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Sample records for hgcdte manufacture characteristics

  1. Surface passivation of HgCdTe by CdZnTe and its characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. S.; Choi, K. K.; Jeoung, Y. T.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Chang, J. M.; Song, W. S.; Kim, S. U.; Park, M. J.; Lee, S. D.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper, we report the results of capacitance-voltage measurements conducted on several metal-insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors in which HgCdTe surfaces are treated with various surface etching and oxidation processes. CdZnTe passivation layers were deposited on HgCdTe surfaces by thermal evaporation after the surfaces were etched with 0.5-2.0% bromine in methanol solution, or thin oxide layers (tox ˜ few ten Å) were grown on the surfaces, in order to investigate effects of the surface treatments on the electrical properties of the surfaces, as determined from capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements at 80K and 1 MHz. A negative flat band voltage has been observed for MIS capacitors fabricated after etching of HgCdTe surfaces with bromine in methanol solutions, which is reported to make the surface Te-rich. It is inferred that residual Te on the surface is a positive charge, Te4+. C-V characteristics for MIS capacitors fabricated on oxide surfaces grown by air-exposure and electrolytic process have shown large hysteresis effects, from which it is inferred that imperfect and electrically active oxide compounds and HgTe particles near the surface become slow interface states.

  2. Growth characteristics of (100)HgCdTe layers in low-temperature MOVPE with ditertiarybutyltelluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, K.; Hatano, H.; Ferid, T.; Minamide, M.; Maejima, T.; Kawamoto, K.

    1996-09-01

    Low-temperature growth of (100)HgCdTe (MCT) layers in MOVPE has been studied using ditertiarybutyltelluride (DtBTe), dimethylcadmium (DMCd), and elementary mercury as precursors. MCT layers were grown at 275°C on (100)GaAs substrates. Growths were carried out in a vertical growth cell which has a narrow spacing between the substrate and cell ceiling. Using the growth cell, the Cd-composition ( x) of MCT layers was controlled over a wide range from 0 to 0.98 by the DMCd flow. The growth rate of the MCT layers was constant at 5 μm h -1 for the increased DMCd flow. Preferential Cd-incorporation into MCT layers and an increase of the growth rate were observed in the presence of mercury vapor. The growth characteristics were considered to be due to the alkyl-exchange reaction between DMCd and mercury. The electrical properties and crystallinity of grown layers were also evaluated, which showed that layers with high quality can be grown at 275°C.

  3. The Effect of Metal-Semiconductor Contact on the Transient Photovoltaic Characteristic of HgCdTe PV Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient photovoltaic (PV characteristic of HgCdTe PV array is studied using an ultrafast laser. The photoresponse shows an apparent negative valley first, then it evolves into a positive peak. By employing a combined theoretical model of pn junction and Schottky potential, this photo-response polarity changing curves can be interpreted well. An obvious decreasing of ratio of negative valley to positive peak can be realized by limiting the illumination area of the array electrode. This shows that the photoelectric effect of Schottky barrier at metal-semiconductor (M/S interface is suppressed, which will verify the correctness of the model. The characteristic parameters of transient photo-response induced from p-n junction and Schottky potential are extracted by fitting the response curve utilizing this model. It shows that the negative PV response induced by the Schottky barrier decreases the positive photovoltage generated by the pn junction.

  4. Development of Buffer Layer Technologies for LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe Integration on Si

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golding, Terry D

    2005-01-01

    This program proposed to develop manufacturable, cost-effective buffer layer technologies that would allow either hybrid or monolithic integration of LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays...

  5. Evaluation of Rockwell HgCdTe arrays for astronomical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, M. J.; Montgomery, E. F.; Kailey, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    The 32 x 32 HgCdTe array manufactured by Rockwell International was proven to be a highly competitive detector type for use at wavelengths shorter than 2.5 microns. The goal of a K=+16 sky survey using this array attached to the Steward Observatory Transit Telescope is clearly within reach. The detector material exhibits high quantum efficiency and low dark currents indicating that its usefulness may extend beyond its use with a CCD readout on groundbased telescopes.

