WorldWideScience

Sample records for hgdp-ceph worldwide sample

  1. A worldwide survey of human male demographic history based on Y-SNP and Y-STR data from the HGDP-CEPH populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Shi (Wentao); Q. Ayub (Qasim); M. Vermeulen (Mark); R.G. Shao (Rong Guang); S.B. Zuniga (Sofia); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); Y. Xue (Yali); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and

  2. Geographical affinities of the HapMap samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao He

    Full Text Available The HapMap samples were collected for medical-genetic studies, but are also widely used in population-genetic and evolutionary investigations. Yet the ascertainment of the samples differs from most population-genetic studies which collect individuals who live in the same local region as their ancestors. What effects could this non-standard ascertainment have on the interpretation of HapMap results?We compared the HapMap samples with more conventionally-ascertained samples used in population- and forensic-genetic studies, including the HGDP-CEPH panel, making use of published genome-wide autosomal SNP data and Y-STR haplotypes, as well as producing new Y-STR data. We found that the HapMap samples were representative of their broad geographical regions of ancestry according to all tests applied. The YRI and JPT were indistinguishable from independent samples of Yoruba and Japanese in all ways investigated. However, both the CHB and the CEU were distinguishable from all other HGDP-CEPH populations with autosomal markers, and both showed Y-STR similarities to unusually large numbers of populations, perhaps reflecting their admixed origins.The CHB and JPT are readily distinguished from one another with both autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers, and results obtained after combining them into a single sample should be interpreted with caution. The CEU are better described as being of Western European ancestry than of Northern European ancestry as often reported. Both the CHB and CEU show subtle but detectable signs of admixture. Thus the YRI and JPT samples are well-suited to standard population-genetic studies, but the CHB and CEU less so.

  3. Cryptic distant relatives are common in both isolated and cosmopolitan genetic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenna M Henn

    Full Text Available Although a few hundred single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs suffice to infer close familial relationships, high density genome-wide SNP data make possible the inference of more distant relationships such as 2(nd to 9(th cousinships. In order to characterize the relationship between genetic similarity and degree of kinship given a timeframe of 100-300 years, we analyzed the sharing of DNA inferred to be identical by descent (IBD in a subset of individuals from the 23andMe customer database (n = 22,757 and from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP-CEPH, n = 952. With data from 121 populations, we show that the average amount of DNA shared IBD in most ethnolinguistically-defined populations, for example Native American groups, Finns and Ashkenazi Jews, differs from continentally-defined populations by several orders of magnitude. Via extensive pedigree-based simulations, we determined bounds for predicted degrees of relationship given the amount of genomic IBD sharing in both endogamous and 'unrelated' population samples. Using these bounds as a guide, we detected tens of thousands of 2(nd to 9(th degree cousin pairs within a heterogenous set of 5,000 Europeans. The ubiquity of distant relatives, detected via IBD segments, in both ethnolinguistic populations and in large 'unrelated' populations samples has important implications for genetic genealogy, forensics and genotype/phenotype mapping studies.

  4. Revision of the SNPforID 34-plex forensic ancestry test: Assay enhancements, standard reference sample genotypes and extended population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, M; Phillips, C; Santos, C; Freire Aradas, A; Vallone, P M; Butler, J M; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, A

    2013-01-01

    A revision of an established 34 SNP forensic ancestry test has been made by swapping the under-performing rs727811 component SNP with the highly informative rs3827760 that shows a near-fixed East Asian specific allele. We collated SNP variability data for the revised SNP set in 66 reference populations from 1000 Genomes and HGDP-CEPH panels and used this as reference data to analyse four U.S. populations showing a range of admixture patterns. The U.S. Hispanics sample in particular displayed heterogeneous values of co-ancestry between European, Native American and African contributors, likely to reflect in part, the way this disparate group is defined using cultural as well as population genetic parameters. The genotyping of over 700 U.S. population samples also provided the opportunity to thoroughly gauge peak mobility variation and peak height ratios observed from routine use of the single base extension chemistry of the 34-plex test. Finally, the genotyping of the widely used DNA profiling Standard Reference Material samples plus other control DNAs completes the audit of the 34-plex assay to allow forensic practitioners to apply this test more readily in their own laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Worldwide Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Trace Elements in IAEA-452 Biota Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    educational opportunities, enhanced mutual trust in results and methodology and objective evidence for accreditation purposes The present ILC was designed in order to evaluate the measurement performance of participating laboratories for the analysis of trace elements in biota samples. The test material was distributed to 150 laboratories worldwide and the results from 143 laboratories in 59 countries were received by the end 2009. The data reported by the laboratories, together with the technical and statistical evaluations of the results for each element, are included in this report. The performance of the participant laboratories was assessed through evaluating Z-scores in accordance with ISO 13528 and the International Harmonised Protocol for the Proficiency Testing of Analytical Chemistry Laboratories. On the basis of the outcome from previous ILCs, organised by NAEL for the same population of laboratories, the standard deviation for proficiency assessment (also called target standard deviation) was fixed to 12.5%. Z-scores obtained from this ILC results should assist chemists to make appropriate modifications in their laboratory analytical procedures in order to improve data quality. All results were treated confidentially and each laboratory was identified with a code number for anonymity.

  6. Large contribution of human papillomavirus in vaginal neoplastic lesions: a worldwide study in 597 samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Tinoco, L; Quirós, B; Alvarado-Cabrero, I; Alejo, M; Joura, E A; Maldonado, P; Klaustermeier, J; Salmerón, J; Bergeron, C; Petry, K U; Guimerà, N; Clavero, O; Murillo, R; Clavel, C; Wain, V; Geraets, D T; Jach, R; Cross, P; Carrilho, C; Molina, C; Shin, H R; Mandys, V; Nowakowski, A M; Vidal, A; Lombardi, L; Kitchener, H; Sica, A R; Magaña-León, C; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Bravo, I G; Muñoz, N; de Sanjosé, S; Bosch, F X

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the HPV type distribution in a large series of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) grades 2/3 and vaginal cancer worldwide. We analysed 189 VAIN 2/3 and 408 invasive vaginal cancer cases collected from 31 countries from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and typing was performed using the SPF-10/DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 146 vaginal cancers was tested for p16(INK4a) expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. HPV DNA was detected in 74% (95% confidence interval (CI): 70-78%) of invasive cancers and in 96% (95% CI: 92-98%) of VAIN 2/3. Among cancers, the highest detection rates were observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, and in younger ages. Concerning the type-specific distribution, HPV16 was the most frequently type detected in both precancerous and cancerous lesions (59%). p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 87% of HPV DNA positive vaginal cancer cases. HPV was identified in a large proportion of invasive vaginal cancers and in almost all VAIN 2/3. HPV16 was the most common type detected. A large impact in the reduction of the burden of vaginal neoplastic lesions is expected among vaccinated cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Worldwide Interlaboratory Comparison on the Determination of Trace Elements in the IAEA-457 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of primary concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. Through the IAEA Environment Laboratories, the IAEA has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of a reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance and quality control are two fundamental requirements to ensure the reliability of analytical results. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. In this regard, the IAEA has a long history of organizing interlaboratory studies, which have evolved to include an increasing array of potential contaminants in the marine environment. Relevant activities comprise global interlaboratory comparison, regional proficiency tests, the production of marine reference materials and the development of reference methods for trace elements and organic pollutants analysis in marine samples. This publication summarizes the results of the IAEA-457 interlaboratory comparison on the determination of trace elements in a marine sediment sample

  8. Sexual orientation and treatment-seeking for depression in a multilingual worldwide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Tara M; Flentje, Annesa; Dilley, James W; Barakat, Suzanne; Liu, Nancy H; Gross, Margaret S; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Leykin, Yan

    2016-12-01

    Prior research has found higher rates of mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. We examine treatment-seeking for depression, as well as its relationship with sexual orientation, in a large, multilingual, international sample. Participants in an automated, quintilingual internet-based depression screening tool were screened for depression, and completed several background measures, including sexual orientation (with an option to decline to state) and past and current depression treatment seeking. 3695 participants screened positive for current or past depression and responded to the sexual orientation question. Those who declined to state their sexual orientation were far less likely to seek any treatment than individuals endorsing any orientation; they were especially unlikely to seek psychotherapy. Individuals identifying as bisexual sought both psychotherapy and alternative treatments at a higher rate than other groups. An interaction was observed between sexual orientation and gender, such that lesbian women were especially likely to have used psychotherapy. Other variables that emerged as significant predictors of treatment-seeking for depression included age and participant's language. Limitations include possible misinterpretation of translated terms due to regional differences, and possible limits to generalizability due to this study being conducted on the internet. Our results suggest that individuals who decline to state their sexual orientation may be more likely to forgo effective treatments for depression. Further studies of depression service utilization should focus on developing treatment modalities that could better engage sexual minority individuals, especially those who are reluctant to disclose their orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Measurements in Karachi, Pakistan (2006): a Comparison With Previous Urban Sampling Campaigns Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zou, S.; Rowland, F.; Blake, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and 47 nonmethane hydrocarbons - NMHCs - (19 alkanes, 13 alkenes, ethyne, and 14 aromatics) were determined for ground level whole air samples collected during the winter of 2006 in Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan is among the fastest growing economies in Asia, and Karachi is one of the largest cities in the world with a rapidly expanding population of over 14 million in the whole metropolitan area, and a large industrial base. Samples were collected in January 2006 throughout the urban area to characterize the overall air composition of the city, and along the busiest road to determine the traffic signature of Karachi. This sampling campaign follows a previous study carried out in the winter of 1998-1999 in the same city, when elevated concentrations of many NMHCs were observed. Exceptionally high levels of methane were still observed in 2006 with an average mixing ratio of 5.0 ppmv (6.3 ppmv were observed in 1999). The overall air composition of the Karachi urban environment characterized during this 2006 sampling is compared to 1999 aiming to highlight any possible change in the main VOC sources present throughout the city. In particular, we want to evaluate the impact of the heavy usage of natural gas on the overall air quality of Karachi and the recently increased use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as alternative source of energy. We also compare the composition of the urban troposphere of Karachi to other major urban centers worldwide such as Guangzhou (China), Mexico City (Mexico), and Milan (Italy).

  10. Positive selection in the chromosome 16 VKORC1 genomic region has contributed to the variability of anticoagulant response in humans.

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    Blandine Patillon

    Full Text Available VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, 16p11.2 is the main genetic determinant of human response to oral anticoagulants of antivitamin K type (AVK. This gene was recently suggested to be a putative target of positive selection in East Asian populations. In this study, we genotyped the HGDP-CEPH Panel for six VKORC1 SNPs and downloaded chromosome 16 genotypes from the HGDP-CEPH database in order to characterize the geographic distribution of footprints of positive selection within and around this locus. A unique VKORC1 haplotype carrying the promoter mutation associated with AVK sensitivity showed especially high frequencies in all the 17 HGDP-CEPH East Asian population samples. VKORC1 and 24 neighboring genes were found to lie in a 505 kb region of strong linkage disequilibrium in these populations. Patterns of allele frequency differentiation and haplotype structure suggest that this genomic region has been submitted to a near complete selective sweep in all East Asian populations and only in this geographic area. The most extreme scores of the different selection tests are found within a smaller 45 kb region that contains VKORC1 and three other genes (BCKDK, MYST1 (KAT8, and PRSS8 with different functions. Because of the strong linkage disequilibrium, it is not possible to determine if VKORC1 or one of the three other genes is the target of this strong positive selection that could explain present-day differences among human populations in AVK dose requirement. Our results show that the extended region surrounding a presumable single target of positive selection should be analyzed for genetic variation in a wide range of genetically diverse populations in order to account for other neighboring and confounding selective events and the hitchhiking effect.

  11. The IAEA worldwide intercomparison exercises (1990-1997). Determination of trace elements in marine sediments and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquery, M.; Carvalho, F.P.; Azemard, S.; Horvat, M.

    1999-01-01

    Four major worldwide intercomparison exercises for the determination of trace elements in various environmental matrices were completed by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory since 1990: SD-M-2/TM, deep sea marine sediment; IAEA-350, tuna fish homogenate; IAEA-356, contaminated coastal sediment and IAEA-140, sea plant (Fucus sp.). These intercomparison exercises aim at enabling individual laboratories to monitor their performance. The results of these exercises allowed us to make an overall evaluation of the quality of data provided for environmental assessment and to identify the trends of analytical performance in the determination of trace elements over the years. The number of participants in each exercise varied between 68 and 130, and permits statistical evaluation of the performance for a number of elements. For each intercomparison exercise, the performance of the participant laboratories was assessed by comparing reported results with established reference values calculating 'Z-scores'. The results show that for each sample matrix, the values reported by some laboratories were far from satisfactory in the earlier exercises, in particular for Cd, Cr and Pb. Nevertheless, over time, a general improvement of performance can clearly be seen for all elements. Moreover, there was a noticeable increase in the number of laboratories with good performance in the two most recent exercises, observed both for biological and for sediment matrices. However, the determination of trace elements such as Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg in low level environmental samples still remains a major challenge to the analysts. For this reason and in order to assess the current performance of laboratories for low environmental levels of contaminants, the future intercomparison exercises will concentrate on low level sediment and fish samples

  12. Sequence determinants of human microsatellite variability

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    Jakobsson Mattias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite loci are frequently used in genomic studies of DNA sequence repeats and in population studies of genetic variability. To investigate the effect of sequence properties of microsatellites on their level of variability we have analyzed genotypes at 627 microsatellite loci in 1,048 worldwide individuals from the HGDP-CEPH cell line panel together with the DNA sequences of these microsatellites in the human RefSeq database. Results Calibrating PCR fragment lengths in individual genotypes by using the RefSeq sequence enabled us to infer repeat number in the HGDP-CEPH dataset and to calculate the mean number of repeats (as opposed to the mean PCR fragment length, under the assumption that differences in PCR fragment length reflect differences in the numbers of repeats in the embedded repeat sequences. We find the mean and maximum numbers of repeats across individuals to be positively correlated with heterozygosity. The size and composition of the repeat unit of a microsatellite are also important factors in predicting heterozygosity, with tetra-nucleotide repeat units high in G/C content leading to higher heterozygosity. Finally, we find that microsatellites containing more separate sets of repeated motifs generally have higher heterozygosity. Conclusions These results suggest that sequence properties of microsatellites have a significant impact in determining the features of human microsatellite variability.

  13. Genome-wide analysis in Brazilian Xavante Indians reveals low degree of admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Patricia C; Horimoto, Andréa R V Russo; Sanches, José Maurício; Vieira Filho, João Paulo B; Franco, Luciana; Fabbro, Amaury Dal; Franco, Laercio Joel; Pereira, Alexandre C; Moises, Regina S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of population genetic variation and structure can be used as tools for research in human genetics and population isolates are of great interest. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genetic structure of Xavante Indians and compare it with other populations. The Xavante, an indigenous population living in Brazilian Central Plateau, is one of the largest native groups in Brazil. A subset of 53 unrelated subjects was selected from the initial sample of 300 Xavante Indians. Using 86,197 markers, Xavante were compared with all populations of HapMap Phase III and HGDP-CEPH projects and with a Southeast Brazilian population sample to establish its population structure. Principal Components Analysis showed that the Xavante Indians are concentrated in the Amerindian axis near other populations of known Amerindian ancestry such as Karitiana, Pima, Surui and Maya and a low degree of genetic admixture was observed. This is consistent with the historical records of bottlenecks experience and cultural isolation. By calculating pair-wise F(st) statistics we characterized the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and representative populations of the HapMap and from HGDP-CEPH project. We found that the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and populations of Ameridian, Asian, European, and African ancestry increased progressively. Our results indicate that the Xavante is a population that remained genetically isolated over the past decades and can offer advantages for genome-wide mapping studies of inherited disorders.

  14. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  15. A worldwide phylogeography for the human X chromosome.

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    Simone S Santos-Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We reasoned that by identifying genetic markers on human X chromosome regions where recombination is rare or absent, we should be able to construct X chromosome genealogies analogous to those based on Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms, with the advantage of providing information about both male and female components of the population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a 47 Kb interval containing an Alu insertion polymorphism (DXS225 and four microsatellites in complete linkage disequilibrium in a low recombination rate region of the long arm of the human X chromosome. This haplotype block was studied in 667 males from the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel. The haplotypic diversity was highest in Africa (0.992+/-0.0025 and lowest in the Americas (0.839+/-0.0378, where no insertion alleles of DXS225 were observed. Africa shared few haplotypes with other geographical areas, while those exhibited significant sharing among themselves. Median joining networks revealed that the African haplotypes were numerous, occupied the periphery of the graph and had low frequency, whereas those from the other continents were few, central and had high frequency. Altogether, our data support a single origin of modern man in Africa and migration to occupy the other continents by serial founder effects. Coalescent analysis permitted estimation of the time of the most recent common ancestor as 182,000 years (56,700-479,000 and the estimated time of the DXS225 Alu insertion of 94,400 years (24,300-310,000. These dates are fully compatible with the current widely accepted scenario of the origin of modern mankind in Africa within the last 195,000 years and migration out-of-Africa circa 55,000-65,000 years ago. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A haplotypic block combining an Alu insertion polymorphism and four microsatellite markers on the human X chromosome is a useful marker to evaluate genetic diversity of human populations and

  16. The international Genome sample resource (IGSR): A worldwide collection of genome variation incorporating the 1000 Genomes Project data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laura; Fairley, Susan; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Streeter, Ian; Perry, Emily; Lowy, Ernesto; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Flicek, Paul

    2017-01-04

    The International Genome Sample Resource (IGSR; http://www.internationalgenome.org) expands in data type and population diversity the resources from the 1000 Genomes Project. IGSR represents the largest open collection of human variation data and provides easy access to these resources. IGSR was established in 2015 to maintain and extend the 1000 Genomes Project data, which has been widely used as a reference set of human variation and by researchers developing analysis methods. IGSR has mapped all of the 1000 Genomes sequence to the newest human reference (GRCh38), and will release updated variant calls to ensure maximal usefulness of the existing data. IGSR is collecting new structural variation data on the 1000 Genomes samples from long read sequencing and other technologies, and will collect relevant functional data into a single comprehensive resource. IGSR is extending coverage with new populations sequenced by collaborating groups. Here, we present the new data and analysis that IGSR has made available. We have also introduced a new data portal that increases discoverability of our data-previously only browseable through our FTP site-by focusing on particular samples, populations or data sets of interest. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. World-wide intercomparison exercise for the determination of trace elements in Fucus sample IAEA-140. Report no. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquery, M.; Carvalho, F.P.; Horvat, M.; Azemard, S.

    1997-09-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine samples is fundamental to pollution assessment in coastal and marine environments. Analyses of sea plants are important to investigate the uptake of toxic elements along the trophic chain and sea plants may be used as indicators for water pollution and to compare the levels of contamination of different aquatic environments. IAEA. together with UNEP and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) work closely with other producers of Reference Materials in order to assure a continuous supply of these vital compounds for quality assurance procedures. A full catalogue of materials is published regularly. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace elements for over twenty years as part of its contribution to IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service, UNEP's Regional Seas Programme. and, occasionally, in association with the IOC GIPME (Global Investigation of the Pollution in the Marine Environment) programme. This report describes the performance of laboratories in one intercomparison run conducted during 1996 that was organized for the determination of trace elements in a marine macro algae (Fucus sp.) sample. This study was intended to give laboratories responsible for trace element analyses of marine materials an opportunity for checking their analytical performance

  18. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of trace elements in tuna fish homogenate sample IAEA-350

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mee, L D; Oregioni, B; Horvat, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory, Monaco (Monaco)

    1992-12-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine biological samples is an important aspect of marine pollution studies, especially regarding studies of human exposure to toxic elements through sea food consumption. Past intercomparison studies conducted by the Marine Environment Laboratory of IAEA (formerly the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity) have focused upon various marine organisms including fish, bivalves and crustaceans. The present intercalibration exercise was designed in order to satisfy the increased demand for certified reference materials of various origins and the wide range of parameters that should be studied. Additionally, different instrumental techniques, both nuclear and non-nuclear, were compared, and evaluated. By statistically examining the data from this study, the material can be certified for future use as a reference material. The present report presents the entire experimental data set ana a statistical evaluation of the results for each parameter. It should enable individual participants to assess their performance and make appropriate modifications to their laboratory's analytical procedures where necessary. Additionally, a graphical evaluation is made of the data for parameters where a consensus value could not easily be achieved in order to examine the source of any systematic errors. The exercise was designed to satisfy the requirements of participants in IAEA's Analytical Quality Assurance Service as well as laboratories involved in UNEP's Regional Seas Programme and similar activities conducted within the auspices of GIPME (Global Investigations of Pollution in the Marine Environment)

  19. Worldwide and Regional Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Organochlorine Compounds, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Petroleum Hydrocarbons in IAEA-457 Clam (Gafrarium tumidum) Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    For nearly thirty years, the Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of the IAEA Environment Laboratories has conducted worldwide laboratory performance studies, also known as interlaboratory comparisons (ILCs). The results have been used to evaluate the participating laboratories' performance with respect to a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the Regional Seas Programme of the United Nations Environment Programme. The goal of the performance studies is to demonstrate the measurement capabilities of laboratories participating in ILCs and proficiency tests (PTs). The results of ILCs or PTs are of crucial interest to laboratories, as they provide clear information about the laboratories' measurement capabilities. Participation is voluntary or is undertaken to fulfil external requirements (e.g. legal, accreditation, control bodies). The ILC and PT schemes involve the comparison of participant results with an assigned value, usually delivered as a consensus value from the overall population of test results. These exercises are designed to monitor and demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the participating laboratories, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. Regular participation has benefits with regard to training and educational opportunities, enhanced mutual trust in results and methodology, and objective evidence for accreditation purposes. The present interlaboratory study was designed to evaluate the measurement performance of the participating laboratories on the analysis of organic contaminants in biota samples. The data reported by the laboratories, together with the technical and statistical evaluations of the results for each element, are included in this report

  20. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in mussel sample IAEA-142. Report no. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeneuve, J.P.; Horvat, M.; Cattini, C.

    1996-03-01

    The accurate and precise determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environmental samples is an important aspect of marine pollution assessments in coastal and ocean environments. Intercomparison exercises represent an essential element of method testing and are used as a basic tool for evaluating data quality on a global and regional level. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace organic compounds for over nineteen years as part of its contribution to IAEA's analytical quality control service and UNEP's regional seas programme, and occasionally in association with the intergovernmental oceanographic commission (of UNESCO) GIPME programme. These exercises are organized on a continuous basis, at least once per year. Result of previous exercises have revealed serious problems for many regional laboratories to obtain comparable data. As a consequence of this situation, it was decided to seek increased support for quality assurance programmes. Staff of MESL, with funding from UNEP, the World Bank and regional trust funds, embarked on a campaign to train analysts in modern measurement techniques, supply appropriate and reliable reference methods and materials and, where possible, to improve analytical instruments in Member State laboratories. This report describes results of the IAEA/UNEP intercomparison run 142 for the chemical analysis of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in a homogenised mussel sample

  1. Worldwide cloud cover model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, O. E.; Sommerville, P. N.

    1979-01-01

    Classifying worldwide cloudiness into homogeneous regions, using a satellite data set containing day IR, night IR, incoming, and absorbed solar radiation measurements on a 2.5-degree latitude-longitude grid is considered. Methods of analysis are presented.

  2. Worldwide Airfield Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Worldwide Airfield Summary contains a selection of climatological data produced by the U.S. Air Force, Air Weather Service. The reports were compiled from dozens...

  3. Nuclear energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this short paper the author provides a list of tables and charts concerning the nuclear energy worldwide, the clean air benefits of nuclear energy, the nuclear competitiveness and the public opinion. He shows that the nuclear energy has a vital role to play in satisfying global energy and environmental goals. (A.L.B)

  4. EOR increases 24% worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritis, G.

    1992-01-01

    Although the higher cost of enhanced oil recovery has taken its toll in projects, the Journal's worldwide EOR survey reveals that production from EOR is a significant and growing component of the world's oil production. This paper outlines hundreds of projects in 14 countries. Pilot, field wide, and planned projects are all included

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1990-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157698)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157698 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1990-01-01 to...

  6. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  7. Worldwide nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide nuclear power (WNP) is a companion volume to UPDATE. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign Embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data

  8. Worldwide installed geothermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide electric energy production data are easy to compile, according to the informations given by individual countries. On the contrary, thermal applications of geothermics are difficult to quantify due to the variety of applications and the number of countries concerned. Exhaustive informations sometimes cannot be obtained from huge countries (China, Russia..) because of data centralization problems or not exploitable data transmission. Therefore, installed power data for geothermal heat production are given for 26 countries over the 57 that have answered the International Geothermal Association questionnaire. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 1 photo

  9. Worldwide nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide Nuclear Power (WNP) is a companion volume to Update. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government. Facts about the status of nuclear activities abroad should be available to those who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. It consists of two types of information, tabular and narrative. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data. In general, complete U.S. information will be found in Update

  10. The worldwide obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M

    2001-11-01

    The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  11. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  12. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.

  13. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  14. Worldwide developments in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoellen, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    World uranium production will continue to change in most major producing nations. Canadian production will increase and will be increasingly dominated by western producers as eastern Canadian high-cost production declines. Australian production will increase as major projects come into operation before 2000. US production will stabilize through the end of the century. South African production will be dependent upon the worldwide support for economic sanctions. China's entry into the world market injects yet another variable into the already cloudy supply picture. Many risks and uncertainties will face uranium producers through the 1980s. Recognizing that the uranium industry is not a fast-growing market, many existing and potential producers are seeking alternate investment courses, causing a restructuring of the world uranium production industry in ways not anticipated even a few years ago. During the restructuring process, world uranium production will most likely continue to exceed uranium consumption, resulting in a further buildup of world uranium inventories. Inventory sales will continue to redistribute this material. As inventory selling runs its course, users will turn to normal sources of supply, stimulating additional production to meet needs. Stimulation in the form of higher prices will be determined by how fast producers are willing and able to return to the market. Production costs are expected to have an increasing impact as it has become apparent that uranium resources are large in comparison to projected consumption. Conversely, security-of-supply issues have seemed to be of decreasing magnitude as Canada, Australia, and other non-US producers continue to meet delivery commitments

  15. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  16. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  17. Aging Education: A Worldwide Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, people are generally not prepared for this long life ahead and have ageist attitudes that inhibit maximizing the "longevity dividend" they have been given. Aging education can prepare people for life's later years and combat ageism. It can reimage aging as a time of continued…

  18. Tube problems: worldwide statistics reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    EPRI's Steam Generator Strategic Management Project issues an annual report on the progress being made in tackling steam generator problems worldwide, containing a wealth of detailed statistics on the status of operating units and degradation mechanisms encountered. A few highlights are presented from the latest report, issued in October 1993, which covers the period to 31 December 1992. (Author)

  19. Worldwide exposures to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    All of mankind is exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources, from human practices that release natural and artificial radionuclides to the environment, and from medical radiation procedures. This paper reviews the assessment in the UNSCEAR 1993 Report of the exposures of human populations worldwide to the various sources of ionizing radiation

  20. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  1. Worldwide reprocessing supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to broadly examine the current situation in the LWR fuel reprocessing services market on a worldwide basis through 2010. The main factors influencing this market (nuclear programs, fuel discharges, reprocessing capacities, buyer philosophies, etc.) are identified in the paper and the most important are highlighted and discussed in more detail. Emphasis has been placed on the situation with respect to reprocessing in those countries having a significant influence on the reprocessing market

  2. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  3. The incidence of abortion worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.

  4. Worldwide Warehouse: A Customer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Management Office (PMO) and the customers (returnees and buyers) 23 will be developed or adapted from existing software programs. The hardware could be... customer requirements and desires is the first aspect to be approached. Sections 4.7 to 4.11 were dedicated to inivestigate those relationships and...R x NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB WORLDWIDE WAREHOUSE: Ju’a-noj1c0[ed 0 A CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE J-f-c-.tion .......... THESIS By D i s ib , tio

  5. Pace studying worldwide coke production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Pace Consultants Inc., Houston, has started a multiclient study of world-wide petroleum coke production, examining environmental initiatives and eventually forecasting prices of fuel grade coke. Pace expects coker expansions, increased operating severity, and reduced cycle times to boost coke supply to more than 50 million metric tons/year in 2000, compared with 39.7 million metric tons in 1992. Increased supply and tightened environmental rules in countries consuming large amounts of petroleum coke will be the main factors affecting coke markets. The paper discusses coke quality and the Japanese market

  6. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  7. Worldwide Market For Scientific Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Sicco

    1989-06-01

    I'm going to talk about the worldwide market for scientific lasers. I felt we should start with a quote from our soon-to-be President and learn from him how he feels about the commitment that the government should make to R&D. "R&D is the economic Fountain of Youth, and we really should take good care of it because that is where our business is for the future." If you read through that quote, it is very clear that at least before the election, he made a very strong commitment to this. It will be interesting to see over the next four years whether he keeps to that commitment or not, but I happen to totally agree with what he is saying here. The R&D market, as I see it, is certainly, as far as lasers are concerned, the growth place for new technology and applications.

  8. Worldwide distribution of Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Chetan S; Isaacson, Glenn

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the multiracial occurrence of Waardenburg syndrome, we present a case series and literature review. A computerized review of the English-language literature was conducted to assess the distribution of reported occurrences of Waardenburg syndrome in populations around the world. We detail the clinical features of 2 family cohorts: one of Western European origin and the other from South Asia. A computerized literature review found sporadic cases of the syndrome in many ethnic groups, including Japanese, Taiwanese, and Middle Eastern families. The highest reported incidence is among Kenyan Africans. Waardenburg syndrome accounts for between 2% and 5% of cases of congenital deafness. It was first described in Northern European cohorts and is widely identified in fair-skinned populations. We hope to raise awareness of the worldwide distribution of this important cause of hearing loss.

  9. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I Z Requejo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.

  10. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  11. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  12. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2003-01-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  13. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  14. Euthanasia and related practices worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, M J; Chambers, D; Corcoran, P; Keeley, H S; Williamson, E

    1998-01-01

    The present paper examines the occurrence of matters relating to the ending of life, including active euthanasia, which is, technically speaking, illegal worldwide. Interest in this most controversial area is drawn from many varied sources, from legal and medical practitioners to religious and moral ethicists. In some countries, public interest has been mobilized into organizations that attempt to influence legislation relating to euthanasia. Despite the obvious international importance of euthanasia, very little is known about the extent of its practice, whether passive or active, voluntary or involuntary. This examination is based on questionnaires completed by 49 national representatives of the International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP), dealing with legal and religious aspects of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, as well as suicide. A dichotomy between the law and medical practices relating to the end of life was uncovered by the results of the survey. In 12 of the 49 countries active euthanasia is said to occur while a general acceptance of passive euthanasia was reported to be widespread. Clearly, definition is crucial in making the distinction between active and passive euthanasia; otherwise, the entire concept may become distorted, and legal acceptance may become more widespread with the effect of broadening the category of individuals to whom euthanasia becomes an available option. The "slippery slope" argument is briefly considered.

  15. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  16. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  17. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilitza, D.

    1989-04-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory

  18. Worldwide status of HTR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical committee meeting on high temperature reactors (HTRs) from 12-14 Dec. 1977 at Agency Headquarters to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the status of HTR development programmes and to receive advice on the Agency programme in this field. The continuing high level of international interest in HTRs was evidenced by the participation from 11 countries and 2 organizations: Austria, Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom of Great Britain, United States of America, Commission of the European Communities, and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. In order to promote the continuing exchange of technical information through the offices of the IAEA, a recommendation was made that the Agency establish a standing International Working Group on High Temperature Reactors (IWGHTR). This recommendation is being implemented in 1978. Considerable information on recent progress in HTR development was present at the technical committee meeting in technical reports and in progress reports on HTR development programmes. Since this material will not be published, this summary report on the worldwide status of HTR development at the beginning of 1978 has been prepared, based primarily on information presented at the December 1977 meeting

  19. Worldwide potential of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C

    1982-01-01

    A well-documented discussion is presented dealing with the worldwide potential of wind energy as a source of electrical and mechanical power. It is pointed out that 2% of the solar insolation is converted to wind kinetic energy; it is constantly renewed and nondepletable. Efficiency of windmills are discussed (20 to 40%) and payback periods of less than 5 years are cited. Effects of wind velocity and site location are described. Wind pumps are reviewed and the need for wind pumps, particularly in the developing countries is stressed. The generation of electricity by windmills using small turbines is reviewed and appears promising in areas with wind velocities greater than 12 mi/hr. The development of large windmills and groups of windmills (windfarms) for large scale electrical power is discussed, illustrated, and reviewed (offshore sites included). Environmental and safety problems are considered as well as the role of electrical utilities, government support and research activities. It is concluded that the potential contribution of wind energy is immense and that mechanical windmills may become one of the most important renewable technologies. Electrical generating potential is estimated at 20 to 30% of electrical needs. International programs are discussed briefly. 57 references. (MJJ)

  20. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  2. The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.L.; Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Reed, M.; Spaulding, M.; Kolluru, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM) is a standalone microcomputer-based state-of-the-art oil spill model system for use in oil spill response decision support, planning, research, training, and contingency planning. WOSM was developed under support provided by a consortium of oil companies and government agencies. WOSM represents the next generation of oil spill model beyond the OILMAP modelling system (Spaulding et al, 1992). WOSM is designed in a shell architecture in which the only parameters that change are those that describe the area in which the spill model is to be applied. A limited function geographic information system (GIS) is integrated within the model system, and the spill modelling shell has been extended to include interfaces to other GIS systems and digital data. WOSM contains all the databases, data manipulation and graphical display tools, and models to simulate any type of oil spill. The user has control over which weathering processes are to be modelled, and WOSM data input tools enable continual refinement of model predictions as more refined data is imported. Use of WOSM is described and illustrated, showing sample screens and applications. WOSM algorithms and file structure are also outlined. An example test case of a spill in the Juan de Fuca strait is included. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Economic impact of traditional medicine practice worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Pejcic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to summarize available findings from publications that reported expenditure on traditional/complementary and alternative medicine (TM/CAM within a representative general population sample of a nation or a defined geographical area. A total of 24 publications met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The expenditure on TM/CAM varies worldwide, but direct comparison of the findings of publications included in this review is limited due to the differences in the definitions of TM/CAM, inclusion of various forms of TM/CAM, use of different names and categorization, as well as differences in reported currencies and time periods in which data were collected. Data about the expenditure on TM/CAM in most countries throughout the world are scarce. Further national studies should be conducted in order to provide up-to-date assessment of the TM/CAM related expenditure patterns and use. Uniform nomenclature, definition of TM/CAM and standardized instruments would provide basis for comparability of data of studies conducted in various regions and time periods.

  4. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  5. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  6. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  7. Youth Purpose Worldwide: A Tapestry of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana

    2017-01-01

    Interest in youth purpose is growing among scholars around the world. With globalization, better understanding of life purposes in different countries becomes more important as this generation's youth are influenced by ideas and events anywhere. This special issue contributes to this inclusive, worldwide frame of mind by showcasing work done…

  8. Globalization of flora: inviting worldwide ecosystem disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    Meeting the needs of expanding human populations has changed land use worldwide and presented a biodiversity crisis. Emerging related concerns are threats to native species from homogenization of world flora and the spread of exotic species by human activities (Soule 1990, United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment 1993, Wilcove and others 1998, Soule and...

  9. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…

  10. World-wide distribution automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems

  11. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  12. RoboEarth: connecting robots worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweigle, O.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; D'Andrea, R.; Häussermann, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the core concept and the benefits of an approach called RoboEarth which will be highly beneficial for future robotic applications in science and industry. RoboEarth is a world-wide platform which robots can use to exchange position and map information as well as

  13. Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The report presents a digest of geothermal energy technology. The worldwide distribution of geothermal resources is described, and the degree to which various countries are exploiting their resources estimated. Detailed information about US technologies is presented, from exploration through applications to cost factors. (ACR)

  14. Worldwide review of nuclear power developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, Simon.

    1985-01-01

    In the Western world during 1984, some 26 new reactors with a total capacity of about 26 GWe were commissioned. This review discusses political and economic factors affecting nuclear power worldwide. Developments, or the lack of them, in the following areas are considered: U.S.A., Japan, Western Europe, Turkey, South East Asia, China, India, South and Central America and Eastern Europe. China is predicted to be the next big market

  15. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  16. Worldwide Report, Nuclear Development and Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-09

    ACTIVITIES AT KIEV VEGETABLE MARKET Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 16 May 86 p 6 PARTY COMMITrEE ACTIVITIES AT C(1ERNOBYL Moscow PRAVDA in...Agreement (Martin F. Yriart; Buenos Aires AMBITO FINANCIERO , 12 May 86) 22 NEAR EAST/SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH OBSERVER: Nuclear Technology Growth Playing...University physicists. Scanditronix began to market the product in earnest worldwide in the mid- seventies. At the same time, anxiety was growing within FOA

  17. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  18. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  19. 1996 Portfolio of leading powerplants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers activity in the electric power industry worldwide. The report is divided into three sections: Asia; Europe, Middle East, and Africa; and the Americas. The topics of the articles include major expansion programs for the primary power generating options, selected plant profiles; effect of the availability of natural gas on plans for coal-fired plants; and the pioneering of technologies in North America

  20. The software development process in worldwide collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, K.

    1998-01-01

    High energy physics experiments in future colliders are inevitably large scale international collaborations. In these experiments, software development has to be done by a large number of physicists, software engineers and computer scientists, dispersed all over the world. The major subject of this paper is to discuss on various aspects of software development in the worldwide environment. These include software engineering and methodology, software development process and management. (orig.)

  1. Worldwide energy prospects and nuclear contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    With a growing up worldwide population and a better standard of living, the global energy consumption will rise. The CO 2 emissions will increase too because of todays share of fossil fuels in the energy sources. This paper analyzes the possible contribution of nuclear energy in this context: economical and environmental aspects, political aspects (distribution of energy resources, energy dependence), energy efficiency, reduction of CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  2. Neurocysticercosis as an infectious acquired epilepsy worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Volkmer, Randy

    2017-11-01

    Aside from brain injury and genetic causes, there is emerging information on brain infection and inflammation as a common cause of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common cause of epilepsy worldwide, is caused by brain cysts from the Taenia solium tapeworm. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of current and emerging information on the relationship between NCC infection and epilepsy occurrence. We searched PubMed and other databases for reports on the prevalence of NCC and incidence of epilepsy in certain regions worldwide. NCC is caused by brain cysts from the T. solium and related tapeworms. Many people with NCC infection may develop epilepsy but the rates are highly variable. MRI imaging shows many changes including localization of cysts as well as the host response to treatment. Epilepsy, in a subset of NCC patients, appears to be due to hippocampal sclerosis. Serologic and brain imaging profiles are likely diagnostic biomarkers of NCC infection and are also used to monitor the course of treatments. Limited access to these tools is a key limitation to identify and treat NCC-related epilepsy in places with high prevalence of this parasite infestation. Overall, NCC is a common infection in many patients with epilepsy worldwide. Additional clinical and animal studies could confirm common pathology of NCC as a postinfectious epilepsy that is curable. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Worldwide electricity used in data centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan G

    2008-01-01

    The direct electricity used by data centers has become an important issue in recent years as demands for new Internet services (such as search, music downloads, video-on-demand, social networking, and telephony) have become more widespread. This study estimates historical electricity used by data centers worldwide and regionally on the basis of more detailed data than were available for previous assessments, including electricity used by servers, data center communications, and storage equipment. Aggregate electricity use for data centers doubled worldwide from 2000 to 2005. Three quarters of this growth was the result of growth in the number of the least expensive (volume) servers. Data center communications and storage equipment each contributed about 10% of the growth. Total electricity use grew at an average annual rate of 16.7% per year, with the Asia Pacific region (without Japan) being the only major world region with growth significantly exceeding that average. Direct electricity used by information technology equipment in data centers represented about 0.5% of total world electricity consumption in 2005. When electricity for cooling and power distribution is included, that figure is about 1%. Worldwide data center power demand in 2005 was equivalent (in capacity terms) to about seventeen 1000 MW power plants.

  4. Worldwide electricity used in data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2008-07-01

    The direct electricity used by data centers has become an important issue in recent years as demands for new Internet services (such as search, music downloads, video-on-demand, social networking, and telephony) have become more widespread. This study estimates historical electricity used by data centers worldwide and regionally on the basis of more detailed data than were available for previous assessments, including electricity used by servers, data center communications, and storage equipment. Aggregate electricity use for data centers doubled worldwide from 2000 to 2005. Three quarters of this growth was the result of growth in the number of the least expensive (volume) servers. Data center communications and storage equipment each contributed about 10% of the growth. Total electricity use grew at an average annual rate of 16.7% per year, with the Asia Pacific region (without Japan) being the only major world region with growth significantly exceeding that average. Direct electricity used by information technology equipment in data centers represented about 0.5% of total world electricity consumption in 2005. When electricity for cooling and power distribution is included, that figure is about 1%. Worldwide data center power demand in 2005 was equivalent (in capacity terms) to about seventeen 1000 MW power plants.

  5. Worldwide perspectives of nuclear power use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the topic of nuclear power from the point of view of a representative of the World Nuclear Association (WNA). It is to address not only global trends, but also to provide an opportunity to describe his impressions to a German whose main job is with an international company in Paris, and whose WNA desk is set up in London. In retrospect, there had hardly been a time when nuclear power was held in the same high regard, internationally, as it is now. In the most recent World Climate Report, which is always the result of international consensus, nuclear power is referred to as one of the currently available, economically viable key technologies in the fight against climate change. Worldwide, roughly half the electricity generated practically without any CO 2 emissions is produced in nuclear power plants. Moreover, it is not only climate protection which gives a boost to nuclear power. Also the threats facing important sources of fossil fuel supply have greatly contributed to this development. As regards the use of nuclear power in Germany, the facts are known: Longer periods of operation of nuclear power plants could save a lot of money and even more CO 2 . This is good for the environment, the economy and, ultimately, for the population in Germany. Competence preservation is an important topic in our industry. We are on the right way, worldwide, in this respect. One example to be mentioned is the common initiative of international organizations, co-initiated especially also by WNA, to establish the World Nuclear University. This institution is in the process of becoming a wellspring of talent specializing in nuclear technology worldwide. (orig.)

