar under the 4 conditions in all directions ranged from 10.80 degrees (5.10 degrees) to 18.81 degrees (7.37 degrees). We were unable to detect any significant differences in ROM between the 4 conditions. Our data suggest that long hair and clothing, which cover the neck, do not alter the effectiveness of cervical collar immobilization as measured by the cervical ROM device.

  6. Value of a rigid collar in addition to head blocks: a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, M

    2012-02-01

    All trauma patients with a cervical spinal column injury or with a mechanism of injury with the potential to cause cervical spinal injury should be immobilised until a spinal injury is excluded. Immobilisation of the entire patient with a rigid cervical collar, backboard, head blocks with tape or straps is recommended by the Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines. However there is insufficient evidence to support these guidelines. To analyse the effects on the range of motion of the addition of a rigid collar to head blocks strapped on a backboard. The active range of motion of the cervical spine was determined by computerised digital dual inclinometry, in 10 healthy volunteers with a rigid collar, head blocks strapped on a padded spine board and a combination of both. Maximal opening of the mouth with all types of immobiliser in place was also measured. The addition of a rigid collar to head blocks strapped on a spine board did not result in extra immobilisation of the cervical spine. Opening of the mouth was significantly reduced in patients with a rigid collar. Based on this proof of principle study and other previous evidence of adverse effects of rigid collars, the addition of a rigid collar to head blocks is considered unnecessary and potentially dangerous. Therefore the use of this combination of cervical spine immobilisers must be reconsidered.

  7. Phylogenetic divisions among Collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) detected using mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Morales, Socorro; Bernal, Jaime Eduardo; Moran, Chris

    2006-10-01

    The Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is one of the three extant recognised species of the family Tayassuidae, living in the Americas. To understand phylogenetic relationships among Collared peccaries, the entire mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b as well as partial nuclear GPIP and PRE-1 P27, PRE-1 P642 and TYR sequences from specimens from Colombia, Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, United States and Australian zoo animals of unknown origin were analysed. Separate and combined analyses of the mitochondrial sequences provided good resolution of Collared peccary relationships. Nuclear sequences were partially informative when combined sequence analyses were performed. Maximum Likelihood analyses of mitochondrial sequences showed that Collared peccaries clustered in two major clades, representing North-Central American and South American specimens. Collared peccaries from Colombia are paraphyletic. Statistical Parsimony analysis of combined nuclear sequences showed a distribution of DNA variants consistent with mitochondrial sequence analyses. However, there is an uncoupling of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence variation in two specimens from Colombia. The present study suggests the recent contact of isolated populations within Colombia and possible mitochondrial introgression between the North/Central clade and the South clade. Pairwise genetic distances comparison of mitochondrial sequences show that divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was higher and comparable respectively with that within and between the other two recognised peccary species. Divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was also higher than that observed within and even between recognised species of the Suidae family. The divergence within the major clades of the Collared peccary showed comparable values with those observed within the other two species of Tayassuidae and within six species of Suidae. The results show that the geographically

  8. Manufacturing Gender Inequality in the New Economy: High School Training for Work in Blue-Collar Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, April; Bosky, Amanda; Muller, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women's greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood. Although high school training in blue-collar communities reduced both men's and women's odds of four-year college enrollment, it had gender-divergent labor market consequences. Men in blue-collar communities took more blue-collar courses, had higher rates of blue-collar employment, and earned similar wages relative to otherwise comparable men from non-blue-collar communities. Women were less likely to work and to be employed in professional occupations, and they suffered severe wage penalties relative to their male peers and women from non-blue-collar communities. These relationships were due partly to high schools in blue-collar communities offering more blue-collar and fewer advanced college-preparatory courses. This curricular tradeoff may benefit men, but it appears to disadvantage women.

  9. The development and validation of a job crafting measure for use with blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs...... are characterized by poor working conditions and low well-being. We present the development and adaptation of a job crafting measure that may be used among blue-collar workers, based on an existing scale by Tims, Bakker, and Derks (2012) that was not specifically developed for blue-collar workers. We test...

  10. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    ...). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor...

  11. Part 4: GPS Telemetry Detection Rates (GPS Test Collar Sites), GCS NAD 83 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bias correction in GPS telemetry data-sets requires a strong understanding of the mechanisms that result in missing data. We tested wildlife GPS collars in a variety...

  12. Part 2: GPS Telemetry Detection Rates (Northern Arizona GPS Test Collar Data), GCS NAD 83 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bias correction in GPS telemetry data-sets requires a strong understanding of the mechanisms that result in missing data. We tested wildlife GPS collars in a variety...

  13. Augmenting the osseointegration of endoprostheses using laser-sintered porous collars: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Coathup, M; Chimutengwende-Gordon, M; Aston, W; Briggs, T; Blunn, G

    2017-02-01

    Massive endoprostheses rely on extra-cortical bone bridging (ECBB) to enhance fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of selective laser sintered (SLS) porous collars in augmenting the osseointegration of these prostheses. The two novel designs of porous SLS collars, one with small pores (Ø700 μm, SP) and one with large pores (Ø1500 μm, LP), were compared in an ovine tibial diaphyseal model. Osseointegration of these collars was compared with that of a clinically used solid, grooved design (G). At six months post-operatively, the ovine tibias were retrieved and underwent radiological and histological analysis. Porous collars provided a significantly greater surface (p direct ingrowth of more bone and are better than current designs which rely on surface ongrowth and ECBB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:276-82. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  14. When should a cervical collar be used to treat neck pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzin, Stefan; Isaac, Zacharia; Walker, Joseph; Abd, Omar El; Baima, Jennifer

    2008-06-01

    Neck pain is one of the most prevalent and costly health problems in the United States. It remains a complex, subjective experience with a variety of musculoskeletal causes. Although, cervical collars are a seemingly benign intervention, they can have adverse effects, especially when used for longer periods of time. It is feared that a long period of immobilization, can result in atrophy-related secondary damage. Many physicians cite anecdotal evidence of their clinical utility and soft cervical collars are often prescribed by convention for patients complaining of neck pain. The use of cervical collars to treat neck pain is an area of controversy. This review article examines the current evidence and studies related to recommending cervical collars for neck pain of a variety of etiologies.

  15. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  16. Serologic survey for antibodies to canine distemper virus in collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) populations in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Ted H; Heffelfinger, James R; Olding, Ronald J; Wesche, Shannon Lynn; Reggiardo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    In 1989, a disease outbreak was observed among collared peccaries (javelina, Tayassu tajacu) in southern Arizona (USA) and canine distemper virus (CDV) was isolated from affected animals. Subsequently, 364 sera were collected from hunter-harvested javelina over a 4 yr period (1993-96) and were tested for antibody to CDV. Neutralizing antibody to CDV was detected in 58% of the serum samples suggesting that CDV infection is probably enzootic in the collared peccary populations of southern Arizona.

  17. Nuclear and mitochondrial evolutionary analyses of Collared, White-lipped, and Chacoan peccaries (Tayassuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The three extant peccary species, the Chacoan (Catagonus wagneri), the White-lipped (Tayassu pecari) and the Collared (Pecari tajacu), are morphologically and chromosomally distinct and confined to the New World. There is ongoing paleontological, cytogenetic, and molecular debate about phylogenetic relationships among them. To contribute to the understanding of Tayassuidae phylogeny, three mitochondrial (control region, cytochrome b, and 12S rRNA) and five nuclear (K-casein, thyrotropin, tyrosinase, and swine short interspersed nuclear elements PRE-1 P27 and P642) peccary DNA fragments were amplified, cloned and sequenced from Chacoan, White-lipped, and Collared peccaries. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and neighbor joining methods. K-casein, thyrotropin, and tyrosinase sequences did not resolve the phylogeny, while control region, cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and PRE-1 P27 and P642 sequences were more informative in deciphering phylogenetic relationships. When pig and warthog were used as an outgroup, Chacoan and White-lipped peccaries clustered distinct from Collared peccaries. Furthermore, control region and cytochrome b sequence variation within Collared peccaries was as extreme as that between White-lipped and Chacoan peccaries, supporting subspecific and possibly even specific variation within the widely distributed Collared peccary. This study supports the existence of two independent genera within the Tayassuidae family consisting of Collared and Chacoan/White-lipped peccaries, in contrast with classical morphological taxonomy which clusters White-lipped and Collared peccaries in the genus Tayassu or which alternatively clusters the Collared peccary in the genus Dicotyles as a related sister clade of the Chacoan peccary (genus Catagonus).

  18. A Comperative Study on Perceptions and Reactions of Workers: A Resear ch on Blue and White Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Ateş

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine perception of inequality and types of reaction of white and blue collar workers. The research was conducted over 120 white collar and 159 blue collar workers in an academic institution. It was determined with correlation analysis whether there is a relation between perception of inequality and reaction towards it for two groups. A significant and positive relation has been found between inequality perceptions and reaction towards inequality of blue collar workers. No significant relation has been found for white collar workers. Factor analysis was used to determine the dimensions of inequality perceptions andreactions towards inequality of blue and white collar workers. Results show that inequality perceptions and types of reactions towards inequality differ in terms of dimensions. Equity perceptions of blue collar workers are mostly based on comparisons with colleagues and nepotist behavior of their managers. White collar workers show sensitivity to the issues like salary, promotion and status. Blue collar workers prefer to report or to persuade their managers when they face with inequality. White collar workers decide to show their reactions by using more political methods.

  19. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  20. A Novel Idea for Coil Collar Structures in Accelerator Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P

    2002-01-01

    The dipoles for several different machines (LHC, SSC, HERA) were designed using non-magnetic metallic collars to contain the superconducting coils. The coils are of two types, main and floating. This paper describes a structure with combined steel and plastic collars. Since the floating collars do not give an important contribution to the global rigidity of the dipole we propose to suppress them. The plastic collars are just fillers to limit the helium contained in the cold mass. Some data about thermoplastic materials to be possibly used for the collars are given and some estimations of mass and cost of this configuration are made. Finally the results of the tests of a 1-m-long twin aperture dipole with mixed steel-plastic collars are shortly described. The replacement of expensive alloys by high performance plastic in non-structural components can be a cost-effective solution in view of future projects where superconducting magnets are involved and contained costs are a key issue.

  1. [Disability by cervical sprain I and II and the use of neck collar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sousa, Martha Guadalupe; Sánchez-Avendaño, María Eugenia; Solís-Rodríguez, Annel; Yáñez-Estrada, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la incidencia del esguince cervical ocasiona altos costos en atención médica, incapacidades y ausencias laborales. El objetivo fue demostrar que los días de incapacidad por esguince cervical grados I y II son menores sin el uso de collarín. Métodos: estudio transversal en 100 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta de urgencias por esguince cervical grados I y II. Se evaluó el uso de collarín y los días de incapacidad laboral. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: fueron tratados con collarín más antiinflamatorio 68 % de los pacientes y 32 %, solamente con antiinflamatorio; 86 % requirió incapacidad laboral, con 11.75 días en promedio. De los pacientes incapacitados, 74.4 % utilizó collarín; de los 14 pacientes que no requirieron incapacidad, 28.6 % utilizó collarín (χ(2) = 11.63, p < 0.001). Conclusiones: los días de incapacidad y recuperación fueron menores en los pacientes que no utilizaron collarín.

  2. The Effects of Fin Collar Form on Heat Transfer Performance of Cross Fin-tube Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Koutaro; Miyara, Akio; Nagai, Yuma; Sasaki, Naoe; Mizuta, Yoshihiko

    A numerical study has been conducted to investigate effects of fin collar form of cross fin-tube heat exchangers on heat transfer performance. Two adjacent fin collars and a copper tube form a triangular space during the making process. And also end of the fin collar protrudes into air-side. The protruded end and triangular space affect on air-side heat convection and thermal resistance between the tube and fin collars, respectively. The increase in triangular space increases non-contact surface area between tube and fin collar, which affects to decrease heat transfer rate. The protruded end disturbs air-side flow and expands the surface of the fin collar. As a result of these two effects, heat transfer rate from the heat transfer tube increases. However, protruded end increases pressure loss of air-side.

  3. The control of ticks, fleas and lice on dogs by means of a Sendran--impregnated collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G

    1976-03-01

    Plastic collars impregnated with 9,4% Sendran effectively controlled adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus for a period of 49 days and immature ticks for a period possibly in excess of 70 days when fitted to four dogs. Four uncollared dogs served as controls. Although flea burdens were extremely low the collars were apparently effective for a period in excess of 70 days. A medicated collar killed all the ticks, fleas and lice on a severely parasited dog within a period of 48 hours.

  4. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Cheng Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  5. 毛衫领部设计分析%Design Analysis of Sweater Collar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕蕊

    2015-01-01

    随着毛衫向外穿的方向发展,领部作为穿着者头部与毛衫整体的过渡部分,其流行性设计已成为毛衫时尚化与个性化设计的重要环节之一. 通过对2016—2017年秋冬季针织毛衫产品流行趋势的分析,本文在总结男款毛衫、女款毛衫时尚领部设计的基础上,重点以领型设计、领部组织结构选择和领圈加工工艺等展开分析. 指出,圆领、V领、翻领等经典领型在毛衫中依然有所应用,适合秋冬季的漏斗领、带有垂坠感的领型尤其值得设计师关注.%As the sweater outside wear trends continue to strengthen, the fashion design of collar is an impor-tant part of the fashion and personalization sweaters, because the collar is a transition between the wearer's head and upper part of the body. Through analyzing the 2016-2017 autumn and winter knitted sweater fashion trends, and summarizing men's and women's sweaters basis collar fashion design, the paper introduces the fashion design, knitting structure choosing and fabrication process of the collar. It points out that round neck, V-neck, and other classic lapel collar still appear in the sweater, while for autumn and winter funnel collar, collar with drape should be deserved much more attention.

  6. Effect of rigid cervical collar on tracheal intubation using Airtraq®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Durga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cervical spine immobilisation with rigid cervical collar imposes difficulty in intubation. Removal of the anterior part of the collar may jeopardize the safety of the cervical spine. The effect of restricted mouth opening and cervical spine immobilisation that result from the application of rigid cervical collar on intubation using Airtraq ® was evaluated. Methods: Seventy healthy adults with normal airways included in the study were intubated Using Airtraq® with (group C and without rigid cervical collar (group NC. The ease of insertion of Airtraq ® into the oral cavity, intubation time, intubation difficulty score (IDS were compared using Wilcoxon sign ranked test and McNemar test, using SPSS version 13. Results: Intubation using Airtraq ® was successful in the presence of the cervical collar in 96% which was comparable to group without collar (P = 0.24. The restriction of mouth opening resulted in mild difficulty in insertion of Airtraq ® . The median Likert scale for insertion was - 1 in the group C and + 1 in group NC (P < 0.001. The intubation time was longer in group C (30 ± 14.3 s vs. 26.9 ± 14.8 s compared to group NC. The need for adjusting manoeuvres was 18.5% in group C versus 6.2% in group NC (P = 0.003 and bougie was required in 12 (18.5% and 4 (6.2% patients in group C and NC, respectively, to facilitate intubation (P = 0.02. The modified IDS score was higher in group C but there was no difference in the number of patients with IDS < 2. Conclusion: Tracheal intubation using Airtraq ® in the presence of rigid cervical collar has equivalent success rate, acceptable difficulty in insertion and mild increase in IDS.

  7. Effect of Cervical Collar Removal on the Fracture Load of Anterior Zirconia Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda; Cardoso, Mayra; de Melo, Renata Marques; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Souza, Rodrigo Oa

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the extension of collar and fatigue cycling on the fracture load of anterior zirconia crowns. A total of 60 anterior full-crown preparations (central incisor) were machined in glass fiber-filled epoxy resin. Zirconia copings were designed and milled using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (thickness: buccal = 0.62 mm, lingual = 0.65 mm, incisal = 0.72 mm). The cervical collars (occlusogingival height = 0.8 mm, buccolingual width = 1.0 mm) were totally or partially (buccal face) removed for modified copings. They were randomly allocated to six groups according to the type of cervical collar design and the presence (or not) of fatigue cycling (n = 10). The veneering ceramic layer was pressed, and the crowns were cemented with resin cement. The samples were tested until fracture in a universal testing machine and analyzed by stereomicroscopy. Data were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (5%). Removal of the cervical collar significantly affected the fracture strength of zirconia crowns (P = .000), whereas fatigue cycling did not (P = .428). The mean failure load was lower in the groups with no collar. The most frequent failure modes were cracking of the veneer porcelain in collarless crowns and catastrophic failure in the others. The authors concluded that removal of the vestibular collar of zirconia copings in anterior crowns does not reduce the fracture load of the crowns. However, removal of the entire collar reduces the fracture load and cannot be recommended.

  8. The efficacy of collars impregnated with flumethrin and propoxur against experimental infestations of adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of 2 sets of collars (Kiltix(R Collar, Bayer AG, containing different plasticisers and impregnated with the acaricides flumethrin (2.25 % and propoxur (10 %, was compared against adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus on experimentally infested, kennelled dogs. Thirty individually penned dogs were infested with 25 male and 25 female, unfed R. sanguineus. On the following day they were allocated to 3 groups of 10 dogs each on the magnitude of their tick burdens. Two days after infestation, medicated collars containing 1 of the plasticisers were fitted to 10 of the dogs and similar collars containing the other plasticiser were fitted to 10 others. The remaining 10 dogs were the untreated controls. Seven and 28 days after having fitted the collars, all dogs were re-infested with 50 unfed adult ticks of both sexes, and again at approximately 28-day intervals up to the 5th month, and then at approximately 14-day intervals during the 6th month. Efficacy was determined by comparing the mean number of live, attached ticks on the untreated control group with those on the collared dogs 2 days after each re-infestation. Immediate efficacy of the collars (Day +2 was > 95 %, and residual efficacy was > 98% up to and including Day +114, and > 93 % up to Day +170 on both groups of collared dogs. The mean tick counts on the 2 groups of collared dogs did not differ significantly (P < 0.0001 for any of the assessment days.

  9. Motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during the application and removal of cervical immobilization collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Conrad, Bryan; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have compared the restriction of motion that immobilization collars provide to the injured victim. No previous investigation has assessed the amount of motion that is generated during the fitting and removal process. The purpose of this study was to compare the three-dimensional motion generated when one-piece and two-piece cervical collars are applied and removed from cadavers intact and with unstable cervical spine injuries. Five fresh, lightly embalmed cadavers were tested three times each with either a one-piece or two-piece cervical collar in the supine position. Testing was performed in the intact state, following creation of a global ligamentous instability at C5-C6. The amount of angular motion resulting from the collar application and removal was measured using a Fastrak, three-dimensional, electromagnetic motion analysis device (Polhemus Inc., Colchester, VT). The measurements recorded in this investigation included maximum values for flexion/extension, axial rotation, medial/lateral flexion, anterior/posterior displacement, axial distraction, and medial/lateral displacement at the level of instability. There was statistically more motion observed with application or removal of either collar following the creation of a global instability. During application, there was a statistically significant difference in flexion/extension between the one-piece (1.8 degrees) and two-piece (2.6 degrees) collars, p = 0.009. There was also a statistically significant difference in anterior/posterior translation between the one-piece (3.6 mm) and two-piece (3.4 mm) collars, p = 0.015. The maximum angulation and displacement during the application of either collar was 3.4 degrees and 4.4 mm. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the one-piece and two-piece collars during the removal process. The maximum angulation and displacement during removal of either collar type was 1.6 degrees and 2.9 mm. There were statistically significant

  10. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  11. Trapping and displacement of liquid collars and plugs in rough-walled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2017-09-01

    A liquid film wetting the interior of a long circular cylinder redistributes under the action of surface tension to form annular collars or occlusive plugs. These equilibrium structures are invariant under axial translation within a perfectly smooth uniform tube and therefore can be displaced axially by very weak external forcing. We consider how this degeneracy is disrupted when the tube wall is rough, and determine threshold conditions under which collars or plugs resist displacement under forcing. Wall roughness is modeled as a nonaxisymmetric Gaussian random field of prescribed correlation length and small variance, mimicking some of the geometric irregularities inherent in applications such as lung airways. The thin film coating this surface is modeled using lubrication theory. When the roughness is weak, we show how the locations of equilibrium collars and plugs can be identified in terms of the azimuthally averaged tube radius; we derive conditions specifying equilibrium collar locations under an externally imposed shear flow, and plug locations under an imposed pressure gradient. We use these results to determine the probability of external forcing being sufficient to displace a collar or plug from a rough-walled tube, when the tube roughness is defined only in statistical terms.

  12. [Investigation of the compliance of cervical collar therapy in 73 patients with Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y; Qin, W; Sun, Q L; Fan, D S

    2016-11-22

    Objective: To summarize the therapeutic approaches of patients with Hirayama disease and investigate the patient's compliance to cervical collar therapy and its influencing factors. Methods: This was a retrospectively study.The clinical data of 73 patients was collected from Peking university 3(rd) hospital between 2010 and 2014. Results: (1)Of the 73 patients, 10 patients received surgery, 36 patients received collar therapy , and 27 patients received other conservative therapy at first visit.(2)The mean collar wearing time was from 0.3 to 36 months (means was 7±11 months). 28 patients (77.8%) wore less than 6 months, only 8 patients (22.2%) wore for more than 1 year. (3)The influencing factors were affecting appearance (33.3%), inconvenience to work (22.2%), surgical treatment performed after the exacerbation of symptoms(14.3%), illness stabilization (9.5%), choosing other conservative therapy (9.5%), personally feeling not seriously (8%) and discomfort while wearing (3.2%). (4)The patients with younger age of onset and treatment were more likely to choose neck care, while patients with older age of onset and treatment tended to choose more conservative treatment(Pcervical collar to minimize neck flexion can prevent progressive muscular weakness in the early stages of the disease. But from our study, the compliance to cervical collar therapy is unsatisfactory.Multiple factors influence the compliance.Education for patients must be enhanced, and other methods to promote the therapeutic compliance should also be developed.

  13. White-collar workers' self-reported physical symptoms associated with using computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our work was to study the physical symptoms of upper- and lower-level white-collar workers using a questionnaire. The study was cross-sectional with a questionnaire posted to 15 000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) included 970 upper- and 1150 lower-level white-collar workers. In the upper- and lower-level white-collar worker groups, 45.7 and 56.0%, respectively, had experienced pain, numbness and aches in the neck either pretty often or more frequently. When comparing daily computer users and nonusers, there were significant differences in pain, numbness and aches in the neck or in the shoulders. In addition, age and gender influenced some physical symptoms. In the future, it is essential to take into account that working with computers can be especially associated with physical symptoms in the neck and in the shoulders when workers use computers daily.

  14. Postmortem findings in collared peccaries raised in captivity in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael S. Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is a retrospective examination of diseases in collared peccaries that were diagnosed by the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido. Necropsy and histological examination were performed from 2005 to 2010. Of the 50 necropsied collared peccaries, 24% died due to restraint and capture myopathy; 18% died from trauma; and the remainder was diagnosed with splenic hemangioma (6%, enterolithiasis (6%, gastritis (6%, gastric ulcer (4%, intestinal volvulus (4%, gastric volvulus (2%, mammary carcinoma (2%, polycystic kidney disease (2%, pyometra (2%, and suppurative bronchopneumonia (2%. Twelve animals remained undiagnosed, seven of which (14% were in advanced autolytic condition and five of which (10% had no gross or microscopic lesions that were compatible with disease. This paper describes illnesses that have not been reported in the collared peccary, focusing on their clinical and pathological aspects.

  15. Habitat use by Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) in a Cerrado in southeastern Brazil: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegae, M F; Levy, G; Freitas, S R

    2012-11-01

    The Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) is a small insectivore endemic to the Cerrado. We examine the habitat use of this bird in a preserved Cerrado area in southeastern Brazil. Despite its occurrence in grassland with shrubs, the species used these areas less frequently than expected. The Collared Crescentchest mainly used areas of campo cerrado, but it was not recorded in a disturbed one. The common occurrence of exotic grass (U. decumbens) and cattle grazing may have brought about factors for its occurrence. However, the preference for native grasses may indicate an adverse indirect relationship against its occurence as there is competition between native and exotic grasses in the Cerrado. The presence of the Collared Crescentchest included the highest density of tall shrubs (>1 m) and native grasses. Conservation of the species should involve preserved areas of campo cerrado with a dominance of native grasses and tall shrubs.

  16. Habitat use by Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata in a Cerrado in southeastern Brazil: implications for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF. Kanegae

    Full Text Available The Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata is a small insectivore endemic to the Cerrado. We examine the habitat use of this bird in a preserved Cerrado area in southeastern Brazil. Despite its occurrence in grassland with shrubs, the species used these areas less frequently than expected. The Collared Crescentchest mainly used areas of campo cerrado, but it was not recorded in a disturbed one. The common occurrence of exotic grass (U. decumbens and cattle grazing may have brought about factors for its occurrence. However, the preference for native grasses may indicate an adverse indirect relationship against its occurence as there is competition between native and exotic grasses in the Cerrado. The presence of the Collared Crescentchest included the highest density of tall shrubs (>1 m and native grasses. Conservation of the species should involve preserved areas of campo cerrado with a dominance of native grasses and tall shrubs.

  17. Ontogeny of the collar cord: neurulation in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sabrina; Stach, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The chordate body plan is characterized by a central notochord, a pharynx perforated by gill pores, and a dorsal central nervous system. Despite progress in recent years, the evolutionary origin of each of theses characters remains controversial. In the case of the nervous system, two contradictory hypotheses exist. In the first, the chordate nervous system is derived directly from a diffuse nerve net; whereas, the second proposes that a centralized nervous system is found in hemichordates and, therefore, predates chordate evolution. Here, we document the ontogeny of the collar cord of the enteropneust Saccoglossus kowalevskii using transmission electron microscopy and 3D-reconstruction based on completely serially sectioned stages. We demonstrate that the collar cord develops from a middorsal neural plate that is closed in a posterior to anterior direction. Transversely oriented ependymal cells possessing myofilaments mediate this morphogenetic process and surround the remnants of the neural canal in juveniles. A mid-dorsal glandular complex is present in the collar. The collar cord in juveniles is clearly separated into a dorsal saddle-like region of somata and a ventral neuropil. We characterize two cell types in the somata region, giant neurons and ependymal cells. Giant neurons connect via a peculiar cell junction that seems to function in intercellular communication. Synaptic junctions containing different vesicle types are present in the neuropil. These findings support the hypotheses that the collar cord constitutes a centralized element of the nervous system and that the morphogenetic process in the ontogeny of the collar cord is homologous to neurulation in chordates. Moreover, we suggest that these similarities are indicative of a close phylogenetic relationship between enteropneusts and chordates.

  18. Assessing transferable residues from intermittent exposure to flea control collars containing the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Boone, J Scott; Davis, M Keith; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W

    2007-11-01

    Children can be exposed to pesticides from numerous residential sources such as carpet, house dust, toys and clothing from treated homes, and flea control remedies on pets. In the present studies, 48 pet dogs (24 in each of two studies) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing chlorpyrifos (CP), an organophosphorus insecticide. Transferable insecticide residues were quantified on cotton gloves used to rub the dogs for 5 min and on cotton tee shirts worn by a child (Study 2 only). First morning urine samples were also obtained from adults and children in both studies for metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) quantification. Blood samples were obtained from treated dogs in Study 1 and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored. Transferable residues on gloves for all compounds were highest near the neck of the dogs and were lowest in areas most distant from the neck. Rubbing samples (over the collar) at two weeks post-collar application contained 447+/-57 microg CP/glove while samples from the fur of the back contained 8+/-2 microg CP/glove. In Study 2, cotton tee shirts worn by children at 15 days post-collar application for 4 h showed CP levels of 134+/-66 ng/g shirt. There were significant differences between adults and children in the levels of urinary metabolites with children generally having higher urinary levels of metabolites than adults (grand mean+/-SE; 11.6+/-1.1 and 7.9+/-0.74 ng/mg creatinine for children and adults, respectively, compared to 9.4+/-0.8 and 6.9+/-0.5 ng/mg creatinine before collar placement). Therefore, there was little evidence that the use of this flea collar contributed to enhanced CP exposure of either children or adults.

  19. Inflammatory reaction to fabric collars from percutaneous antennas attached to intracoelomic radio transmitters implanted in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.M.; Burek, K.A.; Esler, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In wild birds implanted intracoelomically with radio transmitters, a synthetic fabric collar placed around the base of a percutaneous antenna is believed to function as a barrier to contamination of the coelom. We examined 13 fabric collars recovered from percutaneous antennas of radio transmitters implanted intracoelomically in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) 12 months earlier. Both the transmitters and antenna collars were encapsulated in fibrous connective tissue, with adhesions to internal organs. Histologically, bacteria were evident at the fabric-plastic interface in 8 of 10 collars examined in cross section and along the length of the collar in 3 collars examined longitudinally. Bacteria were confined within the fibrotic sheath surrounding the transmitter and the antenna collar in all birds. No evidence of chronic systemic effects secondary to implantation was present on hematologic or serum biochemical testing. These findings indicate that antenna collars do not prevent the entry of bacteria along the percutaneous antenna but may help stabilize the antenna and minimize coelomic contamination. We conclude that radio transmitters implanted into the coelom of harlequin ducks do not appear to cause significant health problems for at least 1 year after implantation.

  20. Use of an Electron Beam Melting Manufactured Titanium Collared Cementless Femoral Stem to Resist Subsidence After Canine Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, William D; Doyle, Nancy D

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a collared electron beam melting (EBM)-manufactured titanium cementless femoral stem on implant subsidence after total hip replacement (THR). Prospective study Dogs (n = 26); 33 THR. Records were maintained on the first 110 consecutive THR using an EBM collared femoral stem. Radiographs on the first 33 THR that had 6-months follow-up were evaluated for implant subsidence. These results were compared to 27 dogs with subsidence after THR with a Co Cr collarless stem. Dogs that had EBM collared stem THR had a mean body weight of 35.4 kg, body condition score (BCS) of 6.21, and mean canal flare index (CFI) of 1.56. EBM stem sizes used (number implanted) were #7 (13), #8 (10), #9 (8), and #10 (2). Subsidence of collared stems did not occur if the collar was in contact with cortical bone during surgery. Subsidence of 1-3 mm occurred closing a gap between the collar and bone if contact was not made during surgery, but subsidence stopped once contact was made. No major complications directly related to the EBM collared stem were encountered. A collar on a cementless femoral stem in contact with cortical bone resists subsidence. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. A Correlation Study between Geometry of Collared Coils and Normal Quadrupole Multipole in the Main LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Berthollon-Vitte, S; Glaude, D; Vanenkov, I

    2006-01-01

    The quality control implemented at all LHC dipole assemblers includes precise mechanical measurements of the geometry of collared coils. A cross-analysis performed between mechanical and magnetic measurements data shows a correlation between collared coils outer dimensions and the normal quadrupole multipole (b2) for one dipole assembler. The profile geometry of the single collars - as determined from 3D measurements at the collar suppliers and CERN - could not account alone for the significant left – right aperture asymmetry observed. This triggered a deeper investigation on different elements of the geometry of single collars. The results of this work show that the relative positioning of the collaring holes, allowing a small bending deformation of collars under the effect of coil pre-stress, is an important effect that generates a b2 multipole at the limit of specification. The study has deepened the understanding of the factors affecting collared coil geometry and field quality. The precision of 3D m...

  2. Necrotic enteritis in collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marco Antônio Galvão; Santos, Polyana Silva; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira da Cunha; Lessa, Fabiana; Almeida, Valter dos Anjos; Leça-Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens type C was diagnosed in captive collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries housed in the Laboratory of Applied Ethology of Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz located in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil. Four collared peccaries and three white-lipped peccaries, all juveniles (25-105 days old), were affected. For all affected animals, lethargy and inappetance were followed by sudden death within 24 hours. Histopathology of intestinal wall, culture of C. perfringens type C, and the identification of beta-toxin from intestinal content confirmed the diagnosis.

  3. Centrifugal Casting of High Speed Steel/Nodular Cast Iron Compound Roll Collar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The centrifugal casting of compound HSS/nodular cast iron roll collar was studied, and the factors affecting transition zone quality were analyzed. The pouring temperature and interval in pouring are the main factors affecting transition zone quality. By controlling process parameter and flux adding during casting, high quality roll collar was obtained. The cause, why in the casting of HSS part, segregation appears easily, was analyzed and the countermeasure eliminating segregation was put forward, the measure eliminating heat treatment crackling was also put forward.

  4. The effect of plasma electrode collar structure on the performance of the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivanen, V., E-mail: ville.toivanen@jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.

    2013-10-21

    The influence of a so-called collar structure on the performance of the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been studied experimentally at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The collar is a cylindrical structure extruding inwards from the plasma electrode. The collar length was varied between 5 and 60 mm. For some ion species a moderate performance improvement was achieved in terms of extracted beam current and transverse emittance up to 30 mm collar length. Longer collars resulted in a substantial performance decrease. Different collar materials, i.e. nonmagnetic stainless steel, aluminum and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a wide range of ion species for elements ranging from {sup 14}N to {sup 82}Kr were studied. No clear material or ion species dependent behavior was observed. The experiments suggest that the extracted ions originate from a plasma volume which is at a considerable axial distance from the extraction aperture. Furthermore it is concluded that a substantial space exists surrounding the collar that could be utilized for applying novel techniques to boost the performance of ECR ion sources. -- Highlights: • Effects of a so-called collar structure studied with AECR-U type ion source. • Moderate improvement to source performance when collar is not too long. • No clear collar material or ion species dependent behavior is observed. • Results suggest that the extracted ions originate from plasma volume far from extraction. • Results suggest that the space around extraction aperture could be utilized productively.

  5. The effect on patency of type, shape and volume of a vein collar used at the distal anastomis of PTFE-bypass to arteries below-knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect on patency rate of different types of vein collar (Miller's original or St Mary's boot), different length/height shapes of vein collar, and different vein collar volumes at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-bypass grafts to below-knee arteries in patients...

  6. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  7. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  8. Analysis of the collar-whisker structure of temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Neve, Horst; Brøndsted, Lone;

    2006-01-01

    Proteins homologous to the protein NPS (neck passage structure) are widespread among lactococcal phages. We investigated the hypothesis that NPS is involved in the infection of phage TP901-1 by analysis of an NPS mutant. NPS was determined to form a collar-whisker complex but was shown to be none...

  9. White Collar Work: Career Ambitions of Fiji Final Year School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilan, Pam; Cavu, Paula; Tagicakiverata, Isimeli; Hazelman, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The career ambitions of 1012 pupils in the final years of secondary schooling in Fiji were surveyed. The range of careers they nominated was very narrow, with teaching, nursing and other white collar work in the majority of responses. This stands in somewhat stark contrast to projected labour force needs, and the current serious shortage of…

  10. The Association between Training and Organizational Commitment among White-Collar Workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman; Bakar, Raida Abu

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 204 of 300 Malaysian white-collar workers were analyzed for the association between training variables (availability of support, benefits, motivation, environment) and four types of organizational commitment. All training variables were significantly correlated with affective, normative, and overall commitment. Availability of…

  11. The Association between Training and Organizational Commitment among White-Collar Workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman; Bakar, Raida Abu

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 204 of 300 Malaysian white-collar workers were analyzed for the association between training variables (availability of support, benefits, motivation, environment) and four types of organizational commitment. All training variables were significantly correlated with affective, normative, and overall commitment. Availability of…

  12. An Examination of Blue- versus White-Collar Workers' Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction Facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kaplan, Seth; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which blue- versus white-collar workers differentially conceptualize various job facets, namely the work itself, co-workers, supervisors, and pay. To examine these potential differences, we conducted a series of analyses on job satisfaction ratings from two samples of university workers. Consistent with the study…

  13. Job demands and health complaints in white and blue collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, K. J.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: General health in the working population is thought to depend on working conditions. Objective: This survey studied job demands and health complaints in working white and blue collar employees. We expect physical and psychological job demands to be differentially distributed among white

  14. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  15. White-Collar Crime and the Law: An Annotated Bibliography. Teaching Resource Bulletin No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Robert

    This annotated bibliography of materials concerning white collar crime is directed at undergraduate students and instructors. Materials are organized into eight subject headings: (1) theoretical statements; (2) data sources; (3) financial institutions fraud; (4) environmental crimes; (5) workplace safety; (6) computer crimes; (7) miscellaneous…

  16. A new member of the greater double-collared sunbird complex (Passeriformes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowie, Rauri C K; Fjeldså, Jon; Kiure, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    We document the discovery of the first population of greater double-collared sunbird (Cinnyris afer complex) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. We assessed phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic rank based on mtDNA sequence data, nine microsatellite loci and morphology. This new taxon,...

  17. Mind over matter: exploring job stress among female blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Tucker, Pattie J; Liburd, Leandris

    2006-12-01

    Although overall health has been defined holistically as the integration of a person's optimal mental, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being, a mental health focus remains on the fringe of many public health efforts. This report describes recent efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore job stress among female blue-collar workers. Using a more holistic approach to understand its impact on blue-collar women's overall health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was used to assess optimal human performance. Attempting to encapsulate how overall health affects one's ability to participate and fulfill daily personal/professional tasks, HRQOL yields a broader understanding of the interaction between psychological well-being (mind) and physical functioning (matter). Embedding CDC HRQOL-4 measures into a questionnaire used as part of a larger mixed methods project, blue-collar women responded to questions about their health, including both mental and physical. For these female workers, mental health appeared to be of greater consequence, which could be interpreted as mind being more significant than matter. This paper highlights the findings related to HRQOL issues experienced by these female blue-collar workers and summarizes recommendations for effective individual and organizational approaches to address job stress.

  18. Pseudocyst and a Collar Stud Abscess: New Face of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Meconium pseudocyst formation secondary to antenatal perforation is well described. We present a preterm infant who had intra-abdominal pseudocyst formation following postnatal intestinal perforation secondary to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC and secondarily leading to extra-abdominal collar stud abscess. This is new face of NEC and this presentation has not been reported earlier.

  19. Pseudocyst and a Collar Stud Abscess: New Face of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Patel, Ramnik; Patwardhan, Nitin; More, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Meconium pseudocyst formation secondary to antenatal perforation is well described. We present a preterm infant who had intra-abdominal pseudocyst formation following postnatal intestinal perforation secondary to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and secondarily leading to extra-abdominal collar stud abscess. This is new face of NEC and this presentation has not been reported earlier. PMID:26023517

  20. Value of a rigid collar in addition to head blocks: a proof of principle study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All trauma patients with a cervical spinal column injury or with a mechanism of injury with the potential to cause cervical spinal injury should be immobilised until a spinal injury is excluded. Immobilisation of the entire patient with a rigid cervical collar, backboard, head blocks wit

  1. Job demands and health complaints in white and blue collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, K. J.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: General health in the working population is thought to depend on working conditions. Objective: This survey studied job demands and health complaints in working white and blue collar employees. We expect physical and psychological job demands to be differentially distributed among white

  2. Collar Osteophytes Mimicking Osteonecrosis in Planar Bone Scintigraphy and Usefulness of SPECT/CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jr-Jian; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Wan-Yu

    2017-03-01

    The use of prednisolone is one major risk factor for osteonecrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Bone scintigraphy can be a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis. We present a case who had collar osteophytes at the bilateral femoral heads, which mimicked osteonecrosis in the planar bone scintigram. An SPECT/CT scan avoided this pitfall and increased the diagnostic accuracy for osteonecrosis.

  3. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  4. Are temporal patterns of sitting associated with obesity among blue-collar workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Hallman, David M; Mathiassen, Svend Erik;

    2016-01-01

    (BMI), waist circumference and fat percentage), independently from moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total sitting time among blue-collar workers. METHODS: Workers (n = 205) wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the thigh and trunk for 1-4 working days. Using the validated Acti4 software...

  5. Burnout and work engagement of South African blue-collar workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale that measures burnout and work engagement of blue-collar workers; (2) to test the .... Evaluating the psychological work-related well-being of employees in this industry could ensure better safety behaviour (Paul & Maiti 2007). ... of reduced effectiveness, decreased motivation, and the development of dysfunctional.

  6. Transitional cell carcinoma metastatic to the eye in a collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Christina; Stanley, Robin; Lynch, Michael

    2002-09-01

    A 15-year-old female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) was presented for ophthalmic examination following sudden onset of blindness. Bilateral retinal detachment was diagnosed, neoplasia suspected, and euthanasia performed. Widespread tumor dissemination was apparent at autopsy, and transitional cell carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. The tumor was identified as arising from the ovary. Epidemiologic features of this case are discussed.

  7. Cervical collar or physiotherapy versus wait and see policy for recent onset cervical radiculopathy: randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuijper (Barbara); J.T. Tans; A. Beelen (Anita); F. Nollet (Frans); M. de Visser (Marianne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with collar or physiotherapy compared with a wait and see policy in recent onset cervical radiculopathy. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Neurology outpatient clinics in three Dutch hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 205 patients w

  8. Measuring neck collar loss of Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Frederiksen, Morten; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The ability to estimate mark loss of ringed animals is important to assess demographic parameters from mark-recapture studies correctly. Based on 23 years of neck collar recovery data from the Svalbard breeding population of Pink-footed Geese, we estimate an overall average annual loss rate of 3...

  9. Value of a rigid collar in addition to head blocks: a proof of principle study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All trauma patients with a cervical spinal column injury or with a mechanism of injury with the potential to cause cervical spinal injury should be immobilised until a spinal injury is excluded. Immobilisation of the entire patient with a rigid cervical collar, backboard, head blocks wit

  10. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  11. Assessing intermittent pesticide exposure from flea control collars containing the organophosphorus insecticide tetrachlorvinphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M Keith; Boone, J Scott; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W; Chambers, Janice E

    2008-11-01

    Fleas are a persistent problem for pets that require implementation of control measures. Consequently, pesticide use by homeowners for flea control is common and may increase pesticide exposure for adults and children. Fifty-five pet dogs (23 in study 1; 22 in study 2) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP). During study 1, fur of treated dogs was monitored for transferable TCVP residues using cotton gloves to pet the dogs during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was also measured in treated dogs. Average amounts of TCVP transferred from the fur of the neck (rubbing over the collar) and from the back to gloves at 3 days post-collar application were 23,700+/-2100 and 260+/-50 microg/glove, respectively. No inhibition of plasma ChE was observed. During study 2, transferable TCVP residues to cotton gloves were monitored during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Transferable residues were also monitored on cotton tee shirts worn by children and in the first morning urine samples obtained from adults and children. Average amounts of TCVP transferred to gloves at 5 days post-collar application from the neck (over the collar) and from the back were 22,400+/-2900 and 80+/-20 microg/glove, respectively. Tee shirts worn by children on days 7-11 contained 1.8+/-0.8 microg TCVP/g shirt. No significant differences were observed between adults and children in urinary 2,4,5-trichloromandelic acid (TCMA) levels; however, all TCMA residues (adults and children) were significantly greater than pretreatment concentrations (alpha=0.05). The lack of ChE inhibition in dogs and the low acute toxicity level of TCVP (rat oral LD(50) of 4-5 g/kg) strongly suggest that TCVP is rapidly detoxified and excreted and therefore poses a very low toxicological risk, despite these high residues.