  6. Mining manufacturing data for discovery of high productivity process characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaniya, Salim; Le, Huong; Rangwala, Huzefa; Mills, Keri; Johnson, Kevin; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2010-06-01

    Modern manufacturing facilities for bioproducts are highly automated with advanced process monitoring and data archiving systems. The time dynamics of hundreds of process parameters and outcome variables over a large number of production runs are archived in the data warehouse. This vast amount of data is a vital resource to comprehend the complex characteristics of bioprocesses and enhance production robustness. Cell culture process data from 108 'trains' comprising production as well as inoculum bioreactors from Genentech's manufacturing facility were investigated. Each run constitutes over one-hundred on-line and off-line temporal parameters. A kernel-based approach combined with a maximum margin-based support vector regression algorithm was used to integrate all the process parameters and develop predictive models for a key cell culture performance parameter. The model was also used to identify and rank process parameters according to their relevance in predicting process outcome. Evaluation of cell culture stage-specific models indicates that production performance can be reliably predicted days prior to harvest. Strong associations between several temporal parameters at various manufacturing stages and final process outcome were uncovered. This model-based data mining represents an important step forward in establishing a process data-driven knowledge discovery in bioprocesses. Implementation of this methodology on the manufacturing floor can facilitate a real-time decision making process and thereby improve the robustness of large scale bioprocesses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  8. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Bau Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD for the selective laser melting (SLM process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g−1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

  9. HgCdTe APDS for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Johan; de Broniol, Eric; Foubert, Kevin; Mollard, Laurent; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Salvetti, Frederic; Kerlain, Alexandre; Reibel, Yann

    2017-11-01

    HgCdTe avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays (FPAs) and single element detectors have been developed for a large scope of photon starved applications. The present communication present the characteristics of our most recent detector developments that opens the horizon for low infrared (IR) photon number detection with high information conservation for imaging, atmospheric lidar and free space telecommunications. In particular, we report on the performance of TEC cooled large area detectors with sensitive diameters ranging from 30- 200 μm, characterised by detector gains of 2- 20 V/μW and noise equivalent input power of 0.1-1 nW for bandwidths ranging from 20 to 400 MHz.

  10. A Comparison of the Financial Characteristics of U.S. and European Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Gulser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the financial characteristics of firms in different countries and regions has been a popular research topic in finance. In this paper, we compare the financial characteristics of U.S. and European manufacturing firms with the MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance method and financial ratios. Our findings indicate that the overall financial characteristics of U.S. and European manufacturing firms are significantly different. We find that U.S. manufacturing firms are more profitable and they have less liquidity and bankruptcy risks compared with European manufacturing firms. European manufacturing firms are more efficient in managing their fixed assets. However, U.S. manufacturing firms are more efficient in managing their accounts receivable and total assets. U.S. manufacturing firms are able to achieve significantly higher sales and total assets growth rates compared with European manufacturing firms.

  11. Thermal stability of atomic layer deposition Al2O3 film on HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Sun, C. H.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, X.; He, K.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal stability of Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 film on HgCdTe was investigated by Al2O3 film post-deposition annealing treatment and Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor device low-temperature baking treatment. The effectiveness of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime and capacitance versus voltage characteristics. After annealing treatment, the minority carrier lifetime of the HgCdTe sample presented a slight decrease. Furthermore, the fixed charge density and the slow charge density decreased significantly in the annealed MIS device. After baking treatment, the fixed charge density and the slow charge density of the unannealed and annealed MIS devices decreased and increased, respectively.

  12. Flow characteristics of metallic powder grains for additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Directed energy deposition technologies for additive manufacturing such as laser selective melting (SLM or electron beam melting (EBM is a fast growing technique mainly due to its flexibility in product design. However, the process is a complex interaction of multi-physics on multiple length scales that are still not entirely understood. A particular challenging task are the flow characteristics of metallic powder ejected as jets from a nozzle and shielded by an inert turbulent gas flow. Therefore, the objective is to describe numerically the complex interaction between turbulent flow and powder grains. In order to include both several physical processes and length scales an Euler-Lagrange technology is applied. Within this framework powder is treated by the Discrete-Element-Method, while gas flow is described by Euler approaches as found in classical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The described method succeeded in delivering more accuracy and consistency than a standard approach based on the volume averaging technique and therefore, is suited for the solution of problems within an engineering framework.

  13. Update on Linear Mode Photon Counting with the HgCdTe Linear Mode Avalanche Photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey D.; Kinch, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the gain-voltage characteristic of the mid-wavelength infrared cutoff HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is discussed both experimentally and theoretically as a function of the width of the multiplication region. Data are shown that demonstrate a strong dependence of the gain at a given bias voltage on the width of the n- gain region. Geometrical and fundamental theoretical models are examined to explain this behavior. The geometrical model takes into account the gain-dependent optical fill factor of the cylindrical APD. The theoretical model is based on the ballistic ionization model being developed for the HgCdTe APD. It is concluded that the fundamental theoretical explanation is the dominant effect. A model is developed that combines both the geometrical and fundamental effects. The model also takes into account the effect of the varying multiplication width in the low bias region of the gain-voltage curve. It is concluded that the lower than expected gain seen in the first 2 × 8 HgCdTe linear mode photon counting APD arrays, and higher excess noise factor, was very likely due to the larger than typical multiplication region length in the photon counting APD pixel design. The implications of these effects on device photon counting performance are discussed.