  6. A worldwide perspective on actinide burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide interest has been evident over the past few years in reexamining the merits of recovering the actinides from spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel and transmuting them in fast reactors to reduce hazards in geologic repositories. This paper will summarize some of the recent activities in this field. Several countries are embarked on programs of reprocessing and vitrification of present wastes, from which removal of the actinides is largely precluded. The United States is assessing the ideas related to the fast reactor program and the potential application to defense wastes. 18 refs., 2 figs

  7. Worldwide deposition of 90Sr through 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Juzdan, Z.R.

    1986-10-01

    The deposition of 90 Sr in the Northern Hemisphere during 1984 was 0.3 PBq (0.008 MCi), while that of the Southern Hemisphere was 0.1 PBq (0.003 MCi). This resulted in a total deposition on the surface of the earth during 1984 of 0.4 PBq (0.011 MCi). This is the lowest total yearly deposit since the initiation of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's global fallout program in the mid-1950's. The worldwide cumulative deposit decreased to 357 PBq (9.6 MCi)

  8. Reviss to market Russian isotopes worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The culmination of two years of detailed negotiations saw the formation of Reviss Services in April 1992. This joint venture company is a collaboration between Amersham International (Health Science Group), the Mayak Production Association (manufacturer of radioisotopes) and AO Techsnabexport (the Russian export agency). It is set up to enable a variety of Russian-manufactured radioisotopes to be marketed worldwide. Formation of the joint venture company was made possible by the recent political changes in the former Soviet Union, allowing the three parties to extend their long-standing commercial trading relationship into a full working partnership. (Author)

  9. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  10. Analytical modeling of worldwide medical radiation use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Davis, M.; Kelsey, C.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Williams, A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to estimate the availability and frequency of medical radiation use on a worldwide basis. This model includes medical and dental x-ray, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy. The development of an analytical model is necessary as the first step in estimating the radiation dose to the world's population from this source. Since there is no data about the frequency of medical radiation use in more than half the countries in the world and only fragmentary data in an additional one-fourth of the world's countries, such a model can be used to predict the uses of medical radiation in these countries. The model indicates that there are approximately 400,000 medical x-ray machines worldwide and that approximately 1.2 billion diagnostic medical x-ray examinations are performed annually. Dental x-ray examinations are estimated at 315 million annually and approximately 22 million in-vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations. Approximately 4 million radiation therapy procedures or courses of treatment are undertaken annually

  11. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  12. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  13. A worldwide survey of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    While the completion of the SNR 300 was accompanied by manifold discussions on questions relevant to safety and energy policies in the Federal Republic of Germany and as a result considerable scheduling delays and exceeding of budgets were recorded, breeder reactor technology has been progressing worldwide. The transition from the development phase with small trial reactors to the construction and operation of large performance reactors was completed systematically, in particular in France and the Soviet Union. Even though the uranium supply situation does not make a short-term and comprehensive employment of fast breeder reactors essential, technology has meanwhile been advanced to such a level and extensive operating experience is on hand to enable the construction and safe operation of fast breeder reactors. A positive answer has long been found to the question of the realization of a breeding rate to guarantee the breeding effect. There remain now the endeavors to achieve a reduction in investment and fuel cycle costs. (orig.) [de

  14. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  15. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes...... in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. METHODS: We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends in diabetes...... prevalence-defined as fasting plasma glucose of 7.0 mmol/L or higher, or history of diagnosis with diabetes, or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs-in 200 countries and territories in 21 regions, by sex and from 1980 to 2014. We also calculated the posterior probability of meeting the global diabetes...

  16. World-Wide Web the information universe

    CERN Document Server

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Groff, Jean-Francois; Pollermann, Bernd

    1992-01-01

    Purpose - The World-Wide Web (W-3) initiative is a practical project designed to bring a global information universe into existence using available technology. This paper seeks to describe the aims, data model, and protocols needed to implement the "web" and to compare them with various contemporary systems. Design/methodology/approach - Since Vannevar Bush's article, men have dreamed of extending their intellect by making their collective knowledge available to each individual by using machines. Computers provide us two practical techniques for human-knowledge interface. One is hypertext, in which links between pieces of text (or other media) mimic human association of ideas. The other is text retrieval, which allows associations to be deduced from the content of text. The W-3 ideal world allows both operations and provides access from any browsing platform. Findings - Various server gateways to other information systems have been produced, and the total amount of information available on the web is...

  17. Cell therapy worldwide: an incipient revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mahendra; Mason, Chris; Solomon, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The regenerative medicine field is large, diverse and active worldwide. A variety of different organizational and product models have been successful, and pioneering entrepreneurs have shown both what can work and, critically, what does not. Evolving regulations, novel funding mechanisms combined with new technological breakthroughs are keeping the field in a state of flux. The field struggles to cope with the lack of infrastructure and investment, it nevertheless has evolved from its roots in human stem cell therapy and tissue and organ transplants to a field composed of a variety of products from multiple cell sources with approval for use in numerous countries. Currently, tens of thousands of patients have been treated with some kind of cell therapy.

  18. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godar, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290-320 nm) exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321-400 nm) passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to∼ 50 degree N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  19. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  20. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  1. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC has established a network of more than fifty inter-connected 'CMS Centres' at CERN and in institutes in the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. These facilities are used by people doing CMS detector and computing grid operations, remote shifts, data quality monitoring and analysis, as well as education and outreach. We present the computing, software, and collaborative tools and videoconferencing systems. These include permanently running 'telepresence' video links (hardware-based H.323, EVO and Vidyo), Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  2. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  3. Overview and forecast on forestry productions worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjun, Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions.

  4. [Current tuberculosis mortality world-wide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, E; Rieder, H L

    1992-04-21

    The mortality rate still is an important index for assessment of tuberculosis. Statistical records are kept on the mortality rate on a worldwide basis--more than in the case of other tuberculosis parameters. They allow us to make valuable comparisons. They are also useful because the mortality is closely related to the morbidity. The present thesis is based on comparative figures from the 1989 volume of the WHO Health Statistics Annual. Various countries have been specially selected by the publisher--and subsequently also by us--for sake of clarity. The figures vary strongly within these countries, which was to be expected. The mortality rate varies in Europe (for each 100,000 residents) e.g. from 0.2 in the Netherlands to 8.15 in the Soviet Union. In the Americas the rates vary from 0.4 for Canada to 12.9 for Ecuador. In the Western Pacific region the mortality rates vary from 0.35 for Australia to 14.65 for China. On a worldwide basis, the share of deaths from tuberculosis among all causes of death varies from 0.02% in the Netherlands to 2.10% in the Republic of Korea. The relation of tuberculosis deaths with regard to sexes in Switzerland: 75.7% men, 24.3% women, which is more or less the European average. The lower the mortality rate for tuberculosis are, the lower the difference between the sexes appears to be. Similar facts are found with regard to the distribution of tuberculosis deaths according to age groups: the lower the tuberculosis rate, the more tuberculosis is found in older age groups. The tuberculosis deaths are percentage-wise similarly distributed to the respiratory organs and the other tuberculosis forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Child homicide perpetrators worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Dekel, Bianca; Morris-Gehring, Alison; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe child homicide perpetrators and estimate their global and regional proportion to inform prevention strategies to reduce child homicide mortality worldwide. A systematic review of 9431 studies derived from 18 databases led to the inclusion of 126 studies after double screening. All included studies reported a number or proportion of child homicides perpetrators. 169 countries and homicide experts were surveyed in addition. The median proportion for each perpetrator category was calculated by region and overall and by age groups and sex. Data were obtained for 44 countries. Overall, parents committed 56.5% (IQR 23.7-69.6) of child homicides, 58.4% (0.0-66.7) of female and 46.8% (14.1-63.8) of male child homicides. Acquaintances committed 12.6% (5.9-31.3) of child homicides. Almost a tenth (9.2% (IQR 0.0-21.9) of child homicides had missing information on the perpetrator. The largest proportion of parental homicides of children was found in high-income countries (64.2%; 44.7-71.8) and East Asia and Pacific Region (61.7%; 46.7-78.6). Parents committed the majority (77.8% (61.5-100.0)) of homicides of children under the age of 1 year. For adolescents, acquaintances were the main group of homicide perpetrators (36.9%, 6.6-51.8). There is a notable lack of studies from low-income and middle-income countries and children above the age of 1 year. Children face the highest risk of homicide by parents and someone they know. Increased investment into the compilation of routine data on child homicide, and the perpetrators of this homicide is imperative for understanding and ultimately reducing child homicide mortality worldwide. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015030125.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency in recent decades for manufacturing plants of semi-finished products such as composite panels, has been to invest in order to achieve high production capacities (>2,000 m³/day for panels and >3,000 t/day for paper with one line. The trend of concentrating the primary processing capacities and manufacturing wood-based panels will continue for the next few years not only in Europe but in North and South America as well. The ten largest panel manufacturers had a combined manufacturing capacity that exceeded a third of the worldwide production capacity. The financial crisis that started in 2008 has caused the closure of a large number of factories especially in North America and Central Europe. Small- and medium-sized producers will only survive if they will continue to specialize in the manufacture of panel types and sizes (niche products that are “unprofitable” for mega-groups. The installed production capacity worldwide of all wood-based composite panels combined (includes PY, PB, MDF, OSB rose by more than 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 (225 mil.m³, and continues to increase despite the crises reaching approx. 300 mil.m³ in 2013. The forecast for the coming years varies greatly from continent to continent. In North America and Central Europe, both a consolidation of the available production capacities and the closure of less efficient older lines are expected. The lowest point of the effect of the financial crisis on the building industry seems to have been overcome. The furniture production companies will continue to move from one continent and region to another.

  7. WATER REALITY IN UKRAINE AND WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Dolina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper analyzes the state of water management in Ukraine and worldwide, as well as the best practices in this area. Methodology. The study was carried out based on the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on the state of water management in Ukraine, European countries, the USA (2010-2016. Findings. The water state analysis in the regions of Ukraine showed that the quality in most cases is close to or meets the requirements for drinking water. Drinking tap water requires post-treatment in all regions of the country. The main issue for today is the production of the necessary equipment for treatment plants. Unfortunately, not all equipment is produced in Ukraine. The condition of rural water pipelines is of particular concern. Among the tested pipelines 7.3% do not comply with the rules and regulations. At the same time, only 25% of villages in Ukraine are provided with centralized water supply. Originality. The authors presented the results of a comprehensive review of the world's issues on disinfection of drinking and waste water, where various methods are used, partly in combination with each other in Ukraine and the worldwide. The main unresolved issue today is the issue of the residual quantity of drugs in the drinking water. The main environmental threat of the world scale is the presence of medicines in drinking water. The treatment facilities are not suitable for the decomposition or trapping of medicinal products. Nowhere in the world there is protection from these substances. One of the key issues in the solution of drinking water production is seawater desalination. To reduce the cost of desalination of sea water the SWRO-membrane technology is used. Practical value. Water problems are number one problems all over the world and in Ukraine as well. It is necessary to provide for additional financing to solve problems in the preparation and purification of waters, not with whatever funds remain, taking into

  8. Phytophthora infestans population structure: A worldwide scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Martha; Danies, Giovanna; Tabima, Javier; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and other members of the Solanaceae family, is responsible for causing the Irish potato famine and, even today, it causes enormous economic losses all over the world. For the establishment of an adequate pest management strategy, the determination of the pathogen's population structure is required. To characterize P. infestans populations worldwide two allozymes, Gpi (Glucose-6-phospate isomerase) and Pep (Pep tidase), the RG57 DNA RFLP fingerprinting probe, as well as resistance to the fungicide metalaxyl and mating type, have been used as markers. P. infestans populations in Mexico have been one of the main focuses of research in the population biology of this pathogen because this country has been considered as one of the possible centers of origin of this oomycete. In this review we present the population structure of P. infestans in Mexico, Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, and South America, expanding it on the present situation of P. infestans in Colombia. Finally, we will discuss different lines of research that are being carried out today with respect to P. infestans in Colombia, which have shown the importance of continuing the study of this devastating plant pathogen in our country.

  9. Phytophthora infestans population structure: a worldwide scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cárdenas Toquica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and other members of the Solanaceae family, is responsible for causing the Irish potato famine and, even today, it causes enormous economic losses all over the world. For the establishment of an adequate pest management strategy, the determination of population structure is required. To characterize P. infestans populations worldwide two allozymes, Gpi (Glucose-6-phospate isomerase and Pep (Peptidase, the RG57 DNA RFLP fingerprinting probe, as well as resistance to the fungicide metalaxyl and the mating type, have been used as markers. P. infestans populations in Mexico have been one of the main focuses of research in the population biology of this pathogen because this country has been considered as one of the possible centers of origin of this oomycete. In this review we present the population structure of P. infestans in Mexico, Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, and South America expanding on the present situation of P. infestans in Colombia. Finally, we will discuss different lines of research that are being carried out today with respect to P. infestans in Colombia, which have shown the importance of continuing the study of this devastating plant pathogen in our country.

  10. Geophysical worldwide networks: basic concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzie, G.; Baubron, G.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of nuclear explosions around the globe requires the setting up of networks of sensors on a worldwide basis. Such equipment should be able to transmit on-line data in real-time or pseudo real-time to a center or processing centers. The high level of demanded reliability for the data (generally better than 99 %) also has an impact on the accuracy and precision of the sensors and the communications technology, as well as the systems used for on-line checking. In the light of these requirements, DAM has developed a data gathering network based on the principle of VSTA duplex links which ensures the on-line transmission of data and operational parameters towards the Processing Centre via a hub. In the other direction, the Centre can act on a number of parameters in order to correct them if necessary, or notify the local maintenance team. To optimize the reliability of the main components of this system, the detection stations as well as their associated beacons have low consumption and can be supplied by solar panels, thus facilitating the installation of the networks. The seismic network on the French national territory is composed of 40 stations built on the principles outlined above. In order to gather data from stations established outside France, DAM is planning to use an analogue system to transmit data in on-line as well as off-line mode. (authors)

  11. Worldwide Engagement for Sustainable Energy Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Almost 40 years after the Agency’s founding, the IEA responsibility for ensuring access to global oil supplies is still a core mandate. Yet over the course of its history, the IEA’s responsibilities have expanded along with both the international energy economy and conceptions of energy security itself. Our mission to promote secure and sustainable energy provision spans the energy mix. At the same time, a changing global energy map means that the industrialised nations of the world no longer dominate energy consumption. The IEA must work in close co-operation with partner countries and organisations worldwide to achieve its three core objectives: energy security, economic prosperity, and environmental sustainability. Working toward international commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause global climate change; facilitating energy technology exchange, innovation and deployment; improving modern energy access to the billions of people who are without it; bolstering both cleanliness and security through energy efficiency; and promoting flexible and functioning energy markets – these efforts complement our traditional core responsibilities of mitigating the effects of supply disruptions and improving statistical transparency.

  12. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  13. Worldwide supply of Framatome ANP Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Framatome-ANP is organized according to a matrix structure with 4 business groups and 3 regional divisions. The fuel business group with a workforce of about 4600 people is active in all the trades needed to design and manufacture nuclear fuel. The activity ranges from the production of zirconium alloys to the production of finished fuel assemblies, facilities are located in France, Germany and Usa. Framatome-ANP is the foremost vendor of LWR fuel worldwide with 41 % of the PWR market share and 22 % of the BWR market share. The global operating experience built up is based on more than 150.000 fuel assemblies delivered to 169 reactors in 18 countries. This long history has allowed Framatome-ANP to develop an efficient quality-improvement program based on experience feedback, for instance fuel rod failures induced by debris have been almost completely eliminated with the introduction of anti-debris devices equipping bottom nozzles. Framatome-ANP has developed a large range of engineering services, for instance core design teams can provide the most cost-effective fuel management schemes for cycle lengths from 6 to 24 months. The first technology transfer between China entities and Framatome related to the AFA-2G technology started in 1991 and was completed successfully in 1994. Since this date the Chinese manufacturer has supplied fuel reload for the units of Daya-Bay. (A.C.)

  14. Insular threat associations within taxa worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Camille; Courchamp, Franck; Bellard, Céline

    2018-04-23

    The global loss of biodiversity can be attributed to numerous threats. While pioneer studies have investigated their relative importance, the majority of those studies are restricted to specific geographic regions and/or taxonomic groups and only consider a small subset of threats, generally in isolation despite their frequent interaction. Here, we investigated 11 major threats responsible for species decline on islands worldwide. We applied an innovative method of network analyses to disentangle the associations of multiple threats on vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in 15 insular regions. Biological invasions, wildlife exploitation, and cultivation, either alone or in association, were found to be the three most important drivers of species extinction and decline on islands. Specifically, wildlife exploitation and cultivation are largely associated with the decline of threatened plants and terrestrial vertebrates, whereas biological invasions mostly threaten invertebrates and freshwater fish. Furthermore, biodiversity in the Indian Ocean and near the Asian coasts is mostly affected by wildlife exploitation and cultivation compared to biological invasions in the Pacific and Atlantic insular regions. We highlighted specific associations of threats at different scales, showing that the analysis of each threat in isolation might be inadequate for developing effective conservation policies and managements.

  15. Bitcoin – the World-Wide Currency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuba Olena А.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching bitcoin, the digital currency. It has been found that Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, that is, the virtual money, which has no material equivalent. The history of creation and development of cryptocurrency was reviewed. There is a reduction in volatility, which guarantees the security of currency, as well as the increase in currency volume and the inability to estimate the profitability of bitcoins. The dynamics of the value of digital currency in US dollars over recent years has been analyzed. Improvement of attitude of many countries to the considered cryptocurrency, in particular the USA, Germany, Spain, Canada, Australia, Israel and Scandinavian countries has been identified. The reasons of Ukraine’s interest in Bitcoin have been considered. Possibilities of creation of cryptocurrency on the territory of Ukraine have been analyzed, i.e. cost of electricity for mining, the legal status of mining firms, and the attitude of the National Bank of Ukraine to the digital currency. It has been concluded that the recognition of Bitcoin by the world countries in the future will allow it to be granted the status of world-wide currency.

  16. Evolution of Toilets Worldwide through the Millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios P. Antoniou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, various civilizations developed methodologies for the collection and disposal of human waste. The methodologies throughout the centuries have been characterized by technological peaks on the one hand, and by the disappearance of the technologies and their reappearance on the other. The purpose of this article is to trace the development of sewage collection and transport with an emphasis on toilets in ancient civilizations. Evolution of the major achievements in the scientific fields of sanitation with emphasis on the lavatory (or toilets technologies through the centuries up to the present are presented. Valuable insights into ancient wastewater technologies and management with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability to the environment, and sustainability are provided. Gradual steps improved the engineering results until the establishment of the contemporary toilet system, which provides a combined solution for flushing, odor control, and the sanitation of sewerage. Even though the lack of proper toilet facilities for a great percentage of the present day global population is an embarrassing fact, the worldwide efforts through millennia for the acquisition of a well-engineered toilet were connected to the cultural level of each period.

  17. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the period 1960–2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological drought worldwide. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow over Europe, North America and Asia, and subsequently intensified the magnitude of hydrological droughts by 10–500%, occurring during nation- and continent-wide drought events. Also, human water consumption alone increased global drought frequency by 27 (±6)%. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia (35 ± 7%), but also substantial over North America (25 ± 6%) and Europe (20 ± 5%). Importantly, the severe drought conditions are driven primarily by human water consumption over many parts of these regions. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over the western and central US, southern Europe and Asia, whereas the impact of industrial and households’ consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over the eastern US and western and central Europe. Our findings reveal that human water consumption is one of the more important mechanisms intensifying hydrological drought, and is likely to remain as a major factor affecting drought intensity and frequency in the coming decades. (letter)

  18. Epidemiology of foodborne diseases: a worldwide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, E C

    1997-01-01

    Acute foodborne disease infections and intoxications are much more of a concern to governments and the food industry today than a few decades ago. Some of the factors that have led to this include the identification of new agents that have caused life-threatening conditions; the finding that traditional agents are being associated with foods that were of no concern previously: an increasing number of large outbreaks being reported; the impact of foodborne disease on children, the aging population and the immunocompromised; migrant populations demanding their traditional foods in the countries of settlement; the ease of worldwide shipment of fresh and frozen food; and the development of new food industries, including aquaculture. However, to meaningfully monitor increases or decreases in foodborne disease requires an effective surveillance system at the local, national and international levels. To date, resources have been limited for most countries and regions to do this, and our current knowledge is based, for the most part, on passive reporting mechanisms. Laboratory isolation data and reports of notifiable diseases have some value in observing timely changes in case numbers of some enteric diseases, but they usually do not indicate the reasons for these trends. Special epidemiological studies are useful for the area covered, but it is often questionable whether they can be extrapolated to other areas or countries. Outbreak investigations tell us that a certain set of circumstances led to illness and that another outbreak may occur under similar but not necessarily identical conditions. Control programmes have often been triggered by the conclusions from investigations of specific outbreaks. Unfortunately, the agent/ food combination leading to illness in many of the reported incidents were not predicted from existing databases, and no doubt foodborne agents will continue to surprise food control agencies in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, data from around

  19. Worldwide QA networks for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of national or international organizations have developed various types and levels of external audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. There are three major programmes who make available external audits, based on mailed TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry), to local radiotherapy centres on a regular basis. These are the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service operating worldwide, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) system, EQUAL, in European Union (EU) and the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in North America. The IAEA, in collaboration with WHO, was the first organization to initiate TLD audits on an international scale in 1969, using mailed system, and has a well-established programme for providing dose verification in reference conditions. Over 32 years, the IAEA/WHO TLD audit service has checked the calibration of more than 4300 radiotherapy beams in about 1200 hospitals world-wide. Only 74% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results with deviation between measured and stated dose within acceptance limits of ±5%, while approximately 88% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. EQUAL, an audit programme set up in 1998 by ESTRO, involves the verification of output for high energy photon and electron beams, and the audit of beam parameters in non-reference conditions. More than 300 beams are checked each year, mainly in the countries of EU, covering approximately 500 hospitals. The results show that although 98% of the beam calibrations are within the tolerance level of ±5%, a second check was required in 10% of the participating centres, because a deviation larger than ±5% was observed in at least one of the beam parameters in non-reference conditions. EQUAL has been linked to another European network (EC network) which tested the audit methodology prior to its application. The RPC has been funded continuously since 1968 to monitor radiation therapy dose delivery at

  20. Worldwide marine radioactivity studies assessing the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Togawa, O.

    1998-01-01

    A growing number of sources of radioactivity from human activities are found in the marine environment. They are known to include global nuclear fallout following atmospheric weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations, past dumping of radioactive wastes, nuclear submarine accidents, contributions from nuclear testing sites, loss of radioactive sources, and the burn-up of satellites using radioisotopes as power sources. Overall, the world's marine environment contains radionuclides that differ from one region to another. Differences are due to dynamic marine environmental processes and the particular source of radionuclides in a region. Scientific assessments of marine radioactivity, therefore, require knowledge of both the source terms and oceanic processes. Radioactivity now is deposited unevenly over the world's oceans. Global fallout is known to be mainly due to nuclear weapon tests carried out in the 1960s. On the other hand, discharges from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or past dumping of liquid and solid radioactive wastes generally are confined to more localized areas. Even so, soluble radionuclides have been transported over long distances by prevailing ocean currents. To estimate radionuclide inputs from local sources, scientists need to better understand the distribution of radionuclides throughout the world's oceans and seas. The understanding is important for analysing the results from scientific investigations of localized areas, such as part dumping sites, which then can be reviewed more thoroughly. As a contribution to fuller understanding of the marine environment, the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) started a five-year project in 1996 entitled ''Research on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity (MARS)''. The work is supported by Japan's Science and Technology Agency (STA). This article briefly review this project, and describes related research activities and scientific investigations of MEL

  1. Electricity of the future: a worldwide challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ladoucette, Ph.; Chevalier, J.M.; Barbaso, F.; Becache, P.; Belmans, P.; Brottes, F.; Chevet, P.F.; Chone, F.; David, A.; Delorme, Ph.; Hadjsaid, N.; Jalabert, M.; Julliard, Y.; Kott, B.; Lenoir, J.C.; Lewiner, C.; Maillard, D.; Moisan, F.; Pelletier, Ph.; Poniatowski, L.; Rozes, St.; Rytoft, C.; Sanchez Jimenez, M.; Seyrling, G.; Vu, A.

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power consumption, the development of renewable energy sources and the emergence of new usages like the electric-powered car are as many challenges that put the reliability and the reactivity of our power grids to the test. These grids have to change to become 'intelligent' thanks to the integration of new information and communication technologies over the overall supply chain, from the energy generation to its end use by consumers. For the first time in France, the actors of this change explain their opinion about this revolution and put it in perspective with its full extent and complexity. Changing power grids to make them intelligent is first of all a technical challenge but also a society challenge: the consumer will become an actor involved in the mastery of his energy demand and a renewable energy producer capable to interact with the grid in an increasing manner. This worldwide change that we are going to be the witnesses comes up against numerous obstacles. The aim of this book is to examine the determining factors of the success of this large scale change through its technical, economical and social dimensions. It shows that the emergence of such an advanced power system cannot be possible neither without the reconciliation between some contradictory goals, nor without a strong coordination between the actors. Content: Part 1 - intelligent power networks to answer the 21. century challenges: 1 - the European and French dimension of the electric power sector; 2 - towards a carbon-free economy; 3 - a power grid facing new challenges; 4 - the pre-figuration of intelligent power grids; 5 - the deployment of intelligent (smart) grids; Part 2 - perspectives of smart grids development: 1 - the future of power networks; 2 - a new industrial era; Part 3 - the consumer's position in the deployment of future grids: 1 - changing behaviours; 2 - making the consumer a 'consum'actor'. Synthesis and conclusion. (J.S.)

  2. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  3. The Worldwide Marine Radiocarbon Reservoir Effect: Definitions, Mechanisms, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eduardo Q.; Macario, Kita; Ascough, Philippa; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    When a carbon reservoir has a lower radiocarbon content than the atmosphere, this is referred to as a reservoir effect. This is expressed as an offset between the radiocarbon ages of samples from the two reservoirs at a single point in time. The marine reservoir effect (MRE) has been a major concern in the radiocarbon community, as it introduces an additional source of error that is often difficult to accurately quantify. For this reason, researchers are often reluctant to date marine material where they have another option. The influence of this phenomenon makes the study of the MRE important for a broad range of applications. The advent of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) has reduced sample size requirements and increased measurement precision, in turn increasing the number of studies seeking to measure marine samples. These studies rely on overcoming the influence of the MRE on marine radiocarbon dates through the worldwide quantification of the local parameter ΔR, that is, the local variation from the global average MRE. Furthermore, the strong dependence on ocean dynamics makes the MRE a useful indicator for changes in oceanic circulation, carbon exchange between reservoirs, and the fate of atmospheric CO2, all of which impact Earth's climate. This article explores data from the Marine Reservoir Database and reviews the place of natural radiocarbon in oceanic records, focusing on key questions (e.g., changes in ocean dynamics) that have been answered by MRE studies and on their application to different subjects.

  4. A worldwide fuel strategy by AREVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Operating as a global company, inside AREVA the Fuel Sector implements a common strategy among three Business Units of fuel activities. These Business Units which are in Framatome ANP Zirconium, Manufacturing and Design and Sales Units, are operated in Germany (former Siemens activity), in USA (former BWFC Babcock and Wilcox Fuel Co,. and SPC Siemens Power Co. activities), in Belgium and in France (former Framatome activity). They have resources and facilities which are cooperatively working on R and D, engineering, project management, sales and services to achieve synergy on a cross-business basis. Based on its experience of worldwide activities and taking advantage of its diversified fuel design knowledge, Framatome ANP proposes a full range of fuel products and services on the BWR and PWR markets. With the ability to supply all fuel assembly arrays and fuel pellet types, supplemented by the range of stationary and movable core components, and completed by a full-range of on-site fuel services and performance of fuel packing and delivery, Framatome ANP is positioned as a major participant on the world fuel market. Today, Framatome ANP takes advantage of the cross-fertilization in the short term of existing products which include four original PWR fuel designs of HTP TM alloy as the reference material for cladding tubes, guide thimbles, and grids, -- Gradual incorporation of the valuable high-stiffiness MONOBLOC tM guide thimble, -- Progressive integressive integration of the High Mechanical Performance (HMP) Inconel end grid, -- Planned standardization of mechanical components such as nozzles, holddown systems and top and bottom connections. As a continuation of its existing technology, Framatome ANP is developing improved technical features within the scope of the Alliance fuel assembly qualification program. With an irradiation program ranging up to a burnup of 70 MWd/kgU expected to be reached in 2006, Alliance shows excellent behaviour with very low corrosion

  5. ATLAS Data Challenges - A Collaborative Worldwide Activity

    CERN Multimedia

    Poulard, G

    The goals of the ATLAS Data Challenges (DC) are the validation of the Computing Model, of the complete software suite, of the data model, and to ensure the correctness of the technical choices to be made. It is understood that these Data Challenges should be of increasing complexity and that their results will be used as input for a Computing TDR and for preparing an MoU in due time. A major feature of the current computing activities (DC1) in ATLAS is the preparation and deployment of the software required for the production of large event samples for the High Level Trigger (HLT) and physics communities, and the actual production of those samples. It should be noted that it is not an option to "run everything at CERN" even if we wanted to; the resources are not available at CERN to carry out the production on a reasonable time-scale. We have therefore had to face the great challenge of organising and then carrying out this large-scale production at a significant number of sites around the world. However, th...

  6. Review of History and Recent Development of Organic Farming Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed in this paper. The development of the organic farming worldwide had gone through three stages, emergence, expansion, and growth. The contributors and their thoughts during the different development stages of the organic farming were briefly introduced. And the development status of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed from the aspects of land area under organic management, land area under organic management in percentage of total agricultural area, and world markets for organic products. Besides, the main existing problems for the further development of the world's organic farming, as well as the development status, problems and strategies of the Chinese organic farming were discussed.

  7. a worldwide assessment of medical journal editors' practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responding editors reported having access to the Internet, making participation in ... of improving the quality of medical science and practice.! A critical activity of ... undertook a worldwide survey of medical editors to determine their interest in a ...

  8. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne L. McLean; Remo G. Lobetti; Johan P. Schoeman

    2014-01-01

    Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are no...

  9. Human PTCHD3 nulls: rare copy number and sequence variants suggest a non-essential gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Anath C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs can contribute to variable degrees of fitness and/or disease predisposition. Recent studies show that at least 1% of any given genome is copy number variable when compared to the human reference sequence assembly. Homozygous deletions (or CNV nulls that are found in the normal population are of particular interest because they may serve to define non-essential genes in human biology. Results In a genomic screen investigating CNV in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs we detected a heterozygous deletion on chromosome 10p12.1, spanning the Patched-domain containing 3 (PTCHD3 gene, at a frequency of ~1.4% (6/427. This finding seemed interesting, given recent discoveries on the role of another Patched-domain containing gene (PTCHD1 in ASD. Screening of another 177 ASD probands yielded two additional heterozygous deletions bringing the frequency to 1.3% (8/604. The deletion was found at a frequency of ~0.73% (27/3,695 in combined control population from North America and Northern Europe predominately of European ancestry. Screening of the human genome diversity panel (HGDP-CEPH covering worldwide populations yielded deletions in 7/1,043 unrelated individuals and those detected were confined to individuals of European/Mediterranean/Middle Eastern ancestry. Breakpoint mapping yielded an identical 102,624 bp deletion in all cases and controls tested, suggesting a common ancestral event. Interestingly, this CNV occurs at a break of synteny between humans and mouse. Considering all data, however, no significant association of these rare PTCHD3 deletions with ASD was observed. Notwithstanding, our RNA expression studies detected PTCHD3 in several tissues, and a novel shorter isoform for PTCHD3 was characterized. Expression in transfected COS-7 cells showed PTCHD3 isoforms colocalize with calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum. The presence of a patched (Ptc domain suggested a role for PTCHD3 in various biological

  10. Pacifiplex: an ancestry-informative SNP panel centred on Australia and the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla; Phillips, Christopher; Fondevila, Manuel; Daniel, Runa; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Burchard, Esteban G; Schanfield, Moses S; Souto, Luis; Uacyisrael, Jolame; Via, Marc; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of human population variation is an area of considerable interest in the forensic, medical genetics and anthropological fields. Several forensic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays provide ancestry-informative genotypes in sensitive tests designed to work with limited DNA samples, including a 34-SNP multiplex differentiating African, European and East Asian ancestries. Although assays capable of differentiating Oceanian ancestry at a global scale have become available, this study describes markers compiled specifically for differentiation of Oceanian populations. A sensitive multiplex assay, termed Pacifiplex, was developed and optimized in a small-scale test applicable to forensic analyses. The Pacifiplex assay comprises 29 ancestry-informative marker SNPs (AIM-SNPs) selected to complement the 34-plex test, that in a combined set distinguish Africans, Europeans, East Asians and Oceanians. Nine Pacific region study populations were genotyped with both SNP assays, then compared to four reference population groups from the HGDP-CEPH human diversity panel. STRUCTURE analyses estimated population cluster membership proportions that aligned with the patterns of variation suggested for each study population's currently inferred demographic histories. Aboriginal Taiwanese and Philippine samples indicated high East Asian ancestry components, Papua New Guinean and Aboriginal Australians samples were predominantly Oceanian, while other populations displayed cluster patterns explained by the distribution of divergence amongst Melanesians, Polynesians and Micronesians. Genotype data from Pacifiplex and 34-plex tests is particularly well suited to analysis of Australian Aboriginal populations and when combined with Y and mitochondrial DNA variation will provide a powerful set of markers for ancestry inference applied to modern Australian demographic profiles. On a broader geographic scale, Pacifiplex adds highly informative data for inferring the ancestry

  11. Gross α/β analysis of spiked qater for IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaoling; Zhao Feng; Wu Meigui; Du Jinzhou

    2010-01-01

    The gross α/β analysis of the IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of natural radionuclides in spiked water was conducted. The Sample 03, Sample 04 and Sample 05 were tested for the gross α/β radioactivity according to the requirement of IAEA. The feedback statistics showed that the values of gross α/β of all of the three samples fell in the acceptable range of IAEA. (authors)

  12. Worldwide Analysis of Sedimentary DNA Reveals Major Gaps in Taxonomic Knowledge of Deep-Sea Benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinniger, Frédéric; Pawlowski, Jan; Harii, Saki

    2016-01-01

    in 39 deep-sea sediment samples from bathyal and abyssal depths worldwide. The eDNA dataset was dominated by meiobenthic taxa and we identified all animal phyla commonly found in the deep-sea benthos; yet, the diversity within these phyla remains largely unknown. The large numbers of taxonomically...... for pure and applied deep-sea environmental research but also emphasizes the necessity to integrate such new approaches with traditional morphology-based examination of deep-sea organisms....

  13. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappold, K.

    1995-01-01

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction

  14. IETS statement on worldwide ET statistics for 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroud, Brad; Callesen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    For the twentieth consecutive year, the Data Retrieval Committee of the international Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) can report global embryo transfer (ET) statistics. The number of bovine in vivoderived (IVD) embryos collected/flushed worldwide in 2010 increased to 732,000, a 4% increase from 2009...... the committee’s regional data collectors indicates that the embryo transfer industry is doing well. It is important to note that this report does not include every country’s statistics, and very few, if any, country has 100% of its activity represented; however, it is the best worldwide report available about...... the commercial embryo transfer business....

  15. Post irradiation examinations cooperation and worldwide utilization of facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Status of post irradiation examinations in Studsvik's facilities, cooperation and worldwide utilization of facilities, was described. Studsvik cooperate with irradiation facilities, as Halden, CEA and JAEA, as well as other hot cell facilities (examples, PSI, ITU and NFD) universities (example, the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden) in order to be able to provide everything asked for by the nuclear community. Worldwide cooperation for effective use of expensive and highly specialized facilities is important, and the necessity of cooperation will be more and more recognized in the future. (author)

  16. Worldwide outdoor round robin study of organic photovoltaic devices and modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Gevorgyan, Suren; Pacios, R.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate characterization and reporting of organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance remains one of the important challenges in the field. The large spread among the efficiencies of devices with the same structure reported by different groups is significantly caused by different procedures......-to-roll coated OPV cells and modules conducted among 46 laboratories worldwide is presented, where the samples and the testing equipment were integrated in a compact suitcase that served both as a sample transportation tool and as a holder and test equipment during testing. In addition, an internet based...

  17. Maternal Colonization With Group B Streptococcus and Serotype Distribution Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Neal J; Seale, Anna C; O'Driscoll, Megan; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Gonzalez-Guarin, Juan; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Rubens, Craig E; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Saha, Samir K; Ip, Margaret

    2017-11-06

    Maternal rectovaginal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common pathway for GBS disease in mother, fetus, and newborn. This article, the second in a series estimating the burden of GBS, aims to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of GBS colonizing pregnant women worldwide. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus), organized Chinese language searches, and sought unpublished data from investigator groups. We applied broad inclusion criteria to maximize data inputs, particularly from low- and middle-income contexts, and then applied new meta-analyses to adjust for studies with less-sensitive sampling and laboratory techniques. We undertook meta-analyses to derive pooled estimates of maternal GBS colonization prevalence at national and regional levels. The dataset regarding colonization included 390 articles, 85 countries, and a total of 299924 pregnant women. Our adjusted estimate for maternal GBS colonization worldwide was 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-19%), with regional variation (11%-35%), and lower prevalence in Southern Asia (12.5% [95% CI, 10%-15%]) and Eastern Asia (11% [95% CI, 10%-12%]). Bacterial serotypes I-V account for 98% of identified colonizing GBS isolates worldwide. Serotype III, associated with invasive disease, accounts for 25% (95% CI, 23%-28%), but is less frequent in some South American and Asian countries. Serotypes VI-IX are more common in Asia. GBS colonizes pregnant women worldwide, but prevalence and serotype distribution vary, even after adjusting for laboratory methods. Lower GBS maternal colonization prevalence, with less serotype III, may help to explain lower GBS disease incidence in regions such as Asia. High prevalence worldwide, and more serotype data, are relevant to prevention efforts. © The Author 2017. Published by

  18. FINDbase: A worldwide database for genetic variation allele frequencies updated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Georgitsi (Marianthi); E. Viennas (Emmanouil); D.I. Antoniou (Dimitris I.); V. Gkantouna (Vassiliki); S. van Baal (Sjozef); E.F. Petricoin (Emanuel F.); K. Poulas (Konstantinos); G. Tzimas (Giannis); G.P. Patrinos (George)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFrequency of INherited Disorders database (FIND base; http://www.findbase. org) records frequencies of causative genetic variations worldwide. Database records include the population and ethnic group or geographical region, the disorder name and the related gene, accompanied by links to

  19. Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. ... African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ... Fullscreen Fullscreen Off. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/AJMS.2008.30.1.13.463.

  20. Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. ... African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ... http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/AJMS.2008.30.1.13.463 · AJOL African Journals ...

  1. Development prospects of natural gas worldwide 2000-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.; Bouchard, G.

    1996-01-01

    Two differing models for the expansion of natural gas consumption worldwide are presented. Forecasting over the next five decades, gas consumption in various parts of the world are tabulated for a base case where gas consumption could increase by 75% by 2030 and an alternative case linked to relatively poor economic conditions with expansion at half that rate. (UK)

  2. Worldwide end-of-life practice for patients in ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tat; Phua, Jason; Joynt, Gavin M

    2018-04-01

    Published data and practice recommendations on end-of-life (EOL) generally reflect Western practice frameworks. Understanding worldwide practices is important because improving economic conditions are promoting rapid expansion of intensive care services in many previously disadvantaged regions, and increasing migration has promoted a new cultural diversity previously predominantly unicultural societies. This review explores current knowledge of similarities and differences in EOL practice between regions and possible causes and implications of these differences. Recent observational and survey data shows a marked variability in the practice of withholding and withdrawing life sustaining therapy worldwide. Some evidence supports the view that culture, religion, and socioeconomic factors influence EOL practice, and individually or together account for differences observed. There are also likely to be commonly desired values and expectations for EOL practice, and recent attempts at establishing where worldwide consensus may lie have improved our understanding of shared values and practices. Awareness of differences, understanding their likely complex causes, and using this knowledge to inform individualized care at EOL is likely to improve the quality of care for patients. Further research should clarify the causes of EOL practice variability, monitor trends, and objectively evaluate the quality of EOL practice worldwide.

  3. Downy mildew: a serious disease threat to rose health worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronospora sparsa is a downy mildew-causing oomycete that can infect roses, blackberries and other members of the rose family. During the last 20 years, this disease has become a serious problem for rose growers in the U.S. and worldwide. While much is known about the disease and its treatment, inc...

  4. IETS statement on worldwide ET statistics for 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroud, Brad; Callesen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of IVP embryos transferred worldwide in 2010 was 339,685, an 11% increase from 2009. Global equine ET activity also increased in 2010. The number of reported flushes (41,652) was up by 4,681 (+13%). The number of transfers (28,824) was also up (+4,354). Brazil and Argentina led the way in mares flushed...

  5. Expanding Worldwide Awareness of Gifted and Talented Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    1990-01-01

    This article documents the growing worldwide concern for identifying and serving gifted students, primarily via curriculum and instructional differentiation through special classes, enrichment, and acceleration. Programs in Brazil, Canada, Australia, the Middle East, Israel, the Philippines, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Poland, Indonesia, Taiwan,…

  6. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezzati, Majid; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background

    Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic

  7. Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-29

    the Industrial Control Systems (ICS) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) systems used in water management, oil and gas pipelines ...Statement for the Record Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community Senate Select Committee on Intelligence...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions

  8. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  9. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  10. With the worldwide decline in conventional finfish stocks, fishers are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the worldwide decline in conventional finfish stocks, fishers are redirecting their attention to alter- native stocks, in particular invertebrates (Perry et al. 1999). Initiatives towards developing small-scale commercial fisheries, aimed at supporting previously disadvantaged fishers and targeting previously under- exploited ...

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis GP60 subtypes worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Avendaño V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite very important in animal health as well as in public health. It is because this is one of the main causes of diarrhea in children, calves, lambs and other variety of youth mammalians in a lot of countries. The globalization has enabled the exchange of biological material in different regions worldwide, encouraging the spread of diseases and exposure to these biological agents to different environmental conditions, inducing adaptation through genetic changes. Based in the polymorphism of the gene for GP60, this review intended to present the distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in humans and calves worldwide. The subtype that affects cattle more frequently corresponds to IIaA15G2R; while the subtype most frequently isolated from human samples is IaA19G2.

  12. High Sequence Variations in Mitochondrial DNA Control Region among Worldwide Populations of Flathead Mullet Mugil cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence and structure of the complete mtDNA control region (CR of M. cephalus from African, Pacific, and Atlantic populations are presented in this study to assess its usefulness in phylogeographic studies of this species. The mtDNA CR sequence variations among M. cephalus populations largely exceeded intraspecific polymorphisms that are generally observed in other vertebrates. The length of CR sequence varied among M. cephalus populations due to the presence of indels and variable number of tandem repeats at the 3′ hypervariable domain. The high evolutionary rate of the CR in this species probably originated from these mutations. However, no excessive homoplasic mutations were noticed. Finally, the star shaped tree inferred from the CR polymorphism stresses a rapid radiation worldwide, in this species. The CR still appears as a good marker for phylogeographic investigations and additional worldwide samples are warranted to further investigate the genetic structure and evolution in M. cephalus.

  13. Global population variability in Qiagen Investigator HDplex STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C; Fernandez-Formoso, L; Gelabert-Besada, M; García-Magariños, M; Amigo, J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2014-01-01

    Supplementary short tandem repeats (STRs) can be added to forensic analyses if the 15-24 core STRs in routine use fail to give sufficient discrimination power in complex identification or relationship testing scenarios. In this study, 10 of 12 supplementary STRs in the Qiagen Investigator HDplex kit (SE33, D2S1360, D3S1744, D4S2366, D5S2500, D6S474, D7S1517, D8S1132, D10S2325, D21S2055) were genotyped in 941 individuals from the 51 populations of the CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP-CEPH). The other two components of the 12-STR HDplex kit are established STRs D12S391 and D18S51 that we previously genotyped for the HGDP-CEPH panel. We describe the rare alleles identified and outline allele frequency distributions in the seven population groups of the HGDP-CEPH panel. The HDplex STRs novel to forensic application were found to be both highly informative and comparable in their power across all populations studied: at least six of the nine loci showing above average forensic discrimination power in each population group. In some rare instances certain low frequency alleles in D2S1360 were found to overlap in mobility with the neighbouring allele size ranges of D12S391, as well as those of D7S1517 with neighbouring D3S1744 and D10S2325 with neighbouring SE33. Lastly, since expanded five-dye multiplex kits of 20 STRs (Promega Powerplex 21) and 22 STRs (Promega Powerplex Fusion) have recently been introduced, we assess through simulations the increased power to analyse pairwise relationships in deficient pedigrees that can be expected from an optimum kit pair: combining HDplex with either of the above sets to provide 30 or 32 unique STRs and just two overlapping loci. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 77 FR 35060 - Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Formerly Known as Warner Lambert Company, Pfizer Worldwide Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Research, Formerly Known as Warner Lambert Company, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division... December 2, 2011, applicable to workers of Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research... Worldwide Research & Development Division, Antibacterial Research Unit, Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and...