  12. Ergonomic assessment of enhanced protection under body armour combat shirt neck collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Granger, C J; Pearkes, T D; Clasper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Combat neck injury due to explosively propelled fragments is a significant cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in UK soldiers deployed on current operations. Reinforcing the collar of the existing under body armour combat shirt (UBACS) has been suggested as a potential method for reducing the incidence of combat neck injury. 20 soldiers serving in Afghanistan objectively compared three designs of enhanced protection UBACS (EP-UBACS) using 10 representative military tasks against a baseline of a standard UBACS. Each EP-UBACS design was trialled using three constituent materials: two layers of para-aramid felt, one layer of ultra high molecule weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) felt or two layers of a silk fabric. Subjective assessment of these nine configurations in terms of comfort, heat dissipation and overall acceptability were compared with the standard UBACS using a χ² test. All military tasks could be performed with all nine configurations of EP-UBACS. Although silk was the most comfortable material, it was not functionally practical in any of the three designs. Crossover collars incorporating UHMWPE or para-aramid were the only two of the nine configurations to demonstrate similar user acceptability to a standard UBACS. The EP-UBACS has the potential to provide neck protection without reducing performance incorporating materials analogous to either of the felts assessed in this study. The collar should provide stand-off from the skin to improve heat dissipation and comfort, which can be maximised by changing the current UBACS collar shape to one that crosses over at the front. Should a zip be desired, it should be moved to one side of the midline to reduce rubbing on the chin and be covered with ballistic protective material. Additional semi-circles of silk beneath the collar at the front and back would improve protection without affecting comfort.

  13. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) movements and behavior around a kill site and implications for GPS collar studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars are increasingly used to estimate Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates. In interpreting results from this technology, researchers make various assumptions about wolf behavior around kills, yet no detailed description of this behavior has been published. This article describes the behavior of six wolves in an area of constant daylight during 30 hours, from when the pack killed a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calf and yearling on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, to when they abandoned the kill remains. Although this is only a single incident, it demonstrates one possible scenario of pack behavior around a kill. Combined with the literature, this observation supports placing a radio-collar on the breeding male to maximize finding kills via GPS collars and qualifying results depending on whatever other information is available about the collared wolf's pack.

  14. Offshoring White-Collar Work: An Explorative Investigation of the Processes and Mechanisms in Two Danish Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Larsen, Marcus Møller; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum;

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation of standardised manufacturing operations based predominantly on blue-collar work began some decades ago. However, the recent developments in offshoring also include the spread of the phenomenon to new occupational areas based on knowledge-intensive white-collar work. The purpose...... of this paper is two folded: to explain why knowledge-intensive service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on integration mechanisms for the firms involved. The empirical part of the study is based on two qualitative case studies...... of Danish manufacturers, and on the basis of these, we first argue that the drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring. However, the existing offshoring and outsourcing frameworks do not necessarily adequately address...

  15. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs. We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  16. A dielectric logging tool with insulated collar for formation fluid detection around borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Kang; Kong, Fan-Min; Zhao, Jia

    2015-08-01

    A dielectric tool with insulated collar for analyzing fluid saturation outside a borehole was introduced. The UWB (ultra-wideband) antenna mounted on the tool was optimized to launch a transient pulse. The broadband evaluation method provided more advantages when compared with traditional dielectric tools. The EM (electromagnetic) power distribution outside the borehole was studied, and it was shown that energy was propagated in two modes. Furthermore, the mechanism of the modes was discussed. In order to increase this tools' investigation depth, a novel insulated collar was introduced. In addition, operation in difference formations was discussed and this tool proved to be able to efficiently launch lateral EM waves. Response voltages indicated that the proposed scheme was able to evaluate the fluid saturation of reservoir formations and dielectric dispersion properties. It may be used as an alternative tool for imaging logging applications.

  17. Indices for physiological assessment of nutritional condition in pregnant collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Grant, W E

    1988-07-01

    Hematological and serum biochemical responses to two levels of dietary energy (high energy [HE], 3300 kcal digestible energy [DE]/kg; moderate energy [ME], 2300 kcal DE/kg) and protein (high protein [HP], 16.0% crude protein; moderate protein [MP], 8.4% crude protein) during gestation in 15 collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were examined. Dietary energy and protein levels influenced body weight gain during gestation. Red blood cell counts and lymphocyte concentrations were higher and neutrophil concentrations were lower among females fed an HP diet compared to those fed an MP diet. Alkaline phosphatase and alpha-2 globulin concentrations were higher among females fed an MP diet. Aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol concentrations were higher and calcium and thyroxine concentrations were lower among females fed ME diets compared to those fed HE diets. These results suggest that physiological indices used in combination with morphological measurements can be useful in assessing collared peccary nutritional health during gestation.

  18. Endocrine and metabolic responses of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) to immobilization with ketamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Grant, W E

    1985-10-01

    Serial physiological responses were examined for 150 min from captive collared peccaries during immobilization with ketamine hydrochloride. Rectal temperatures decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) during anesthesia. Serum concentrations of total proteins, albumin, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and calcium declined significantly (P less than 0.05) during the first 45 min post-immobilization before stabilizing. Concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in sera showed similar but nonsignificant (P greater than 0.05) trends. Inorganic phosphorus and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations increased significantly (P less than 0.05) throughout the trial. Concentrations of serum glucose and glucocorticoid during the immobilization period were highly variable between individuals. Serum electrolytes, urea nitrogen, creatinine, gammaglutamyl transferase and progesterone were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by immobilization. Elevations in serum testosterone were noted. Results indicated appropriate sampling times relative to immobilization for assay of particular serum biochemicals and steroid hormones during investigations of the physiology of the collared peccary.

  19. FORTY PLUS CLUBS AND WHITE-COLLAR MANHOOD DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Wood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As scholars of gender and labor have argued, chronic unemployment during the Great Depression precipitated a “crisis” of masculinity, compelling men to turn towards new industrial unions and the New Deal as ways to affirm work, breadwinning, and patriarchy as bases for manhood. But did all men experience this crisis? During the late 1930s, white-collar men organized groups called “Forty Plus Clubs” in response to their worries about joblessness and manhood. The clubs made it possible for unemployed executives to find new jobs, while at the same time recreating the male-dominated culture of the white-collar office. For male executives, Forty Plus Clubs precluded the Depression-era crisis of manhood, challenging the idea that the absence ofpaid employment was synonymous with the loss of masculinity.

  20. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Prashant P.; Gupta, Tripti; Schwager, Evelyn E; Wheeler, Ward C.; Cassandra G Extavour

    2014-01-01

    Background The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Droso...

  1. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Prashant P.; Gupta, Tripti; Schwager, Evelyn E; Wheeler, Ward C.; Cassandra G Extavour

    2014-01-01

    Background: The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Dros...

  2. Case Report: Nonoperative Treatment of an Unstable Jefferson Fracture Using a Cervical Collar

    OpenAIRE

    Haus, Brian M.; Harris, Mitchel B.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of unstable burst fractures of the atlas (Jefferson fractures) is controversial. Unstable Jefferson fractures have been managed successfully with either immobilization, typically halo traction or halo vest, or surgery. We report a patient with an unstable Jefferson fracture treated nonoperatively with a cervical collar, frequent clinical examinations, and flexion-extension radiographs. Twelve months after treatment, the patient achieved painless union of his fracture. The succes...

  3. When Should a Cervical Collar be Used to Treat Neck Pain?

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the most prevalent and costly health problems in the United States. It remains a complex, subjective experience with a variety of musculoskeletal causes. Although, cervical collars are a seemingly benign intervention, they can have adverse effects, especially when used for longer periods of time. It is feared that a long period of immobilization, can result in atrophy-related secondary damage. Many physicians cite anecdotal evidence of their clinical utility and soft cervi...

  4. Urea concentration in collared peccary milk as an indicator of protein nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E; Varner, L W

    1987-07-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (UN) concentration was examined as a possible index to protein-energy intake in female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). Captive adults were bred and assigned to one of four experimental diets through gestation and lactation. Females fed a high protein diet produced milk with UN concentrations exceeding those of low-protein-fed females. A low energy intake tended to elevate UN concentrations in milk.

  5. Occupational Stress And Job Satisfaction In White- And Blue-Collar Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Nydegger

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between job satisfaction and stress has been examined in numerous settings. In the present study, a two-part occupational stress survey was given to140 subjects in white- and blue-collar occupations. Twelve possible stressor variables divided into three levels of stress: independent; group; and organizational were analyzed. A factorial ANOVA analysis was conducted, and revealed that there was a significant main effect result for types of stress experienced by the workers in t...

  6. 服装三维衣领结构模型%The 3D Collar Model System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽君; 吴巧英; 张文斌

    2011-01-01

    从人体工效学角度出发,通过对人体颈部的试验测量和衣领模型的理论研究,提出一种根据个体颈部特征尺寸自动生成三维衣领模型的方法,运用VC++和OpenGL开发服装三维衣领结构模型系统,实现三维衣领模型到二维样版的计算机自动生成.该系统可设计出更符合个体颈部形态的衣领,探索出一条实现电子化量身定制服装的可行之路.%Started from ergonomics, through a study on the neck measurement experiment and the theory of collar model, a new approach was developed which could make 3D collar model based on the measurements of one's individual neck, then the 3D collar model system was built by VC+ + and OpenGL, which realized the transformation from 3D collar model to 2D collar pattern by computer. It makes collar fitter and better to meet the individual neck characteristic, explores a road to the final realization of eMTM (electronic Made to Measure) clothing.

  7. The effect of a cervical collar on the seal pressure of the LMA Supreme™: a prospective, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, V; Spitzner, T; Schwandner, T; Mann, S T W; Müller, M; Ahlbrandt, J; Weigand, M A; Röhrig, R

    2012-11-01

    For personnel inexperienced in airway management, supraglottic airway devices may be the first choice in an emergency. Changing head position is known to reduce the seal pressure of a laryngeal mask airway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of a cervical collar improves the stability of airways secured with the LMA Supreme™ (The Laryngeal Mask Company Limited, Mahé, Seychelles). In this crossover trial, the primary endpoint was the difference in the seal pressure of the LMA Supreme in anaesthetised patients in maximum passive extension of the neck, with and without a cervical collar. The median (IQR [range]) seal pressure was 18 (13.8-22.1 [0-30]) cmH(2) O in maximum passive extension without a cervical collar. With a cervical collar in place, the seal pressure increased to 28 (22.8-30 [17-30]) cmH(2) O (pcervical collar in place (pcervical collar stabilises the airway with an LMA Supreme in place and we recommend this combination for (pre-hospital) emergency cases.

  8. Factors related to participatory employee advisory boards in small, blue-collar worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Beti; Hannon, Peggy A; Bishop, Sonia K; West, Briana E; Peterson, Amber K; Beresford, Shirley A A

    2005-01-01

    To identify factors related to formation, participation, and characteristics of employee advisory boards (EABs) in blue-collar worksites. This study used a nonexperimental qualitative design to assess EAB formation, activity, and enthusiasm levels and examined those factors relative to employee participation in worksite-wide health promotion activities. Twenty-two blue-collar worksites with a total of 113 EAB members in the greater Seattle area. Individuals who agreed to serve on EABs in the intervention worksites. Participants received training in involving employees in the 5-A-Day project intervention activities. Measures include type of worksite, number of EAB members, method of EAB recruitment, and variables describing EAB functioning, including attendance at meetings, assistance at project activities, and level of enthusiasm. All worksites formed EABs. There was no association between the way the EAB was formed and subsequent EAB attendance at meetings, participation in project activities, representativeness of the EAB, or level of EAB enthusiasm. Enthusiasm of the EAB was associated with employee participation, and EABs with a higher level of enthusiasm showed more participation by employees than worksites with less enthusiastic EABs. It is possible to develop participatory structures in small, blue-collar worksites. More information is needed about factors related to levels of enthusiasm of EABs.

  9. Collar Option Model for Managing the Cost Overrun Caused by Change Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyo Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective change order management is very important in maintaining the financial sustainability of various stakeholders related to construction projects by minimizing cost overruns. In this study, we propose a zero-cost risk management approach based on the collar option model in order to control for the loss caused by change orders, the main cause of cost overruns in construction projects. We apply this model to actual projects for empirical analysis. The analysis, based on 237 projects, indicates that insurance buyers benefit from the collar option model in 46% of the cases, while insurance sellers do so in 53% of the cases. In most cases, the insurance buyer is the owner. According to the model, the owner experiences a loss when the cost overrun caused by change orders is lower than what was expected. In such cases, it is appropriate to conclude that the loss is not caused by the collar option model, but by the absence of additional revenue. However, the insurance seller suffers a loss if the cost overrun is higher than the strike price of the call option. Thus, the insurance seller needs to have expertise in construction management.

  10. Estrous synchronization in captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) using a prostaglandin F2α analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Keilla Moreira; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Campos, Lívia Batista; Silva, Andréia Maria da; Castelo, Thibério de Souza; Ricarte, Aracely Rafaelle Fernandes; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    We verify the efficiency of a protocol for estrus synchronization in captive female collared peccaries (Pecaricari tajacu) using the prostaglandin analog D-cloprostenol. Five adult female collared peccaries received an intramuscular administration of 60 µg D-cloprostenol, which procedure was repeated after a 9-day interval. For 10 days after second the D-cloprostenol administration, females were monitored for changes in external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography, vaginal cytology and reproductive hormonal dosage. As a result, four females synchronized their estrous at 9.5 ± 0.5 days after the second administration of the prostaglandin analog. Such females showed external signs of estrus, including vulvar opening, hyperemic vaginal mucosa, and vaginal mucus, concomitant with an increase in the proportion of superficial cells (52.2 ± 9.9%) verified through vaginal cytology. An estrogen peak of 22.7 ± 3.4 pg/ml was detected by hormonal dosage, and the presence of anechoic follicles measuring 0.29 ± 0.05 × 0.32 ± 0.07 mm were detected in the ovary by ultrasonography. Given these findings, we suggest that D-cloprostenol may be effective for use in estrus synchronization in collared peccaries.

  11. Testing the level of social desirability during job interview on white-collar profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek ePreiss

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N=636. It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency towards social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984. Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected.

  12. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected.

  13. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p<0.01. Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss.

  14. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss. PMID:27493957

  15. Reproductive performance of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in the eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Da Silva, Jurupytan Viana; Jori, Ferran; López-Béjar, Manel

    2007-11-01

    This study analyses reproductive parameters resulting from 74 parturitions in a population of captive collared peccaries in the eastern Amazon (Belém, State of Pará, Brazil) during a 65-month survey. Parturitions were homogeneously distributed throughout the year. The average litter size was 1.85 newborns per parturition. Collared peccary females had a newborn sex ratio of 52.6% females and 47.4% males. The mean age at first parturition was 639, although, the earliest first parturition occurred at age of 381 days. Estimated parturition-conception interval was 58 days. Mean farrowing interval was 196 days and mean production was 1.03 litters and 1.86 newborns per year per female. Mortality rate in newborns less than 2 months old was 26.9% of the total newborn population. Most identified causes of death were abandonment by the mother (22.2%) and trauma due to aggression (13.9%). Newborn deaths occurred mainly during the first two days of life. This study suggests that the collared peccary possesses interesting reproductive parameters for its introduction in captive breeding programmes in the Amazon region.

  16. Integrating ultrasonography within the reproductive management of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; López-Gatius, Fernando; López-Béjar, Manel

    2005-04-15

    Ultrasound imaging has been used to elucidate certain aspects of the reproductive biology of wild or endangered species. However, to our knowledge, this tool has not been used for reproductive monitoring of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu). In this study, real-time ultrasonography was used in 16 collared peccary females to diagnose early pregnancy status and predict gestational age. Based on the detection of an embryo, the earliest pregnancy diagnosis was made on Day 18 after mating, with the mean time needed for diagnosis being 22 days. Overall accuracies on Days 22, 26 and 28 were 56, 93, and 100%, respectively. On Days 26 and 28, all pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnoses, respectively, were correct. The fetal measurements that best correlated with gestational age were crown-rump-length (CRL) and the length and diameter of the thorax. CRL was considered the most practical measurement because, contrary to thoracic fetometry, it could be determined when the embryo was first detected. Our findings revealed real-time ultrasound scanning to be a very accurate method for early pregnancy diagnosis and prediction of gestational age in the collared peccary.

  17. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M; Sato, Tatiana; Kristiansen, Jesper; Gupta, Nidhi; Skotte, Jørgen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-11-19

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4) years). Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart) was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p 0.05). In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  18. Simulations of a PSD Plastic Neutron Collar for Assaying Fresh Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausladen, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The potential performance of a notional active coincidence collar for assaying uranium fuel based on segmented detectors constructed from the new PSD plastic fast organic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination capability was investigated in simulation. Like the International Atomic Energy Agency s present Uranium Neutron Collar for LEU (UNCL), the PSD plastic collar would also function by stimulating fission in the 235U content of the fuel with a moderated 241Am/Li neutron source and detecting instances of induced fission via neutron coincidence counting. In contrast to the moderated detectors of the UNCL, the fast time scale of detection in the scintillator eliminates statistical errors due to accidental coincidences that limit the performance of the UNCL. However, the potential to detect a single neutron multiple times historically has been one of the properties of organic scintillator detectors that has prevented their adoption for international safeguards applications. Consequently, as part of the analysis of simulated data, a method was developed by which true neutron-neutron coincidences can be distinguished from inter-detector scatter that takes advantage of the position and timing resolution of segmented detectors. Then, the performance of the notional simulated coincidence collar was evaluated for assaying a variety of fresh fuels, including some containing burnable poisons and partial defects. In these simulations, particular attention was paid to the analysis of fast mode measurements. In fast mode, a Cd liner is placed inside the collar to shield the fuel from the interrogating source and detector moderators, thereby eliminating the thermal neutron flux that is most sensitive to the presence of burnable poisons that are ubiquitous in modern nuclear fuels. The simulations indicate that the predicted precision of fast mode measurements is similar to what can be achieved by the present UNCL in thermal mode. For example, the statistical accuracy of a

  19. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10 were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal, 6 h (repellent and 48 h (sustained after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo, and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro, above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The

  20. Hartvig Frisch og "Pest over Europa"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Vil populistiske bevægelser i dagens Europa udhule demokratiet og skabe stater med en formel retsorden, som bliver vendt mod syndebukke og udnyttes til diskrimination af etniske, sociale og religiøse mindretal – som i 1930erne?......Vil populistiske bevægelser i dagens Europa udhule demokratiet og skabe stater med en formel retsorden, som bliver vendt mod syndebukke og udnyttes til diskrimination af etniske, sociale og religiøse mindretal – som i 1930erne?...

  1. Hartvig Frisch og "Pest over Europa"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Vil populistiske bevægelser i dagens Europa udhule demokratiet og skabe stater med en formel retsorden, som bliver vendt mod syndebukke og udnyttes til diskrimination af etniske, sociale og religiøse mindretal – som i 1930erne?...

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of different shapes of collars on the reduction of scour around a single bridge pier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jahangirzadeh

    Full Text Available The scour phenomenon around bridge piers causes great quantities of damages annually all over the world. Collars are considered as one of the substantial methods for reducing the depth and volume of scour around bridge piers. In this study, the experimental and numerical methods are used to investigate two different shapes of collars, i.e, rectangular and circular, in terms of reducing scour around a single bridge pier. The experiments were conducted in hydraulic laboratory at university of Malaya. The scour around the bridge pier and collars was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional, CFD model namely SSIIM 2.0, to verify the application of the model. The results indicated that although, both types of collars provides a considerable decrease in the depth of the scour, the rectangular collar, decreases scour depth around the pier by 79 percent, and has better performance compared to the circular collar. Furthermore, it was observed that using collars under the stream's bed, resulted in the most reduction in the scour depth around the pier. The results also show the SSIIM 2.0 model could simulate the scour phenomenon around a single bridge pier and collars with sufficient accuracy. Using the experimental and numerical results, two new equations were developed to predict the scour depth around a bridge pier exposed to circular and rectangular collars.

  3. Growth curve of female collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu raised in captivity in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.V. Garnero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to determine the most suitable nonlinear model to describe the growth of female collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu. The monthly records of the weight of 10 captive female collared peccaries over a period of two years in the Brazilian Amazon Region were used. The growth models used were the Von Bertalanffy, Brody, Gompertz and Logistic. The parameters were estimated by using the NLIN procedure from the SAS application. The criteria used to verify the adjustment of the models were: asymptotic standard deviation (ASD; coefficient of determination (R²; average absolute residual deviation (ARD and the asymptotic rate (AR. The Brody model and the Logistic model estimated the highest (19.44kg and the lowest (19.18kg asymptotic weight (A, indicating the lowest (0.0070kg/day and the highest (0.0121kg/day maturation rate (K. These results and the coefficients of phenotypic correlation that varied from -0.75 and -0.47 confirmed the antagonistic nature between these parameters. The Brody model estimated the lower value for ARD, a limiting factor for describing the lowest value for AR through this model. The Brody model showed the best adjustment for AR, although the other models also showed a suitable adjustment to the weight data of said species/gender. Based on the AR obtained in this work, the Brody model is recommended for adjusting the growth curve of the female collared peccaries. Depending on the estimated values, especially for K, this trait can be included in a selection index.

  4. Estrus cycle monitoring of captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu in semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilla M. Maia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Collared peccaries (Peccary tajacu are among the most hunted species in Latin America due the appreciation of their pelt and meat. In order to optimize breeding management of captive born collared peccaries in semiarid conditions, the objective was to describe and correlate the changes in the ovarian ultrasonographic pattern, hormonal profile, vulvar appearance, and vaginal cytology during the estrus cycle in this species. During 45 days, females (n=4 were subjected each three days to blood collection destined to hormonal dosage by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. In the same occasions, evaluation of external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography and vaginal cytology were conducted. Results are presented as means and standard deviations. According to hormonal dosage, six estrous cycles were identified as lasting 21.0 ± 5.7 days, being on average 6 days for the estrogenic phase and 15 days for the progesterone phase. Estrogen presented mean peak values of 55.6 ± 20.5 pg/mL. During the luteal phase, the high values for progesterone were 35.3 ± 4.4 ng/mL. The presence of vaginal mucus, a reddish vaginal mucosa and the separation of the vulvar lips were verified in all animals during the estrogenic peak. Through ultrasonography, ovarian follicles measuring 0.2±0.1 cm were visualized during the estrogen peak. Corpora lutea presented hyperechoic regions measuring 0.4±0.2 cm identified during luteal phase. No significant differences (P>0.05 between proportions of vaginal epithelial cells were identified when comparing estrogenic and progesterone phases. In conclusion, female collared peccaries, captive born in semiarid conditions, have an estral cycle that lasts 21.0±5.7 days, with estrous signs characterized by vulvar lips edema and hyperemic vaginal mucosa, coinciding with developed follicles and high estrogen levels.

  5. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  6. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hallman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4 years. Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+ worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05 with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05. In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  7. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, T.C.; Dantzer, Vibeke; Jones, C.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial...... a placental barrier 3 µm or less thick. The columnar uterine glandular epithelium has a subpopulation of granules staining with Perl's Prussion blue reaction, suggesting iron secretion. In areolar areas, the trophoblast cells show apical microvilli, a basophilic cytoplasm with electron-dense intracellular...

  8. Pattern of Smoking Habit among Greek Blue and White Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking in a Greek working population. A questionnaire regarding smoking habit was collected from 1,005 out of 1,200 blue and white-collar employees (response rate: 84%. The overall smoking prevalence was 48.4% and did not differ by sex, age, education, and occupation. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 25.54, with no difference observed by occupation. The above-mentioned findings, if confirmed by further research, are alarming and inconsistent with the prevalent pattern of smoking habits in the West.

  9. Automated Shirt Collar Manufacturing. Volume 3. Sewing Head Control for High Speed Stitch Contour Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-23

    topstitching unit ......... 8 1.5 Stitching machines that move the sewing head rather than the fabric assembly ............... 10 1.6 The Necchi UAN...points in an EPROM chip. The Necchi UAN 2684 in Figure 1.5b also moves the sewing head rather than the fabric assembly. This stitcher is 10 h f gedcant...ft evr ndqexbte (a) The Adler 973-S-204-3 automatic collar runstitching machine. (b) The Necchi UAN 2684 stitching machine. Figure 1.5 Stitching

  10. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF COLLARED PECCARY ( Dicotyles tajacu angulatus ) WITH SWINE KIDNEY WORM ( Stephanurus dentatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, G M; Davis, D S; Robinson, R M; Galvin, T J

    1977-10-01

    Two captive-born juvenile collared peccaries ( Dicotyles tajacu angulatus ) were given 3000 infective larvae of Stephanurus dentatus per os. One peccary harbored viable S. dentatus sub-adults in the liver 50 days post-infection. The other peccary had no larvae but did have diffuse fibrotic hepatic lesions and bile duct hyperplasia 213 days post-infection; however, the lesions may have been partially due to a concurrent Ascaris suum infection. A domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domesticus ) infected as a control was severely but non-patently parasitized 170 days postinfection.

  11. Unintentional strangulation by a cervical collar after attempted suicide by hanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Palud, Aurore; Favory, Raphael; Mathieu, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    We report the case of a young man who attempted suicide by hanging and whose neurological status deteriorated until the cervical collar, that had been correctly placed by the prehospital team, was removed. We discuss the physiopathological mechanisms leading to death in hanging that is, a blockage of the blood stream to the brain leading to vasogenic and cytotoxic cerebral edema rather than asphyxia or spinal fracture. Our case supports the early removal of neck stabilization devices that can dangerously harm the patient after an attempted suicide by hanging, by increasing intracerebral pressure.

  12. Erwinia amylovora – the Causal Agent of Root Collar Necrosis of Apple Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Veljko Gavrilović; Svetlana Milijašević; Biljana Todorović; Svetlana Živković; Nenad Trkulja

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale outbreak of fire blight symptoms caused by Erwinia amylovora was recorded in pome fruit trees during 2007. In addition to fruit necrosis and shoot blight as the typical disease symptoms, dark purple necrosis was observed in the root collar area girdling the trunk just above the ground and thus withering the whole apple tree. Since similar symptoms on apple trees could be caused by E. amylovora or one of several phytopathogenic fungi of the genera Phomopsis and Phytophthora, an i...

  13. First detection of Arcobacter sp. in Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Delogu, Mauro; Giacometti, Federica; Stancampiano, Laura; Grilli, Ester; Guarniero, Ilaria; Serraino, Andrea

    2014-12-29

    Data about the presence of Arcobacter in wild birds are currently lacking. In this study cloacal swabs from 95 collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto), submitted to the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (Bologna, Italy) between 2011 and 2013 from various urban and suburban areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), were tested for the presence of Arcobacter sp. by a rRNA 23S nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Eighteen out of 95 (19%) samples showed the expected PCR product. Further cultural and molecular studies are needed to assess the Arcobacter prevalence in wild birds and elucidate their potential epidemiological role as source of animal and human infections.

  14. Short communication. First detection of Arcobacter sp. in Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data about the presence of Arcobacter in wild birds are currently lacking. In this study cloacal swabs from 95 collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto, submitted to the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (Bologna, Italy between 2011 and 2013 from various urban and suburban areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy, were tested for the presence of Arcobacter sp. by a rRNA 23S nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Eighteen out of 95 (19% samples showed the expected PCR product. Further cultural and molecular studies are needed to assess the Arcobacter prevalence in wild birds and elucidate their potential epidemiological role as source of animal and human infections.

  15. Hematocrit and plasma chemistry values in adult collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fang-Tse; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Hsu, Tien-Huan

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report hematocrit and plasma chemistry values for adult captive collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya). In particular, we address the gender-specific differences within these values. We measured hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values for uric acid (UA), plasma urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), creatine (CRE), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), amylase (AMY), calcium (CA), ionic phosphorous (IP) and sodium (NA), potassium (K) and chloride ions (CL) in 37 adult captive collared scops owls and 39 adult captive crested serpent eagles. Significant differences between the sexes were found for UA, GLU and CPK in the collared scope owls. UA and GLU concentrations were significantly higher (Pscops owls and crested serpent eagles, making them a potentially useful complementary diagnostic tool for veterinary care of individuals for both species in captivity.

  16. El aparato urogenital del pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu Chordata: Artiodactyla: un estudio anatómico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vargas García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available la finalidad de incrementar la información sobre la fisiología reproductiva del pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu se realizó una descripción anatómica del aparato urogenital (au de esta especie. Se utilizaron ocho hembras y cinco machos que fueron anestesiados y perfundidos con solución de McKormik. Se realizaron disecciones para extraer el au y se describieron sus componentes. El au del pecarí de collar es característico del mamífero pero presenta similitudes con el au del cerdo. Este trabajo es el primer reporte donde se describe un seno urogenital, las glándulas vestibulares y la musculatura estriada asociada a la vulva. Es también, el primer reporte del au masculino del pecarí de collar, encontrándose algunas características exclusivas de esta especie.

  17. Prevalence and health correlates of work-life conflict among blue- and white-collar workers from different economic sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eHämmig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research on work-life conflict (WLC is largely neglected in occupational medicine and public health and typically limited to white-collar workers and public servants. This study therefore aims to explore possible differences in the prevalence of WLC and its association with health outcomes between white- and blue-collar workers from different work environments in Switzerland. Cross-sectional survey data collected in 2007 in the service sector and in 2010 in the industrial sector were used for statistical analyses. A subsample of university graduates employed by large service companies (N=1,170 from the first survey’s population was taken and compared with a subsample of low or unskilled industrial and construction workers with no or only compulsory education (N=489 from the second survey’s population. The results show almost consistently, and particularly in women, a lower prevalence of time- and strain-based forms and both causal directions of WLC in blue-collar workers. However, associations between different WLC measures and general, physical and mental health outcomes were found to be equally strong or even stronger among blue-collar workers compared to white-collar workers. Low or unskilled industrial and construction workers are less frequently affected by higher degrees of WLC but are then at no lower risk of suffering poor self-rated health or severe backaches and sleep disorders than university graduates working in the service sector with comparable exposure to WLC. In conclusion it can be stated that WLC turned out to be much less prevalent but equally or even more detrimental to health in blue-collar workers, who therefore need to be considered in future studies.

  18. Different parts, different stories: climate sensitivity of growth is stronger in root collars vs. stems in tundra shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Pascale; Angers-Blondin, Sandra; Gagnon, Marianne; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    Shrub densification has been widely reported across the circumpolar arctic and subarctic biomes in recent years. Long-term analyses based on dendrochronological techniques applied to shrubs have linked this phenomenon to climate change. However, the multi-stemmed structure of shrubs makes them difficult to sample and therefore leads to non-uniform sampling protocols among shrub ecologists, who will favor either root collars or stems to conduct dendrochronological analyses. Through a comparative study of the use of root collars and stems of Betula glandulosa, a common North American shrub species, we evaluated the relative sensitivity of each plant part to climate variables and assessed whether this sensitivity is consistent across three different types of environments in northwestern Québec, Canada (terrace, hilltop and snowbed). We found that root collars had greater sensitivity to climate than stems and that these differences were maintained across the three types of environments. Growth at the root collar was best explained by spring precipitation and summer temperature, whereas stem growth showed weak and inconsistent responses to climate variables. Moreover, sensitivity to climate was not consistent among plant parts, as individuals having climate-sensitive root collars did not tend to have climate-sensitive stems. These differences in sensitivity of shrub parts to climate highlight the complexity of resource allocation in multi-stemmed plants. Whereas stem initiation and growth are driven by microenvironmental variables such as light availability and competition, root collars integrate the growth of all plant parts instead, rendering them less affected by mechanisms such as competition and more responsive to signals of global change. Although further investigations are required to determine the degree to which these findings are generalizable across the tundra biome, our results indicate that consistency and caution in the choice of plant parts are a key

  19. The welfare consequences and efficacy of training pet dogs with remote electronic training collars in comparison to reward based training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Cooper

    Full Text Available This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars. Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group. Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4-5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with

  20. The Only Thing We Have to Fear Is Fear Itself: Investigating the Relationship between Fear of Falling and White-Collar Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper

    2012-01-01

    Criminologists have long been interested in understanding why people commit crime. Perhaps an even more interesting question is what accounts for the offending of individuals who occupy white-collar positions. Most explanations of white-collar offending have relied on extant criminological theories that have been developed to account for street or…

  1. Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers.......The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers....

  2. Zero prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in 300 breeding Collared Flycatchers in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef D. Järhult

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild birds are important indicators and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. The order Passerines is scarcely studied apart from Corvus sp. but extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs has been found in Blackbirds. We tested 300 fecal samples from a well-studied population of Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis at the Island of Gotland in Sweden and found no ESBL-producing bacteria. These results support the idea of ‘ecological guild’ as Blackbirds are ground-foraging invertebrate feeders, whereas Collared Flycatchers are aerial insectivores not regularly coming into contact with fecal contaminations and therefore less prone to acquire pathogens spread by the fecal–oral route.

  3. VEGF system expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR study on collared peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Tatiana C.; Oliveira, Moacir F.; Papa, Paula C.;

    2014-01-01

    in the placenta and uterus of the collared peccary in nonpregnant females in the luteal phase and throughout pregnancy (>35, 75, 115, and 135 days). The material was examined by immunohistochemistry and by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Intense positive immunolabeling was observed...... in late pregnancy. In the collared peccary, the expression of the VEGF-ligand receptor system was similar to that in porcine and ruminant placentas, suggesting that an epitheliochorial placenta has the same physiological and interhemal barrier during vascular gestational development. The expression...

  4. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates.

  5. Measuring the actual I-131 thyroid uptake curve with a collar detector system: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinks, Peter; Van Gils, Koen; Dickerscheid, Dennis B.M.; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Medical Physics, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kranenborg, Ellen; Lavalaye, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Radionuclide therapy using I-131 is commonly used for the treatment of benign thyroid diseases. The therapeutic dose to be administered is calculated based on the type of disease, the volume of the thyroid, and the measured uptake percentage. This methodology assumes a similar biological half-life of iodine, whereas in reality a large variation in biological half-life is observed. More knowledge about the actual biological half-life of iodine for individual patients will improve the quantification of the delivered radiation dose during radioiodine therapy and could aid the evaluation of the success of the therapy. In this feasibility study we used a novel measurement device [Collar Therapy Indicator (CoTI)] to measure the uptake curve of patients undergoing I-131 radioiodine therapy. The CoTI device is a light-weight wearable device that contains two independent gamma radiation detectors that are placed in a collar. By comparing results of thyroid uptake measurements with results obtained with a gamma camera, the precision of the system is demonstrated. Additionally, for three patients the uptake curve is measured during 48 h of admission in the hospital. The presented results demonstrate the feasibility of the new measurement device to measure the uptake curve during radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  6. Factors Associated with Halitosis in White-Collar Employees in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available To investigate the factors associated with halitosis in Chinese white-collar employees.Subjects in three randomly selected office buildings in Shanghai, China, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling. Oral malodor was assessed by measuring volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs with a portable sulfide monitor. Subjects' oral health, including dental caries, periodontal status, and tongue coating, was evaluated clinically. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about participants' demographic characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and health behaviors.Of the 805 subjects invited to participate in this study, 720 were enrolled (89.4% response rate. Data from these subjects were used for statistical analyses. The prevalence of halitosis was 33.2%. In the final regression model, halitosis was significantly related to tongue coating thickness, periodontal pocket depth, no food consumption within 2 hours prior to oral examination, and less intake frequency of sweet foods.In this Chinese white-collar population, tongue coating and periodontal disease were associated with halitosis. Oral hygiene education should be provided at the population level to encourage the maintenance of oral health and fresh breath. Consumption of sweet foods may reduce VSC production, although this finding requires further investigation.

  7. Influence of recovery method and centrifugation on epididymal sperm from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; da Silva, Andréia Maria; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; da Silva, Mariana de Araújo; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P < 0.05). Centrifugation promoted an increase in head and tail defects, thus reducing the percentage of viable sperm (P < 0.05). No other parameter assessed for both methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.

  8. Sperm morphological and morphometric evaluation in captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C. Sousa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different staining methods for the evaluation of sperm morphology by light microscopy and also to describe the morphometry of the entire sperm in collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu. Semen from 10 males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, and concentration. Semen smears were prepared through three different staining methods: Bengal rose, brome-phenol blue, and eosin-nigrosin. Smears were evaluated under light microscopy and sperm morphologic alterations were determined in percentage. In addition, sperm morphometric analysis was conducted by light microscopy coupled to image analyzer software. The smears stained with Bengal Rose provide the best results for the visualization of the sperm tail, midpiece, and head. The use of eosin-nigrosin stain did not allow an adequate impregnation, and some sperm presented a few contrasts with the background. A higher incidence of bent coiled tails was verified in the use of brome-phenol blue staining (P<0.05. Through morphometric evaluation, it was observed that the tail occupies the greatest proportion (89% of the sperm which presents a discretely elongated head. According to the results, the use of the Bengal Rose stain is recommended for the morphologic evaluation of the collared peccary sperm.

  9. Sleep problems in white-collar male workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, A; Haratani, T; Kawakami, N; Miki, A; Kurabayashi, L; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    In order to clarify poor sleep habits and prevalence in sleep problems (disturbances) of healthy male white-collar workers and the relationship of these to age and job type, a total of 1,161 Japanese employees of an electric equipment manufacturing company (aged 23 to 59, mean 37 years) were surveyed by means of a mailed questionnaire. The workers were asked about eleven sleep habits. They were also divided into four groups according to age and job type: 23-29 (n = 226), 30-39 (n = 597), 40-49 (n = 225) and 50-59 (n = 113); managerial (n = 209), professional (n = 336), technical (n = 475) and clerical (n = 134). In this study, the sleep problems were defined as who had at least one of the following four poor sleep habits: 1) taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, 2) awakening during sleep (ADS) almost every day, 3) early morning awakening (EMA) almost every day, and 4) excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) at work almost every day. Analyses showed that sleep problems were present in 26.0% of workers; the problems were most serious among workers aged 50 years and more (36.0%) which may be due to a significant increase in the prevalence rate of EMA. The results revealed that sleep problems are common in male white-collar daytime workers. The findings also suggest a need for increased attention to sleep problems in older workers and younger ones with EDS at work.

  10. Variation at work: alternations between physically and mentally demanding tasks in blue-collar occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Helena; Hygge, Staffan; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David; Mixter, Susanna; Lyskov, Eugene

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this questionnaire study were to describe the occurrence and desired number of alternations between mental and physical tasks in industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work, and determine to which extent selected personal and occupational factors influence these conditions. On average, the 122 participating workers (55 females) reported to have close to four alternations per day between mental and physical tasks, and to desire more alternations than they actually had. They also expressed a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task and vice versa. In univariate regression models, the desired change in task alternations was significantly associated with gender, age, occupation, years with current work tasks and perceived job control, while occupation was the only significant determinant in a multiple regression model including all factors. Our results suggest that alternations between productive physical and mental tasks could be a viable option in future job rotation. Practitioner Summary: We addressed attitudes among blue-collar workers to alternations between physically and mentally demanding tasks. More alternations were desired than those occurring in the job, and workers preferred performing a physical task after a mental and vice versa. Alternating physical and mental tasks could, thus, be a viable option in job rotation.

  11. Microvascularization on collared peccary placenta: a microvascular cast study [corrected] in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tatiana Carlesso; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Dantzer, Vibeke; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-07-01

    The microvascularization of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta was studied by vascular casts and immunolocalization of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, to identify the three dimensional organization and vascular flow interrelation in the microvasculature between the maternal and fetal compartments of the placentae. The immunolocalization of vimentin in the vascular endothelium and in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels showed indented capillaries along the uterine epithelium and the trophoblast at the sides of complementary maternal and fetal microfolds, or rugae. This confers the three-dimensional structure observed in vascular casts. On the maternal side, casts demonstrated uterine folds coated by with primary and secondary ridges, and by areolae dispersed between these ridges. The arteriole runs through the center/middle of ridges, branching at the top into a microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base of the bulbous protrusions, the fetal venules arise. The blood vessel orientation in the materno-fetal interface of the placentae of collared peccaries suggests a blood flow pattern of the type countercurrent to cross current. The same pattern has been reported in domestic swine demonstrating that, even after 38 million years, the Tayassuidae and Suidae families exhibit similar placental morphology, which is here characterized at the microvascular level.

  12. Ovarian features of the wild collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the northeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Fenech, Mar; Bodmer, Richard E; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the ovaries of 27 wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from the Amazonian region of northeastern Peru were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and expression of major steroidogenic enzymes was detected by immunohistochemistry. Our observations suggest a mean ovulation rate of 2.3 +/- 0.6 follicles and a low rate of reproductive wastage (0.4 +/- 0.6 oocytes or embryos per pregnancy). The collared peccary seems to exhibit follicular waves involving the synchronous growth of a cohort of follicles, several of which seem to attain selection. The presence of antral follicles in pregnant females suggests that follicular turnover continues during pregnancy. In cyclic animals, corpora lutea were characterised by the presence of distinct large and small luteal cell populations. The luteal volume in pregnant females was larger than that recorded for non-pregnant females. Through immunohistochemistry, it was observed that luteal cells from active corpora lutea exhibit intensive 3beta-HSD expression in advanced stages of pregnancy. This suggests that the corpora lutea seems to remain steroidogenically active throughout pregnancy and likely contribute to progesterone production during pregnancy.

  13. Spermatogenic cycle length and sperm production in a feral pig species (collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guilherme M J; Leal, Marcelo C; Silva, Jurupytan V; Ferreira, Ana Cássia S; Guimarães, Diva A; França, Luiz Renato de

    2010-01-01

    Although the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is found throughout the Americas, with a high potential for domestication and commercial exploitation, there are few data on the reproductive biology of this mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to investigate testis structure, spermatogenic cycle length, Sertoli cell efficiency, and spermatogenic efficiency. Twelve adult peccaries were used for biometrical, histological, and stereological analyses; 3 of these peccaries received intratesticular injections of (3)H-thymidine for the determination of the duration of spermatogenesis. Testis weight and gonadosomatic index were 23.7 +/- 1.8 g and 0.2% +/- 0.1%, respectively. Seminiferous tubule volume density was 77.4% +/- 1.7%. Leydig cells occupied 12.8% +/- 1.8% of the testis parenchyma and presented a peculiar cytoarchitecture in the periphery of the seminiferous tubule lobes. The premeiotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic stage frequencies were very similar to those found for wild and domestic boars. The spermatogenic cycle and entire spermatogenic process (based on 4.5 cycles) lasted approximately 12.3 +/- 0.2 and 55.1 +/- 0.7 days, respectively. Daily sperm production per gram of testis in the collared peccary was approximately 23.4 +/- 2 x 10(6), which is similar to that of domestic and wild boars. The knowledge generated in the present study could be used in reproduction and animal improvement programs and provides important information that may be used for comparative reproductive biology with previously investigated mammalian species.

  14. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SUBMERGENCE RATIO OF A RECTANGULAR SUBMERGED VANE WITH A COLLAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The vane induced strength of secondary flow in terms of dimensionless moment of momentum is maximum in the case of a rectangular vane with a collar at angle of attack 400 at different degrees of submergence (T/d) such as 0.60, 0.67 and 0.75. The same value of optimal angle of attack was found by Marelius and Sinha (1998) in the case of a rectangular vane without a collar. The vane induced strength of a vortex is insensitive to the submergence ratio (T/d). The vane induced strength of a vortex in terms of moment of momentum (MOM) depends on a wide range of variables, such as angle of attack, vane height, vane length, vane thickness flow depth, water density, median sediment size, velocity vector, acceleration due to gravity, water dynamic viscosity,vane shape, taper angle, etc. The optimal angle of attack is very close to 40°. A dimensionless moment of momentum parameter has also been identified. Vane induced secondary flow is also related to linear momentum. The graphical plot of moment of momentum vs. different angle of attack shows a similar trend as that of the plot of dimensionless MOM such as MOM made nondimensional by flow depth or by vane height vs. angle of attack.