  14. Effect of manufactured sand on the durability characteristics of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. SARAVANAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most sought after material due to increase in construction activities and infrastructural developments. Availability of natural sand is decreasing thereby increase in the cost of construction. In the present work undertaken, an attempt has been made to give an alternative to natural sand. Optimization of replacement of natural sand with manufactured sand in concrete, durability studies such as water absorption, rapid chloride permeability test, sorptivity, acid resistance, alkaline resistance, impact resistance and abrasion resistance of M40 and M50 grades of concrete have been studied with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and compared the results with the conventional sand concrete. The results shows that there is an increase in the durability properties up to 70 % level of replacements of sand with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and for 100 % use of manufactured sand also gives the better durability than the conventional sand concrete.

  15. HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanio, K.R.; Bean, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors have been fabricated on Si substrates through intermediate CdTe/GaAs layers. Encapsulation of the GaAs between the CdTe and Si prevents unintentional doping of the HgCdTe by Ga and As. Uniform epitaxial GaAs is grown on three inch diameter Si substrates. Detectors on such large area Si substrates will offer hybrid focal plane arrays whose dimensions are not limited by the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the Si signal processor and the substrate for the HgCdTe detector array. The growth of HgCdTe detectors on the Si signal processors for monolithic focal plane arrays is also considered. 40 references

  16. Manufacturing methods and magnetic characteristics of magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, H.; Hojo, A.; Osada, H.; Namizaki, Y.; Taniuchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between wood construction and DC magnetic characteristics for three types of magnetic wood was experimentally investigated. The results show that the magnetic characteristics of each type of magnetic wood are dependent on the magnetic materials, the density of the magnetic material and the construction of the wood. Furthermore, it was determined that the relationship between the fiber direction and the magnetic path direction of the magnetic wood influenced the wood's magnetic characteristics

  17. Passivation Effect of Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Film on HgCdTe Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Chang-Hong; Chen, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Ning; Chen, Xin; Lin, Chun; Ding, Ring-Jun; He, Li

    2016-09-01

    The passivation effect of atomic layer deposition of (ALD) Al2O3 film on a HgCdTe infrared detector was investigated in this work. The passivation effect of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime, capacitance versus voltage ( C- V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices, and resistance versus voltage ( R- V) characteristics of variable-area photodiodes. The minority carrier lifetime, C- V characteristics, and R- V characteristics of HgCdTe devices passivated by ALD Al2O3 film was comparable to those of HgCdTe devices passivated by e-beam evaporation of ZnS/CdTe film. However, the baking stability of devices passivated by Al2O3 film is inferior to that of devices passivated by ZnS/CdTe film. In future work, by optimizing the ALD Al2O3 film growing process and annealing conditions, it may be feasible to achieve both excellent electrical properties and good baking stability.

  18. HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode detector arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Initial results on the MWIR e-APD detector arrays with 30 μm pitch fabricated on LPE grown compositionally graded p-HgCdTe epilayers are presented. High dynamic resistance times active area (R0A product 2 × 106 Ω-cm2, low dark current density 4 nA/cm2 and high gain 5500 at -8 V were achieved in the n+-υ-p+ HgCdTe e-APD at 80 K. LPE based HgCdTe e-APD development makes this technology amenable for adoption in the foundries established for the conventional HgCdTe photovoltaic detector arrays without any additional investment.

  19. Manufacture of electron beam irradiation vessel and its characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Takao; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Yotsumoto, Keiichi

    1992-05-01

    Electron beam irradiation vessel, which is used for the irradiation of samples under an inert or a vacuum atmosphere, is made by considering the temperature control during or after irradiation. The vessel was composed of the temperature controlable samples supporting plate, beam slit with water cooling plate and the insert of thermosensor. The four samples supporting plate was produced with the materials made up of aluminium, stainless steel (SUS304), and copper. The stainless steel supporting plate has a heater inside the cooling pipes for the high temperature treatment of samples without exposure to atmosphere after the irradiation. In this report, the temperature distribution and dose characteristics such as dose distribution and effects of backscattered electron were studied by using several supporting plate and the comparison of the experimental results with the simulated results was also carried out. (author)