  15. 77 FR 65582 - Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Reasearch & Development Division, Formerly Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Research, Pfizer Worldwide Reasearch & Development Division, Formerly Known as Warner Lambert Company... workers of Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division, formerly known... follows: All workers of Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division...

  16. 78 FR 28630 - Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division, Formerly Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division, Formerly Known as Warner Lambert Company... Groton, Connecticut location of Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development... Worldwide Research & Development Division, formerly known as Warner Lambert Company, Comparative Medicine...

  17. The performance trends of nuclear power plants worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glorian, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    Looking back to the worldwide operating experience feedback, which performance trends and conclusions could be drawn up? What is the specific situation of the French nuclear units, in comparison with the average worldwide performance? The performance of a unit or group of facilities is measured not only in technical terms (safety, availability, load control capability), but also from an economic and financial standpoint (operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, etc). Performance in terms of radiological protection and on-the-job safety, as well as environmental protection, is also monitored in order to give the broadest possible overview of nuclear power plant performance. The main technical results are presented on the basis of selected performance indicators. The results obtained by French units are benchmarked against those of other PWR facilities in operation around the world, in accordance with comparisons made by the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). (author)

  18. The performance trends of nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glorian, D.

    2001-01-01

    Looking back to the worldwide operating experience feedback, which performance trends and conclusions could be drawn up? What is the specific situation of the French nuclear units, in comparison with the average worldwide performance? The performance of a unit or group of facilities is measured not only in technical terms (safety, availability, load control capability), but also from an economic and financial standpoint (operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, etc). Performance in terms of radiological protection and on-the-job safety, as well as environmental protection, is also monitored in order to give the broadest possible overview of nuclear power plant performance. The main technical results are presented on the basis of selected performance indicators. The results obtained by French units are benchmarked against those of other PWR facilities in operation around the world, in accordance with comparisons made by the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). (author)

  19. Worldwide outlook clouded by market slump of late 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Excess production and production capacity reasserted their influence in worldwide petroleum markets last year, pushing crude oil prices to their lowest levels since before the Persian Gulf crisis. The development ended the relative price stability that has characterized the period since the crisis ended in January 1991. One of the major questions now being asked is whether there has been a downward shift in the seasonal range of crude prices. In the near future, OPEC's degree of success in balancing the market will be a key to prices. Another is politics in the Middle East. If it were not for a United Nations embargo, the market would have another 2--3 million b/d of oil supply--from Iraq. The paper discusses worldwide demand, economic trends, the supply in 1993, the supply outlook, prices, and international drilling activities

  20. The promises and prospects of worldwide wireless power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Voorhies, K.L.; Smith, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The promise of worldwide wireless power transfer began with the pioneering work of Nikola Tesla about 100 years ago. His principal approach is summarized. The viability of such a system must still be demonstrated and many questions remain. Potentially, a wireless system can transfer power more efficiently and flexibly, especially to and from remote regions. This paper includes principle elements of worldwide wireless power transfer: the source: an oscillator/transmitter, the path: the cavity bounded by the earth and the ionosphere, and the receiver: a means of extracting power from the path. The system transfers and stores energy via the resonance modes of the cavity. The key challenges facing demonstration of technical feasibility are in finding an efficient means of coupling power into and out of the earth-ionosphere cavity, and in devising a feasible receiver that is both small and efficient. Along with demonstrating technical feasibility, new research must consider safety, environmental impact, susceptibility to weather, and effects on weather

  1. Facilities for radiotherapy with ion beams status and worldwide developments

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H

    1999-01-01

    Forty-five years after the first ion beam therapy in Berkeley around 25,000 cancer patients worldwide have been treated successfully. Ion accelerators, designed for nuclear research, delivered most of this treatment. The first hospital-based facility started operation in 1998 at Loma Linda California, the first for heavier ions at Chiba, Japan in 1994 and the first commercially delivered facilities started operation in 1998 at Kashiwa, Japan. In 2000, the Harvard Medical Centre, Boston, US, will commence operation and several new facilities are planned or under construction worldwide, although none in Australia. This paper will discuss the physical and biological advantages of ion beams over x-rays and electrons. In the treatment of cancer patients ion beam therapy is especially suited for localised tumours in radiation sensitive areas like skull or spine. Heavier ions are also effective in anoxic tumour cells (found around the normally oxygenated cell population). An additional advantage of the heavier carbo...

  2. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Radiology Department 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-02-15

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  3. Relationship of Worldwide Rocket Launch Crashes with Geophysical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical comparison of launch crashes at different worldwide space ports with geophysical factors has been performed. A comprehensive database has been compiled, which includes 50 years of information from the beginning of the space age in 1957 about launch crashes occurring world-wide. Special attention has been paid to statistics concerning launches at the largest space ports: Plesetsk, Baikonur, Cape Canaveral, and Vandenberg. In search of a possible influence of geophysical factors on launch failures, such parameters as the vehicle type, local time, season, sunspot number, high-energy electron fluxes, and solar proton events have been examined. Also, we have analyzed correlations with the geomagnetic indices as indirect indicators of the space weather condition. Regularities found in this study suggest that further detailed studies of space weather effects on launcher systems, especially in the high-latitude regions, should be performed.

  4. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  5. Financial Worldwide Crisis: The Anti-Counter Cycle of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao NEGREIROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

  6. Crude oil: worldwide inquiry on a destructive wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maass, P.

    2010-01-01

    More and more scarce, petroleum appears as much as an advantage as a malediction for the countries who owns some. Petroleum is very often synonymous of war, poverty, fundamentalism, pollution, or anarchy. Thanks to a large range of testimonies gathered in many oil producing countries, the author gives an overview of the worldwide fight in which oil industry actors are engaged and presents its deleterious influence on economies and populations. (J.S.)

  7. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballane, G; Cauley, J A; Luckey, M M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and incidence of vertebral fractures worldwide. We used a systematic Medline search current to 2015 and updated as per authors' libraries. A total of 62 articles of fair to good quality and comparable methods for vertebral fracture identification were considered. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in European women is highest in Scandinavia (26%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (18%). Prevalence rates in North America (NA) for White women ≥50 are 20-24%, with a White/Black ratio of 1.6. Rates in women ≥50 years in Latin America are overall lower than Europe and NA (11-19%). In Asia, rates in women above ≥65 are highest in Japan (24%), lowest in Indonesia (9%), and in the Middle East, Lebanon, rates are 20%. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Incidence data is less abundant and more heterogeneous. Age-standardized rates in studies combining hospitalized and ambulatory vertebral fractures are highest in South Korea, USA, and Hong Kong and lowest in the UK. Neither a North-South gradient nor a relation to urbanization is evident. Conversely, the incidence of hospitalized vertebral fractures in European patients ≥50 shows a North-South gradient with 3-3.7-fold variability. In the USA, rates in Whites are approximately 4-fold higher than in Blacks. Vertebral fractures variation worldwide is lower than observed with hip fractures, and some of highest rates are unexpectedly from Asia. Better quality representative studies are needed. We investigate the occurrence of vertebral fractures, worldwide, using published data current until the present. Worldwide, the variation in vertebral fractures is lower than observed for hip fractures. Some of the highest rates are from North America and unexpectedly Asia. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Better quality representative data is needed.

  8. World-Wide Outreach through International Observe the Moon Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Jones, A. P.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Day, B. H.; Wenger, M.; Joseph, E.; Canipe, M.

    2016-12-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide public event that encourages observation, appreciation, and understanding of our Moon and its connection to NASA planetary science and exploration. Everyone on Earth is invited to join the celebration by hosting or attending an InOMN event - and uniting on one day each year to look at and learn about the Moon together. Events are hosted by a variety of institutions including astronomy clubs, observatories, schools, and universities, museums, planetaria, schools, universities, observatories, parks, private businesses and private homes. Events hosts are supported with event flyers, information sheets, Moon maps for observing, activities to use during events, presentations, certificates of participation, and evaluation materials to be used by hosts. 2016 is the seventh year of worldwide participation in InOMN which will be held on October 8th. In the last six years, over 3,000 events were registered worldwide from almost 100 different countries and almost all 50 states and the District of Columbia in the United States. Evaluation of InOMN is conducted by an external evaluation group and includes analysis of event registrations, facilitator surveys, and visitor surveys. Evaluation results demonstrate that InOMN events are successful in raising visitors' awareness of lunar science and exploration, providing audiences with information about lunar science and exploration, and inspiring visitors to want to learn more about the Moon. Additionally, preliminary analysis of social media has shown that there is a virtual network of individuals connecting about InOMN. A large fraction of events have been held by institutions for more than one year showing sustained interest in participation. During this presentation, we will present data for all seven years of InOMN including lessons learned through supporting and evaluating a worldwide event. InOMN is sponsored by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA

  9. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiknes, Kari Ann; Jarosh-von Schweder, Lindy; Høie, Bjørg

    2012-01-01

    To explore contemporary (from 1990) utilization and practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) worldwide. Systematic search (limited to studies published 1990 and after) was undertaken in the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, SveMed, and EBSCO/Cinahl. Primary data-based studies/surveys with reported ECT utilization and practice in psychiatric institutions internationally, nationally, and regionally; city were included. Two reviewers independently checked study titles and abstracts according to inclusion criteria, and extracted ECT utilization and practice data from those retrieved in full text. Seventy studies were included, seven from Australia and New Zealand, three Africa, 12 North and Latin America, 33 Europe, and 15 Asia. Worldwide ECT differences and trends were evident, average number ECTs administered per patient were eight; unmodified (without anesthesia) was used in Asia (over 90%), Africa, Latin America, Russia, Turkey, Spain. Worldwide preferred electrode placement was bilateral, except unilateral at some places (Europe and Australia/New Zealand). Although mainstream was brief-pulse wave, sine-wave devices were still used. Majority ECT treated were older women with depression in Western countries, versus younger men with schizophrenia in Asian countries. ECT under involuntary conditions (admissions), use of ambulatory-ECT, acute first line of treatment, as well as administered by other professions (geriatricians, nurses) were noted by some sites. General trends were only some institutions within the same country providing ECT, training inadequate, and guidelines not followed. Mandatory reporting and overall country ECT register data were sparse. Many patients are still treated with unmodified ECT today. Large global variation in ECT utilization, administration, and practice advocates a need for worldwide sharing of knowledge about ECT, reflection, and learning from each other's experiences. PMID:22741102

  10. Searching for the corner seismic moment in worldwide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui; Martins, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the existence of the corner frequency value for the seismic moment distribution is investigated, analysing worldwide data. Pareto based distributions, usually considered as the most suitable to this type of data, are fitted to the most recent data, available in a global earthquake catalog. Despite the undeniable finite nature of the seismic moment data, we conclude that no corner frequency can be established considering the available data set

  11. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991?2008 have been examined using the ?title?abstract? keyword search on esp@cenet ?worldwide? database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People?s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the larges...

  12. PubData: search engine for bioinformatics databases worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Vand, Kasra; Wahlestedt, Thor; Khomtchouk, Kelly; Sayed, Mohammed; Wahlestedt, Claes; Khomtchouk, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a search engine and file retrieval system for all bioinformatics databases worldwide. PubData searches biomedical data in a user-friendly fashion similar to how PubMed searches biomedical literature. PubData is built on novel network programming, natural language processing, and artificial intelligence algorithms that can patch into the file transfer protocol servers of any user-specified bioinformatics database, query its contents, retrieve files for download, and adapt to the use...

  13. Effects of Worldwide Population Subdivision on ALDH2 Linkage Disequilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Raymond J.; Goldman, David; Long, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of human population subdivision on linkage disequilibrium has previously been studied for unlinked genes. However, no study has focused on closely linked polymorphisms or formally partitioned linkage disequilibrium within and among worldwide populations. With an emphasis on population subdivision, the goal of this paper is to investigate the causes of linkage disequilibrium in ALDH2, the gene that encodes aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. Haplotypes for 756 people from 17 populations acros...

  14. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors: A Year 3 Update

    OpenAIRE

    Udomprasert, Patricia S; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Wong, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    We give a brief overview of some key features of WorldWide Telescope and its Ambassadors Program, and we describe two goals for expanding the program in the coming year: scaling up training efforts; and developing “plug and play” Visualization Lab modules that teach key Earth and Space Science concepts to students while emphasizing important scientific processes and skills. We discuss several different ways that members of the astronomy education and outreach community can incorporate WWT-bas...

  15. THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY ON WHEAT TRADE WORLDWIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Changyou; Kim, Mina; Koo, Won W.; Cho, Guedae; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2002-01-01

    A modified gravity-type model was employed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate volatility on wheat exports worldwide. Special attention was given to the econometric properties of the gravity model within panel framework. Short and long-term measures of exchange rate volatility were constructed and compared. Both measures of exchange rate volatility have exhibited a negative effect on world wheat trade and the long-term effect was even larger. This result implies that exchange rate volatil...

  16. Gene therapy clinical trials worldwide to 2017: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Samantha L; Amaya, Anais K; Alexander, Ian E; Edelstein, Michael; Abedi, Mohammad R

    2018-03-25

    To date, almost 2600 gene therapy clinical trials have been completed, are ongoing or have been approved worldwide. Our database brings together global information on gene therapy clinical activity from trial databases, official agency sources, published literature, conference presentations and posters kindly provided to us by individual investigators or trial sponsors. This review presents our analysis of clinical trials that, to the best of our knowledge, have been or are being performed worldwide. As of our November 2017 update, we have entries on 2597 trials undertaken in 38 countries. We have analysed the geographical distribution of trials, the disease indications (or other reasons) for trials, the proportions to which different vector types are used, and the genes that have been transferred. Details of the analyses presented, and our searchable database are available via The Journal of Gene Medicine Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide website at: http://www.wiley.co.uk/genmed/clinical. We also provide an overview of the progress being made in gene therapy clinical trials around the world, and discuss key trends since the previous review, namely the use of chimeric antigen receptor T cells for the treatment of cancer and advancements in genome editing technologies, which have the potential to transform the field moving forward. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Joanne L; Lobetti, Remo G; Schoeman, Johan P

    2014-11-14

    Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  18. Actual growth and probable future of the worldwide nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide nuclear-power-reactor manufacturing capacity will exceed worldwide demand by a factor of two or more during the 1980s. Only in France and the Soviet bloc countries is it likely that the ambitious nuclear-power programs formulated in the mid-1970s will be implemented. In all other developed countries and in most developing countries, further delays and cancellations of previously announced programs are all but certain. The stalemate over the future of nuclear power is particularly deep in America. Administrative and personnel problems in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, slow progress on radioactive waste disposal by the Department of Energy, severe financial problems for most electric utilities, and drastic reductions in the rate of electricity demand growth combine to make continuation of the five-year-old moratorium on reactor orders inevitable. Many of the ninety plants under construction may never operate, and some of the seventy in operation may shut down before the end of their economic life. Contrary to widespread belief, further oil price increases may not speed up world-wide reactor sales. It is possible that the world is heading for a worst of all possible outcomes: a large number of small nuclear power programs that do little to meet real energy needs but substantially complicate the problem of nuclear weapons proliferation. 24 references, 4 tables

  19. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  20. Pepino Mosaic Virus: a serious threat to tomato plants worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane BIBI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available omato (Solanum lycopersicum is one of the widely grown crops worldwide. It is consumed in various forms and has excellent nutritional values. Presently, this crop is facing a serious threat to its yield and survival because of a potexvirus infection. One of the potexvirus species hampering tomato productions worldwide is Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. This emerging virus is one of the most destructive plant diseases destroying tomato crops globally. It has spread to many countries worldwide including France, Italy, the UK, Poland, Belgium, the USA, Canada and China. PepMV genome consists of a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA molecule, approximately 6.4 kb in length. The genomic RNA contains five open reading frames (ORFs encoding for the coat protein (CP, the putative viral polymerase (RdRp and the triple gene block (TGB proteins. PepMV is efficiently transmitted mechanically. In other studies, seed transmission has been demonstrated. This article provides an overview of PepMV symptoms, transmission, different strains of PepMV, its genome organization and strategies employed for controlling it. The knowledge about the recent progress in the study of PepMV would help develop novel strategies for its control in agriculture.

  1. What influences the worldwide genetic structure of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Alana; Steel, Debbie; Hoekzema, Kendra; Mesnick, Sarah L; Engelhaupt, Daniel; Kerr, Iain; Payne, Roger; Baker, C Scott

    2016-06-01

    The interplay of natural selection and genetic drift, influenced by geographic isolation, mating systems and population size, determines patterns of genetic diversity within species. The sperm whale provides an interesting example of a long-lived species with few geographic barriers to dispersal. Worldwide mtDNA diversity is relatively low, but highly structured among geographic regions and social groups, attributed to female philopatry. However, it is unclear whether this female philopatry is due to geographic regions or social groups, or how this might vary on a worldwide scale. To answer these questions, we combined mtDNA information for 1091 previously published samples with 542 newly obtained DNA profiles (394-bp mtDNA, sex, 13 microsatellites) including the previously unsampled Indian Ocean, and social group information for 541 individuals. We found low mtDNA diversity (π = 0.430%) reflecting an expansion event worldwide population expansion followed by rapid assortment due to female social organization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses - worldwide, July 2012-December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Wassilak, Steven G; Kew, Olen M

    2014-03-21

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide. One of the main tools used in polio eradication efforts has been live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), an inexpensive vaccine easily administered by trained volunteers. OPV might require several doses to induce immunity, but then it provides long-term protection against paralytic disease through durable humoral immunity. Rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis can occur among immunologically normal OPV recipients, their contacts, and persons who are immunodeficient. In addition, vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) can emerge in areas with low OPV coverage to cause polio outbreaks and can replicate for years in persons who have primary, B-cell immunodeficiencies. This report updates previous surveillance summaries and describes VDPVs detected worldwide during July 2012-December 2013. Those include a new circulating VDPV (cVDPV) outbreak identified in Pakistan in 2012, with spread to Afghanistan; an outbreak in Afghanistan previously identified in 2009 that continued into 2013; a new outbreak in Chad that spread to Cameroon, Niger, and northeastern Nigeria; and an outbreak that began in Somalia in 2008 that continued and spread to Kenya in 2013. A large outbreak in Nigeria that was identified in 2005 was nearly stopped by the end of 2013. Additionally, 10 newly identified persons in eight countries were found to excrete immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs), and VDPVs were found among immunocompetent persons and environmental samples in 13 countries. Because the majority of VDPV isolates are type 2, the World Health Organization has developed a plan for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV (tOPV) with bivalent OPV (bOPV; types 1 and 3) by 2016, preceded by introduction of at least 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) containing all three poliovirus serotypes into routine immunization schedules worldwide to ensure high population

  3. Traumatic Spinal Injury: Global Epidemiology and Worldwide Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Lim, Jaims; Mekary, Rania A; Rattani, Abbas; Dewan, Michael C; Sharif, Salman Y; Osorio-Fonseca, Enrique; Park, Kee B

    2018-05-01

    Traumatic spinal injury (TSI) results from injury to bony, ligamentous, and/or neurologic structures of the spinal column and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The global burden of TSI is poorly understood, so we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global volume of TSI. We performed a systematic review through PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Databases on TSI studies reported from 2000 to 2016. Collected data were used to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the annual incidence of TSI across World Health Organization regions and World Bank income groups using random-effect models. Incorporating global population figures, the annual worldwide volume of TSI was estimated. A total of 102 studies were included in the systematic review and 19 studies in the meta-analysis. The overall global incidence of TSI was 10.5 cases per 100,000 persons, resulting in an estimated 768,473 [95% confidence interval, 597,213-939,732] new cases of TSI annually worldwide. The incidence of TSI was higher in low- and middle-income countries (8.72 per 100,000 persons) compared with high-income countries (13.69 per 100,000 persons). Road traffic accidents, followed by falls, were the most common mechanism of TSI worldwide. Overall, 48.8% of patients with TSI required surgery. TSI is a major source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Largely preventable mechanisms, including road traffic accidents and falls, are the main causes of TSI globally. Further investigation is needed to delineate local and regional TSI incidences and causes, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reassessment of MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. typing worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Vanina; Ruybal, Paula; Lauthier, Juan José; Tomasini, Nicolás; Brihuega, Bibiana; Koval, Ariel; Caimi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods have been developed for Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis. In this study we reassessed the most commonly used MLST schemes in a set of worldwide isolates, in order to select the loci that achieve the maximum power of discrimination for typing Leptospira spp. Global eBURST algorithm was used to detect clonal complexes among STs and phylogenetic relationships among concatenated and individual sequences were inferred through maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The evaluation of 12 loci combined to type a subset of strains rendered 57 different STs. Seven of these loci were selected into a final scheme upon studying the number of alleles and polymorphisms, the typing efficiency, the discriminatory power and the ratio dN/dS per nucleotide site for each locus. This new 7-locus scheme was applied to a wider collection of worldwide strains. The ML tree constructed from concatenated sequences of the 7 loci identified 6 major clusters corresponding to 6 Leptospira species. Global eBURST established 8 CCs, which showed that genotypes were clearly related by geographic origin and host. ST52 and ST47, represented mostly by Argentinian isolates, grouped the higher number of isolates. These isolates were serotyped as serogroups Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae, showing a unidirectional correlation in which the isolates with the same ST belong to the same serogroup. In summary, this scheme combines the best loci from the most widely used MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. and supports worldwide strains classification. The Argentinian isolates exhibited congruence between allelic profile and serogroup, providing an alternative to serological methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The worldwide market will not be short of LPG fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of an internal note of the French Butane and Propane Committee (CFBP) about the perspectives of the worldwide market of LPG fuels. The conclusion of this study is that the market will not be short of LPG, in particular the French market and the automotive fuels. The consumption of LPG fuels for vehicles in France is growing up rapidly (about 100% in 1997 with respect to 1996: 90000 t consumed in 1997 by 70000 vehicles) and the resource remains important and can reach 3 millions of tons per year. (J.S.)

  6. Data deposition and annotation at the worldwide protein data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shuchismita; Burkhardt, Kyle; Young, Jasmine; Swaminathan, Ganesh J; Matsuura, Takanori; Henrick, Kim; Nakamura, Haruki; Berman, Helen M

    2009-05-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the repository for three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules, determined by experimental methods. The data in the archive is free and easily available via the Internet from any of the worldwide centers managing this global archive. These data are used by scientists, researchers, bioinformatics specialists, educators, students, and general audiences to understand biological phenomenon at a molecular level. Analysis of this structural data also inspires and facilitates new discoveries in science. This chapter describes the tools and methods currently used for deposition, processing, and release of data in the PDB. References to future enhancements are also included.

  7. Interoperation of World-Wide Production e-Science Infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M; Soddemann, T; Field, L; Navarro, JP; Casey, J; Litmaath, M; Baud, J; Koblitz, B; Catlett, C; Skow, D; Wang, S; Saeki, Y; Sato, H; Matsuoka, S; Geddes, N

    Many production Grid and e-Science infrastructures have begun to offer services to end-users during the past several years with an increasing number of scientific applications that require access to a wide variety of resources and services in multiple Grids. Therefore, the Grid Interoperation Now—Community Group of the Open Grid Forum—organizes and manages interoperation efforts among those production Grid infrastructures to reach the goal of a world-wide Grid vision on a technical level in the near future. This contribution highlights fundamental approaches of the group and discusses open standards in the context of production e-Science infrastructures.

  8. Introduction: Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility: meeting worldwide needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Training in reproductive endocrinology (REI) and its male variant, andrology, has been profoundly influenced by the central role captured by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The marked differences in financial, regulatory, and societal/ethical restrictions on ART in different countries of the world also prominently influence the clinical management of infertility. Training should strive for comprehensive teaching of all medically indicated procedures, even if only to optimize cross-border care. Better international standardization of infertility practices and training would benefit worldwide infertility care and should be promoted by international societies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING – AN ANALYSIS OF THE WORLDWIDE DIFFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Dan TURCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of sustainability issues expressed by different types of stakeholders has placed them among the leading topics inside the accounting literature. The paper aims to extend the current knowledge through the analysis of the relation between the number of sustainability reports issued by companies inside one country and its social, environmental and economic performances from a worldwide perspective, with a particular focus on the European Union. Our results indicate a positive correlation between the analyzed variables, denoting a higher involvement of companies from more developed countries for the improvement of sustainability reporting concept and practice.

  10. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialised and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author)

  11. Mapping world-wide science at the paper level.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.

  12. Computer data exchanges spur need for worldwide well numbering standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the American Association of Petroleum Geologists database standards subcommittee has voted to pursue development of a worldwide well numbering standard. Aim of such a standard would be to facilitate the exchange of well data between operators, service companies, and governments. The need for such a standard is heightened by the explosive growth of electronic data interchange (EDI), which uses industry standards to exchange data computer to computer. The subcommittee has reviewed various well numbering methods, identified advantages and disadvantages of each approach for publication to obtain industrywide comments

  13. Worldwide status of energy standards for buildings: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, K.B.; Busch, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    This informal survey was designed to gain information about the worldwide status of energy efficiency standards for buildings, particularly non-residential buildings such as offices, schools, and hotels. The project has three goals: 1. To understand and learn from the experience of countries with existing building energy standards; 2. To locate areas where these lessons might be applied and energy standards might be effectively proposed and developed; and 3. To share the information gathered with all participating countries. These appendices include the survey cover letter, the survey, and the details of selected energy standards in 35 countries, thus providing supporting material for the authors` article of the same title.

  14. AREVA’s Containment Venting Technologies and Experience Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, M.

    2015-07-01

    The AREVA Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS) is a product family that minimizes the environmental impact in case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant (NPP). Our experience is based on a large-scale test and qualification program as well as on the design, licensing and installation of more than 80 projects worldwide. The product family provides flexibility regarding the adaptation to respective accident scenarios, applicable codes and standards, seismic design, supply chain, implementation and localization. AREVA has broad experience of managing fleet supplies, successful support of licensing and cooperating with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of pressurized and boiling water reactors (PWR and BWR). (Author)

  15. Prospective Observational Study on acute Appendicitis Worldwide (POSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartelli, Massimo; Baiocchi, Gian L; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ferrara, Francesco; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Vijayan, Deepak; Abbas, Ashraf; Abongwa, Hariscine K; Agboola, John; Ahmed, Adamu; Akhmeteli, Lali; Akkapulu, Nezih; Akkucuk, Seckin; Altintoprak, Fatih; Andreiev, Aurelia L; Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Atanasov, Boiko; Bala, Miklosh; Balalis, Dimitrios; Baraket, Oussama; Bellanova, Giovanni; Beltran, Marcelo; Melo, Renato Bessa; Bini, Roberto; Bouliaris, Konstantinos; Brunelli, Daniele; Castillo, Adrian; Catani, Marco; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Coimbra, Raul; Colak, Elif; Costa, Silvia; Das, Koray; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Kiseleva, Nadezda; El Zalabany, Tamer; Faro, Mario; Ferreira, Margarida; Fraga, Gustavo P; Gachabayov, Mahir; Ghnnam, Wagih M; Giménez Maurel, Teresa; Gkiokas, Georgios; Gomes, Carlos A; Griffiths, Ewen; Guner, Ali; Gupta, Sanjay; Hecker, Andreas; Hirano, Elcio S; Hodonou, Adrien; Hutan, Martin; Ioannidis, Orestis; Isik, Arda; Ivakhov, Georgy; Jain, Sumita; Jokubauskas, Mantas; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kauhanen, Saila; Kaushik, Robin; Kavalakat, Alfie; Kenig, Jakub; Khokha, Vladimir; Khor, Desmond; Kim, Dennis; Kim, Jae I; Kong, Victor; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Leão, Pedro; Leon, Miguel; Litvin, Andrey; Lohsiriwat, Varut; López-Tomassetti Fernandez, Eudaldo; Lostoridis, Eftychios; Maciel, James; Major, Piotr; Dimova, Ana; Manatakis, Dimitrios; Marinis, Athanasio; Martinez-Perez, Aleix; Marwah, Sanjay; McFarlane, Michael; Mesina, Cristian; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Michalopoulos, Nickos; Misiakos, Evangelos; Mohamedahmed, Ali; Moldovanu, Radu; Montori, Giulia; Mysore Narayana, Raghuveer; Negoi, Ionut; Nikolopoulos, Ioannis; Novelli, Giuseppe; Novikovs, Viktors; Olaoye, Iyiade; Omari, Abdelkarim; Ordoñez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Ozkan, Zeynep; Pal, Ajay; Palini, Gian M; Partecke, Lars I; Pata, Francesco; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Pereira Júnior, Gerson A; Pintar, Tadeja; Pisarska, Magdalena; Ploneda-Valencia, Cesar F; Pouggouras, Konstantinos; Prabhu, Vinod; Ramakrishnapillai, Padmakumar; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Reitz, Marianne; Rios-Cruz, Daniel; Saar, Sten; Sakakushev, Boris; Seretis, Charalampos; Sazhin, Alexander; Shelat, Vishal; Skrovina, Matej; Smirnov, Dmitry; Spyropoulos, Charalampos; Strzałka, Marcin; Talving, Peep; Teixeira Gonsaga, Ricardo A; Theobald, George; Tomadze, Gia; Torba, Myftar; Tranà, Cristian; Ulrych, Jan; Uzunoğlu, Mustafa Y; Vasilescu, Alin; Occhionorelli, Savino; Venara, Aurélien; Vereczkei, Andras; Vettoretto, Nereo; Vlad, Nutu; Walędziak, Maciej; Yilmaz, Tonguç U; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Yunfeng, Cui; Zilinskas, Justas; Grelpois, Gérard; Catena, Fausto

    2018-01-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common surgical disease, and appendectomy is the treatment of choice in the majority of cases. A correct diagnosis is key for decreasing the negative appendectomy rate. The management can become difficult in case of complicated appendicitis. The aim of this study is to describe the worldwide clinical and diagnostic work-up and management of AA in surgical departments. This prospective multicenter observational study was performed in 116 worldwide surgical departments from 44 countries over a 6-month period (April 1, 2016-September 30, 2016). All consecutive patients admitted to surgical departments with a clinical diagnosis of AA were included in the study. A total of 4282 patients were enrolled in the POSAW study, 1928 (45%) women and 2354 (55%) men, with a median age of 29 years. Nine hundred and seven (21.2%) patients underwent an abdominal CT scan, 1856 (43.3%) patients an US, and 285 (6.7%) patients both CT scan and US. A total of 4097 (95.7%) patients underwent surgery; 1809 (42.2%) underwent open appendectomy and 2215 (51.7%) had laparoscopic appendectomy. One hundred eighty-five (4.3%) patients were managed conservatively. Major complications occurred in 199 patients (4.6%). The overall mortality rate was 0.28%. The results of the present study confirm the clinical value of imaging techniques and prognostic scores. Appendectomy remains the most effective treatment of acute appendicitis. Mortality rate is low.

  16. Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-09-24

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

  17. Worldwide variance in the potential utilization of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Travis; Dade Lunsford, L

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has expanded worldwide during the past 3 decades. The authors sought to evaluate whether experienced users vary in their estimate of its potential use. METHODS Sixty-six current Gamma Knife users from 24 countries responded to an electronic survey. They estimated the potential role of GKRS for benign and malignant tumors, vascular malformations, and functional disorders. These estimates were compared with published disease epidemiological statistics and the 2014 use reports provided by the Leksell Gamma Knife Society (16,750 cases). RESULTS Respondents reported no significant variation in the estimated use in many conditions for which GKRS is performed: meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, and arteriovenous malformations. Significant variance in the estimated use of GKRS was noted for pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, and cavernous malformations. For many current indications, the authors found significant variance in GKRS users based in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. Experts estimated that GKRS was used in only 8.5% of the 196,000 eligible cases in 2014. CONCLUSIONS Although there was a general worldwide consensus regarding many major indications for GKRS, significant variability was noted for several more controversial roles. This expert opinion survey also suggested that GKRS is significantly underutilized for many current diagnoses, especially in the Americas. Future studies should be conducted to investigate health care barriers to GKRS for many patients.

  18. Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Richard F; Fagan, Abigail A; Gavin, Loretta E; Greenberg, Mark T; Irwin, Charles E; Ross, David A; Shek, Daniel T L

    2015-01-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence are largely preventable. In the past 30 years new discoveries have led to prevention science being established as a discipline designed to mitigate these problem behaviours. Longitudinal studies have provided an understanding of risk and protective factors across the life course for many of these problem behaviours. Risks cluster across development to produce early accumulation of risk in childhood and more pervasive risk in adolescence. This understanding has led to the construction of developmentally appropriate prevention policies and programmes that have shown short-term and long-term reductions in these adolescent problem behaviours. We describe the principles of prevention science, provide examples of efficacious preventive interventions, describe challenges and potential solutions to take efficacious prevention policies and programmes to scale, and conclude with recommendations to reduce the burden of adolescent mortality and morbidity worldwide through preventive intervention. PMID:22538180

  19. The major contributions of the worldwide gas congress CMG 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    2000-01-01

    The six major contributions which took place all along the 2000 issue of the worldwide gas congress have permitted to draw out a precise status of the international opportunities and challenges that natural gas industry will have to face in order to make natural gas the first energy source of the 21 century. Despite the different national contexts, all intervening parties agreed with the undeniable stakes of natural gas which will have a promising development provided that deregulation effects are mastered and investments are maintained in new technologies R and D and in the settlement of reliable international infrastructures. This article summarizes the main content of these contributions: Gaz de France group in the new European context: opportunities and strategies of a big operator; gas industry in the US: perspectives for the millennium; leading elements of the gas industry in Europe: liberalization, regulation and technology; structural transformations of the international gas industry and its strategies: towards a worldwide gas market; the future of gas industry in Russia in the 21 century; perspectives for natural gas in Asia. (J.S.)

  20. Poaceae pollen as the leading aeroallergen worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mozo, H

    2017-12-01

    The Poaceae family comprises over 12 000 wind-pollinated species, which release large amounts of pollen into the atmosphere. Poaceae pollen is currently regarded as the leading airborne biological pollutant and the chief cause of pollen allergy worldwide. Sensitization rates vary by country, and those variations are reviewed here. Grass pollen allergens are grouped according to their protein structure and function. In Poaceae, although species belonging to different subfamilies are characterized by distinct allergen subsets, there is a considerable degree of cross-reactivity between many species. Cross-reactivity between grass pollen protein and fresh fruit pan-allergens is associated with the appearance of food allergies. The additional influence of urban pollution may prompt a more severe immunological response. The timing and the intensity of the pollen season are governed by species genetics, but plant phenology is also influenced by climate; as a result, climate changes may affect airborne pollen concentrations. This article reviews the findings of worldwide research which has highlighted the major impact of climate change on plant phenology and also on the prevalence and severity of allergic disease. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  1. Smoking in Correctional Settings Worldwide: Prevalence, Bans, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Anne C; Eldridge, Gloria D; Chico, Cynthia E; Morisseau, Nancy; Drobeniuc, Ana; Fils-Aime, Rebecca; Day, Carolyn; Hopkins, Robyn; Jin, Xingzhong; Chen, Junyu; Dolan, Kate A

    2018-06-01

    Smoking tobacco contributes to 11.5% of deaths worldwide and, in some countries, more hospitalizations than alcohol and drugs combined. Globally in 2015, 25% of men and 5% of women smoked. In the United States, a higher proportion of people in prison smoke than do community-dwelling individuals. To determine smoking prevalence in prisons worldwide, we systematically reviewed the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines; we also examined whether prisons banned smoking or treated smokers. We searched databases for articles published between 2012 and 2016 and located 85 relevant articles with data representing 73.5% of all incarcerated persons from 50 countries. In 35 of 36 nations (97%) with published prevalence data, smoking for the incarcerated exceeded community rates 1.04- to 62.6-fold. Taking a conservative estimate of a 2-fold increase, we estimated that, globally, 14.5 million male and 26,000 female smokers pass through prisons annually. Prison authorities' responses include permitting, prohibiting, or treating tobacco use. Bans may temporarily improve health and reduce in-prison health care costs but have negligible effect after prison release. Evidence-based interventions for smoking cessation effective outside prisons are effective inside; effects persist after release. Because smoking prevalence is heightened in prisons, offering evidence-based interventions to nearly 15 million smokers passing through yearly would improve global health.

  2. MIMAS, setting the world-wide standard for plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergheynst Alain; Yvon Vanderborck

    2005-01-01

    Deployment of MIMAS MOX fuel irradiation started in 1985 with loading and irradiation in French 900 MWe PWR of EDF. A 20-year comprehensive R and D programme preceded it. This success was greatly facilitated by some early strategy advantages: 1) Development and licensing of a 'UO 2 -like' MOX fuel rod fully interchangeable with UO 2 rods; 2) Joint SCK/BN operation of the BR2 (MTR) and BR3 (PWR) reactors, pilot and industrial MOX fuel plants, PIE hot laboratories in the Mol/Dessel site. The period since 1985 saw the occurrence of some concurrent facts, that have incontestably led MIMAS to the world-wide leader position (99 % of actual MOX fuel is MIMAS): 1) BN-MIMAS has been selected by Cogema for its plants MELOX and Cadarache and has demonstrated to be a flexible, scalable, and industrial process. 2) MIMAS has been further selected by JNFL for its Japanese domestic MOX plant (Rokkasho-mura) and by US-DOE for its domestic MOX plant (Savannah-NC) for the disposition of 34-ton weapon-Pu. 3) Satisfactory fabrication and irradiation over 1840 metric tons of MIMAS MOX fuel. In order to face the worldwide on-going electricity market liberalisation, MIMAS makers and vendors must definitely improve the MOX performances to compete with continuously improving UO 2 fuel. The facing of this continuous challenge is also reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  3. Worldwide Overview of Lessons Learned from Decommissioning Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, Michele

    2008-01-01

    With an increasing number of radioactive facilities and reactors now reaching the end of their useful life and being taken out of service, there is a growing emphasis worldwide on the safe and efficient decommissioning of such plants. There is a wealth of experience already gained in decommissioning projects for all kinds of nuclear facilities. It is now possible to compare and discuss progress and accomplishments worldwide. In particular, rather than on the factual descriptions of projects, technologies and case histories, it is important to focus on lessons learned: in this way, the return of experience is felt to effectively contribute to progress. Key issues - inevitably based on a subjective ranking - are presented in this paper. Through the exchange of lessons learned, it is possible to achieve full awareness of the need for resources for and constraints of safe and cost-effective decommissioning. What remains now is the identification of specific, remaining issues that may hinder or delay the smooth progress of decommissioning. To this end, lessons learned provide the necessary background information; this paper tries to make extensive use of practical experience gained by the international community

  4. Global Immunizations: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle L B; Eden, Lacey M; Luthy, Karlen E; Schouten, Aimee E

    Immunizations are one of the most important health interventions of the 20th century, yet people in many areas of the world do not receive adequate immunizations. Approximately 3 million people worldwide die every year from vaccine-preventable diseases; about half of these deaths are young children and infants. Global travel is more common; diseases that were once localized now can be found in communities around the world. Multiple barriers to immunizations have been identified. Healthcare access, cost, and perceptions of safety and trust in healthcare are factors that have depressed global immunization rates. Several global organizations have focused on addressing these barriers as part of their efforts to increase immunization rates. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund each have a part of their organization that is concentrated on immunizations. Maternal child nurses worldwide can assist in increasing immunization rates. Nurses can participate in outreach programs to ease the burden of patients and families in accessing immunizations. Nurses can work with local and global organizations to make immunizations more affordable. Nurses can improve trust and knowledge about immunizations in their local communities. Nurses are a powerful influence in the struggle to increase immunization rates, which is a vital aspect of global health promotion and disease prevention.

  5. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  6. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md-Sajedul; Glynn, Jonathan M; Bai, Yang; Duan, Yong-Ping; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; Kuruba, Gopal; Civerolo, Edwin L; Lin, Hong

    2012-03-20

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited α- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed. A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide. Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L

  7. World-Wide Benchmarking of ITER Nb$_{3}$Sn Strand Test Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Jewell, MC; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Shikov, Alexander; Devred, Arnaud; Vostner, Alexander; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yu; Jewell, Matthew C; Boutboul, Thierry; Bessette, Denis; Park, Soo-Hyeon; Isono, Takaaki; Vorobieva, Alexandra; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Seo, Kazutaka

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide procurement of Nb$_{3}$Sn and NbTi for the ITER superconducting magnet systems will involve eight to ten strand suppliers from six Domestic Agencies (DAs) on three continents. To ensure accurate and consistent measurement of the physical and superconducting properties of the composite strand, a strand test facility benchmarking effort was initiated in August 2008. The objectives of this effort are to assess and improve the superconducting strand test and sample preparation technologies at each DA and supplier, in preparation for the more than ten thousand samples that will be tested during ITER procurement. The present benchmarking includes tests for critical current (I-c), n-index, hysteresis loss (Q(hys)), residual resistivity ratio (RRR), strand diameter, Cu fraction, twist pitch, twist direction, and metal plating thickness (Cr or Ni). Nineteen participants from six parties (China, EU, Japan, South Korea, Russia, and the United States) have participated in the benchmarking. This round, cond...

  8. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  9. A worldwide review of the cost of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, M.; Mario, N.; Vignon, D.

    2014-01-01

    The 'true cost' of nuclear energy is a subject of great controversy, especially when considering capital costs of recent projects which opponents to this technology claim to be out of control. In order to provide an objective assessment of nuclear competitiveness, a systematic review of nuclear costs as estimated by stakeholders on a worldwide basis (parliamentary commissions, general accounting offices, academics from universities, non-governmental organizations [either promoting nuclear, or nonnuclear energy], utilities and vendors) was done. Based on these data, levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) were calculated, for different technologies and different regional areas. A breakdown between the key factors (pre-construction and owner costs, Capex, Opex, spent fuel management, dismantling and decommissioning) was provided. The study generally concludes that nuclear energy remains competitive, although costs of advanced technologies soared compared to Gen II. It also demonstrates the benefit of steady and ongoing nuclear programs compared to construction of single projects from time to time. (authors)

  10. 1991 worldwide petroleum phone/fax/telex directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book puts more than 34,000 worldwide locations just a phone call or fax or telex message away. The directory lists companies and their subsidiaries in locations from Alaska to Zaire, whether their operations are in exploration, production, refining, transportation, petrochemicals, etc., offshore or on land. The listings are organized by country, with the companies listed in alphabetical order. So if you happen to know the country you wish to reach, you simply choose the company listed under it. And if you happen to know only the company name, two company indices will help you find the specific location you want. The Company Index Hierarchical lists all subsidiaries, branches, divisions, etc., under their corporate names. The Company Index - Alphabetical lists all entries alphabetically. Country codes for telephone, fax or telex are provided

  11. Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael; Jackson, Brendan R; McCotter, Orion; Benedict, Kaitlin

    2018-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial illness and death in the United States each year. Although most cases are sporadic, outbreaks provide insight into the clinical and environmental features of coccidioidomycosis, high-risk activities, and the geographic range of Coccidioides fungi. We identified reports published in English of 47 coccidioidomycosis outbreaks worldwide that resulted in 1,464 cases during 1940-2015. Most (85%) outbreaks were associated with environmental exposures; the 2 largest outbreaks resulted from an earthquake and a large dust storm. More than one third of outbreaks occurred in areas where the fungus was not previously known to be endemic, and more than half of outbreaks involved occupational exposures. Coccidioidomycosis outbreaks can be difficult to detect and challenging to prevent given the unknown effectiveness of environmental control methods and personal protective equipment; therefore, increased awareness of coccidioidomycosis outbreaks is needed among public health professionals, healthcare providers, and the public.