  15. Design of a cervical collar device to facilitate and accelerate implementation of first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işık, Hakan; Saraçoğlu, Esra; Harmanci, Hüseyin; Güler, Inan

    2010-08-01

    Frequently there are disasters all over the world-fires, earthquakes, or even some unexpected shocking catastrophes. Hence people injured, or even died. Lifesaving actions begin with the initiation of the chain of survival. With every minute that passes without medical action being taken, the probability of being able to save the patients life decreases by ten percent. After 10 min there is normally no chance of resuscitation being successful. First aid is emergency treatment given before regular medical aid can be obtained. And it is a concept of first hands-on measures performed in a medical emergency by laypersons. The major aim of this study is to develop an easy-feasible cervical collar, for facilitating and accelerating implementation of first aid especially in case of collective injuries. The developed device is different from the cervical collars which are used to treat the neck pain. In the present study, the heartbeat is obtained by detecting pulse with the stethoscope that is a part of the developed device and fixed on the carorid artery. The obtained heartbeat signal has been processed by the electronic control circuit and the used LED has given light according to the patient's life signal. Although there are some disadvantages of the developed system, the precautions for these cases have been taken and the system has been tried to design in order to operate sensibly.

  16. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing.

  17. Collar Workcrs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽娜(著)

    2010-01-01

    自从“白领”、“蓝领”等概念出现后,根据现代人的工作性质和收入,人们又划分出了各种“领’:gold collar(金领)、white collar(白领)、blue collar(蓝领)、green collar(绿领)、pink collar(粉领)…最近又出现了更轻松、更自由、更新鲜、更能享受生活的新领族:grey collar(灰领)、silver collar(银领)、bright collar(亮领)和open collar(敞领)等。

  18. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of

  19. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstract. Methods Preventive efficacy was evaluated by infesting groups of cats (n = 8-10 with C. felis felis and/or I. ricinus, A. americanum or R. turanicus at monthly intervals at least, for a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after infestation, and against ticks at 6 h (repellent or 48 h (acaricidal after infestation. Efficacy against flea larvae was evaluated over a period of 8 months by incubating viable flea eggs on blanket samples after cat contact. In all cases efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h generally exceeded 95% until study termination. In vitro efficacy against flea larvae exceeded 92% until Day 90 and then declined to 67% at the conclusion of the study on Day 230. Sustained acaricidal (48 h efficacy over a period of eight months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus from Day 2 after treatment, 100% against A. americanum, except for 98.5% and 97.7% at two time-points, and between 94% and 100% against R. turanicus. From Day 2 until 8 months after treatment the repellent (6 h, efficacy was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and between 54.8% and 85.4% against R. turanicus. Conclusion The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly- acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been

  20. Conservation of somatic tissue derived from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758) using direct or solid-surface vitrification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alana Azevedo; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; de Queiroz Neta, Luiza Bento; Santos, Maria Valéria de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Pereira, Alexsandra Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Cryopreservation of somatic tissue can be applied in biodiversity conservation, especially for wild species as collared peccary. We aimed to evaluate the effect of vitrification techniques of ear tissue of collared peccary [direct vitrification in cryovials (DVC) or solid-surface vitrification (SSV)] on the layers of epidermis and dermis by conventional histology and cell ability during the in vitro culture. Thus, both the vitrification methods were able to maintain normal patterns of the epidermis as the cornea and granular layers, furthermore the intercellular space and dermal-epidermal junction of the spinous layer when compared to fresh control. Nevertheless, DVC and SSV percentage of normality decreased in the morphological integrity of cytoplasm (37.5 and 25.0%) of spinous layer, respectively, as compared to the fresh fragments (100%, p  0.05). In addition, only at time of 72 h (D3), in the growth curve, DVC fragments showed a reduced cell concentration than fresh control. In conclusion, SSV was found to be a more efficient method for vitrifying collared peccary skin tissue when compared to DVC. These results are relevant for the tissue cryopreservation from collared peccary and could also be useful for mammals with phylogenetic relationships.

  1. Effect of Fin-Collar Shape at Contact Area between Tube and Fin on Heat Exchanger Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yoshimi; Tsubaki, Koutaro; Miyara, Akio

    In this study, numerical simulation of a cross fin-tube heat exchanger was conducted to investigate the effects of fin-collar shape on the heat transfer performance and pressure drop. During the making process, two adjacent fin-collars and a tube form a triangular space and the end of fin collar protrude to air side. To investigate these effects on the heat exchanger performance, the form ratio was defined to make an indicator of the triangular space size. Furthermore, the simulation of the models with and without protruded end was conducted. The results indicated that the increase of the form ratio results in the decrease in the heat transfer rate. On the other hand, it contributed to a relatively small increase in the heat transfer coefficient on the air side. A high heat transfer coefficient on the air side was obtained by the protruded fin-collar end. However, the pressure drop was not much different between the models with and without the protruded end. The ratio of the thermal contact resistance to the air side thermal resistance was about 1:5 for the form ratio of 20% to 40%.

  2. "Blue-Collar Blues" : kõigi maade töötud, ühinege! / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010. Kuraator Anders Härm. Näituse ajendiks on 1. juulist 2009 Eestis kehtima hakanud töölepinguseadus, näituse fookus on töösuhetel

  3. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnewick, Kelly; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. New information This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes. PMID:28325981

  4. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.D.; Jacobs, K.; Kirisits, T.; Chhetri, D.B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalaya

  5. PTFE bypass to below-knee arteries: distal vein collar or not? A prospective randomised multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Fredrik; Bergqvist, David; Norgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Patency and limb salvage after synthetic bypass to the arteries below-knee are inferior to that which can be achieved with autologous vein. Use of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis has been suggested to improve patency and limb salvage, a problem that is analysed in this randomised clinical...

  6. Interpretación en arqueología : piezas de collar de una necrópolis navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Castiela Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los restos de ajuar, recuperados en la necrópolis que han seguido el rito de la cremación, nos llegan muy alterados y requieren en ocasiones un esfuerzo especial para su comprensión. En el caso de varias piezas procedentes de La Atalaya, que formaban parte de collares, cuya interpretación ofrecemos

  7. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.D.; Jacobs, K.; Kirisits, T.; Chhetri, D.B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalaya

  8. Prognostic factors for respiratory sickness absence and return to work among blue collar workers and office personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Alexopoulos (Evangelos); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To analyze factors that determine the occurrence of sickness absence due to respiratory disorders and the time it takes to return to work. METHODS: A longitudinal study with 2 year follow up was conducted among 326 male blue collar and white coll

  9. "Blue-Collar Blues" : kõigi maade töötud, ühinege! / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010. Kuraator Anders Härm. Näituse ajendiks on 1. juulist 2009 Eestis kehtima hakanud töölepinguseadus, näituse fookus on töösuhetel

  10. A new member of the greater double-collared sunbird complex (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowie, Rauri C K; Fjeldså, Jon; Kiure, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    We document the discovery of the first population of greater double-collared sunbird (Cinnyris afer complex) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. We assessed phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic rank based on mtDNA sequence data, nine microsatellite loci and morphology. This new taxon,...

  11. Prison Field Trips: Can White-Collar Criminals Positively Affect the Ethical and Legal Behavior of Marketing and MBA Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Marketing educators bear some responsibility for teaching ethics and legal issues to their students. Visits to white-collar criminals in a federal prison camp are one method of achieving this task. This article develops and empirically assesses ten objectives for such a visit by MBA and undergraduate marketing classes. Undergraduates rated the…

  12. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  13. Prognostic factors for respiratory sickness absence and return to work among blue collar workers and office personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Alexopoulos (Evangelos); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To analyze factors that determine the occurrence of sickness absence due to respiratory disorders and the time it takes to return to work. METHODS: A longitudinal study with 2 year follow up was conducted among 326 male blue collar and white coll

  14. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain w

  15. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Methods Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats’ faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Results Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. Conclusion The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected

  16. Comparison of oral intubation using flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope with or without rigid cervical collar: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Gill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Device like fibreoptic bronchoscope is gold standard for difficult intubation situations. It can be performed by both orotracheal and nasotracheal route. But, through nasal route there are more chances of nasal bleeding and pressure necrosis while through oral route there is only one problem, which is clearing of upper airway for bronchoscope. Manoeuvres like jaw thrust and chin lift are very useful in clearing upper airway for bronchoscope. The aim of this study was to compare ease of oral intubation using flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope with or without rigid cervical collar, in terms of need of manoeuvres: Jaw thrust and Chin lift. Materials and Methods: 25 patients in age range 20-50 years, of ASA ΂ - II, and of either sex undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into each group. There were two groups: Group A (Rigid Cervical Collar and group B (Without Collar. Intubating condition was assessed in between these groups with need of manoeuvres like jaw thrust and chin lift. Quantitative data i.e. age, weight, thyromental distance and sternomental distance were presented as mean value and standard deviation. Intergroup comparison of quantitative data was done by t-test and probability was considered to be significant if less than <0.05. Categorical data i.e. sex, ASA grade, Mallampati grade and need of manoeuvres were presented as number and were compared among groups using Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was significant (P < 0.05 difference between group A and group B in terms of use of manoeuvres for ease of intubation and clearing upper airway. In group B, need of jaw thrust and chin lift for clearing airway is significantly (P < 0.05 higher than collar group. Conclusion: We concluded that as far as the oral intubation with flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope is concerned, rigid cervical collar is very useful tool for making intubation easier.

  17. Compressive Strength Prediction of Square Concrete Columns Retrofitted with External Steel Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjisuryadi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse confining stress in concrete members, commonly provided by transverse reinforcement, has been recognized to enhance strength and ductility. Nowadays, the confining method has been further developed to external confinement approach. This type of confinement can be used for retrofitting existing concrete columns. Many external confining techniques have been proven to be successful in retrofitting circular columns. However, for square or rectangular columns, providing effective confining stress by external retrofitting method is not a simple task due to high stress concentration at column’s corners. This paper proposes an analytical model to predict the peak strength of square concrete columns confined by external steel collars. Comparison with the experimental results showed that the model can predict the peak strength reasonably well. However, it should be noted that relatively larger amount of steel is needed to achieve comparable column strength enhancement when it is compared with those of conve tional internally-confined columns.

  18. Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Brazilian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Indiara dos Santos; Folly, Márcio Manhães; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2012-12-01

    The presence of Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. antibodies was investigated in serum samples from 28 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) kept in seven Brazilian zoos. Sera were tested against 19 Leptospira serovars using microscopic agglutination. Samples reacted to the following serovars: two (7.14%) to Patoc, three (10.71%) to Tarrasovi, three (10.71%) to both Patoc and Tarrasovi, two (7.14%) to Wolffi, and one (3.57%) to Australis. Two (7.14%) samples reacted to the buffered Brucella antigen test, but no confirmatory reaction occurred using the 2-mercaptoethanol slow slide agglutination test. No sample was reactive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test for rugose species of Brucella. The presence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in captive T. tetradactyla serum indicates that this species may be susceptible to infection by these bacteria.

  19. El collar de la paloma : tratado sobre el amor y los amantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina López Pita

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recoge en este trabajo la opinión que algunos estudiosos han dado sobre una de las mejores obras de la literatura árabe, calificada por don Emilio García Gómez de auténtica joya literaria. Su autor, el ilustre polígrafo cordobés, Ibn Hazm (994-1064, comenzó a escribirla en el año 1022 en unas duras condiciones, como él mismo reconoce, cuando se hallaba cautivo en dativa. Por entonces, el califato cordobés mostraba ya sus primeros síntomas de debilidad. Esta obra esta escrita en árabe purísimo y en rica prosa en la que se intercalan versos con un profundo sentimiento. En ella su autor nos narra aspectos del amor basados en su propia experiencia, y en lo que le contaron gentes de fiar, transmitiendo, en suma, como amaron las gentes de al-Andalus durante el gobierno de la dinastía omeya; por este motivo, algunos consideran, en parte, este libro como la autobiografía de su autor y de las gentes que le rodearon. Ibn Hazm compuso esta obra por encargo de un amigo y a través de ella le ofrece, por la amistad que les une, «ayuda» para alcanzar la verdad. En los sucesivos capítulos de que consta «El collar», el autor nos habla de los fundamentos del amor, entre los que destaca, la esencia del amor, las formas de enamoramiento,etc... de los accidentes del amor y de sus cualidades loables y vituperables; de las malaventuras que sobrevienen al amor, de la fealdad del pecado y de la castidad. No obstante, a pesar del plan previo establecido por el autor, estos temas se mezclan unos con otros, y de ello se excusa Ibn Hazm. «El collar de la paloma» ha tenido una gran divulgación, siendo traducido a las principales lenguas, y en él han querido encontrar, estudiosos de la literatura medieval ciertas similitudes.This report contains some opinión from several experts about one of the masterpieces of the arab literature, considered as an authentic jewel by Emilio García Gómez. Its author, the famous cordovan polygraph Ibn Hazm (994

  20. Case report: nonoperative treatment of an unstable Jefferson fracture using a cervical collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Brian M; Harris, Mitchel B

    2008-05-01

    The treatment of unstable burst fractures of the atlas (Jefferson fractures) is controversial. Unstable Jefferson fractures have been managed successfully with either immobilization, typically halo traction or halo vest, or surgery. We report a patient with an unstable Jefferson fracture treated nonoperatively with a cervical collar, frequent clinical examinations, and flexion-extension radiographs. Twelve months after treatment, the patient achieved painless union of his fracture. The successful treatment confirms prior studies reporting unstable Jefferson fractures have been treated nonoperatively. The outcome challenges the clinical relevance of treatment algorithms that rely on the "rules of Spence" to guide treatment of unstable Jefferson fractures and illustrates instability may not necessarily be present in patients with considerable lateral mass widening. Additionally, it emphasizes a more reliable way of assessing C1-C2 stability in unstable Jefferson fractures is by measuring the presence and extent of anterior subluxation on lateral flexion and extension views.

  1. Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed at developing and evaluating statistical models predicting objectively measured occupational time spent sedentary or in physical activity from self-reported information available in large epidemiological studies and surveys. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-fourteen blue-collar workers...... responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Least......-squares linear regression models were developed, predicting objectively measured exposures from selected predictors in the questionnaire. RESULTS: A full prediction model based on age, gender, body mass index, job group, self-reported occupational physical activity (OPA), and self-reported occupational sedentary...

  2. Field test and evaluation of the passive neutron coincidence collar for prototype fast reactor fuel subassemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Keddar, A.

    1982-08-01

    The passive neutron Coincidence Collar, which was developed for the verification of plutonium content in fast reactor fuel subassemblies, has been field tested using Prototype Fast Reactor fuel. For passive applications, the system measures the /sup 240/Pu-effective mass from the spontaneous fission rate, and in addition, a self-interrogation technique is used to determine the fissile content in the subassembly. Both the passive and active modes were evaluated at the Windscale Works in the United Kingdom. The results of the tests gave a standard deviation 0.75% for the passive count and 3 to 7% for the active measurement for a 1000-s counting time. The unit will be used in the future for the verification of plutonium in fresh fuel assemblies.

  3. The development and validation of a job crafting measure for use with blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs...... the validity and reliability of the measure in a longitudinal study based on multiple source information from mail delivery workers in Denmark (N=362 at Time 1; N=408 at Time 2). Results indicate the presence of five job crafting dimensions: increasing challenging demands, decreasing social job demands......, increasing social job resources, increasing quantitative demands and decreasing hindering job demands. These can be reliably measured with 15 items. The measure shows acceptable discriminant and criterion validity, and test-retest reliability. The findings extend the application of the original questionnaire...

  4. Relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the developing, nursling collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Morphological characteristics that reflect size differences due to dietary conditions are in wide use to assess nutritional status of many wild ungulates. This study was designed to provide baseline information on the development of internal visceral and endocrine structures of nursling collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from birth to six weeks of age (weaning). A high energy-high protein ration was fed ad libitum to lactating females, and absolute and relative mass of selected visceral organ, endocrine, and fat depots were measured in various aged nurslings. Linear measurements were also obtained on components of the gastrointestinal tract. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied considerably among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (brain, b = 0.26) to well above (thymus, b = 1.61) unity.

  5. An electrophoretic characterization of serum proteins of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Grant, W E

    1984-01-01

    Serum proteins of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for wild adult males and females, nursing young, and reproductively-active females in captivity. Electrophoretic profiles of the adult peccary showed at least six distinct protein bands corresponding to the fractions: albumin, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2, and gamma globulin. Globulin fractions of the peccary had different mobilities from the domestic swine. The only sexual dimorphisms were associated with the beta globulin:albumin ratio and the albumin:globulin ratio. Ingestion of colostrum in 1-day-old neonates was marked by a very large increase in gamma globulins. The only significant difference between pregnant and lactating females was in the alpha globulin:beta globulin ratio. Lactating females had higher concentrations of alpha-2 globulin than non-pregnant females.

  6. Seasonal variation in serum testosterone, testicular measurements and semen characteristics in the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Magyar, S J; Coscarelli, K P; Grant, W E

    1989-03-01

    Blood samples and testicular measurements were obtained from 4-8 captive adult collared peccaries monthly for 18 months and from wild adult males during summer (N = 16) and winter (N = 22) seasons. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Semen samples were collected monthly by electroejaculation from captive males for 1 year. Serum testosterone concentrations and testicular measurements varied in a low-amplitude circannual pattern, with maximum mean testosterone concentrations in fall and winter (1150-1400 pg/ml) and minimum values in summer (500-700 pg/ml). Circannual rhythms appeared to be related to dominance. Serum testosterone levels in wild males generally were lower than in captive males, although this difference was not significant (P greater than 0.05). Semen characteristics did not exhibit a circannual rhythm. These results suggest that the male peccary remains reproductively fertile throughout the year, yet may undergo a facultative summer quiescence influenced by ambient temperature and social factors.

  7. Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the collared peccary,Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae, mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J S; Ke, J; Pickett, J A; Weldon, P J

    1996-07-01

    Secretions of the dorsal gland of free-ranging adult male and female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both sexes contain (2E,6E,10E)-geranylgeraniol; squalene (allE isomer); and the following isomers of springene, a diterpene homolog of β-farnesene: (3E,6E,10E)-α-springene, (3Z,6E,10E)-α-springene, and (6E,10E)-β-springene. A diterpene alcohol and an additional isomer each of squalene and springene also were observed. Straight- and branched-chain esters abound in the secretions of females, but they were not detected in males.

  8. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  9. Espermatogênese de catetos (Tayassu tajacu Spermatogenesis in the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Costa

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se estudos morfológico e funcional da espermatogênese em 15 testículos de catetos adultos, provenientes de abatedouro comercial de animais silvestres. Foram estudados os estádios do ciclo do epitélio seminífero (CES, a população celular dos túbulos seminíferos, o rendimento intrínseco da espermatogênese, o índice das células de Sertoli, o diâmetro médio dos túbulos seminíferos e a proporção volumétrica dos componentes do parênquima testicular. O coeficiente de eficiência de mitoses espermatogoniais foi de 22,54, a eficiência da mitose de 22,54, o rendimento meiótico de 1:2,7 e o rendimento geral da espermatogênese de 1:64. Concluiu-se que a espermatogênese dos catetos é muito semelhante à espermatogênese de suínos.The aim of this study was to analyze morphologically and functionally the spermatogenesis in adult collared peccary. Fifteen testes provided by a commercial wild animal abattoir were used. The stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, the cellular number of the seminiferous tubules, the intrinsic efficiency of spermatogenesis, the Sertoli cells, the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the volumetric proportion of testicular parenchyma components were analyzed. The mitosis efficiency coefficient in collared peccary was 22.54, the meiotic profile, 1:2.7, and spermatogenesis general profile was 1:64. It was concluded that spermatogenesis in peccary is very similar to that in pigs.

  10. Satellite telemetry of large mammals in Mongolia: what expectations should we have for collar function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Y. Ito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 104 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos or the global positioning system (GPS, on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus, 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa, 15 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii, eight wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus, and two wolves (Canis lupus. Although, we collected valuable data from little-known species in a remote environment, of 104 collars deployed, only 34 worked as good as or better than expected whereas 70 were subject to technical problems. The majority of problems had to do with a reduced performance of the Argos component (n = 13, with both the Argos and the GPS components (n = 1, or with the Argos component in combination with another unknown problem (n = 12. Further problems were caused by human error during manufacturing or deployment (n = 10, software bugs (n = 7, mechanical failures (n = 5, poor GPS performance (n = 1 and premature failures for unknown reasons (3 ≤ n ≤ 21. Although, several premature failures may have been caused by animals being poached, our failure rate remains high and indicates that managers and researchers need to be aware that there is a high risk of equipment failure when applying newly emerging satellite tracking technology. This entrains logistic and financial uncertainties which may be difficult to explain to the scientific community, the public, management and funding agencies alike. We recommend the development of a web-based platform where users and producers of telemetry products can quickly post and exchange their experiences.

  11. Urban primate ranging patterns: GPS-collar deployments for Macaca fascicularis and M. sylvanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegarth, Amy R; Hollocher, Hope; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Shaw, Eric; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Feeney, Tessa; Holmes, Damian; Laguea, Dale; Fuentes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments. Analyses highlighted high variability in ranging patterns between individuals within each species that aligned with access to human food resources and patterns of tourism. Individuals from troops with less access to human food had much larger home, core, and day ranges relative to those with regular provisioning or raiding opportunities. Almost no temporal range overlap was observed between any focal individuals at either site and spatial overlap was low for all but two troops at each site. We found no relationship between anthropogenic schedules and changes in ranging patterns. Significant seasonal variation existed for daily path length and day range size for both the Singapore long-tailed and the Gibraltar Barbary macaques, with long-tailed macaques increasing their range during the equatorial monsoon season and Barbary macaques increasing their range during drier, summer months. This study highlights how the behavioral plasticity found within the genus Macaca is reflected in ranging pattern variability within urban environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay for collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradello, Mara Adriana; Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Roper, James; Spercoski, Katherinne Maria; Massuda, Thiago; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira Cunha; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama

    2012-06-01

    The possibility of assessing endogenous adrenal activity in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) was tested by using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) assay. Feces were collected from 12 captive adult male peccaries beginning 48 hr prior to challenge; six of these animals received the challenge as an ACTH injection and the other six were injected with saline solution. Feces collection ended 120 hr after injections. As a control, feces were collected for eight consecutive days from another six adult male peccaries that remained in their original mixed-sex herds in semiconfined paddocks. All feces samples were freeze-dried, extracted by an ethanol vortex method, and assayed for glucocorticoids by means of an enzyme immunoassay. FGM concentrations were compared between the treatments by a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post hoc Tukey test. The assay is reliable but, instead of the usual proportion of 1:50 in ethanol (fecal mass:solvent), 1:10 is recommended for best extraction of FGM. Baseline FGM concentrations were similar among the ACTH, saline, and control treatments (29.7 +/- 11.2 ng/g(-1) dry feces) during the 48 hr before the challenge. The ACTH group reached an FGM excretion peak at 24 hr post-treatment, followed by a decline, while in the control and saline groups FGM levels remained relatively constant. Therefore, the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay reflects endogenous adrenal activity in the collared peccary and is a powerful tool for noninvasive stress monitoring in peccaries.

  13. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers: results from a multicentre study from the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K; Funding, Anne T; Avnstorp, Christian; Østerballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Paulsen, Evy; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Sommerlund, Mette; Danielsen, Anne; Andersen, Bo L; Thormann, Jens; Kristensen, Ove; Kristensen, Berit; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels H; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-12-01

    Blue-collar workers have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis, but epidemiological studies are scarce. To investigate allergic contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers with dermatitis registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. A retrospective analysis of patch test data from 1471 blue-collar workers and 1471 matched controls tested between 2003 and 2012 was performed. A logistic regression was used to test for associations. The blue-collar workers often had occupational hand dermatitis (p methyldibromo glutaronitrile, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, potassium dichromate, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI). The following occupations were additionally identified as risk factors for contact sensitization to MCI/MI and MI, epoxy resins, and potassium dichromate, respectively: painting, construction work, and tile setting/terrazzo work. Contact allergy is a major problem among blue-collar workers. The data indicate a healthy worker effect among blue-collar workers diagnosed with dermatitis, as blue-collar workers were diagnosed significantly less often with atopic dermatitis than were controls. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  15. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these

  16. Summer Activity Sensor Data from Collars Deployed on Female Polar Bears in the Chukchi Sea 1989 to 1995 and Southern Beaufort Sea 1989 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are data collected from two types of activity sensors housed within collars deployed on female polar bears in the Chukchi and southern Beaufort Seas during the...

  17. Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D in School Children and White-Collar Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronghua Zhang; Xiamusiye Muyiduli; Danting Su; Biao Zhou; Yueqiang Fang; Shuying Jiang; Shuojia Wang; Lichun Huang; Minjia Mo; Minchao Li; Bule Shao; Yunxian Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9-15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D...

  18. Prevention of White-Collar Crime by Knowledge and Learning in Business Organizations: An Empirical Study of Chief Financial Officer Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Solli-Soether

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and learning are important in combating financial crime generallyand white-collar crime in particular. The purpose of this research is to generateinsights into prevention approaches in practice that may reflect on acontingent approach. The five hundred largest business companies in termsof annual turnover were identified in Norway for our empirical study of whitecollarcrime. A paper letter was mailed to the chief financial officer (CFOasking him or her to fill in the questionnaire to be found on a web site usinga password found in the letter. The open-ended question in the questionnaireto CFOs about prevention of white-collar crime was formulated as follows:How can white-collar crime best be prevented in your company? Survey resultsindicate an even distribution of respondents emphasizing control and respondentsemphasizing influence. This empirical research steps back from manybest practice articles and provides insights into preferences of chief financialofficers on how to prevent white-collar crime in the company.

  19. Refining the Pole-and-Collar Method of Restraint: Emphasizing the Use of Positive Training Techniques with Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, researc...

  20. Risks associated with magnetic resonance imaging and cervical collar in comatose, blunt trauma patients with negative comprehensive cervical spine computed tomography and no apparent spinal deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, C Michael; Brocker, Brian P; Collier, B David; Gemmel, David J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In blunt trauma, comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 8) with a negative comprehensive cervical spine (CS) computed tomography assessment and no apparent spinal deficit, CS clearance strategies (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and prolonged cervical collar use) are controversial. Methods We conducted a literature review to delineate risks for coma, CS instability, prolonged cervical collar use, and CS MRI. Results Based on our search of the literature, the numbers of...

  1. Tracheal intubation in patients with rigid collar immobilisation of the cervical spine: a comparison of Airtraq and LMA CTrach devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Z I; Yildiz, T; Baykara, Z N; Solak, M; Toker, K

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Airtraq and CTrach in lean patients with simulated cervical spine injury after application of a rigid cervical collar. Eighty-six consenting adult patients of ASA physical status 1 or 2, who required elective tracheal intubation were included in this study in a randomised manner. Anaesthesia was induced using 1 microg kg(-1) fentanyl, 3 mg kg(-1) propofol and 0.6 mg kg(-1) rocuronium, following which a rigid cervical collar was applied. Comparison was then made between tracheal intubation techniques using either the AirTraq or CTrach device. The mean (SD) time to see the glottis was shorter with the Airtraq than the CTrach (11.9 (6.8) vs 37.6 (16.7)s, respectively; p cervical spine immobilisation.

  2. First postpartum estrus and pregnancy in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Lopez-Gatius, Fernando; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2006-11-01

    The onset of sexual cycle postpartum was described in the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu). Serum progesterone and 17beta-estradiol profiles, vaginal smears and external genitalia were analyzed in 20 animals housed with their piglets during the first postpartum month. The appearance of external genitalia showed no variation in any of the females: a shallow, reddish vulva, and vaginal mucus were constant features throughout the study. Based on hormonal profiles and vaginal smear cell patterns, 16 (80%) of the 20 peccaries showed signs of estrus and were considered cycling. The remaining four females (20%) did no show signs of estrus confirmed by low levels of progesterone (0.9+/-0.4 ng/mL) during the first postpartum month. In the cycling peccaries, a serum 17beta-estradiol peak (53.4+/-8.1 pg/mL) was observed on Day 7+/-1 postpartum, along with a linear increase in progesterone concentration from 3 (4.3+/-2.6 ng/mL) to 11 (30.8+/-4.9 ng/mL) days after this estradiol peak. Proportions of the different cells of the vaginal epithelium also changed in these females: superficial plus intermediate cells amounted to 76% of the cell total between Days 6 and 9 postpartum, corresponding to the estradiol peak. Nine (56%) of the 16 cycling females mated, indicated by the presence of sperm cells in their vaginal smears, and 6 (67%) became pregnant, reaching term. Non-pregnant cycling females (n=10) showed a steady decrease in serum progesterone concentration from 11 to 23 days after the estradiol peak, when basal levels were attained and a new estradiol peak registered, indicating the resumption of cyclicity in these females. The time interval between the two estradiol peaks was 23.5+/-2.1 days in these females. In pregnant females, progesterone concentrations continued to rise to levels of 60 ng/mL (n=6) 23 days after mating. These findings indicate that the lactating collared peccary female can become cycling and fertile during the early postpartum period, and that a

  3. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  4. The effect of a collar and surface finish on cemented femoral stems: a prospective randomised trial of four stem designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Jonathan; Hazlerigg, Alexandra; Aneel, Ansari; Epie, Geoffrey; Dabis, Husam; Twyman, Roy; Cobb, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The optimal design for a cemented femoral stem remains a matter of debate. Over time, the shape, surface finish and collar have all been modified in various ways. A clear consensus has not yet emerged regarding the relative merits of even the most basic design features of the stem. We undertook a prospective randomised trial comparing surface finish and the effect of a collar on cemented femoral component subsidence, survivorship and clinical function. One hundred and sixty three primary total hip replacement patients were recruited prospectively and randomised to one of four groups to receive a cemented femoral stem with either a matt or polished finish, and with or without a collar. At two years, although there was a trend for increased subsidence in the matt collarless group, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). At a mean of 10.1 years follow-up, WOMAC scores for the surviving implants were good, (Range of means 89-93) without significant differences. Using revision or radiographic loosening as the endpoint, survivorship of the entire cohort was 93 % at 11 yrs, (CI 87-97 %). There were no significant differences in survivorship between the two groups with polished stems or the two groups with matt stems. A comparison of the two collarless stems demonstrated a statistically significant difference in survivorship between polished (100 %) and matt (88 %) finishes (p = 0.02). In the presence of a collar, surface finish did not significantly affect survivorship or function. Between the two collarless groups a polished surface conferred an improved survivorship.

  5. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    2016-09-01

    To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain was explored. Observational. Level one trauma centre in the Netherlands. Adult trauma patients admitted to the Emergency Department in an extrication collar combined with headblocks. Between January and December 2013, 342 patients were included. Study outcomes were incidence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain. The following dependent variables were collected: time in the cervical collar and headblocks, Glasgow Coma Scale, Mean Arterial Pressure, haemoglobin, Injury Severity Score, gender, age, and Body Mass Index. 75.4% of the patients developed a category 1 and 2.9% a category 2 pressure ulcer. Indentation marks were observed in 221 (64.6%) patients; 96 (28.1%) had severe indentation marks. Pressure ulcers and indentation marks were observed most frequently at the back, shoulders and chest. 63.2% experienced pain, of which, 38.5% experienced severe pain. Pain was mainly located at the occiput. Female patients experienced significantly more pain (NRS>3) compared to male patients (OR=2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.80) None of the investigated variables significantly increased the probability of developing PUs or indentation marks. The high incidence of category 1 pressure ulcers and severe indentation marks indicate an increased risk for pressure ulcer development and may well lead to more severe PU lesions. Pain due to the application of the extrication collar and headblocks may lead to undesirable movement (in order to relieve the pressure) or to bias clinical examination of the cervical spine. It is necessary to revise the current practice of cervical spine immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance.

  7. Evaluation of genetic variability in the collared peccary Pecari tajacu and the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Wirschum Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the microsatellite technique was used to evaluate the genetic variability in populations of collared and white-lipped peccaries kept in captivity. Six primers developed for domestic pigs were used and amplified in both species. They revealed the presence of five polymorphic loci and one monomorphic locus. The polymorphic loci included 4 of the 16 alleles in collared peccaries, and 3 of the 10 alleles in the white-lipped peccaries. Polymorphic information content (PIC in both species and all the loci was highly informative. The probability of paternity exclusion (PEC, if one of the parents is known, was almost as high in white-lipped peccaries (95.53% as in the collared (99,48%. The Fst values for collared (0.042 and white-lipped (0.1387 peccaries showed that both populations are not structured. The Fis values for all loci, except ACTG2 in white-lipped peccaries (-0.0275 and in both species (0.1985 to 0.9284 in collared peccaries and 0.3621 to 0.4754 in the white-lipped, revealed a high level of homozygosis, probably caused by inbreeding. Data on heterologous amplification and genetic variability in collared and white-lipped peccaries are presented for the first time.

  8. Evaluation of genetic variability in the collared peccary Pecari tajacu and the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Roxane Wirschum; de Freitas, Thales R O; Sbalqueiro, Ives José

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the microsatellite technique was used to evaluate the genetic variability in populations of collared and white-lipped peccaries kept in captivity. Six primers developed for domestic pigs were used and amplified in both species. They revealed the presence of five polymorphic loci and one monomorphic locus. The polymorphic loci included 4 of the 16 alleles in collared peccaries, and 3 of the 10 alleles in the white-lipped peccaries. Polymorphic information content (PIC) in both species and all the loci was highly informative. The probability of paternity exclusion (PEC), if one of the parents is known, was almost as high in white-lipped peccaries (95.53%) as in the collared (99,48%). The Fst values for collared (0.042) and white-lipped (0.1387) peccaries showed that both populations are not structured. The Fis values for all loci, except ACTG2 in white-lipped peccaries (-0.0275) and in both species (0.1985 to 0.9284 in collared peccaries and 0.3621 to 0.4754 in the white-lipped), revealed a high level of homozygosis, probably caused by inbreeding. Data on heterologous amplification and genetic variability in collared and white-lipped peccaries are presented for the first time.

  9. Evaluation of habitat use by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in north-central New Mexico using global positioning system radio collars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-04-01

    In 1996 the authors initiated a study to identify habitat use in north-central New Mexico by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. They collared six elk in the spring of 1996 with GPS radio collars programmed to obtain locational fixes every 23 h. Between April 1, 1996 and January 7, 1997, they collected >1,200 fixes with an approximately 70% observation rate. They have interfaced GPS locational fixes of elk and detailed vegetation maps using the geographical information system to provide seasonal habitat use within mountainous regions of north-central New Mexico. Based on habitat use and availability analysis, use of grass/shrub and pinon/juniper habitats was generally higher than expected during most seasons and use of forested habitats was lower than expected. Most of the collared elk remained on LANL property year-round. The authors believe the application of GPS collars to elk studies in north-central New Mexico to be a more efficient and effective method than the use of VHF (very-high frequency) radio collars.

  10. Progesterone and estradiol-17β as a potential method for pregnancy diagnosis in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; López-Béjar, Manel

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the period of pregnancy of nine collared peccary females has been monitored through the analysis of serum progesterone and estradiol-17β profiles. Serum concentrations of progesterone increased by Day 4 after conception, reaching concentrations of 33.4±5.6 ng/mL on Day 10. Between Days 10 and 130 progesterone values were maintained between 20 and 60 ng/mL. In the collared peccary, embryonic estradiol synthesis is first observed in the systemic circulation by Day 15 of pregnancy. Between Days 0 and 50 of pregnancy, average estradiol-17β concentrations were between 0 and 30 pg/mL. From Day 75 of pregnancy onwards, estradiol concentrations were constantly increasing, reaching maximum concentrations (131.4±40.8 pg/mL) on the day of parturition. The combined study of serum progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations as a potential method for early pregnancy diagnosis presented the best overall accuracy (73%) when the threshold was established at 20 ng/mL serum progesterone and 20 pg/mL serum estradiol. Nevertheless, the accuracy for diagnosing pregnancy of females at mid and late pregnancy was 78% and 95%, respectively. The analysis of the sexual hormones during pregnancy could be a useful tool as a potential pregnancy diagnosis and an efficient predictor of the day of parturition in the captive collared peccary.

  11. Use of Non-invasive Methods for Evaluating the Testicular Biometry in Collared Peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Lima, G L; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Ricarte, A R F; Silva, A R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two methods used to estimate testicular volume in the collared peccary. Calliper and ultrasonographic measurements of testicular dimensions (length, width and height) of both testes were taken on five adult collared peccaries. The testicular volume was calculated by Lambert's empiric formula: length (L) × width (W) × height (H) × 0.71, the formula of an ellipsoid L × W × H × 0.52, and Hansen's formula: L × W(2)  × 0.52. The calculated volumes were then compared with the actual ones, which were estimated by water displacement. The mean of true testicular volume was 22.65 ± 1.52 ml. Lambert's formula estimated testicular volume more accurately when ultrasound measurements were taken. However, when the calliper was the methodology used, the results were closest to the true volume, especially when Ellipsoid formula and Hansen's formula were applied, and underestimated the true volumes by 1.53 ± 1.75 ml and 1.53 ± 1.65 ml, respectively. This specific application of technologies in wild animals has the potential to revolutionize the selection process for the collared peccary entering artificial insemination or natural breeding programmes.

  12. Perivascular adipose tissue-derived adiponectin inhibits collar-induced carotid atherosclerosis by promoting macrophage autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlong Li

    Full Text Available Adiponectin (APN secreted from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT is one of the important anti-inflammatory adipokines to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how APN regulates plaque formation in atherosclerosis.To assess the role of APN secreted by PVAT in atherosclerosis progression, we performed PVAT transplantation experiments on carotid artery atherosclerosis model: ApoE knockout (ApoE-/- mice with a perivascular collar placement around the left carotid artery in combination with a high-fat diet feeding. Our results show that the ApoE-/- mice with PVAT derived from APN knockout (APN-/- mice exhibited accelerated plaque volume formation compared to ApoE-/- mice transplanted with wild-type littermate tissue. Conversely, autophagy in macrophages was significantly attenuated in ApoE-/- mice transplanted with APN-/- mouse-derived PVAT compared to controls. Furthermore, in vitro studies indicate that APN treatment increased autophagy in primary macrophages, as evidenced by increased LC3-I processing and Beclin1 expression, which was accompanied by down-regulation of p62. Moreover, our results demonstrate that APN promotes macrophage autophagy via suppressing the Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway.Our results indicate that PVAT-secreted APN suppresses plaque formation by inducing macrophage autophagy.

  13. Improving Signal Levels in Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy using an Objective Correction Collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriello, Pamela A; Dunn, Kenneth W

    2008-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has enabled biologists to collect high-resolution images hundreds of microns into biological tissues, including tissues of living animals. While the depth of imaging exceeds that possible from any other form of light microscopy, multiphoton microscopy is nonetheless generally limited to depths of less than a millimeter. Many of the advantages of multiphoton microscopy for deep tissue imaging accrue from the unique nature of multiphoton fluorescence excitation. However, the quadratic relationship between illumination level and fluorescence excitation makes multiphoton microscopy especially susceptible to factors that degrade the illumination focus. Here we examine the effect of spherical aberration on multiphoton microscopy in fixed kidney tissues and in the kidneys of living animals. We find that spherical aberration, as evaluated from axial asymmetry in the point spread function, can be corrected by adjustment of the correction collar of a water immersion objective lens. Introducing a compensatory positive spherical aberration into the imaging system decreased the depth-dependence of signal levels in images collected from living animals, increasing signal by up to 50%.

  14. Disrupting evolutionary processes: The effect of habitat fragmentation on collared lizards in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R.; Robertson, Robert J.; Brisson, Jennifer; Strasburg, Jared

    2001-01-01

    Humans affect biodiversity at the genetic, species, community, and ecosystem levels. This impact on genetic diversity is critical, because genetic diversity is the raw material of evolutionary change, including adaptation and speciation. Two forces affecting genetic variation are genetic drift (which decreases genetic variation within but increases genetic differentiation among local populations) and gene flow (which increases variation within but decreases differentiation among local populations). Humans activities often augment drift and diminish gene flow for many species, which reduces genetic variation in local populations and prevents the spread of adaptive complexes outside their population of origin, thereby disrupting adaptive processes both locally and globally within a species. These impacts are illustrated with collared lizards (Crotaphytus collaris) in the Missouri Ozarks. Forest fire suppression has reduced habitat and disrupted gene flow in this lizard, thereby altering the balance toward drift and away from gene flow. This balance can be restored by managed landscape burns. Some have argued that, although human-induced fragmentation disrupts adaptation, it will also ultimately produce new species through founder effects. However, population genetic theory and experiments predict that most fragmentation events caused by human activities will facilitate not speciation, but local extinction. Founder events have played an important role in the macroevolution of certain groups, but only when ecological opportunities are expanding rather than contracting. The general impact of human activities on genetic diversity disrupts or diminishes the capacity for adaptation, speciation, and macroevolutionary change. This impact will ultimately diminish biodiversity at all levels. PMID:11344289

  15. Fine structure and development of the collar enamel in gars ,Lepisosteus oculatus ,Actinopterygii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fine structure of collar enamel and the cells constituting the enamel organ during amelogenesis in Lepisosteus oculatus was observed by light,scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy.In the enamel,slender crystals were arranged perpendicular to the surface and the stripes that were parallel to the surface were observed,suggesting that the enamel in Lepisosteus shares common morphological features with that in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians.Ameloblasts containing developed Golgi apparatus,rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and secretory granules were found in the secretory stage.In the maturation stage,a ruffled border was not seen at the distal end of the ameloblasts,while many mitochondria and lysosome-like granules were obvious in the distal cytoplasm.The enamel organ consisted of the outer dental epithelial cells,stratum reticulum cells and ameloblasts,but there was no stratum intermedium.It is likely that the ameloblasts have less absorptive function in comparison with the inner dental epithelial cells facing cap enameloid.

  16. Measuring glottal activity during voiced speech using a tuned electromagnetic resonating collar sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. R., III; Keenaghan, K.; Desimini, S.

    2005-11-01

    Non-acoustic speech sensors can be employed to obtain measurements of one or more aspects of the speech production process, such as glottal activity, even in the presence of background noise. These sensors have a long history of clinical applications and have also recently been applied to the problem of denoising speech signals recorded in acoustically noisy environments (Ng et al 2000 Proc. Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (Istanbul, Turkey) vol 1, pp 229-32). Recently, researchers developed a new non-acoustic speech sensor based primarily on a tuned electromagnetic resonator collar (TERC) (Brown et al 2004 Meas. Sci. Technol. 15 1291). The TERC sensor measures glottal activity by sensing small changes in the dielectric properties of the glottis that result from voiced speech. This paper builds on the seminal work in Brown et al (2004). The primary contributions of this paper are (i) a description of a new single-mode TERC sensor design addressing the comfort and complexity issues of the original sensor, (ii) a complete description of new external interface systems used to obtain long-duration recordings from the TERC sensor and (iii) more extensive experimental results and analysis for the single-mode TERC sensor including spectrograms of speech containing both voiced and unvoiced speech segments in quiet and acoustically noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrate that the single-mode TERC sensor is able to detect glottal activity up to the fourth harmonic and is also insensitive to acoustic background noise.