  20. Growth features of HgCdTe LPE layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseynov, E.K.; Eminov, Sh.O.; Ibragimov, T.I.; Ismaylov, N.J.; Rajabli, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The results of growth of Hg 1 -xCd x Te (MCT) layers by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) from Te-rich solutions (molar fraction (Hg 1 -zCd z )(1.y)Te y , z=0.054, y=0.805 for TL=501 degrees Celsium) obtained by the tipping method in closed system is presented. Epitaxial layers with different compositions (x=0.20-0.22) and thicknesses (10-20 μm) suitable for manufacturing the photodiode structures operable at 8-14 μm spectrum range were grown on B oriented Cd 0 .96Zn 0 ,04Te polished and repolished substrates. The growth was carried out in the temperature range 500-480 degrees Celsium with cooling rates 0.05-0.1 degrees Celsium/min in a sealed quartz ampoule using the original apparatus for LPE. The attention was paid mainly to the surface morphological quality, good decantation from the layers, uniformity of composition and thickness of films. One of the limitations of the most LPE growth apparatus (cassettes) with slider or tipping system is their impossibility to wipe the last drop of growth solution from the surface of just-grown epilayer. Some remnant or residual of the growth solution tends to adhere to the surface of the epilayer after growth in such apparatus and strongly affect the surface quality. The novel apparatus for LPE providing the surface without unwanted residual drops of melt solution of Hg, Cd and Te was developed with the aim of solving such a problem. The effect of different steps of LPE growth on morphology and composition of epitaxial layers was studied. By holding the CdZnTe substrate inside the growth ampoule at the melt homogenization temperature during of 15-50 min without contact with the melt resulted in visually (using the Leitzorthoplan microscopes x 500-1000) observed surface roughness. Using the expressions for the Te-angle of Hg-Cd-Te phase diagram the effect of the preliminary synthesis of the source on liquidus temperature and composition of the epilayers was numerically evaluated. HgCdTe layers were characterized using

  1. Microstructure and corrosion characteristics of HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Gil; Choi, Byung Kwan; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain the best manufacturing process for the HANA 6 alloy, the various evaluations such as a corrosion test at 400 .deg. C steam condition, a microstructural analysis by using TEM, and texture analysis by using XRD were performed for the HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes. This alloy was manufactured as sheets by applying 4 types of manufacturing processes which were controlled by a combination of the intermediate annealing temperature and reduction ratio, as well as two types of final annealing conditions which were applied to the HANA 6 alloy from TREX samples. The corrosion resistance of the HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes was increased with a decreasing intermediate annealing temperature and the corrosion resistance of that alloy was decreased by increasing the final annealing temperature after a corrosion test up to 240 days. The precipitate of the HANA 6 alloy mainly consisted of Nb-containing precipitates in all the samples, but the size, distribution and Nb concentration of the precipitates was affected by the applied manufacturing processes. The Nb concentration in the precipitates was increased when the samples were annealed at 570.deg.C during the intermediate annealing processes. So, the corrosion rate of the HANA 6 alloy is affected considerably by a control of the intermediate and final annealing conditions which affect the precipitate characteristics in the matrix. The crystallographic texture of the HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes is similar since the total reduction ratio was the same in all the manufactured sheet samples

  2. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon photoresists for HgCdTe patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, R.E.; DeHart, C.; Wang, L.; Dinan, J.H.; Johnson, J.N.

    1997-07-01

    A process to use a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film as a dry photoresist mask for plasma etching of HgCdTe has been demonstrated. The a-Si:H films were deposited using standard plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with pure silane as the source gas. X-ray photoelectron spectra show that virtually no oxide grows on the surface of an a-Si:H film after 3 hours in air, indicating that it is hydrogen passivated. Ultraviolet light frees hydrogen from the surface and enhances the oxide growth rate. A pattern of 60 micron square pixels was transferred from a contact mask to the surface of an a-Si:H film by ultraviolet enhanced oxidation in air. For the conditions used, the oxide thickness was 0.5--1.0 nm. Hydrogen plasmas were used to develop this pattern by removing the unexposed regions of the film. A hydrogen plasma etch selectivity between oxide and a-Si:H of greater than 500:1 allows patterns as thick as 700 nm to be generated with this very thin oxide. These patterns were transferred into HgCdTe by etching in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. An etch selectivity between a-Si:H and HgCdTe of greater than 4:1 was observed after etching 2,500 nm into the HgCdTe. All of the steps are compatible with processing in vacuum.