  12. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Antle, John; Elliott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a warming Earth and an increasing population will likely strain the world's food systems in the coming decades. Experts involved with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) focus on quantifying the changes through time. AgMIP, a program begun in 2010, involves about 800 climate scientists, economists, nutritionists, information technology specialists, and crop and livestock experts. In mid-September 2015, the Aspen Global Change Institute convened an AgMIP workshop to draft plans and protocols for assessing global- and regional-scale modeling of crops, livestock, economics, and nutrition across major agricultural regions worldwide. The goal of this Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments (CGRA) project is to characterize climate effects on large- and small-scale farming systems.

  13. Beacons of discovery the worldwide science of particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA)

    2011-01-01

    To discover what our world is made of and how it works at the most fundamental level is the challenge of particle physics. The tools of particle physics—experiments at particle accelerators and underground laboratories, together with observations of space—bring opportunities for discovery never before within reach. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate to design, build and use unique detectors and accelerators to explore the fundamental physics of matter, energy, space and time. Together, in a common world-wide program of discovery, they provide a deep understanding of the world around us and countless benefits to society. Beacons of Discovery presents a vision of the global science of particle physics at the dawn of a new light on the mystery and beauty of the universe.

  14. Prospects for high-power radioactive beam facilities worldwide

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, Jerry A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in accelerators, targets, ion sources, and experimental instrumentation are making possible ever more powerful facilities for basic and applied research with short-lived radioactive isotopes. There are several current generation facilities, based on a variety of technologies, operating worldwide. These include, for example, those based on the in-flight method such as the recently upgraded National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, the facility at RIKEN in Japan, GANIL in Caen, France, and GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Present facilities based on the Isotope-Separator On-Line method include, for example, the ISOLDE laboratory at CERN, HRIBF at Oak Ridge, and the new high-power facility ISAC at TRIUMF in Vancouver. Next-generation facilities include the Radioactive-Ion Factory upgrade of RIKEN to higher energy and intensity and the upgrade of ISAC to a higher energy secondary beam; both of these projects are in progress. A new project, LINAG, to upgrade the capabilities at...

  15. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood...... pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. METHODS: For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends...... from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. FINDINGS...

  16. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice. Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines. PMID:24679064

  17. Drinking water purification in the Czech Republic and worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmela, Jan; Beckova, Vera; Vlcek, Jaroslav; Marhol, Milan

    2012-06-01

    The report is structured as follows: (i) Legislative (hygienic) requirements for technologies applied to drinking water purification with focus on uranium elimination; (ii) Technological drinking water treatment processes (settling, filtration, precipitation, acidification, iron and manganese removal) ; (iii) State Office for Nuclear Safety requirements for the operation of facilities to separate uranium from drinking water and for the handling of saturated ionexes from such facilities; (iv) Material requirements for the operation of ionex filters serving to separate uranium from drinking water; (v) Effect of enhanced uranium concentrations in drinking waters on human body; (vi) Uranium speciation in ground waters; (vii) Brief description of technologies which are used worldwide for uranium removal; (viii) Technologies which are usable and are used in the Czech Republic for drinking water purification from uranium; (ix) Inorganic and organic ion exchangers and sorbents. (P.A.)

  18. Evolution of Water Lifting Devices (Pumps over the Centuries Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Yannopoulos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the major achievements in water lifting devices with emphasis on the major technologies over the centuries is presented and discussed. Valuable insights into ancient water lifting technologies with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability, and sustainability are provided. A comparison of the relevant technological developments in several early civilizations is carried out. These technologies are the underpinning of modern achievements in water engineering. They represent the best paradigm of probing the past and facing the future. A timeline of the historical development of water pumps worldwide through the last 5500 years of the history of mankind is presented. A chronological order is followed with emphasis on the major civilizations.

  19. Affordable Digital Planetariums with WorldWide Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, P.; Connolly, A.; Fay, J.; Sayres, C.; Tofflemire, B.

    2011-09-01

    Digital planetariums can provide a broader range of educational experiences than the more classical planetariums that use star-balls. This is because of their ability to project images, content from current research, and the 3-D distribution of the stars and galaxies. While there are hundreds of planetariums in the country, the reason that few of these are fully digital is the cost. In collaboration with Microsoft Research (MSR), we have developed a way to digitize existing planetariums for approximately $40,000 using freely available software. We describe here how off the shelf equipment, together with a WorldWide Telescope client, can provide a rich and truly interactive experience. This will enable students and the public to pan though multi-wavelength full-sky scientific data sets, explore 3-D visualizations of our Solar System (including trajectories of millions of minor planets), near-by stars, and the SDSS galaxy catalog.

  20. Is Balamuthia mandrillaris a public health concern worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-10-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic, free-living amoeba that can cause skin lesions and the typically fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Available data for BAE cases indicate that this disease is difficult to detect because knowledge of predisposing factors is lacking, causing a challenge for diagnosing BAE. The number of reported BAE cases is increasing worldwide, and this is a major concern because little is known about the pathogen, no standardized detection tools are available, and most of the treatments are almost empirical. The recently reported cases, novel diagnostics tools, and successful therapeutic approaches against BAE infections are reviewed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acanthamoeba keratitis: an emerging disease gathering importance worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-04-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is increasingly being recognized as a severe sight-threatening ocular infection worldwide. Although contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for AK, Acanthamoeba parasites are also an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. Diagnosis of AK is challenging, and the available treatments are lengthy and not fully effective against all strains. The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is still under study, and the identification of the key factors involved in this process should be useful for the development of fully effective therapies. This review focuses on recent developments on AK pathogenesis and diagnosis as well as novel strategies for the evaluation of anti-amoebic agents that could be applied in the near future against these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn GE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources, ROP blindness is largely restricted to premature infants with very low birth weight and low gestational age while in middle- and low-income countries with regional variation in technology and capacity, limited health resources may well limit the care of the premature newborn. Keywords: ROP, international, blindness

  3. World-wide online monitoring interface of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Mineev, M; Hauser, R; Salnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration accounts for more than 3000 members located all over the world. The efficiency of the experiment can be improved allowing system experts not present on site to follow the ATLAS operations in real-time, spotting potential problems which otherwise may remain unattended for a non-negligible time. Taking into account the wide geographical spread of the ATLAS collaboration, the solution of this problem is to have all monitoring information with minimal access latency available world-wide. We have implemented a framework which defines a standard approach for retrieving arbitrary monitoring information from the ATLAS private network via HTTP. An information request is made by specifying one of the predefined URLs with some optional parameters refining data which has to be shipped back in XML format. The framework takes care of receiving, parsing and forwarding such requests to the appropriate plugins. The plugins retrieve the requested data and convert it to XML (or optionally to JSON) format...

  4. Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus spp.: A Worldwide Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Menendez, Olga; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of an azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain in 1997, there has been an increasing number of papers describing the emergence of azole resistance. Firstly reported in the USA and soon after in Europe, it has now been described worldwide, challenging the management of human aspergillosis. The main mechanism of resistance is the modification of the azole target enzyme: 14-α sterol demethylase, encoded by the cyp51A gene; although recently, other resistance mechanisms have also been implicated. In addition, a shift in the epidemiology has been noted with other Aspergillus species (mostly azole resistant) increasingly being reported as causative agents of human disease. This paper reviews the current situation of Aspergillus azole resistance and its implications in the clinical setting. PMID:29376938

  5. Could viruses contribute to the worldwide epidemic of obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children increased rapidly starting about 1980 in both developed and developing countries. Studies of changes in diet and physical activity, television watching, and food advertisements on television suggest that these are not sufficient to explain the epidemic. The pattern of rapid spread is suggestive of an infectious origin. The concept of virus-induced obesity is not new. Eight viruses have been shown to cause obesity in animals and there is evidence for virus-induced obesity in humans. Recent evidence on animal and human adenoviruses suggests that these adenoviruses may infect adipocytes to alter enzymes and transcription factors resulting in accumulation of triglycerides and differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. The E4orf1 gene of Ad-36 has been shown to be responsible for the adipogenic effect. It appears that a portion of the worldwide epidemic of obesity since 1980 could be due to infections with human adenoviruses.

  6. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francer, Jeffrey; Izquierdo, Jose Zamarriego; Music, Tamara; Narsai, Kirti; Nikidis, Chrisoula; Simmonds, Heather; Woods, Paul

    2014-03-29

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice.Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines.

  7. Taeniasis/cysticercosis trend worldwide and rationale for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montresor, Antonio; Palmer, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Pig production has increased significantly worldwide in recent years. Small-scale pig husbandry has become a popular source of income in rural and resource-poor communities in most of developing countries. A parallel increase of human Taenia carrier and human cysticercosis is expected but detailed data are not available. However, Taenia solium is considered responsible for over 10% of acute case admission to the neurological ward of countries where it is endemic. The control strategy that seems at the moment more promising is a combination of the different tools available and includes the identification of areas at high risk and the presumptive treatment of the suspected cases and their families. This active finding and treatment of probable tapeworm carriers should be accompanied by health education and control swine cysticercosis. WHO invites all endemic countries to recognize the importance of taeniasis/cysticercosis control and to collect epidemiological data and to adopt policies and strategies for its control.

  8. TRENDS IN THE EVOLUTION OF WORLDWIDE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ramona Sarbu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The flows of foreign direct investments constitutes a major component of the phenomena that manifest themselves in the world economy, these representing financial resources geared toward a particular investment area that allow those who invest to develop operations over which they have the control and the decision-making power. Given the fact that the world economy is characterized by the increasing interconnectedness of national states as a result of spreading the links in the spheres of economic, political, social and cultural life, following starting with 2008 a period of unusual developments, the purpose of the paper is to analyze the evolution of worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI inflows, before and after the onset of the global economic crisis.

  9. Worldwide research productivity on tramadol: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Shraim, Naser Y; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2016-01-01

    Pain management and safe use of analgesics is an important medical issue. Tramadol is an old analgesic with controversial properties. Evaluation of worldwide scientific output on tramadol has not been explored. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to give a bibliometric overview of global research productivity on tramadol. SciVerse Scopus was used to retrieve and quantitatively and qualitatively analyze worldwide publications on tramadol. A total of 2059 original and review research articles on tramadol were retrieved from Scopus. Forty-six documents (2.23 %) were published in Anesthesia and Analgesia Journal whereas 30 (1.46 %) were published in Arzneimittel Forschung Drug Research Journal. Retrieved tramadol documents were published from 71 countries and appeared in 160 peer reviewed journals. Although the United States of America (259; 12.86 %) had the largest contribution to tramadol publications; the contribution by other countries like Turkey (232; 11.27) India (189; 8.09 %) and Germany (176; 8.56 % was not far away from that of USA. The most productive institution was Grunenthal, Germany (47; 2.28 %) followed by Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran (29; 1.41 %), and, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical Incorporated, USA (25; 1.21 %). Of the 2059 documents, there were 370 documents about dependence. The leading institution in documents pertaining to tramadol dependence was Grunenthal GmbH (18; 4.86 %) followed by Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical Incorporated (17; 4.59 %). The current study showed that there is an obvious interest in tramadol research. More efforts are needed to clarify the abuse potential and safety profile of tramadol to help in determining the legal status of tramadol. Collaboration among pharmaceutical industry, clinical researchers and academic institutions can improve research quantity and quality on tramadol.

  10. Worldwide Experience with Erosion of the Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicuben, Evan T; Bell, Reginald C W; Jobe, Blair A; Buckley, F P; Daniel Smith, C; Graybeal, Casey J; Lipham, John C

    2018-04-17

    The magnetic sphincter augmentation device continues to become a more common antireflux surgical option with low complication rates. Erosion into the esophagus is an important complication to recognize and is reported to occur at very low incidences (0.1-0.15%). Characterization of this complication remains limited. We aim to describe the worldwide experience with erosion of the magnetic sphincter augmentation device including presentation, techniques for removal, and possible risk factors. We reviewed data obtained from the device manufacturer Torax Medical, Inc., as well as the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. The study period was from February 2007 through July 2017 and included all devices placed worldwide. In total, 9453 devices were placed and there were 29 reported cases of erosions. The median time to presentation of an erosion was 26 months with most occurring between 1 and 4 years after placement. The risk of erosion was 0.3% at 4 years after device implantation. Most patients experienced new-onset dysphagia prompting evaluation. Devices were successfully removed in all patients most commonly via an endoscopic removal of the eroded portion followed by a delayed laparoscopic removal of the remaining beads. At a median follow-up of 58 days post-removal, there were no complications and 24 patients have returned to baseline. Four patients reported ongoing mild dysphagia. Erosion of the LINX device is an important but rare complication to recognize that has been safely managed via minimally invasive approaches without long-term consequences.

  11. DNA Damage Repair System in Plants: A Worldwide Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Estela; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2017-10-30

    Living organisms are usually exposed to various DNA damaging agents so the mechanisms to detect and repair diverse DNA lesions have developed in all organisms with the result of maintaining genome integrity. Defects in DNA repair machinery contribute to cancer, certain diseases, and aging. Therefore, conserving the genomic sequence in organisms is key for the perpetuation of life. The machinery of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is similar. Plants also share mechanisms for DNA repair with animals, although they differ in other important details. Plants have, surprisingly, been less investigated than other living organisms in this context, despite the fact that numerous lethal mutations in animals are viable in plants. In this manuscript, a worldwide bibliometric analysis of DDR systems and DDR research in plants was made. A comparison between both subjects was accomplished. The bibliometric analyses prove that the first study about DDR systems in plants (1987) was published thirteen years later than that for other living organisms (1975). Despite the increase in the number of papers about DDR mechanisms in plants in recent decades, nowadays the number of articles published each year about DDR systems in plants only represents 10% of the total number of articles about DDR. The DDR research field was done by 74 countries while the number of countries involved in the DDR & Plant field is 44. This indicates the great influence that DDR research in the plant field currently has, worldwide. As expected, the percentage of studies published about DDR systems in plants has increased in the subject area of agricultural and biological sciences and has diminished in medicine with respect to DDR studies in other living organisms. In short, bibliometric results highlight the current interest in DDR research in plants among DDR studies and can open new perspectives in the research field of DNA damage repair.

  12. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  13. Worldwide pattern of antibiotic prescription in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Egea, Juan José; Martín-González, Jenifer; Jiménez-Sánchez, María Del Carmen; Crespo-Gallardo, Isabel; Saúco-Márquez, Juan José; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio

    2017-08-01

    Odontogenic infections, and especially endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, involving a combination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative facultative anaerobes and strictly anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, antibiotics can be used as an adjunct to endodontic treatment. However, most chronic and even acute endodontic infections can be successfully managed by disinfection of the root-canal system, which eliminates the source of infection, followed by abscess drainage or tooth extraction, without the need for antibiotics. The literature provides evidence of inadequate prescribing practices by dentists. The aim of this concise review was to analyse the worldwide pattern of antibiotic prescription in endodontic infections. Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, Wiley Online Database, Web of Science and Scopus. The databases were searched up to 13 March 2016 for studies in which dentists used systemic antibiotics to treat endodontic lesions and which reported data on the type of antibiotic prescribed and on the diagnosis of the endodontic disease treated. The electronic and hand searches identified 69 titles, of which 25 were included in the final analysis. Amoxicillin was reported as the drug of choice for endodontic infections in most countries, and clindamycin and erythromycin were the choice for patients allergic to penicillin. Dentists worldwide prescribe antibiotics for non-indicated conditions, such as pulpitis. Antibiotics are overprescribed for the management of endodontic infections. It is necessary to improve antibiotic-prescribing habits in the treatment of endodontic infections, as well as to introduce educational initiatives to encourage the coherent and proper use of antibiotics in such conditions. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Markus A; Seppelt, Ralf; Priess, Joerg A; Witing, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  15. Radiation safety and vascular access: attitudes among cardiologists worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Asrar A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Shroff, Adhir R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: To determine opinions and perceptions of interventional cardiologists on the topic of radiation and vascular access choice. Background: Transradial approach for cardiac catheterization has been increasing in popularity worldwide. There is evidence that transradial access (TRA) may be associated with increasing radiation doses compared to transfemoral access (TFA). Methods: We distributed a questionnaire to collect opinions of interventional cardiologists around the world. Results: Interventional cardiologists (n = 5332) were contacted by email to complete an on-line survey from September to October 2013. The response rate was 20% (n = 1084). TRA was used in 54% of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Most TRAs (80%) were performed with right radial access (RRA). Interventionalists perceived that TRA was associated with higher radiation exposure compared to TFA and that RRA was associated with higher radiation exposure that left radial access (LRA). Older interventionalists were more likely to use radiation protection equipment and those who underwent radiation safety training gave more importance to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Nearly half the respondents stated they would perform more TRA if the radiation exposure was similar to TFA. While interventionalists in the United States placed less importance to certain radiation protective equipment, European operators were more concerned with physician and patient radiation. Conclusions: Interventionalists worldwide reported higher perceived radiation doses with TRA compared to TFA and RRA compared to LRA. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging consistent radiation safety training. Major investment and application of novel radiation protection tools and radiation dose reduction strategies should be pursued. - Highlights: • We examined radiation safety and arterial access practices among 1000 cardiologists. • Radial access is perceived as having higher radiation dose compared to

  16. Summary of worldwide pediatric malignancies reported after exposure to etanercept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyukhin Nataliya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised about a potential link between the use of TNF inhibitors and development of malignancy in the pediatric population. We examined the worldwide experience of etanercept use in pediatric patients and the occurrence of malignancies as reported from clinical trials, registry studies, post-marketing surveillance, and published scientific literature. Methods All reports of "malignancy" in pediatric patients (including subjects who received etanercept before age 18 and developed a malignancy before age 22 were collected from the etanercept clinical trials database and global safety database using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA; v12.0 standardized MedDRA query "Malignancies" from 1998 to August 2009. Cases were collected irrespective of treatment indication. All cases were included regardless of exposure to other TNF blockers or other biologics and whether the other exposure was before or after etanercept. Results A total of 18 potential malignancies were identified: 4 leukemias, 7 lymphomas, and 7 solid tumors. Three of the 18 malignancies remain unconfirmed. No malignancies were reported from clinical trials or the open-label extension studies in any indication in children. Conclusion The data suggest that there does not appear to be an increased risk of malignancy overall with the use of etanercept. Among etanercept-exposed patients aged 4 to 17 years, the estimated worldwide and US reporting rates for lymphoma were approximately 0.01 per 100 patient-years (1 in 10,000 pt-yrs. While the reported rate of lymphoma is higher in pediatric patients treated with etanercept than in normal children, the expected rate of lymphoma in biologic naïve JIA patients is currently unknown. The risk of TNF inhibitors in the development of malignancies in children and adolescents is difficult to assess because of the rarity of malignant events, the absence of knowledge of underlying frequency of

  17. A Quantitative Comparison of the Similarity between Genes and Geography in Worldwide Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure. PMID:22927824

  18. Music Therapy Practice Status and Trends Worldwide: An International Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Petra; Tague, Daniel B

    2017-11-01

    The field of music therapy is growing worldwide. While there is a wealth of country-specific information available, only a few have databased workforce censuses. Currently, little to no descriptive data exists about the global development of the profession. The purpose of this study was to obtain descriptive data about current demographics, practice status, and clinical trends to inform worldwide advocacy efforts, training needs, and the sustainable development of the field. Music therapists (N = 2,495) who were professional members of organizations affiliated with the World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT) served as a sample for this international cross-sectional survey study. A 30-item online questionnaire was designed, pilot tested by key partners, and translated into seven languages. Researchers and key partners distributed the online survey through e-mail invitations and social media announcements. Professional music therapists worldwide are well-educated, mature professionals with adequate work experience, who are confident in providing high-quality services primarily in mental health, school, and geriatric settings. Due to ongoing challenges related to recognition and government regulation of the field as an evidence-based and well-funded healthcare profession, most individuals work part-time music therapy jobs and feel underpaid. Yet, many music therapists have a positive outlook on the field's future. Continued research and advocacy efforts, as well as collaborations with lobbyists, business consultants, and credentialing/licensure experts to develop progressive strategies, will be crucial for global development and sustainability of the field. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. A quantitative comparison of the similarity between genes and geography in worldwide human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2012-08-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure.

  20. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    About the book: As water quality becomes a leading concern for people and ecosystems worldwide, it must be properly assessed in order to protect water resources for current and future generations. Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and Analyses supplies practical information for planning, conducting, or evaluating water quality monitoring programs. It presents the latest information and methodologies for water quality policy, regulation, monitoring, field measurement, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. The book addresses water quality issues, water quality regulatory development, monitoring and sampling techniques, best management practices, and laboratory methods related to the water quality of surface and ground waters. It also discusses basic concepts of water chemistry and hydrology related to water sampling and analysis; instrumentation; water quality data analysis; and evaluation and reporting results.

  1. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  2. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  3. Complementarity of statstical treatments to reconstruct worldwide routes of invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombaert, Eric; Guillemaud, Thomas; Lundgren, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    that the choice of site samples could affect the conclusions of ABC analyses comparing possible scenarios. Approaches involving independent ABC analyses on several sample sets constitute a sensible solution, complementary to standard quality controls based on the analysis of pseudo-observed data sets, to minimize...

  4. Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L; Keesing, Felicia; Virani, Munir Z

    2012-02-01

    Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, and they provide an array of ecological, economic, and cultural services. As the only known obligate scavengers, vultures are uniquely adapted to a scavenging lifestyle. Vultures' unique adaptations include soaring flight, keen eyesight, and extremely low pH levels in their stomachs. Presently, 14 of 23 (61%) vulture species worldwide are threatened with extinction, and the most rapid declines have occurred in the vulture-rich regions of Asia and Africa. The reasons for the population declines are varied, but poisoning or human persecution, or both, feature in the list of nearly every declining species. Deliberate poisoning of carnivores is likely the most widespread cause of vulture poisoning. In Asia, Gyps vultures have declined by >95% due to poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which was banned by regional governments in 2006. Human persecution of vultures has occurred for centuries, and shooting and deliberate poisoning are the most widely practiced activities. Ecological consequences of vulture declines include changes in community composition of scavengers at carcasses and an increased potential for disease transmission between mammalian scavengers at carcasses. There have been cultural and economic costs of vulture declines as well, particularly in Asia. In the wake of catastrophic vulture declines in Asia, regional governments, the international scientific and donor communities, and the media have given the crisis substantial attention. Even though the Asian vulture crisis focused attention on the plight of vultures worldwide, the situation for African vultures has received relatively little attention especially given the similar levels of population decline. While the Asian crisis has been largely linked to poisoning by diclofenac, vulture population declines in Africa have numerous causes, which have made conserving existing populations more difficult. And in Africa there has been little

  5. A look at worldwide usage of residual wood for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrom, H.; Hall, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wood Resources International was established in 1987, offering on-site evaluation services of forest resources and forest industry developments in over 20 countries worldwide. This presentation reviewed residual wood markets in North America and Europe. Wood chip trade and wood pellet markets were also reviewed. It is estimated that more than 50 per cent of the wood harvested worldwide is used for heating and cooking. Although sawmill wood residue has been typically used for particle board manufacturing, the energy sector in North America and Europe is now competing for low cost residuals, including sawdust, shavings and wood chips. With demand for renewable resources increasing, district heating plants have revived an interest in collecting the nearly 35 per cent of biomass left behind after traditional clear cutting. This biomass represents branches, tops and stumps left behind after the roundwood has been removed. In Canada, demand for mill residuals has grown and wood pellet manufacturers have the opportunity to invest in capacity while continuing to produce competitively priced pellets for the European market. It is anticipated that in the next decade, large volumes of beetle-killed wood are going to be available in British Columbia for energy consumption, including wood pellet production. Prices for sawdust have doubled over the past 3 years as a result of increased competition. The biomass supply potential in the United States is 7 times the current consumption. There is an increased interest in bioenergy in California due to the declining lumber sector. As such, the use of forest and agricultural waste is on the rise, along with prices for wood residues. There has also been a large increase in demand for wood biomass in Europe over the past 5 years, resulting in higher costs of all wood fiber sources used for energy. By 2020, Europe has set a target that all energy should come from renewable energy sources, with a minimum of 10 per cent being biofuel for

  6. Worldwide seismicity in view of non-extensive statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochlaki, Kaliopi; Vallianatos, Filippos; Michas, George

    2014-05-01

    In the present work we study the distribution of worldwide shallow seismic events occurred from 1981 to 2011 extracted from the CMT catalog, with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.0. Our analysis based on the subdivision of the Earth surface into seismic zones that are homogeneous with regards to seismic activity and orientation of the predominant stress field. To this direction we use the Flinn-Engdahl regionalization (Flinn and Engdahl, 1965), which consists of 50 seismic zones as modified by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), where grouped the 50 FE zones into larger tectonically homogeneous ones, utilizing the cumulative moment tensor method. As a result Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), limit the initial 50 regions to 39 ones, in which we apply the non- extensive statistical physics approach. The non-extensive statistical physics seems to be the most adequate and promising methodological tool for analyzing complex systems, such as the Earth's interior. In this frame, we introduce the q-exponential formulation as the expression of probability distribution function that maximizes the Sq entropy as defined by Tsallis, (1988). In the present work we analyze the interevent time distribution between successive earthquakes by a q-exponential function in each of the seismic zones defined by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007).confirming the importance of long-range interactions and the existence of a power-law approximation in the distribution of the interevent times. Our findings supports the ideas of universality within the Tsallis approach to describe Earth's seismicity and present strong evidence on temporal clustering of seismic activity in each of the tectonic zones analyzed. Our analysis as applied in worldwide seismicity with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.5 and 6.) is presented and the dependence of our result on the cut-off magnitude is discussed. This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the

  7. Worldwide Protein Data Bank validation information: usage and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Oliver S; Horský, Vladimír; Gore, Swanand; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Bendová, Veronika; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Velankar, Sameer

    2018-03-01

    Realising the importance of assessing the quality of the biomolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) partners established Validation Task Forces to obtain advice on the methods and standards to be used to validate structures determined by X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and three-dimensional electron cryo-microscopy. The resulting wwPDB validation pipeline is an integral part of the wwPDB OneDep deposition, biocuration and validation system. The wwPDB Validation Service webserver (https://validate.wwpdb.org) can be used to perform checks prior to deposition. Here, it is shown how validation metrics can be combined to produce an overall score that allows the ranking of macromolecular structures and domains in search results. The ValTrends DB database provides users with a convenient way to access and analyse validation information and other properties of X-ray crystal structures in the PDB, including investigating trends in and correlations between different structure properties and validation metrics.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND WORLDWIDE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ANGLO NUBIAN GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Stemmer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the formation of the Anglo Nubian breed in Britain and follows up the original transfer of the founder breeds to Britain in the 19th century. An overview on the worldwide spread of the Anglo Nubian from Britain to the USA and Canada, later to Africa and Asia as well as Latin America is given. Information was compiled through project reports, literature, statistical records where available and accessible and interviews with experts. It is concluded that the Anglo Nubian is an example of a breed developed by combining genetic resources from different parts of the world joining performance and adaptation to tropical conditions. The breed spread to all continents. Apart from being kept as purebreds, it is more often used in crossbreeding programmes in different regions of the world. The value of this genetic resource has been recognized a long time ago, but there seem to be no efforts to counteract the danger of loosing it by excessive use in uncontrolled crossbreeding.

  9. Evolution of reproductive life histories in island birds worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, Rita

    2012-04-22

    Island environments typically share characteristics such as impoverished biotas and less-seasonal climates, which should be conducive to specific adaptations by organisms. However, with the exception of morphological studies, broad-scale tests of patterns of adaptation on islands are rare. Here, I examine reproductive patterns in island birds worldwide. Reproductive life histories are influenced by latitude, which could affect the response to insularity; therefore, I additionally test this hypothesis. Island colonizers showed mostly bi-parental care, but there was a significant increase in cooperative breeding on islands. Additionally, I found support for previous suggestions of reduced fecundity, longer developmental periods and increased investment in young on islands. However, clutch size increased with latitude at a rate nearly five times faster on the mainland than on the islands revealing a substantially stronger effect of insularity at higher latitudes. Latitude and insularity may also interact to determine egg volume and incubation periods, but these effects were less clear. Analyses of reproductive success did not support an effect of reduced nest predation as a driver of reproductive change, but this requires further study. The effect of latitude detected here suggests that the evolutionary changes associated with insularity relate to environmental stability and improved adult survival.

  10. A long-term view of worldwide fossil fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a long-term trend of worldwide fossil fuel prices in the future by introducing a new method to forecast oil, natural gas and coal prices. The first section of this study analyses the global fossil fuel market and the historical trend of real and nominal fossil fuel prices from 1950 to 2008. Historical fossil fuel price analysis shows that coal prices are decreasing, while natural gas prices are increasing. The second section reviews previously available price modelling techniques and proposes a new comprehensive version of the long-term trend reverting jump and dip diffusion model. The third section uses the new model to forecast fossil fuel prices in nominal and real terms from 2009 to 2018. The new model follows the extrapolation of the historical sinusoidal trend of nominal and real fossil fuel prices. The historical trends show an increase in nominal/real oil and natural gas prices plus nominal coal prices, as well as a decrease in real coal prices. Furthermore, the new model forecasts that oil, natural gas and coal will stay in jump for the next couple of years and after that they will revert back to the long-term trend until 2018. (author)

  11. Worldwide dispersion and deposition of radionuclides produced in atmospheric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Burton G

    2002-05-01

    Radionuclides produced in atmospheric nuclear tests were widely dispersed in the global environment. From the many measurements of the concentrations in air and the deposition amounts, much was learned of atmospheric circulation and environmental processes. Based on these results and the reported fission and total yields of individual tests, it has been possible to devise an empirical model of the movement and residence times of particles in the various atmospheric regions. This model, applied to all atmospheric weapons tests, allows extensive calculations of air concentrations and deposition amounts for the entire range of radionuclides produced throughout the testing period. Especially for the shorter-lived fission radionuclides, for which measurement results at the time of the tests are less extensive, a more complete picture of levels and isotope ratios can be obtained, forming a basis for improved dose estimations. The contributions to worldwide fallout can be inferred from individual tests, from tests at specific sites, or by specific countries. Progress was also made in understanding the global hydrological and carbon cycles from the tritium and 14C measurements. A review of the global measurements and modeling results is presented in this paper. In the future, if injections of materials into the atmosphere occur, their anticipated motions and fates can be predicted from the knowledge gained from the fallout experience.

  12. Worldwide satellite communications for the energy utility industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Recent and future generations of low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are promising new possibilities for using space communications to achieve operational improvements and business expansion in energy supply and delivery industries. The ability to reach remote locations with relatively inexpensive devices and infrastructure is a unique property of satellites. Applications include remote monitoring and control of distributed resources and emergency and personal communication. Satellite systems are emerging as a significant opportunity for investment minded utilities. Over a dozen groups are planning to launch a total of 1200 LEOs in the period from 1996 to 2006, at a probable cost of over $20 Billion. This large number of systems can provide a worldwide mix of narrow band and wideband services including data, voice, video and Internet access. This paper examines the two primary factors which have limited applications in the energy industry: cost and propagation delay. The former has so far limited the technology to fixed communications with a few important sites such as remote substations. The latter has rendered the technology unsuitable for applications where critical protection mechanisms are involved. These constraints are effectively countered by the emerging LEO systems. Big LEOs will be used for voice service, little LEOs will be the systems of choice for most utility data applications. The author concludes that there are good technical and business reasons to reconsider future satellite communications as an option for meeting certain strategic business objectives in power system management and customer oriented information services

  13. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  14. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yan; Zhang Yulei; Fan Li; Chen Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  15. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the "title-abstract" keyword search on esp@cenet "worldwide" database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant "home advantage." The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  16. Migration: an opportunity for the improved management of tuberculosis worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Falzon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Migration, both within and between countries, has increased worldwide in recent years. While migration in itself need not present a risk to health, it is often characterized by increased stress and individual vulnerability to disease and inequalities in access to care.

    Migrants from high tuberculosis (TB prevalence countries may be at risk of TB before leaving their country, during travel and after resettlement. In many high-income countries, more than half of the TB cases emerging today occur in patients born in another country. In less affluent countries, shifts in TB epidemiology associated with population movements are also being reported. Foreign-born persons often face several barriers to care in a new country as a result of inadequate knowledge of, or coverage by, the health care services, differences in culture and language, lack of money, comorbidity, concern about discrimination and fear of expulsion. National authorities apply different policies to screen migrants for TB and to provide preventive or curative treatment, with varying coverage, yield and effectiveness.

    If screening is to be of use, it needs to fit into a broader national strategy for TB care and management. Appropriate treatment needs to be provided in a manner conducive to its full completion. This is critical both for the individual patient and for public health. We discuss the main associations between TB and migration based on data from recent publications on surveillance, policy and practice.

  17. Canine parvovirus: the worldwide occurrence of antigenic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-09-01

    The most important enteric virus infecting canids is canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). CPV is the aetiologic agent of a contagious disease, mainly characterized by clinical gastroenteritis signs in younger dogs. CPV-2 emerged as a new virus in the late 1970s, which could infect domestic dogs, and became distributed in the global dog population within 2 years. A few years later, the virus's original type was replaced by a new genetic and antigenic variant, called CPV-2a. Around 1984 and 2000, virus variants with the single change to Asp or Glu in the VP2 residue 426 were detected (sometimes termed CPV-2b and -2c). The genetic and antigenic changes in the variants have also been correlated with changes in their host range; in particular, in the ability to replicate in cats and also host range differences in canine and other tissue culture cells. CPV-2 variants have been circulating among wild carnivores and have been well-documented in several countries around the world. Here, we have reviewed and summarized the current information about the worldwide distribution and evolution of CPV-2 variants since they emerged, as well as the host ranges they are associated with.

  18. Therapeutic patient education in atopic dermatitis: worldwide experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Jean-Francois; Bernier, Claire; Ball, Alan; De Raeve, Linda; Gieler, Uwe; Deleuran, Mette; Marcoux, Danielle; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Lio, Peter; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Gelmetti, Carlo; Takaoka, Roberto; Chiaverini, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has proven effective in increasing treatment adherence and improving quality of life (QoL) for patients with numerous chronic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis (AD). This study was undertaken to identify worldwide TPE experiences in AD treatment. Experts from 23 hospitals, located in 11 countries, responded to a questionnaire on 10 major items. Patients in TPE programs were mainly children and adolescents with moderate to severe AD or markedly affected QoL. Individual and collective approaches were used. Depending on the center, the number of sessions varied from one to six (corresponding to 2 to 12 hours of education), and 20 to 200 patients were followed each year. Each center's education team comprised multidisciplinary professionals (e.g., doctors, nurses, psychologists). Evaluations were based on clinical assessment, QoL, a satisfaction index, or some combination of the three. When funding was obtained, it came from regional health authorities (France), insurance companies (Germany), donations (United States), or pharmaceutical firms (Japan, Italy). The role of patient associations was always highlighted, but their involvement in the TPE process varied from one country to another. Despite the nonexhaustive approach, our findings demonstrate the increasing interest in TPE for managing individuals with AD. In spite of the cultural and financial differences between countries, there is a consensus among experts to integrate education into the treatment of eczema. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Guerre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied.

  20. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-11-24

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied.

  1. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  3. Internal audit practices and trends in Romania and worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela-Corina CHERSAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, internal audit has been seen mainly as an activity of providing assistance to external auditors, especially by checking up accounting procedures as part of the internal control evaluation process. At present, while this role of the internal auditor has not disappeared, the role of consultant manager has gained primary importance. In this context, it is increasingly obvious that the professional profile of the internal auditor will undergo changes generated not only by the changes in the role that he or she fulfils, but also by the challenges that the business world needs to deal with: risk management, increasingly sophisticated information technology, data mining etc. This study relies on the information provided by The Institute of Internal Auditors Research Foundation – IIARF which includes data extracted from The Global Internal Audit Common Body of Knowledge – CBOK database, and it aims to point out the practices and trends regarding internal audit in Romania and worldwide, and, respectively, the competencies traditionally required from internal auditors, their views on the skills they master and on the scope of their further skill development.

  4. Engelhard and IFP/Procatalyse set up worldwide catalysts venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1992-01-01

    The new joint venture between Engelhard (Iselin, N) and Procatalyse (Paris), jointly owned by process licenser Institut Francais de Petrole (IFP; Rueil Malmaison, France) and Rhone-Poulenc (RP; Paris), marks the latest episode in the worldwide catalyst industry's restructuring. The operation will combine Engelhard's catalyst line, apart from its fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and emission catalysts, with Procatalyse's offering. To be launched at the beginning of 1993, the venture will have annual sales of about $75 million. Reforming catalysts will be the biggest part of the venture's lineup at the outset, making it number three in the US, behind UOP - which dominates the sector - and Criterion. IFP is starting to establish a presence in North America with its reforming technology. But flat gasoline demand and reductions on aromatics in gasoline limit requirements for new reforming units, comments one competitor. Although lower sulfur specifications are putting some new demand into the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst market, both partners play down their prospects. The sector, whose leaders are Akzo and Crtierion, is continuing to suffer from severe overcapacity. Procatalyse's HDS business is mainly linked to IFP licensees, while Engelhard is due to mothball its Salt Lake City HDS catalyst plant by year-end, transferring output to Elyria

  5. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996

  6. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  7. Seismic reevaluation of nuclear facilities worldwide: Overview and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.D.; Hardy, G.S.; Ravindra, M.K.; Johnson, J.J.; Hoy, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Existing nuclear facilities throughout the world are being subjected to severe scrutiny of their safety in tile event of an earthquake. In the United States, there have been several licensing and safety review issues for which industry and regulatory agencies have cooperated to develop rational and economically feasible criteria for resolving the issues. Currently, all operating nuclear power plants in the United States are conducting an Individual Plant Examination of External Events, including earthquakes beyond tile design basis. About two-thirds of tile operating plants are conducting parallel programs for verifying, tile seismic adequacy of equipment for the design basis earthquake. The U.S. Department of Energy is also beginning to perform detailed evaluations of their facilities, many of which had little or no seismic design. Western European countries also have been reevaluating their older nuclear power plants for seismic events often adapting the criteria developed in the United States. With the change in tile political systems in Eastern Europe, there is a strong emphasis from their Western European neighbors to evaluate and Upgrade tile safely of their operating nuclear power plants. Finally, nuclear facilities in Asia are, also, being evaluated for seismic vulnerabilities. This paper focuses oil tile methodologies that have been developed for reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants and presents examples of the application of these methodologies to nuclear facilities worldwide. (author)

  8. Air quality inside subway metro indoor environment worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Hao, Jinliang

    2017-10-01

    The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure. Commuters' exposure to various air pollutants in metro carriages may cause perceivable health risk as reported by many environmental health studies. This review summarizes significant findings in the literature on air quality inside metro indoor environment, including pollutant concentration levels, chemical species, related sources and health risk assessment. More than 160 relevant studies performed across over 20 countries were carefully reviewed. These comprised more than 2000 individual measurement trips. Particulate matters, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls and airborne bacteria have been identified as the primary air pollutants inside metro system. On this basis, future work could focus on investigating the chronic health risks of exposure to various air pollutants other than PM, and/or further developing advanced air purification unit to improve metro in-station air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Yan, E-mail: ydang@email.arizona.edu; Zhang Yulei, E-mail: ylzhang@email.arizona.edu; Fan Li, E-mail: fanli@email.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun, E-mail: hchen@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  10. Seismic reevaluation of nuclear facilities worldwide: Overview and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R D; Hardy, G S; Ravindra, M K [EQE International, Irvine, CA (United States); Johnson, J J [EQE International, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hoy, A J [EQE International Ltd., Birchwood, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    Existing nuclear facilities throughout the world are being subjected to severe scrutiny of their safety in tile event of an earthquake. In the United States, there have been several licensing and safety review issues for which industry and regulatory agencies have cooperated to develop rational and economically feasible criteria for resolving the issues. Currently, all operating nuclear power plants in the United States are conducting an Individual Plant Examination of External Events, including earthquakes beyond tile design basis. About two-thirds of tile operating plants are conducting parallel programs for verifying, tile seismic adequacy of equipment for the design basis earthquake. The U.S. Department of Energy is also beginning to perform detailed evaluations of their facilities, many of which had little or no seismic design. Western European countries also have been reevaluating their older nuclear power plants for seismic events often adapting the criteria developed in the United States. With the change in tile political systems in Eastern Europe, there is a strong emphasis from their Western European neighbors to evaluate and Upgrade tile safely of their operating nuclear power plants. Finally, nuclear facilities in Asia are, also, being evaluated for seismic vulnerabilities. This paper focuses oil tile methodologies that have been developed for reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants and presents examples of the application of these methodologies to nuclear facilities worldwide. (author)

  11. A Space-Based Learning Service for Schools Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Norman A.; Gibson, Alan

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines a scheme for international collaboration to enrich the use of space in school education, to improve students' learning about science and related subjects and to enhance the continuity of science-related studies after the age of 16. Guidelines are presented for the design of an on-line learning service to provide schools worldwide with:- interactive curriculum-related learning resources for teaching about space and through - access to a purpose-designed education satellite or satellites; - opportunities for hands-on work by students in out-of-school hours; - news about space developments to attract, widen and deepen initial interest among teachers - support services to enable teachers to make effective use of the learning service. The Learning Service is the product of almost twenty years of experience by a significant number of UK schools in experimenting with, and in using, satellites and space to aid learning; and over four years of study and development by the SpaceLink Learning Foundation - a private-sector, not- for-profit UK registered charity, which is dedicated to help in increasing both the supply of scientists and engineers and the public understanding of science. This initiative provides scope for, and could benefit from, the involvement of relevant/interested organisations drawn from different countries. The Foundation would be ready, from its UK base, to be among such a group of initiating organisations.

  12. Assessment of the worldwide burden of critical illness: the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, J.L.; Marshall, J.C.; Namendys-Silva, S.A.; Francois, B.; Martin-Loeches, I.; Lipman, J.; Reinhart, K.; Antonelli, M.; Pickkers, P.; Njimi, H.; Jimenez, E.; Sakr, Y.; investigators, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global epidemiological data regarding outcomes for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are scarce, but are important in understanding the worldwide burden of critical illness. We, therefore, did an international audit of ICU patients worldwide and assessed variations between

  13. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  14. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  15. 75 FR 28298 - Avaya Inc., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support Services (GSS) Organization, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support Services (GSS) Organization, Including On-Site Leased Workers From..., Highlands Ranch, CO; Including Employees in Support of Avaya Inc., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support... workers of Avaya Inc., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support Services (GSS) Organization, including on...