  17. Phylogeography of the circumpolar Paranoplocephala arctica species complex (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) parasitizing collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, L M; Haukisalmi, V; Varis, S; Hantula, J; Fedorov, V B; Henttonen, H

    2003-12-01

    The Paranoplocephla arctica complex (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae), host-specific cestodes of collared lemmings Dicrostonyx, include two morphospecies P. arctica and P. alternata, whose taxonomical status now must be considered ambiguous. The genetic population structure and phylogeography of the P. arctica complex was studied from 83 individuals sampled throughout the Holarctic distribution range using 600 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny divides the species complex into one main Nearctic and one main Palaearctic phylogroup, corresponding to the main phylogenetic division of the hosts. In the Palearctic phylogroup, the parasite clades correspond to the host clades although the parasites from Wrangel Island form an exception as the host on this island, D. groenlandicus, belongs to the Nearctic phylogroup. In the Nearctic, northern refugia beyond the ice limit of the Pleistocene glaciations are proposed for the hosts. All reconstructions of parasite phylogeny show a genetically differentiated population structure that in the Canadian Arctic lacks strict congruence between phylogeny and geography. The parasite phylogeny does not show complete congruence with host relationships, suggesting a history of colonization and secondary patterns of dispersal from Beringia into the Canadian Arctic, an event not proposed by the host phylogenies alone.

  18. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T C; Dantzer, V; Jones, C J P; Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A

    2006-01-01

    This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial placentae show no trophoblast invasion into the uterine epithelium and there is interdigitation between fetal and maternal microvilli. Two distinct regions of the fetomaternal interface can be identified: the interareolar and the areolar regions. The uterine epithelium has eosinophilic cytoplasm with dispersed, basophilic and electron-dense granules. Trophoblast cells are irregularly cuboidal on top of the fetal ridges and columnar on troughs, where cells have cytoplasmic vesicles and large basal vacuoles, surrounded by whorls of smooth membranes. Capillaries indent the trophoblast cells forming a placental barrier 3 microm or less thick. The columnar uterine glandular epithelium has a subpopulation of granules staining with Perl's Prussian blue reaction, suggesting iron secretion. In areolar areas, the trophoblast cells show apical microvilli, a basophilic cytoplasm with electron-dense intracellular vacuoles and cisternae. The placenta can therefore be classified as non-deciduate. The ultrastructural aspects of this study reveal features that have not previously been described and extend our knowledge of functions relating to materno-fetal transport in these species.

  19. Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Souza, Patrícia; Khayat, André Salim; Seligmann, Igor Chamon; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel Mario

    2008-08-01

    The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

  20. Trends in abundance of collared lemmings near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Regular, multiannual cycles observed in the population abundance of small mammals in many arctic and subarctic ecosystems have stimulated substantial research, particularly among population ecologists. Hypotheses of mechanisms generating regular cycles include predator-prey interactions, limitation of food resources, and migration or dispersal, as well as abiotic factors such as cyclic climatic variation and environmental stochasticity. In 2004 and 2005, we used indirect methods to estimate trends in population size of Richardson's collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) retrospectively, and evaluated the extent of synchrony between lemming populations at 2 coastal tundra study areas separated by approximately 60 km near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We collected scars on willow plants (Salix) resulting from lemming feeding. Ages of scars ranged from 0 to 13 years at both study areas. Scar-age frequency appeared cyclic and we used nonlinear Poisson regression to model the observed scar-age frequency. Lemming populations cycled with 2.8-year periodicity and the phase of the cycle was synchronous between the 2 study areas. We suggest that our approach could be applied in multiple settings and may provide the most efficient way to gather data on small mammals across both space and time in a diversity of landscapes. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  1. Job demand and cardiovascular disease risk factor in white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Kyu; Lee, Kang Koo; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether job demand played a role as a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases by comparing changes of blood pressure, heart rate and rate pressure product (RPP) showing myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) according to levels of job demand. This cross-sectional study divided 177 male white-collar workers without a cardiovascular or metabolic disease according to their job demand and analyzed their body composition and results of graded exercise testing. There was no significant difference in height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage according to job demand. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT) also did not show a significant difference. However, systolic blood pressures at the seventh and eighth stages over AT during exercise were significantly different and RPP was found to have a significant difference overall according to the job demand (ppressure in physical activities or at exercise intensity over AT and reduced energy efficiency of myocardium during physical activities. The results suggest that high job demand may be a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Chronic cervicogenic tinnitus rapidly resolved by intermittent use of cervical collar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl eBechter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cervicogenic tinnitus is a not generally accepted pathogenetic subtype, which might be subsumed under the concept of somatosensory tinnitus. After the personal experience of therapy resistant tinnitus in context with a cervical pain syndrome (CS and successful add-on treatment with cervical collar (CC, the idea was persued in several individual treatments in patients.Patients and Methods:Reporting one particular case with chronic tinnitus considered untreatable, but rapidly improved with CC use. Thereafter tinnitus was experimentally replicated by head inclination, the respective neck-head angles and cerebral blood flow measured. Results:Chronic subjective tinnitus of a 20 years duration completely disappeared within 4 weeks with an intermittent short time application of CC. Thereafter, tinnitus was liberately again induced by head inclination, set on with anterior tilt of 14°, reaching maximum strength by 23°. Tinnitus stopped with return to neutral head position. Blood flow in the vertebral arteries on both sides was unchanged during head inclination with prevalent tinnitus, however blood flow was physiologically reduced with head rotation though not accompanied by tinnitus.Discussion:In a single case of chronic tinnitus, we found that treatment with CC rapidly led to full remission. Nevertheless, tinnitus could be resumed by constrained head postures. Experimental tinnitus replication by inclination points to an underscored role of upper posterior cervical muscle groups, matching with animal experiments, working in concert with other triggers including psychological factors. Blood flow reduction in vertebral arteries was unrelated to tinnitus.

  3. Influence of climate warming on arctic mammals? New insights from ancient DNA studies of the collared lemming Dicrostonyx torquatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Prost

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global temperature increased by approximately half a degree (Celsius within the last 150 years. Even this moderate warming had major impacts on Earth's ecological and biological systems, especially in the Arctic where the magnitude of abiotic changes even exceeds those in temperate and tropical biomes. Therefore, understanding the biological consequences of climate change on high latitudes is of critical importance for future conservation of the species living in this habitat. The past 25,000 years can be used as a model for such changes, as they were marked by prominent climatic changes that influenced geographical distribution, demographic history and pattern of genetic variation of many extant species. We sequenced ancient and modern DNA of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus, which is a key species of the arctic biota, from a single site (Pymva Shor, Northern Pre Urals, Russia to see if climate warming events after the Last Glacial Maximum had detectable effects on the genetic variation of this arctic rodent species, which is strongly associated with a cold and dry climate. RESULTS: Using three dimensional network reconstructions we found a dramatic decline in genetic diversity following the LGM. Model-based approaches such as Approximate Bayesian Computation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference show that there is evidence for a population decline in the collared lemming following the LGM, with the population size dropping to a minimum during the Greenland Interstadial 1 (Bølling/Allerød warming phase at 14.5 kyrs BP. CONCLUSION: Our results show that previous climate warming events had a strong influence on genetic diversity and population size of collared lemmings. Due to its already severely compromised genetic diversity a similar population reduction as a result of the predicted future climate change could completely abolish the remaining genetic diversity in this population. Local population

  4. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Louise G.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De; Browne, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available 241AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×104 s-1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32

  5. Cryopreservation of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen using different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were diluted in a coconut water extender (ACP-116c) with egg yolk and glycerol, packaged into 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen following a slow (-10 °C/min) or a fast (-40 °C/min) freezing curve. After one week, samples were thawed at 37 °C/1 min or 70 °C/8s and evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). A significant decrease in sperm motility and kinetic rating was observed after glycerol addition at 5 °C and also after thawing for all the treatments (Pstraw size and thawing rate were taken as reference (P>0.05). In general, values for sperm characteristics found after thawing at 37 °C were better preserved than at 70 °C (Pstraws, which were similar for semen packaging (P>0.05). The evaluation of the kinematic parameters of sperm motility confirmed these results at values varying from 20% to 30% motile sperm for the samples tha wed at 37 °C, and values fewer than 12% motile sperm for samples thawed at 70 °C (Pstraws, but the thawing should be conducted at 37 °C/1 min.

  6. The impact of posture on wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers: the San Francisco study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Adamson, Carisa; You, Doohee; Eisen, Ellen A; Goldberg, Robert; Rempel, David

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of wrist posture on incidence of wrist tendinosis in a prospective cohort of blue-collar workers. Previous studies have identified awkward wrist posture as a risk factor for wrist tendinosis, though the magnitude of the relationship is unclear. Workers (N = 413) at four industries were followed for up to 28 months with questionnaires and physical examinations every 4 months. Individualized exposure assessments of wrist posture were based on video analysis to determine the wrist extension/flexion angle for up to four tasks. Posture measures were calculated while in "heavy pinch" (> 1 kg force), "heavy power grip" (> 4 kg force), and across "all grips." A proportional hazards model estimated the relationship between time-weighted average posture measures and incidence of dominant-side wrist tendinosis. In a model based on tertiles of exposure, adjusted for age, gender, hand force, and repetition of exertions, risk of tendinosis more than doubled in the highest category (HR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.01-7.21) across all grips. The relative risk was highest during heavy pinch (HR = 5.03, 95% CI = 0.74-34.05), though not statistically significant. Increased median wrist extension while in heavy power grip was protective (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.06-0.94). In this study of production workers, median wrist flexion of more than 70, across all grips, was associated with an increased risk of tendinosis. The protective findings on median wrist extension during power grip deserve further investigation. Work tasks and tools should be designed to prevent sustained wrist flexion, especially during tasks involving forceful pinch.

  7. Histomorphometrical and proliferative aspects of placenta and uterus of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T C; Tonarelli, C; Teixeira, F A; Oliveira, M F; Maria, D; Reginato, P; Kfoury, J R; Oliveira, C A L; Lourenço, D A L; Miglino, M A

    2012-06-01

    The histomorphometric and proliferative characteristics of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta and uterus were analyzed. The material was examined by standard histological techniques and histochemistry (PAS, Perls and Alcian Blue pH 0.5 and 2.5%) and the cellular proliferation by AgNORs and flow cytometry. All the analyzed morphometric variables differed between pregnant and non-pregnant uteri in the luteal phase using the Dunnet test. Height and gland diameter of uterine glands increased linearly during pregnancy, with an intense positive PAS and Perls reaction in all stages. The cells with more than seven AgNORs per nuclei and the cells in the G2M cell cycle phase in the maternal tissue also increased after 70 days of pregnancy. The uteroplacental ridges had a linear increase in size with two distinct areas, base and top, with uterine epithelium and trophoblastic cells changing their morphology following the placental ridge development. Flow cytometry analysis showed the percentage of cells in each cell cycle phase with a quadratic behavior for stages G2/M in the maternal tissue, suggesting an increase in proliferative capacity of maternal tissue after 65 days of pregnancy. The same quadratic effect was observed in the G0/G1 phase in both maternal and fetal tissues. Cells in apoptosis showed cubic behavior in both tissues. The morphometric and cellular dynamic aspects observed in this study have not been previously described and they extend our knowledge of functions relating to maternal-fetal dynamics in this species.

  8. Physiological responses of the adult male collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae), to severe dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Greene, L W; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic and hormonal responses of eight adult male collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) to an ad libitum diet intake, or 25% of an ad libitum intake, were examined. Blood samples for hematological, serum-biochemical and hormonal profiles were collected at three week intervals during the nine week experiment starting 4 August 1983. Males fed on the restricted diet lost an average of 26% of their body weight during the trial, compared to a slight weight gain for those fed ad libitum. Characteristics of the red and white blood cell populations were not influenced by diet intake, with the exception of mean corpuscular volume, which was consistently lower amongst males fed on the restricted diet. Restricted food intake resulted in significantly elevated serum values for urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen:creatinine, urea index, alpha globulin:beta globulin, gamma globulin:albumin, nonesterified fatty acids, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase isozymes (LD1 and LD2). Restricted food intake resulted in significantly lowered serum values for total alpha globulin, alpha-1 globulin, total beta globulin, beta-1 globulin, beta-2 globulin, glucose, triglycerides, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, copper and triiodothyronine. Serum levels of creatinine, total protein, albumin, alpha-2 globulin, uric acid, total bilirubin, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, calcium:phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and thyroxine were unaffected by diet intake level. Semen evaluation indicated spermatogenesis was not affected by dietary restriction despite reductions in scrotal circumference and ejaculate gel volume. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower among males fed on the restricted diet after nine weeks. These data suggest male libido might be depressed during poor range conditions, while maintenance of spermatogenesis might permit them to take immediate advantage of improved

  9. IS WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINALITY CLOSER TO THE RATIONAL MODEL THAN ANY OTHER TYPE MODEL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise is that white-collar felons are making non-rational decisions. To our opinion, they are not making decisions according to a calculation of profit or loss from perpetration of a crime as it was stated earlier in the scientific literature. In relation to the above mentioned premises, an illegal behavior is an occasion of a white-collar felon deciding to take the law into his own hands while taking risks. Naturally, the level of values and personality of the felon constitute a significant factor. Our current study offers an examination of deterring through a prism of the white-collar felon, who makes the decision to perpetrate a crime according to irrational components as well.White-collar crime, as family violence, and other socially harmful behaviors, is often excluded from examination. Of our opinion all the rational, social, biological, etc. theories of crimes, are the base of the reasons to make an offence, but in reality, the implementation of white-collar criminality closer to the non-rational model than any other type model. People are seen as less than fully rational. Often they do not make decisions that would appear to be in their own best interest for a variety of reasons. First, people do not always have all of the information they need to make informed decisions, and even if they do, may not have the capacity to optimally process that information. The personalities, experiences and options that of human beings given the choice in life, that it is quite naive to assume that we will all assess the situation similarly and arrive at similar choices. Many criminal events appear not to be very rational choices at all, or at least reflect patterns of decision making quite different from those more typically seen among law-abiding citizens. Ближе ли беловоротничковая преступность к рациональной модели, нежели к другим типам моделе

  10. Imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collars (Seresto®, Bayer) successfully prevent long-term transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Fourie, Josephus J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the empirical efficacy of imidacloprid 10 %/flumethrin 4.5 % (Seresto®) collars in preventing long-term transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs. The study was a parallel group design, single centre, randomised, non-blinded, controlled, long-term efficacy study. The treatment group of 8 dogs was fitted with Seresto® collars, the untreated control group of 8 dogs received no collars. Ehrlichia canis-infected ticks were released into the dogs sleeping quarters at 14-day intervals up to Day +378. Control group dogs infected with E. canis were continuously replaced to keep the control sample size constant, and a total of 39 control dogs were required. The final clinical examination and blood sampling occurred on Day +420. The primary assessment criterion was the number of dogs infected with E. canis, as confirmed by IFA and PCR, and the secondary criterion was the acaricidal efficacy based on tick counts. All scheduled blood samples taken were subject to analyses for both PCR and IFA, but only positive cases are discussed. Up to Day +378, none of the collar-treated dogs were infected with E. canis, whereas 34 of the 35 untreated dogs enrolled before Day +371 were infected. The acaricidal efficacy of the collar ranged from 90 % to 100 % for the duration of the assessment period.

  11. High-resolution comparative chromosome painting in the Arizona collared peccary (Pecari tajacu, Tayassuidae): a comparison with the karyotype of pig and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel; Kofler, Andrea; Krausman, Paul R; Masabanda, Julio; Wienberg, Johannes; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2006-01-01

    We used chromosome painting with chromosome-specific probes derived from domestic sheep and pig for a high-resolution cytogenetic comparison with the karyotype of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu sonoriensis). A reorganization of the karyotype involving at least 62-66 conserved segments were observed between the sheep and collared peccary. This is an extremely high number compared with other members of the same mammalian order (Cetartiodactyla). The comparison between pig and collared peccary, both belonging to the Suiformes, however, revealed various changes in the gross organization of both karyotypes that may have already occurred in a common ancestor of both species suggesting a monophyletic origin of Suidae/Tayassuidae. The sheep probes, however, also revealed several rearrangements between the two Suidae/Tayassuidae, indicating that these probes represent a useful tool for a more detailed analysis of the evolutionary history of Suiformes. Our sample of the collared peccary from North America (Arizona, USA) showed distinct differences to those already described from South America. The chromosome painting results defined a complex translocation that involves chromosomes including about one-quarter of the entire collared peccary karyotype. This considerable rearrangement indicates subspecies or even species status of both peccary populations, as it should present a significant barrier for their hybridization.

  12. Functional outcomes, morbidity, mortality, and fracture healing in 58 consecutive patients with geriatric odontoid fracture treated with cervical collar or posterior fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, William J; Molinari, Robert W; Khera, Oner A; Gruhn, William L

    2013-03-01

    Controversy exists as to the most effective management option for elderly patients with type II odontoid fractures. The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes associated with rigid cervical collar and posterior fusion surgery. Patients with ≥ 50% odontoid displacement were treated with posterior fusion surgery including C1-2 (PSF group, n = 25, average age = 80 years). Patients with cervical collar for 12 weeks (collar group, n = 33, average age = 83 years). These inhomogeneous groups were followed for an average of 14 months. Fracture healing rates were higher in the operative group (28% versus 6%). Neck Disability Index scores were slightly lower in the nonoperative group (13 versus 18.3, p = 0.23). Analogue pain scores were also slightly lower in the nonoperative group (1.3 versus 1.9, p = 0.26). The mortality rate was 12.5% in the collar group and 20% in the operative group. Complications were higher in the operative group (24% versus 6%). Rates of type II odontoid facture healing and stability appear to be higher in geriatric patients treated with posterior fusion surgery. Fracture healing and stability did not correlate with improved outcomes with respect to levels of pain, function, and satisfaction. Mortality and complication rates are lower in those patients with lesser-displaced fractures who are treated with a cervical collar and early mobilization.

  13. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a train...

  14. Resolution of a periodontoid rheumatoid pannus mass in an elderly patient treated with a rigid cervical collar: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseni, Abidemi; Kakavas, Georg; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios

    2016-06-17

    In patients with C2 rheumatoid pannus with spinal cord compression the treatment of choice is extensive surgery either through a transoral resection of the dens axis or a dorsal stabilisation, or both. We present a case of an 11-mm rheumatoid pannus with significant compression of the spinal cord, which failed surgical treatment with respect to dorsal stabilisation. Therefore, rigid cervical collar for 8 weeks followed by soft collar for another 4 weeks was chosen as a treatment option. During the follow-up period of 1 year, the pannus reduced significantly and the spinal cord decompressed. In cases where surgery is not an option or is technically very demanding, the alternative of cervical collar immobilisation is a satisfying option.

  15. Evaluation of the GlideScope for tracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilisation by a semi-rigid collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathory, I; Frascarolo, P; Kern, C; Schoettker, P

    2009-12-01

    Application of cervical collars may reduce cervical spine movements but render tracheal intubation with a standard laryngoscope difficult if not impossible. We hypothesised that despite the presence of a Philadelphia Patriot cervical collar and with the patient's head taped to the trolley, tracheal intubation would be possible in 50 adult patients using the GlideScope and its dedicated stylet. Laryngoscopy was attempted using a Macintosh laryngoscope with a size 4 blade, and the modified Cormack-Lehane grade was scored. Subsequently, laryngoscopy with the GlideScope was graded and followed by tracheal intubation. All patients' tracheas were successfully intubated with the GlideScope. The median (IQR) intubation time was 50 s (43-61 s). The modified Cormack-Lehane grade was 3 or 4 at direct laryngoscopy. It was significantly reduced with the GlideScope (p collar and having their head taped to the trolley is possible with the help of the GlideScope.

  16. The white collar complex is involved in sexual development of Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Kim

    Full Text Available Sexual spores (ascospores of Fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. Based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia of F. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. Here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gene (FgFph and two white collar genes (FgWc-1 and FgWc-2] during sexual development in F. graminearum. For functional analyses, we generated transgenic strains lacking one or two genes from the self-fertile Z3643 strain. Unlike the wild-type (WT and add-back strains, the single deletion strains (ΔFgWc-1 and ΔFgWc-2 produced fertile perithecia under constant light on complete medium (CM, an unfavorable medium for sexual development as well as on carrot agar (a perithecial induction condition. The expression of mating-type (MAT genes increased significantly in the gene deletion strains compared to the WT under both conditions. Deletion of FgFph had no significant effect on sexual development or MAT gene expression. In contrast, all of the deletion strains examined did not show significant changes in other traits such as hyphal growth, mycotoxin production, and virulence. A split luciferase assay confirmed the in vivo protein-protein interactions among three photoreceptors along with FgLaeA, a global regulator of secondary metabolism and fungal development. Introduction of an intact copy of the A. nidulans LreA and LreB genes, which are homologs of FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, into the ΔFgWc-1 and ΔFgWc-2 strains, respectively, failed to repress perithecia formation on CM in the gene deletion strains. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, two central components of the blue-light sensing system, negatively regulate sexual development in F

  17. Using computerised surface wound mapping to compare the potential medical effectiveness of Enhanced Protection Under Body Armour Combat Shirt collar designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Allanson-Bailey, L C; Hunt, N C; Delaney, R; Hepper, A E; Lewis, E A

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the neck from explosively propelled fragments has traditionally been achieved through a collar attached to the ballistic vest. An Enhanced Protection Under Body Armour Combat Shirt (EP-UBACS) collar has been identified as an additional method of providing neck protection but limited evidence as to its potential medical effectiveness exists to justify its procurement. Entry wound locations and resultant medical outcomes were determined using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) for all fragmentation neck wounds sustained by UK soldiers between 01 January 2010 and 31 December 2011. Data were prospectively entered into a novel computerised tool base and comparisons made between three EP-UBACS neck collar designs in terms of predicted reduction in AIS scores. All collars reduced AIS scores, with the greatest reduction provided by designs incorporating increased standoff from the neck and an additional semi-circle of ballistic material underneath the collar at the front and back. This technique confirms that reinforcing the neck collar of an EP-UBACS would be expected to reduce injury severity from neck wounds. However, without knowledge of entry wound locations for injuries to other body areas as well as the use of AIS scores without clinical or pathological verification its further use in the future may be limited. The ability to overlay any armour design onto a standardised human was potentially the most useful part of this tool and we would recommend developing this technique using underlying anatomical structures and not just the skin surface. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Collared Pikas as a Model Species for Studying the Biological Impacts of Climate Change in Alpine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, K. S.; Hik, D.

    2007-12-01

    Climate models suggest that global temperatures could rise between 1.4° C and 5.8° C over the next 100 years, and that these effects will be most extreme in northern mountain regions. Pikas (Ochotona, Lagomorpha) are widespread small mammals in the alpine environments of Asia and North America. They are cold adapted and consequently sensitive to warming global temperatures. Considerable research has shown a poleward migration of many species as a result of rising temperatures, but high alpine dwelling species, like the pika, may already be trapped at the top of mountains. Little is known about the threshold values of environmental conditions under which pikas either persist or disappear. Collared pikas (Ochotona collaris) inhabit alpine meadows in the Kluane region of the southwest Yukon. Sites located along an environmental gradient from nunataks in the St Elias Icefields to the Ruby Range Mountains have experienced different climatic and glacial histories. Using baseline data from the long-term study in the Ruby Ranges, we report on differences in the ecological and climatic conditions of sites along this gradient and how this translates into differences in the behavioural and population ecology of the pikas living there. By looking at these differences we can infer the potential impacts of a warming climate, and the subsequent ecological changes on collared pika populations in order to clarify the causes of local extinction and allow us to develop models for predicting ecological responses as conditions change under future climate regimes.

  19. An investigation on fashion collar modeling design%女装领部造型设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖立志

    2014-01-01

    通过领部的视觉覆盖区域、形式美感法则及造型与结构的关系因素等,对领部造型设计案例进行分析,得出了在女装领部中应用视错觉规律对人体美感进行修饰的方法,以及领部对人体覆盖区域的模糊化设计方式,从而提高了领部造型设计的灵活度和形式美感。%Based on the visual coverage ,the laws of formal beauty and the relationship between modeling and structure ,the cases of collar modeling design were analyzed .As a result ,a method of improving the visual aesthetic feeling by the law of optical illusion ,as well as a way of fuzzy design on the coverage area of human body were put forward .They all could enhance the flexibility and aeshetics of collar design .

  20. In-plant test and evaluation of the neutron collar for verification of PWR fuel assemblies at Resende, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Marzo, M.A.S.; de Almeida, S.G.; de Almeida, M.C.; Moitta, L.P.M.; Conti, L.F.; de Paiva, J.R.T.

    1985-11-01

    The neutron-coincidence collar has been evaluated for the measurement of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies at the Fabrica de Elementos Combustiveis plant in Resende, Brazil. This evaluation was part of the cooperative-bilateral-safeguards technical-exchange program between the United States and Brazil. The neutron collar measures the STVU content per unit length of full fuel assemblies using neutron interrogation and coincidence counting. The STYU content is measured in the passive mode without the AmLi neutron-interrogation source. The extended evaluation took place over a period of 6 months with both scanning and single-zone measurements. The results of the tests gave a coincidence-response standard deviation of 0.7% (sigma = 1.49% for mass) for the active case and 2.5% for the passive case in 1000-s measurement times. The length measurement in the scanning mode was accurate to 0.77%. The accuracies of different calibration methods were evaluated and compared.

  1. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity.

  2. Anatomicohistological characteristics of the tubular genital organs of the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from North-eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, P; Jori, F; López-Béjar, M

    2004-04-01

    The present study examines anatomical and histological characteristics of tubular genital organs and its relationships with the reproductive state of 24 wild adult collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) females. The tunica mucosa of the uterine tube presents a pseudostratified, intermittently ciliated columnar epithelium. The epithelial secretory cells of pregnant females and females in the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle became taller than the ciliated cells and showed abundant apical secretory blebs, whereas secretory cells of females in the follicular phase showed abundant mucous secretory activity (periodic acid-Schiff positive cells). The uterus is composed of two narrow and convoluted uterine horns, separated by the velum uteri, a small uterine body and a long and muscular cervix. The endometrial lining of both uterine horns and body is a monostratified, columnar ciliated epithelium. Pregnant females and females in luteal phase showed a more developed hyperplasia of the endometrial simple tubular glands than females in the follicular phase. The cervix presents interdigitated rows of mucosal prominences that project into the lumen, structures similar to pulvini cervicali, occluding the cervical canal. In pregnant females, the endocervical canal was filled by a viscous cervical secretion. Females in follicular phase presented a thicker vaginal epithelium than pregnant females and females in luteal phase. The present study suggests that the collared peccary female showed different histological features of the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina in accordance with the reproductive state of the females.

  3. A single-item global job satisfaction measure is associated with quantitative blood immune indices in white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Although a single-item job satisfaction measure has been shown to be reliable and inclusive as multiple-item scales in relation to health, studies including immunological data are few. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of single-item job and family life satisfaction based on its association with immune indices. A total of 189 white-collar employees (70% men) underwent a blood draw for the measurement of natural killer (NK), total T, and B cell counts as well as plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations and completed single-item job and family life satisfaction measures, respectively. The response options for satisfaction measures were 'dissatisfied' (coded 1) to 'satisfied' (coded 4). Spearman's partial correlations controlling for cofactors revealed that increased job satisfaction was positively associated with NK cells (rsp=0.201, p=0.007) and IgG (rsp=0.178, p=0.018), while family life satisfaction was unrelated to immune indices. Those who reported a combination of low job/low family life satisfaction had significantly lower NK and higher B cell counts than those with a high job/high family life satisfaction. Our study suggests that the single-item summary measure of job satisfaction, but not family life satisfaction, may be a valid tool to evaluate immune status in healthy white-collar employees.

  4. Differences between work and leisure in temporal patterns of objectively measured physical activity among blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Gupta, Nidhi; Korshøj, Mette; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-09-28

    Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is generally associated with favorable cardiovascular health outcomes, while occupational physical activity (OPA) shows less clear, or even opposite, cardiovascular effects. This apparent paradox is not sufficiently understood, but differences in temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA have been suggested as one explanation. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which work and leisure (non-occupational time) differ in temporal activity patterns among blue-collar workers, and to assess the modification of these patterns by age and gender. This study was conducted on a cross-sectional sample of male (n = 108) and female (n = 83) blue-collar workers, aged between 21 and 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk for four consecutive days. Temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA were retrieved using Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA), and expressed in terms of percentage of work and leisure time spent in uninterrupted periods of different durations ( 60 min) of sitting, standing, and walking. Repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression analyses were used to test a) possible differences between OPA and LTPA in selected EVA derivatives, and b) the modification of these differences by age and gender. OPA showed a larger percentage time walking in brief (30 min) sitting [7.0 % (9.3)] than LTPA [walking 15.4 % (5.0); sitting 31.9 % (15.3)], even after adjustment for the difference between work and leisure in total time spent in each activity type. These marked differences in the temporal pattern of OPA and LTPA were modified by gender, but not age. We found that the temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA among blue-collar workers were markedly different even after adjustment for total physical activity time, and that this difference was modified by gender. We recommend using EVA derivatives in future studies striving to disentangle the apparent

  5. Refining the pole-and-collar method of restraint: emphasizing the use of positive training techniques with rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research.

  6. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv;

    2011-01-01

    factor among white-collar workers only (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.85). Knee pain was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion While hand/wrist pain and low back pain are general risk factors for LTSA, neck/shoulder pain is a specific risk factor among white-collar workers. This study suggests......Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000......). During 2001-2002, the prevalence of LTSA among blue- and white-collar workers was 18% and 12%, respectively. Hand/wrist pain (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.81) and low back pain (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53) were significant risk factors among the total cohort. Neck/shoulder pain was a significant risk...

  7. Prolonged fatigue is associated with sickness absence in men but not in women : prospective study with 1-year follow-up of white-collar employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged fatigue adversely affects an individual's performance and functioning. The present study investigated the prospective associations between prolonged fatigue and sickness absence (SA) during 1-year follow-up. At baseline, a convenience sample of white-collar employees received the 20-item C

  8. Evaluation of satellite collar sample size requirements for mitigation of low-level military jet disturbance of the George River caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Otto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife radio-telemetry and tracking projects often determine a priori required sample sizes by statistical means or default to the maximum number that can be maintained within a limited budget. After initiation of such projects, little attention is focussed on effective sample size requirements, resulting in lack of statistical power. The Department of National Defence operates a base in Labrador, Canada for low level jet fighter training activities, and maintain a sample of satellite collars on the George River caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd of the region for spatial avoidance mitiga¬tion purposes. We analysed existing location data, in conjunction with knowledge of life history, to develop estimates of satellite collar sample sizes required to ensure adequate mitigation of GRCH. We chose three levels of probability in each of six annual caribou seasons. Estimated number of collars required ranged from 15 to 52, 23 to 68, and 36 to 184 for 50%, 75%, and 90% probability levels, respectively, depending on season. Estimates can be used to make more informed decisions about mitigation of GRCH, and, generally, our approach provides a means to adaptively assess radio collar sam¬ple sizes for ongoing studies.

  9. Analysis of the mechanical behaviour of a 11.5 T Nb3Sn LHC dipole magnet according to the ring collar concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den A.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Avest, ter D.; Emden, van W.; Daum, C.

    1992-01-01

    According to the CERN-LHC (Large Hadron Collider) reference design, 10-tesla twin-aperture NbTi dipoles will be built with split collars that enclose both apertures. As part of the development program towards an experimental 11.5-tesla Nb3Sn LHC dipole magnet, the mechanical implications of an alter

  10. Study on Influence of Looseness on Structure of Lapel Collar%倒伏量对翻驳领结构影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞俭; 袁建荣

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the correlation among straight line shape, arc shape, partial arc line shape of three types of fold- ing line and structure of lapel collar. According to the looseness which is the difficult part of the lapel collar desigu, the influence of folding lines on looseness of lapel collar is studied and analyzed through changing the width of overlap and the height of lapel points by which curvature of folding hne is changed. Each type 11 experiments were made to study the correlation between folding line and structure of lapel collar. At last, garment experiments show its effectiveness.%主要研究了直线状、圆弧状和部分圆弧部分直线状3种类型翻折线与翻驳领结构的相关关系,针对翻驳领结构设计中的主要难点——倒伏量进行研究,并分析翻折线变化对其产生的重要影响。通过变换驳点高度及搭门宽度来控制翻折线倾斜度,各领型分别做出ll组试样,进而研究翻折线与倒伏量的关系,最后对理论研究的数据进行成衣验证。

  11. Is there a need for cervical collar usage post anterior cervical decompression and fusion using interbody cages? A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Allan; Halvorsen, Marie; Dedering, Asa

    2013-05-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a common surgical intervention for radiculopathy resulting from degenerative cervical spine conditions. Post-surgical cervical collar use is believed to reduce post-operative pain, provide the patient with a sense of security during activities of daily living and even reduce rates of non-fusion. This prospective randomized controlled pilot trial investigates trial design feasibility in relation to prospective physical, functional, and quality of life-related outcomes of patients undergoing ACDF with interbody cage, with (n = 17) and without (n = 16) post-operative cervical collar usage. Results show that the sample provides sufficient statistical power to show that the use of a rigid cervical collar during 6 post-operative weeks is associated with significantly lower levels of neck disability index after 6 weeks and significantly lower levels of prospective neck pain. To investigate causal quality of life or fusion rate outcomes, sample size needs to be increased at least fourfold and optimally sixfold when accounting for data loss in prospective follow-up. The study suggests that post-surgical cervical collar usage may help certain patients cope with initial post-operative pain and disability.

  12. The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell Emily J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic training devices for dog training is controversial. The aims of this study were to give an indication of the extent to which dog owners use these devices in England, identify factors associated with their use, and compare owner report of outcomes. A convenience sample of dog owners in England was used to identify numbers using electronic training devices and identify reasons for use. Factors associated with use of remote e-collars only were determined by comparing dogs trained using these devices with two control populations matched for reason of use (recall / chasing problems. Comparison groups were: those using other ‘negative reinforcement / positive punishment’ training techniques, and those using ‘positive reinforcement / negative punishment’ based methods. A multinominal logistic regression model was used to compare factors between categories of training method. Owner reported success for use was compared using chi-squared analysis. Results For England only, 3.3% (n = 133 owners reported using remote activated e-collars, 1.4% (n = 54 reported use of bark activated e-collars, and 0.9% (n = 36 reported using electronic boundary fences. In comparison with the e-collar group, owners using reward based training methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to be female and 2.7 times less likely to have attended agility training. Owners using other aversive methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to have attended puppy classes than those using e-collars. However, the model only explained 10% variance between groups. A significantly higher proportion of owners in the reward group reported training success than those in the e-collar group. Conclusions In conclusion, a fairly low proportion of owners select to use electronic training devices. For a population matched by reason for training method use, characteristics of dogs, including occurrence of undesired

  13. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X D; Jacobs, K; Kirisits, T; Chhetri, D B; Wingfield, M J

    2008-12-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalayan blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) trees in Central Bhutan. Intensive wood staining and a Leptographium sp. were associated with damage by this insect. The fungus was also isolated from individuals of H. chenkupdorjii. It was tentatively identified based on morphology and then compared with other Leptographium spp. using DNA sequences for three gene regions. Morphological characteristics showed that the Leptographium sp. from H. chenkupdorjii is similar to, but distinct from L. procerum and L. profanum. DNA sequence comparisons revealed that the isolates from Bhutan resided in a distinct well-supported clade and confirmed that they represent an undescribed taxon for which the name Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov. is provided.

  14. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion......-extension trauma to the cervical spine. It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention. Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Methods. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general...... practitioners within 10 days after a whiplash injury and randomized to: 1) immobilization of the cervical spine in a rigid collar followed by active mobilization, 2) advice to "act-as-usual," or 3) an active mobilization program (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy). Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and 12...

  15. [Evaluation of neck lymph node dissection and extended lymphadenectomy through a collar incision and median sternotomy for lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H; Hata, E; Sakao, Y; Harada, R; Hamada, T

    1995-11-01

    Since 1983, 421 patients have been treated for lung cancer at this institute. Since 1988, neck lymph node dissection (11 cases) and new extended lymphadenectomy through a collar incision and median sternotomy (22 cases) have been conducted. Indications for this new radical operation are scalene, supraclavicular or highest mediastinal node involvement, or superior pulmonary sulcus carcinoma, in patients aged 70 or less without distant metastasis and NSCLC. No major complications and operative mortality were encountered in this study. Patients with scalene or supraclavicular node involvement showed poor prognosis. Postsurgical local recurrence was frequent. Whether resection in N3 disease should be conducted or not, remains a point of controversy. The authors consider that lymphadenectomy should be conducted more extensively. A significant better survival of N2 disease and satisfactory prognosis of patients without metastasis of cervical lymph nodes demonstrates the effectiveness of neck lymph node dissection in the present superradical operation for lung cancer.

  16. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    practitioners within 10 days after a whiplash injury and randomized to: 1) immobilization of the cervical spine in a rigid collar followed by active mobilization, 2) advice to "act-as-usual," or 3) an active mobilization program (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy). Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and 12......-extension trauma to the cervical spine. It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention. Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Methods. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general......Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion...

  17. Clinical and radiological profile of Hirayama disease: A flexion myelopathy due to tight cervical dural canal amenable to collar therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirayama disease (HD is benign focal amyotrophy of the distal upper limbs, often misdiagnosed as motor neuron disease. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is often reported normal. Objective: To study the clinicoradiological profile of hand wasting in young males. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with insidious-onset hand wasting from March 2008 to May 2011 were evaluated electrophysiologically. Cervical MRI in neutral position was done in 11 patients and flexion contrast imaging was done in 10 patients. Results: All patients were males less than 25 years of age, with median age 23 years, except one patient who was 50 years old. Duration of illness was 3 months to 3 years. All (100% had oblique amyotrophy, four (36% cold paresis, 10 (91% minipolymyoclonus and three (27% had fasciculations. Regional reflexes were variably absent. Two patients (18% had brisk reflexes of lower limbs with flexor plantars. Electromyography (EMG showed chronic denervation in the C7-T1 myotomes. Neutral position MRI showed loss of cervical lordosis in 10/11 (91%, localized lower cervical cord atrophy in 9/11 (82%, asymmetric cord flattening in 11/11 (100% and intramedullary hyperintensity in 2/11 (18%; flexion study showed loss of dural attachment, anterior displacement of dorsal dura, epidural flow voids in 9/10 (90% and enhancing epidural crescent in 10/10 (100%. Clinical profile, imaging and electrophysiological findings of the patient aged 50 years will be described in detail as presentation at this age is exceptional. Collar therapy slowed progression in most cases. Conclusion: Clinical features of HD corroborated well with electrophysiological diagnosis of anterior horn cell disease of lower cervical cord. While dynamic contrast MRI is characteristic, routine studies have a high predictive value for diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is important to institute early collar therapy.

  18. The transition from isolated patches to a metapopulation in the eastern collared lizard in response to prescribed fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R; Brazeal, Hilary; Neuwald, Jennifer L

    2011-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation often arises from human-induced alterations to the matrix that reduce or eliminate dispersal between habitat patches. Elimination of dispersal increases local extinction and decreases recolonization. These phenomena were observed in the eastern collared lizard (Crotaphytus collaris collaris), which lives in the mid-continental highland region of the Ozarks (Missouri, USA) on glades: habitats of exposed bedrock that form desert-like habitats imbedded in a woodland matrix. With the onset of woodland fire suppression, glade habitats degenerated and the woodland matrix was altered to create a strong barrier to dispersal. By 1980, lizard populations in the Ozarks were rapidly going extinct. In response to this decline, some glades were restored by clearing and burning. Starting in 1984, collared lizard populations were translocated onto these restored habitats. The translocated populations persisted but did not colonize nearby glades or disperse among one another. In 1994 prescribed woodland fires were initiated, which unleashed much dispersal and colonizing behavior. Dispersal was highly nonrandom by both intrinsic variables (age, gender) and extrinsic variables (overall demography, glade population sizes, glade areas, landscape features), resulting in different classes of lizards being dominant in creating demographic cohesiveness among glades, colonizing new glades on a mountain, and colonizing new mountain systems. A dramatic transition was documented from isolated fragments, to a nonequilibrium colonizing metapopulation, and finally to a stable metapopulation. This transition is characterized by the convergence of rates of extinction and recolonization and a major alteration of dispersal probabilities and pattern in going from the nonequilibrium to stable metapopulation states.

  19. Coccidia of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) in southern Texas with descriptions of three new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, P G; Hellgren, E C; Gabor, T M

    1996-08-01

    In February 1993, fresh fecal samples were collected from 47 collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) killed by hunters at the Chaparral Wildlife Management Area, southern Texas, USA. Five species of coccidia (Eimeria chaparralensis n. sp. [9/47, 19%], Eimeria dicotylensis n. sp. [21/47, 21%], Eimeria pecari n. sp. [2/47, 4%], Eimeria sp. [1/47, 2%], and Klossia sp. [1/47, 2%]) were observed. Measurements are in micron. Sporulated oocysts of E. chaparralensis are rough-walled, elongate ovoidal, 43.3 x 28.5 (37-52 x 26-35); sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal 21.8 x 9.0 (16-27 x 7-12); micropyle (approximately 4.9), Stieda, and substieda body are present; sporocyst residuum is present in newly sporulated oocysts; polar granule and oocyst residuum are absent. Sporulated oocysts of E. dicotylensis are smooth-walled, ovoidal, 25.7 x 20.1 (23-29 x 17-23); sporocysts are ellipsoidal 13.0 x 6.9 (11-17 x 6-9); micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent; polar body sometimes present; Stieda body and sporocyst residuum always present. Sporulated oocysts of E. pecari are smooth-walled, elongate ellipsoidal, 26.8 x 18.1 (22-31 x 15-21); sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal 16.4 x 5.9 (13-22 x 4-7); micropyle (approximately 5.8) with collar, Stieda body, substieda body, and sporocyst residuum are present; polar granule and small oocyst residuum sometimes present. There were no sex or age differences in prevalences of infection, and there were no positive or negative associations between any species of eimerian. The majority of hosts were infected with a single species of Eimeria. Overall prevalence of infection with eimerians was 23/47 (49%).

  20. Arthropods in trophic-cenosis structure of collared flycatcher consortium in conditions of forest ecosystems of North-Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Chaplygina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on taxonomic and quantitative analysis of feed ration of nestlings and structure of nidikolas of collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis (Temminck, 1815. Ecological features and consortium relations of flycatchers and their specific feeding behavior were analyzed. Materials were collected in May – July 2009–2014 on the transformed territories of North-Eastern Ukraine. Functioning of trophic structure of biogeocenosis with the participation of flycatcher as a heterotrophic core of big autotrophic group was studied. Spatial and trophic relations of flycatcher with the woody vegetation and insect-phytophages (leaf beetles, leafhoppers, and barbels have been described. In the feed ration of flycatcher nestlings the prevalence is given to representatives of Hexapoda (83%, including Lepidoptera (16 families, 24%, Hymenoptera (12 families, 23% and Coleoptera (40 families, 15%. We characterize trophic groups of arthropods in the consortium of flycatchers: phytophages (33%, zoophages (45%, parasites, bloodsuckers, saprophages (16%, necrophages (4%, coprophages, keratophages. Fauna of arthropods of collared flycatcher nests was analyzed. Nests of birds as a heterotrophic consortium is the habitat of invertebrates with 293 taxons belonging to the Hexapoda, Arachnida, Malacostraca and Myriaroda, sometimes Mollusca. In the trophic structure of the population of flycatcher the representatives of Hexapoda dominate (278 species, where the first place is given to zoophages (127 species, 45%, including parasites (Culicidae, Tabanidae, Mallophaga, Hippoboscidae, Aphaniptera. The second are phytophages (78 species, 28%, the third – decomposers (75 species, 27%, and the last presenting detritivores (48 species, 18% and necrophages (27 species, 10%. Constant ectoparasitic species of flycatchers are Ricinus sp. (Mallophaga, Ornithomyia avicularia L. (Diptera, Protocalliphora azurea chrysorrhea Mg. (Diptera, Ceratophyllus sp. (Aphaniptera

  1. Fresh heat is in demand; Frische Waerme ist beliebt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-10-22

    Increasingly, solar heat customers are getting their hot water fresh from the flow-through station, even in single-family dwellings. Stations are getting more compact, more intelligent, and also more efficient. So-called legionella filters should be used with caution.