  3. Influence of various manufacturing parameters on some characteristics of UO2 powders and their sintering behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, M.H.; Vaknin, Sh.; Kremener, A.; Hadari, Z.

    1977-02-01

    Various parameters in the process of manufacturing uranium dioxide are examined and their influence on the characteristics and sintering behaviour of the powders obtained established. In addition some correlations between the powder aggregates microstructure and their adhesion properties and sintering behaviour are indicated. Shrinkage during the sintering process is also discussed

  4. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparison of the Financial Characteristics of European and Asian Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Gulser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the financial characteristics of firms in different countries has been a popular research topic in finance. However, general financial characteristics of European and Asian manufacturing firms have never been compared. In this paper, we undertake such a study with the MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance technique. Our research uses all European and Asian manufacturing firms included in the Research Insight/Global Vintage database at the end of 2015. Our findings may provide valuable insights for financial managers and global investors. We find that Asian firms tend to have less liquidity risk but more bankruptcy risk compared with European firms. European firms have more efficient accounts receivable management and higher fixed and total assets turnover rates. However, Asian firms have higher inventory turnover and sales growth rates. Return on equity is not significantly different in European and Asian firms. However, Asian firms have significantly higher net profit margin and return on assets compared with European firms.

  6. Corrosion and Creep Characteristics of the HANA-4 Alloy with the various Manufacturing Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Choi, Byung-Kwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Jeong, Yong-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium alloys have been used as a fuel cladding material for several decades, since these alloys have revealed a good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties in reactor operating conditions. The development of an advanced Zr-based alloy with an improved corrosion and creep resistance is necessary for the high burn-up operating conditions in PWRs. The alloying element effects of the Nb, Sn, Fe, Cr, Cu etc as well as an optimization of the manufacturing processes such as the reduction ratio and annealing temperatures have been studied to improve the corrosion and creep properties. A high Nb-containing Zr-based alloy named HANA-4 was designed at KAERI and its nominal composition is Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr in wt.%. For high Nb-containing Zr alloys, their corrosion resistance is very sensitive to their microstructural characteristics which are determined by a manufacturing process. In order to obtain the best manufacturing process for the HANA-4 alloy, various evaluations such as corrosion and creep tests, a microstructural analysis, and a texture analysis were performed on the HANA-4 alloy with various manufacturing processes

  7. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  8. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek

    2016-01-01

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste

  9. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer

  10. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main St., Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  11. Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri

    2017-06-17

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer's rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and broth aromatics were identified. Volatile compounds were also associated with earthy, musty, and meaty aromas and flavor notes. This study showed that extruded dry dog foods manufactured with different red sorghum fractions had similar aroma, flavor, and volatile profiles.

  12. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste.

  13. Uncooled middle wavelength infrared photoconductors based on (111) and (100) oriented HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejczyk, Paweł; Kębłowski, Artur; Gawron, Waldemar; Martyniuk, Piotr; Kopytko, Małgorzata; Stępień, Dawid; Rutkowski, Jarosław; Piotrowski, Józef; Piotrowski, Adam; Rogalski, Antoni

    2017-09-01

    We present progress in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of (100) HgCdTe epilayers achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology and Vigo System S.A. It is shown that MOCVD technology is an excellent tool for the fabrication of different HgCdTe detector structures with a wide range of composition, donor/acceptor doping, and without post grown ex-situ annealing. Surface morphology, residual background concentration, and acceptor doping efficiency are compared in (111) and (100) oriented HgCdTe epilayers. At elevated temperatures, the carrier lifetime in measured p-type photoresistors is determined by Auger 7 process with about one order of magnitude difference between theoretical and experimental values. Particular progress has been achieved in the growth of (100) HgCdTe epilayers for medium wavelength infrared photoconductors operated in high-operating temperature conditions.

  14. Recent progress in MBE grown HgCdTe materials and devices at UWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, R.; Lei, W.; Antoszewski, J.; Madni, I.; Umana-Menbreno, G.; Faraone, L.

    2016-05-01

    HgCdTe has dominated the high performance end of the IR detector market for decades. At present, the fabrication costs of HgCdTe based advanced infrared devices is relatively high, due to the low yield associated with lattice matched CdZnTe substrates and a complicated cooling system. One approach to ease this problem is to use a cost effective alternative substrate, such as Si or GaAs. Recently, GaSb has emerged as a new alternative with better lattice matching. In addition, implementation of MBE-grown unipolar n-type/barrier/n-type detector structures in the HgCdTe material system has been recently proposed and studied intensively to enhance the detector operating temperature. The unipolar nBn photodetector structure can be used to substantially reduce dark current and noise without impeding photocurrent flow. In this paper, recent progress in MBE growth of HgCdTe infrared material at the University of Western Australia (UWA) is reported, including MBE growth of HgCdTe on GaSb alternative substrates and growth of HgCdTe nBn structures.