  16. Worldwide complete spherical Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.

    2011-12-01

    We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface "free air", Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). The free air and Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, submitted). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) (Pavlis

  17. Nursing Informatics Certification Worldwide: History, Pathway, Roles, and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, M. R.; Gundlapalli, A. V.; Murray, P.; Park, H.-A.; Lehmann, C. U.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Official recognition and certification for informatics professionals are essential aspects of workforce development. Objective: To describe the history, pathways, and nuances of certification in nursing informatics across the globe; compare and contrast those with board certification in clinical informatics for physicians. Methods (1) A review of the representative literature on informatics certification and related competencies for nurses and physicians, and relevant websites for nursing informatics associations and societies worldwide; (2) similarities and differences between certification processes for nurses and physicians, and (3) perspectives on roles for nursing informatics professionals in healthcare Results The literature search for ‘nursing informatics certification’ yielded few results in PubMed; Google Scholar yielded a large number of citations that extended to magazines and other non-peer reviewed sources. Worldwide, there are several nursing informatics associations, societies, and workgroups dedicated to nursing informatics associated with medical/health informatics societies. A formal certification program for nursing informatics appears to be available only in the United States. This certification was established in 1992, in concert with the formation and definition of nursing informatics as a specialty practice of nursing by the American Nurses Association. Although informatics is inherently interprofessional, certification pathways for nurses and physicians have developed separately, following long-standing professional structures, training, and pathways aligned with clinical licensure and direct patient care. There is substantial similarity with regard to the skills and competencies required for nurses and physicians to obtain informatics certification in their respective fields. Nurses may apply for and complete a certification examination if they have experience in the field, regardless of formal training. Increasing

  18. Publication status of contemporary oncology randomised controlled trials worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Liu, Xu; Lv, Jia-Wei; Li, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Ma, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the extent of selective publication in contemporary oncology randomised controlled trials (RCTs) worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the rates of publication and timely publication (within 24 months) for contemporary oncology RCTs from all over the world. We also investigated the trial characteristics associated with publication and timely publication. We identified all phase III oncology RCTs registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with a primary completion date between January 2008 and December 2012. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify publications. The final search date was 31 December 2015. Our primary outcome measure was the time to publication from the primary completion date to the date of primary publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We identified 598 completed oncology RCTs; overall, 398 (66.6%) had been published. For published trials, the median time to publication was 25 months (interquartile range, 16-37 months). Only 192 trials (32.1%) were published within 24 months. Timely publication was independently associated with trials completed late in 2012. Trials conducted in Asia and other regions were less likely to have timely publication, but trials conducted in different locations were all equally likely to be published. Industry- and NIH-funded trials were equally likely to be published timely or at any time after trial completion. Among 391 published trials with clear primary outcomes, there was a trend for timely publication of positive trials compared with negative trials. Despite the ethical obligations and societal expectations of disclosing findings promptly, oncology RCTs performed poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bariatric Surgery and Endoluminal Procedures: IFSO Worldwide Survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, L; Santonicola, A; Iovino, P; Vitiello, A; Zundel, N; Buchwald, H; Scopinaro, N

    2017-09-01

    Several bariatric surgery worldwide surveys have been previously published to illustrate the evolution of bariatric surgery in the last decades. The aim of this survey is to report an updated overview of all bariatric procedures performed in 2014.For the first time, a special section on endoluminal techniques was added. The 2014 International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO) survey form evaluating the number and the type of surgical and endoluminal bariatric procedures was emailed to all IFSO societies. Trend analyses from 2011 to 2014 were also performed. There were 56/60 (93.3%) responders. The total number of bariatric/metabolic procedures performed in 2014 consisted of 579,517 (97.6%) surgical operations and 14,725 (2.4%) endoluminal procedures. The most commonly performed procedure in the world was sleeve gastrectomy (SG) that reached 45.9%, followed by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (39.6%), and adjustable gastric banding (AGB) (7.4%). The annual percentage changes from 2013 revealed the increase of SG and decrease of RYGB in all the IFSO regions (USA/Canada, Europe, and Asia/Pacific) with the exception of Latin/South America, where SG decreased and RYGB represented the most frequent procedure. There was a further increase in the total number of bariatric/metabolic procedures in 2014 and SG is currently the most frequent surgical procedure in the world. This is the first survey that describes the endoluminal procedures, but the accuracy of provided data should be hopefully improved in the next future. We encourage the creation of further national registries and their continuous updates taking into account all new bariatric procedures including the endoscopic procedures that will obtain increasing importance in the near future.

  20. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  1. Key Figures on Climate France and Worldwide 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Each year, CDC Climate Research publishes in partnership with the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing (MEDDTL) the Key Figures on Climate - France and Worldwide, in the Highlights Series. This publication aims at gathering all the relevant data relating the scientific analysis of climate change, greenhouses gas emissions, in particular CO 2 emissions linked to energy use, and the emissions reduction-targeted economic policies. Contents: Part 1 - Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect - Humans and the Greenhouse Effect - Stocks and Flows of GHGs: The Example of CO 2 - Increase in Atmospheric GHG Levels - Concentrations and Temperatures - Global Warming - Warming Differentiated by Latitude - Consequences of Global Warming. Part 2 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Snapshot of Global GHG Emissions - European Panorama of GHGs - French Panorama of GHGs. Part 3 - Energy-related CO 2 Emissions in the World: Energy-related CO 2 emissions - CO 2 Emissions due to Electricity Production including CHP Plants - CO 2 Emission Factors. Part 4 - CO 2 Emissions by Sector in Europe and in France: Fuel Combustion: the Largest Emitter of CO 2 - CO 2 Emissions due to Energy Production and Conversion - Transportation-related CO 2 Emissions - Industry-related CO 2 Emissions - CO 2 Emissions in the Other Sectors - CO 2 Emissions excluding Fuel Combustion. Part 5 - Climate Policies: The Kyoto Protocol - The Tradable Permit Market - Project Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol - Other Initiatives to Reduce Emissions - The European Union's Commitment - The European CO 2 Market (EU ETS) - The Carbon Price in the EU ETS - States Climate Policy: The Case of France. Practical information: CO 2 Key Figures - Glossary of Terms - Useful Links

  2. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Crick, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO-as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS-the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as record keeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  3. WANO Actions to Reinforce the Operators’ Safety Culture Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regaldo, J., E-mail: jacques.regaldo@edf.fr [WANO, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: WANO’s mission is to maximize the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants worldwide by working together to assess, to benchmark and improve performance through mutual support, exchange of information and emulation of best practices. Fukushima accident strongly impacted the nuclear community and it also brought WANO to question its positioning and scope of activities. Five strategic actions have hence been decided to strengthen WANO’s role, aiming to bring a more consistent, transparent and integrated response to the nuclear operators. WANO peer review process, which constitutes its core-business, has been intensified including corporate and pre start up peer reviews and, for Japanese plants, restart reviews. WANO also decided to expand its scope of activity to include elements of design, based on the principle that the role of a nuclear operator is not only to operate safely, but also to be sure that the plant he is operating is safe. WANO aims to cooperate strongly at both regional and international levels with all international safety organizations, being convinced that trust can be recovered with a strong safety commitment and credibility of both regulators and operators. All operators, without exception, are WANO members; if membership is voluntary, members have to fulfil strict obligations. Safety supposes that no operator feels isolated, or refuses openness and permanent self-questioning; it requests as well for WANO to ensure that cultural and sometimes political barriers do not hinder safety culture – the accident of Fukushima is from this perspective rich in teachings. In WANO, we believe that management system and practices are at the centre of safety culture, and a full involvement of top management (CEOs) of our members is absolutely requested. Through its commitments and rules, WANO pressures its members and help them reaching the highest possible standard of safety. We consider that we rely on each other to improve safety

  4. Evidence for a complex of emergent poleroviruses affecting pepper worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Hermosilla, Elisa; Ferro, Camila G; Zerbini, F Murilo; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, symptoms of vein yellowing and leaf roll in pepper crops associated with the presence of poleroviruses (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) have been emerging in many countries worldwide. Spain was the first country in Europe where the yellowing disease of pepper was observed. In this work, a polerovirus isolate from Spain that infects pepper and has been shown to be transmitted by the aphid Aphis gossyppii (Spain-Almería 2-2013) was sequenced and compared with isolates from Japan, Israel, China and Australia. The genome (6125 nt in length, GenBank accession number KY523072) of the isolate from Spain has the typical organization of poleroviruses and contains seven open reading frames (ORF0 to ORF5 and ORF3a), putatively encoding proteins P0 to P5 and P3a. A comparison of the sequence from Spain with the four complete sequences available for poleroviruses infecting pepper showed a closer relationship to the isolate from Israel and supports the existence of a complex of at least five polerovirus species. Given that the symptoms caused by all pepper poleroviruses described to date are similar, if not identical, we propose to name them "pepper vein yellows virus 1" to "pepper vein yellows virus 5" (PeVYV-1 to PeVYV-5), with PeVYV-5 corresponding to the polerovirus from Spain described in this work. Our results and those published over the last few years have shown that the emergent poleroviruses threatening pepper crops around the world are highly complex due to recombination events.

  5. Nondestructive testing and evaluation of wood : a worldwide research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Voichita Bucur; Ferenc Divos; Raquel Goncalves; Jianxiong Lu; Roger Meder; Roy F. Pellerin; Simon Potter; Robert J Ross; Xiping Wang; Yafang. Yin

    2009-01-01

    The international forest products research community is responding to these driving forces by conducting NDT/NDE research to provide the technologies needed to address these challenges. This article presents a sample of the on-going NDT/NDE research efforts being conducted in several areas of the world.

  6. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera: A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Jeong Ahn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state. Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the

  7. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    stakeholders fully informed of project plans and hold periodic meetings to brief the public, especially in the vicinity of the selected site. This procedure has now been widely adopted and represents one of the most important developments in the Third Worldwide Review

  8. Worldwide increase in diabetes: implications for tuberculosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher-Hoch SP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Susan P Fisher-HochDivision of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Science, University of Texas School of Public Health, Brownsville Campus, Brownsville, TX, USAAbstract: Diabetes presents a greater threat to global tuberculosis (TB control than previously appreciated, with risk of reversing the achievements of several decades. An estimated 382 million people worldwide currently have diabetes, half of whom are undiagnosed. Most live in low- and middle-income countries alongside many of the two billion individuals infected with TB. Though the frequency of TB in type 1 diabetes was known for centuries, only recently have we observed the tripling of TB in type 2 diabetes, most significantly in high-burden TB populations such as in Peru, Russia, and the People's Republic of China. In India diabetes is estimated to have increased TB cases by 46% between 1998 and 2008. Diabetes is a greater long-term threat to TB control than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS since ten-fold more people are affected by diabetes than HIV/AIDS in larger geographic areas. Diabetes in TB increases drug resistance, treatment failure, and mortality, and may increase the spread of drug-resistant strains. Delayed or missed diagnosis fuels transmission of TB and hinders control of diabetes. Tailored treatment for diabetes patients requires well-designed clinical trials. The World Health Organization (WHO framework for care and control of diabetes and TB needs improved screening strategies. Determination of how best to establish bi-directional screening is hampered by lack of affordable and reliable methods. Recommendations include education of health care providers, patients, and communities. Structured diabetes programs with registries and effective follow-up could be modeled on and communicate with existing TB programs. Vital research should address new diagnostic tools, lowering cost and evaluation of intervention

  9. Fragrance contact dermatitis: a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, W; Nakayama, H; Lindberg, M; Fischer, T; Elsner, P; Burrows, D; Jordan, W; Shaw, S; Wilkinson, J; Marks, J; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, J

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients with suspect fragrance allergy and to evaluate risk factors and associations with such responses. The validity of using specific fragrance ingredients versus a mixture of fragrances was evaluated in terms of predicting allergy to different fragrance ingredients. One hundred sixty-seven subjects were evaluated in seven centers worldwide with a fragrance mix, the eight ingredients in the fragrance mixture, six other well-known fragrance allergens, balsam of Peru, and 15 lesser studied fragrance materials. The age of the patients was 44.9 +/- 17.5 years (mean +/- SD). More than 85% were women. A relatively high proportion gave a past history of atopic disease. Facial eruptions (40%) and hand involvement (26.7%) were the most common topographic sites. All but 4 of the 35 fragrance materials produced a positive response in > 1%. A reaction to fragrance mix occurred in 47.3%. Seven of the 34 ingredients tested produced an allergic response in more than 10% of those tested. Men were more likely than women to exhibit a positive response to five fragrance ingredients. White persons were more likely to react to perfume mix (52.8% versus 25.3%) and certain ingredients in the mix than Asian persons. Allergy to benzyl salicylate was more common in Japan than in Europe or the United States. The age at which patients with perfume allergy present for evaluation is similar to that of other contactants. Atopic individuals may be overrepresented in this group of patients. Face involvement is likely. White persons are more likely to react to fragrance mix, whereas in Asian patients benzyl salicylate was a more frequent allergen. Fragrance mix corrected with 85.6% of positive responses to fragrance ingredients. The addition of ylang ylang oil, narcissus oil, and sandalwood oil to fragrance mix would be expected to pick up 94.2% with positive responses to fragrance materials

  10. Retention performance of green roofs in representative climates worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, F.; Hellies, M.; Deidda, R.

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing process of global urbanization contributes to an increase in stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces, threatening also water quality. Green roofs have been proved to be innovative stormwater management measures to partially restore natural states, enhancing interception, infiltration and evapotranspiration fluxes. The amount of water that is retained within green roofs depends not only on their depth, but also on the climate, which drives the stochastic soil moisture dynamic. In this context, a simple tool for assessing performance of green roofs worldwide in terms of retained water is still missing and highly desirable for practical assessments. The aim of this work is to explore retention performance of green roofs as a function of their depth and in different climate regimes. Two soil depths are investigated, one representing the intensive configuration and another representing the extensive one. The role of the climate in driving water retention has been represented by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration dynamics. A simple conceptual weather generator has been implemented and used for stochastic simulation of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Stochastic forcing is used as an input of a simple conceptual hydrological model for estimating long-term water partitioning between rainfall, runoff and actual evapotranspiration. Coupling the stochastic weather generator with the conceptual hydrological model, we assessed the amount of rainfall diverted into evapotranspiration for different combinations of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in five representative climatic regimes. Results quantified the capabilities of green roofs in retaining rainfall and consequently in reducing discharges into sewer systems at an annual time scale. The role of substrate depth has been recognized to be crucial in determining green roofs retention performance, which in general increase from extensive to intensive settings. Looking at the

  11. Genomic Diversity Using Copy Number Variations in Worldwide Chicken Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Gorla

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many studies in livestock have focused on the identification of Copy Number Variants (CNVs using high-density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP arrays, but few have focused on studying chicken ecotypes coming from many locations. CNVs are polymorphisms, which may influence phenotype and are an important source of genetic variation in populations. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic difference and structure, using a high density SNP chip in 936 individuals from seven different countries (Brazil, Italy, Egypt, Mexico, Rwanda, Sri Lanka and Uganda. The DNA was genotyped with the Affymetrix Axiom®600k Chicken Genotyping Array and processed with stringent quality controls to obtain 559,201 SNPs in 915 individuals. The Log R Ratio (LRR and the B Allele Frequency of SNPs were used to perform the CNV calling with PennCNV software based on a Hidden Markov Model analysis and the LRR was used to perform CNV detection with SVS Golden Helix software.After filtering, a total of 19,027 CNVs were detected with the SVS software, while 9,065 CNVs were identified with the Penn CNV software. The CNVs were summarized in 7,001 Copy Number Variant Regions (CNVRs and 4,414 CNVRs, using the software BedTool.The consensus analysis across the CNVRs allowed the identification of 2,820 consensus CNVR, of which 1,721 were gain, 637 loss and 462 complex, for a total length of 53 Mb corresponding to the 5 % of the GalGal5 chicken autosomes. Only the consensus CNV regions obtained from both detections were considered for further analysis.The intersection analysis performed between the chicken gene database (Gallus_gallus-5.0 and the 1,927 consensus CNVRs allowed the identification (within or partial overlap of a total of 2,354 unique genes with an official gene ID.  The CNVRs identified here represent the first comprehensive mapping in several worldwide populations, using a high-density SNP chip.

  12. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  13. Epidemiology of worldwide spinal cord injury: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Kang,1,2,* Han Ding,1,2,* Hengxing Zhou,1,2 Zhijian Wei,1,2 Lu Liu,1,2 Dayu Pan,1,2 Shiqing Feng1,2 1Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 2Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-Neuroinjury Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Study design: A literature review of worldwide epidemiology of spinal cord injury (SCI. Objectives: To review the epidemiological indicators of SCI, such as incidence, prevalence, demographic characteristics, etiology, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality. Setting: The Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, ­Heping District, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Methods: We searched articles published in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and the Web of ­Science between January 1993 and June 2017 using the key words “spinal cord injury”, “­traumatic spinal cord injury”, “non-traumatic spinal cord injury” and “epidemiology”. The incidence, etiology, prevalence, patient demographics, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality were reviewed from the articles. Results: The epidemiology of SCI has changed. Motor vehicle accidents and falls have become the most common reasons of injury gradually. Incidence of SCI varies by regions or countries, and it has gradually increased with the expansion of human activities. The number of male patients were significantly more than female, the average age of patients with SCI had a tendency to increase gradually. The cervical level of spine was the most common part of injury; there were more number of patients with tetraplegia than patients with paraplegia. Electrolyte disturbances, pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections and bedsores were the four most common complications. Conclusion: We must have a greater

  14. The future of nuclear power: A world-wide perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Ismail

    This study analyzes the future of commercial nuclear electric generation worldwide using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept. The Tobit panel data estimation technique is applied to analyze the data between 1980 and 1998 for 105 countries. EKC assumes that low-income countries increase their nuclear reliance in total electric production whereas high-income countries decrease their nuclear reliance. Hence, we expect that high-income countries should shut down existing nuclear reactors and/or not build any new ones. We encounter two reasons for shutdowns: economic or political/environmental concerns. To distinguish these two effects, reasons for shut down are also investigated by using the Hazard Model technique. Hence, the load factor of a reactor is used as an approximation for economic reason to shut down the reactor. If a shut downed reactor had high load factor, this could be attributable to political/environmental concern or else economic concern. The only countries with nuclear power are considered in this model. The two data sets are created. In the first data set, the single entry for each reactor is created as of 1998 whereas in the second data set, the multiple entries are created for each reactor beginning from 1980 to 1998. The dependent variable takes 1 if operational or zero if shut downed. The empirical findings provide strong evidence for EKC relationship for commercial nuclear electric generation. Furthermore, higher natural resources suggest alternative electric generation methods rather than nuclear power. Economic index as an institutional variable suggests higher the economic freedom, lower the nuclear electric generation as expected. This model does not support the idea to cut the carbon dioxide emission via increasing nuclear share. The Hazard Model findings suggest that higher the load factor is, less likely the reactor will shut down. However, if it is still permanently closed downed, then this could be attributable to political

  15. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.

    2001-12-01

    stakeholders fully informed of project plans and hold periodic meetings to brief the public, especially in the vicinity of the selected site. This procedure has now been widely adopted and represents one of the most important developments in the Third Worldwide Review.

  16. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  17. Studying genetic diversity of whitefly B. tabaci Egyptian isolates in relation to some worldwide isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Farouk Fahmy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae is considered to be one of the most damaging pests in agriculture, causing severe losses in crops worldwide, affecting the tropical and subtropical regions. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR was used to assess the genetic diversity between different isolates collected from different regions in Egypt compared with some other worldwide isolates of this insect pest. Out of 12 primers 8 primers from Operon technology have shown to differentiate between 13 collected B. tabaci samples from all over Egypt and some other samples collected from different countries with two other populations representing biotypes A and B collected from the US used for biotype demarcation. Using 13 insect samples, RAPD analysis has produced a total number of 72 markers; about 68 polymorphic markers were revealed. The total number of bands obtained for each primer ranged from 4 to 14 within an average of 9 bands per primer. Of the pair wise combination among fifteen populations Ismailia population showed the highest similarity index (0.947, while US biotype A scored the lowest similarity index (0.326. Two major clusters were formed from the UPGMA dendrogram, which was constructed based on Dice similarity coefficient. RAPD-PCR screening demarcated the whitefly population based on the host species and genetic biotypes. Two major clusters have been revealed as A and B with two other minor clusters A1, A2, and B1, B2. Most of the samples collected from Egypt were clustered together in a minor cluster named A1. A1 group is divided into two sub-groups. A1a comprises the populations from Beni-Sweif in Upper Egypt, Ismailia, Kalyobia, El-Fayoum, Tanta, Kafr El-Sheikh, Alexandria, and A1b comprises Spain and Sudan. Group A1a is clustered together based on their host which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family while Alexandria was separated individually based on its host which is cauliflower. Through

  18. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  19. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of

  20. The worldwide NORM production and a fully automated gamma-ray spectrometer for their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xhixha, G.; Callegari, I.; Guastaldi, E.; De Bianchi, S.; Fiorentini, G.; Universita di Ferrara, Ferrara; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; Kaceli Xhixha, M.

    2013-01-01

    Materials containing radionuclides of natural origin and being subject to regulation because of their radioactivity are known as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). By following International Atomic Energy Agency, we include in NORM those materials with an activity concentration, which is modified by human made processes. We present a brief review of the main categories of non-nuclear industries together with the levels of activity concentration in feed raw materials, products and waste, including mechanisms of radioisotope enrichments. The global management of NORM shows a high level of complexity, mainly due to different degrees of radioactivity enhancement and the huge amount of worldwide waste production. The future tendency of guidelines concerning environmental protection will require both a systematic monitoring based on the ever-increasing sampling and high performance of gamma-ray spectroscopy. On the ground of these requirements a new low-background fully automated high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer MCA R ad has been developed. The design of lead and cooper shielding allowed to reach a background reduction of two order of magnitude with respect to laboratory radioactivity. A severe lowering of manpower cost is obtained through a fully automation system, which enables up to 24 samples to be measured without any human attendance. Two coupled HPGe detectors increase the detection efficiency, performing accurate measurements on small sample volume (180 cm 3 ) with a reduction of sample transport cost of material. Details of the instrument calibration method are presented. MCA R ad system can measure in less than one hour a typical NORM sample enriched in U and Th with some hundreds of Bq kg -1 , with an overall uncertainty less than 5 %. Quality control of this method has been tested. Measurements of three certified reference materials RGK-1, RGU-2 and RGTh-1 containing concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium comparable to NORM have

  1. Improvements in world-wide intercomparison of PV module calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Salis, E.; Pavanello, D.; Field, M.; Kräling, U.; Neuberger, F.; Kiefer, K.; Osterwald, C.; Rummel, S.; Levi, D.; Hishikawa, Y.; Yamagoe, K.; Ohshima, H.; Yoshita, M.; Müllejans, H.

    2017-01-01

    The calibration of the electrical performance for seven photovoltaic (PV) modules was compared between four reference laboratories on three continents. The devices included two samples in standard and two in high-efficiency crystalline silicon technology, two CI(G)S and one CdTe module. The reference value for each PV module parameter was calculated from the average of the results of all four laboratories, weighted by the respective measurement uncertainties. All single results were then anal...

  2. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and

  3. Bacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schupp James M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP. These studies reinforced the presence of three major lineages and 12 sub-lineages and sub-groups of this anthrax-causing pathogen. Isolates that form the A lineage (unlike the B and C lineages have become widely dispersed throughout the world and form the basis for the geographical disposition of "modern" anthrax. An archival collection of 191 different B. anthracis isolates from China provides a glimpse into the possible role of Chinese trade and commerce in the spread of certain sub-lineages of this pathogen. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA typing has been used to examine this archival collection of isolates. Results The canSNP study indicates that there are 5 different sub-lineages/sub-groups in China out of 12 previously described world-wide canSNP genotypes. Three of these canSNP genotypes were only found in the western-most province of China, Xinjiang. These genotypes were A.Br.008/009, a sub-group that is spread across most of Europe and Asia; A.Br.Aust 94, a sub-lineage that is present in Europe and India, and A.Br.Vollum, a lineage that is also present in Europe. The remaining two canSNP genotypes are spread across the whole of China and belong to sub-group A.Br.001/002 and the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage, two closely related genotypes. MLVA typing adds resolution to the isolates in each canSNP genotype and diversity indices for the A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 sub-groups suggest that these represent older and established clades in China. Conclusion B. anthracis isolates were recovered from three canSNP sub-groups (A.Br.008/009, A.Br.Aust94, and A.Br.Vollum in the western most portion of the large Chinese province of Xinjiang. The city of Kashi in this province appears to have served as a crossroads

  4. Update on Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses - Worldwide, January 2014-March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Sutter, Roland W; Wassilak, Steven G; Kew, Olen M

    2015-06-19

    six countries were found to excrete iVDPVs, and a patient in the United Kingdom was still excreting iVDPV2 in 2014 after more than 28 years. Ambiguous VDPVs were found among immunocompetent persons and environmental samples in 16 countries. Because the large majority of VDPV case-isolates are type 2, WHO has developed a plan for coordinated worldwide withdrawal of trivalent (types 1, 2, and 3) OPV (tOPV) and replacement with bivalent (types 1 and 3) OPV (bOPV) in April 2016, preceded by introduction of at least 1 dose of injectable inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules worldwide to maintain immunity to type 2 viruses.

  5. Alpha-1 antitrypsin Pi*Z gene frequency and Pi*ZZ genotype numbers worldwide: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ignacio; Bueno, Patricia; Diego, Isidro; Pérez-Holanda, Sergio; Casas-Maldonado, Francisco; Esquinas, Cristina; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), the Z allele is present in 98% of cases with severe disease, and knowledge of the frequency of this allele is essential from a public health perspective. However, there is a remarkable lack of epidemiological data on AATD worldwide, and many of the data currently used are outdated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to update the knowledge of the frequency of the Z allele to achieve accurate estimates of the prevalence and number of Pi*ZZ genotypes worldwide based on studies performed according to the following criteria: 1) samples representative of the general population, 2) AAT phenotyping characterized by adequate methods, and 3) measurements performed using a coefficient of variation calculated from the sample size and 95% confidence intervals. Studies fulfilling these criteria were used to develop maps with an inverse distance weighted (IDW)-interpolation method, providing numerical and graphical information of Pi*Z distribution worldwide. A total of 224 cohorts from 65 countries were included in the study. With the data provided by these cohorts, a total of 253,404 Pi*ZZ were estimated worldwide: 119,594 in Europe, 91,490 in America and Caribbean, 3,824 in Africa, 32,154 in Asia, 4,126 in Australia, and 2,216 in New Zealand. In addition, the IDW-interpolation maps predicted Pi*Z frequencies throughout the world even in some areas that lack real data. In conclusion, the inclusion of new well-designed studies and the exclusion of the low-quality ones have significantly improved the reliability of results, which may be useful to plan strategies for future research and diagnosis and to rationalize the therapeutic resources available.

  6. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  7. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 genetic diversity and traditional subsistence: a worldwide population survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Sabbagh

    Full Text Available Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 is involved in human physiological responses to a variety of xenobiotic compounds, including common therapeutic drugs and exogenous chemicals present in the diet and the environment. Many questions remain about the evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the high prevalence of slow acetylators in the human species. Evidence from recent surveys of NAT2 gene variation suggests that NAT2 slow-causing variants might have become targets of positive selection as a consequence of the shift in modes of subsistence and lifestyle in human populations in the last 10,000 years. We aimed to test more extensively the hypothesis that slow acetylation prevalence in humans is related to the subsistence strategy adopted by the past populations. To this end, published frequency data on the most relevant genetic variants of NAT2 were collected from 128 population samples (14,679 individuals representing different subsistence modes and dietary habits, allowing a thorough analysis at both a worldwide and continent scale. A significantly higher prevalence of the slow acetylation phenotype was observed in populations practicing farming (45.4% and herding (48.2% as compared to populations mostly relying on hunting and gathering (22.4% (P = 0.0007. This was closely mirrored by the frequency of the slow 590A variant that was found to occur at a three-fold higher frequency in food producers (25% as compared to hunter-gatherers (8%. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the Neolithic transition to subsistence economies based on agricultural and pastoral resources modified the selective regime affecting the NAT2 acetylation pathway. Furthermore, the vast amount of data collected enabled us to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of NAT2 worldwide genetic diversity, thus building up a useful resource of frequency data for further studies interested in epidemiological or anthropological research

  8. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Frances; Doherty, Michael; Grainge, Matthew J; Lanyon, Peter; Zhang, Weiya

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to review the worldwide incidence and prevalence of SLE and variation with age, sex, ethnicity and time. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines was carried out using Medical Subject Headings and keyword search terms for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus combined with incidence, prevalence and epidemiology in August 2013 and updated in September 2016. Author, journal, year of publication, country, region, case-finding method, study period, number of incident or prevalent cases, incidence (per 100 000 person-years) or prevalence (per 100 000 persons) and age, sex or ethnic group-specific incidence or prevalence were collected. The highest estimates of incidence and prevalence of SLE were in North America [23.2/100 000 person-years (95% CI: 23.4, 24.0) and 241/100 000 people (95% CI: 130, 352), respectively]. The lowest incidences of SLE were reported in Africa and Ukraine (0.3/100 000 person-years), and the lowest prevalence was in Northern Australia (0 cases in a sample of 847 people). Women were more frequently affected than men for every age and ethnic group. Incidence peaked in middle adulthood and occurred later for men. People of Black ethnicity had the highest incidence and prevalence of SLE, whereas those with White ethnicity had the lowest incidence and prevalence. There appeared to be an increasing trend of SLE prevalence with time. There are worldwide differences in the incidence and prevalence of SLE that vary with sex, age, ethnicity and time. Further study of genetic and environmental risk factors may explain the reasons for these differences. More epidemiological studies in Africa are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  10. Worldwide Prevalence and Trends in Unintentional Drug Overdose: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Sampson, Laura; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro

    2015-11-01

    Drug overdose is an important, yet an inadequately understood, public health problem. Global attention to unintentional drug overdose has been limited by comparison with the scope of the problem. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence in several countries worldwide over the past decade, contributing to both increased costs and mortality. The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed literature to document the global epidemiological profile of unintentional drug overdoses and the prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates of drug overdoses. We searched different combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms in PubMed for articles published from 1980 until July 2013, and we organized these results in tabular spreadsheets and compared them. We restricted the search to English-language articles that deal with unintentional overdose, focusing on 1 or more of the following key constructs: prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates. The term "overdose" as a MeSH major topic yielded 1076 publications. In addition, we searched the following combinations of nonmajor MeSH terms: "street drugs" and "overdose" yielded 180, "death" and "overdose" yielded 114, and "poisoning" and "drug users" yielded 17. There was some overlap among the searches. Based on the search and inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected a total of 169 relevant articles for this article based on a close review of abstracts. We found wide variability in lifetime prevalence of experiencing a nonfatal overdose or witnessing an overdose, and in mortality rates attributable to overdose. Lifetime prevalence of witnessed overdose among drug users (n = 17 samples) ranged from 50% to 96%, with a mean of 73.3%, a median of 70%, and a standard deviation of 14.1%. Lifetime prevalence of drug users personally experiencing a nonfatal overdose (n = 27 samples), ranged from 16.6% to 68.0% with a mean of 45

  11. Business use of the World-Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cockburn

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were employed in this study of the use of the World Wide Web by business: first, a sample of 300 businesses with Web sites, across a wide range of industry types, was examined, by selecting (rather than sampling companies from the Yahoo! directory. The sites were investigated in relation to several areas - the purpose of the Web site, the use being made of electronic mail and the extent to which multi-media was being utilised. In addition, any other aspects of the site which were designed to make it more interesting to potential customers were also noted. Secondly, an electronic-mail questionnaire was sent to 222 of the 300 companies surveyed: that is, those that provided an e-mail address for contact. 14 were returned immediately due to unknown addresses or technical problems. Of the remaining 208, 102 replies were received, five of which were of no relevance, leaving 97 completed questionnaires to examine; a response rate of 47%, which is surprisingly good for a survey of this kind.

  12. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  13. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  14. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  15. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  16. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  17. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  18. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  19. Alpha-1 antitrypsin Pi*SZ genotype: estimated prevalence and number of SZ subjects worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco I

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Blanco,1 Patricia Bueno,2 Isidro Diego,3 Sergio Pérez-Holanda,4 Beatriz Lara,5 Francisco Casas-Maldonado,6 Cristina Esquinas,7 Marc Miravitlles7,8 1Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency Spanish Registry (REDAAT, Lung Foundation Breathe, Spanish Society of Pneumology (SEPAR, Barcelona, Spain; 2Internal Medicine Department, County Hospital of Jarrio, Principality of Asturias, Spain; 3Materials and Energy Department, School of Mining Engineering, Oviedo University, Principality of Asturias, Spain; 4Surgical Department, University Central Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Spain; 5Respiratory Medicine Department, Coventry and Warwickshire University Hospital, Coventry, UK; 6Pneumology Department, University Hospital San Cecilio, Granada, Spain; 7Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 8CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: The alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT haplotype Pi*S, when inherited along with the Pi*Z haplotype to form a Pi*SZ genotype, can be associated with pulmonary emphysema in regular smokers, and less frequently with liver disease, panniculitis, and systemic vasculitis in a small percentage of people, but this connection is less well established. Since the detection of cases can allow the application of preventive measures in patients and relatives with this congenital disorder, the objective of this study was to update the prevalence of the SZ genotype to achieve accurate estimates of the number of Pi*SZ subjects worldwide, based on studies performed according to the following criteria: 1 samples representative of the general population, 2 AAT phenotyping characterized by adequate methods, and 3 selection of studies with reliable results assessed with a coefficient of variation calculated from the sample size and 95% confidence intervals. Studies fulfilling these criteria were used to develop tables and maps with an inverse distance-weighted (IDW interpolation method, to

  20. Fluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate

  1. Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galon, Jérôme; Pagès, Franck; Marincola, Francesco M; Angell, Helen K; Thurin, Magdalena; Lugli, Alessandro; Zlobec, Inti; Berger, Anne; Bifulco, Carlo; Botti, Gerardo; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Britten, Cedrik M; Kreiter, Sebastian; Chouchane, Lotfi; Delrio, Paolo; Arndt, Hartmann; Asslaber, Martin; Maio, Michele; Masucci, Giuseppe V; Mihm, Martin; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Allison, James P; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hakansson, Leif; Huber, Christoph; Singh-Jasuja, Harpreet; Ottensmeier, Christian; Zwierzina, Heinz; Laghi, Luigi; Grizzi, Fabio; Ohashi, Pamela S; Shaw, Patricia A; Clarke, Blaise A; Wouters, Bradly G; Kawakami, Yutaka; Hazama, Shoichi; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Wang, Ena; O'Donnell-Tormey, Jill; Lagorce, Christine; Pawelec, Graham; Nishimura, Michael I; Hawkins, Robert; Lapointe, Réjean; Lundqvist, Andreas; Khleif, Samir N; Ogino, Shuji; Gibbs, Peter; Waring, Paul; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Itoh, Kyogo; Patel, Prabhu S; Shukla, Shilin N; Palmqvist, Richard; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Wang, Yili; D'Arrigo, Corrado; Kopetz, Scott; Sinicrope, Frank A; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Gajewski, Thomas F; Ascierto, Paolo A; Fox, Bernard A

    2012-10-03

    Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases (M). However, it is now recognized that clinical outcome can significantly vary among patients within the same stage. The current classification provides limited prognostic information, and does not predict response to therapy. Recent literature has alluded to the importance of the host immune system in controlling tumor progression. Thus, evidence supports the notion to include immunological biomarkers, implemented as a tool for the prediction of prognosis and response to therapy. Accumulating data, collected from large cohorts of human cancers, has demonstrated the impact of immune-classification, which has a prognostic value that may add to the significance of the AJCC/UICC TNM-classification. It is therefore imperative to begin to incorporate the 'Immunoscore' into traditional classification, thus providing an essential prognostic and potentially predictive tool. Introduction of this parameter as a biomarker to classify cancers, as part of routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment of tumors, will facilitate clinical decision-making including rational stratification of patient treatment. Equally, the inherent complexity of quantitative immunohistochemistry, in conjunction with protocol variation across laboratories, analysis of different immune cell types, inconsistent region selection criteria, and variable ways to quantify immune infiltration, all underline the urgent requirement to reach assay harmonization. In an effort to promote the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings, an international task force was initiated. This review represents a follow-up of the announcement of this initiative, and of the J

  2. Worldwide Patterns of Ancestry, Divergence, and Admixture in Domesticated Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jared E.; McKay, Stephanie D.; Rolf, Megan M.; Kim, JaeWoo; Molina Alcalá, Antonio; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Hanotte, Olivier; Götherström, Anders; Seabury, Christopher M.; Praharani, Lisa; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Correia de Almeida Regitano, Luciana; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Heaton, Michael P.; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Reecy, James M.; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2014-01-01

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. PMID:24675901

  3. Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galon Jérôme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification summarizes data on tumor burden (T, presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N and evidence for metastases (M. However, it is now recognized that clinical outcome can significantly vary among patients within the same stage. The current classification provides limited prognostic information, and does not predict response to therapy. Recent literature has alluded to the importance of the host immune system in controlling tumor progression. Thus, evidence supports the notion to include immunological biomarkers, implemented as a tool for the prediction of prognosis and response to therapy. Accumulating data, collected from large cohorts of human cancers, has demonstrated the impact of immune-classification, which has a prognostic value that may add to the significance of the AJCC/UICC TNM-classification. It is therefore imperative to begin to incorporate the ‘Immunoscore’ into traditional classification, thus providing an essential prognostic and potentially predictive tool. Introduction of this parameter as a biomarker to classify cancers, as part of routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment of tumors, will facilitate clinical decision-making including rational stratification of patient treatment. Equally, the inherent complexity of quantitative immunohistochemistry, in conjunction with protocol variation across laboratories, analysis of different immune cell types, inconsistent region selection criteria, and variable ways to quantify immune infiltration, all underline the urgent requirement to reach assay harmonization. In an effort to promote the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings, an international task force was initiated. This review represents a follow-up of the announcement of

  4. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  5. GeoCENS: a geospatial cyberinfrastructure for the world-wide sensor web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steve H L; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2013-10-02

    The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web's full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS) architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  6. Role of Human Papillomavirus in Penile Carcinomas Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Laia; Cubilla, Antonio; Halec, Gordana; Kasamatsu, Elena; Quirós, Beatriz; Masferrer, Emili; Tous, Sara; Lloveras, Belén; Hernández-Suarez, Gustavo; Lonsdale, Ray; Tinoco, Leopoldo; Alejo, Maria; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Laco, Jan; Guimerà, Nuria; Poblet, Enrique; Lombardi, Luis E; Bergeron, Christine; Clavero, Omar; Shin, Hai-Rim; Ferrera, Annabelle; Felix, Ana; Germar, Julieta; Mandys, Vaclav; Clavel, Christine; Tzardi, Maria; Pons, Luis E; Wain, Vincent; Cruz, Eugenia; Molina, Carla; Mota, Jose D; Jach, Robert; Velasco, Julio; Carrilho, Carla; López-Revilla, Ruben; Goodman, Marc T; Quint, Wim G; Castellsagué, Xavier; Bravo, Ignacio; Pawlita, Michael; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    Invasive penile cancer is a rare disease with an approximately 22 000 cases per year. The incidence is higher in less developed countries, where penile cancer can account for up to 10% of cancers among men in some parts of Africa, South America, and Asia. To describe the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA prevalence, HPV type distribution, and detection of markers of viral activity (ie, E6*I mRNA and p16(INK4a)) in a series of invasive penile cancers and penile high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSILs) from 25 countries. A total of 85 penile HGSILs and 1010 penile invasive cancers diagnosed from 1983 to 2011 were included. After histopathologic evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping were performed using the SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system, v.1 (Laboratory Biomedical Products, Rijswijk, The Netherlands). HPV DNA-positive cases were additionally tested for oncogene E6*I mRNA and all cases for p16(INK4a) expression, a surrogate marker of oncogenic HPV activity. HPV DNA prevalence and type distributions were estimated. HPV DNA was detected in 33.1% of penile cancers (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.2-36.1) and in 87.1% of HGSILs (95% CI, 78.0-93.4). The warty-basaloid histologic subtype showed the highest HPV DNA prevalence. Among cancers, statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed only by geographic region and not by period or by age at diagnosis. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both HPV-positive cancers (68.7%) and HGSILs (79.6%). HPV6 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.7%). The p16(INK4a) upregulation and mRNA detection in addition to HPV DNA positivity were observed in 69.3% of HGSILs, and at least one of these HPV activity markers was detected in 85.3% of cases. In penile cancers, these figures were 22.0% and 27.1%, respectively. About a third to a fourth of penile cancers were related to HPV when considering HPV DNA detection alone or adding an HPV

  7. Human papillomavirus 33 worldwide genetic variation and associated risk of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alyce A.; Heideman, Daniëlle A.M.; Boon, Debby; Chen, Zigui; Burk, Robert D.; De Vuyst, Hugo; Gheit, Tarik; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Clifford, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 33, a member of the HPV16-related alpha-9 species group, is found in approximately 5% of cervical cancers worldwide. The current study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of HPV33 and to explore the association of HPV33 variants with the risk for cervical cancer. Taking advantage of the International Agency for Research on Cancer biobank, we sequenced the entire E6 and E7 open reading frames of 213 HPV33-positive cervical samples from 30 countries. We identified 28 HPV33 variants that formed 5 phylogenetic groups: the previously identified A1, A2, and B (sub) lineages and the novel A3 and C (sub)lineages. The A1 sublineage was strongly over-represented in cervical cases compared to controls in both Africa and Europe. In conclusion, we provide a classification system for HPV33 variants based on the sequence of E6 and E7 and suggest that the association of HPV33 with cervical cancer may differ by variant (sub)lineage. PMID:24314666

  8. Contrasting introduction scenarios among continents in the worldwide invasion of the banana fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S; Ravigne, V; Zapater, M-F; Abadie, C; Carlier, J

    2012-03-01

    Reconstructing and characterizing introduction routes is a key step towards understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors underlying successful invasions and disease emergence. Here, we aimed to decipher scenarios of introduction and stochastic demographic events associated with the global spread of an emerging disease of bananas caused by the destructive fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis. We analysed the worldwide population structure of this fungus using 21 microsatellites and 8 sequence-based markers on 735 individuals from 37 countries. Our analyses designated South-East Asia as the source of the global invasion and supported the location of the centre of origin of M. fijiensis within this area. We confirmed the occurrence of bottlenecks upon introduction into other continents followed by widespread founder events within continents. Furthermore, this study suggested contrasting introduction scenarios of the pathogen between the African and American continents. While potential signatures of admixture resulting from multiple introductions were detected in America, all the African samples examined seem to descend from a single successful founder event. In combination with historical information, our study reveals an original and unprecedented global scenario of invasion for this recently emerging disease caused by a wind-dispersed pathogen. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-10-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  10. Population structure and virulence gene profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae collected from different hosts worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morach, Marina; Stephan, Roger; Schmitt, Sarah; Ewers, Christa; Zschöck, Michael; Reyes-Velez, Julian; Gilli, Urs; Del Pilar Crespo-Ortiz, María; Crumlish, Margaret; Gunturu, Revathi; Daubenberger, Claudia A; Ip, Margaret; Regli, Walter; Johler, Sophia

    2018-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates and causes severe infections in pregnant women and nonpregnant predisposed adults, in addition to various animal species worldwide. Still, information on the population structure of S. agalactiae and the geographical distribution of different clones is limited. Further data are urgently needed to identify particularly successful clones and obtain insights into possible routes of transmission within one host species and across species borders. We aimed to determine the population structure and virulence gene profiles of S. agalactiae strains from a diverse set of sources and geographical origins. To this end, 373 S. agalactiae isolates obtained from humans and animals from five different continents were typed by DNA microarray profiling. A total of 242 different S. agalactiae strains were identified and further analyzed. Particularly successful clonal lineages, hybridization patterns, and strains were identified that were spread across different continents and/or were present in more than one host species. In particular, several strains were detected in both humans and cattle, and several canine strains were also detected in samples from human, bovine, and porcine hosts. The findings of our study suggest that although S. agalactiae is well adapted to various hosts including humans, cattle, dogs, rodents, and fish, interspecies transmission is possible and occurs between humans and cows, dogs, and rabbits. The virulence and resistance gene profiles presented enable new insights into interspecies transmission and make a crucial contribution to the identification of suitable targets for therapeutic agents and vaccines.