  2. 百度外卖针对白领人士的推广策略%Promotion Strategy of Baidu Take-out for White Collars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景琳

    2016-01-01

    文章以白领人士为研究对象,分析白领人士的特点和百度外卖面临的机遇与挑战,据此从产品推广、促销推广、平台推广等方面对百度外卖的市场推广提出了建议。%This paper takes white-collar workers as the research objects,analyzes the characteristics of white-collar workers and the opportunities and challenges facing the Baidu takeout, and puts forward marketing suggestions for baidu take-out from the product promotion,sales promotion,platform promotion .

  3. Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: The eurasian collared-dove streptopelia decaocto in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, E.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the

  4. Effects of capturing and collaring on polar bears: findings from long-term research on the southern Beaufort Sea population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Atwood, Todd C.; Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin S.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The potential for research methods to affect wildlife is an increasing concern among both scientists and the public. This topic has a particular urgency for polar bears because additional research is needed to monitor and understand population responses to rapid loss of sea ice habitat.Aims: This study used data collected from polar bears sampled in the Alaska portion of the southern Beaufort Sea to investigate the potential for capture to adversely affect behaviour and vital rates. We evaluated the extent to which capture, collaring and handling may influence activity and movement days to weeks post-capture, and body mass, body condition, reproduction and survival over 6 months or more.Methods: We compared post-capture activity and movement rates, and relationships between prior capture history and body mass, body condition and reproductive success. We also summarised data on capture-related mortality.Key results: Individual-based estimates of activity and movement rates reached near-normal levels within 2–3 days and fully normal levels within 5 days post-capture. Models of activity and movement rates among all bears had poor fit, but suggested potential for prolonged, lower-level rate reductions. Repeated captures was not related to negative effects on body condition, reproduction or cub growth or survival. Capture-related mortality was substantially reduced after 1986, when immobilisation drugs were changed, with only 3 mortalities in 2517 captures from 1987–2013.Conclusions: Polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea exhibited the greatest reductions in activity and movement rates 3.5 days post-capture. These shorter-term, post-capture effects do not appear to have translated into any long-term effects on body condition, reproduction, or cub survival. Additionally, collaring had no effect on polar bear recovery rates, body condition, reproduction or cub survival.Implications: This study provides empirical evidence that current capture

  5. A study of the health-related quality of life and work-related stress of white-collar migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying

    2012-10-19

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work-related stress and its risk factors among white-collar businessmen and management workers that migrate to high-income developing countries. A structural questionnaire survey was administered to 156 white-collar Taiwanese management personnel of representative companies of their industries in Taiwan, who were assigned long-term job positions in China. Questionnaire content included demographics and medical history, self-reported physical and mental conditions, personal lifestyle and behavior, Beck Depression Inventory, and information on HRQoL. White-collar migrant workers reported a high prevalence of alcohol consumption (72.4%) and perceived work-related stress (62.2%), and a lower prevalence of regular exercise (12.2%). Workers with higher levels of perceived work-related stress reported more alcohol consumption, a history of hyperlipidemia, and a higher prevalence of self-reported neck pain, poor sleep, and mild/moderate/severe depression. In our primary multivariate risk model to determine lifestyle and work-related stress variables and HRQoL, perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression negatively impacted both the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores of the SF-36 health survey. Hyperlipidemia and self-reported neck pain were associated with significantly lower PCS scores, whereas cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep were associated with statistically lower MCS scores. White-collar migrant workers are generally younger with high socioeconomic status. Perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression indirectly affect HRQoL. Hyperlipidemia, self-reported neck pain, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep also had a significant negative impact on HRQoL.

  6. Patterns of smoking and its association with psychosocial work conditions among blue-collar and service employees of hospitality venues in Shenyang, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Peng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the smoking patterns of hospitality employees in blue-collar and service occupations, and to examine its relations with psychosocial work conditions. Methods The Shenyang Hospitality Industry Employees Survey-a face-to-face cross-sectional study of representative hospitality industry employees-was conducted between March and July 2008. A total of 4,213 workers were selected using stratified random cluster sampling designs, and final analyses were performed on 2,508 blue-collar and service subjects. Multilevel-logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of psychosocial work conditions to smoking status. Results Blue-collar and service employees smoked at a rate 1.4 times that of the general population (49.4% vs. 35.8%, more particularly for females (12.9% vs. 3.08%. Strain jobs had significantly higher odds ratio of daily smoking (OR 2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.41 compared to the relaxed category. The passive jobs (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.17, highest job demands (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61, and lowest job control (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.57-4.16 were also associated with a significantly higher daily smoking ratio. The negative relationship between job stability and smoking behavior was slightly stronger among daily than occasional smokers. However, neither job strain nor any of its components was found to be significantly associated with occasional smoking. Conclusions Smoking in hospitality blue-collar and service employees is certainly a major occupational health problem in Shenyang. This evidence also suggests an association between psychosocial-work conditions and smoking status, and implies that more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions should be performed.

  7. The use of GPS radio-collars to track elephants (Loxodonta africana in the Tarangire National Park (Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Galanti

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GPS (Global Positioning System telemetry was used in Tarangire National Park (Tanzania to study migration routes and the use of space by elephants (Loxodonta africana. Five female elephants were captured in November 1997 in five different areas of Tarangire National Park and fitted with GPS collars. The collar consists of a 6 channel Global Positioning System (GPS receiver, a radio-modem for data communication, a non volatile memory, and an independent VHF transmitter. The operator can «communicate» with the collar through a command unit connected to a PC. The GPS collar receives signals from different satellites which permits automatic calculation of its position, with an accuracy of 25 m. The data collected in the period November 1997 - April 1998 show that three female elephants mainly used the northern sector of the park, moving sometimes outside the protected area about 10 to 20 km NE of the park boundary. Also the two female elephants captured in the southern sector of the park moved outside, travelling about 80 km SE of the park boundary. Home range size varied between 159 and 660 km² for the northern elephants (n=3, and between 2104 and 3314 km² for the southern elephants (n=2. The elephants whose ranges extended outside the park exhibited their highest movement rate from 4 p.m. to 12 p.m., while those animals within the park had the highest movement rates during daylight hours (from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.. We discuss the advantages and shortcomings of GPS-telemetry as a means of gathering useful information on space use and movements of elephants for the development of long-term conservation strategies for large herbivores in the whole Tarangire area.

  8. Review of selected coil and collared-coil assembly data from 10-M-long, 50-MM-Twin-aperture LHC dipole magnet prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A

    1999-02-01

    In 1991, the Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des Particules (CERN) has launched the fabrication in industry of seven 10 m long, 50 mm twin aperture dipole magnet prototypes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The design and specific features of these magnets have been described elsewhere. In this paper, we review some of the coil and collared-coil assembly data and we analyze the influence of tooling imperfections on magnet assembly. (author)

  9. The ability of insecticidal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1987-01-01

    Jespersen, J.B. and K.-M. Vagn Jensen, 1987. The ability of insectici¬dal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers. In Thomas, G., H. J. Over, U. Vecht and P. Nansen (Editor): Summer Masitits (ISBN O-89838-982-8) pp. 166-172....

  10. Patterns of smoking and its association with psychosocial work conditions among blue-collar and service employees of hospitality venues in Shenyang, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Liang, Huiying; Li, Xuelian; Guan, Peng; Yin, Zhihua; Zhou, Baosen

    2010-01-27

    To characterize the smoking patterns of hospitality employees in blue-collar and service occupations, and to examine its relations with psychosocial work conditions. The Shenyang Hospitality Industry Employees Survey-a face-to-face cross-sectional study of representative hospitality industry employees-was conducted between March and July 2008. A total of 4,213 workers were selected using stratified random cluster sampling designs, and final analyses were performed on 2,508 blue-collar and service subjects. Multilevel-logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of psychosocial work conditions to smoking status. Blue-collar and service employees smoked at a rate 1.4 times that of the general population (49.4% vs. 35.8%), more particularly for females (12.9% vs. 3.08%). Strain jobs had significantly higher odds ratio of daily smoking (OR 2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.41) compared to the relaxed category. The passive jobs (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.17), highest job demands (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61), and lowest job control (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.57-4.16) were also associated with a significantly higher daily smoking ratio. The negative relationship between job stability and smoking behavior was slightly stronger among daily than occasional smokers. However, neither job strain nor any of its components was found to be significantly associated with occasional smoking. Smoking in hospitality blue-collar and service employees is certainly a major occupational health problem in Shenyang. This evidence also suggests an association between psychosocial-work conditions and smoking status, and implies that more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions should be performed.

  11. The ability of insecticidal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1987-01-01

    Jespersen, J.B. and K.-M. Vagn Jensen, 1987. The ability of insectici¬dal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers. In Thomas, G., H. J. Over, U. Vecht and P. Nansen (Editor): Summer Masitits (ISBN O-89838-982-8) pp. 166-172....

  12. Patterns of smoking and its association with psychosocial work conditions among blue-collar and service employees of hospitality venues in Shenyang, PR China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To characterize the smoking patterns of hospitality employees in blue-collar and service occupations, and to examine its relations with psychosocial work conditions. Methods The Shenyang Hospitality Industry Employees Survey-a face-to-face cross-sectional study of representative hospitality industry employees-was conducted between March and July 2008. A total of 4,213 workers were selected using stratified random cluster sampling designs, and final analyses were performed on 2,508 blue-collar and service subjects. Multilevel-logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of psychosocial work conditions to smoking status. Results Blue-collar and service employees smoked at a rate 1.4 times that of the general population (49.4% vs. 35.8%), more particularly for females (12.9% vs. 3.08%). Strain jobs had significantly higher odds ratio of daily smoking (OR 2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.41) compared to the relaxed category. The passive jobs (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.17), highest job demands (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61), and lowest job control (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.57-4.16) were also associated with a significantly higher daily smoking ratio. The negative relationship between job stability and smoking behavior was slightly stronger among daily than occasional smokers. However, neither job strain nor any of its components was found to be significantly associated with occasional smoking. Conclusions Smoking in hospitality blue-collar and service employees is certainly a major occupational health problem in Shenyang. This evidence also suggests an association between psychosocial-work conditions and smoking status, and implies that more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions should be performed. PMID:20102639

  13. 易钻浮箍浮鞋的研制及应用%Development and application of easily drilled float collar or float shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜向东; 朱和明; 孙文俊

    2012-01-01

    As an important indicator for the performance of the float collars and the float shoes, Drillability affects the cycle time and cost of drilling operations directly, as a result, impact on the rate of penetration of the drilling machine. In order to solve the drillability difficulties domestically, and to satisfy the urgent needs for the drilling speed improving, a set of novel easily drilled float collar and float shoe were developed. By developing the back-pressure valve with high molecular polymer material and the early-strength concrete with micro-expansion, the drillability and reliability of the float collar and float shoe were greatly improved. The easily drilled float collar and float shoe were applied in fields at home and abroad after ground performance testing, which fully verified the safety and reliability as well as the excellent drillablility performance.%针对国内面临的浮箍浮鞋钻除困难的问题及当前对钻井提速的迫切需求,研制了新型易钻浮箍浮鞋.通过开发高分子材料回压阀及采用早强微膨胀抗渗混凝土填充,极大提高了浮箍浮鞋的可钻性和可靠性.易钻浮箍浮鞋在完成地面性能实验评价后进行了工业化推广应用,取得了良好的应用效果,验证了该型浮箍浮鞋的安全可靠性及优良的可钻除性能.

  14. A Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life and Work-Related Stress of White-Collar Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying Tsai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health-related quality of life (HRQoL and work-related stress and its risk factors among white-collar businessmen and management workers that migrate to high-income developing countries. A structural questionnaire survey was administered to 156 white-collar Taiwanese management personnel of representative companies of their industries in Taiwan, who were assigned long-term job positions in China. Questionnaire content included demographics and medical history, self-reported physical and mental conditions, personal lifestyle and behavior, Beck Depression Inventory, and information on HRQoL. White-collar migrant workers reported a high prevalence of alcohol consumption (72.4% and perceived work-related stress (62.2%, and a lower prevalence of regular exercise (12.2%. Workers with higher levels of perceived work-related stress reported more alcohol consumption, a history of hyperlipidemia, and a higher prevalence of self-reported neck pain, poor sleep, and mild/moderate/severe depression. In our primary multivariate risk model to determine lifestyle and work-related stress variables and HRQoL, perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression negatively impacted both the Physical Component Summary (PCS and Mental Component Summary (MCS scores of the SF-36 health survey. Hyperlipidemia and self-reported neck pain were associated with significantly lower PCS scores, whereas cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep were associated with statistically lower MCS scores. White-collar migrant workers are generally younger with high socioeconomic status. Perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression indirectly affect HRQoL. Hyperlipidemia, self-reported neck pain, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep also had a significant negative impact on HRQoL.

  15. Analytical solution of electromagnetic field generated by induction logging tool in a fan-ring slot of drill collar while drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the structural characteristic of metal drill collar for induction logging while drilling, we have given the analytical formulae of lengthways fields Ez and Hz when the tool is located in a fan-ring shaped slot of drill collar by the boundary conditions of electromagnetic field, and derived the other components of electromagnetic field in and out the fan-ring slot from Ez and Hz. In the other intervals of formation, where the drill collar is a solid cylinder, the analytical formulae of field are educed through the method of variable coefficient. The total analytical solutions of field in whole space have been obtained. With the help of the analytical formulae, we have also given numerical examples and analyzed the distributive characteristic of electromagnetic field. From the computational results we find that the secondary scattering field Hz is in a linear relation with the conductivity of stratum. The characteristic of field is very useful for induction logging while drilling, which can be used to measure and analyze the logging responses of the stratum conductivity. This paper sets up a theoretical foundation for us to study the distrbutions of field and to direct the design of logging instruments.

  16. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv;

    2011-01-01

    ). During 2001-2002, the prevalence of LTSA among blue- and white-collar workers was 18% and 12%, respectively. Hand/wrist pain (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.81) and low back pain (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53) were significant risk factors among the total cohort. Neck/shoulder pain was a significant risk...... factor among white-collar workers only (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.85). Knee pain was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion While hand/wrist pain and low back pain are general risk factors for LTSA, neck/shoulder pain is a specific risk factor among white-collar workers. This study suggests......, and followed in 2001-2002 in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the risk estimates of mutually adjusted severe pain in the neck/shoulder, low back, hand/wrist and knees for onset of LTSA, defined as receiving sickness absence compensation for at least 3...

  17. An assessment of elephant home ranges and movement patterns during construction of Hulu Terengganu hydroelectric dam, Terengganu using GPS satellite collars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magintan, D.; Shukorb, M. N.; Lihan, Tukimat; Campos, Ahimza-arceiz; Saaban, Salman; Husin, Shahril Mohd; Ahmad, Mohd Noh

    2016-11-01

    Home ranges and movement patterns of elephants during construction of hydroelectric dams were carried out in Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Two elephants from two herds were captured, collared and released in the catchment area four to five months before inundation started in early October 2014. The two elephants were identified as Puah (female) and Sireh (male). The home range size of each individual during the construction of dams was estimated at 96.53 km2 for Puah and 367.99 km2 for Sireh. The monthly estimates of ranging for Puah was between 5.1 km2 and 38.4 km2 with average monthly ranging of 19.2 ± 4.7, while for Sireh, the monthly ranging estimates were between 20.6 km2 and 184.7 km2 with average monthly ranging at 79.9 ± 34.7. The movement mean rate (based on distance per day) for Puah and Sireh per day were 1.3 ± 0.1 km and 1.9 ± 0.1 km, respectively. Puah movement estimates for the first day after putting the collar was 0.88 km, whereas, the distance movement for Sireh on the first day after the collar was 0.02 km. The total distance travelled for Puah before inundation was 226.18 km, while Sireh covered 267.38 km.

  18. A field trial evaluation of the prophylactic efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars against canine babesiosis (Babesia canis rossi in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Last

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available South African canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis rossi is a common clinical disease in dogs in South Africa and remains a significant cause of domestic dog mortality. To determine whether tick-repellent, 9% amitraz-impregnated tick collars (Preventic-Virbac could prevent tick-borne exposure to B. canis rossi, 50 dogs were assigned to two groups. Group 1 (20 dogs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR- and reverse line blot (RLB-negative for B. canis rossi, were fitted with amitraz collars and blood samples collected monthly , over a 6-month period, and analysed for B. canis rossi. Group 2 (30 dogs included 5 dogs selected on a month-by-month basis from a population of dogs from the same geographical area as the group 1 dogs, but with no history of previous tick control, which were blood-sampled together with the treatment group and analysed for B. canis rossi by PCR and RLB, to serve as the control group. Eight of the 30 control dogs (26.6 % were PCR / RLB positive for B. canis rossi, indicating high pathogen exposure during the trial period. All twenty of the treatment group dogs remained negative for B. canis rossi throughout the 6 months of the trial. These results suggest that the use of amitraz-impregnated collars had a significant effect on reducing infection with B. canis rossi.

  19. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen.

  20. Effects of personality on overtime work: a cross-sectional pilot study among Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mitsuo; Kaneko, Minoru; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-03-27

    As detailed associations between personality and long work hours are unclear, we assessed associations between personality dimensions and overtime work among Japanese white-collar workers. From records of hours worked over 12 months by 267 office workers in an organization within the service industry, average overtime work hours per month and occurrence of excessive overtime was determined for each worker. Excessive overtime was defined as >  45 overtime work hours per month for at least one month. Responses to a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic and workplace-related factors and the Big Five personality test were analyzed. Associations between personality factors and overtime work were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Low Extraversion was associated with excessive overtime work (OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.02 - 4.02, P =  0.04). It is suggested that workers with low Extraversion can't share work when busy to avoid excessive overtime. Personality factors should be considered in studies evaluating work time. Moreover, strengthening communication among workers with low Extraversion may reduce excessive overtime work and associated health problems.

  1. Integrated plumage colour variation in relation to body condition, reproductive investment and laying date in the collared flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczi, Miklós; Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Kiss, Dorottya; Markó, Gábor; Nagy, Gergely; Rosivall, Balázs; Szöllősi, Eszter; Török, János

    2013-10-01

    The possible integration of different sexual ornaments into a composite system, and especially the information content of such ornament complexes, is poorly investigated. Many bird species display complex plumage coloration, but whether this represents one integrated or several independent sexual traits can be unclear. Collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis) display melanised and depigmented plumage areas, and the spectral features (brightness and UV chroma) of these are correlated with each other across the plumage. In a 5-year dataset of male and female plumage reflectance, we examined some of the potential information content of integrated, plumage-level colour attributes by estimating their relationships to previous and current year body condition, laying date and clutch size. Females were in better condition the year before they became darker pigmented, and males in better current year condition were also darker pigmented. Female pigment-based brightness was positively, while male structurally based brightness was negatively related to current laying date. Finally, the overall UV chroma of white plumage areas in males was positively associated with current clutch size. Our results show that higher degree of pigmentation is related to better condition, while the structural colour component is associated with some aspects of reproductive investment. These results highlight the possibility that correlated aspects of a multiple plumage ornamentation system may reflect together some aspects of individual quality, thereby functioning as a composite signal.

  2. Absolute and allometric relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the adult collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1986-01-01

    Selected morphological features of 8 adult male and 8 adult female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) shot from southern Texas during March 1983 are described. A total of 16 adult peccaries with an average body mass of 18.68 +/- 0.61 (SE) Kg was examined. Significant differences between males and females were observed for absolute and relative mass of liver and lungs, and relative heart mass. These visceral organs were heavier among females than males. Significant sex effects were also found for absolute and relative mass of the dorsal scent gland. The dorsal scent gland contributed twice as much to total body mass in males as in females. No sexual dimorphisms of the gastrointestinal tract were noted. Females had a significantly greater portion of total visceral fat deposited around the kidneys than did males. Relative mass of the mandible was significantly greater in males than in females. Adult males had extremely large accessory sex glands. The bulbourethral and seminal vesicle glands comprised 0.27 per cent of the total body mass. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (eyes, b = 0.34) to well above (seminal vesicles, b = 1.87) unity. Growth coefficients of lungs, kidneys, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland during adulthood greatly exceeded respective values in developing nurslings.

  3. Predictors of the work-related depressive symptoms among blue-collar male employees of an industrial unit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Lotfizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Possible associations between depressive symptoms and work-related parameters have frequently been discussed in the literature. The present study was aimed to evaluate the work-related depressive symptoms and their possible-related parameters among male employees of Esfahan Steel Company (ESCO as one of the most important industrial sites in Iran. Materials and Methods: With a cross-sectional design and a stratified random sampling method in 2010, a total of 400 male employees were enrolled from the operational parts of the ESCO. Results: Among 400 participated employees, 245 (61.3% were rotational duty employees and 358 (89.5% were reported making <$500. After applying the linear regression model, some variables including: economic difficulties (P = 0.022, odds ratio [OR] = 0.558, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.339–0.919, family-related problems (P = 0.003, OR = 0.303, 95% CI = 0.138–0.669, and work environment (P < 0.001, OR = 0.244, 95% CI = 0.140–0.426 were found to be significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms among the participants. Conclusion: The present study brought to light the predictors of occupational depressive symptoms among blue-collar employees of ESCO. More research is needed to find the causal relations between mental health and work-related parameters among Iranian employees.

  4. Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D in School Children and White-Collar Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghua; Muyiduli, Xiamusiye; Su, Danting; Zhou, Biao; Fang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Shuying; Wang, Shuojia; Huang, Lichun; Mo, Minjia; Li, Minchao; Shao, Bule; Yu, Yunxian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9–15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D supplementation in both populations. Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial during March 2014 to November 2015, comparing the efficacy of vitamin D supplements (400 IU/day) with non-intervention for 18 months in school children aged 9–15 years. Meanwhile, a before-after study was conducted among white-collar workers for 1 year. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured at baseline and after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Results: At the baseline, 95% of school children and 84% of adult participants had vitamin D deficiency (D concentrations of the school children intervention group, school children control group and white-collar workers were 12.77 ± 3.01 ng/mL, 14.17 ± 3.59 ng/mL and 16.58 ± 3.66 ng/mL at baseline and increased to 17.34 ± 3.78 ng/mL, 18.04 ± 4.01 ng/mL and 17.75 ± 5.36 ng/mL after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Although, after adjusting for potential confounders, the 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentration in school children (β = 0.81, p = 0.0426) as well as in white-collar workers (p = 0.0839), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was still very high among school children (79.23% in intervention group and 72.38% in control group) and white-collar workers (76.00%). Conclusions: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was common in these two study populations. Daily doses of 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation was not able to adequately increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A suitable recommendation regarding the level of vitamin D supplementation is required for this Chinese population. PMID:28513555

  5. Mast cell degranulator compound 48-80 promotes atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with perivascular common carotid collar placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya-ling; YANG Yong-zong; WANG Shuang; HUANG Tao; TANG Chao-ke; XU Zeng-xiang; SUN Yu-hui

    2009-01-01

    Background Study of the relationship between mast cells and atherosclerosis is mostly dependent on pathological observation and cytology experiments. To investigate the effects of mast cells degranulation on plaque and their possible mechanisms we used apolipoprotein E knockout mice which had been placed perivascular common carotid collar with mast cells degranulator compound 48-80.Methods Forty apolipoprotein E knockout mice were fed a western-type diet and operated on with placement of perivascular right common carotid collar. Four weeks after surgery, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with compound 48-80 (0.5 mg/kg) or D-Hanks every other day for 4 times. The serum lipids and activity of tryptase were measured. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Corresponding sections were stained with toluidine blue and immunohistochemically with antibodies against macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β and van Willebrand factor. Simultaneously, basic fibroblast growth factor was detected by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.Results No pathological change was observed in common carotid non-collar placement but atherogenesis in common carotid collar placement of both groups. There was a significant increase in plaque area ((5.85±0.75)×104 vs (0.86±0.28)×104 μm2, P<0.05), the degree of lumen stenosis ((81±15)% vs (41±12)%, P <0.05), the activity of tryptase in serum ((0.57±0.13) U/L vs (0.36±0.10) U/L, P <0.05), and the percentage of degranulated mast cells ((80.6±17.8)% vs (13.5±4.1)%, P <0.05). The expressions of macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β, basic fibroblast growth factor and the density of neovessel in plaque were more in the compound 48-80 group than in the control group.Conclusions Perivascular common carotid collar placement can promote atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Compound 48-80 increases plaque area and the degree

  6. Modeling of ballistic and trapping effects on the collection efficiency of holes and electrons separately for a planar mercuric iodide detector (HgI2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E. Beogo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For the room temperature nuclear detector application, signal created in the detector depends not only to the energy of the incident photon but also to the position of the interaction. This can bring an incomplete charge collection caused by a deep-trapping or a ballistic deficit of charge carrier. Many scientists used to demonstrate their impact on the global efficiency of the charge collection. Here we show this effect, not globally but separately, according to the position where holes and electrons are created. It permits us to see the contribution of each kind of carrier in the signal formation. An analytical model of charge collection is developed firstly to take into account the deep-trapping only. Secondly, this model is improved adding the ballistic deficit effect. The deep-trapping contributes to reduce the efficiency of hole above all on thicker detector. In the other part, ballistic deficit reduce electron efficiency above all near anode in the negatively polarized detector.

  7. Farklılıklar Kapsamında Davranış Tarzları ve Bireysel Performans: Beyaz ve Mavi Yakalı Çalışan Perspektifi(Individual Performance and Behaviors in The Context of Diversities: White-Collar and Blue-Collar Employee Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nuray NİŞANCI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to identify the impact of behaviors on individual performance and the correlation between the two in the context of diversities among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the advertising sector. The survey prepared within this framework was applied to 182 individuals (98 white-collar and 84 blue-collar within sixteen businesses located in the city of Izmir between May 2013 and August 2013. It was determined that ‘being in positive tendency’, ‘awareness’ and ‘not being in negative tendency’ attitudes towards diversity increase the individual performance. No difference was stated between white-collar and blue-collar employees in terms of these dimensions. A positive relationship was observed among ‘being in positive tendency’, ‘awareness’ and ‘not being in negative tendency’ attitudes towards diversity. Araştırmanın temel amacı, reklamcılık sektöründe çalışan beyaz ve mavi yakalı personelin farklılıklar kapsamında davranış tarzlarının bireysel performansa etkisi ve ilişkiselliğinin belirlenmesidir. Bu kapsamda hazırlanan anket formu Mayıs 2013 - Ağustos 2013 tarihleri arasında İzmir ilinde on altı işletme kapsamında 182 bireye (98 beyaz yakalı ve 84 mavi yakalı uygulanmıştır. Personelin farklılıklar kapsamında davranış tarzları çerçevesinde “pozitif eğilimde bulunma”, “farkındalık” ve “negatif eğilimde bulunmama”nın birey performansını artıracağı belirlenmiştir. Bu boyutlar açısından beyaz ve mavi yakalı çalışanlar arasında bir farklılık tespit edilmemiştir. Personelin farklılıklar kapsamında davranış tarzları çerçevesinde “pozitif eğilimde bulunma”, “farkındalık” ve “negatif eğilimde bulunmama” arasında pozitif bir ilişki görülmüştür.

  8. Lesão do colo do cafeeiro, causada pelo calor Collar injury- young coffe plants caused by heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coaracy M. Franco

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Tem sido observada ocasionalmente uma lesão no colo de cafeeiros novos ao nível do solo. .Estudos dc laboratório mostraram que o caule de cafeeiros novos foram danificados quando ao redor dêle se fêz circular água aquecida às temperaturas de 45 o 50ºC. O aquecimento da superfície do solo, compreendendo o colo de cafeeiro vegetando em laminados, com o auxílio de uma lâmpada de raios infravermelhos, resultou em lesão semelhante àquela observada nas culturas. Essa lesão apareceu em tratamentos cujas temperaturas estiveram entre 44 e 51°C. O fato dessas temperaturas serem freqüentemente observadas em solos expostos ao sol, sugere que a lesão do caule do cafeeiro, observada freqüentemente em cafèzais novos, seja conseqüência do aquecimento excessivo da superfície do solo pelos raios solares.A collar injury of young, field coffee plants at the soil level has been observed occasionally in the summer. The location of the abnormality and the season when it appears .suggested that excessive heating of the soil surface by the sun rays could be its cause. Two experiments were then conducted in the laboratory to investigate this bypothesis. The first experiment consisted in circulating water at the desired temperature around the stem ofyoung coffee plants, using the same apparatus described in a previous paper. In a second experiment the base of the stem and the soil around it was heated by means of a G. E. 250 watts infrared industrial reflector. By changing the distance between the heat source and the plant, different temperatures at the soil surface could be obtained. The results of the first experiment showed that 4 plants out of o that were treated at 45ºC showed injury; the other 2 plants survived without damage. From 5 plants that were treated at 50ºC, 2 showed injury and 3 died shortly after the treatment. All plants subjected to the temperature treatments at 35°C and 40ºC survived without damage, while those treated at 55º

  9. Genomic distribution and estimation of nucleotide diversity in natural populations: perspectives from the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutoit, Ludovic; Burri, Reto; Nater, Alexander; Mugal, Carina F; Ellegren, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Properly estimating genetic diversity in populations of nonmodel species requires a basic understanding of how diversity is distributed across the genome and among individuals. To this end, we analysed whole-genome resequencing data from 20 collared flycatchers (genome size ≈1.1 Gb; 10.13 million single nucleotide polymorphisms detected). Genomewide nucleotide diversity was almost identical among individuals (mean = 0.00394, range = 0.00384-0.00401), but diversity levels varied extensively across the genome (95% confidence interval for 200-kb windows = 0.0013-0.0053). Diversity was related to selective constraint such that in comparison with intergenic DNA, diversity at fourfold degenerate sites was reduced to 85%, 3' UTRs to 82%, 5' UTRs to 70% and nondegenerate sites to 12%. There was a strong positive correlation between diversity and chromosome size, probably driven by a higher density of targets for selection on smaller chromosomes increasing the diversity-reducing effect of linked selection. Simulations exploring the ability of sequence data from a small number of genetic markers to capture the observed diversity clearly demonstrated that diversity estimation from finite sampling of such data is bound to be associated with large confidence intervals. Nevertheless, we show that precision in diversity estimation in large outbred population benefits from increasing the number of loci rather than the number of individuals. Simulations mimicking RAD sequencing showed that this approach gives accurate estimates of genomewide diversity. Based on the patterns of observed diversity and the performed simulations, we provide broad recommendations for how genetic diversity should be estimated in natural populations. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Seasonal modulation of testosterone during breeding of the rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis australis) in Southern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Elizabeth A; Clark, Aaron D; Vasquez, Rodrigo A; Wingfield, John C

    2013-01-01

    The roles of testosterone (T) during reproduction are often complex and vary among and within vertebrate taxa and locations, making general hypotheses relating T to breeding behavior and success difficult to integrate. In birds, T is thought to influence degrees of territoriality and associated aggression in males to maximize breeding success. Importantly, most work supporting these ideas has been conducted in the Northern Hemisphere. However, accumulating work on tropical species has shown divergent patterns of T in association with breeding behavior. The compilation of work from northern temperate and tropical species suggests that the function of T in relation to breeding behavior varies across latitude and environmental conditions. We investigate the patterns of T in relation to breeding behavior in a subspecies of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis australis breeding at high latitude in the Southern Hemisphere (55°S). We then compare the T profiles and breeding behaviors of male Z. c. australis to conspecifics breeding in the tropics and congeners in North America to test the hypothesis that environments with breeding seasons of similar lengths will drive similar patterns of T in relation to breeding behavior. We found that Z. c. australis have high levels of T during the early-breeding periods when territories are being established and low levels of T during the parental phase of breeding, similar to temperate and Arctic birds in the Northern Hemisphere but unlike tropical Zonotrichia capensis costaricensis. In contrast, we found that Z. c. australis also exhibit similar aggressive behaviors in early breeding and midbreeding, unlike many birds in the Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collar (Seresto®, Bayer) for preventing the transmission of Cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats by Amblyomma americanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Mason V; Thomas, Jennifer E; Arther, Robert G; Hostetler, Joseph A; Raetzel, Kara L; Meinkoth, James H; Little, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    Infection of Cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats produces a severe disease characterised by fever, lethargy, inappetence, anorexia, depression, dehydration, icterus and often death. Transmission of C. felis to cats is dependent on being fed upon by infected Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). The purpose of the present study was to determine if application of a 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer) on cats prevents transmission of C. felis by repelling ticks. Twenty cats were randomised to either a treated (n = 10) or non-treated control group (n = 10) based on their susceptibility to ticks. Cats of high, medium and low tick susceptibility were represented in both groups. Treated cats were fitted with 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collars on study day 0 and both groups were then infested with C. felis-infected A. americanum on study day 30. Tick thumb counts were performed at 24 and 48 hours post infestation. Transmission of C. felis was determined by examining blood of cats by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification with piroplasm-specific primers. Ticks did not attach to any of the 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin- treated cats. However, ticks attached and fed on all the non-treated control cats. The geometric mean number of ticks attached to the non-treated control cats at 24 and 48 hours was 15.3 and 14.2, respectively. Cytauxzoon felis was transmitted to 9 of 10 (90 %) non-treated control cats; C. felis was not transmitted to any of the treated cats. Transmission of C. felis to the non-treated cats was first detected between 8 and 16 days post infestation. Our results indicate that application of the 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collar to cats prevented ticks from attaching, feeding and transmitting C. felis.

  12. Efficacy of Cervical Collar on Cervical Hypertension%颈托治疗颈源性高血压的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平祥华; 周均; 徐冠军

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨颈托治疗颈源性高血压病的效果。方法98例颈源性高血压病患者分成两组。治疗组(n=50)给予颈托治疗,对照组(n=48)给予推拿按摩及牵引治疗。结果治疗组治愈率52.0%,总有效率92.0%;对照组治愈率41.7%,总有效率85.4%(P<0.05)。治疗组治疗后血压下降,并较对照组治疗后血压低(P<0.05)。结论颈托治疗颈源性高血压有一定疗效。%Objective To observe the effect of cervical collar on cervical hypertension. Methods 98 patients with cervical hypertension were divided into two groups. The treatment group (n=50) wore the cervical collar, and the control group accepted massage and traction. Re-sults 52.0%of the treatment group were cured, and 92.0%improved, which were 41.7%and 75.0%in control group respectively (P<0.05). The blood pressure reduced in the treatment group after treatment, and was less than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Cervi-cal collar is effective on cervical hypertension.

  13. Regionalización histológica de la glándula dorsal del pecarí de collar (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae: Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos González Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe histológicamente la glándula dorsal de machos y hembras del pecarí de collar en tres regiones: craneal, media y caudal. Con las tinciones Hematocilinaeosina y Tricrómica de Masson observamos una clara regionalización morfológica e histológica de esta glándula y se describe por primera vez la presencia de glándulas tubuloacinares en la región craneal de la glándula dorsal del macho de pecarí, cuya función es aún desconocida.

  14. Pecarí de collar (pecari tajacu l.) en la región Nopala-Hualtepec, Hidalgo, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Silva, Dante Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    El conocimiento del estado actual de poblaciones de fauna silvestre introducida ofrece información acerca de su adaptación al hábitat y permite realizar su aprovechamiento sustentable. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la abundancia y densidad relativa, así como caracterizar y conocer el uso de hábitat del pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu L.) en la región Nopala-Hualtepec, Hidalgo, México, durante la época de lluvias 2011 y de estiaje 2012. El área de estudio comprendió 1,984.27 ha, dond...

  15. TREATMENT OF TRANSCONDYLAR EXTENSOR FRACTURES OF THE HUMERUS IN CHILDREN: ON THE ISSUE OF HISTORY OF THE METHOD “COLLAR AND CUFF”

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Zolotov; S. A. Dubovyy

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the history of one of the methods of conservative treatment humeral transcondylar extensor fractures in children - a method «collar and cuff». The second and very common name of this method is connected with the name of the american orthopaedist Walter Blount. «The method of Blount» is mentioned in many domestic and foreign sources. Nevertheless the analysis of publications on the history of the discussed method of treatment indicates the priority in this matter othe...

  16. 水流作用下重力式网箱浮架结构的动力响应研究%Study on the dynamic response of float collar of gravity cages subject to water currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤鹏; 许条建; 董国海; 赵云鹏

    2016-01-01

    近年来深水网箱养殖设施得到了广泛的应用,浮架作为网箱结构的重要组成部分,其安全性对网箱的设计至关重要。基于有限单元法采用SHELL单元建立了浮架结构的荷载变形数值模型,对水流作用下浮架的应力和变形进行了数值模拟,并开展物理模型试验对该数值模型进行验证。结果表明,该数值模型可以准确模拟浮架的变形,采用该数值模型,分析了不同流速条件下浮架的变形和应力,数值模拟结果显示:随着流速的增加,浮架的变形和应力逐渐增加。相同流速条件下,注水下潜后,浮架的应力和变形能够显著减小;因此,在强流条件下,可以采用浮架注水的方式,使浮架处于下潜状态,以改善浮架结构的变形和应力分布。%The offshore culture cage has been widely applied in the open sea recently .Floating collar is an important component for the fish cage structure , and the safety of floating collar is very important for the design of fish cage .The numerical model of floating collar was built by using the SHELL element based on the finite element method , the stress and deformation of the floating collar in current were simulated , and the numerical model were verified through the physical model experiments .The results showed that the numerical model could accurately simulate the deformation of the floating collar .Based on the numerical model of the floating collar, the stress and deformation of the floating collar under different water velocity were analyzed .The numerical simulation results indicated that the stress and deformation of floating collar were increased gradually with the increase of the velocity .The maximum deformation and stress of the floating collar in the floating condition was significantly larger than that for the floating collar in the submerge condition .In conclusion , the deformation and stress distribution of floating collar under

  17. Current status of neck collar use in pre-hospital emergency in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province%杭州地区院外急救颈托使用现状调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春福

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of neck collar use in pre-hospital emergency in Hangzhou. Methods The clinical data of 1855 prehospital high energy trauma patients in Hangzhou were analyzed so as to survey the neck collar use rate. Results Only 337 patients (19.1%) were given neck collar with a neck collar use rate of 19.1%. Conclusion Most of the high energy trauma patients failed to get neck collar, an effective tool to protect their cervical spinal cord during prehospital emergency treatment. Reasonable use of neck collar during pre-hospital emergency treatment should be promoted.%目的 调查分析杭州地区院外急救颈托使用的现状,为在院外急救中合理规范的使用颈托提供参考依据.方法 对符合标准的1752例高能量创伤患者进行调查,分析颈托不合理使用的现状、原因并提出合理使用的对策.结果 仅19.1%的患者使用了颈托,院外急救中颈托的不合理使用情况较严重.结论 应加强对急救医生创伤知识的培训,提高对高能量创伤的认识,积极推进颈托的合理使用.

  18. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, J M; Lohmeyer, K H; Davey, R B; Miller, J A; George, J E

    2012-12-01

    Over a 7 yr period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study animals in treatment and control groups were confined in 38.8 ha game-fenced and densely vegetated treatment plots in South Texas. Tick densities during years 1 and 7 served as untreated pre- and posttreatment comparisons and treatments occurred during years 2 through 5. Reductions in tick densities in the treatment plot were compared against tick densities in a control plot having similar vegetation and numbers of untreated deer. During years of treatment, indices of control pressure ranged from 18.2 to 82.6 for nymphs and 16.9-78.7 for adults, and efficacy, expressed as percentage control during the final year of treatment, was 77.2 and 85.0%, respectively, for nymphal and adult ticks. These data show that acaricidal collar treatments provide efficacies very similar to those achieved with the existing ivermectin-medicated bait and '4-Poster' topical treatment technologies to control ticks feeding on wild white-tailed deer.

  19. Sperm characteristics following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ana Liza Paz; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; de Souza Castelo, Thibério; Oliveira, Maria Glaucia Carlos; de Paula, Valéria Veras; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare sperm quality characteristics of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Semen from 11 adult males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, morphology as well as membrane integrity analyzed by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and a fluorescent staining. Moreover, the semen was diluted in a Tris-based extender containing 20% egg yolk (control group) or 5, 10 or 20% LDL (treatment groups). The semen samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath for 60s at 37°C. The treatments did not affect (p>0.05) sperm vigor, morphology or membrane integrity analyzed by the HOS test. However, post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher (pegg yolk extender and extender supplemented with 10% LDL. Furthermore, the percentage of membrane-intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa analyzed by the fluorescent staining was significantly higher (pegg yolk as a cryoprotective additive for freezing semen of the collared peccary.

  20. Effect of double false pulses in calibrated neutron coincidence collar during measuring time-correlated neutrons from PuBe neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tam Cong, E-mail: tam.nguyen.cong@energia.mta.hu; Huszti, Jozsef; Nguyen, Quan Van

    2015-09-01

    Effect of double false pulses of preamplifiers in neutron coincidence collar was investigated to explain non-parallel shape of calibrated D/S–M{sub Pu} curves of two commercial neutron coincidence collars, JCC-31 and JCC-13. Two curves, which were constructed from D/S ratio (doubles and singles count rate), and Pu content M{sub Pu}, of the same set of secondary standard PuBe neutron sources, should be parallel. Non-parallelism rises doubt about usability of the method based on this curve for determination of Pu content in PuBe neutron sources. We have shown in three steps that the problem originates from double false pulses of preamplifiers in JCC-13. First we used a pulse train diagram for analyzing the non-parallel shape, second we used Rossi-Alpha distribution measured by pulse train recorder developed in our institute and finally, we investigated the effect of inserted noise pulses. This implies a new type of QA test option in traditional multiplicity shift registers for excluding presence of double false pulses.

  1. Cryopreservation of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) semen using a powdered coconut water (ACP-116c) based extender plus various concentrations of egg yolk and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Lima, G L; Bezerra, J A B; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Silva, A R

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to determine the effectiveness of a powdered coconut water-based extender (ACP-116c), plus various concentrations of egg-yolk and glycerol, as an alternative for cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were apportioned into aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus 10% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, or in ACP-116c plus 10 or 20% egg yolk and 1.5 or 3% glycerol. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and, after 1 mo, thawed at 37 °C for 1 min. After thawing, samples were evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for sperm membrane integrity (fluorescent probes) and kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). Results were presented as means ± SEM. Freezing and thawing decreased sperm characteristics relative to fresh semen. Overall, ACP-116c plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol provided better (P 0.05) among treatments with regard to the other sperm characteristics. Based on computerized motion analysis, total (26.5 ± 5.9%) and progressive (8.1 ± 2.2%) motility were best preserved (P < 0.05) with the above-mentioned treatment. In conclusion, a coconut water-based extender, ACP-116c, plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, was effective for cryopreservation of semen from collared peccaries.

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of austenitic steel strips for collars of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 410 mm-wide austenitic steel strips for the collars of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets. Following a market survey carried out among 39 firms in twelve Member States and two firms in Japan, a call for tenders (IT-2618/LHC/LHC) was sent on 3 June 1999 to five firms in four Member States and two firms in Japan. The Council agreed to the Management?s proposal to invite Japanese industry to participate, where appropriate, in calls for tenders for supplies for the LHC Project (CERN/CC/2110). By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the negotiation of a contract with the firm NIPPON STEEL CORPORATION (JP) for the supply of 11 000 tonnes of 410 mm-wide austenitic steel strips for the collars of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets for a total amount of 4 298 943 000 Japanese yen, subject to revision for contractual deliveries after 31 December 2000, with an option for the supply of up to 10...