  15. Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realyvásquez, Arturo; Maldonado-Macías, Aidé Aracely; García-Alcaraz, Jorge; Cortés-Robles, Guillermo; Blanco-Fernández, Julio

    2016-01-05

    This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees' psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ) was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ) were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees' performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees' psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees' performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees' performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems' performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees.

  16. Exploring the Technological Collaboration Characteristics of the Global Integrated Circuit Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of international competition, there are many international technological collaborations in the integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM industry. The importance of improving the level of international technological collaboration is becoming more and more prominent. Therefore, it is vital for a country, a region, or an institution to understand the international technological collaboration characteristics of the ICM industry and, thus, to know how to enhance its own international technological collaboration. This paper depicts the international technological collaboration characteristics of the ICM industry based on patent analysis. Four aspects, which include collaboration patterns, collaboration networks, collaboration institutions, and collaboration impacts, are analyzed by utilizing patent association analysis and social network analysis. The findings include the following: first, in regard to international technological collaboration, the USA has the highest level, while Germany has great potential for future development; second, Asia and Europe have already formed clusters, respectively, in the cooperative network; last, but not least, research institutions, colleges, and universities should also actively participate in international collaboration. In general, this study provides an objective reference for policy making, competitiveness, and sustainability in the ICM industry. The framework presented in this paper could be applied to examine other industrial international technological collaborations.

  17. Characteristic Changes in the Aroma Profile of Patchouli Depending on Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Yoshitome, Kazuma; Fujihara, Takashi; Santoso, Mardi; Aziz, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Patchouli is used as an incense material and essential oil. The characteristic odor of patchouli leaves results from the drying process used in their production; however, there have to date been no reports on the changes in the odor of patchouli leaves during the drying process. We investigated the aroma profile of dried patchouli leaves using the hexane extracts of fresh and dried patchouli leaves. We focused on the presence or absence of the constituents of the fresh and dried extracts, and the differences in the content of the common constituents. Fourteen constituents were identified as characteristic of dried patchouli extract odor by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The structures of seven of the 14 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (α-patchoulene, seychellene, humulene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, caryophyllene oxide, and patchouli alcohol). The aroma profile of the essential oil obtained from the dried patchouli leaves was clearly different from that of dried patchouli. The aroma profile of the essential oil was investigated by a similar method. We identified 12 compounds as important odor constituents. The structures of nine of the 12 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (cis-thujopsene, caryophyllene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, seychellene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, patchouli alcohol, and corymbolone). Comparing the odors and constituents demonstrated that the aroma profile of patchouli depends on the manufacturing process.

  18. Fatigue and fracture toughness characteristics of laser rapid manufactured Inconel 625 structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Paul, C.P.; Tiwari, Pragya; Rai, S.K.; Prasad, R.C.; Kukreja, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mechanical test results of Laser rapid manufactured (LRM) Inconel 625 are reported. → 12 and 25 mm thick CT specimens of LRM Inconel 625 showed similar fatigue crack growth. → Stage II crack growth behavior is observed in the investigated ΔK range. → Fracture toughness testing by J-integral method yielded J 1c of about 200-250 kJ/m 2 . - Abstract: Fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness characteristics of laser rapid manufactured (LRMed) Inconel 625 compact tension specimens of thickness 12 and 25 mm were investigated. Fatigue crack propagation in all the specimens investigated in the stress intensity range (ΔK) of 14-38 MPa√m, exhibited stage II crack growth in Paris' regime with nearly same slopes of crack growth per cycle versus ΔK plot. Fatigue crack growth rates in the LRMed specimens of present study were found to be lower than the reported values for wrought Inconel 625 in the ΔK range of 14-24 MPa√m and above this range they tended to coincide. X-ray diffraction patterns of the fractured surfaces revealed that the crack propagated along the growth direction of the specimens which was predominantly along the (1 1 1) plane. The fracture toughness values (J 0.2 ) for LRMed Inconel 625 specimens were found to be in the range of about 200-255 kJ/m 2 . The LRMed specimens exhibited stable crack growth during the J-integral test.