  11. Worldwide F(ST) estimates relative to five continental-scale populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Christopher D; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Balding, David J

    2014-11-01

    We estimate the population genetics parameter FST (also referred to as the fixation index) from short tandem repeat (STR) allele frequencies, comparing many worldwide human subpopulations at approximately the national level with continental-scale populations. FST is commonly used to measure population differentiation, and is important in forensic DNA analysis to account for remote shared ancestry between a suspect and an alternative source of the DNA. We estimate FST comparing subpopulations with a hypothetical ancestral population, which is the approach most widely used in population genetics, and also compare a subpopulation with a sampled reference population, which is more appropriate for forensic applications. Both estimation methods are likelihood-based, in which FST is related to the variance of the multinomial-Dirichlet distribution for allele counts. Overall, we find low FST values, with posterior 97.5 percentiles estimates, and are also about half the magnitude of STR-based estimates from population genetics surveys that focus on distinct ethnic groups rather than a general population. Our findings support the use of FST up to 3% in forensic calculations, which corresponds to some current practice.

  12. Greying of the human hair: a worldwide survey, revisiting the '50' rule of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhard, S; Lozano, I; Loussouarn, G

    2012-10-01

    While numerous papers have reported on the biological mechanisms of human hair pigmentation and greying, epidemiological descriptions of both natural hair colour and the greying process, worldwide, remain scarce. To assess hair colour and greying in a large world sample of human subjects, and to revisit the validity of the 50/50/50 rule of thumb, which states that 'at age 50 years, 50% of the population has at least 50% grey hair'. The natural hair colour of 4192 healthy male and female volunteers was assessed using a sensorial expert evaluation through the comparison of each volunteer's hair with standard swatches. Hair colour was studied according to age, gender and ethnic or geographical origin. Overall we observed that between 45 and 65 years of age, 74% of people were affected by grey hair with a mean intensity of 27%. Men harboured significantly more grey hair than women. Both age at onset and rate of greying with age appeared to be clearly linked to ethnic/geographical origin. Subjects of Asian and African descent showed less grey hair than those of caucasian origin, at comparable ages, confirming previously reported data. Calculating the percentage of people showing at least 50% grey hair coverage at age 50 years leads to a global range of 6-23%, according to ethnic/geographical origin and natural hair colour: well below that expressed by the '50' rule of thumb. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  14. 76 FR 18761 - Worldwide Logistics Co., Ltd.; Possible Violations of Sections 10(a)(1) and 10(b)(2) of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 11-04] Worldwide Logistics Co., Ltd.; Possible Violations... Worldwide Logistics Co., Ltd. (Worldwide) is a company based in the People's Republic of China, providing.... 228 Ning Guo Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, PRC 200090. It is a part of the Worldwide Logistics...

  15. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  16. The impact of the worldwide Millennium Development Goals campaign on maternal and under-five child mortality reduction: 'Where did the worldwide campaign work most effectively?'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman

    2017-01-01

    As the Millennium Development Goals campaign (MDGs) came to a close, clear evidence was needed on the contribution of the worldwide MDG campaign. We seek to determine the degree of difference in the reduction rate between the pre-MDG and MDG campaign periods and its statistical significance by region. Unlike the prevailing studies that measured progress in 1990-2010, this study explores by percentage how much MDG progress has been achieved during the MDG campaign period and quantifies the impact of the MDG campaign on the maternal and under-five child mortality reduction during the MDG era by comparing observed values with counterfactual values estimated on the basis of the historical trend. The low accomplishment of sub-Saharan Africa toward the MDG target mainly resulted from the debilitated progress of mortality reduction during 1990-2000, which was not related to the worldwide MDG campaign. In contrast, the other regions had already achieved substantial progress before the Millennium Declaration was proclaimed. Sub-Saharan African countries have seen the most remarkable impact of the worldwide MDG campaign on maternal and child mortality reduction across all different measurements. In sub-Saharan Africa, the MDG campaign has advanced the progress of the declining maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate, respectively, by 4.29 and 4.37 years. Sub-Saharan African countries were frequently labeled as 'off-track', 'insufficient progress', or 'no progress' even though the greatest progress was achieved here during the worldwide MDG campaign period and the impact of the worldwide MDG campaign was most pronounced in this region in all respects. It is time to learn from the success stories of the sub-Saharan African countries. Erroneous and biased measurement should be avoided for the sustainable development goals to progress.

  17. Biofuels worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    His, St.

    2004-01-01

    After over 20 years of industrial development, the outlook for biofuels now looks bright. Recent developments indicate that the use of biofuels, previously confined to a handful of countries including Brazil and the United States, is 'going global' and a world market may emerge. However, these prospects could eventually be limited by constraints relative to resources and costs. The future of biofuels probably depends on the development of new technologies to valorize lignocellulosic substances such as wood and straw. (author)

  18. A 2015 comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides an update to the 2010 report A Comparison of Operational Performance: : Washington State Ferries to Ferry Operators Worldwide, observing changes in Washington State : Ferries, 23 other ferry systems, and the ferry industry ...

  19. Statistical summary of commercial jet aircraft accidents : worldwide operations, 1959-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The accident statistics presented in this summary are confined to worldwide commercial jet airplanes that are heavier than 60,000 pounds maximum gross weight. Within that set of airplanes, there are two groups excluded: : 1) Airplanes manufactured in...

  20. Mapping the performance of wood-burning stoves by installations worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2016-01-01

    environmental health risk. Research stressed the need to increase the performance of conventional interplays between users, stoves and buildings. This scientific review aims to characterize the performance and environmental effects of 9 wood-burning stove categories by installations worldwide...

  1. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains documented field measurements of NPP components for 39 old-growth tropical forests distributed worldwide between latitudes 23.58 N and 23.58...

  2. Information exchange of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan with nuclear societies worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao; Tomita, Yasushi

    2000-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) exchanges information with nuclear societies worldwide by intersocietal communication through international councils of nuclear societies and through bilateral agreements between foreign societies and by such media as international meetings, publications, and Internet applications

  3. CTFS-ForestGEO: A worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K.J.; Davies, S.J.; Bennett, A.C.; Gonzalez-Akre, E.B.; Muller-Landau, H.C.; Wright, S.J.; Abu Salim, K.; Almeyda Zambrano, A.M.; Jansen, P.A.; Ouden, den J.

    2015-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics

  4. PETROS - Worldwide Databank of Major Element Chemical Analyses of Igneous Rocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PETROS is a worldwide data bank of major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks compiled for research and teaching purposes by Dr. Felix Mutschler and Staff at...

  5. Advanced use of World-Wide Web in the online system of DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenszelmann, M.; Carvalho, D.; Du, S.; Tennebo, F.

    1996-01-01

    The World-Wide Web technologies used by the DELPHI experiment at CERN to provide easy access to information of the On-line System. WWW technology on both client and server side is used in five different projects. The World-Wide Web has its advantages concerning the network technology, the practical user interface and its scalability. It however also demands a stateless protocol and format negotiation. (author)

  6. Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, G; Ostuni, M; Calonico, C; Rossi, S; Capei, R; Lo Nostro, A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2).

  7. HPV16 genetic variation and the development of cervical cancer worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, I; Gheit, T; Iannacone, M R; Vignat, J; Sylla, B S; Del Mistro, A; Franceschi, S; Tommasino, M; Clifford, G M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Factors that favour a small proportion of HPV16 infections to progress to cancer are still poorly understood, but several studies have implicated a role of HPV16 genetic variation. Methods: To evaluate the association between HPV16 genetic variants and cervical cancer risk, we designed a multicentre case–control study based on HPV16-positive cervical samples (1121 cervical cancer cases and 400 controls) from the International Agency for Research on Cancer biobank. By sequencing the E6 gene, HPV16 isolates were classified into variant lineages and the European (EUR)-lineage isolates were subclassified by the common polymorphism T350G. Results: Incidence of variant lineages differed between cases and controls in Europe/Central Asia (P=0.006, driven by an underrepresentation of African lineages in cases), and South/Central America (P=0.056, driven by an overrepresentation of Asian American/North American lineages in cases). EUR-350G isolates were significantly underrepresented in cervical cancer in East Asia (odds ratio (OR)=0.02 vs EUR-350T; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.00–0.37) and Europe/Central Asia (OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.27–0.64), whereas the opposite was true in South/Central America (OR=4.69; 95% CI=2.07–10.66). Conclusion: We observed that the distribution of HPV16 variants worldwide, and their relative risks for cervical cancer appear to be population-dependent. PMID:23169278

  8. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez-Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine; Sørensen, Chris K.; Hansen, Jens G.; Lassen, Poul; Nazari, Kumarse; Hodson, David P.; Justesen, Annemarie F.; Hovmøller, Mogens S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales. PMID:28676811

  9. The worldwide association between television viewing and obesity in children and adolescents: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2013-01-01

    Studies exploring the effect of television viewing on obesity throughout childhood are conflicting. Most studies have been confined to single high-income countries. Our aim was to examine the association between television viewing habits and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescents and children in a multicentre worldwide sample. In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children Phase Three, adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years completed questionnaires which included questions on television viewing habits, height and weight. Parents/guardians of children aged between 5 and 8 years completed the same questionnaire on behalf of their children. The questionnaire asked "During a normal week, how many hours a day (24 hours) do you (does your child) watch television?" Responses were categorised as; "short" (5 hours). 207,672 adolescents from 37 countries and 77,003 children from 18 countries provided data. Daily television viewing in excess of one hour was reported in 89% of adolescents and 79% of children. Compared with adolescents in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.14 kg/m(2), 0.21 kg/m(2), 0.30 kg/m(2) and 0.08 kg/m(2), 0.16 kg/m(2) and 0.17 kg/m(2) larger for females and males respectively (both Ptelevision viewing hours were positively associated with BMI in both adolescents and children with an apparent dose response effect. These findings extend the evidence that television viewing contributes to increased BMI in childhood.

  10. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries.

  11. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales.

  12. On a dinosaur axis from one of the oldest dinosaur-bearing sites worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo T. Müller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The axial skeleton is proportionally underrepresented in the fossil record of early dinosaurs, when compared to other skeletal parts (e.g., pelvic girdle and hindlimb. For instance, the axis is poorly known in early dinosaurs, which precludes a better understanding of this important anatomical structure. Therefore, the present contribution fills an important gap with a description of the axis of a new early dinosaur (CAPPA/UFSM 0179. The specimen was collected at the Buriol outcrop, a Triassic fossiliferous locality from southern Brazil (Candelária Sequence, Santa Maria Supersequence biostratigraphically correlated to Carnian units, placing this specimen among the oldest dinosaurs worldwide. Notable features include the combination of a neural spine that bears an almost straight dorsal margin along its length and presence of an epipophysis. This axis arrangement is unique among Carnian dinosaurs, representing a new morphotype, though a similar morphology is observed in some early theropods. Indeed, a phylogenetic analysis nested the specimen within Theropoda. However, this outcome is probably biased by the large amount of missing data in CAPPA/UFSM 0179 and also due to the limited sampling of the axis in early dinosaurs, particularly among sauropodomorphs. As the specimen comes from the site that includes Buriolestes schultzi (an early sauropodomorph, it is quite plausible that CAPPA/UFSM 0179 might be referable to that taxon. If so, the specimen improves the anatomical knowledge of Buriolestes schultzi, given its axis is yet unknown. An alternative possibility to be considered is that the specimen would belong to a dinosaur not yet known in the Candelária Sequence, which would increase its dinosaur diversity for the outcrop, improving the Triassic dinosaurian record from Southern Brazil.

  13. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA08: Determination of Minor and Trace Elements in Natural Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member State laboratories to maintain their readiness by producing reference materials, developing standardized analytical methods, and conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To ensure a reliable, worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory organizes tests for Member State laboratories. This publication presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test PTXRFIAEA08 on the determination of minor and trace elements in natural soil. Methodologies, a data evaluation approach, a summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out within the IAEA project Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance the capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health and agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluating environmental pollution. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems and to support Member State laboratories in improving the quality of their analytical results, maintaining their accreditation and providing a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The type of sample and the concentration levels of the analytes were designed to enable the identification of potential analytical problems

  14. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X Ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA/06: Determination of Minor and Trace Elements in Grass Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA assists its Member States laboratories to maintain their readiness by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To ensure a reliable worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria organises tests. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test IAEA-PTXRF-06 on the determination of minor and trace elements in a grass mixture. Methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out under IAEA Project 1.4.3.4 (D.3.03), Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of this project is to enhance the capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health, agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluation of environmental pollution. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems, to support IAEA Member States laboratories to improve the quality of their analytical results, to maintain their accreditation and to provide a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The type of sample and the concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way to enable identification of potential analytical problems. The next proficiency test exercise is expected to be organized in 2010

  15. An updated review of worldwide levels of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid in human breast milk by region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuanqing; Liu, Xin; Zhou, Bing; Jiang, Alice C; Chai, Lingying

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) levels in human breast milk worldwide by country, region and socio-economic status. Descriptive review conducted on English publications reporting breast-milk DHA and AA levels. We systematically searched and identified eligible literature in PubMed from January 1980 to July 2015. Data on breast-milk DHA and AA levels from women who had given birth to term infants were included. Seventy-eight studies from forty-one countries were included with 4163 breast-milk samples of 3746 individuals. Worldwide mean levels of DHA and AA in breast milk were 0·37 (sd 0·11) % and 0·55 (sd 0·14) % of total fatty acids, respectively. The breast-milk DHA levels from women with accessibility to marine foods were significantly higher than those from women without accessibility (0·35 (sd 0·20) % v. 0·25 (sd 0·14) %, Pworldwide variation in breast-milk DHA and AA levels and underlines the need for future population- or region-specific investigations.

  16. First Worldwide Proficiency Study on Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; Kremer, Kristin; Ködmön, Csaba; Supply, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency study on 24-locus VNTR typing. Sets of 30 DNAs of MTBC strains, including 10 duplicate DNA samples, were distributed among 37 participating laboratories in 30 different countries worldwide. Twenty-four laboratories used an in-house-adapted method with fragment sizing by gel electrophoresis or an automated DNA analyzer, nine laboratories used a commercially available kit, and four laboratories used other methods. The intra- and interlaboratory reproducibilities of VNTR typing varied from 0% to 100%, with averages of 72% and 60%, respectively. Twenty of the 37 laboratories failed to amplify particular VNTR loci; if these missing results were ignored, the number of laboratories with 100% interlaboratory reproducibility increased from 1 to 5. The average interlaboratory reproducibility of VNTR typing using a commercial kit was better (88%) than that of in-house-adapted methods using a DNA analyzer (70%) or gel electrophoresis (50%). Eleven laboratories using in-house-adapted manual typing or automated typing scored inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities of 80% or higher, which suggests that these approaches can be used in a reliable way. In conclusion, this first multicenter study has documented the worldwide quality of VNTR typing of MTBC strains and highlights the importance of international quality control to improve genotyping in the future. PMID:22170917

  17. GeoCENS: A Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for the World-Wide Sensor Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H.L. Liang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web’s full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  18. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2018-01-01

    interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million......, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence...... participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights...

  19. Distinctiveness of the Roma population within CYP2B6 worldwide variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Željka; Kuhanec, Antonija; Škarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Janićijević, Branka; Salihović, Marijana Peričić

    2017-11-01

    To determine variation of CYP2B6 gene within the genetically specific Croatian Roma (Gypsy) population originating from India and to examine it in the worldwide perspective. Seven SNP loci (rs12721655, rs2279343, rs28399499, rs34097093, rs3745274, rs7260329 and rs8192709) were genotyped in 439 subjects using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) method. The Croatian Roma took an outlying position in CYP2B6 variation from the worldwide perspective mainly due to their exceptionally high minor allele frequency (MAF) for rs8192709 (12.8%), and lower for rs2279343 (21.1%) compared with south Asian populations. This study provides the first data of several CYP2B6 polymorphisms in Roma population and indicates the need for systematic investigation of the most important pharmacogenes' variants in this large, transnationally isolated population worldwide.

  20. Extending the capabilities of the DIII-D Plasma Control System for worldwide fusion research collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Xiao, B.J.; Hahn, S.H.; Gates, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the recent enhancements which have been made to the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) in order to further extend its usefulness as a shared tool for worldwide fusion research. The PCS developed at General Atomics is currently being used in a number of fusion research experiments worldwide, including the DIII-D Tokamak Facility in San Diego, and most recently the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. A number of enhancements have been made to support the ongoing needs of the DIII-D Tokamak in addition to meeting the needs of other PCS users worldwide. Details of the present PCS hardware and software architecture along with descriptions of the latest enhancements will be given.

  1. Can the future, world-wide energy supply be achieved without nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the future the world-wide energy demand is going to increase considerably. The use of nuclear energy will continuously grow if the demand of climate researchers for a reduction of the world-wide CO 2 emission is fulfilled and if the possible contribution of regenerative energy sources is assessed realistically. In the future a world-wide use of nuclear energy will be realised according to even higher safety standards. The modification of the German Atom Law, which determines the limitation of damage caused to the reactor plant for future reactors fulfils this demand. The efforts in the field of nuclear technical development will concentrate on the proof of the required safety properties. (orig.) [de

  2. Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: IUR initiates the 'FORUM' - Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: an initiative of the International Union of Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F. [International Union of Radioecology (IUR) and Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Direction General, Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 229, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Bollhoefer, A. [South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) and Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Department of the Environment, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia); Frogg, K.E.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Higley, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 100 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331-5902 (United States); Hinton, T. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Kapustka, L. [LK Consultancy, P.O. Box 373, Turner Valley, Alberta (Canada); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Leonard, K.S. [Cefas, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Masson, O. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 153, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Nanba, K. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima, Fukushima 960- 1296 (Japan); Smith, G. [GMS Abingdon Ltd, Tamarisk, Radley Road, Abingdon, OX14 3PP (United Kingdom); Smith, K. [RadEcol Consulting Ltd, Fell View, Middletown, Cumbria, CA22 2UG (United Kingdom); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute of Environment Health and Safety, Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment, Boeretang, 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Yankovich, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Yoshida, S. [Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba-shi (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Many specialized networks have been designed in the past years to meet specific radioecological objectives, whether regional or sectorial (purpose-oriented). Regional networks deal with an array of radioecological issues related to their territories, such as waste problems, environmental modelling, prevention of impacts, regulation, etc- In Europe, a network of excellence in radioecology has been set up in order to design a strategic research agenda. It is currently being expected to become part of a European platform for radiation protection. Sectorial networks are more problem-oriented, often with wider international representativeness, but restricted to one specific issue like waste, low-level atmospheric contamination, etc. Other kind of sectorial networks result from international agreements for wide environment surveillance. IUR, founded on its large and long-existing international representation, with a current membership spread in nearly 60 countries worldwide, has now identified the need to bridge all such regional and/or sectorial networks together in order to promote the emergence of a worldwide coordinated development process for radioecology. This is especially warranted at a breakeven period where nuclear industry is starting, or expected, to spread beyond the small historical club of nuclearized countries in response to growing energetic demands throughout the world. Furthermore, with more than 30 years of existence, IUR with its dedicated task groups has a long tradition of promoting recommendations on the scientific needs to advance radioecology. In consequence, the construction of a process for worldwide international harmonization of R and D programmes and efforts is becoming highly desirable. This harmonization process would have the objectives to optimize efficiency, avoid duplications, optimize efficient exploitation of existing infrastructures, support harmonised and coherent regulatory developments, help the development of well informed

  3. Enerdata statistical yearbook. ''the key-data of energy worldwide''. 1999 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The new edition of the Enerdata statistical yearbook provides the most recent statistical data on energy (oil, gas, coal and power production) and CO 2 emissions worldwide for the 1994-1999 period of time. These data cover 52 countries and 12 geographic areas and are presented in the form of tables and graphs (production, foreign exchanges, consumptions, market shares, sectoral consumption, 1999 energy status, long-term tendencies). More data for a longer period (1970-1999) and for all countries worldwide are available on the CD-Rom version of the yearbook. (J.S.)

  4. Witness sample preparation for measuring antireflection coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Ronald R

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of antireflection coating of witness samples from across the worldwide industry has been shown to have excess variability from a sampling taken for the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings: Measurement Problem. Various sample preparation techniques have been discussed with their limitations, and a preferred technique is recommended with its justification, calibration procedures, and limitations. The common practice of grinding the second side to reduce its reflection is less than satisfactory. One recommended practice is to paint the polished second side, which reduces its reflection to almost zero. A method to evaluate the suitability of given paints is also described.

  5. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-03-14

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  6. Update on Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses - Worldwide, January 2016-June 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorba, Jaume; Diop, Ousmane M; Iber, Jane; Henderson, Elizabeth; Sutter, Roland W; Wassilak, Steven G F; Burns, Cara C

    2017-11-03

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (1). Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, detection of WPV1 has been limited to three countries, with 37 cases in 2016 and 11 cases in 2017 as of September 27. The >99.99% decline worldwide in polio cases since the launch of the GPEI is attributable to the extensive use of the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and comprehensive national routine immunization programs. Despite its well-established safety record, OPV use can be associated with rare emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) whose genetic drift from the parental OPV strains indicates prolonged replication or circulation (2). VDPVs can also emerge among persons with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) can replicate for years in some persons with PIDs. In addition, circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) can emerge very rarely among immunologically normal vaccine recipients and their contacts in areas with inadequate OPV coverage and can cause outbreaks of paralytic polio. This report updates previous summaries regarding VDPVs (3). During January 2016-June 2017, new cVDPV outbreaks were identified, including two in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (eight cases), and another in Syria (35 cases), whereas the circulation of cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) in Nigeria resulted in cVDPV2 detection linked to a previous emergence. The last confirmed case from the 2015-2016 cVDPV type 1 (cVDPV1) outbreak in Laos occurred in January 2016. Fourteen newly identified persons in 10 countries were found to excrete iVDPVs, and three previously reported patients in the United Kingdom and Iran (3) were still excreting type 2 iVDPV (iVDPV2) during the reporting period. Ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), isolates that cannot be classified

  7. Worldwide open proficiency test IAEA-CU-2007-09/A: Determination of Po-210 in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA helps the Member States' laboratories to maintain their readiness by coordination activities, by development of standardized methods for sample collection and analysis, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as a tool for external quality control. The Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratories in Austria, has the programmatic responsibility to support global radionuclide measurement systems. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the Chemistry Unit organises interlaboratory studies and proficiency tests. The Po-210 poisoning event which occurred in November 2006 brought into focus a number of issues, including the capacity of laboratories to rapidly and accurately determine this radionuclide in environmental samples. A number of requests were received from Member States to address this issue. Responding to these requests, the Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the Agency's Laboratories, conducted a world wide proficiency test on the determination of Po-210 in water. The aim was to gather information on the current state of practice for Po-210 measurements at various levels in aqueous samples. This report describes the methodology employed and the results obtained in this proficiency test

  8. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  9. 76 FR 4726 - Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,411] Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Diamondware, Ltd and Nortel Networks, Inc., Including Workers Working at...

  10. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butin, Marine; Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone.

  11. Latitude gradient influences the age of onset of rheumatoid arthritis: a worldwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The age of onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an important outcome predictor. Northern countries report an age of RA onset of around 50 years, but apparently, variability exists across different geographical regions. The objective of the present study is to assess whether the age of onset of RA varies across latitudes worldwide. In a proof-of-concept cross-sectional worldwide survey, rheumatologists from preselected cities interviewed 20 consecutive RA patients regarding the date of RA onset (RAO, when the patient first noted a swollen joint). Other studied variables included location of each city, rheumatologist settings, latitudes (10° increments, south to north), longitudes (three regions), intracountry consistency, and countries' Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). Data from 2481 patients (82% females) were obtained from 126 rheumatologists in 77 cities of 41 countries. Worldwide mean age of RAO was 44 ± 14 years (95% CI 44-45). In 28% of patients, RA began before age 36 years and before age 46 years in 50% of patients. RAO was 8 years earlier around the Tropic of Cancer when compared with northern latitudes (p worldwide. We postulate that countries' developmental status and their geographical and geomagnetic location influence the age of RAO.

  12. Burden of high fracture probability worldwide: secular increases 2010-2040.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odén, A; McCloskey, E V; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Johansson, H

    2015-09-01

    The number of individuals aged 50 years or more at high risk of osteoporotic fracture worldwide in 2010 was estimated at 158 million and is set to double by 2040. The aim of this study was to quantify the number of individuals worldwide aged 50 years or more at high risk of osteoporotic fracture in 2010 and 2040. A threshold of high fracture probability was set at the age-specific 10-year probability of a major fracture (clinical vertebral, forearm, humeral or hip fracture) which was equivalent to that of a woman with a BMI of 24 kg/m(2) and a prior fragility fracture but no other clinical risk factors. The prevalence of high risk was determined worldwide and by continent using all available country-specific FRAX models and applied the population demography for each country. Twenty-one million men and 137 million women had a fracture probability at or above the threshold in the world for the year 2010. The greatest number of men and women at high risk were from Asia (55 %). Worldwide, the number of high-risk individuals is expected to double over the next 40 years. We conclude that individuals with high probability of osteoporotic fractures comprise a very significant disease burden to society, particularly in Asia, and that this burden is set to increase markedly in the future. These analyses provide a platform for the evaluation of risk assessment and intervention strategies.

  13. Residential surface soil guidance values applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention POP pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Aaron A; Li, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Surface soil contamination is a worldwide problem. Many regulatory jurisdictions attempt to control human exposures with regulatory guidance values (RGVs) that specify a soil's maximum allowable concentration. Pesticides are important soil contaminants because of their intentional toxicity and widespread surface soil application. Worldwide, at least 174 regulatory jurisdictions from 54 United Nations member states have published more than 19,400 pesticide RGVs for at least 739 chemically unique pesticides. This manuscript examines the variability of the guidance values that are applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants (POP) pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Mirex, and Toxaphene) for which at least 1667 RGVs have been promulgated. Results indicate that the spans of the RGVs applied to each of these pesticides vary from 6.1 orders of magnitude for Toxaphene to 10.0 orders of magnitude for Mirex. The distribution of values across these value spans resembles the distribution of lognormal random variables, but also contain non-random value clusters. Approximately 40% of all the POP RGVs fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) RGV cancer risk model. Another 22% of the values fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the USEPA's non-cancer risk model, but the cancer risk calculations yield the binding (lowest) value for all POP pesticides except Endrin. The results presented emphasize the continued need to rationalize the RGVs applied worldwide to important soil contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Worldwide Test Reviewing at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2012-01-01

    This article sets the stage for the description of a variety of approaches to test reviewing worldwide. It describes the importance of test reviewing as a protection of the public and of society and also the benefits of this activity for test users, who must choose measures to use in particular situations with particular clients at a particular…

  15. High genetic diversity and absence of founder effects in a worldwide aquatic invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeusne, Christophe; Saunier, Alice; Petit, Nicolas; Béguer, Mélanie; Otani, Michio; Carlton, James T; Rico, Ciro; Green, Andy J

    2014-07-24

    The introduced oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus has recently become widespread in temperate estuaries worldwide. However, this recent worldwide spread outside of its native range arises after a previous introduction to the US Pacific coast, where it was restricted for more than 30 years. Using a phylogeographic approach, the present work investigates the genetic history of the invasion of this decapod worldwide. Japan acted as the main native source area for worldwide introduced populations, but other native areas (likely South Korea and China) may act as source populations as well. The recently introduced European and NW Atlantic populations result from colonization from both Japan and an unknown area of the native range, although colonization from the NE Pacific could not be ruled out. Most introduced populations had higher haplotypic diversity than most native populations. P. macrodactylus has a strong potential to become one of the most widespread introduced species and may become the dominant estuarine shrimp in Europe. The ecological and economic consequences of this invasion remain to be thoroughly evaluated.

  16. Database specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, B.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Loftis, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Database Specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) describes the database organization and storage allocation, provides the detailed data model of the logical and physical designs, and provides information for the construction of parts of the database such as tables, data elements, and associated dictionaries and diagrams.

  17. Blended Learning Citation Patterns and Publication Networks across Seven Worldwide Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Kristian J.; Graham, Charles R.

    2017-01-01

    The field of international blended learning (BL) is primed to benefit from stronger communication and collaboration. Collaboration is currently limited, and regions vary greatly in terms of citations. However, BL is growing worldwide and each region is an important part of the community. The goal of this research is to explore where the most…

  18. 77 FR 20445 - eMax Worldwide, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Trading April 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that the public interest and... shareholders of record. eMax Worldwide, Inc. is quoted on OTC Markets Group Inc. under the ticker EMXC. The Commission is of the opinion that the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of...

  19. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; Stuart J. Davies; Amy C. Bennett; Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre; Helene C. Muller-Landau; S. Joseph Wright; Kamariah Abu Salim; Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano; Alfonso Alonso; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Yves Basset; Norman A. Bourg; Eben N. Broadbent; Warren Y. Brockelman; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin; David F. R. P. Burslem; Nathalie Butt; Min Cao; Dairon Cardenas; George B. Chuyong; Keith Clay; Susan Cordell; Handanakere S. Dattaraja; Xiaobao Deng; Matteo Detto; Xiaojun Du; Alvaro Duque; David L. Erikson; Corneille E.N. Ewango; Gunter A. Fischer; Christine Fletcher; Robin B. Foster; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory S. Gilbert; Nimal Gunatilleke; Savitri Gunatilleke; Zhanqing Hao; William W. Hargrove; Terese B. Hart; Billy C.H. Hau; Fangliang He; Forrest M. Hoffman; Robert W. Howe; Stephen P. Hubbell; Faith M. Inman-Narahari; Patrick A. Jansen; Mingxi Jiang; Daniel J. Johnson; Mamoru Kanzaki; Abdul Rahman Kassim; David Kenfack; Staline Kibet; Margaret F. Kinnaird; Lisa Korte; Kamil Kral; Jitendra Kumar; Andrew J. Larson; Yide Li; Xiankun Li; Shirong Liu; Shawn K.Y. Lum; James A. Lutz; Keping Ma; Damian M. Maddalena; Jean-Remy Makana; Yadvinder Malhi; Toby Marthews; Rafizah Mat Serudin; Sean M. McMahon; William J. McShea; Hervé R. Memiaghe; Xiangcheng Mi; Takashi Mizuno; Michael Morecroft; Jonathan A. Myers; Vojtech Novotny; Alexandre A. de Oliveira; Perry S. Ong; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Ostertag; Jan den Ouden; Geoffrey G. Parker; Richard P. Phillips; Lawren Sack; Moses N. Sainge; Weiguo Sang; Kriangsak Sri-ngernyuang; Raman Sukumar; I-Fang Sun; Witchaphart Sungpalee; Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana Suresh; Sylvester Tan; Sean C. Thomas; Duncan W. Thomas; Jill Thompson; Benjamin L. Turner; Maria Uriarte; Renato Valencia; Marta I. Vallejo; Alberto Vicentini; Tomáš Vrška; Xihua Wang; Xugao Wang; George Weiblen; Amy Wolf; Han Xu; Sandra Yap; Jess Zimmerman

    2014-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses...

  20. The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckeler, Michael D; Hoke, Tracey R

    2011-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are significant public health concerns around the world. Despite decreasing incidence, there is still a significant disease burden, especially in developing nations. This review provides background on the history of ARF, its pathology and treatment, and the current reported worldwide incidence of ARF and prevalence of RHD. PMID:21386976

  1. Explaining diversity in the worldwide diffusion of codes of good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, Ilir; van Ees, Hans

    Extending earlier literature on diffusion of codes of good governance (CGGs) by integrating the effect of national culture, this study offers a novel perspective on cross-national diversity in the worldwide diffusion of corporate governance best practices. We argue that particular cultural

  2. An efficient multiplex genotyping approach for detecting the major worldwide human Y-chromosome haplogroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Oven (Mannis); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); A. Ralf (Arwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The Y chromosome is paternally inherited and therefore serves as an evolutionary marker of patrilineal descent. Worldwide DNA variation within the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome can be represented as a monophyletic phylogenetic tree in which the branches

  3. Intended and unintended consequences of a publish-or-perish culture: a worldwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, the authors show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in

  4. Intended and Unintended Consequences of a Publish-or-Perish Culture : A Worldwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, we show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in

  5. Intended and unintended consequences of a publish-or-perish culture : A world-wide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, the authors show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in

  6. Text mining to detect indications of fraud in annual reports worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fissette, Marcia Valentine Maria

    2017-01-01

    The research described in this thesis examined the contribution of text analysis to detecting indications of fraud in the annual reports of companies worldwide. A total of 1,727 annual reports have been collected, of which 402 are of the years and companies in which fraudulent activities took place,

  7. Explaining diversity in the worldwide diffusion of codes of good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; van Ees, H.

    2010-01-01

    Extending earlier literature on diffusion of codes of good governance (CGGs) by integrating the effect of national culture, this study offers a novel perspective on cross-national diversity in the worldwide diffusion of corporate governance best practices. We argue that particular cultural

  8. ET Worldwide: A Periodic Compendium of Environmental Education and Training Opportunities. No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This document represents an extensively revised and updated United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Directory for Environmental Training Worldwide. It presents a listing of environmental education and training (EE&T) opportunities around the world as well as information on financial assistance for environmental studies abroad. This version…

  9. RECONSTRUCTING THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF THE FOREST FUNGAL PATHOGEN, ARMILLARIA MELLEA, IN A TEMPERATE WORLDWIDE POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The forest pathogen Armillaria mellea s.s. (Basidiomycota, Physalacriaceae) is among the most significant forest pathogens causing root rot in northern temperate forest trees worldwide. Phylogenetic reconstructions for A. mellea show distinct European, Asian and North American lineages. The North Am...

  10. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked...

  11. Global pension systems and their reform: Worldwide drivers, trends, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Across the world, pension systems and their reforms are in a constant state of flux driven by shifting objectives, moving reform needs, and a changing enabling environment. The ongoing worldwide financial crisis and the adjustment to an uncertain 'new normal' will make future pension systems different from past ones. The objectives of this policy review paper are threefold: (i) to briefly ...

  12. 78 FR 66097 - In the Matter of Heritage Worldwide, Inc., Impala Mineral Exploration Corp., Klondike Star...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [ File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Heritage Worldwide, Inc., Impala Mineral Exploration Corp., Klondike Star Mineral Corporation, MIV Therapeutics Inc., Most Home... concerning the securities of Klondike Star Mineral Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  13. Worldwide trends in surgical techniques in the treatment of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, L.; Seesing, M. F J; Ruurda, J. P.; Boone, J.; van Hillegersberg, R.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide trends in surgical techniques for esophageal cancer surgery by comparing it to our survey from 2007. In addition, new questions were added for gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. An international survey on surgery of esophageal and GEJ cancer

  14. Long the fixation of physicists worldwide, a tiny particle is found

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "After decades of intensive effort by both experimental and theoretical physicists worldwide, a tiny particle with no charge, a very low mass and a lifetime much shorter than a nanosecond, dubbed the "axion", has now been detected by the University at Buffalo physicist who first suggested its existence in a little-read paper as early as 194." (2 pages)

  15. HPV prevalence and genotypes in different histological subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma, a worldwide analysis of 760 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirog, Edyta C; Lloveras, Belen; Molijn, Anco; Tous, Sara; Guimerà, Núria; Alejo, Maria; Clavero, Omar; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Jenkins, David; Quint, Wim Gv; Xavier Bosch, Francesc; Alemany, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    The goal of our study was to provide comprehensive data on the worldwide human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical adenocarcinoma in correlation with histologic tumor subtypes, geographical location, patients' age, and duration of sample storage. Paraffin-embedded samples of 760 cervical adenocarcinoma cases were collected worldwide. A three-level pathology review of cases was performed to obtain consensus histologic diagnoses and 682 cases were determined to be eligible for further analysis. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA(25) system (version 1). Classic cervical adenocarcinoma accounted for 83.1% of cases, while rare histological variants accounted for a few percent of cases individually. HPV positivity varied significantly between the different histologic tumor subtypes. Classic cervical adenocarcinoma showed high HPV positivity (71.8%), while other adenocarcinoma types had significantly lower HPV prevalence (endometrioid 27.3%, serous 25%, clear cell 20%, not otherwise specified 13.9%, and minimal deviation 8.3%). In all, 91.8% of HPV-positive tumors showed the presence of a single viral type and in 7% of cases multiple viral types were detected. Three HPV genotypes, HPV 16, 18, and 45, dominated in all adenocarcinomas and together accounted for 94.1% of HPV-positive tumors. HPV16 was the most common and found in 50.9% of HPV-positive cases, followed by HPV18 (31.6%) and HPV45 (11.6%). HPV prevalence varied depending on geographical region, patient age, and sample storage time. Tumors from older patients and tumor samples with longer storage time showed lower HPV prevalence. Our results indicate that HPV vaccines may prevent up to 82.5% (HPV16/18) and up to 95.3% (9-valent vaccine) of HPV-positive cervical adenocarcinomas, mostly the classic type. HPV testing and vaccination will not provide full coverage for a very small subset of classical adenocarcinomas and most of the rare

  16. Worldwide withdrawal of medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically identified medicinal products withdrawn worldwide because of adverse drug reactions, assessed the level of evidence used for making the withdrawal decisions, and explored the patterns of withdrawals over time. We searched PubMed, the WHO database of withdrawn products, and selected texts. We included products that were withdrawn after launch from 1950 onwards, excluding non-human and over-the-counter medicines. We assessed the levels of evidence on which withdrawals were based using the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Of 353 medicinal products withdrawn from any country, only 40 were withdrawn worldwide. Anecdotal reports were cited as evidence for withdrawal in 30 (75%) and deaths occurred in 27 (68%). Hepatic, cardiac, and nervous system toxicity accounted for over 60% of withdrawals. In 28 cases, the first withdrawal was initiated by the manufacturer. The median interval between the first report of an adverse drug reaction that led to withdrawal and the first withdrawal was 1 year (range 0-43 years). Worldwide withdrawals occurred within 1 year after the first withdrawal in any country. In conclusion, the time it takes for drugs to be withdrawn worldwide after reports of adverse drug reactions has shortened over time. However, there are inconsistencies in current withdrawal procedures when adverse drug reactions are suspected. A uniform method for establishing worldwide withdrawal of approved medicinal products when adverse drug reactions are suspected should be developed, to facilitate global withdrawals. Rapid synthesis of the evidence on harms should be a priority when serious adverse reactions are suspected.

  17. Review article: liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - a critical appraisal of the current worldwide listing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, K V; Hakeem, A R; Heaton, N D

    2014-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) plays an important role in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although early results following LT for HCC were poor, since the introduction of the Milan criteria in 1996 morphological criteria have since been well established. Thereafter, various expansions of the Milan criteria were introduced worldwide. Listing criteria for LT for HCC in the United Kingdom (UK) initially conformed to the Milan criteria but were re-defined in 2009 by expansion of the Milan criteria. To look at the evidence in literature on listing criteria and management of HCC worldwide in comparison with the UK. Secondly, we aim to review worldwide vs. UK literature on prioritisation models, loco-regional therapy protocols and role of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in LT for HCC. An electronic literature search with Medline was carried out to identify articles related to LT for HCC. Although various expansions of the Milan criteria have been described, they remain the gold standard against which other criteria are measured. The UK criteria are an expansion of the Milan criteria that go beyond Milan and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria. The current UK listing criteria for LT for HCC when compared to the worldwide criteria have a worse survival benefit (projected 5-year survival between 35-50%) when plotted on the metroticket calculator. In keeping with most transplant centres worldwide, the UK have adopted expansions to Milan to allow more patients to benefit from LT. However, currently, as it stands the UK criteria when plotted in the modification of the Metroticket model project worse survival that would seem unjustified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Worldwide proficiency test for X ray fluorescence laboratories PTXRFIAEA/05 determination of minor and trace elements in marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The proficiency test (code PTXRFIAEA05) was the fifth worldwide exercise organized by the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories in order to assist X ray fluorescence laboratories in assessment and improvement of their analytical performance. The test was carried out within the IAEA Project 1.4.3.4 (D.3.03) on Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health, agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluation of environmental pollution. Marine sediment test samples with established homogeneity and well characterized known target values of the mass fractions of analytes were distributed to participating laboratories. The laboratories were requested to analyze the sample using established techniques following their analytical procedures. Based on the results of the proficiency test presented in the report each participating laboratory should assess its analytical performance results by using the specified criteria and, if appropriate, to identify discrepancies, and to correct relevant analytical procedures. The next proficiency test exercise will be executed in 2009

  19. Worldwide open proficiency test on the determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water. IAEA-CU-2007-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water. Methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. This proficiency test was mainly focused on the assessment of the analytical performance in the determination of nuclides in different matrices. Therefore, the property values of the PT samples were traceable to international standards. Additionally, the evaluation of the data focused also on the uncertainty estimations reported by participants. The number of samples, their matrix interferences and concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way to enable enhancing identification of potential analytical problems. Finally, every participant received an individual report shortly after the deadline to provide quick feedback to the participants

  20. Low levels of mitochondrial DNA and symbiont diversity in the worldwide agricultural pest, the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantaidaki, Despoina E; Ovčarenko, Irina; Fytrou, Natasa; Knott, K Emily; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the greenhouse whitefly, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. Little is known about the genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum and the bacterial symbionts associated with this species. Here, we undertook a large phylogeographic study by investigating both the mitochondrial (mt) diversity and the infection status of 38 T. vaporariorum collections from 18 countries around the world. Genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum was studied by analyzing sequence data from the mt cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogeny reconstruction delineated 2 clades characterized by limited sequence divergence: one clade comprised samples only from the Northern hemisphere whereas the other comprised samples from a broader geographical range. The presence of secondary symbionts was determined by PCR using primers specific for Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Fritschea. Most individuals examined harbored at least one secondary endosymbiont, and Arsenophonus was detected in almost all male and female individuals. Wolbachia was present at a much lower frequency, and Cardinium was detected in only a few individuals from Greece. Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Fritschea were not found. Additionally, we set out to further analyze Arsenophonus diversity by multilocus sequence typing analysis; however, the Arsenophonus sequences did not exhibit any polymorphism. Our results revealed remarkably low diversity in both mtDNA and symbionts in this worldwide agricultural pest, contrasting sharply with that of the ecologically similar Bemisia tabaci. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The World-Wide Web: An Interface between Research and Teaching in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Aiton

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion occurring in World-Wide Web activity is beginning to make the concepts of ‘global hypermedia’ and ‘universal document readership’ realistic objectives of the new revolution in information technology. One consequence of this increase in usage is that educators and students are becoming more aware of the diversity of the knowledge base which can be accessed via the Internet. Although computerised databases and information services have long played a key role in bioinformatics these same resources can also be used to provide core materials for teaching and learning. The large datasets and arch ives th at have been compiled for biomedical research can be enhanced with the addition of a variety of multimedia elements (images. digital videos. animation etc.. The use of this digitally stored information in structured and self-directed learning environments is likely to increase as activity across World-Wide Web increases.