  3. Psychosocial Hazard Analysis in a Heterogeneous Workforce: Determinants of Work Stress in Blue- and White-Collar Workers of the European Steel Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Yannick Arnold; Bellingrath, Silja

    2017-01-01

    The European steel industry's workforce is highly heterogeneous and consists of various occupational groups, presumably facing different psychosocial stressors. The few existing studies on the subject mainly focused on physical constraints of blue-collar workers, whereas the supposable psychosocial workload received only little research attention. This is remarkable considering the challenges associated with statutory required risk assessment of psychosocial hazards. Valid measures of hazard analysis must account for various stressors and reliably identify them, also between occupational groups. The present study, based on a sample of blue- and white-collar workers (N = 124) from the European steel industry, aims to provide a first insight into psychosocial stressors and strain at work in this rarely researched industrial sector. Furthermore, two well-known theoretical roadmaps in job analysis are examined regarding their utility for risk assessment in heterogeneous workforces: the German standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the short version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the COPSOQ was better suited to predict various strain indices in the present sample. Especially stressors relating to socioemotional aspects, such as work-privacy conflict, revealed a reasonable impact, indicating the need for comprehensive solutions at the organizational level instead of solutions focusing on single workplaces. To conclude, a broadly diversified and validated approach in psychosocial risk assessment is needed to adequately assess the variety of psychosocial factors at work and in different occupational groups.

  4. Analysis of calibration data for the uranium active neutron coincidence counting collar with attention to errors in the measured neutron coincidence rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burr, Tom [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), MS E540, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Nicholson, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The declared linear density of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U in fresh low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel assemblies can be verified for nuclear safeguards purposes using a neutron coincidence counter collar in passive and active mode, respectively. The active mode calibration of the Uranium Neutron Collar – Light water reactor fuel (UNCL) instrument is normally performed using a non-linear fitting technique. The fitting technique relates the measured neutron coincidence rate (the predictor) to the linear density of {sup 235}U (the response) in order to estimate model parameters of the nonlinear Padé equation, which traditionally is used to model the calibration data. Alternatively, following a simple data transformation, the fitting can also be performed using standard linear fitting methods. This paper compares performance of the nonlinear technique to the linear technique, using a range of possible error variance magnitudes in the measured neutron coincidence rate. We develop the required formalism and then apply the traditional (nonlinear) and alternative approaches (linear) to the same experimental and corresponding simulated representative datasets. We find that, in this context, because of the magnitude of the errors in the predictor, it is preferable not to transform to a linear model, and it is preferable not to adjust for the errors in the predictor when inferring the model parameters.

  5. White Collar Beauties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    LATELY, when you walk into China’s larger hotels, you’ll find several fashionable young women among the many waitresses, foreign and Chinese guests who populate the lobbies. Though exceptionally busy, these women are not lacking in elegance. They are employed-by foreign companies and are

  6. Radicals and Roman Collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Lauren; And Others

    A sociological study of students at Loyola University at the time of their protest regarding Kent State University and Cambodia revealed a wealth of factors regarding intergenerational conflict among Catholics. The majority of students supported the leaders and active participants of the political demonstration, and also approved of smoking…

  7. Total hip arthroplasty with cement and use of a collared matte-finish femoral component: nineteen to twenty-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, John J; Liu, Steve S; Firestone, Daniel E; Yehyawi, Tameem M; Goetz, Devon D; Sullivan, Jason; Vittetoe, David A; O'Rourke, Michael R; Johnston, Richard C

    2008-02-01

    In the mid- to late 1970s, on the basis of laboratory and finite element data, many surgeons in the United States began using collared matte-finish femoral components and metal-backed acetabular components in their total hip arthroplasties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of the use of one such construct in arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon in a consecutive nonselected patient cohort. Between January 1984 and December 1985, 273 patients underwent a total of 304 consecutive nonselected total hip arthroplasties with cement and use of the Iowa femoral component (which is collared, has a proximal cobra shape, and has a matte finish) and a metal-backed TiBac acetabular component performed by a single surgeon. At nineteen to twenty years postoperatively, only two patients (two hips) were lost to follow-up. For clinical evaluation, we attempted to interview all living patients and the families of the patients who had died to verify the status of the hip prosthesis or any revisions. Radiographic evaluation consisted of analysis for loosening and osteolysis as well as wear of the acetabular component. At the time of the nineteen to twenty-year follow-up, the rate of revision of the arthroplasty for any reason was 10.5% (thirty-two hips) for all patients and 25% (twenty-three hips) for living patients. The rate of revision due to aseptic femoral loosening was 2.6% (eight hips). There was radiographic evidence of loosening of the femoral component in fifteen hips (4.9%), including those that were revised, and femoral osteolysis was seen distal to the trochanters in twenty-two hips (7.2%). The rate of revision due to aseptic loosening of the acetabular component was 7.9% (twenty-four hips), and there was radiographic evidence of acetabular loosening in forty-two hips (13.8%), including those that were revised. This study demonstrates the durability of a cemented matte-finish collared femoral component at twenty years postoperatively

  8. 基于人体工学的男女衬衫领结构设计方法探讨%Study on Structural Design Method of Shirt Collar Based on Ergonomic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳莲

    2012-01-01

    以人体颈部形态和衬衫领基本结构为基础,从人体工学的角度分析男、女颈部形态对衬衫领结构设计因素的影响,通过立裁实验研究不同翻领宽和领座高条件下的衬衫领下落量和领面后中心缩进量以及其相互关系,为实际平面版型结构设计提供立体依据。%Based on the neck shape and basic structure of the shirt collar, the influence of male and female neck shape on structure design of the shirt coIlar from ergonomics was analyzed. The whereabouts value of the shirt collar, the back center indent of the shirt collar surface and their interrelation with different lapel width and collar stand high were studied through three-dimensional cut experiment. It provided three-dimensional basis for the actual plane version of structural design.

  9. 莫高窟唐五代壁画供养人服饰领型研究%On the Collar Styles of the Donor Figures in the Tang and Five Dynasties Wall Paintings at the Mogao Grottoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波

    2014-01-01

    对莫高窟唐五代供养人服饰中出现的领型形制进行了分析,归纳出六种领型,它们是直领、交领、圆领、绻领、袒领、方心曲领;并就这六种领型与服装款式搭配关系和领型与性别、等级之间的关系、领型形成的渊源进行了研究探索。%This paper analyzes the collar styles of the Tang dynasty donor figures at the Mogao Grottoes and classifies them into seven types:straight, crossed, round, turned-down, flat, and collars with a round top and a lower square. It also attempts to explore how these collar types had been used, what the relation was between collar types and gender or social ranks, and how the different styles had been developed.

  10. A Cultural Reading of a Chinese White-Collar Workplace Bestseller and its Filmic Adaptation: Li Ke’s A Story of Lala’s Promotion and Go Lala Go!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenshen Cai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Li Ke’s novel A Story of Lala’s Promotion (Du Lala Shengzhi Ji became a bestseller among Chinese white-collar workers in foreign-owned (Western companies and struck a chord with the Chinese middle class. The novel revolves around office politics, Western company culture and the white-collar lifestyle, the ‘shelved ladies’ phenomenon and middle-class aesthetics. To decipher the embedded cultural codes of this book, this study undertakes a textual analysis of the plots of A Story of Lala’s Promotion and its filmic adaptation, Go Lala Go! (Du Lala Shengzhi Ji dir. Xu Jinglei, 2010. This paper conducts a trans-media adaption study (from fiction to film to examine three interrelated themes in the novel and the film. First, focusing on the influence of Western corporate culture on Chinese white-collar workers under economic globalisation, the widely circulating rules of Western workplaces are interpreted, clarifying the acculturating process of Western culture over its Chinese counterpart. The paper further explains that on the platform provided by foreign companies, and with the influence and training of Western corporate culture, intelligent and diligent young Chinese aspirational women struggle and realise their dreams in the workplace. Second, employing a feminist perspective, an attempt is made to address the situation of contemporary Chinese white-collar women represented by the contemporary social phenomenon of the ‘shelved ladies’, which also serves as an emblem of female independence and individualism. Third, through an analysis of the filmic adaptation, which focuses on the white-collar female’s lifestyle and consumption habits, the paper also highlights the contemporary Chinese population’s pursuit of a middle-class identity and aesthetic that mirrors the overwhelming consumerism of post-socialist China.

  11. Discussion on the origin of raising-and-depression and collar inclination%谈举折与起翘的起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柏弋

    2014-01-01

    Through researching relevant literature and cultural relics of the origin of raising-and-depression and collar inclination,the paper com-pares and analyzes their origin,points out their mutual influence and co-existence,which has provided some basis for further studying roof shape of ancient architecture.%通过考证举折和起翘起源相关的文献与文物,对举折和起翘的起源进行了对比和分析,提出了举折和起翘在发展过程中存在互相影响的现象,为进一步研究中国古代建筑体系屋顶造型提供了依据。

  12. CORRELATION BETWEEN RISK-TAKING AND RISK-AVERTING BEHAVIOR DURING THE WHITE-COLLAR CRIME PERPETRATING: EMPIRICAL FINDINGS FOR MOLDOVA AND ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia GÎRLA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article constitutes an independent scientific research in Criminology. Especially, authors have done their best to explain and to prove the correlation between risk-taking and risk averting behavior during the white-collar perpetrating. Authors have demonstrated that risk is not only a probability of losses but also forms a threat of unpredictable development of events. As a consequence, when a person avoids risking it is also a risk because there appears a great likelihood of undesirable expansion of events outside the risk. New theoretical concepts are formulated on the base of empirical findings obtained from the correlation of the personality traits (Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness and Consciousness in male and female white-collar offenders predisposed to risky decisions in business administration because such decisions are based on intuition and there is detected a deficiency of reasonability.By means of empirical research based on psychological experiment and sociological interview of the white-collar offenders and the control groups there have been proved that inclination to risk being a quality of a person (a personality trait which is expressed in a permanent tendency to use new possibilities in some cases can indicate to a propensity of a person to commit white-collar crimes.Corelaţia dintre comportamentul centrat pe risc şi cel bazat pe evitarea riscului în procesul comiterii infracţiunii „gulerelor albe”: DATE EMPIRICE PENTRU MOLDOVA ŞI ISRAELAcest articol constituie un studiu ştiinţific independent în materia de criminologie. În special, autorii au încercat să explice şi să demonstreze corelaţia dintre comportamentul centrat pe risc şi cel bazat pe evitarea riscului în procesul comiterii infracţiunii gulerelor albe. Autorii au demonstrat că riscul reprezintă nu doar o probabilitate de pierderi, dar şi constituie o ameninţare prin evoluţia imprevizibilă a evenimentelor

  13. "Una mujer trabaja doble aqui": Vignette-based focus groups on stress and work for Latina blue-collar women in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Michele M; Linnan, Laura A; Bentley, Margaret E; DeVellis, Brenda M; Meier, Andrea; Frasier, Pamela Y; Kelsey, Kristine S; Campbell, Marci K

    2007-01-01

    Latina women are a growing percentage of the working population, and very little is known about their health needs and interests. The purpose of this article is to share qualitative research results gathered from Latina women with a particular focus on exploring stress and health. This project was a substudy of Health Works in the Community, a 5-year CDC-funded multiple risk-factor reduction trial using participatory action research approaches to address smoking, healthy eating, stress, and physical activity among blue-collar women from 12 manufacturing work sites in rural, eastern North Carolina. Five focus groups were conducted with trained, bilingual facilitators using a vignette-based moderator guide that appeared particularly effective with this population. Results from the focus groups are used to make recommendations for future research with Latinas and for developing effective work-site-based interventions to address issues of stress and health within this population.

  14. Apanha-me se puderes! tradução comentada do capítulo “White-collar and Corporate Crime”, The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Apresentada ao Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Tradução e Interpretação Especializadas, sob orientação da Mestre Suzana Noronha Cunha O objeto desta dissertação é uma proposta de tradução do capítulo “White-collar and Corporate Crime”, do livro The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. A disciplina de criminologia é relativamente recente no nosso país e há ainda muito pouca literatura, quer e...

  15. SEM and neurohistological observations of nerve endings in the middle region of the tongue of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu): a silver impregnation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, I; Guimarães, J P; Maia, M O; Santos, T C; Kfoury, J R; Boleta, S A; Almeida, S R Y; Righeti, M M; Miglino, M A

    2011-04-01

    The presence of lingual papillae and the nerve endings in the middle region of the tongue mucosa of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) were studied using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, based upon the silver impregnation method. The middle region of tongue mucosa revealed numerous filiform and fungiform papillae. The thick epithelial layer showed epithelial cells and a dense connective tissue layer containing nerve fibre bundles and capillaries. The sensory nerve endings, intensely stained by silver impregnation, were usually non-encapsulated and extended into the connective tissue of the filiform and fungiform papillae very close to the epithelial cells. In some regions, the sensory nerves fibres formed a dense and complex network of fine fibrils. The presence of these nerve fibrils may characterize the mechanisms of transmission of sensitive impulses to the tongue mucosa.

  16. Impactos da tecnologia de informação sobre o trabalho de "colarinho branco" Impacts of information technology on "white collar" work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Simões Borges

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Grandes investimentos em tecnologia de informação (TI vêm sendo canalizados para a melhoria dos processos empresariais. Esses investimentos limitam-se, em geral, à automação pura e simples dos processos já existentes na companhia, os quais continuam sendo realiza-dos pelos mesmos profissionais e regidos pelos mesmos princípios anteriores à TI. Um corolário deste tipo de automação é o pequeno ganho de produtividade do trabalho de colarinho branco. Uma alternativa para este problema é a reengenharia de processos, que por meio do uso criativo da TI e da gestão por processos procura estabelecer novas formas muito mais eficientes de realizar o trabalho. Entretanto, tais formas alteram, freqüente e fundamentalmente, o perfil do profissional e a natureza de seu trabalho. É sobre estes impactos que estaremos discorrendo ao longo deste artigo.Huge investiments in information technology (IT have been directed to business process improvements. Generally, such investments are limited to the sole automation of already existing processes, which continue to be performed according to the same rules and by the same professionals prior to IT. A consequence of this kind of automation is the low producti-vity increase in white collar work. An alternative to this problem is business process reengi-neering, which, via the creative use of IT, strives to establish much more effective ways of performing work. However, very often such new ways affect the professional skills and the nature of the work. This paper discusses the impacts of IT on white collar work.

  17. Work-related stress and quality of life among Iranian blue-collar workers with self-reported low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir-Mokamelkhah, Elaheh; Bahrami-Ahmadi, Amir; Aghili, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impairment in quality of life and mental health had been reported in the previous studies as the results of musculoskeletal disorders among workers. Mental health has a wide concept and contains different disorders including anxiety, depression or even decreased quality of life, all of which having challengeable impacts on work- related characters such as work productivity and absensism. The present study aimed at evaluating work- related stress and quality of life among Iranian blue-collar workers of Fars ABFA Company with selfreported low back pain. Methods: In the present study, we focused on the low back pain among 451 blue-collar workers and assessed their work- related stress and quality of life status using DASS-21 and short form questionnaire (SF-36), respectively. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the qualitative variables, and chi-square test was utilized for statistical analysis of the qualitative variables. Results: Mean of the total score of quality of life among workers with low back pain was significantly lower than in those workers without low back pain. The mean of work- related stress score was significantly higher in workers with low back pain than in workers without low back pain. The mean quality of life subdomains in patients with low back pain was significantly lower than in workers without low back pain. Conclusion: Findings of the present study revealed that workers with low back pain had lower quality of life score and higher work- related stress score. These findings should be considered in designing preventive programs rather than controlling the pain.

  18. Serum estradiol-17beta, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance as predictors of estrus cyclicity in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Galvez, Hugo; Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Lopez-Gatius, Fernando; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of estrus in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon. Two consecutive experiments were performed. The objective of the first experiment was to assess the efficacy of estrus diagnosis by serum estradiol-17beta measurements, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance. The second experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these features for predicting the period of mating acceptance. In Experiment 1, we monitored 56 presumptive estruses in 14 captive females. Estrus was characterized by the reddish and tumescent appearance of the vulva, the presence of vaginal mucus and vaginal opening, which persisted for 4, 4, 2, and 2 days, respectively. In vaginal smears, superficial plus intermediate cells became predominant (accounting for 60% of all cells) for a 4-day period, from 2 days before the estradiol-17beta peak. Superficial cells did not attain their maximum density (45% of all cells) until approximately 1 day before the serum estradiol-17beta peak. Following estrus, superficial and intermediate cells were notably reduced and the appearance of the vulval appearance was characterized by a pale, non-tumescent vulva and vaginal closure. A complete concordance in estrus diagnosis by the 3 methodologies was observed in 35 (62.5%) of the total 56 estrus predictions. In Experiment 2, mating was confirmed in 10 out of the 14 cyclic females. Sexual receptivity was observed in the last third of the period during which secondary estrus signs were shown. In conclusion, examining the vulval appearance and taking a vaginal smear constitutes a useful method of detecting estrus and predicting the period of male acceptance of the collared peccary female. Estrus was indicated by a predominance of superficial cells, and a proportion of superficial plus intermediate cells higher than 60% in the vaginal smear.

  19. Passage marker excretion in red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Ruminants are characterized by an efficient particle-sorting mechanism in the forestomach (FRST) followed by selective rechewing of large food particles. For the nonruminating foregut fermenter pygmy hippo it was demonstrated that large particles are excreted as fast as, or faster than, the small particles. The same has been suggested for other nonruminating foregut fermenters. We determined the mean retention time of fluids and different-sized particles in six red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), seven collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and three colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii). We fed Co-EDTA as fluid and mordanted fiber as particle markers (Cr, Ce). Mean (+ or - SD) total tract retention time for fluids, small and large particles was 14 + or - 2, 29 + or - 10 and 30 + or - 9 hr in red kangaroos, 26 + or - 2, 34 + or - 5 and 32 + or - 3 hr in collared peccaries and 57 + or - 17, 55 + or - 19 and 54 + or - 19 hr in colobine monkeys, respectively. Large and small particles were excreted simultaneously in all species. There was no difference in the excretion of fluids and particles in the colobine monkeys, in contrast to the other foregut fermenters. In the nonprimate, nonruminant foregut fermenters, the difference in the excretion of fluids and small particles decreases with increasing food intake. On the contrary, ruminants keep this differential excretion constant at different intake levels. This may be a prerequisite for the sorting of particles in their FRST and enable them to achieve higher food intake rates. The functional significance of differential excretion of fluids and particles from the FRST requires further investigations.

  20. Structural analysis of floating collar for gravity cage system in the open sea%重力式网箱浮架结构的动力响应特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单恒年; 董国海; 许条建

    2015-01-01

    Fish culture in the offshore fish cage has been received more and more attention recently, while there are bad sea conditions in offshore areas, so the safety of floating collar is very important for the design of fish cage system. To study dynamic response of floating collar under the wave loading, the numerical model of floating collar was built based on finite element method using the PIPE element, and a series of physical model test were conducted to validate the numerical model, and the results showed that the calculated results agreed well with the test results. Then the numerical simulation was performed to analyze the effects of the number of clamps and the breakage of mooring line on the dynamic response of floating collar. Finally the stress and deformation value of the connection points and deformation models of the floating collar of floating collar were obtained. The results indicated that the numerical model could accurately simulate the deformation of floating collar and the mooring line tension force. In addition, the stress and deformation value of floating collar was decreased with the increase in the number of clamps, and the stress value and mooring line force were decreased significantly to minimum when two mooring lines on the same side break. In conclusion, dynamic response is an important basis for structure optimization and analysis, and floating collar with 24 clamps is recommended.%利用离岸网箱进行水产养殖近年来受到了越来越多的重视,离岸区域海况条件恶劣,浮架结构的安全性对于网箱的设计具有极其重要的意义。为研究网箱浮架结构在动态波浪荷载作用下的动力响应,采用有限元法利用PIPE单元建立了浮架的数值模型,并根据物理模型试验结果对该数值模型进行验证,发现有限元模型的计算结果与模型试验结果吻合较好。基于该模型,重点分析了网箱的连接构件数量和个别锚绳发生断裂对浮架动力响应的

  1. 环口板加强型T型圆钢管节点滞回性能研究%Study on Hysteretic Behaviour of Circular Tubular T-joints with Collar Plate Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡艳青; 邵永波

    2011-01-01

    为了研究环口板加固对T型圆钢管节点滞回性能的影响,运用有限元方法对环口板加固T型圆钢管节点进行了滞回性能的参数分析.参数包括支管直径与主管直径比β,主管直径与2倍主管壁厚的比γ,环口板厚度与主管管壁厚之比γc,和环口板长度与支管直径之比lc/d1.有限元分析结果表明:环口板加固T型圆钢管节点的滞回性能相对于未加固节点得到了很大的改善.参数β和γ对节点的滞回性能有显著影响.为了改善节点的滞回性能,建议环口板的厚度不宜超过主管厚度的1.5倍,环口板的长度不宜超过支管直径的2倍.%To study the hysteretic performance of circular tubular T-joints with collar plate reinforcement, a parametric analysis is conducted by using the finite element method. The parameters include; the brace-to-chord diameter ratio β, chord radius to twice chord wall thickness ratio y, collar-plate to chord wall thickness ratio tc , and collar-plate length to brace diameter ratio lc/dl. It is found that the hysteretic behaviour of collar plate reinforced T-joints has been greatly improved compared to that of the un-reinforced T-joints. In addition, the parameters y and ^8 have significant effect on the hysteretic behaviour. It can be suggested that the thickness of collar plate should not exceed 1. 5 times of the chord thickness, and the length of collar plate also should not exceed 2 times of the brace diameter for improving the hysteretic performance efficiently.

  2. Comparison of tracheal intubation using the Airtraq® and Mc Coy laryngoscope in the presence of rigid cervical collar simulating cervical immobilisation for traumatic cervical spine injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Durga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is difficult to visualise the larynx using conventional laryngoscopy in the presence of cervical spine immobilisation. Airtraq® provides for easy and successful intubation in the neutral neck position. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Airtraq in comparison with the Mc Coy laryngoscope, when performing tracheal intubation in patients with neck immobilisation using hard cervical collar and manual in-line axial cervical spine stabilisation. Methods: A randomised, cross-over, open-labelled study was undertaken in 60 ASA I and II patients aged between 20 and 50 years, belonging to either gender, scheduled to undergo elective surgical procedures. Following induction and adequate muscle relaxation, they were intubated using either of the techniques first, followed by the other. Intubation time and Intubation Difficulty Score (IDS were noted using Mc Coy laryngoscope and Airtraq. The anaesthesiologist was asked to grade the ease of intubation on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of 1-10. Chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between the groups and paired sample t-test for comparison of continuous data. IDS score and VAS were compared using Wilcoxon Signed ranked test. Results: The mean intubation time was 33.27 sec (13.25 for laryngoscopy and 28.95 sec (18.53 for Airtraq (P=0.32. The median IDS values were 4 (interquartile range (IQR 1-6 and 0 (IQR 0-1 for laryngoscopy and Airtraq, respectively (P=0.007. The median Cormack Lehane glottic view grade was 3 (IQR 2-4 and 1 (IQR 1-1 for laryngoscopy and Airtraq, respectively (P=0.003. The ease of intubation on VAS was graded as 4 (IQR 3-5 for laryngoscopy and 2 (IQR 2-2 for Airtraq (P=0.033. There were two failures to intubate with the Airtraq. Conclusion: Airtraq improves the ease of intubation significantly when compared to Mc Coy blade in patients immobilised with cervical collar and manual in-line stabilisation simulating cervical spine injury.

  3. Biological Significance of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: VIVID Photocycle Governs the Dynamic VIVID-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-adaptation and Response to Changes in Light Intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Dasgupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability of the adduct state (light state, that is, altering the photocycle length. We have examined the biological significance of VVD photocycle length to photoadaptation and report that a double substitution mutant (vvdI74VI85V, previously shown to have a very fast light to dark state reversion in vitro, shows significantly reduced interaction with the White Collar Complex (WCC resulting in a substantial photoadaptation defect. This reduced interaction impacts photoreceptor transcription factor WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1 protein stability when N. crassa is exposed to light: The fast-reverting mutant VVD is unable to form a dynamic VVD-WCC pool of the size required for photoadaptation as assayed both by attenuation of gene expression and the ability to respond to increasing light intensity. Additionally, transcription of the clock gene frequency (frq is sensitive to changing light intensity in a wild-type strain but not in the fast photo-reversion mutant indicating that the establishment of this dynamic VVD-WCC pool is essential in general photobiology and circadian biology. Thus, VVD photocycle length appears sculpted to establish a VVD-WCC reservoir of sufficient size to sustain photoadaptation while maintaining sensitivity to changing light intensity. The great diversity

  4. Understanding long-term sick leave in female white-collar workers with burnout and stress-related diagnoses: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave rates in Sweden have been significant since the end of the 1990s. In this paper we focus on individual female white-collar workers and explore various factors and setting-based sources of ill health in working life and in private life, in order to understand impaired work ability, leading ultimately to long-term sick leave. Methods A qualitative methodology was chosen, and thematic, open-ended interviews were carried out with 16 women. The interviewees were strategically selected from a cohort of 300 women in full-time white-collar jobs in high-level positions, living in three urban areas in Sweden, and on long-term sick leave ≥90 days. A qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results The informants in the study were generally well educated, but a few had surprisingly little formal education considering their salary level and position on the labour market. The women were in professional positions more commonly held by men, either as specialists with some degree of managerial role or as executives with managerial responsibilities. Both external and internal stressors were identified. The analysis indicated that being in these gender-typed jobs could have induced sex discrimination and role conflicts. The women expressed strong agreement regarding success in working life, but emphasised the lack of competence matching in their present jobs. They also lacked the sense of having a rewarding job, saw leadership as weak, and disliked their present workplace and colleagues. Impaired health may have hindered them from changing jobs; conversely, their locked-in positions could have resulted in deterioration in their health status. The women displayed personal overcommitment, both at work and in private life, and had difficulties in setting limits. Conclusions Factors in working life, as well as in private life, played an important role in the informants' deteriorated health and long-term sick leave. Job and

  5. On Migrant White -collar Workers’ Social Integration%农民工型白领社会融合问题及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田飞; 周楠

    2014-01-01

    Migrant white-collar workers are the people who lived in the rural areas before the age of 14 and currently en-gage in professional technology ,education ,management or clerical work in enterprises and habitat in cities .According to the 2008 CGSS data ,we conduct multivariate linear regression model to analyze migrant white -collar workers’ social inte-gration .Social integration is divided into five dimensions ,covering mental integration ,economic integration ,integration of social interaction ,self-identity and city emotion .Studies have shown that factors such as income from work perception , perception of political relations ,relationships with colleagues ,importance of recognizing right people ,social class ,salary satisfaction ,relationships with bosses ,years of education ,have a significant impact on different dimensions of social inte-gration .In order to achieve further social integration ,solutions should be taken ,such as strengthening two -way interactivi-ty ,enhancing government intervention to prevent brain drain and realizing multi -dimensional social integration .%农民工型白领是指14岁前生活在农村,目前在企事业单位从事专业技术、教育、管理和文职工作并在工作城市生活的群体。通过2008CGSS数据,对农民工型白领群体的社会融合状况进行多元线性回归方程模型分析,社会融合分为心态融合、经济融合、社会交往融合、自我身份认同、城市情感五个维度。研究表明,工作收入感知、政治关系感知、与同事关系、认识正确的人的重要性、所属阶级、薪水满意度、与老板上司关系、联系非同住家人数和教育年限等因素对不同维度的社会融合产生显著影响。为了进一步实现社会融合,应采取加强双向互动性、政府干预防范人才外流、多维度社会融合等措施。

  6. The Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Eggs of Collared Flycatchers, Ficedula Albicollis (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae, and Tits, Parus Major, Parus Caeruleus (Passeriformes, Paridae, in Different Areas of North-Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis Temminck, 1815, have more opportunities to accumulate heavy metals due to migration but they are more resistant to contamination in contrast to tits, (Parus major Linnaeus, 1758, Parus caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758. This research aimed to detect concentrations of some trace elements in eggs of the collared flycatcher, great tit and blue tit in different areas. There were found differences in heavy metal concentrations in the eggs among species and study areas. For collared flycatchers there were not established consistent patterns of changes in element concentrations among areas. The highest heavy metal levels were found in tits in samples of egg contents from a forest park (Pb - 3.1410 ± 0.3249, Cu - 19.3290 ± 1.4840, Zn - 66.9612 ± 17.6665, Fe - 249.5513 ± 40.2800, Mn - 6.9032 ± 0.2946, Ca - 8298.3570 ± 0.1080, Sr - 17.6032 ± 0.7512, Ni - 0.5177 ± 0.0220. The lowest concentrations were found in egg contents of tits in Hetmanskyi National Nature Park (Cu - 4.3492 ± 0.2079, Fe - 44.6647 ± 0.2627, Mn - 1.3194 ± 0.2374, Ca - 998.7001 ± 0.0006, Ni - 0.2443 ± 0.0439, Cr - 0.1466 ± 0.0424. The results indicate that heavy metals accumulated differently in shells and contents of eggs of collared flycatchers and tits in each of the study area. Some of microelements (zinc, mercury, iron, manganese, selenium and iodine in small amounts are required for normal growth and development of birds. Heavy metal concentrations in egg shells and egg contents of all species did not exceed permissible levels.

  7. Evaluación del uso de collar cervical de inmovilización después de la descompresión y fusion cervical por acceso anterior: Revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Ofenhejm Gotfryd; Regina El Dib; Ricardo Vieira Botelho; Patrícia Rios Poletto

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate safety and effectiveness of the use of orthesis in postoperative degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Although widely used, there are not defined criteria for the use of cervical collars, and their importance on cervical arthrodesis. A systematic literature review was undertaken and a multicentre controlled clinical trial comprising 32 specialized services, with a total of 257 patients who met the inclusion criteria of the review. Clinical and radiographic...

  8. A test on within-individual changes in risk-taking behaviour due to experience to predation in the Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krenhardt Katalin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Different experiences from the past may have influence on individual’s behaviour through feedback mechanisms that can weaken or preserve the within-individual consistency of behavioural traits. Here, we aimed to find evidence for such feedback mechanisms that may operate on risk-taking behaviour via the effect of former experience to potential predation events in male Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis. We predicted that risk-taking of males would decrease after experiencing a predator’s attack in previous breeding seasons (negative feedback. We assessed risk-taking by flight initiation distance (FID that is the distance at which an individual flees from an approaching predator, which was estimated for 234 individuals from different breeding seasons. Information on predation experience (i.e. occurrence of nest predation, the incidence of capture by human observers was available from our long-term database on individual life histories. In a horizontal approach, we found no difference in FID when comparing males with former experience to predation with males naive to predators. A longitudinal approach relying on the repeated tests of the same individuals from different years yielded analogous results, we could not show a significant change in the risk-taking behaviour of the males as a consequence of experience to predation in past years. However, we found that individuals systematically took less risk over the years, which might be a consequence of acquiring general experience with age.

  9. A Parallel-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Effects of a Far-Infrared-Emitting Collar on Neck Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the beneficial effects of a far-infrared-emitting collar (FIRC on the management of neck disorders. A neck disorder is generalized as neck muscle pain and its relative mental disorders because the etiologies of the neck’s multidimensional syndrome are either muscle impairment or psychiatric distress. This is the first study to determine the efficacy of a FIRC by evaluating objective physical evidence and psychometric self-reports using a parallel-arm randomized sham-controlled and single-blinded design. In this trial, 60 participants with neck disorders were observed at baseline and post-intervention. Compared to the placebo group after a 30-min intervention, the FIRC demonstrated a statistically significant biological effect in elevating skin temperature and promoting blood circulation with p-values 0.003 and 0.020, respectively. In addition, FIRC application significantly reduced neck muscle tension, relieved pain, ameliorated fatigue, improved depression, and decreased anxiety. The FIRC could therefore be a potential treatment for neck disorders.

  10. INVESTIGATION ON LUNCH CONDITION OF THE WHITE-COLLAR WORKER INGUANGZHOU%广州市白领人群午餐现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小红; 王庆雄; 杨培喜

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To assess nutritional knowledge and eating behavior, a lunch state among white-collar worker was investigated in Guangzhou. Il would provide reference of nutritional education for white-collar worker. [Methods] 100 White-collars worker from Guangzhou was investigated by questionnaires. The content included nutritional knowledge, eating behaviors, meal mode and individual assessments for lunch. [ Results ] The knowing ratio of nutritional knowledge was at the range of 6I.86%~84.54%. The high scores groups and low scores groups about nutrition knowledge had not difference on having lunch on time, and having more kinds of foods. The source of nutritional knowledge was various media. 92.78% of ihem had lunch on lime, 70% of them had lunch not at home. The meal mode was not rational, meat was enough, and vegetable and fruit was less. The consciousness of eating animal liver and blood was lack, the proportion of them who ate animal liver and blood casually was 62.89%. The ratio of eating legume products, roughage regularity was lower. 83.5% of individual was satisfying for lunch. 40.21% of individual choose food according to taste and favor, few of them considered nutrition. They hope the lunch would be ameliorated, for example, a variety of food, arrange in groups of food, taste, nutrition, price, short order in time, safety, and less oil. [Conclusion] White-collar worker know some nutritional knowledge, but their meal mode was not rational, nutritional behavior should be improved.%[目的]通过对广州市白领人群的午餐现状进行调查,了解该人群的管养知识和膳食行为,为白领人群营养教育提供依据.[方法]采用问卷调查法,在广州市白领人群中随机抽取100名,对其管养知识、饮食行为、膳食结构、对午餐的评价等进行调查.[结果]营养知识水平总体较高,回答正确率为61.86%~84.54%;营养知识得分高与低者比较,两者在进餐是否按时、选择食物种

  11. Ecological factors affecting the adrenocortical response to stress in chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs (Calcarius ornatus, Calcarius mccownii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Hunt, Kathleen E; Wingfield, John C

    2003-01-01

    Secretion of the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) in response to perturbations results in behavior patterns that can maximize survival. Three commonly cited hypotheses suggest that during breeding, there are advantages associated with suppressed (CORT) secretion in (1) the sex that is most important for parental care, (2) individuals in good body condition, and (3) species with a short breeding season and limited renesting opportunities. We addressed these hypotheses in two midlatitude breeders, chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs, by assessing CORT secretion over a 1-h period of handling. These species have congeners that are exclusively arctic breeders, and this provides a unique opportunity to assess adrenocortical responsiveness both within a phylogenetic framework and across environmental variables. In both species, males and females showed similar CORT secretion patterns in response to handling, and body condition was unrelated to CORT secretion. Additionally, although these midlatitude breeders have more opportunities to attempt a renest than their arctic congeners, their hormonal response to stress was similar to that reported for their arctic congeners. We suggest that an attenuated stress response may relate to the severity of the breeding environment and a low likelihood of successful renesting, since these variables are common to both arctic and grassland habitats.

  12. Whole-genome resequencing of extreme phenotypes in collared flycatchers highlights the difficulty of detecting quantitative trait loci in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Marty; Husby, Arild; McFarlane, S Eryn; Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic variation in natural populations is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. One open question is whether quantitative traits are determined only by large numbers of genes with small effects, or whether variation also exists in large-effect loci. We conducted genomewide association analyses of forehead patch size (a sexually selected trait) on 81 whole-genome-resequenced male collared flycatchers with extreme phenotypes, and on 415 males sampled independent of patch size and genotyped with a 50K SNP chip. No SNPs were genomewide statistically significantly associated with patch size. Simulation-based power analyses suggest that the power to detect large-effect loci responsible for 10% of phenotypic variance was 0.8 for resequencing of extreme phenotypes (N = 243), but power remained 0.8 when analysing 415 randomly sampled phenotypes. However, power of the 50K SNP chip to detect large-effect loci was nearly 0.8 in simulations with a small effective population size of 1500. These results suggest that reliably detecting large-effect trait loci in large natural populations will often require thousands of individuals and near complete sampling of the genome. Encouragingly, far fewer individuals and loci will often be sufficient to reliably detect large-effect loci in small populations with widespread strong linkage disequilibrium.

  13. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  14. Quantifying male-biased dispersal among social groups in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) using analyses based on mtDNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J D; Vitalis, R; Waser, P M; Gopurenko, D; Hellgren, E C; Gabor, T M; DeWoody, J A

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the statistical analysis of microsatellite data permit calculation of sex-specific dispersal rates through sex- and age-specific comparisons of genetic variation. This approach, developed for the analysis of data derived from co-dominant autosomal markers, should be applicable to a sex-specific marker such as mitochondrial DNA. To test this premise, we amplified a 449 bp control region DNA sequence from the mitochondrial genome of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), and estimated intra-class correlations among herds sampled from three Texas populations. Analyses on data partitioned by breeding group showed a clear signal of male-biased dispersal; sex-specific fixation indices associated with genetic variation among social groups within populations yielded values for females (F(GP)=0.91), which were significantly larger than values for males (F(GP)=0.24; P=0.0015). The same general pattern emerged when the analyses were conducted on age classes (albeit nonsignificantly), as well as categories of individuals that were predicted a posteriori to be dispersers (adult males) and philopatric (adult females and all immatures). By extending a previously published methodology based on biparentally inherited markers to matrilineally inherited haploid data, we calculated sex-specific rates of contemporary dispersal among social groups within populations (m(male symbol)=0.37). These results support the idea that mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequency data can be used to estimate sex-specific instantaneous dispersal rates in a social species.

  15. Methane production by two non-ruminant foregut-fermenting herbivores: The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and the pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendl, Catharina; Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Furrer, Samuel; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lawrenz, Arne; Lange, Bastian; Munn, Adam; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Methane (CH4) production varies between herbivore species, but reasons for this variation remain to be elucidated. Here, we report open-circuit chamber respiration measurements of CH4 production in four specimens each of two non-ruminant mammalian herbivores with a complex forestomach but largely differing in body size, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu, mean body mass 17kg) and the pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis, 229kg) fed lucerne-based diets. In addition, food intake, digestibility and mean retention times were measured in the same experiments. CH4 production averaged 8 and 72L/d, 18 and 19L/kg dry matter intake, and 4.0 and 4.2% of gross energy intake for the two species, respectively. When compared with previously reported data on CH4 production in other non-ruminant and ruminant foregut-fermenting as well as hindgut-fermenting species, it is evident that neither the question whether a species is a foregut fermenter or not, or whether it ruminates or not, is of the relevance previously suggested to explain variation in CH4 production between species. Rather, differences in CH4 production between species on similar diets appear related to species-specific differences in food intake and digesta retention kinetics.

  16. Extended cervico-thoracic metastasectomy for testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumour masses through an inverse T and combined collar incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Thomas; Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Taghavi, Shahrokh; Klepetko, Walter

    2015-05-01

    Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) are the most common malignancy from testicular origin in young males. They are characterized by early formation of metastases along retroperitoneal and subsequent mediastinal lymph node stations. Following cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy, residual tumour masses should be removed surgically, although this implies the need for extended procedures. Such an approach can result in cure rates of over 70%. Herein, we report 2 cases of maximally extended surgery for metastatic malignant germ cell tumour of the testis. In both patients, diagnostic work-up revealed a NSGCT with retroperitoneal, mediastinal and cervical lymph node metastases. Multimodal protocols including induction chemotherapy and surgical removal of all primary and secondary tumour masses with curative intent were applied. An 'inverse T' incision in combination with a collar incision was chosen to approach the excessive supra-diaphragmatic tumour spread. This large-scaled surgical access offered an excellent exposure and allowed complete resection of all cervical and thoracic metastases in both patients. Abdominal tumour masses were resected through a standard median laparotomy. These 2 cases illustrate that complete tumour resection is feasible even in stages of NSGCT with generalized lymphatic spread. Metastasectomy should be offered to NSGCT patients despite the necessity of extended surgical approaches.

  17. 浮箍和浮鞋失效原因分析及预防%Analysis of Float Collar and Float Shoe Failure and Its Precautions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱和明; 吴晋霞; 郭朝辉; 薛占峰

    2013-01-01

    Failed float collar and float shoe will influence the cementing quality or even ruin the whole well.The analysis of facts was made,which lead to failure from the inside environment of the well,construction elements,tool problem of itself and so on.Besides,the measures to prevent are proposed,which will reduce the possibility of failure fundamentally and improve the safety reliability of well cementing.%由于浮箍、浮鞋失效而导致固井质量不合格,严重时会造成整口井报废.从井下环境因素、施工因素及工具自身结构和质量等方面分析了导致浮箍、浮鞋失效的原因,并提出了预防措施.对减小浮箍、浮鞋使用时失效的可能性,提高固井作业的成功率,减少经济损失具有重要意义.

  18. 太极养生在白领阶层开展的现状及对策--以成都市武侯区白领阶层为例%Tai chi Perservation in White-collar Workers to Carry out Investigation--In Chengdu WuHouou White-collar Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小红

    2013-01-01

    太极起源于《易经》,而太极拳则是由太极演变而来。太极拳讲究的是阴阳相生、刚柔并济,同时也很重视气的修炼,御内气循经脉运行,以疏通经络调和阴阳,保持正常的人体生理机能。本文运用文献资料法、问卷调查法等对太极养生在白领阶层开展情况的调查研究,认为白领阶层工作压力大,精神常处于紧张状态,习练太极拳可以调节工作压力、缓解精神紧张,提高工作效率,使工作、生活、身体状况进入一个良性循环状态。%The tai chi originated in the I ching, and tai chi chuan is by tai chi evolved. Taijiquan cultured is Yin and Yang of birth, Rigid-flexible economic, Also attaches great importance to the practice of royal gas within gas follow meridians run to clear the meridians harmonic Yin and Yang, Maintain normal human physiological function. And according to the taijiquan narrative tai chi regimen of evolution. White-collar personage high-pressure working condition and lifestyle produce certain conflict, Analysis the white-collar life attitude, physical condition, Is put forward by using the advantages of taiji boxing exercise regimen, Regular exercise can adjust working pressure, Relieves mental stress, Which is beneficial to the health. Make work and life, Healthy body into a virtuous cycle state.

  19. The Development and Clinical Application of Chinese Medicine Applying and Health Caring Neck Collar in Treating Cervical Spondylosis%中药熥敷保健颈托的研制及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文; 赵继荣; 李红专

    2011-01-01

    目的:研制一种治疗颈椎病的中药熥敷保健颈托,并观察其临床疗效.方法:中药熥敷保健颈托由普通颈托与中药熥敷合剂药袋组成,药袋粘贴入特制的颈托凹陷内.选择160例颈椎病患者随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组采用佩戴中药熥敷保健颈托治疗,对照组采用奇正炎痛贴治疗,2个疗程后观察疗效.结果:观察组治愈率和有效率分别为72.5%和95.0%,对照组治愈率和有效率分别为48.75%和82.5%,2组治愈率和有效率比较均有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:中药熥敷保健颈托治疗颈椎病明显优于奇正炎痛贴,具有较好的临床疗效.%Objective: To develop a Chinese medicine applying and health caring neck collar in treating cervical spondyiosis and observe its clinical efficacy. Methods:The Chinese medicine applying and health caring neck collar composed by the common carotid neck collar and Chinese mixture medicine bag, the drug bag was adhesived into special concave in neck paste. 160 cases of cervical spondyiosis were selected randomly to divide into observation group and comparison group,the observation group were wearing chinese medicine applying and health caring neck collar to apply health treatment,the comparison group were treated with QiZheng YanTong patch,to compare the efficacy atter two periods of treatment. Results:The cure rate and efficiency of the observation group were respectively 72.5% and 95.0%,while those of the comparison group were respectively 48.75% and 82.5%,the comparison of cure rate and efficiency of the two groups were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Chinese medicine applying and hcalth caring neck collar was significantly better than the QiZheng YanTongpatch in treating cervical spondylosis,it has better clinical efficacy.