  19. Fatigue and fracture toughness characteristics of laser rapid manufactured Inconel 625 structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, P., E-mail: ganesh@rrcat.gov.in [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (MP) 452013 (India); Kaul, R.; Paul, C.P. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (MP) 452013 (India); Tiwari, Pragya; Rai, S.K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (MP) 452013 (India); Prasad, R.C. [Metallurgy and Materials Science Department, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Kukreja, L.M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (MP) 452013 (India)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mechanical test results of Laser rapid manufactured (LRM) Inconel 625 are reported. {yields} 12 and 25 mm thick CT specimens of LRM Inconel 625 showed similar fatigue crack growth. {yields} Stage II crack growth behavior is observed in the investigated {Delta}K range. {yields} Fracture toughness testing by J-integral method yielded J{sub 1c} of about 200-250 kJ/m{sup 2}. - Abstract: Fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness characteristics of laser rapid manufactured (LRMed) Inconel 625 compact tension specimens of thickness 12 and 25 mm were investigated. Fatigue crack propagation in all the specimens investigated in the stress intensity range ({Delta}K) of 14-38 MPa{radical}m, exhibited stage II crack growth in Paris' regime with nearly same slopes of crack growth per cycle versus {Delta}K plot. Fatigue crack growth rates in the LRMed specimens of present study were found to be lower than the reported values for wrought Inconel 625 in the {Delta}K range of 14-24 MPa{radical}m and above this range they tended to coincide. X-ray diffraction patterns of the fractured surfaces revealed that the crack propagated along the growth direction of the specimens which was predominantly along the (1 1 1) plane. The fracture toughness values (J{sub 0.2}) for LRMed Inconel 625 specimens were found to be in the range of about 200-255 kJ/m{sup 2}. The LRMed specimens exhibited stable crack growth during the J-integral test.

  20. On macroeconomic characteristics of pharmaceutical generics and the potential for manufacturing and consumption under fuzzy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Fernando; de la Fuente, David; Puente, Javier; Lozano, Jesús

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology that is useful for analyzing, from a macroeconomic perspective, the aggregate demand and the aggregate supply features of the market of pharmaceutical generics. In order to determine the potential consumption and the potential production of pharmaceutical generics in different countries, two fuzzy decision support systems are proposed. Two fuzzy decision support systems, both based on the Mamdani model, were applied in this paper. These systems, generated by Matlab Toolbox 'Fuzzy' (v. 2.0), are able to determine the potential of a country for the manufacturing or the consumption of pharmaceutical generics. The systems make use of three macroeconomic input variables. In an empirical application of our proposed methodology, the potential towards consumption and manufacturing in Holland, Sweden, Italy and Spain has been estimated from national indicators. Cross-country comparisons are made and graphical surfaces are analyzed in order to interpret the results. The main contribution of this work is the development of a methodology that is useful for analyzing aggregate demand and aggregate supply characteristics of pharmaceutical generics. The methodology is valid for carrying out a systematic analysis of the potential generics have at a macrolevel in different countries. The main advantages of the use of fuzzy decision support systems in the context of pharmaceutical generics are the flexibility in the construction of the system, the speed in interpreting the results offered by the inference and surface maps and the ease with which a sensitivity analysis of the potential behavior of a given country may be performed.

  1. Improved HgCdTe detectors with novel antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sachi R.; Hu, Kelley; Manthripragada, Sridhar; Martineau, Robert J.; Kotecki, C. A.; Peters, F. A.; Burgess, A. S.; Krebs, Danny J.; Mott, David B.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Miles, A.; Nguyen, Trang L.; Shu, Peter K.

    1996-10-01

    The composite infrared spctrometer (CIRS) is an important instrument for the upcoming Cassini mission for sensing infrared (IR) radiation from the Saturanian planetary system. We have delivered a linear, ten element, mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) photoconductive detector array for use on focal plane 3 (FP3), which is responsible for detecting radiation from the 9.1 micrometer to 16.6 micrometer wavelength range. Reliable HgCdTe detectors require robust passivation, a low-stress zinc sulfide (ZnS) anti-reflection (AR) coating with good adhesion, and a proper optical cavity design to smooth out the resonance in the detector spectral response. During the development of CIRS flight array, we have demonstrated the potential of using an in-situ interfacial layer, such as SiN(subscript x), between ZnS and the anodic oxide. Such an interfacial layer drastically improves the adhesion between the ZnS and oxide, without degrading the minority carrier lifetime. We have also demonstrated the feasibility of applying a SiN(subscript x) 'rain coat' layer over the ZnS to prevent moisture and other chemicals from attacking the AR coating, thus improving the long term reliability. This also enables device operation in a hazardous environment. The alumina/epoxy/HgCdTe/oxide/ZnS structure is a complicated multi-cavity optical system. We have developed an extensive device simulation, which enables us to make the optimal choice of individual cavity thickness for minimizing the resonance and maximizing the quantum efficiency. We have also used 0.05 micrometer alumina powder loaded epoxy to minimize the reflections at the epoxy/HgCdTe interface, thus minimizing the resonance.