  2. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  3. New species of Auritella (Inocybaceae) from Cameroon, with a worldwide key to the known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, P Brandon; Henkel, Terry W; Séné, Olivier; Korotkin, Hailee B; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Aime, M Catherine

    2017-12-01

    Two new species in the genus Auritella ( Inocybaceae ) are described as new from tropical rainforest in Cameroon. Descriptions, photographs, line drawings, and a worldwide taxonomic key to the described species of Auritella are presented. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA and rpb2 nucleotide sequence data suggests at least five phylogenetic species that can be ascribed to Auritella occur in the region comprising Cameroon and Gabon and constitute a strongly supported monophyletic subgroup within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data supports the conspecificity of numerous collections attributed to the two new species as well as the monophyly of Australian species of Auritella . This work raises the known number of described species of Auritella to thirteen worldwide, four of which occur in tropical Africa, one in tropical India, and eight in temperate and tropical regions of Australia. This is the first study to confirm an ectomycorrhizal status of Auritella using molecular data.

  4. Worldwide transportation/energy demand, 1975-2000. Revised Variflex model projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, R.U.; Ayres, L.W.

    1980-03-01

    The salient features of the transportation-energy relationships that characterize the world of 1975 are reviewed, and worldwide (34 countries) long-range transportation demand by mode to the year 2000 is reviewed. A worldwide model is used to estimate future energy demand for transportation. Projections made by the forecasting model indicate that in the year 2000, every region will be more dependent on petroleum for the transportation sector than it was in 1975. This report is intended to highlight certain trends and to suggest areas for further investigation. Forecast methodology and model output are described in detail in the appendices. The report is one of a series addressing transportation energy consumption; it supplants and replaces an earlier version published in October 1978 (ORNL/Sub-78/13536/1).

  5. The World-Wide Web past present and future, and its application to medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Sendall, D M

    1997-01-01

    The World-Wide Web was first developed as a tool for collaboration in the high energy physics community. From there it spread rapidly to other fields, and grew to its present impressive size. As an easy way to access information, it has been a great success, and a huge number of medical applications have taken advantage of it. But there is another side to the Web, its potential as a tool for collaboration between people. Medical examples include telemedicine and teaching. New technical developments offer still greater potential in medical and other fields. This paper gives some background to the early development of the World-Wide Web, a brief overview of its present state with some examples relevant to medicine, and a look at the future.

  6. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Davies, Stuart J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Bennett, Amy C. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Muller-Landau, Helene C. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Joseph Wright, S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Abu Salim, Kamariah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Alonso, Alfonso [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Baltzer, Jennifer L. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Basset, Yves [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Bourg, Norman A. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Broadbent, Eben N. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Brockelman, Warren Y. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Biology; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh [Dept. of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Bangkok (Thailand). Research Office; Burslem, David F. R. P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Butt, Nathalie [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Cao, Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Cardenas, Dairon [Sinchi Amazonic Inst. of Scientific Research, Bogota (Colombia); Chuyong, George B. [Univ. of Buea (Cameroon). Dept. of Botany and Plant Physiology; Clay, Keith [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Cordell, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Dattaraja, Handanakere S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deng, Xiaobao [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Detto, Matteo [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Du, Xiaojun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Duque, Alvaro [Univ. Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Forestales; Erikson, David L. [National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Ewango, Corneille E. N. [Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Conservation Forestiere (CEFRECOF); Fischer, Gunter A. [Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Tai Po, Hong Kong (China); Fletcher, Christine [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Foster, Robin B. [The Field Museum, Chicago, IL (United States). Botany Dept.; Giardina, Christian P. [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Gilbert, Gregory S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Environmental Studies Dept.; Gunatilleke, Nimal [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Gunatilleke, Savitri [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Hao, Zhanqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. of Forest and Soil Ecology. Inst. of Applied Ecology; Hargrove, William W. [USDA-Forest Service Station Headquarters, Asheville, NC (United States). Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center; Hart, Terese B. [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Hau, Billy C. H. [Univ. of Hong Kong (China). School of Biological Sciences. Kadoorie Inst.; He, Fangliang [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Howe, Robert W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Hubbell, Stephen P. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources; Jansen, Patrick A. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Resource Ecology Group; Jiang, Mingxi [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Wuhan (China). Wuhan Botanical Garden; Johnson, Daniel J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Kanzaki, Mamoru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Kassim, Abdul Rahman [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Kenfack, David [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Kibet, Staline [National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya); Univ. of Nairobi (Kenya). Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology Dept.; Kinnaird, Margaret F. [Mpala Research Centre, Nanyuki (Kenya); Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY (United States). Global Conservation Programs; Korte, Lisa [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Kral, Kamil [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Kumar, Jitendra [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Larson, Andrew J. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). College of Forestry and Conservation. Dept. of Forest Management; Li, Yide [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Li, Xiankun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Guilin (China). Guangxi Inst. of Botany; Liu, Shirong [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection; Lum, Shawn K. Y. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). National Inst. of Education. Natural Sciences and Science Education Academic Group; Lutz, James A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Wildland Resources Dept.; Ma, Keping [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Maddalena, Damian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Makana, Jean-Remy [Wildlife Conservation Society, Brazzaville (Democratic Republic of the Congo); Malhi, Yadvinder [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Marthews, Toby [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Mat Serudin, Rafizah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; McMahon, Sean M. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; McShea, William J. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Memiaghe, Hervé R. [Inst. de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale, Libreville (Gabon). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique; Mi, Xiangcheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Mizuno, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Morecroft, Michael [Natural England, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Myers, Jonathan A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology; Novotny, Vojtech [New Guinea Binatang Research Centre, Madang (Papua New Guinea); Univ. of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Faculty of Science. Biology Centre; de Oliveira, Alexandre A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Biosciences. Ecology Dept.; Ong, Perry S. [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Orwig, David A. [Harvard Univ., Petersham, MA (United States). Harvard Forest; Ostertag, Rebecca [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Dept. of Biology; den Ouden, Jan [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group; Parker, Geoffrey G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; Phillips, Richard P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Sack, Lawren [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Sainge, Moses N. [Tropical Plant Exploration Group (TroPEG), Mundemba (Cameroon); Sang, Weiguo [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Sri-ngernyuang, Kriangsak [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Sukumar, Raman [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Sun, I-Fang [National Dong Hwa Univ., Hualian (Taiwan). Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies; Sungpalee, Witchaphart [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Suresh, Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Tan, Sylvester [Sarawak Forest Dept., Kuching (Malaysia); Thomas, Sean C. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry; Thomas, Duncan W. [Washington State Univ., Vancouver, WA (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Thompson, Jill [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik, Scotland (United Kingdom); Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Pedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies; Turner, Benjamin L. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Uriarte, Maria [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology; Valencia, Renato [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Ecuador, Quito (Ecuador). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Vallejo, Marta I. [Inst. Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota (Colombia); Vicentini, Alberto [National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil); Vrška, Tomáš [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Wang, Xihua [East China Normal Univ. (ECNU), Shanghai (China). School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences; Wang, Xugao [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Weiblen, George [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology; Wolf, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Biology. Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Xu, Han [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Yap, Sandra [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Zimmerman, Jess [Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies

    2014-09-25

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services, including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamic research sites useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. The broad suite of measurements made at the CTFS-ForestGEO sites make it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. ongoing research across the network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in a era of global change

  7. Thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs

  8. Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of Araceae at a worldwide scale and in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nauheimer, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the biogeographic history of the Araceae family and of one of its largest genera, Alocasia. With >3300 species, Araceae are among the largest families of flowering plants. It is the monocot lineage with the deepest fossil record, reaching back to the Early Cretaceous. Araceae are distributed worldwide, but >3100 species occur in the tropical regions of the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia; most fossils from the Late Cretaceous and many younger ones come from th...

  9. Worldwide Lineages of Clinical Pneumococci in a Japanese Teaching Hospital Identified by DiversiLab System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, Kiyoshi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Sakata, Ryuji; Iwata, Morihiro; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Chang, Bin; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones are representatives of worldwide-spreading pathogens. DiversiLab system, a repetitive PCR system, has been proposed as a less labor-and time-intensive genotyping platform alternative to conventional methods. However, the utility and analysis parameters of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineages was not established. To evaluate and optimize the performance of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide pneumococcal lineages, we examined 245 consecutive isolates of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae from all age-group patients at a teaching hospital in Japan. The capsular swelling reaction of all isolates yielded 24 different serotypes. Intensive visual observation (VO) of DiversiLab band pattern difference divided all isolates into 73 clusters. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of representative 73 isolates from each VO cluster yielded 51 different STs. Among them, PMEN-related lineages accounted for 63% (46/73). Although the serotype of PMEN-related isolates was identical to that of the original PMEN clone in 70% (32/46), CC156-related PMEN lineages, namely Greece(6B)-22 and Colombia(23F)-26, harbored various capsular types discordant to the original PMEN clones. Regarding automated analysis, genotyping by extended Jaccard (XJ) with a 75% similarity index cutoff (SIC) showed the highest correlation with serotyping (adjusted Rand's coefficient, 0.528). Elevating the SIC for XJ to 85% increased the discriminatory power sufficient for distinguishing two major PMEN-related isolates of Taiwan(19F)-14 and Netherlands(3)-31. These results demonstrated a potential utility of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineage of pneumococcus. An optimized parameters of automated analysis should be useful especially for comparison for reference strains by "identification" function of DiversiLab. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  10. Worldwide access to treatment for end-stage kidney disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Thaminda; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Jha, Vivekanand; Neal, Bruce; Patrice, Halle Marie; Okpechi, Ikechi; Zhao, Ming-hui; Lv, Jicheng; Garg, Amit X; Knight, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Gallagher, Martin; Kotwal, Sradha; Cass, Alan; Perkovic, Vlado

    2015-05-16

    End-stage kidney disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of the disease and worldwide use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are expected to rise sharply in the next decade. We aimed to quantify estimates of this burden. We systematically searched Medline for observational studies and renal registries, and contacted national experts to obtain RRT prevalence data. We used Poisson regression to estimate the prevalence of RRT for countries without reported data. We estimated the gap between needed and actual RRT, and projected needs to 2030. In 2010, 2·618 million people received RRT worldwide. We estimated the number of patients needing RRT to be between 4·902 million (95% CI 4·438-5·431 million) in our conservative model and 9·701 million (8·544-11·021 million) in our high-estimate model, suggesting that at least 2·284 million people might have died prematurely because RRT could not be accessed. We noted the largest treatment gaps in low-income countries, particularly Asia (1·907 million people needing but not receiving RRT; conservative model) and Africa (432,000 people; conservative model). Worldwide use of RRT is projected to more than double to 5·439 million (3·899-7·640 million) people by 2030, with the most growth in Asia (0·968 million to a projected 2·162 million [1·571-3·014 million]). The large number of people receiving RRT and the substantial number without access to it show the need to both develop low-cost treatments and implement effective population-based prevention strategies. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Fifth Worldwide Review is to document evolution in the state-of-the-art of approaches for nuclear waste disposal in geological formations since the Fourth Worldwide Review that was released in 2006. The last ten years since the previous Worldwide Review has seen major developments in a number of nations throughout the world pursuing geological disposal programs, both in preparing and reviewing safety cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. The countries that are approaching implementation of geological disposal will increasingly focus on the feasibility of safely constructing and operating their repositories in short- and long terms on the basis existing regulations. The WWR-5 will also address a number of specific technical issues in safety case development along with the interplay among stakeholder concerns, technical feasibility, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. Preparation and publication of the Fifth Worldwide Review on nuclear waste disposal facilitates assessing the lessons learned and developing future cooperation between the countries. The Report provides scientific and technical experiences on preparing for and developing scientific and technical bases for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic repositories in terms of requirements, societal expectations and the adequacy of cases for long-term repository safety. The Chapters include potential issues that may arise as repository programs mature, and identify techniques that demonstrate the safety cases and aid in promoting and gaining societal confidence. The report will also be used to exchange experience with other fields of industry and technology, in which concepts similar to the design and safety cases are applied, as well to facilitate the public perception and understanding of the safety of the disposal approaches relative to risks that may increase over long times frames in the absence of a successful

  12. Worldwide use of natural gas to climb 8% in next 3 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides historical information on worldwide natural gas productions from 1984 to present and makes predictions on future demand and refinery capacities. It provides information on natural gas reserves on a world scale and the pricing of these commodities. It breaks reserves, production and capacities down into developed and developing countries. It then provides general narratives on the consumption patterns, international gas trade, and gas reserves

  13. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  14. The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) : Cooperative governance for network innovation, standards, and community

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Suzan V; Zachariadis, Markos

    2014-01-01

    This book traces the history and development of a mutual organization in the financial sector called SWIFT, the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. Over the last 40 years, SWIFT has served the financial services sector as proprietary communications platform, provider of products and services, standards developer, and conference organizer (Sibos). Founded to create efficiencies by replacing telegram and telex (or “wires”) for international payments, SWIF...

  15. Consécration pour les Inventeurs du World-Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Nearly seven years after it was invented at CERN, the World-Wide Web has woven its way into every corner of the Internet. On Saturday, 17 February, the inventors of the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, now at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Robert Cailliau of CERN's Electronics and Computing for Physics (ECP) Division, will be honoured with one of computing's highest distinctions: the Association for Computing (ACM) Software System Award 1995.

  16. Modelling the potential consequences of future worldwide biomass energy demand for the french forests and timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buongiorno, Joseph; Raunikar, Ronald; Zhu, Shushuai

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an investigation conducted, using a world model for the forestry and forest-based industries, on the effects of the current unpredictable changes in worldwide demand for biomass energy on this sector in France. Two contrasting scenarios are tested. The results are commented and the potential conflict between various would uses - workable timber, industrial timber and dendro-energy - is underscored. (authors)

  17. Worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with human development index in 76 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho; Hallal, Pedro Rodrigues Curi; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Kohl, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and to analyze its association with development level of each country. Methods. Pooled analysis of three multicenter studies, conducted between 2002 and 2004, which investigated the prevalence of physical inactivity in 76 countries, and comprised almost 300,000 individuals aged 15 years or older. Each study used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical inactivity. The level of development of ...

  18. Worldwide OMEGA and Very Low Frequency (VLF) Transmitter Outages, January to December 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    WORLDWIDE OMEGA AND VERY LOW FREQUENCY IVLF) TRANSMITTER OUTAGE--ETC, MAY 81 L RZONCA ,’,L.ASSI LED FAA-CT-81-26 FAA-RD- B1 -29 UL7 A-I’ l15FDRL AIO...computer for the time period GBR - Rugby , England (16.00 kHz) January to December 1980. (For the purposes of this report, any downtime NA - Cutler, Maine

  19. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrieco, Antonio F; Miller, J David; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Battilani, Paola; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; De Saeger, Sarah; Li, Peiwu; Perrone, Giancarlo; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S; Shephard, Gordon S; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao; Leslie, John F

    2018-04-04

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  20. Microsurgical reconstruction of the head and neck region: Current concepts of maxillofacial surgery units worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansy, Katinka; Mueller, Andreas Albert; Mücke, Thomas; Koersgen, Friederike; Wolff, Klaus Dietrich; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Hölzle, Frank; Pradel, Winnie; Schneider, Matthias; Kolk, Andreas; Smeets, Ralf; Acero, Julio; Haers, Piet; Ghali, G E; Hoffmann, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Microvascular surgery following tumor resection has become an important field of oral maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Following the surveys on current reconstructive practice in German-speaking countries and Europe, this paper presents the third phase of the project when the survey was conducted globally. The DOESAK questionnaire has been developed via a multicenter approach with maxillofacial surgeons from 19 different hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. It was distributed in three different phases to a growing number of maxillofacial units in German-speaking clinics, over Europe and then worldwide. Thirty-eight units from Germany, Austria and Switzerland, 65 remaining European OMFS-departments and 226 units worldwide responded to the survey. There is wide agreement on the most commonly used flaps, intraoperative rapid sections and a trend towards primary bony reconstruction. No uniform concepts can be identified concerning osteosynthesis of bone transplants, microsurgical techniques, administration of supportive medication and postoperative monitoring protocols. Microsurgical reconstruction is the gold standard for the majority of oncologic cases in Europe, but worldwide, only every second unit has access to this technique. The DOESAK questionnaire has proven to be a valid and well accepted tool for gathering information about current practice in reconstructive OMFS surgery. The questionnaire has been able to demonstrate similarities, differences and global inequalities. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emerging Changes in the Worldwide Power Sector: The Assets of Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliere, Michel; Girardot, Amelie; Jones, Robert M.

    2007-07-01

    In forthcoming decades we will see major changes in the landscape of the worldwide power sector as CO2 management and incipient hydrocarbon scarcity exert their increasing influence. The power generation community must be prepared to satisfy a particularly complex and challenging set of requirements. These issues include curbing CO2 emissions, coping with surging primary energy prices, and compliance with regional and local emissions requirements such as SOx and NOx-while maintaining maximum efficiency. In this context, as confirmed by International Energy Agency forecasts, thermal power will maintain a prominent position in overall power generation since it enables the large capacity additions required in emerging countries. Thanks to their reliable assets (such as energy efficiency and environment) gas turbine-based power systems, including Gas Turbine Combined Cycles (GTCC) and Combined Heat & Power (CHP), will continue to be major contributors to worldwide power generation. However, evolving changes in the spectrum of fuels will create an additional challenge for power generation equipment manufacturers-requiring innovative technologies in fuel processing, combustion, and emission controls to address these needs. This paper reviews the factors underlining the changing power generation environment worldwide, including the increasing scarcity of conventional fuels and the growing interest in biofuels and hydrogen. Insights will be offered into various technologies needed to support the growing need for increased fuel flexibility.

  2. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Logrieco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  3. Comprehensive taxonomy and worldwide trends in pharmaceutical policies in relation to country income status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadakis, N; Kourlaba, G; Shen, J; Holtorf, A

    2017-05-25

    Rapidly evolving socioeconomic and technological trends make it challenging to improve access, effectiveness and efficiency in the use of pharmaceuticals. This paper identifies and systematically classifies the prevailing pharmaceutical policies worldwide in relation to a country's income status. A literature search was undertaken to identify and taxonomize prevailing policies worldwide. Countries that apply those policies and those that do not were then grouped by income status. Pharmaceutical policies are linked to a country's socioeconomics. Developed countries have universal coverage and control pharmaceuticals with external and internal price referencing systems, and indirect price-cost controls; they carry out health technology assessments and demand utilization controls. Price-volume and risk-sharing agreements are also evolving. Developing countries are underperforming in terms of coverage and they rely mostly on restrictive state controls to regulate prices and expenditure. There are significant disparities worldwide in the access to pharmaceuticals, their use, and the reimbursement of costs. The challenge in high-income countries is to maintain access to care whilst dealing with trends in technology and aging. Essential drugs should be available to all; however, many low- and middle-income countries still provide most of their population with only poor access to medicines. As economies grow, there should be greater investment in pharmaceutical care, looking to the policies of high-income countries to increase efficiency. Pharmaceutical companies could also develop special access schemes with low prices to facilitate coverage in low-income countries.

  4. Meteorite Fall Detection and Analysis via Weather Radar: Worldwide Potential for Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Bresky, C.; Laird, C.; Reddy, V.; Hankey, M.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorite falls can be detected using weather radars, facilitating rapid recovery of meteorites to minimize terrestrial alteration. Imagery from the US NEXRAD radar network reveals over two dozen meteorite falls where meteorites have been recovered, and about another dozen that remain unrecovered. Discovery of new meteorite falls is well suited to "citizen science" and similar outreach activities, as well as automation of computational components into internet-based search tools. Also, there are many more weather radars employed worldwide than those in the US NEXRAD system. Utilization of weather radars worldwide for meteorite recovery can not only expand citizen science opportunities but can also lead to significant improvement in the number of freshly-fallen meteorites available for research. We will discuss the methodologies behind locating and analyzing meteorite falls using weather radar, and how to make them available for citizen science efforts. An important example is the Aquarius Project, a Chicago-area consortium recently formed with the goal of recovering meteorites from Lake Michigan. This project has extensive student involvement geared toward development of actual hardware for recovering meteorites from the lake floor. Those meteorites were identified in weather radar imagery as they fell into the lake from a large meteor on 06 Feb 2017. Another example of public interaction is the meteor detection systems operated by the American Meteor Society (AMS). The AMS website has been developed to allow public reporting of meteors, effectively enabling citizen science to locate and describe significant meteor events worldwide.

  5. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrieco, Antonio F.; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; Li, Peiwu; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S.; Shephard, Gordon S.; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative. PMID:29617309

  6. InsightSTEM Campus Ambassadors: Welcoming, Including, and Supporting All in STEM Careers Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.

    2016-12-01

    Definitions of genders and, races, ethnicities, abilities and sexualities tend to exist on a binary scale (e.g. male/female, black/white) both for inclusiveness and evaluation of programs. This has the potential to be a schism for individuals who are choosing to enter STEM fields when if their self-identity does not fit this these predefined multi-polar templates. At InsightSTEM, in our Campus Ambassadors program (which has over 290 grassroots members in over 25 countries) we have been striving to nullify this effect... For example, on our application, we choose to not ask for any demographic data, in any spectrum, because those data make no sense on a global stage. We question that if race, gender, sexuality and ethnicity are all on a spectrum: is any program devoted to a particular group appropriate? Instead we deliver professional development to students worldwide to train them to become aware and inclusive STEM educators, involving everyone in their programs no matter what their background. We will present the ways we work with our Campus Ambassadors to create programs that, rather than focusing on particular groups, are truly inclusive, in developing their skills and empowering them to create inclusive programs worldwide for all. InsightSTEM Campus Ambassadors: Welcoming, Including, and & Supporting All in STEM Careers Worldwide

  7. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  8. The worldwide incidence of preterm birth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stacy; Wojdyla, Daniel; Say, Lale; Betran, Ana Pilar; Merialdi, Mario; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Rubens, Craig; Menon, Ramkumar; Van Look, Paul F A

    2010-01-01

    To analyse preterm birth rates worldwide to assess the incidence of this public health problem, map the regional distribution of preterm births and gain insight into existing assessment strategies. Data on preterm birth rates worldwide were extracted during a previous systematic review of published and unpublished data on maternal mortality and morbidity reported between 1997 and 2002. Those data were supplemented through a complementary search covering the period 2003-2007. Region-specific multiple regression models were used to estimate the preterm birth rates for countries with no data. We estimated that in 2005, 12.9 million births, or 9.6% of all births worldwide, were preterm. Approximately 11 million (85%) of these preterm births were concentrated in Africa and Asia, while about 0.5 million occurred in each of Europe and North America (excluding Mexico) and 0.9 million in Latin America and the Caribbean. The highest rates of preterm birth were in Africa and North America (11.9% and 10.6% of all births, respectively), and the lowest were in Europe (6.2%). Preterm birth is an important perinatal health problem across the globe. Developing countries, especially those in Africa and southern Asia, incur the highest burden in terms of absolute numbers, although a high rate is also observed in North America. A better understanding of the causes of preterm birth and improved estimates of the incidence of preterm birth at the country level are needed to improve access to effective obstetric and neonatal care.

  9. Worldwide Weather Radar Imagery May Allow Substantial Increase in Meteorite Fall Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Matson, Robert; Schaefer, Jacob; Fries, Jeffery; Hankey, Mike; Anderson, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Weather radar imagery is a valuable new technique for the rapid recovery of meteorite falls, to include falls which would not otherwise be recovered (e.g. Battle Mountain). Weather radar imagery reveals about one new meteorite fall per year (18 falls since 1998), using weather radars in the United States alone. However, an additional 75 other nations operate weather radar networks according to the UN World Meteorological Organization (WMO). If the imagery of those radars were analyzed, the current rate of meteorite falls could be improved considerably, to as much as 3.6 times the current recovery rate based on comparison of total radar areal coverage. Recently, the addition of weather radar imagery, seismometry and internet-based aggregation of eyewitness reports has improved the speed and accuracy of fresh meteorite fall recovery [e.g. 1,2]. This was demonstrated recently with the radar-enabled recovery of the Sutter's Mill fall [3]. Arguably, the meteorites recovered via these methods are of special scientific value as they are relatively unweathered, fresh falls. To illustrate this, a recent SAO/NASA ADS search using the keyword "meteorite" shows that all 50 of the top search results included at least one named meteorite recovered from a meteorite fall. This is true even though only 1260 named meteorite falls are recorded among the >49,000 individual falls recorded in the Meteoritical Society online database. The US NEXRAD system used thus far to locate meteorite falls covers most of the United States' surface area. Using a WMO map of the world's weather radars, we estimate that the total coverage of the other 75 national weather radar networks equals about 3.6x NEXRAD's coverage area. There are two findings to draw from this calculation: 1) For the past 16 years during which 18 falls are seen in US radar data, there should be an additional 65 meteorite falls recorded in worldwide radar imagery. Also: 2) if all of the world's radar data could be analyzed, the

  10. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration is increasing rapidly due to anthropogenic emissions but the effect on the Earth's biosphere is poorly understood. The ability of the biosphere to fix CO2 through photosynthesis will determine future atmospheric CO2 concentrations as well as future productivity of crops and forests. Manipulative CO2 enrichment experiments (e.g. FACE) are limited to (i) short time spans, (ii) few locations and (iii) large step increases in [CO2]. Here, we apply new stable isotope methodology to tree-ring archives, to study the effect of increasing CO2 concentrations retrospectively during the past centuries. We cover the whole [CO2] increase since industrialization, and sample trees with global distribution. Instead of isotope ratios of whole molecules, we use intramolecular isotope distributions, a new tool for tree-ring analysis with decisive advantages. In experiments on annual plants, we have found that the intramolecular distribution of deuterium (equivalent to ratios of isotopomer abundances) in photosynthetic glucose depends on growth [CO2] and reflects the metabolic flux ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration. By applying this isotopomer methodology to trees from Oak Ridge FACE experiment, we show that this CO2 response is present in trees on the leaf level. This CO2 dependence constitutes a physiological signal, which is transferred to the wood of the tree rings. In trees from 13 locations on all continents the isotopomer ratio of tree-ring cellulose is correlated to atmospheric [CO2] during the past 200 years. The shift of the isotopomer ratio is universal for all 12 species analyzed, including both broad-leafed trees and conifers. Because the trees originate from sites with widely differing D/H ratios of precipitation, the generality of the response demonstrates that the signal is independent of the source isotope ratio, because it is encoded in an isotopomer abundance ratio. This decoupling of climate signals and physiological

  11. The Use of Medical Expulsive Therapy During Pregnancy: A Worldwide Perspective Among Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Granville L; Lim, Amy; Hamoui, Nabeel; Nakada, Stephen Y; Kielb, Stephanie J

    2016-03-01

    Medical expulsive therapy (MET) is a pharmacologic approach thought to augment the spontaneous passage of ureteral calculi. The usage of MET pharmacologics for presumed ureteral calculi during pregnancy has not been studied and their safety and utility are unknown. We sought to characterize the worldwide usage of MET in the setting of pregnancy with presumed ureteral calculus (P-MET), as well as factors associated with physician use. Experts in stone management were specifically sought. A nine-question survey was delivered through society-administered e-mail. Questions gathered physician's worldwide region, degree of specialization in stone disease, practice type, interval since training, and willingness to use both MET and P-MET. We assessed drugs of choice in those using P-MET and reasons for avoidance in non-P-MET users. Finally, we assessed the impact of physician-perceived medicolegal risk on usage of P-MET. Five hundred sixty-five responses were recorded. Sixty-three percent were US-based practitioners and the remaining represented a worldwide distribution. Worldwide usage of MET was 97.6%, and tamsulosin was globally preferred by over 90% of urologists. P-MET was endorsed by only 44.3%. 23.6% of European practitioners used this strategy compared with 51.1% of US physicians. Time from training and practice type did not significantly interact with adoption of P-MET; experts were less likely to use P-MET. Physician nonuse of MET during pregnancy was adverse outcome related: 76.7% reported either the fear of legal risk (52.8%) or concerns about safety (23.9%). Respondents report impressive worldwide adoption of MET. P-MET is less trusted, and fears of legal risk and safety far outweigh questions about effectiveness. The effectiveness of drugs during pregnancy-induced ureteral dilation is unknown. Still, 44% of global respondents embrace usage of this drug strategy despite a paucity of evidence supporting either safety or effectiveness during pregnancy.

  12. The Case for the Application of Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies In the Search for Undeclared Facilities and Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Schanfein

    2013-06-01

    Undeclared nuclear facilities unequivocally remain the most difficult safeguards challenge facing the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Recent cases of undeclared facilities revealed in Iran and Syria, which are NPT signatory States, show both the difficulty and the seriousness of this threat to nonproliferation. In the case of undeclared nuclear facilities, the most effective deterrent against proliferation is the application of Wide-Area Environmental Sampling (WAES); however, WAES is currently cost-prohibitive. As with any threat, the most effective countering strategy is a multifaceted approach. Some of the approaches applied by the IAEA include: open source analysis, satellite imagery, on-site environmental sampling, complementary access under the Additional Protocol (where in force), traditional safeguards inspections, and information provided by member States. These approaches, naturally, are focused on specific States. Are there other opportunities not currently within the IAEA purview to assess States that may provide another opportunity to detect clandestine facilities? In this paper, the author will make the case that the IAEA Department of Safeguards should explore the area of worldwide marine radioactivity studies as one possible opportunity. One such study was released by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory in January 2005. This technical document focused on 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239/240Pu. It is clearly a challenging area because of the many sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the world’s oceans and seas including: nuclear weapons testing, reprocessing, accidents, waste dumping, and industrial and medical radioisotopes, whose distributions change based on oceanographic, geochemical, and biological processes, and their sources. It is additionally challenging where multiple States share oceans, seas, and rivers. But with the application of modern science, historical sampling to establish baselines, and a focus on the most relevant

  13. 78 FR 50135 - AIMS Worldwide, Inc., Apollo Capital Group, Inc., CommunitySouth Financial Corp., Last Mile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] AIMS Worldwide, Inc., Apollo Capital Group, Inc., CommunitySouth Financial Corp., Last Mile Logistics Group, Inc., Made in America Entertainment... securities of AIMS Worldwide, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended June...

  14. AIGO: a southern hemisphere detector for the worldwide array of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, P; Blair, D G; Coward, D; Davidson, J; Dumas, J-C; Howell, E; Ju, L; Wen, L; Zhao, C [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McClelland, D E; Scott, S M; Slagmolen, B J J; Inta, R [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Munch, J; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P; Hosken, D [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Melatos, A; Chung, C; Sammut, L, E-mail: pbarriga@cyllene.uwa.edu.a [School of Physics University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010 (Australia)

    2010-04-21

    This paper describes the proposed AIGO detector for the worldwide array of interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The first part of the paper summarizes the benefits that AIGO provides to the worldwide array of detectors. The second part gives a technical description of the detector, which will follow closely the Advanced LIGO design. Possible technical variations in the design are discussed.

  15. AIGO: a southern hemisphere detector for the worldwide array of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, P.; Blair, D.; Coward, D.; Davidson, J.; Dumas, J.; Howell, E.; Ju, L.; Wen, L.; Zhao, C.; McClelland, D.; Scott, S.; Slagmolen, B.; Inta, R.; Munch, J.; Ottaway, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the proposed AIGO detector for the worldwide array of interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The first part of the paper summarizes the benefits that AIGO provides to the worldwide array of detectors. The second part gives a technical description of the detector, which will follow closely the Advanced LIGO design. Possible technical variations in the design are discussed.

  16. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  17. Mapping the dengue scientific landscape worldwide: a bibliometric and network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Fabio Batista; Fonseca, Bruna de Paula Fonseca E; Galina, Andréia Cristina; Silva, Roseli Monteiro da

    2017-05-01

    Despite the current global trend of reduction in the morbidity and mortality of neglected diseases, dengue's incidence has increased and occurrence areas have expanded. Dengue also persists as a scientific and technological challenge since there is no effective treatment, vaccine, vector control or public health intervention. Combining bibliometrics and social network analysis methods can support the mapping of dengue research and development (R&D) activities worldwide. The aim of this paper is to map the scientific scenario related to dengue research worldwide. We use scientific publication data from Web of Science Core Collection - articles indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) - and combine bibliometrics and social network analysis techniques to identify the most relevant journals, scientific references, research areas, countries and research organisations in the dengue scientific landscape. Our results show a significant increase of dengue publications over time; tropical medicine and virology as the most frequent research areas and biochemistry and molecular biology as the most central area in the network; USA and Brazil as the most productive countries; and Mahidol University and Fundação Oswaldo Cruz as the main research organisations and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention as the most central organisation in the collaboration network. Our findings can be used to strengthen a global knowledge platform guiding policy, planning and funding decisions as well as to providing directions to researchers and institutions. So that, by offering to the scientific community, policy makers and public health practitioners a mapping of the dengue scientific landscape, this paper has aimed to contribute to upcoming debates, decision-making and planning on dengue R&D and public health strategies worldwide.

  18. Variation in worldwide incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Benoît; Boumédiene, Farid; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Couratier, Philippe; Babron, Marie-Claude; Leutenegger, Anne Louise; Copetti, Massimilano; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2017-02-01

    To assess the worldwide variation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based data published to date. We reviewed Medline and Embase up to June 2015 and included all population-based studies of newly diagnosed ALS cases, using multiple sources for case ascertainment. ALS crude and standardized incidence (on age and sex using the US 2010 population) were calculated. Random effect meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed using the subcontinent as the main study level covariate. Sources of heterogeneity related to the characteristics of the study population and the study methodology were investigated. Among 3216 records, 44 studies were selected, covering 45 geographical areas in 11 sub-continents. A total of 13 146 ALS cases and 825 million person-years of follow-up (PYFU) were co-nsidered. The overall pooled worldwide crude ALS incidence was at 1.75 (1.55-1.96)/100 000 PYFU; 1.68 (1.50-1.85)/100 000 PYFU after standardization. Heterogeneity was identified in ALS standardized incidence between North Europe [1.89 (1.46-2.32)/100 000 PYFU] and East Asia [0.83 (0.42-1.24)/100 000 PYFU, China and Japan P = 0.001] or South Asia [0.73 (0.58-0.89)/100 000/PYFU Iran, P = 0.02]. Conversely, homogeneous rates have been reported in populations from Europe, North America and New Zealand [pooled ALS standardized incidence of 1.81 (1.66-1.97)/100 000 PYFU for those areas]. This review confirms a heterogeneous distribution worldwide of ALS, and sets the scene to sustain a collaborative study involving a wide international consortium to investigate the link between ancestry, environment and ALS incidence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  19. The impact of fragility fracture and approaches to osteoporosis risk assessment worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elizabeth M; Moon, Rebecca J; Harvey, Nicholas C; Cooper, Cyrus

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem, through its association with age-related fractures, particularly of the hip, vertebrae, distal forearm and humerus. Substantial geographic variation has been noted in the incidence of osteoporotic fractures worldwide, with Western populations (North America, Europe and Oceania), reporting increases in hip fracture throughout the second half of the 20th century, with a stabilisation or decline in the last two decades. In developing populations however, particularly in Asia, the rates of osteoporotic fracture appears to be increasing. The massive global burden consequent to osteoporosis means that fracture risk assessment should be a high priority among health measures considered by policy makers. The WHO operational definition of osteoporosis, based on a measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), has been used globally since the mid-1990s. However, although this definition identifies those at greatest individual risk of fracture, in the population overall a greater total number of fractures occur in individuals with BMD values above the threshold for osteoporosis diagnosis. A number of web-based tools to enable the inclusion of clinical risk factors, with or without BMD, in fracture prediction algorithms have been developed to improve the identification of individuals at high fracture risk, the most commonly used globally being FRAX®. Access to DXA, osteoporosis risk assessment, case finding and treatment varies worldwide, but despite such advances studies indicate that a minority of men and women at high fracture risk receive treatment. Importantly, research is ongoing to demonstrate the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis case finding and risk assessment strategies worldwide. The huge burden caused by osteoporosis related fractures to individuals, healthcare systems and societies should provide a clear impetus for the progression of such

  20. Reprint of: The impact of fragility fracture and approaches to osteoporosis risk assessment worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elizabeth M; Moon, Rebecca J; Harvey, Nicholas C; Cooper, Cyrus

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem, through its association with age-related fractures, particularly of the hip, vertebrae, distal forearm and humerus. Substantial geographic variation has been noted in the incidence of osteoporotic fractures worldwide, with Western populations (North America, Europe and Oceania), reporting increases in hip fracture throughout the second half of the 20th century, with a stabilisation or decline in the last two decades. In developing populations however, particularly in Asia, the rates of osteoporotic fracture appears to be increasing. The massive global burden consequent to osteoporosis means that fracture risk assessment should be a high priority amongst health measures considered by policy makers. The WHO operational definition of osteoporosis, based on a measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), has been used globally since the mid-1990s. However, although this definition identifies those at greatest individual risk of fracture, in the population overall a greater total number of fractures occur in individuals with BMD values above threshold for osteoporosis diagnosis. A number of web-based tools to enable the inclusion of clinical risk factors, with or without BMD, in fracture prediction algorithms have been developed to improve the identification of individuals at high fracture risk, the most commonly used globally being FRAX ® . Access to DXA, osteoporosis risk assessment, case finding and treatment varies worldwide, but despite such advances studies indicate that a minority of men and women at high fracture risk receive treatment. Importantly, research is ongoing to demonstrate the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis case finding and risk assessment strategies worldwide. The huge burden caused by osteoporosis related fractures to individuals, healthcare systems and societies should provide a clear impetus for the progression of such

  1. Worldwide variation in hip fracture incidence weakly aligns with genetic divergence between populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, I J; Botigué, L R; Lin, M; Smaers, J B; Henn, B M; Grine, F E

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of genetic differentiation in determining worldwide heterogeneity in osteoporosis-related hip fracture rates. The results indicate that global variation in fracture incidence exceeds that expected on the basis of random genetic variance. Worldwide, the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures varies considerably. This variability is believed to relate mainly to non-genetic factors. It is conceivable, however, that genetic susceptibility indeed differs across populations. Here, we present the first quantitative assessment of the effects of genetic differentiation on global variability in hip fracture rates. We investigate the observed variance in publically reported age-standardized rates of hip fracture among 28 populations from around the world relative to the expected variance given the phylogenetic relatedness of these populations. The extent to which these variances are similar constitutes a "phylogenetic signal," which was measured using the K statistic. Population genetic divergence was calculated using a robust array of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms. While phylogenetic signal is maximized when K > 1, a K value of only 0.103 was detected in the combined-sex fracture rate pattern across the 28 populations, indicating that fracture rates vary more than expected based on phylogenetic relationships. When fracture rates for the sexes were analyzed separately, the degree of phylogenetic signal was also found to be small (females: K = 0.102; males: K = 0.081). The lack of a strong phylogenetic signal underscores the importance of factors other than stochastic genetic diversity in shaping worldwide heterogeneity in hip fracture incidence.

  2. Worldwide, 3-Year, Post-Marketing Surveillance Experience with Tofacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stanley; Curtis, Jeffrey R; DeMasi, Ryan; Chen, Yan; Fan, Haiyun; Soonasra, Arif; Fleischmann, Roy

    2018-06-01

    Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) is an integral part of monitoring adverse events (AEs) following approval of new drugs. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An analysis of PMS reports was conducted to evaluate the safety of tofacitinib in a post-marketing setting. Worldwide tofacitinib PMS data received in the Pfizer safety database from November 6, 2012 (first marketing authorization of tofacitinib) to November 5, 2015 were analyzed. Serious AEs (SAEs) of interest were reviewed and reporting rates (RRs) were calculated by dividing the number of SAEs by the estimated 100 patient-years of exposure. Patient exposure was calculated based on estimated worldwide sales and an estimated daily regimen of tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily. During the 3-year reporting period, worldwide post-marketing exposure to tofacitinib since approval was estimated to be 34,223 patient-years. In total, 9291 case reports (82.9% non-serious) were received and 25,417 AEs, 102 fatal cases, and 4352 SAEs were reported. The RRs (per 100 patient-years) for SAEs of interest by Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities System Organ Class were 2.57 for infections, 0.91 for gastrointestinal disorders, 0.60 for respiratory disorders, 0.45 for neoplasms, 0.43 for cardiac disorders, and 0.12 for hepatobiliary disorders. Although there are limitations to these data, no new safety risks were revealed in this real-world setting compared with the safety profile identified in the tofacitinib RA clinical development program. Any risks identified through the tofacitinib development program and PMS will continue to be monitored through pharmacovigilance surveillance. Pfizer Inc.

  3. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of Junior Achievement Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, John M

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to increase after-school programming indicate the nation's concern about how youth are engaged during out-of-school time. There are clear benefits to extending the learning that goes on during the school day. Research from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice shows that after-school participants do better in school and have stronger expectations for the future than youth who are not occupied after school. And the need is evident: 14.3 million students return to an empty house after school, yet only 6.5 million children are currently enrolled in after-school programs. If an after-school program were available, parents of 15.3 million would enroll their child. JA Worldwide began in 1919 and has been rooted in the afterschool arena from its origins. Its after-school programs teach students about the free enterprise system through curriculum focusing on business, citizenship, economics, entrepreneurship, ethics and character, financial literacy, and career development. At the same time, JA Worldwide incorporates hands-on learning and engagement with adults as role models, both key elements to a successful after-school program. Now focused on developing curriculum emphasizing skills needed for the twenty-first century, JA adopted the key elements laid out for after-school programs by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. To ensure that the next generation of students enters the workforce prepared, America's education system must provide the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Programs such as JA Worldwide serve as models of how to provide the twenty-first century skills that all students need to succeed.

  4. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide: Database summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Results complied in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author). 4 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  5. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An important issue for present and future generations is the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Over the past over forty years, the development of technologies to isolate both spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) generated at nuclear power plants and from production of defense materials, and low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (LILW) in underground rock and sediments has been found to be a challenging undertaking. Finding an appropriate solution for the disposal of nuclear waste is an important issue for protection of the environment and public health, and it is a prerequisite for the future of nuclear power. The purpose of a deep geological repository for nuclear waste is to provide to future generations, protection against any harmful release of radioactive material, even after the memory of the repository may have been lost, and regardless of the technical knowledge of future generations. The results of a wide variety of investigations on the development of technology for radioactive waste isolation from 19 countries were published in the First Worldwide Review in 1991 (Witherspoon, 1991). The results of investigations from 26 countries were published in the Second Worldwide Review in 1996 (Witherspoon, 1996). The results from 32 countries were summarized in the Third Worldwide Review in 2001 (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2001). The last compilation had results from 24 countries assembled in the Fourth Worldwide Review (WWR) on radioactive waste isolation (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2006). Since publication of the last report in 2006, radioactive waste disposal approaches have continued to evolve, and there have been major developments in a number of national geological disposal programs. Significant experience has been obtained both in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. Disposal of radioactive waste is a complex issue, not only because of the nature

  6. World-wide trend of long-lived radionuclides transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Il Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the concepts of partitioning and transmutation studies which are being conducted in several countries. This review was focused on the analysis of such areas as radiotoxicities of radwaste containing long-lived radionuclides, transmutation by reactors or accelerators, and separation of minor actinides. The world-wide trend of partitioning and transmutation studies was also investigated on the basis of each country's R and D activities in this area. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Comparative analysis of the development of franchising in Serbia and worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanović, Suzana; Stanković, Milica

    2013-01-01

    The research of franchising as a business model is of great importance for the further development of this concept. At the global level, there is a constant tendency of development of existing and new franchise systems. This area is still unexplored in Serbia. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of franchising on the global level and the need for more intensive development in Serbia, based on a comparative analysis of development of this concept in Serbia and worldwide. The pa...