  20. 上海市白领口臭流行情况调查%Epidemiological investigation of halitosis in white-collar employees in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张羽; 陈曦; 冯希平

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查上海市白领的口臭流行情况及影响因素。方法采取多级、整群、随机抽样的方法,从上海市白领公司较为集中的六个区内随机抽取3个区,每个区内随机抽取一个白领公司,并在抽取的公司内随机抽取3个部门作为调查单位,对每个调查单位内所有对象进行问卷调查、临床检查及口气检查。结果共调查上海市白领805人,收回问卷及接受检查720人。 VSC平均值为(117.47±102.56) mg/L,口臭检出率为33.2%。舌苔厚度、牙周袋深度、食用甜食频率和2 h内是否进食进入回归方程。结论白领人群中,舌苔与牙周疾病与口臭明显相关,有必要增加宣传,增强人群口腔保健意识,从而预防口臭。同时,食用甜食可能会减少VSC产生,但该结果仍有待进一步研究。%Objective To investigate the factors associated with halitosis in Shanghai white⁃collar employees. Methods Subjects in three randomly selected office buildings in Shanghai, China, were enrolled in this cross⁃sectional study using cluster random sampling. Oral malodor was assessed by measuring volatile sulfur compounds ( VSCs) with a portable sulfide monitor. Subjects�oral health, inclu⁃ding dental caries, periodontal status, and tongue coating, was evaluated clinically. A questionnaire was used to obtain information a⁃bout participants� demographic characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and health behaviors. Results Of 805 subjects invited to partici⁃pate in this study, 720 were enrolled (89.4% response rate) and data from these subjects were used for statistical analyses. The mean VSC was (117.47±102.56) mg/L, and the prevalence of halitosis was 33.2% (VSC≥110 mg/L). In the final regression model, hal⁃itosis was significantly related to tongue coating thickness, periodontal pocket depth, food consumption within 2 h prior to oral examina⁃tion, and intake frequency of sweet foods

  1. 1st place, PREMUS best paper competition: workplace and individual factors in wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers--the San Francisco study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Carisa; Eisen, Ellen A; Goldberg, Robert; Krause, Niklas; Rempel, David

    2011-03-01

    Workplace studies have linked hand/wrist tendinosis to forceful and repetitive hand exertions, but the associations are not consistent. We report findings from a prospective study of right wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers. Workers (N=413) at four industries were followed for 28 months with questionnaires and physical examinations every 4 months to identify incident cases of right wrist tendinosis. Exposure assessment of force and repetition were based on field measurements and video analysis to determine repetition rate and the percent time (% time) in heavy pinch (>1 kg-force) or power grip (>4 kg-force). All exposure variables were measured at the level of the individual and task. For workers responsible for >1 task, a time-weighted average exposure was calculated based on task hours per week. A proportional hazards model was used to assess the relationship between exposures and incidence of wrist tendinosis. During the 481 person-years of follow-up, there were 26 incident cases of right wrist tendinosis [incidence rate (IR) 5.40 cases per 100 person-years]. Adjusting for age, gender, and repetition, wrist tendinosis was associated with % time spent in heavy pinch [hazard ratio (HR) 5.01, 95% CI 1.27-19.79). Composite exposure measure American Conference of Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH-TLV) for hand activity level (HR 3.95, 95% CI 1.52-10.26) was also associated with the outcome for the medium-exposure group using video-based total repetition rate. The workplace factors predicting wrist tendinosis were time-weighted average values of % time spent in heavy pinch and the ACGIH-TLV for Hand Activity Level. The % time spent in power grip was not a significant predictor, nor were any measures of repetition. An exposure-response relationship was observed for the % time spent in heavy pinch. These findings may improve programs for preventing occupational wrist tendinosis.

  2. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions.

  3. Assessing the effects of light on differentiation and virulence of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea: characterization of the White Collar Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Canessa

    Full Text Available Organisms are exposed to a tough environment, where acute daily challenges, like light, can strongly affect several aspects of an individual's physiology, including pathogenesis. While several fungal models have been widely employed to understand the physiological and molecular events associated with light perception, various other agricultural-relevant fungi still remain, in terms of their responsiveness to light, in the dark. The fungus Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive pathogen able to cause disease on a wide range of plant species. Natural B. cinerea isolates exhibit a high degree of diversity in their predominant mode of reproduction. Thus, the majority of naturally occurring strains are known to reproduce asexually via conidia and sclerotia, and sexually via apothecia. Studies from the 1970's reported on specific developmental responses to treatments with near-UV, blue, red and far-red light. To unravel the signaling machinery triggering development--and possibly also connected with virulence--we initiated the functional characterization of the transcription factor/photoreceptor BcWCL1 and its partner BcWCL2, that form the White Collar Complex (WCC in B. cinerea. Using mutants either abolished in or exhibiting enhanced WCC signaling (overexpression of both bcwcl1 and bcwcl2, we demonstrate that the WCC is an integral part of the mentioned machinery by mediating transcriptional responses to white light and the inhibition of conidiation in response to this stimulus. Furthermore, the WCC is required for coping with excessive light, oxidative stress and also to achieve full virulence. Although several transcriptional responses are abolished in the absence of bcwcl1, the expression of some genes is still light induced and a distinct conidiation pattern in response to daily light oscillations is enhanced, revealing a complex underlying photobiology. Though overlaps with well-studied fungal systems exist, the light-associated machinery of B

  4. Clinical study on effects of the cervical collar on isolated systolic hypertension patients with cervical spondylosis%颈托治疗单纯收缩期高血压伴颈椎病的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉征

    2016-01-01

    目的:探索颈托治疗单纯性收缩期高血压伴颈椎病的疗效及安全性。方法将98例单纯收缩期高血压患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组(n=50)予颈托治疗,对照组(n=48)给予非甾体类抗炎药(NSAIDs)治疗。于治疗前后测量血压数值及NPQ评分评估疗效。结果1个疗程前后测量收缩压,与对照组相比,治疗组收缩压改善有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论单纯收缩期高血压伴颈椎病患者降低血压及改善颈部症状颈托比常规药物更佳。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect and safety of Cervical Collar in treating isolated systolic hypertension patients with cervical spondylosis. Methods 98 patients suffering isolated systolic hypertension and cervical spondylosis were randomly divided into treatment group and control group according to the random number table produced by SPSS 17.0 software. The patients in treatment group were treated with Cervical Collar.The patients of control group were treated with NSAIDs. The blood pressure and NPQ score were compared between two groups before and after treatment. Results Systolic blood pressure was better in treatment group than those in control(P0.05).Conclusion Cervical Collar could improve isolated systolic hypertension patients with cervical spondylosis blood pressure and NPQ score effectively in the early stage.

  5. 环口板加强型T节点滞回性能的试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOUR OF CIRCULAR TUBULAR T-JOINTS REINFORCED WITH COLLAR-PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵永波; 岳永生; 蔡艳青

    2011-01-01

    Collar plate reinforcement is a new reinforcing method for tubular joints, and it is of fast fabrication and effective. To carry out further study on the behaviour of tubular joints after reinforced with collar plate, the hysteretic behaviour of 4 full-scale un-reinforced tubular T-joints and 4 corresponding T-joint specimens reinfoced with collar plate under quasi-static axial cyclic loading is investigated experimentally. Based on the experimental results, it is found that both the static strength and the ductility are increased for the reinforced specimen, and thus the reinforced T-joint can dissipate more energy caused by seismic actions. It is also found from the experimental phenomenon that the failure position is located at the comer of the collar plate, which is much different from the un-reinforced specimen for which the failure position is located at the weld toe along the brace/chord intersection.%环口板加固管节点是一种比较新颖的加固方法,该方法施工方便快捷而且加固效果显著。为了进一步研究环口板加固后管节点的性能特点,分别对4个足尺度未加固T型圆钢管节点和4个对应的采用环口板加固的足尺度T节点试件进行了轴向反复荷载作用下的拟静力滞回性能研究。基于试验测试结果,发现加固后的管节点在提高静力承载力的同时,其延性指标也有所提高,从而耗能性能更好,利于抗震。根据试验现象发现:采用环口板加固的T节点,可以将破坏发生的部位由原来未加固节点的焊趾处转移到环口板与主管表面焊缝连接的端角上,改变了管节点的破坏模式。

  6. 环口板加固T型方钢管节点滞回性能的试验研究%Experimental Study on Hysteretic Behavior of Square Tubular T-Joints Reinforced with Collar Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵永波; 王文杰; 陈英

    2013-01-01

    To assess the anti-seismic behavior of reinforced welded tubular joints with circular hollow section, the hysteretic performance of square tubular T-joints with collar plate reinforcement was studied experimentally. Hysteretic tests were carried out on 2 square tubular T-joints with collar plate reinforcement and on 2 corresponding un-reinforced specimens under quasi-static cyclic loading. The experimental results show that the failure position is transformed from the weld toe along the brace/ chord intersection of the un-reinforced specimens to the weld connection between the collar plate and the chord surface of the T-joints with collar plate reinforcement. The hysteretic loops of the reinforced T-joints are much plumper and show a better anti-seismic behavior. The ductility ratio of the reinforced T-joints is improved significantly compared to that of the un-reinforced ones. The values of the ductility ratio are increased by 34% in compression stage and 33% in tension stage for one group of specimens, and increased by 100% in compression stage and 145% in tension stage for another group of specimens.%为了评价加固后空心钢管结构中焊接管节点的抗震性能,实验研究了环口板加固T型方钢管节点的滞回性能.对2个环口板加固T型方钢管节点和2个对应的未加固节点试件进行了轴向反复荷载作用下的拟静力滞回性能试验.试验测试结果表明:采用环口板加固的T型节点,可以将破坏发生的部位由未加固节点的主支管焊趾处转移到加固节点的环口板与主管表面焊缝处;环口板加固后的节点滞回曲线更加饱满,具有更好的抗震性能;加固后T节点的延性系数比未加固节点的延性系数明显增加,两组加固后的T节点分别提高了:受压阶段34%、100%;受拉阶段33%、145%.

  7. Chemical Compatibility and Safety of Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) Concomitantly Used with Imidacloprid/Moxidectin (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi) and Emodepside/Praziquantel (Profender®) Spot-on Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüdewagen, Eva Maria; Remer, Carolin; Deuster, Katrin; Schunack, Bettina; Wolken, Sonja; Crafford, Dionne; Fourie, Josephus; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2015-08-01

    Safety of concomitant use of veterinary products is of clinical interest. A series of studies was performed to evaluate the chemical compatibility and short term dermal and systemic safety of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®)/ Foresto(®), Bayer) used concomitantly with spot-on or tablet formulations.Chemical compatibility was evaluated in-vitro (study reference A) on collar pieces, followed by two small, non-controlled clinical studies (study reference B) in both, cats and dogs. The studies showed, that certain solvents affected the collar in-vitro, but not in their marketed formulations.Dermal and systemic safety of different spot-on or tablet formulations was first evaluated in a small, non-controlled clinical study (study reference C) in cats and dogs, via clinical observations only, followed by controlled clinical safety studies of concomitant use with imidacloprid/ moxidectin (Advocate(®)/ Advantage(®) Multi, Bayer) in dogs and cats (study reference D) and emodepside/ praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) in cats (study reference E), assessing safety aspects by clinical observations and statistical analyses of hematology and clinical chemistry parameters compared to baseline values and between treated and control groups.Dermal safety findings over all clinical studies (study references B to E) matched those already described for the respective products and included transient cosmetic changes (oily hair and crystal formation) at the site of spot-on application and broken hair, transient alopecia and skin alterations at the site of collar application. There were no indications of these findings aggravating under the conditions of concurrent use. There were no systemic safety findings of clinical significance in any of the clinical safety studies (study reference C to E). Assessment of blood parameters revealed some deviations from baseline levels and from the reference range in dogs as well as in cats, but no clinical relevance could be deduced

  8. WHITE-COLLAR CRIME’S FORECASTING AND REDUCTION BY MEANS OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT TESTING IN THE PENAL POLITICS OF THE STATE: EMPIRICAL FINDINGS FOR MOLDOVA AND ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to elaborate a valid method of forecasting of the potential offender during the hiring process by means of pre-employment tests as an integral part of the process of prevention and counteracting of the phenomenon of white-collar criminality in the realm of Penal Politics of the Republic of Moldova and the State of Israel. Namely, the „personality coefficient” of the potential offender, which, in the author’s opinion, will define better the likelihood of success in perpetrating a white-collar crime. As a result, a new methodology and tactics for the earlier reducing of white-collar criminality at workplace a new and original scale of pre-employment test valid for hiring process which will be justifiable not only from economical and sociological standpoint, but also from criminological point of view in the process of white-collar criminality reducing.Prognozarea şi reducerea criminalităţii gulerelor albe prin metoda testărilor pre-angajatoare în politica penală a statului: rezultatele empirice pentru Moldova şi IsraelScopul propus în acest articol constă în elaborarea unei metode valide pentru identificarea criminalilor potenţiali în procesul de angajare prin teste de pre-selecţie privite ca parte integrantă a procesului de prevenire şi combatere a fenomenului criminalităţii gulerelor albe în cadrul politicii penale a Republicii Moldova şi a Statului Israel. În special, este propus spre utilizare „coeficientul personalităţii” potenţialului infractor care, în opinia autorului, va defini mai precis probabilitatea săvârşirii crimei gulerelor albe. Prin urmare, este propusă şi argumentată o nouă metodologie şi tactică de reducere a criminalităţii gulerelor albe la locul de muncă, precum şi un model original de testare pre-angajare oportun din perspectivă economică, sociologică şi criminologică.

  9. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Afoxolaner Chewable (NexGard®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This randomised controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours postinfestation on dogs when compared to oral afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) / flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) afoxolaner chewable (dosage 3.1 - 6.2 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, and 28; live (attached and non-attached) and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against live D. variabilis at 6 hours for Group 1 was 95 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 38 - 48 %; efficacy at 12 hours for Group 1 was 97 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 27 - 59 %. Efficacy against A. americanum at 6 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 % and for Group 2 was afoxolaner on all challenge days.

  10. An Evaluation of the Work and Life Conditions and the Quality of Life in 60 to 65 Year-Old White-Collar Employees, Manual Workers, and Unemployed Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysik, Bartłomiej K; Kroc, Łukasz; Pigłowska, Małgorzata; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Śmigielski, Janusz; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-05-01

    Assessment of the work and life conditions of 60 to 65-year-old seniors with regard to type of work and quality of life (QoL). The European Foundation for Improvement of Living and Working Conditions Questionnaire and the EuroQol 5D were used to evaluate work and life conditions and QoL in the three age- and sex-matched 60 to 65-year-old groups (white-collar, manual workers, and unemployed subjects, 100 each group, 50% of women). Manual workers and unemployed subjects had lower QoL score (0 to 100 point scale) than white-collar workers (accordingly 72.2; 71.2; 76.2; P working subjects (n = 200), QoL was inversely associated with reported health problems (P quality of work (P quality of work, while in the intellectual group (n = 100) mainly by health factors. Quality of work and health assessment are the main domains that influence older workers' QoL and may contribute to the shortening of the work period and accelerated transfer to retirement. Quality of work assessment seems especially important in older manual workers.

  11. Morfometría geométrica del borde corial y del collar de huevos de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Páez-Colasante

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La taxonomía y sistemática de la subfamilia Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae se basan principalmente en caracteres biométricos y morfológicos de las formas adultas y, en algunos casos, de las ninfas. La Morfometría Geométrica es capaz de descomponer la forma en sus componentes tamaño isométrico y conformación. En el presente trabajo se utilizó laMorfometría Geométrica como herramienta de análisis de la configuración geométrica que resulta de la unión de los extremos del borde corial y del collar (configuración borde corial-collar de los huevos eclosionados de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal. Los huevos se observaron por Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y las imágenes digitalizadas fueron analizadas morfogeométricamente. Estudiando el tamaño geométrico de la configuración borde corial-collar, se halló que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las cinco especies deTriatominos. En cuanto a la conformación, se determinaron diferencias entre las especies al ser sometidas a un análisis discriminante. Se encontró además que la variación del tamaño contribuye a la variación en la conformación, es decir, efecto alométrico. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la conformación de la configuración geométrica “borde corial-collar” de los huevos de Rhodnius podría ser utilizada como herramienta taxonómica para este grupo. Morfometria geométrica da borda corial e colarinho de ovos de cinco espécies do Gênero Rhodnius (Heteroptera Reduviidae, Triatominae.Resumo. A taxonomia e sistemática da subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera Reduviidae esta baseada principalmente em caracteres biométricos e morfológicos das formas adultas, e em alguns casos, das ninfas. A morfometria geométrica é capaz de descompor a forma em seus componentes, tamanho isométrico e conformação. No presente trabalho utilizou-se a morfometria geométrica como ferramenta de análise da configura

  12. Comparative chromosome painting between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) and two species of peccary, the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari): a phylogenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, A A; de Haan, N A; Arkesteijn, G J A; Yang, F; Yerle, M; Zijlstra, C

    2004-01-01

    The Suidae and the Dicotylidae (or Tayassuidae) are related mammalian families, both belonging to the artiodactyl suborder Suiformes, which diverged more than 37 million years ago. Cross-species chromosome painting was performed between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa; 2n = 38), a representative of the Suidae, and two species of the Dicotylidae: the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu; 2n = 30) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari; 2n = 26). G-banded metaphase chromosomes of the two peccaries were hybridized with whole chromosome painting probes derived from domestic pig chromosomes 1-18 and X. For both peccary species, a total of 31 autosomal segments that are conserved between pig and peccary could be identified. The painting results confirm conclusions inferred from G-band analyses that the karyotypes of the collared peccary and the white-lipped peccary are largely different. The karyotypic heterogeneity of the Dicotylidae contrasts with the relative homogeneity among the karyotypes of the Suidae. For this difference between the Dicotylidae and the Suidae, a number of explanations are being postulated: 1) the extant peccaries are phylogenetically less closely related than is usually assumed; 2) the peccary genome is less stable than the genome of the pigs; and 3) special (e.g. biogeographical or biosocial) circumstances have facilitated the fixation of chromosome rearrangements in ancestral dicotylid populations.

  13. MONEY LAUNDERING AS AN ISOLATED PHENOMENON AND LEADING FACTOR IN WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINALITY, PUTS MOLDOVA CASE JUDICIARY ON THE SPOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a leading factor in white-collar criminality, with a big effect upon Gross National Product of the Israeli and Moldova economies. Israel and Moldova have made the first steps In order to cope with money laundering phenomenon. The model of handling the phenomenon in the USA has been studied that constitutes a role model of fighting money laundering. The vast majority (77% of all frauds were committed by individuals working in one of six departments: accounting, operations, sales, executive/upper management, customer service and purchasing. In Moldova, money laundering for the most part is connected to traditional forms and activities sources of illegal proceeds .Moldova is a transit country for money laundering. A money-laundering scandal is casting Moldova’s judiciary in an unfavorable light and is raising concerns about the government’s commitment to reforms needed to keep European Union integration on track. It is a need to address corruption as a national priority, and the priority of the relations between the EU and Moldova. The money laundering scandal indicates that Moldova is reluctant to wade deeply into judicial reform. In fact, the laundered of $20 billion, is an amount more than twice the size of Moldova’s GDP in 2013, and may be that it is just the tip of the iceberg, probably. White-collar criminality in Israel and Moldova means success of coping of the enforcement and judicial systems. In order to cope with this phenomenon, Israel makes its first steps. Anyway, the message must pave the way through a creation of a new model for dealing with reduction the isolated phenomenon of money laundering in both states.SPĂLAREA DE BANI, UN FENOMEN IZOLAT ŞI UN FACTOR IMPORTANT ÎN CRIMINALITATEA GULERELOR ALBE, PUNE PRACTICA JUDICIARĂ DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA INTR-O SITUAŢIE DIFICILĂSpălarea de bani este un factor important în criminalitatea gulerelor albe, având un efect semnificativ asupra produ-sului na

  14. 企业员工人格特质与工作倦怠的关系%The Relationship between Personality and Job Burnout in White-Collar Employees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭月平; 杨程甲; 许明智

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨企业员工人格特质与工作倦怠的关系。方法:选用Maslach 工作倦怠量表通用版( MBI-GS)和艾森克人格问卷( EPQ)对217名企业员工工作倦怠和人格特质进行测查,并根据MBI-GS得分将研究对象分为倦怠组和非倦怠组。结果:①倦怠组的EPQ精神质分和神经质分显著高于非倦怠组(P<0.01),内外向分则显著低于非倦怠组(P<0.01);②精神质分与情感耗竭(r=0.158,P<0.05)、玩世不恭(r=0.257,P<0.01)的因子分有显著正相关关系;内外向分与情感耗竭(r=0.22,P<0.01)、玩世不恭(r=0.30,P<0.01)及成就感降低(r=0.37,P<0.01)的因子分呈显著负相关关系;神经质分与情感耗竭(r=0.50,P<0.01)、玩世不恭(r=0.34,P<0.01)及成就感降低(r=0.16, P<0.05)的因子分呈显著正相关关系;③内外向和神经质是情感耗竭的有效预测因子;精神质、内外向以及神经质均是玩世不恭的有效预测因子;成就感降低由内外向决定。结论:工作倦怠人群的人格特质表现为高神经质、高精神质、低内外向;人格特质是工作倦怠的重要预测因素之一。%Objective: To explore the relationship between personality and job burnout in the white -collar employees .Methods:Maslach Burnout Inventory -General Survey ( MBI-GS ) and Eysenck Per-sonality Questionnaire( EPQ) were used to investigate job burnout and personality in 217 white-collar employees.According scores of MBI -GS,the employees were divided into burnout -group and un -burnout group .Results:①The scores of psychoticism and neuroticism in burnout group were significantly higher than un-burnout group ,whereas the scores of extroversion in burnout group were significantly low-er than un-burnout group .②There were significantly positive correlations between psychoticism and e

  15. Microvascularization on collared peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Tatiana Carlesso; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Dantzer, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    into a microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base...

  16. Training for Blue Collar Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Roger L.

    1974-01-01

    Questions the basic economic and political assumptions behind the push for vocationalism and career education, and presents an overview of the issues considered essential in making viable the relationship between the schoolplace and the workplace. (Editor)

  17. Frische marginalisierte Körper – ausgegrenzte Körper als Ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Jürgen Voß

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Für Arbeitsprozesse werden Körper normiert, um sie bestmöglich und gewinnbringend verwerten zu können. Sie sollen funktionieren – tun sie es nicht, stehen sie am Rand. Aber auch im Konsum- und Freizeitbereich werden Normen gesetzt – nicht von einer „repressiven Macht“, sondern durch die Mitwirkung aller Beteiligten. Ausgehend von einer insbesondere Foucault’schen Perspektive setzen die Beiträge des Sammelbandes einige an den Rand gedrängte Körper ins Licht. Mit welchen körperlichen Merkmalen wird man an den Rand gedrängt? Welche körperlichen Merkmale werden darüber hinaus eigens erdacht, um antisemitische, rassistische, sexistische Ausschlüsse zu vollziehen? Dieses Buch bietet lesenswerte historische und aktuelle Einblicke an; geschrieben sind sie zumeist von lange an entsprechenden Thematiken arbeitenden Wissenschaftler/-innen, von deren Arbeiten die Lesende hier knapp gefasst partizipieren kann.

  18. 颈间盘突出及椎动脉狭窄对颈神经根损害的临床价值%Clinical Significance of Collar Dish Outstanding and Vertebral Artery Stenosis of Neck Nerve Root Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡军; 姜万忠; 冯婷

    2012-01-01

      Objective To study the collar dish outstanding, vertebral artery stenosis of neck nerve root damage the clinical value of,analysis and study on cervical spondylosis of nerve root type of clinical symptoms and signs and CDFI inspection and an MRI clinical value. Methods The 35 patients with emg is testing the nerve root type cervical spondylosis,male 26 cases, female 9 cases, age,34~68 years old.There are 22 patients with CDFI inspection. Results 24 cases electromyography nerve root root damage detection have sex, male 18 cases, female 6 cases, male: female about 3︰1. MRI 22 patients had different degrees of collar dish outstanding and dural under pressure, CDFI inspection have vertebral artery stenosis of 10 patients,41.67%. Conclusion Vertebral artery stricture, and collar dish outstanding is neck nerve root sex damage the main factors on cervical spondylosis of nerve root type is also an important basis for clinical diagnosis.%  目的探讨颈间盘突出、椎动脉狭窄对颈神经根损害的临床价值,分析研究神经根型颈椎病的临床症状及体征与 CDFI 检测及 MRI检查的临床价值.方法本组35例经肌电图检测的神经根型颈椎病患者,男26例,女9例,年龄,34~68岁.其中有22例经 CDFI 检测.结果24例肌电图检测有神经根根性损害,男18例,女6例,男:女约3︰1.MRI 22例患者有不同程度的颈间盘突出及硬膜囊受压, CDFI 检测有椎动脉狭窄的10例,占41.67%.结论椎动脉狭窄及颈间盘突出是颈神经根性损害的主要因素,也是神经根型颈椎病临床诊断重要依据.

  19. Melanopareia bitorquata (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) is a distinct species: an appraisal of morphological variation in the Collared Crescentchest Melanopareia torquata (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1831) (Aves: Melanopareiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Esteves; Gonzaga, Luiz Pedreira

    2016-11-15

    The Collared Crescentchest Melanopareia torquata is a poorly known and inconspicuous species of open savannas and grasslands in central Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia. Three subspecies are currently recognized, but their taxonomic limits, ranges and conservation status are far from well-established. This paper analyses individual and geographic variation in this species on the basis of body measurements and plumage coloration of 119 specimens. A clinal pattern of body size variation and considerable mensural overlap precludes a clear-cut separation between the two subspecies restricted to Brazil, and there is evidently sexual dichromatism in some Brazilian populations. However, M. t. bitorquata shows highly distinct plumage features in parapatry with other forms, strongly suggesting it should be treated as a full species.

  20. Survey on Health Promoting Lifestyle of White Collars and Counter Measures%白领健康促进生活方式现状调查及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马佳; 李双飞; 贺晓红

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解白领健康促进生活方式的现状,为开展健康促进活动、促进白领身心健康提供依据.方法 采用健康促进生活方式量表和自行设计的人口学资料问卷对2009年1-5月在我院体检门诊进行健康体检的白领人员共400人进行问卷调查.按人口学特征及健康状况进行分组,比较健康促进生活方式的差异.结果 健康促进生活方式量表得分指标排在第一位的是生命欣赏行为,第二位是人际间支持行为,最低的是运动行为和健康责任行为.不同性别的白领总分和各维度得分间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);不同年龄、健康状况的白领得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).健康状况差的白领压力处置行为和运动行为得分较低.结论 健康促进生活方式对白领的健康状况有积极的影响,其中主要是压力处置行为和运动行为具有明显作用;改进白领的健康促进生活方式重点应当在于促进运动行为和压力处置行为.%Objective To study the state of health promoting lifestyle of white collars so as to provide evidence for development of health promoting lifestyle and improve the psychosomatic health. Methods Totally 400 white collars who were normally physically examined during January to May 2009 in our hospital were surveyed by a self - designed demographic questionnaire and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-Ⅱ ( HPLP-Ⅱ ). They were grouped according to demographic characters and health conditions, and their differences of lifestyles were compared. Results The HPLP - Ⅱ score of life appreciation behavior ranked the first, that of interpersonal support behavior the second, and those of motor behavior and healthy responsibility behavior were the lowest. The total score and various dimensional scores showed no statistically significant difference between males and females ( P > 0. 05 ); however the scores of the subjects with different ages and health conditions

  1. Mediastinal goiter resection via cervical low collar incision%颈部低位领式切口进路切除纵隔甲状腺肿的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹; 闫悦; 石胜利

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨颈部低位领式切口进路切除纵隔甲状腺肿对于减少副损伤的作用。方法:回顾性分析我科2009-2012年20例纵隔甲状腺肿患者的临床资料。结果:2例患者放弃手术治疗,其余18例患者全部采用颈部低位领式切口进路行纵隔甲状腺肿切除术,均完整切除肿物,术后无1例发生喉返神经损伤、窒息或出血等并发症。结论:颈部低位领式切口进路切除纵隔甲状腺肿,在完整切除肿物的同时,能极大的减少手术副损伤。%Objective:To discuss the advantage of the mediastinal goiter resection via cervical low collar incision. Methods:Retrospectively analyze the clinical data of 20 cases of mediastinal goiter. Results:Except 2 cases giving up surgery,the other 18 cases were operated successfully whose mediastinal goiters were all resected completely and no one developed postoperative complications such as laryngeal recurrent nerve injuries,asphyxia or bleeding. Conclu-sion:Mediastinal goiter resection via cervical low collar incision can not only resect the mediastinal goiter completely but also reduce the collateral damage greatly.

  2. Análise comparativa da origem do plexo branquial de catetos (Tayassu tajacu Comparative analysis of the origin of the brachial plexus of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo B. Moura

    2007-09-01

    .Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu belongs to the Tayassuidae family, characterized by a "collar" of white hairs that cross behind the neck and extend bilaterally in front of the shoulders. It can be found from south-western United States to Argentina. In the literature a shortage of data is verified regarding the functional anatomy of the collared peccaries, especially of studies that involve the anatomy of the brachial plexus. To elucidate the behavior of this plexus of collared peccaries and with the purpose to contribute for the development of compared anatomy, this study was accomplished. Thirty animals of different ages were used (17 males and 13 females coming from the Wild Animal Multiplication Center of the "Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido" Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. After slaughter bilateral dissection of the brachial plexuses took place, and the results were registered in schematic drawings and the dispositions grouped in tables for subsequent statistical analysis based on the percentile frequency. It was found that the Plexus brachialis of collared peccaries is the result of established communications, mainly among the Rami ventrales of the last three cervical nerves and of the first two thoracic nerves, having a contribution of the fourth and fifth cervical nerves in 16.67% and 50.00% of the cases, respectively. In 40.00% of the dissections the most frequent plexus was of the type C6, C7, C8, T1 and T2. The main nerves derived from brachial plexus of the collared peccaries and its respective origins had been: Nervus suprascapularis (C6, C7, Nn. subscapulares (C5, C6 e C7 or C6 e C7, N. axillaris (C6, C7, N. musculocutaneus (C7, C8, N. medianus (C7, C8, T1, T2, N. radialis (C8, T1, T2, N. ulnaris (C8, T1, T2, cranialis (C7, and caudalis (C7, C8 Nn. pectorales , N. thoracodorsalis (C6, C7, C8, N. thoracicus longus (C7, C8, and N. thoracicus lateralis (C8, T1, T2.

  3. 平山病患者73例颈托佩戴依从性调查%Investigation of the compliance of cervical collar therapy in 73 patients with Hirayama disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅瑜; 秦薇; 孙庆利; 樊东升

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解平山病患者治疗方式选择及影响颈托佩戴因素.方法 回顾性分析2010-2014年北京大学第三医院临床资料完整的73例患者资料.结果 (1)10例首选手术治疗,36例首选保守颈托治疗,其余27例首选采用其他保守治疗.(2)患者颈托佩戴时间为0.3 ~36.0(7±11)个月,其中28例(77.8%)患者佩戴时间≤6个月,仅有8例(22.2%)患者佩戴时间在1年及以上.(3)影响患者佩戴颈托的因素依次为影响外观(33.3%)、生活工作不便(22.2%)、病情加重改手术(14.3%)、就诊时病情已稳定(9.5%)、选择其他保守治疗(9.5%)、自觉病情轻(8%)及佩戴不适(3.2%).(4)发病年龄及就诊年龄小的患者更易选择颈托治疗,而发病年龄及就诊年龄大的患者多选择保守治疗(P<0.05).结论 平山病是一种可致残的疾病,本研究发现平山病患者佩戴颈托的依从性较差,多种因素影响患者佩戴颈托,未来应加强患者的宣教或改变颈托外观,提高患者依从性.%Objective To summarize the therapeutic approaches of patients with Hirayama disease and investigate the patient's compliance to cervical collar therapy and its influencing factors.Methods This was a retrospectively study.The clinical data of 73 patients was collected from Peking university 3rd hospital between 2010 and 2014.Results (1) Of the 73 patients,10 patients received surgery,36 patients received collar therapy,and 27 patients received other conservative therapy at first visit.(2) The mean collar wearing time was from 0.3 to 36 months (means was 7 ± 11 months).28 patients (77.8%) wore less than 6 months,only 8 patients (22.2%) wore for more than 1 year.(3)The influencing factors were affecting appearance (33.3%),inconvenience to work (22.2%),surgical treatment performed after the exacerbation of symptoms (14.3%),illness stabilization (9.5%),choosing other conservative therapy (9.5%),personally feeling not seriously (8

  4. 超级13Cr 油钻杆与4145H 钻铤的电偶腐蚀测试%Galvanic corrosion test on super 13Cr oil drill pipe and 4145H drill collar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春生; 曾德智; 施太和; 蔡光林; 张明辉; 陶赟

    2015-01-01

    With the galvanic corrosion problem in threaded connection of super 13Cr oil drill pipe and 4145H drill collar of nitrogen drilling and completion integration string in tight gas reservoir,threaded connection galvanic corrosion specimens of super 13Cr stainless steel and 4145H carbon steel were designed by simulating the practical engineering string structure.The high tempera-ture and high pressure (HTHP)corrosion test was conducted in the HTHP autoclave,where the simulated environment includes CO2 partial pressure of 1.75 MPa,total pressure of 35 MPa,and temperature of 90 ℃ and 110 ℃.Through corrosion weight loss,SEM and EDS analysis,galvanic corrosion characteristics were studied.The results show that,under the simulated envi-ronment,there is no obvious corrosion characteristics in super 13Cr steel after coupling corrosion.While in the junction,the cor-rosion of 4145H steel is accelerated due to the potential difference and gap.At 110 ℃,the corrosion rate of 4145H steel in the gas phase was 0.181 1 mm/a.Because of the large drill collar wall thickness and wide corrosion allowance,4145H carbon steel drill collar which has a good economic applicability can meet production demands.The research results have been applied in the design of nitrogen drilling and completion string in Tarim tight gas reservoir.%针对致密性气藏氮气钻完井一体化管柱中超级13Cr 油钻杆和4145H 钻铤螺纹连接的电偶腐蚀问题,模拟工程实际管柱结构,设计出超级13Cr 不锈钢和4145H 碳钢的螺纹连接电偶腐蚀试样,利用高温高压釜模拟井下腐蚀工况,在 CO2分压为1.75 MPa,总压为35 MPa,温度分别为90℃和110℃条件下进行了高温高压腐蚀测试。通过腐蚀失重、扫描电镜(SEM)和EDS 分析测试,得出了模拟井底工况下13Cr 油钻杆材质和4145H 钻铤材质螺纹连接后的电偶腐蚀情况。实验结果表明:模拟工况下,超级13Cr 和4145H 偶合腐蚀后,超级13Cr

  5. Application of an extended collar incision in neck dissection for differentiated thyroid cancer%采用领式皮纹延长切口进行甲状腺癌颈淋巴结清扫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 鄢丹桂; 安常明; 徐震纲; 唐平章

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore a cosmetic incision in the neck dissection for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods An extended collar incision was used for neck dissection in 82 consecutive patients with thyroid carcinoma from May 1999 to December 2006. The incision was designed to start as a conventional thyroid collar incision, and then to extend it along the skin crease to the anterior border of trapezium, so to avoid the vertical limb of conventional hockey stick incision. There were 60 females and 22 males in this series, with a median age of 40.5 years (range, 10 to 80 years). Ninety-six procedures of neck dissection were performed in 82 patients, including one radical neck dissection, one type Ⅰ modified neck dissection, 8 type Ⅱ modified neck dissections, and 86 type Ⅲ modified neck dissections. Results The average time of anesthesia was 197 minutes. The average dissected lymph nodes were 37.5, with average metastasis in 8.8 nodes. Eight patients (9.8%) developed complications related to neck dissection. The follow-up period in these patients were 1 to 96 months with a median follow-up time of 23 months. Cervical recurrence was found in only one patient (1.2%). Neither death nor distant metastasis was observed in this series. Conclusion It is feasible to perform a modified neck dissection for differentiated thyroid cancer through the extended collar incision. The preliminary results show that the above described incision is not only oncologically safe, but also offers a cosmetic benefit for the patient with thyroid carcinoma.%目的 探索甲状腺癌颈清扫术术后更加美观的手术切口.方法 对82例分化型甲状腺癌患者采用领式皮纹延长切口行改良颈清扫术.在常规甲状腺领式切口的基础上,在颈清扫侧沿皮纹延长到斜方肌前缘位置,避免曲棍球棒切口的垂直段.82例患者共行颈清扫术96侧,术式分别是根治性颈清扫术1侧,改良性颈清扫术Ⅰ型1侧,改良性颈清扫术Ⅱ型8

  6. Study on Bearing Capacity of Circular Tubular T-Joints with Collar-Plate Reinforcement Loaded by In-Plane Bending Load%平面内弯矩作用下环口板加强T型圆钢管节点的承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德胜; 杨冬平; 蔡艳青; 龙凤乐; 牛更奇; 邵永波

    2014-01-01

    环口板加固管节点是一种比较新颖的加固方法,施工方便快捷而且加固效果显著。运用有限元方法对平面内弯矩作用下的环口板加固 T 型圆钢管节点的极限承载力进行了研究。对环口板加固 T 型圆钢管节点的面内弯曲承载力进行了参数分析,参数包括支管直径与主管直径比β,主管直径与2倍主管壁厚的比γ,环口板厚度与主管管壁厚之比τc 和环口板长度与支管直径之比 lc/d1等计算。结果表明,采用适当尺寸的环口板加固后的 T 型管节点的承载力相对于未加固 T 型管节点的承载力得到显著提高。改变环口板的厚度相对于改变环口板的长度对静力强度的提高更有效。最后,在参数分析的基础上提出了环口板加强型 T 型圆钢管节点在平面内弯矩作用下的承载力计算公式。%Collar plate reinforcement is a new method for reinforcing tubular joints, and it is of fast fabrication and effective. Finite element method is used to investigate the static strength of collar plate reinforced circular hollow section (CHS) T-joints subjected to in-plane bending load. A study is conducted to analyze the effect of geometrical parameters, i.e. brace-to-chord diameter ratio β, collar-plate to chord wall thickness ratio τc, and collar-plate length to brace diameter ratio lc/d1, on the static strength of tubular T-joints. It is found that significant strength enhancement can be achieved for a collar plate reinforced tubular joint through suitable size design comparing with the un-reinforced one. Compared to the length of the collar plate, the thicknesses of the collar plate is more effective for improving the static strength of the T-joints. Finally, a parametric equation for predicting the load bearing capacity of circular tubular T-joints with collar plate reinforcement subjected to in-plane bending load is presented.

  7. TAURINE DEFICIENCY IN COLLARED-ANTEATER (TAMANDUA TERTRADACTYLA FED WITH DOGS AND CATS MILK SUBSTITUTES DEFICIÊNCIA DE TAURINA EM FILHOTE DE TAMANDUÁ-MIRIM (Tamandua tetradactyla ALIMENTADO COM SUBSTITUTOS DE LEITE PARA CÃES E GATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Otávio Cançado Motta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available  The taurine is a sulphur amino acid that in most of the mammals produced in enough amounts in the liver, from metionine and cysteine, using the enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase. However, for felines are considered an essential amino acid, needing to be ingested as a supplement of the organism requirements. For anteaters the condition is not yet elucidated, but these animals have developed disease when fed with diet poor in this amino acid. The most frequent clinical sings observed in cats are dilated cardiomyopathy, retina degeneration, reproductive and development anomalies, increase of plaquetary aggregation, leucopenia and neurological disturbs. In the present case, a hand-hearing of collared-anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla feeding milk substitutes for dogs and cats, presented taurine deficiency, characterized mainly for loss of coats and seizures. The diagnosis was based in reply of the animal to the supplement, after which gad regression of the clinical sings without return.

    KEY WORDS: Collared-anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla, taurine. A taurina é um aminoácido sulfurado e, na maioria dos mamíferos, produzida em quantidades suficientes no fígado a partir de metionina e cisteína, utilizando a enzima decarboxilase do ácido cistéico sulfínico. Para felinos é considerado um aminoácido essencial, necessitando ser ingerido para suprimento às necessidades do organismo. Em tamanduás, esta condição não está bem definida, entretanto, animais alimentados com dietas carentes nesse aminoácido têm demonstrado sinais clínicos compatíveis com deficiência de taurina. Em gatos as alterações mais freqüentes são cardiomiopatia dilatada, degeneração da retina, anormalidades reprodutivas e de desenvolvimento, aumento da agregação plaquetária, leucopenia e distúrbios neurológicos. No presente caso, um filhote de tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla criado em cativeiro com substitutos de leite para c

  8. Fate of native and introduced seeds consumed by captive white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari, Link 1795 and Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus 1758 in the Atlantic rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lazure

    Full Text Available We studied the role of white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu as seed predators and dispersers in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest ecosystem is highly threatened and has experienced dramatic declines in its populations of large mammals. Local extinctions can disrupt essential plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersion and seed predation. We tracked seeds from time of consumption to germination to assess the direct impact peccaries have on seed survival. We offered fruits of 20 species found in the Atlantic rainforest to the peccaries. Seeds were categorised as intact, scarified, ingested or defecated, and germination tests were performed. The overall impact by both peccary species was similar. Seeds were sometime scarified by mastication, always with fatal consequences. Most seeds that were consumed were destroyed during ingestion and digestion. Only small seeds (<10 mm were found in the feces and germination tests suggest a positive effect from the passage through the guts. Peccaries clearly have a double role as both seed predators and as small seeds dispersers, which is a specialised role within the granivore/frugivore community of the Atlantic rainforest.

  9. Fate of native and introduced seeds consumed by captive white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari, Link 1795 and Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus 1758) in the Atlantic rainforest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazure, L; Bachand, M; Ansseau, C; Almeida-Cortez, J S

    2010-02-01

    We studied the role of white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu) as seed predators and dispersers in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest ecosystem is highly threatened and has experienced dramatic declines in its populations of large mammals. Local extinctions can disrupt essential plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersion and seed predation. We tracked seeds from time of consumption to germination to assess the direct impact peccaries have on seed survival. We offered fruits of 20 species found in the Atlantic rainforest to the peccaries. Seeds were categorised as intact, scarified, ingested or defecated, and germination tests were performed. The overall impact by both peccary species was similar. Seeds were sometime scarified by mastication, always with fatal consequences. Most seeds that were consumed were destroyed during ingestion and digestion. Only small seeds (<10 mm) were found in the feces and germination tests suggest a positive effect from the passage through the guts. Peccaries clearly have a double role as both seed predators and as small seeds dispersers, which is a specialised role within the granivore/frugivore community of the Atlantic rainforest.

  10. Biocontrol of collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii by using rhizosphere-competent Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Mehta, Sangeeta; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2003-08-01

    Collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. In the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against S. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. Two strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N, were selected for further studies because of their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogen significantly. Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (Rif) derivatives of P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N showing growth rate and membrane protein composition comparable to the wild type were selected to facilitate their monitoring in the rhizosphere. Field trials demonstrated that strain P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 was better than P. fluorescens NBRI-N in increasing the yield of betelvine significantly, whereas a consortium of the two strains controlled the disease more than either of the strains. The screening method should prove useful in identifying rhizosphere bacteria with the greatest potential for controlling diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi.