  8. Worldwide Anti-Money Laundering: Regulation: Estimating the Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    D. Masciandaro; R. Barone

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer a simple framework for estimating the benefits and costs of anti-ML regulation, based on a prudent estimation of the economic value of worldwide money laundering. Using the multiplier model of the relationship between criminal markets revenues and money laundering activities and data for 2004, the value of money laundering is equal to US$1.2 trillion (2.7% of the world GDP), while the maximum theoretical benefit in combating money laundering using financial...

  9. The impact of technology on gas reserves, worldwide and in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, N.; Speers, G.R.; BP Exploration, UK)

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the distribution of gas reserves both worldwide and the Middle East. As more gas is produced in d ifficult e nvironments, either at long distances from markets or from more complex reservoirs there is a need to curtail costs by improving exploration success, reducing well costs and by increasing the reserves produced per well. Continuing advances in technology can make a major impact in achieving these goals. Historically, the innovative use of technology has resulted in significant increases in the value of oil and gas developments. (Author). 5 fig

  10. GE`s worldwide experience with IFO based gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, A. [GE Environmental Systems, Lebanon, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The In-Situ Forced Oxidation (IFO) process to produce gypsum in a commercial scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system was first demonstrated by GE Environmental Systems in 1980 at the Monticello Generating Station of Texas Utilities. Since then, the IFO technology developed and demonstrated by GE has become the industry standard and is used extensively on a world-wide basis to produce both commercial and disposable-grade gypsum. The paper gives an overview of the development, demonstration, commercial design and current status of the IFO technology.

  11. Recent world-wide advances in irradiation of food and its identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Saito, Yukio

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation (ionizing radiation) of various foods is growing in popularity internationally. For example, it is used as a substitute for the use of post-harvest pesticides. This trend has served to intensify research on the identification of irradiated foods. The first Research Co-ordinated Meeting on Analytical Detection Method for Irradiated Foods was held in Poland under the sponsorship of FAO/IAEA in 1990 in order to solve problems related to the international trade of irradiated foods and to ensure their correct labelling in the market. In this review, the world-wide advances in the irradiation of food and its identification are introduced and discussed. (author)

  12. A review on heavy metal contamination in the soil worldwide: Situation, impact and remediation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in the soil refers to some significant heavy metals of biological toxicity, including mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and arsenic (As, etc. With the development of the global economy, both type and content of heavy metals in the soil caused by human activities have gradually increased in recent years, which have resulted in serious environment deterioration. In present study we compared and analyzed soil contamination of heavy metals in various cities/countries, and reviewed background, impact and remediation methods of soil heavy metal contamination worldwide.

  13. Aspects of the worldwide uses of nuclear energy (an attempt at an evaluated presentation of knowledge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotte, E.U.

    1990-01-01

    This survey of the aspects of the worldwide uses of nuclear energy takes a pragmatic, country-specific approach. The knowledge drawn from relevant, different types of information sources is compiled to a survey presented in the form of a structured, electronic database offering a cognitive and ergonomic access to the knowledge by way of tabulated, subject-oriented or geographically classified data files. The analytical evaluation proceeds along the lines of intersection of the applications and geographical distribution of nuclear technology, and the form of knowledge presentation. (DG) [de

  14. Current State of Agile Methodologies Worldwide and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tománek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper is to compare the current state of agile methodologies in the world and in the Czech Republic. The comparison is executed as the comparative analysis of two publicly available researches conducted in 2013 and published in 2014. The comparison is further enriched by the results of the unpublished survey in the global logistics company which was conducted also in 2013. The potential trend for agile methodologies in the Czech Republic is also discussed with regard to the worldwide trend.

  15. Worldwide Experience with the Syncardia Total Artificial Heart in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, David L S; Lorts, Angela; Rizwan, Raheel; Zafar, Farhan; Arabia, Francisco A; Villa, Chet R

    Individual centers have documented the use of the Syncardia Total Artificial Heart (TAH) in adolescents with heart failure; however, the number of patients at any given center is small. Herein, we describe the worldwide experience for all patients ≤21 years old supported with the TAH between May 2005 and May 2015 (n = 43). The number of patients experiencing a positive outcome at 60, 90, and 120 days were 30 (70%), 27 (63%), and 25 (58%), respectively. Successful bridge to transplantation varied by diagnosis, but outcomes reported are similar to adults supported with the TAH or biventricular assist devices.

  16. Worldwide estimates and bibliography of net primary productivity derived from pre-1982 publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, G. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Giessen (Germany). Inst. for Plant Ecology; Lieth, H.F.H. [Univ. of Osnabrueck (Germany). Systems Research Group; Scurlock, J.M.O.; Olson, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    An extensive compilation of more than 700 field estimates of net primary productivity of natural and agricultural ecosystems worldwide was synthesized in Germany in the 1970s and early 1980s. Although the Osnabrueck data set has not been updated since the 1980s, it represents a wealth of information for use in model development and validation. This report documents the development of this data set, its contents, and its recent availability on the Internet from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics. Caution is advised in using these data, which necessarily include assumptions and conversions that may not be universally applicable to all sites.

  17. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  18. Systematic sampling with errors in sample locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Baddeley, Adrian; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton

    2010-01-01

    analysis using point process methods. We then analyze three different models for the error process, calculate exact expressions for the variances, and derive asymptotic variances. Errors in the placement of sample points can lead to substantial inflation of the variance, dampening of zitterbewegung......Systematic sampling of points in continuous space is widely used in microscopy and spatial surveys. Classical theory provides asymptotic expressions for the variance of estimators based on systematic sampling as the grid spacing decreases. However, the classical theory assumes that the sample grid...... is exactly periodic; real physical sampling procedures may introduce errors in the placement of the sample points. This paper studies the effect of errors in sample positioning on the variance of estimators in the case of one-dimensional systematic sampling. First we sketch a general approach to variance...

  19. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2017-08-23

    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  20. Worldwide exchange of nuclear news and information: Nucnet as a receiver and provider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, J.

    2006-01-01

    NucNet is an independent NGO recognised as reliable and authoritative service for news and emergency information by the nuclear community, the media and the general public. The network, which has member organisations in more than 4 countries who contribute to our information flow, has a duty to report all nuclear-related issues objectively and accurately. Perceptions of the media and the general public on nuclear power are largely positive at present as nuclear is increasingly talked of as a climate-friendly source of energy. But the same cannot yet be said of issues concerning radioactive waste, it is always talked of the 'problem' of radioactive wastes. The choice of the words is very important, it is more positive to speak of 'final disposal' than of 'dump'. The internet is one of the best media to propagate right information. We organise workshops/seminar regularly. We have also created a special, monthly electronic publication: 'Nuclear Waste Review' that summarises developments worldwide in the field of waste management.We also created a special, monthly electronic publication. Nuclear Waste Review that summarises developments worldwide in the field of waste management.

  1. The cost of Alzheimer's disease in China and re-estimation of costs worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianping; Wei, Cuibai; Chen, Shuoqi; Li, Fangyu; Tang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Zhao, Lina; Jin, Hongmei; Xu, Hui; Wang, Fen; Zhou, Aihong; Zuo, Xiumei; Wu, Liyong; Han, Ying; Han, Yue; Huang, Liyuan; Wang, Qi; Li, Dan; Chu, Changbiao; Shi, Lu; Gong, Min; Du, Yifeng; Zhang, Jiewen; Zhang, Junjian; Zhou, Chunkui; Lv, Jihui; Lv, Yang; Xie, Haiqun; Ji, Yong; Li, Fang; Yu, Enyan; Luo, Benyan; Wang, Yanjiang; Yang, Shanshan; Qu, Qiumin; Guo, Qihao; Liang, Furu; Zhang, Jintao; Tan, Lan; Shen, Lu; Zhang, Kunnan; Zhang, Jinbiao; Peng, Dantao; Tang, Muni; Lv, Peiyuan; Fang, Boyan; Chu, Lan; Jia, Longfei; Gauthier, Serge

    2018-04-01

    The socioeconomic costs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China and its impact on global economic burden remain uncertain. We collected data from 3098 patients with AD in 81 representative centers across China and estimated AD costs for individual patient and total patients in China in 2015. Based on this data, we re-estimated the worldwide costs of AD. The annual socioeconomic cost per patient was US $19,144.36, and total costs were US $167.74 billion in 2015. The annual total costs are predicted to reach US $507.49 billion in 2030 and US $1.89 trillion in 2050. Based on our results, the global estimates of costs for dementia were US $957.56 billion in 2015, and will be US $2.54 trillion in 2030, and US $9.12 trillion in 2050, much more than the predictions by the World Alzheimer Report 2015. China bears a heavy burden of AD costs, which greatly change the estimates of AD cost worldwide. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S.; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G.; Owings, Amanda C.; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R.; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R. Spencer; Acosta, Oscar; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Hui; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Merchant, Nirav C.; Mitchell, John R.; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Sandoval, Jose Raul; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans’ place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000–130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS’s accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

  3. Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma cases attributable to major risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, Aileen; Liu, Xing; La Vecchia, Carlo; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2018-05-01

    To facilitate regionally specific liver cancer prevention and control, this study estimates the fraction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases attributable to five major liver cancer risk factors by geographic region. Prevalence estimates of major HCC risk factors, including chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, obesity, and diabetes, were extracted for each country from the literature, along with recent incidence and risk estimate data, to calculate regionally specific population attributable fractions. Overall, 44% of HCC cases worldwide were attributable to chronic hepatitis B infection, with the majority of cases occurring in Asia. Hepatitis C was responsible for 21% of cases. Lifestyle risk factors such as alcohol drinking and obesity were responsible for a larger percentage of cases in North America and Western, Central, and Eastern Europe. In addition, strong sex disparities were observed when looking at lifestyle risk factors, particularly tobacco smoking, in Asia and Africa. Prominent risk factors for HCC vary depending on the region. Our findings provide useful data for developing regionally specific guidelines for liver cancer prevention and control worldwide.

  4. Does artificial light-at-night exposure contribute to the worldwide obesity pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybnikova, N A; Haim, A; Portnov, B A

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide overweight and obesity rates are on the rise, with about 1 900 billion adults being defined as overweight and about 600 million adults being defined as obese by the World Health Organization (WHO). Increasing exposure to artificial light-at-night (ALAN) may influence body mass, by suppression of melatonin production and disruption of daily rhythms, resulting in physiological or behavioral changes in the human body, and may thus become a driving force behind worldwide overweight and obesity pandemic. We analyzed most recent satellite images of night time illumination, available from the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), combining them with country-level data on female and male overweight and obesity prevalence rates, reported by the WHO. The study aims to identify and measure the strength of association between ALAN and country-wide overweight and obesity rates, controlling for per capita GDP, level of urbanization, birth rate, food consumption and regional differences. ALAN emerged as a statistically significant and positive predictor of overweight and obesity (t>1.97; Pworldwide. Regional differences in the strength of association between ALAN and excessive body mass are also noted. This study is the first population-level study that confirms the results of laboratory research and cohort studies in which ALAN was found to be a contributing factor to excessive body mass in humans.

  5. Rural surgery in Guinea Bissau: an experience of Doctors Worldwide Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoglu, Orhan; Sagiroglu, Julide; Eren, Tunc; Kinik, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, there is critical shortage of surgeons. Majority of the surgeons work in urban centers, and almost none of them is working in the rural areas. This study documents surgical interventions performed in Guinea-Bissau by Doctors Worldwide Turkey. A group of surgeons from the Doctors Worldwide Turkey performed various surgical interventions in the Simao Mendes, Gabu and Bafata community hospitals. Demographics, surgical methods, anesthesia techniques and complications were recorded. Sixty- four procedures were undertaken between 5-16 February 2010 and 6-11 May 2011. The patient population consisted of 47 male (82.5%) and 10 female (17.5%) patients with a mean age of 44.5 (range: 6-81) years. Five emergency cases were observed. Hartmann's procedure for rectal carcinoma; modified radical mastectomy for breast carcinoma; 2 right total thyroidectomies, 1 bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy; 2 incisional hernia repairs with mesh, 1 breast lumpectomy, 3 mass excisions, 2 keloidectomies, and various techniques of hernia repair for 35 inguinal hernias (4 bilateral, 3 strangulated and 2 coexisting with hydrocele), Winkelmann's procedure for 5 hydroceles (1 bilateral), and unilateral orchiectomy for 1 bilateral hydrocele were recorded. Sixteen patients received general (23.5%), 23 spinal (33.8%), 7 epidural (10.3%), 15 local (22.1%), and 7 ketamine (10.3%) anesthesia. There was no mortality. Surgical diseases, majority of which are hernias threaten public health in underdeveloped regions of Africa. Blitz surgery may be an efficient temporary solution.

  6. Worldwide policies on epilepsy and blood donation: a survey among blood services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, A; De Buck, E; Emonds, M-P; Vandekerckhove, P; Lagae, L

    2018-02-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by the appearance of seizures. Often, epilepsy patients are temporarily or permanently excluded from blood donation. To gain a better understanding of the policies that are currently applied, we performed a survey among blood services. A cross-sectional, Web-based questionnaire using the online Questback tool was developed and distributed to 46 representatives of blood services worldwide. The questionnaire was composed of nine questions. A total of 27 respondents, representing blood services in 26 countries on five continents, participated in the survey. Current policies range from permanent acceptance over temporary exclusion to permanent exclusion. Rationales for these different policies are diverse. The majority of blood services (59·3%) apply temporary exclusion as their policy, though no consensus exists on the length of time that epilepsy patients have to be medication-free or seizure-free. None of the respondents could provide data about adverse events in epilepsy patients during the blood donation process. The results of this survey indicate a large discrepancy in policies applied worldwide. A lack of scientific evidence could be one of the underlying reasons. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to further research the potential risks for donors and recipients regarding blood donation by people with epilepsy. This can then serve as a base for evidence-based policymaking and lead to safer and more effective blood transfusion programmes. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Results from the Prototype GLOBE at Night Worldwide Light Pollution Observation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.; Orellana, D.; Blurton, C.; Henderson, S.

    2006-06-01

    Students, families, and educators worldwide participated in GLOBE at Night - an international event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Participation was open to anyone - anywhere in the world - who could get outside and look skyward during the week of March 22-29, 2006. Our goal was 5000 observations from around the world in this prototype program.The hands-on learning activities associated with the program were designed to extend the traditional classroom and school day with a week of nighttime observations involving teachers, students and their families. By locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution. Students explored the different light sources in their community learning the relationship between science, technology and society, and they reported their observations online through a central database allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis. The observations made during GLOBE at Night helped students and scientists together assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world as well as the level of energy wastage associated with poorly-shielded lights.For more information, visit http://www.globe.gov/globeatnight.GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Chile , Windows to the Universe, and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).

  8. An econometrics view of worldwide fossil fuel consumption and the role of US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2008-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas, known as fossil fuels, play a crucial role in the global economy. This paper proposes new econometrics modelling to demonstrate the trend of fossil fuels consumption. The main variables affecting consumption trends are: world reserves, the price of fossil fuels, US production and US net imports. All variables have been analysed individually for more than half a century. The research found that while the consumption of fossil fuels worldwide has increased trends in the US production and net imports have been dependent on the type of fossil fuels. Most of the US coal and gas production has been for domestic use, which is why it does not have a strong influence on worldwide fossil fuel prices. Moreover, the reserves of fossil fuels have not shown any diminution during the last couple of decades and predictions that they were about to run out are not substantiated. The nominal and real price of fossil fuels was found to change depending on the type. Finally, estimates of three econometric models for the consumption of fossil fuels from 1949 to 2006 are presented which identify the effects of significant variables

  9. How Secure Is Your Radiology Department? Mapping Digital Radiology Adoption and Security Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mark; Pianykh, Oleg S

    2016-04-01

    Despite the long history of digital radiology, one of its most critical aspects--information security--still remains extremely underdeveloped and poorly standardized. To study the current state of radiology security, we explored the worldwide security of medical image archives. Using the DICOM data-transmitting standard, we implemented a highly parallel application to scan the entire World Wide Web of networked computers and devices, locating open and unprotected radiology servers. We used only legal and radiology-compliant tools. Our security-probing application initiated a standard DICOM handshake to remote computer or device addresses, and then assessed their security posture on the basis of handshake replies. The scan discovered a total of 2774 unprotected radiology or DICOM servers worldwide. Of those, 719 were fully open to patient data communications. Geolocation was used to analyze and rank our findings according to country utilization. As a result, we built maps and world ranking of clinical security, suggesting that even the most radiology-advanced countries have hospitals with serious security gaps. Despite more than two decades of active development and implementation, our radiology data still remains insecure. The results provided should be applied to raise awareness and begin an earnest dialogue toward elimination of the problem. The application we designed and the novel scanning approach we developed can be used to identify security breaches and to eliminate them before they are compromised.

  10. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-01-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments

  11. Comparative analysis of the development of franchising in Serbia and worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of franchising as a business model is of great importance for the further development of this concept. At the global level, there is a constant tendency of development of existing and new franchise systems. This area is still unexplored in Serbia. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of franchising on the global level and the need for more intensive development in Serbia, based on a comparative analysis of development of this concept in Serbia and worldwide. The paper presents the development of franchising as a business concept in the modern economy, with special focus on fundamental characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of franchising systems. Analysis of the franchise worldwide and in Serbia indicates that franchising is still insufficiently regulated by the law in Serbia. For the purpose of comparative analysis of the best known franchise systems in the developed market economies and Serbia, we start from the representative examples of franchise concepts in the United States, Great Britain and Serbia. The paper indicates that a small number of domestic franchise is internationalized, based on a review of selected franchise systems and the presence of foreign franchises in Serbia and Serbian franchise all over the world.

  12. Clear progress in nuclear safety worldwide: Convention on nuclear safety concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    It has been concluded that a significant progress has been observed in a number of key areas, such as strengthened legislation, regulatory independence, the availability of financial resources, enhanced emergency preparedness and safety improvements at nuclear power plants built to earlier standards. The objective of the Convention is to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide. During the two week Review Meeting, parties engaged in a 'peer review' process in which the National Reports from individual States were collectively examined and discussed, with written replies provided to all the questions raised. Clear improvement was noted in the quality of the National Reports, the number of questions and the openness and quality of discussion and answers. The Contracting Parties praised the IAEA's various safety review missions and services, which they use widely to help enhance the effectiveness of their national safety arrangements. Forty-six contracting parties participated at the Review Meeting with over 400 delegates attending, including many heads and senior officers from regulatory bodies and experts from industry. To date, the Convention has been signed by sixty-five States and ratified by fifty-four, representing 428 of the 448 nuclear power reactors worldwide

  13. Logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle. Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Horst; Schymke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH (NCS) offers logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle to fuel manufacturers, reactor operators, and waste management companies. Transport equipment and interim stores are part of the company's facilities. The firm's Front End unit conducts transnational transports of yellow cake, uranium hexafluoride, and enriched uranium and uranium from reprocessing. In the Back End unit, the company performs worldwide transports of spent fuel elements of research reactors. Another key area of activity is shipment of radioactive waste ranging from low-level waste to HAW (highly active waste generating heat). In its Component Disposal area, NCS offers a variety of transport services up to and including large components, e.g. reactor pressure vessels, both on the road and by rail and ship. NCS operates storage halls of its own for storing radioactive materials including radioactive waste. The technical equipment of NCS comprises a large pool of road and rail transport vehicles as well as a great number of vessels for radioactive materials. (orig.)

  14. System/subsystem specifications for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollow, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Grubb, J.; Hancock, B.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ferguson, R.A. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-11-20

    A system is being developed by the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) to provide data integration and worldwide management and tracking of surface cargo movements. The Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) will be a data repository for the WPS terminal-level system, will be a primary source of queries and cargo traffic reports, will receive data from and provide data to other MTMC and non-MTMC systems, will provide capabilities for processing Advance Transportation Control and Movement Documents (ATCMDs), and will process and distribute manifests. This System/Subsystem Specifications for the Worldwide Port System Regional ICDB documents the system/subsystem functions, provides details of the system/subsystem analysis in order to provide a communication link between developers and operational personnel, and identifies interfaces with other systems and subsystems. It must be noted that this report is being produced near the end of the initial development phase of ICDB, while formal software testing is being done. Following the initial implementation of the ICDB system, maintenance contractors will be in charge of making changes and enhancing software modules. Formal testing and user reviews may indicate the need for additional software units or changes to existing ones. This report describes the software units that are components of this ICDB system as of August 1995.

  15. Ten years' work on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebara, Karim Ben; Cáceres, Paula; Berlingieri, Francesco; Weber-Vintzel, Laure

    2012-12-01

    This article gives an overview of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System and highlights the major achievements during the past decade. It describes the different types of disease notification reports received and processed by the OIE. It also evaluates the three strategies implemented by the OIE in the recent years aimed at improving disease notification: introduction and use of a secure online notification system World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) and its database interface World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID); implementation of active search and verification procedures for non-official information; and enhanced building of capacity for animal disease notification to the OIE by Members Countries. The improvements are evidenced by the increasing number of reports submitted on an annual basis and the reduction in submission time together with an improvement in the quality and quantity of the immediate notifications and follow-up reports, six-monthly and annual reports submitted by Veterinary Authorities. In the recent years, the OIE's notification system provides an early warning system more sensitive and global. Consequently, there is a greater knowledge of animal diseases' distribution worldwide. As a result, it is possible to ensure better prevention, more accurate risk assessment and evaluation by diminishing the spread of known or newly emerging pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Expatriate clinics and medical evacuation companies are a growth industry worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Roselieb, Marcus; Hanvesakul, Rekha; Phaosavasdi, Sukhit; Pruksapong, Chumsak

    2003-01-01

    Globalization and the growth of tourism, which now includes "adventure" visits to very remote regions, has created new employment but also new problems. For example, elderly tourists break their hips where there is no competent orthopedic surgeon, a traveler gets bitten by a cobra in rural Cambodia where there is not even an "Ambu" bag to keep him oxygenated, and a tour guide develops high-altitude cerebral edema on a remote Nepalese mountain. What would we do without organizations that are capable of removing such victims rapidly and safely to a place able to provide appropriate medical care? Fortunately, several well-staffed and well-equipped air ambulance companies stand ready almost worldwide to help 24 hours a day. Medical assistance firms, which sell their own travel insurance and/or act as agents of large insurance companies, are also at hand and have offices in major cities worldwide. They have 24-hour telephone numbers and are prepared to advise a sick or injured traveler where he or she should go to obtain competent medical care. Most of these firms have regional medical advisors in strategic locations who maintain a network of contacts. They can ensure that an ill traveler is receiving appropriate care and will act as quality controllers. They are also able to advise whether medical evacuation to a higher level of care is needed and where the traveler should be evacuated to.

  17. The future of nuclear power worldwide and the role of the global nuclear energy partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation is entitled, 'The Future of Nuclear Power Worldwide and the Role of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership', and the core message in one sentence is: When we look at the challenges of meeting our growing energy demands, providing for energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, we must conclude that nuclear power has to play a significant and growing role in meeting these challenges. Similarly, the mission of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership is to foster the safe and secure worldwide expansion of nuclear energy. GNEP comes at a crucial time in the burgeoning expansion of nuclear power. It is the only comprehensive proposal to close the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States, and engage the international community to minimize proliferation risks as well as provide and benefit from cooperation in policy formation, technical support, and technology and infrastructure development. Nuclear power's poised renaissance is encouraging, but it will require public support, expanded R and D activities and facilities, and increases in human capital needed for wide-scale construction and operation of new nuclear plants. Despite recent political currents, Germany can, too, become a part of this renaissance and become a full partner in the global partnership that shares a common vision for nuclear power's expansion. (orig.)

  18. Occupational exposures and doses thereform: a synoptic view of worldwide scenario (summary of UNSCEAR 1993 data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaratham, A.; Jain, S.C.; Gupta, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present review paper is a summary of the extensive data reported by UNSCEAR 1993 on occupational exposure levels worldwide. The data are based mainly on responses to a UNSCEAR survey on occupational exposures. Worldwide extrapolation was done from the reported data based on GNP. Data have been analysed for three 5-year periods, 1975-79, 1980-84 and 1985-89. Values are given for the total number of monitored workers, the average annual individual doses (related to average individual risk), annual collective dose (related to the impact of the practice), and certain other parameters. Exposures have been evaluated for 5 broad categories, viz., nuclear fuel cycle, defence activities, industrial uses, medical uses, and enhanced occupational exposure to natural sources. The annual collective doses for these categories are respectively 2500, 250, 510, 1000 and 8600 man-Sv for a total of 9.2 million workers. Average individual doses were respectively 2.9, 0.7, 0.9, 0.5 and 1.7 mSv respectively. Data for India are discussed separately for each category. (author). 3 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Cost-Effective Screening for Breast Cancer Worldwide: Current State and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarvazyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordability of healthcare is highly limited by its skyrocketing cost. Access to screening and diagnostic medical equipment and medicine in developing countries is inadequate for the majority of the population. There is a tremendous worldwide need to detect breast cancer at its earliest stage. These needs must be balanced by the ability of countries to provide breast cancer screening technology to their populations. We reviewed the diagnostic accuracy, procedure cost and cost-effectiveness of currently available technique for breast screening and diagnosis including clinical breast examination, mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy and a new modality for cancer diagnostics termed elasticity imaging that has emerged in the last decade. Clinical results demonstrate that elasticity imaging even in its simplest and least sophisticated versions, like tactile imaging, has significant diagnostic potential comparable and exceeding that of conventional imaging techniques. In view of many countries with limited resources, effective yet less expensive modes of screening must be considered worldwide. The tactile imaging is one method that has the potential to provide cost-effective breast cancer screening and diagnostics.

  20. Trend Analysis of Worldwide FDI Flows in the Context of Promoting Sustainable Development and National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta Ailincă

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About FDI there are numerous studies, some of them have mostly theoretical character and others mostly practical. This article aims at capturing and analyzing the most important trends in the short, medium and long term on FDI flows worldwide, thus this study has a rather practical approach. Also, the paper aims to discern how FDI flows may influence the sustainable development and the national interest. The analysis starts from studying the past in the most significant developments of the world economy in terms of inflows of investment attraction, drawing marginally some advantages or disadvantages of joining a political entity with regional vocation (e.g. European Union or a currency area (e.g. E.M.U.. It should also be noted that, beyond the analysis of past trends, the direction towards which worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI should be considered in relationship with the ability to infer certain areas which in future can attract FDI for a sustainable and balanced national economy development, serving to the national interest. Thus, the article aims, through a broad set of indicators, to seize these structural or cyclical advantages of world economies and, to the extent that can be applied to the Romanian economy, to contribute to the restructuring of objectives of macroeconomic policies in order to mobilize the country's potential to attract FDI.

  1. The worldwide importance of honey bees as pollinators in natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Keng-Lou James; Kingston, Jennifer M; Albrecht, Matthias; Holway, David A; Kohn, Joshua R

    2018-01-10

    The western honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) is the most frequent floral visitor of crops worldwide, but quantitative knowledge of its role as a pollinator outside of managed habitats is largely lacking. Here we use a global dataset of 80 published plant-pollinator interaction networks as well as pollinator effectiveness measures from 34 plant species to assess the importance of A. mellifera in natural habitats. Apis mellifera is the most frequent floral visitor in natural habitats worldwide, averaging 13% of floral visits across all networks (range 0-85%), with 5% of plant species recorded as being exclusively visited by A. mellifera For 33% of the networks and 49% of plant species, however, A. mellifera visitation was never observed, illustrating that many flowering plant taxa and assemblages remain dependent on non- A. mellifera visitors for pollination. Apis mellifera visitation was higher in warmer, less variable climates and on mainland rather than island sites, but did not differ between its native and introduced ranges. With respect to single-visit pollination effectiveness, A. mellifera did not differ from the average non- A. mellifera floral visitor, though it was generally less effective than the most effective non- A. mellifera visitor. Our results argue for a deeper understanding of how A. mellifera , and potential future changes in its range and abundance, shape the ecology, evolution, and conservation of plants, pollinators, and their interactions in natural habitats. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. World-wide architecture of osteoporosis research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, D; Mäule, L-S; Klingelhöfer, D; Schöffel, N; Gerber, A; Jaque, J M; Groneberg, D A

    2016-10-01

    While research activities on osteoporosis grow constantly, no concise description of the global research architecture exists. Hence, we aim to analyze and depict the world-wide scientific output on osteoporosis combining bibliometric tools, density-equalizing mapping projections and gender analysis. Using the NewQIS platform, we analyzed all osteoporosis-related publications authored from 1900 to 2012 and indexed by the Web of Science. Bibliometric details were analyzed related to quantitative and semi-qualitative aspects. The majority of 57 453 identified publications were original research articles. The USA and Western Europe dominated the field regarding cooperation activity, publication and citation performance. Asia, Africa and South America played a minimal role. Gender analysis revealed a dominance of male scientists in almost all countries except Brazil. Although the scientific performance on osteoporosis is increasing world-wide, a significant disparity in terms of research output was visible between developed and low-income countries. This finding is particularly concerning since epidemiologic evaluations of future osteoporosis prevalences predict enormous challenges for the health-care systems in low-resource countries. Hence, our study underscores the need to address these disparities by fostering future research endeavors in these nations with the aim to successfully prevent a growing global burden related to osteoporosis.

  3. Antibiotic reimbursement in a model delinked from sales: a benchmark-based worldwide approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, John H; Outterson, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Despite the life-saving ability of antibiotics and their importance as a key enabler of all of modern health care, their effectiveness is now threatened by a rising tide of resistance. Unfortunately, the antibiotic pipeline does not match health needs because of challenges in discovery and development, as well as the poor economics of antibiotics. Discovery and development are being addressed by a range of public-private partnerships; however, correcting the poor economics of antibiotics will need an overhaul of the present business model on a worldwide scale. Discussions are now converging on delinking reward from antibiotic sales through prizes, milestone payments, or insurance-like models in which innovation is rewarded with a fixed series of payments of a predictable size. Rewarding all drugs with the same payments could create perverse incentives to produce drugs that provide the least possible innovation. Thus, we propose a payment model using a graded array of benchmarked rewards designed to encourage the development of antibiotics with the greatest societal value, together with appropriate worldwide access to antibiotics to maximise human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relevance of Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) on a worldwide scale to assess soil vulnerability to 137Cs contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandebroek, Louis; Van Hees, May; Delvaux, Bruno; Spaargaren, Otto; Thiry, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The extent of radiocaesium retention in soil is important to quantify the risk of further foodchain contamination. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP –, Nature 335, 247–249) is an intrinsic soil parameter which can be used to categorize soils or minerals in terms of their capacity to selectively adsorb radiocaesium. In this study, we measured RIP for a large soil collection (88 soil samples) representative of major FAO soil reference groups on a worldwide scale and tested the possibility to predict the RIP on the basis of other easily accessible or measurable soil data. We also compared RIP values with those obtained from separate chemical extraction experiments. The range of measured RIP values (1.8–13300 mmol kg −1 ) was shown to include nearly all possible cases of agricultural soil contamination. Only Podzols, Andosols and Ferralsols were clearly characterized by a very low RIP ( −1 ). On a worldwide scale, RIP was in fact slightly related to soil reference type or other simple major physicochemical parameters such as clay percentage or organic matter. Conversely our results indicated a link between the RIP and radiocaesium extractability across very different soils. We showed that, with the proposed scale of RIP values, a simple acid extraction method can provide an operational result highly predictive of potential RIP despite very contrasting soil properties. The RIP could be estimated from the empirical equation: RIP = (−31.701 ∗ log(AER) + 58.886) 2 where AER is the fraction of acid-extractable radiocaesium. - Highlights: ► The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) is an intrinsic soil parameter. ► We measured RIP of 88 different soils representative of major FAO reference groups. ► The range of RIP (1.8–13 343 μmol g −1 ) extended over four orders of magnitude. ► Nearly all possible cases of agricultural soils contamination were represented. ► A simple acid extraction method could be used to predict potential RIP.

  5. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  6. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  7. Sampling strategy for estimating human exposure pathways to consumer chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A.; Collins, Chris D.; Cousins, Ian T.; Covaci, Adrian; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Leonards, Pim E.G.; Voorspoels, Stefan; Thomsen, Cathrine; Harrad, Stuart; Haug, Line S.

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to consumer chemicals has become a worldwide concern. In this work, a comprehensive sampling strategy is presented, to our knowledge being the first to study all relevant exposure pathways in a single cohort using multiple methods for assessment of exposure from each exposure pathway.

  8. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test: Determination of Natural and Artificial Radionuclides in Moss-Soil and Water IAEA-CU-2009-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Reliable determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA assists Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving their readiness by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, organizes interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test IAEA-CU-2009- 03 on the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in moss-soil and spiked water. The methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems, to support Member State laboratories to improve the quality of their analytical results and maintain their accreditation, and to provide a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The number of samples, their matrix interferences and the concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way that enables identification of potential analytical problems.

  9. Use of and barriers to access to opioid analgesics: a worldwide, regional, and national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berterame, Stefano; Erthal, Juliana; Thomas, Johny; Fellner, Sarah; Vosse, Benjamin; Clare, Philip; Hao, Wei; Johnson, David T; Mohar, Alejandro; Pavadia, Jagjit; Samak, Ahmed Kamal Eldin; Sipp, Werner; Sumyai, Viroj; Suryawati, Sri; Toufiq, Jallal; Yans, Raymond; Mattick, Richard P

    2016-04-16

    Despite opioid analgesics being essential for pain relief, use has been inadequate in many countries. We aim to provide up-to-date worldwide, regional, and national data for changes in opioid analgesic use, and to analyse the relation of impediments to use of these medicines. We calculated defined daily doses for statistical purposes (S-DDD) per million inhabitants per day of opioid analgesics worldwide and for regions and countries from 2001 to 2013, and we used generalised estimating equation analysis to assess longitudinal change in use. We compared use data against the prevalence of some health disorders needing opioid use. We surveyed 214 countries or territories about impediments to availability of these medicines, and used regression analyses to establish the strength of associations between impediments and use. The S-DDD of opioid analgesic use more than doubled worldwide between 2001-03 and 2011-13, from 1417 S-DDD (95% CI -732 to 3565; totalling about 3.01 billion defined daily doses per annum) to 3027 S-DDD (-1162 to 7215; totalling about 7.35 billion defined daily doses per annum). Substantial increases occurred in North America (16,046 S-DDD [95% CI 4032-28,061] to 31,453 S-DDD [8121-54,785]), western and central Europe (3079 S-DDD [1274-4883] to 9320 S-DDD [3969-14,672]), and Oceania (2275 S-DDD [763-3787] to 9136 S-DDD [2508-15,765]). Countries in other regions have shown no substantial increase in use. Impediments to use included an absence of training and awareness in medical professionals, fear of dependence, restricted financial resources, issues in sourcing, cultural attitudes, fear of diversion, international trade controls, and onerous regulation. Higher number of impediments reported was significantly associated with lower use (unadjusted incidence rate ratio 0.39 [95% CI 0.29-0.52]; p<0.0001), but not when adjusted for gross domestic product and human development index (0.91 [0.73-1.14]; p=0.4271). Use of opioid analgesics has increased, but

  10. Worldwide research productivity in fracture surgery: A 10-year survey of publication activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianzhong; Ding, Ren; Ma, Tai; Shi, Xiaobing; Bao, Chaolu; Guan, Huapeng

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide research contributions have allowed the field of fracture surgery to progress. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have documented the main characteristics of publications from different countries. The present study aimed to determine the quantity and quality of worldwide research in fracture surgery. The Web of Science database was searched to identify fracture articles published between 2005 and 2014. The contributions of countries were evaluated based on paper and citation numbers, and the research output of each country was adjusted according to population size. A total of 19,423 papers on the topic of fracture surgery were identified worldwide, and the total number of publications from 2005 to 2014 had significantly increased by 1.82-fold (P<0.001). The majority of papers (86.64%) were published by high-income countries (gross national income per capita ≥$12,736), 13.25% by middle-income countries ($1,046-12,735) and 0.11% by low-income countries (≤$1,045). The United States contributed the highest number of publications (33.34%), followed by the United Kingdom (9.03%), Germany (8.42%), China (5.58%) and Japan (4.18%). Furthermore, the United States ranked first according to total citations (72,640). Articles from Sweden achieved the highest average citations per paper (15.63), followed by Australia (12.84) and Canada (12.44). When the number of publications were adjusted for population size, Switzerland was the first (56.39), followed by Austria (35.43) and the Netherlands (30.68). In conclusion, the number of publications in fracture surgery increased from 2005 to 2014, and the majority of fracture papers were published by high-income countries, while few papers were published by low-income countries. The United States was the most prolific country, but based on population size, a number of smaller countries in Europe may be relatively more prolific.

  11. Assessment of the worldwide burden of critical illness: the intensive care over nations (ICON) audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Marshall, John C; Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; François, Bruno; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Lipman, Jeffrey; Reinhart, Konrad; Antonelli, Massimo; Pickkers, Peter; Njimi, Hassane; Jimenez, Edgar; Sakr, Yasser

    2014-05-01

    Global epidemiological data regarding outcomes for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are scarce, but are important in understanding the worldwide burden of critical illness. We, therefore, did an international audit of ICU patients worldwide and assessed variations between hospitals and countries in terms of ICU mortality. 730 participating centres in 84 countries prospectively collected data on all adult (>16 years) patients admitted to their ICU between May 8 and May 18, 2012, except those admitted for fewer than 24 h for routine postoperative monitoring. Participation was voluntary. Data were collected daily for a maximum of 28 days in the ICU and patients were followed up for outcome data until death or hospital discharge. In-hospital death was analysed using multilevel logistic regression with three levels: patient, hospital, and country. 10,069 patients were included from ICUs in Europe (5445 patients; 54·1%), Asia (1928; 19·2%), the Americas (1723; 17·1%), Oceania (439; 4·4%), the Middle East (393; 3·9%), and Africa (141; 1·4%). Overall, 2973 patients (29·5%) had sepsis on admission or during the ICU stay. ICU mortality rates were 16·2% (95% CI 15·5-16·9) across the whole population and 25·8% (24·2-27·4) in patients with sepsis. Hospital mortality rates were 22·4% (21·6-23·2) in the whole population and 35·3% (33·5-37·1) in patients with sepsis. Using a multilevel analysis, the unconditional model suggested significant between-country variations (var=0·19, p=0·002) and between-hospital variations (var=0·43, prisk of in-hospital death. There was a stepwise increase in the adjusted risk of in-hospital death according to decrease in global national income. This large database highlights that sepsis remains a major health problem worldwide, associated with high mortality rates in all countries. Our findings also show a significant association between the risk of death and the global national income and suggest that ICU organisation

  12. New technical functions for WSPEEDI: Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Furuno, Akiko; Kitabata, Hideyuki; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    2000-01-01

    The Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (WSPEEDI) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is a computer-based system for providing real-time, world-wide, assessment of radiological impact due to nuclear emergencies. Since JAERI started the developpement of the system in 1980, various components of the system, e.g., three-dimensional atmospheric models, databases, data acquisition network, graphics, etc., have been integrated. The objective area has been also extended from local area for domestic nuclear incidents to hemispheric area for foreign ones. Furthermore, through the validation, exercises and responses to real events during the last decade, the following three state-of-the-art functions are under construction. (1) Construction of prototype international data communications network: For quick exchange of atmospheric modeling products and environmental data during emergency among world-wide emergency response systems, JAERI and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory started a prototype information exchange protocol between WSPEEDI and the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability ARAC. The network consists of the Web site/browser portion and the video-teleconferencing tool. The network has been utilized for a fire accident at bituminization plant for radioactive wastes of the former Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation in March, 1997 and Argeciras incident in Spain occurred in May, 1998. (2) Development of synoptic hydrodynamic model: At present, WSPEEDI simply parameterizes the turbulence diffusion and precipitation scavenging, because information on the boundary layer, cloud and precipitation is insufficient in available global forecasts. Thus, to provide WSPEEDI with such information, this study aims to introduce a hydrodynamic model into WSPEEDI, which can predict boundary layer processes and moist processes, e.g., cloud formation and precipitation processes. (3) Development of

  13. Solec Spa – worldwide unique properties of Polish health resort in the service of rural medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L Grabowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solec Spa is health resort in south-eastern Poland. Its unique balneorehabilitation significance worldwide is determined by chloride-iodine-sodium water with a high content of hydrogen sulphide. This water, classified as highly mineralized sodium-chloride (seltzer sulphide, bromide, iodide, boron water, contains naturally approximately 0.9 g/l divalent sulphur compounds, which is the highest concentration noted among the mineral waters of the world. The effectiveness of the Solec waters is proven in: inflammatory and autoimmunological locomotor system diseases, degenerative joint disorders (osteoarthritis, post-traumatic and post-operative orthopedic diseases, skin diseases and allergic disorders. One of the main indications for balneotherapy in Solec Spa and Busko Spa is chronic brucellosis.

  14. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...... hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI...

  15. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  16. Correlations between solid tides and worldwide earthquakes MS ≥ 7.0 since 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. H. Xu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the correlations between earthquakes and solid tides mainly concluded the syzygies (i.e. new or full moons of each lunar cycle have more earthquakes than other days in the month. We show a correlation between the aftershock sequence of the ML = 6.3 Christchurch, New Zealand, earthquake and the diurnal solid tide. Ms ≥ 7 earthquakes worldwide since 1900 are more likely to occur during the 0°, 90°, 180° or 270° phases (i.e. earthquake-prone phases of the semidiurnal solid earth tidal curve (M2. Thus, the semidiurnal solid tides triggers earthquakes. However, the long-term triggering effect of the lunar periodicity is uncertain. This proposal is helpful in defining possible origin times of aftershocks several days after a mainshock and can be used for warning of subsequent larger shocks.

  17. Analysis based on the passrate of the 2013 ICO examinations taken by worldwide examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To find out the weaknesses of the cultivation of the Chinese ophthalmology physicians and the gap between Chinese and the international ophthalmology physicians, so that provide the advice on the future cultivation of the Chinese ophthalmology physicians. METHODS: The passrate of the 2013 ICO examinations taken by worldwide examiners by common statistical methods was analyzed. RESULTS:The results indicated that the test scores of Chinese candidates' were lower than that of the international average level, there was a obvious gap existed between Chinese and other countries' ophthalmology physicians. It showed that Chinese candidates were not quite adaptable to this examination, basic science and clinical level needed to be improved. CONCLUSION: It may shows that the effects on the mid-anaphase of our country's ophthalmology residency training are not so good, which area we should pay more attentions.

  18. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design

  19. WORLD-WIDE PERSPECTIVES ON IMPROVISATIONAL MUSIC THERAPY FROM THE TIME-A PROJECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Geretsegger, Monika

    Background Improvisational music therapy methods have been viewed as a valuable way of working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since the pioneering efforts of Alvin and Nordoff and Robbins (Alvin, 1978; Nordoff & Robbins, 1977). The TIME-A project is a unique international...... collaboration targeted at investigating the effectiveness of improvisational music therapy (IMT) (Geretsegger, Holck, & Gold, 2012; Wigram, 2004) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within this project, an international “consensus model” for IMT has been developed by drawing on the worldwide...... perspectives of the international collaborators. World Wide Perspectives on Improvisational Music Therapy with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Clinicians from 4 continents around the world presented examples of clinical work highlighting an aspect of working improvisationally in their local context...

  20. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2017-01-01

    than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75......BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...