  11. Aproximación al estudio del vidrio prerromano: los materiales procedentes de la necrópolis ibérica de El Cigarralejo (Mula, Murcia. Composición química de varias cuentas de collar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruano Ruiz, Encarnación

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, all the glass materials found in the excavations of the Iberian cemetery of El Cigarralejo (Mula, Murcia are studied together including those from the published and the unpublished tombs. The small number of glass items in the grave goods found in this Murcian cemetery let us consider them as prestigious adornments, sometimes with prophylactic purposes. As an hypothesis, we can consider that there was a glass workshop near the studied area. The chemical composition of some necklace beads is presented.

    El texto agrupa por primera vez todos los materiales de vidrio procedentes de las excavaciones de la necrópolis ibérica de El Cigarralejo (Mula, Murcia, tanto de las tumbas publicadas, como inéditas. El escaso número de objetos de vidrio en los ajuares de la necrópolis murciana permite considerarlos como adornos de prestigio y en algún caso con fines profilácticos. Sólo como hipótesis debemos considerar la existencia de un taller cercano al área estudiada. Se presenta la composición química de algunas cuentas de collar.

  12. An Overview of New Development Tendencies of Small Loan Business in View of"White-Collar"%从“白领通”看小额贷款业务发展新趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海燕

    2012-01-01

    小额贷款业务是一种以低收入阶层为服务对象的小额度、持续化的信贷服务方式,现已成为各家商业银行业务拓展的必争之地。针对小额贷款业务授信、审批、额度确定等问题,本文以宁波银行推出的新型小额贷款产品——"白领通"为例,对其产品特色及弊端进行了相关探讨。%Small loan business is a way of credit service for the low-income with small amount of credit,which has now become a battleground business of commercial bank striving for.In view of several items in small loan business,this paper, taking the "White-Collar" of Ningbo Bank for an example, inquire into its features, advantages and disadvantages.

  13. The role played by sympatric collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) as maintenance hosts for Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in a sylvatic area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, H M; Abreu, U G P; Keuroghlian, A; Freitas, T P; Jansen, A M

    2008-08-01

    The Brazilian Pantanal has been considered one of the richest and most diverse wetland ecosystems in the world. It is occupied by cattle ranching, and a variety of wildlife species share the same habitats with domestic livestock. We investigated infections of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in the sympatric suiformes-collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) by parasitological, serological, and molecular tests. Additionally, we evaluated the health status of both positive and negative suiformes by hematological and biochemical parameters. The results show that peccaries and feral pigs play an important role on the maintenance of both T. evansi and T. cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal. Health impairment was observed only in the white-lipped peccary infected with T. evansi. Despite presenting low T. evansi parasitemia, all infected white-lipped peccaries displayed low hematocrit values and marked leucopenia. The hematological values showed that the T. evansi infection is more severe in young white-lipped peccaries. The presented data show that feral pigs and peccaries are immersed in the transmission net of both trypanosome species, T. cruzi and T. evansi, in the Pantanal region.

  14. Comparison of the single-use Ambu(®) aScope™ 2 vs the conventional fibrescope for tracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilisation by a semirigid collar*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugel, V; Bathory, I; Frascarolo, P; Schoettker, P

    2013-01-01

    Fibreoptic intubation remains a key technique for the management of difficult intubation. We randomly compared the second generation single-use Ambu(®) aScope™ 2 videoscope with a standard re-usable flexible intubating fibrescope in 50 tracheal intubations in patients with a difficult airway simulated by a semirigid collar. All patients' tracheas were intubated successfully with the aScope 2 or the re-usable fibrescope. The median (IQR [range]) time to intubate was significantly longer with the aScope 2 70 (55-97 [41?-226]) s vs 50 (40-59 [27-175]) s, p = 0.0003) due to an increased time to see the carina. Quality of vision was significantly lower with the aScope 2 (excellent 24 (48%) vs 49 (98%), p = 0.0001; good 22 (44%) vs 1 (2%), p = 0.0001; poor 4 (8%) vs 0, p = 0.12) but with no difference in the subjective ease to intubate (easy score of 31 (62%) vs 38 (76%), p = 0.19; intermediate 12 (24%) vs 7 (14%), p = 0.31; difficult 7 (14%) vs 5 (5%), p = 0.76). The longer times to intubate and the poorer scores for quality of vision do not support the use of the single-use aScope 2 videoscope as an alternative to the re-usable fibrescope.

  15. Investigation and Analysis of the Demands of Family Doctor System Service for Corporate White-Collar Workers%企业白领家庭医生制服务需求调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张引; 徐学凡

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the demands of family doctor system service by corporate white-collar workers in order to make the service more targeted. Methods Corporations covered by Tianmuxi Road Community Health Center in Shanghai Zhabei District were numbered and a total of 600 employees from 10 corporations were selected with each corporation choosing 60 employees according to freewill principle. Self-designed structured questionnaire was used to survey the current condition of the 600 employees, including sociology/demographic characteristics, physical health condition and demands of the family doctor system service. Results A total of 600 questionnaires were issued and 589 valid questionnaires were returned, accounting for 98. 17% . (1) 367 cases had health problems and 423 diseases were collected, among which 103 cases (24. 35%) had waist or cervical vertebra diseases, 87 cases (20. 57%) had gastrointestinal disease, 75 cases (17. 73%) had hyperlipi-demia, 58 cases (13. 71%) had fatty liver and 51 cases (12. 06%) had hypertension. (2) 49 cases (8. 32%) thought they were healthy, 365 cases (61. 97%) thought they were in sub -health condition and 175 cases (29. 71%) thought they were in bad health. (3) 487 cases (82. 68%) knew there was community health service center near their work unit, but 102 cases (17. 32%) did not know. (4) 185 cases (31. 41%) knew family doctor service very well, 307 cases (52. 12%) knew a little about it and 97 cases (16. 47%) were not familiar with it. (5) 78 cases (13. 24%) were in dire need of family doctor service, 259 cases (43. 98%) were in need of it, 166 cases (28. 18%) did not care and 86 cases (14. 60%) did not need it. (6) The services the white-collar workers needed were mainly the diagnosis and treatment of commonly seen diseases and chronic diseases (493 person-times, 83.70%), appropriate techniques of Traditional Chinese Medicine (acupuncture, massage and physiotherapy)(326 person-times, 55.35%), health consultation (304

  16. The Application of AO Collar Bone Hook Titanium Plate in the Treatment of Rockwood Ⅲ°-Ⅵ° Acromioclavicular Joint Disorder%AO锁骨钩钛板在RockwoodⅢ°~Ⅵ°肩锁关节损伤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 赖茂松; 熊浩; 林伟文; 区彩琼; 艾合买提江·玉素甫

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结AO锁骨钩钛板治疗RockwoodⅢ°~Ⅵ°肩锁关节损伤的临床疗效.方法 采用AO锁骨钩钛板治疗RockwoodⅢ°~Ⅵ°肩锁关节损伤27例.术中,于肩锁关节复位后放置钛板,并修补关节囊及肩锁、喙锁韧带.结果 患者术后切口均Ⅰ期愈合,肩锁关节脱位得到纠正,无血管、神经损伤等并发症发生.本组患者术后随访6~15个月.术后3~6个月取出锁骨钩钛板.术后6个月疗效评价,优23例,良3例,差1例,优良率为96.8%.结论 AO锁骨钩钛板治疗RockwoodⅢ°~Ⅵ°肩锁关节损伤具有创伤小,可早期锻炼等优点,值得临床推广.%Objective To explore the application of AO collar bone hook titanium plate in treating Rockwood Ⅲ°Ⅳ°acromioclavicular joint disorder. Methods Twenty-seven patients with Rockwood Ⅲ°Ⅳ° acromioclavicular joint disorder were treated using AO collar bone hook titanium plate. After the replacement of acromioclavicular joint fixed by AO collar bone hook titanium plate, the joint capsule, shoulder lock ligament and beak lock ligament were also fixed. Results All the patients were healed by first intension, the acromioclavicular joint disorder were corrected and no complications occurred. All the patients were followed for 6-15 months. The AO collar bone hook titanium plate were taken out 3-6 months after surgery. Function of the acromioclavicular joint was estimated by Karlsson criteria: the results were excellent in 23 cases, good in 3 cases and poor in 1 case. Choiceness rate was 96.8%. Conclusion Using AO collar bone hook titanium plate in treating Rockwood Ⅲ°Ⅳ° acromioclavicular joint disorder could minimize the surgical trauma, and early functional exercise could be performed. It should be advocated.

  17. RESEARCH ON THE STATIC STRENGTH OF SQUARE TUBULAR T-JOINTS REINFORCED WITH COLLAR PLATE UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION%环口板加固T型方钢管节点在轴压作用下极限承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文杰; 邵永波; 夏辉

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental research work on the square tubular T-joints reinforced with collar plate is carried out incluing theoretical analysis, experimental tests and finite element simulation. Firstly, the equation for predicting the static strength of a collar plate reinforced square tubular T-joint under axial compression loading is deduced based on the yield line model. Thereafter, two collar plate reinforced square tubular T-joints and two corresponding unreinforced T-joints are analyzed through experimental tests and finite element simulation, it is found that the collar plate can improve the bearing capacity of the T-joints significantly. Additionally, a total of 18 square tubular T-joints are analyzed by using the finite element method. The results show that the static strength of collar plate reinforced T-joints, compared with the corresponding unreinforced T-joints, has a significant improvement, and the equation for predicting the static strength of a collar plate reinforced square tubular T-joint is reasonably accurate when the collar plate has enough stiffness and the failure mode is mainly local buckling.%从理论分析、试验测试及有限元模拟三个方面对环口板加固T型方钢管节点的极限承载力进行了初步的研究工作。首先基于塑性铰线模型推导出了环口板加固T型方钢管节的极限承载力计算公式。然后对2个环口板加吲T璎方钢管节点试件及2个对应的未加固节点试件进行了在轴压作用下的承载力试验测试,结果表明环口板可以明显提高管节点的极限承载力。通过有限元法对试验试件进行了数值模拟,其结果与试验结果吻合较好,冈而使用有限几法对9个不同节点尺寸的加固模型及对应的9个未加固节点模型进行了模拟,结果发现加固后节点的承载力均大于未加崮节点的承载力。环口板加固T型方钢管节点的极限承载力计算公式在环口板仃足够刚度,节点破坏模

  18. What Is the Effect on Obesity Indicators from Replacing Prolonged Sedentary Time with Brief Sedentary Bouts, Standing and Different Types of Physical Activity during Working Days? A Cross-Sectional Accelerometer-Based Study among Blue-Collar Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate if (a substituting total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing or various types of physical activity and (b substituting long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts; is associated with obesity indicators using a cross sectional isotemporal substitution approach among blue-collar workers.A total of 692 workers from transportation, manufacturing and cleaning sectors wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer on the thigh for 1-4 working days. The sedentary (sit and lie, standing, walking, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA time on working days was computed using validated Acti4 software. The total sedentary time and uninterrupted sedentary time spent in brief (≤5 mins, moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins, and long (>30mins bouts, were determined for the whole day and during work and non-work time separately. The obesity indicators, BMI (kg/m2, waist circumference (cm and fat percentage were objectively measured. Isotemporal substitution modelling was utilized to determine the linear association with obesity indicators of replacing 30 min of total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing, walking or MVPA and separately replacing 30 min of long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts.Workers [mean (standard deviation, SD; age = 45.1 (9.9 years, BMI = 27.5 (4.9 kg/m2, %BF = 29.6 (9.5, waist circumference = 94.4 (13.0 cm] sat for 2.4 hours (~32% of the measured time, SD = 1.8 hours across the day during work period and 5.5 hours (~62% of the measured time, SD = 1.5 hours during non-work period. Most of the sedentary time was accrued in moderate bouts [work = 1.40 (SD = 1.09 hours] during work and in long bouts during non-work [2.7 (SD = 1.4 hours], while least in long sedentary bouts during work [work = 0.5 (SD = 0.9] and in brief sedentary bouts [0.5 hours (SD = 0.3] during non-work. Significant associations with all obesity indicators were found when 30 min of total

  19. Determinação do ciclo estral em catetos Pecari tajacu: aspectos colpocitológicos e clínicos Determination of the estrous cycle in collared peccary Pecari tajacu: colpocytological and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Anelie deAraujo Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o ciclo estral do cateto, aplicando a colpocitologia como método diagnóstico. As amostras da citologia vaginal foram coletadas em dez fêmeas adultas, durante três vezes na semana, por seis meses. Verificou-se que a duração média do ciclo estral para esta espécie foi de 28,45 ± 5,45 dias. Observou-se diferença estatística (pThe main objective of this work was to study the estrous cycle of collared peccary by vaginal cytology. Samples were collected in 10 adult females, three times a week, for six months. The estrous cycle period for this specie was 28.45 ± 5.45 days. We observed a significant difference (p<0.01 between the cell types in the same phase of the oestrous cycle. During the proestrus phase, the exfoliative cytology arrangement showed high frequency of intermediate and superficial cells. The estrus phase had elevated rates of superficial cells, when compared to the other types, and an absence of leukocytes. During this phase, the external genitalia were reddish, tumescent; and the cervical mucus was evident. In the metaestrus phase, we observed a decrease of superficial cells, as well as the highest indices of intermediate cells, an increase of leukocytes and the presence of metestrus and foam cells. In the diestrus phase, the intermediate cells increased and leukocytes decreased. In conclusion, the present study suggests that it is possible to differentiate the phase of estrous cycle by vaginal cytology.

  20. Variation in the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 and the song control system in the tropical breeding rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) is dependent on sex and reproductive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Small, Thomas W; Ball, Gregory F; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-08-01

    Seasonal breeding in temperate zone vertebrates is characterised by pronounced variation in both central and peripheral reproductive physiology as well as behaviour. In contrast, many tropical species have a comparatively longer and less of a seasonal pattern of breeding than their temperate zone counterparts. These extended, more "flexible" reproductive periods may be associate with a lesser degree of annual variation in reproductive physiology. Here we investigated variation in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction in relation to the changes in the neural song control system in a tropical breeding songbird the rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis). Using in situ hybridization, we show that the optical density of GnRH1 mRNA expression is relatively constant across pre-breeding and breeding states. However, males were found to have significantly greater expression compared to females regardless of breeding state. Both males and females showed marked variation in measures of peripheral reproductive physiology with greater gonadal volumes and concentrations of sex steroids in the blood (i.e. testosterone in males; estrogen in females) during the breeding season as compared to the pre-breeding season. These findings suggest that the environmental cues regulating breeding in a tropical breeding bird ultimately exert their effects on physiology at the level of the median eminence and regulate the release of GnRH1. In addition, histological analysis of the song control system HVC, RA and Area X revealed that breeding males had significantly larger volumes of these brain nuclei as compared to non-breeding males, breeding females, and non-breeding females. Females did not exhibit a significant difference in the size of song control regions across breeding states. Together, these data show a marked sex difference in the extent to which there is breeding-associated variation in reproductive physiology and brain plasticity that is dependent on the reproductive

  1. 成都地区30~50岁环卫和白领女性妇科疾病发病状况调查%Investigation of Gynecological Disease for 30~50 Years Old Sanitation and White-collar Females in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春梅; 王玲; 张红; 王巧蓉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To know the health status of women of sanitation workers and white-collars in Chengdu,and to ana-lyze the difference between two groups in order to providing the basis data for health education and preventing the Gynecological diseases.Methods The medical examination of gynecological diseases for sanitation women and white-collars women whose age is 30~50 lompere the incidence of the two groups.Results Top four gynecological diseases in the study are chronic cervicitis, uter-ine myoma, ascites and Annex anomaly.The morbidity of chronic cervicitis in sanitation women is significant higher than white-collars women.But,the morbidity of uterine myoma in white-collars women is significantly higher than in sanitation women.In sani-tation women and white-collars women, the morbidities of chronic cervicitis in 30~40 group are significantly higher than 40~50 group; however, the morbidities of uterine myoma, ascites in 40 ~ 50 group are significantly higher than 30 ~ 40 group.Conclusion For 30~40 year old women, chronic cervicitis is the prevention focus, but, uterine myoma is more important in 40~50 year old women.The health education should be given and health examination should be encouraged for women.These methods could raise health awareness of sanitation women, improve the sports consciousness of white-collar women, to prevent or reduce the morbidities of Gynecological diseases.%目的了解成都地区环卫和白领女性妇科疾病的患病状况及原因,为开展健康教育及妇科疾病的防治提供依据。方法对30~50岁的环卫和白领女性进行妇科疾病检测,比较两组的发病情况。结果成都30~50岁环卫和白领女性中妇科疾病前四位分别是慢性宫颈炎、子宫肌瘤、盆腔积液及附件异常。环卫女工慢性宫颈炎的发病率显著高于白领女性,而白领女性子宫肌瘤的发病率显著高于环卫女性,P<0.05;两组内30~40岁组慢性宫颈炎的发病率高于40~50岁组(P<0.05),而40

  2. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto® in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP. Methods 232 (IVP and 81 (CP cats and 271(IVP and 129 (CP dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP + 47 (CP cats and 197 (IVP + 94 (CP dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%. Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%. The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in

  3. Descripción de la morfología externa por microscopia de luz y electrónica de barrido de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus), en un criadero de Corrientes, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    A. Santa Cruz ; M. C. Agüero ; J. A. González; J.A Comolli ; D. Cayo; J. P. Roux.-

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es reportar el primer hallazgo de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Acari, Astigmata, Analgidae), en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus) y describir algunos caracteres morfológicos externos a través imágenes obtenidas con microscopios de luz y microscopio electrónico de barrido. La investigación se llevó a cabo en un criadero ubicado en la localidad del Ingenio Santa Ana de la ciudad de Corrientes, Latitud 27º 26´ 01, Longitud 58º 37´ 21....

  4. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). Methods 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs

  5. Variscita y ámbar en el Neolítico gallego. Análisis arqueométrico del collar del túmulo 1 de Chousa Nova, Silleda (Pontevedra, España

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    Domínguez-Bella, Salvador

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of barrow 1 of Chousa Nova, Silleda, Pontevedra (NW Spain offered surprising results. This mound, in spite of experiencing a large number and types of anthropic damage, still preserved a great constructive complexity. Within its megalithic chamber, formed by 5 granite orthostats and a large roofing slab of, also in granite, a set of archaeological materials appeared. These were an axe, a chisel and a polishing stone, with a set of 35 beads, most of them of a green stone and the rest of an organic material, with an extremely high degree of alteration, inserted between them. The analytical techniques have been in all cases not-destructives (X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, optical microscopy and environmental electronic microscopy, with microanalysis. The archaeometric analysis results show a mineralogical nature of these materials, based in variscite and amber. The textural and compositional features are very homogeneous between each assemblage of beads. The importance of the alteration phenomena and dissolution of the archaeological objects are determined and quantified. This alteration is due to an intense chemical attack during the burial periods. The possible source areas of provenance for these materials are also discussed on the basis of geochemical data obtained in the analysis.

    La excavación del túmulo 1 de Chousa Nova, Silleda (Pontevedra, proporcionó unos resultados sorprendentes. Aunque muy deteriorado, por diferentes factores, conservaba evidencias de una gran complejidad constructiva. Dentro de su cámara megalítica apareció, junto con otros objetos pulidos, un conjunto de 35 cuentas dispuestas a modo de collar. Se han estudiado todas, unas de color verde y otras de carácter orgánico, intercaladas entre ellas. Los resultados del análisis arqueométrico mediante técnicas no-destructivas (difracción y fluorescencia de Rayos X, espectroscopía de infrarrojos

  6. 甲状腺癌行弧形切口颈部淋巴结清扫术临床分析%Clinical analysis of cervical lymph node dissection by using low-transverse arc collar incision for thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓敏; 赵华栋; 鲁建国

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究低位弧形切口在甲状腺乳头状癌( PTC)功能性颈部淋巴结清扫术中的应用可行性及安全性。方法回顾性分析2012年3月至2014年3月200例PTC伴有颈部淋巴结转移手术患者的临床资料。根据切口形状的不同分为低位组(132例)和传统组(68例),采用SPSS 19.0软件,对两组患者切口长度、淋巴结清扫数目及术后生活质量和外观满意度等连续变量分析使用 t检验;术后并发症及复发情况的比较选用χ2检验, P<0.05认定为有统计学意义。结果低位组在手术用时、切口长度均较传统组短(P<0.05);在其他颈侧区淋巴结清扫数目上两组间没有明显差别(P>0.05),但在Ⅱb区和Ⅴ区淋巴结数目低位组却少于传统组(P<0.05)。在切口瘢痕色泽、厚度、柔软程度、血管分部和患者肩部僵硬感、疼痛、麻木感等方面低位组得分均低于传统组(P<0.05)。淋巴结转移累及Ⅱa区时,Ⅱb区转移风险增高(r=0.183, P<0.001);多区转移时,Ⅱb和Ⅴ区转移风险均增高(r=0.241、0.242, P<0.001)。结论低位弧形切口PTC功能性颈部淋巴结清扫术安全可行,并可以明显改善患者术后生活质量,但对Ⅱb区和Ⅴ区以及多区转移的患者,建议仍采用传统的“L”形切口进行手术。%Objective To explore the feasibility and safety of cervical lymph node function-preserving dissection by using low-transverse arc collar incision for Papillary thyroid carcinomas ( PTC ) . Methods From March 2012 to March 2014, clinical data of 200 patients with PTC and cervical lymph node metastases were analyzed retrospectively .According to the difference of the shape of incision , patients were divided into low-incision group (132 cases) and traditional-incision group (68 cases).Statistical analysis were performed by using SPSS 19.0 software.Continuous variables in

  7. LHC slice of dipolewires and collars

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice 1994, Ansaldo  About LHC Dipole magnets: There will be 1232 dipole magnets in the LHC, used to guide the particles around the 27 km ring. Dipole magnets must have an extremely uniform field, which means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. The temperature is measured to five thousandths of a degree, the current to one part in a million. The current creating the magnetic field will pass through superconducting wires at up to 12 500 amps, about 30 000 times the current flowing in a 100 W light bulb. Because the LHC will accelerate two particle beams moving in opposite directions, it is really two accelerators in one. To keep the machine as compact and economical as possible, two dipole magnets are built into a single housing.

  8. White-collar foreign workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapan, W

    1992-01-01

    "This paper will provide some insights on both capital-assisted and non capital-assisted migrants. Drawing upon government statistics from various sources, the analysis will begin with an examination of the links between DFI [direct foreign investment] inflows and the movement of foreign professionals. Then, a qualitative analysis of case studies of Americans who are language teachers will be used to assess some background characteristics of this particular group of migrants, their international migration process, their work experience as well as their adjustment to the host society." excerpt

  9. White Collar Criminality: A Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Narcissism scale detects behavioral tendencies toward inflated self - esteem and fantasies of power (i.e., cathexis of power); devaluation of others...assumption of self -interest. Narcissistic themes of the CPI Narcissism scale include inflated self - esteem , fantasies of power and brilliance...Responsibility scale is lower, relative to non-offenders. A number of meanings that are ferred from the Narcissism scale 3 include inflated self - esteem , need for

  10. Frische marginalisierte Körper – ausgegrenzte Körper als Ware Fresh, Marginalized Bodies—Segregated Bodies as Ware

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    Heinz-Jürgen Voß

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Für Arbeitsprozesse werden Körper normiert, um sie bestmöglich und gewinnbringend verwerten zu können. Sie sollen funktionieren – tun sie es nicht, stehen sie am Rand. Aber auch im Konsum- und Freizeitbereich werden Normen gesetzt – nicht von einer „repressiven Macht“, sondern durch die Mitwirkung aller Beteiligten. Ausgehend von einer insbesondere Foucault’schen Perspektive setzen die Beiträge des Sammelbandes einige an den Rand gedrängte Körper ins Licht. Mit welchen körperlichen Merkmalen wird man an den Rand gedrängt? Welche körperlichen Merkmale werden darüber hinaus eigens erdacht, um antisemitische, rassistische, sexistische Ausschlüsse zu vollziehen? Dieses Buch bietet lesenswerte historische und aktuelle Einblicke an; geschrieben sind sie zumeist von lange an entsprechenden Thematiken arbeitenden Wissenschaftler/-innen, von deren Arbeiten die Lesende hier knapp gefasst partizipieren kann.Bodies are normalized for work processes in order that they can be utilized in the best and most profitable manner. They should function well—if they do not, then they are sidelined. But the consumer and leisure industry also sets norms—not through a “repressive power,” but through the cooperation of all involved. The contributions in this collected volume utilize a Foucaultian perspective to shine light on some of those bodies that have been pushed to the margins. Which physical features cause one to be marginalized? And which physical features are imagined in order to cause exclusion on the basis of anti-Semitic, racist, and sexist beliefs? This book offers historical and contemporary perspectives and is well-worth reading; scholars who have longed worked on such themes authored the contributions. The volume allows readers to participate in their work, if even only briefly.

  11. Les charpentes à entrait retroussé moisé : exemples orléanais des XVe et XVIe siècles Braced collar-beam roofs: examples from 15th and 16th century Orleans

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    Clément Alix

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La ville d’Orléans possède un ensemble important et inédit de charpentes à pannes des XVe et XVIe s. présentant la particularité de posséder un entrait retroussé moisé. Attesté dès le premier quart du XVe siècle, ce procédé innovant, constitué de deux pièces jumelées venant enserrer les principaux éléments de la ferme, va largement se diffuser dans les édifices religieux mais surtout dans l’habitat domestique, de la maison polyvalente en pan-de-bois au riche hôtel particulier. Ce mode de construction, démontrant une parfaite maîtrise de la statique de la charpente dès sa conception en vue de renforcer la triangulation de la ferme, s’impose donc rapidement dans un contexte architectural local marqué par la rareté de l’emploi de structures à chevrons-formant-fermes. Ainsi, on le retrouve également dans les charpentes à enrayure (tourelle d’escalier, toiture en pavillon, abside. L’utilisation généralisée de la moise à Orléans, et de manière plus ponctuelle en val de Loire et dans certaines régions de France, amène aussi à s’interroger sur l’origine de ce procédé connu sous d’autres formes dans des charpentes dès les XIIe-XIIIe s.The town of Orleans possesses an important and unpublished collection of timber-framed roof structures of the 15th and 16th centuries, with a braced collar-beam. Known since the first quarter of the 15th century, this innovative process, involving two twinned pieces clasping the main elements of the frame, became widely spread in religious buildings but particularly in domestic housing, from the multipurpose timber-framed home to the elaborate town house. This method of construction, demonstrating a perfect mastery of the statics of a roof structure from its design with a view to reinforcing the triangulation of the truss, rapidly established itself in a local architectural context marked by the rare use of “chevrons-formant-fermes” (common rafters forming a

  12. Puberty in male collared peccary (Pecari tajacu determined by quantitative analysis of spermatogenic cells Puberdade em macho de cateto (Pecari tajacu determinada pela análise quantitativa das células espermatogênicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Anelie Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological studies are necessary for the management of wildlife in captivity, and knowledge of reproduction is one of the important features for increasing production. The objective of the research was to determine the age at which male collared peccaries reach puberty. Testicular samples of 15 animals, aged 7 to 16 months, distributed into five groups (G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5 were used. The testes showed considerably increased weight, length and width (p Estudos biológicos são necessários para o manejo da vida silvestre em cativeiro, e o conhecimento da reprodução é um dos aspectos importantes para o aumento da produção. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar a idade da puberdade do cateto macho. Foram utilizadas amostras testiculares de 15 animais, entre 7 a 16 meses, distribuídos em cinco grupos (G1, G2, G3, G4 e G5. Os testículos aumentaram no peso, comprimento e largura consideravelmente (p < 0,05 do G1 ao G3, enquanto que, a partir deste grupo, o desenvolvimento desse órgão foi mais lento. Houve correlação positiva (p < 0,001 entre os seguintes parâmetros testiculares: peso e comprimento (r = 0,97, peso e largura (r = 0,88, comprimento e largura (r = 0,92. Com relação ao diâmetro tubular, observou-se um aumento (p < 0,05 do G1 ao G4. A quantidade total de células espermatogênicas aumentou significativamente (p < 0,05 até o G3, e se estabilizou a partir deste grupo. Houve correlação positiva entre o peso testicular e o diâmetro tubular (r = 0,99, p < 0,001, bem como o peso testicular e as células espermatogênicas (r = 0,98, p < 0,001. A quantidade de células de Sertoli reduziu significativamente (p < 0,05 do G1, onde se encontravam indiferenciadas como células de suporte, até G5, onde foram observadas juntamente com todas as células da linhagem espermática. Estes resultados demonstraram que as fases do desenvolvimento reprodutivo de catetos podem ser classificadas em: impúbere (G1, 7-8 meses, pr

  13. Application of functional neck dissection for lower collar-shaped incision at hair margin behind ear in the treat-ment of differentiated thyroid cancer%耳后发缘低领口状切口的功能性颈清术在分化型甲状腺癌中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健洁; 张晓华; 高博; 姜燕; 文亚渊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore role of functional neck dissection for lower collar-shaped incision at hair margin behind ear in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods The clinical data of 11 patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma who underwent func-tional neck dissection for lower collar-shaped incision at hair margin behind ear were retrospectively analyzed. Results The incisions of all patients were unseen in daily life and patients were satisfied with the postoperative appearances. No case of shoulder syndrome,postoperative local recurrence and distant metastasis was observed. Conclusion Functional neck dissection for lower collar-shaped incision at hair margin behind ear is effective in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Meanwhile it can obviously improve patients’ postoperative appearance and life quality,therefore it is worth clinical application.%目的:探讨耳后发缘低领口状切口的功能性颈清术在分化型甲状腺癌治疗中的作用。方法回顾性分析我科11例甲状腺乳头状癌患者行耳后发缘切口的功能性颈清术治疗的临床资料。结果11例患者术后切口日常情况隐匿不可见,患者对术后外观满意度高,无肩综合征,术后无局部复发及远处转移。结论耳后发缘低领口状切口的功能性颈清术既能达到治疗目的,相较于传统功能性颈清术,能明显改善术后颈部外形,提高患者术后的生活质量,值得临床推广应用。

  14. Descripción de la morfología externa por microscopia de luz y electrónica de barrido de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus, en un criadero de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santa Cruz ; M. C. Agüero ; J. A. González; J.A Comolli ; D. Cayo; J. P. Roux.-

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es reportar el primer hallazgo de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Acari, Astigmata, Analgidae, en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus y describir algunos caracteres morfológicos externos a través imágenes obtenidas con microscopios de luz y microscopio electrónico de barrido. La investigación se llevó a cabo en un criadero ubicado en la localidad del Ingenio Santa Ana de la ciudad de Corrientes, Latitud 27º 26´ 01, Longitud 58º 37´ 21. Del plantel de 500 faisanes de collar (Phasianus torquatus se examinaron 15 (10 animales jóvenes y 5 adultos que presentaban lesiones principalmente en la cabeza, cuello y dorso, y se tomaron muestras de plumas de las zonas afectadas. Se colectaron ácaros que fueron montados entre porta y cubreobjetos con líquido de Hoyer’s, para su posterior clasificación sistemática; los ejemplares destinados a microscopía electrónica de barrido se conservaron en Glutaraldehído al 3%. Los especimenes presentaron pronunciado dimorfismo sexual, en el macho se observó el tercer par de patas más desarrollada y la presencia de lóbulos posteriores con ventosas copulatrices. En las hembras se advirtió lasimilitud de todas las patas, con el borde posterior de su cuerposemiredondeado. Las lesiones observadas fueron pérdida y corte deplumas en las alas, dorso y en la mayor parte del cuerpo. Estas lesiones corresponden a la acción parasitaria de Megninia ginglymura. Constituye el primer hallazgo en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus y la primera descripción de algunos aspectos morfológicos externos de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Acari, Astigmata, Analgidae, que se realiza mediante el uso de microscopio de luz y microscopio electrónico de barrido en la Argentina.

  15. A Study of the Values of the New Generation of Blue-collar Workers and the Impact on Their Occupational Stability%新生代蓝领工人的价值观及其对职业稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵爱国

    2012-01-01

    This paper conducts a quantitative analysis of the values of the new generation of blue-collar workers and their impact on their occupational stability by using Rokeach Values Survey. Three conclusions are obtained. First, for the new generation of blue-collar workers, five terminal values are vital, which are "a comfortable life", "family security", "happiness", "self-es- teem" and "genuine friendship", while five vital instrumental values are being ambitious, "being upright", "being responsible", "being open-minded" and "being wise". Second, the new generation of blue-collar workers pay more attention to "an uplifting life", "mature love", "freedom", "wisdom", "a beautiful world", "salvatio", "and "a sense of accomplishment", while for in- strumental values, they pay more attention to "intelligence", "cleanness", "competence", "imaginativeness", "self-control", "Independence"," politeness" and "being logical" , compared with the last generation. There are significant impacts on occupa- tional stability of the new generation of blue-collar workers, which are the four terminal values of "a comfortable life" ,"a happy heart", "national security" and "sincere friendship" and the two instrumental values of "being brave" and "being obedient".%摘要:笔者采用罗克奇价值观问卷对新生代蓝领工人的价值观及其对职业稳定性的影响进行了定量分析。对新生代蓝领工人而言,最重视的5项终极性价值观依次为“舒适的生活”、“家庭安全”、“幸福”、“自尊”和“真挚的友谊”,而最重视的5项工具性价值观依次为“雄心勃勃”、“正直”、“负责”、“心胸开阔”和“智慧”。相对上一代蓝领工人,在终极性价值观上,新生代更重视对“振奋的生活”、“成熟的爱”、“自由”、“睿智”、“美丽的世界、“救世”、“成就感”等价值目标的追求,而在工具性价值观上,新生代更重视

  16. 短期佩戴围领对颈椎术后活动度与轴性症状的影响%Inlfuence on cervical axial symptom and the rang of motion caused by short-time duration of wearing a cervical collar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓冬; 潘浩; 姜媛媛; 王建忠; 高文山

    2013-01-01

    目的分析颈椎后路术后轴性症状的成因及围领佩戴时间对颈椎活动度及轴性症状的影响。方法2010年1月至2011年9月行颈椎单开门椎管扩大成形术36例为实验组,术后颈围领制动4周。2009年1月至2011年1月颈椎单开门术后22例为对照组,术后围领固定8~12周。并分别对两组患者的术后神经症状改善率、颈椎活动度及轴性症状进行对比。结果两组患者单开门术后以JOA评分缓解率差别无统计学意义。但颈椎总活动度的维持较对照组增加(P<0.05)。同时术后轴性症状评分与对照组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论颈椎单开门术后短期佩戴围领在取得良好神经缓解率的同时颈椎活动度得到了较好的维持,轴性症状明显减轻。%Objective To assess the cause of axial symptom and the degree of inlfuence on cervical range of motion and axial symptom caused by the different duration of wearing a cervical collar in patients undergoing open-door laminoplasty. Methods From January 2010 to September 2011, a total of thirty-six patients underwent open-door laminoplasty and wore a cervical collar for 4 weeks .All of them were classiifed as group A. As the same, from January 2009 to January 2011 twenty-two patients wearing a cervical collar for 8-12 weeks were classiifed as group B. In both groups the neurologic recovery rate, cervical range of motion and axial symptom were recorded and compared. Results There was no signiifcant difference in the neurologic recovery rate between the two groups. But in group A, the cervical range was maintained effectively than that of group B (P<0.05). Meanwhile there was signiifcantly difference in axial symptom (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients treated with open-door laminoplasty, wearing a cervical collar can gain a good neurologic recovery rate, maintain the cervical rangeeffectively and reduce axial symptom obviously.

  17. Efficacy of slow-release collar formulations of imidacloprid/flumethrin and deltamethrin and of spot-on formulations of fipronil/(s - methoprene, dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin and (s –methoprene/amitraz/fipronil against Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horak Ivan G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two studies evaluating the efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health, IVP, a deltamethrin collar (Scalibor®, MSD, CP1, a fipronil/(s-methoprene spot-on (Frontline Combo®, Merial, CP2, a dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin spot-on (Vectra 3D®, Ceva, CP3 and an amitraz/fipronil/(s-methoprene spot-on (Certifect®, Merial, CP4/CP5 against repeated infestations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs were conducted over periods of 226 days and 71 days respectively. Methods The first study comprised 4 groups of treated dogs and one untreated control group, and the second 3 groups of treated dogs and one control group. Each group consisted of 8 dogs. All dogs were infested with ticks and fleas at regular intervals. Ticks were counted 6 h, 18 h or 48 h after infestations and fleas 24 h after infestations. Efficacies of the treatments were calculated by comparison with the untreated control groups using standard descriptive statistics. Results The protective 48 h tick efficacy was 97.8% to 100% for the IVP (226 days, 69.3% to 97.4% for CP1 (170 days, 99.6% to 43.4% for CP2 (35 days and 98% to 61.4% for CP3 (35 days. The protective 18 h tick efficacy was 98% to 99.6% for the IVP (71 days, 100% to 86.5% for CP4 (29 days, 100% to 72.8% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 98.8% to 54.3% for CP5 (35 days. The protective 6 h tick efficacy was 85.6% at Day 7 and 90.1% to 97.1% from Day 14 onwards for the IVP (70 days, 92.3% to 70.7% for CP4 (35 days, 97.5% to 65.2% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 95.1% to 51.8% for CP5 (35 days. The protective 24 h flea efficacy was 99.5/90.9% to 100% for the IVP (71/226 days, 66.7% to 83% for CP1 (170 days, 100% to 88.5% for CP2 (35 days, 100% to 73.3% for CP3 (35 days, 100% to 98.7% for CP4 (35 days, 100% to 87.5% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 100% to 79.5% for

  18. STRESS SYNDROME IN COLLARED PECARYS (Tayassu tajacu SUBMITTED TO CAPTURE AND CONTAINMENT IN DIFFERENT HOURS OF THE MORNING AT MOSSORO-RN-BRAZIL SÍNDROME DO ESTRESSE EM CATETOS (Tayassu tajacu SUBMETIDOS À CAPTURA E CONTENÇÃO EM DIFERENTES HORÁRIOS DA MANHÃ EM MOSSORÓ - RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Vieira Dias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available During the collared peccaries’ (Tayassu tajacu management, raised in captivity at Rio Grande do Norte’s Semi-arid, is common, in the hottest hours of the day, the animals’ death after clinical manifestations of myophaty by capture. The objective of this work was to study the stress syndrome in collared peccary, submitted to capture and containment in different hours of the morning. Thirty-five collared peccaries were used and divided in seven groups with five animals, they were evaluated to each one hour, to 6 a.m up to 1 p.m, generating seven intervals (treatments. For 35 days, in week intervals, clinical, hematologic, anatomopathologic exams, and physico-chemical of the meat were realized. There was significant increase (P<0,05 in the respiratory and cardiac frequencies, beyond the rectal temperature from the first up to the seventh treatment. Spleen petechiaes and heart ecchymosis had been observed in the necroscopic exam. At the microscopic exam, it was observed degeneration, necrosis, and retraction of heart and skeletal muscle fibers. At the physico-chemical, it was observed high indexes of water besides low pH in the meat. It was concluded that capture and containment, in the hottest hours of the morning and with the management observed, cause important clinical alterations, high death frequency and physical-chemical alterations in the meat. Durante prática de manejo de catetos (Tayassu tajacu, criados em cativeiro no semi-árido do Rio Grande do Norte, é comum, principalmente quando realizada nas horas mais quentes do dia, a ocorrência de óbito após manifestações clínicas de miopatia de captura. Este trabalho objetiva estudar a síndrome do estresse em catetos submetidos à captura e contenção em diferentes horários da manhã. Foram utilizados 35 catetos, separados em sete grupos de cinco indivíduos, que foram avaliados a cada intervalo de uma hora, das seis até as treze horas, gerando sete intervalos (tratamentos

  19. 颈环高度对 CAD/CAM氧化锆全瓷冠抗压碎性能的影响%The influence of cervical collar height on the compressive strength of CAD/CAM zirconia-ceramic restora-tion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新文; 刘希云

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the influence of cervical collar height on the compressive strength of CAD/CAMzirconia-ceramic restoration.Methods:Zirconia cores were manufactured and divided into 5 groups (n =1 0)based on the cervical collar height(mm):0.0(A),1 .0(B),1 .5(C),2.0(D)and 2.5(E).After veneered with porcelain,all the samples were cemented on the metal tooth analog and then mounted in an universal test machine.The force was applied at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until catastrophic fail-ure occurred.Fracture loads and failure modes were recorded.Results:Mean of the fracture strength values(kN)in group A,B,C, D and E were 0.95 ±0.39,1 .29 ±0.50,1 .54 ±0.28,2.04 ±0.1 9 and 2.27 ±0.53 respectively(among groups,P <0.05).Two types of fracture modes were observed:chipping of the veneering porcelain and fracture of the veneering porcelain together with the framework.Conclusion:Zirconia coping design with 1 .5 mm cervical collar height may increase the compressive strength of CAD/CAMzirconia-ceramic restoration.%目的:比较不同颈环高度对 CAD/CAM氧化锆全瓷冠抗压碎力的影响。方法:设计制作具有不同颈环高度(mm)的氧化锆基底冠,分别为0(A 组)、1.0(B 组)、1.5(C 组)、2.0(D 组)、2.5(E 组),每组10颗。常规堆筑、烧结饰面瓷后,将样本粘接固定在金属代型上进行抗压碎力测试,记录样本发生破坏时的瞬间力值和折裂形式。结果:各组抗压碎力(kN)测试结果分别为:A 组0.95±0.39、B 组1.29±0.50、C 组1.54±0.28、D 组2.04±0.19、E 组2.27±0.53,5组整体比较,P <0.05。全瓷冠的破坏形式表现为单纯饰面瓷剥脱、饰面瓷剥脱合并基底冠破损2种类型。结论:当颈环高度≥1.5 mm 时,能够显著提高氧化锆全瓷冠的抗压能力。

  20. Avaliação de Passifloraceas, fungicidas e Trichoderma para o manejo da Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro, causada por Nectria haematococca Evaluation of Passifloraceas, fungicides and Trichoderma for passion fruit collar rot handling, caused by Nectria haematococca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A baixa produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo é devida, muitas vezes, a problemas fitossanitários, sendo a Podridão-do-colo, causada por Nectria haematococca, um dos principais problemas na maioria dos Estados produtores do Brasil. O controle desta doença é basicamente preventivo, evitando a introdução do agente patogênico na área. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos: a avaliar o comportamento do maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' e 'Maguary', do tipo pé-franco, e 'Afruvec' enxertado em cinco espécies de Passiflora (P. alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata e P. suberosa, em pomar com histórico de Podridão-do-colo; e b avaliar a eficiência de produtos químicos (oxicloreto de cobre, procloraz e tiabendazol e biológicos (Trichoderma harzianum e Trichoderma sp. no controle da Podridão-do-colo em maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', sob condições de campo. As espécies P. maliformis, P. suberosa e P. alata, empregadas como porta-enxerto, apresentaram maior resistência à Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro em relação às plantas não enxertadas. Os produtos químicos e biológicos, aplicados em intervalos mensais ou quinzenais no colo da planta (500 mL de calda, não foram eficientes no controle da doença.The low productivity of yellow passion fruit is due often to the phytosanitary problems, being the Collar rot caused by Nectria haematococca, one of the main problems in the majority of the producing States of Brazil. The disease control is basically preventive, avoiding the introduction of the pathogen in the area. So, the present work aimed at: a evaluating the behavior of ungrafted yellow passion fruit cultivars 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' and 'Maguary' and 'Afruvec' passion fruit grafted on five Passiflora species (Passiflora alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata and P. suberosa in orchard where the disease is frequent; and b evaluating the efficiency of chemical (copper oxychloride