  2. Characteristics of infrared thermometers manufactured in Japan and calibration methods for sky radiant emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Horiguchi, I.; Machimura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared thermometers to measure surface temperature have been increasingly adopted in recent years. The characteristics of the IR thermometer, however, are not well known.IR thermometers manufactured in Japan systematically adjust for ambient radiation based on the internal temperature of the thermometer. If, therefore, there is a large difference between the internal temperature of the IR thermometer and the apparent temperature associated with the surrounding radiation, a large error will be induced into the measured surface temperature.The purpose of our research was to determine the characteristics and measurement errors of IR thermometers. Experiments were performed with regard to the following items: (1) Measurement errors related to the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. (2) Linearity of the output signal of the IR thermometer. (3) Response of the output signal to changes in the emissivity setting. (4) Effect of sky radiant emittance on the measured surface temperature. (5) Calibration method for the terrestrial surface.The following is a summary of the results: Measurement error is affected by the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. Measurement accuracy is improved with a controlled internal temperature of 20-30°C. The measurement error becomes larger at emissivity settings under 0.7.The measurement error outdoors was not proportional to the downward longwave radiation, but to the sky radiant temperature measured by the IR thermometer. Calibration for sky radiant emittance was improved by using the difference between sky radiant temperature and air temperature.When the surface temperature measured by the infrared thermometer is plotted against the surface temperature measured by thermocouple, the sky radiant emittance error is obtained from the Y intercept. Additionally, the difference between true temperature and output of the IR thermometer for a reference plate was compared to that obtained for vegetation, and the RMS obtained was

  3. Role of manufacturing process parameters on the characteristics of aluminum matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2003-01-01

    Metal matrix composites, (MMC), are engineered combinations of two or more materials (one of which is a metal) in which tailored properties are achieved by systematic combinations consisting of continuous or discontinuous fibers, whiskers, or particles in a metal result in combinations of very high specific strength. Furthermore, systematic design and procedures can be developed to achieve unique combinations of engineering properties such as high elevated-temperature strengths, damping or electrical properties. In this paper, the theory and practice of MMC are reviewed and discussed. The different techniques used in the manufacturing of MMC in general and aluminum matrix composites in particular e.g. unidirectional solidification, squeeze casting, vortex method and compocasting are presented and discussed. The parameters involved in these techniques and their effects on the characteristics of MMC product are also given and discussed. These include: crucible size and shape, melt temperature, size and shape of the impeller, stirring speed, rate of addition of the particles, the degree of agitation and cooling rate. Furthermore, the effect of these parameters on the mechanical strength and machinability are also presented and discussed. Finally, recent research results in aluminum matrix composites and their future developments are outlined and discussed. (author)

  4. Exploring knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks and codified information characteristics: the hidden dangers of inaccurate information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Technology transfer is an important aspect of, and takes frequently place in, international manufacturing networks. A key component of a specific technology is the knowledge and information that accompanies it. This study explores the difficulties with transferring technological knowledge and

  5. Impulse response measurement in the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Pal, Ravinder

    2018-04-01

    HgCdTe based mid-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) are being developed for high resolution imaging and range determination of distant camouflaged targets. Effect of bandgap grading on the response time in the n+/ν/p+ HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is evaluated using impulse response measurement. Gain normalized dark current density of 2 × 10-9 A/cm2 at low reverse bias for passive mode and 2 × 10-4 A/cm2 at -8 V for active mode is measured in the fabricated APD device, yielding high gain bandwidth product of 2.4 THZ at the maximum gain. Diffusion of carriers is minimized to achieve transit time limited impulse response by introducing composition grading in the HgCdTe epilayer. The noise equivalent photon performance less than one is achievable in the FPA that is suitable for active cum passive imaging applications.

  6. Can graphene make better HgCdTe infrared detectors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yanli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We develop a simple and low-cost technique based on chemical vapor deposition from which large-size graphene films with 5-10 graphene layers can be produced reliably and the graphene films can be transferred easily onto HgCdTe (MCT thin wafers at room temperature. The proposed technique does not cause any thermal and mechanical damages to the MCT wafers. It is found that the averaged light transmittance of the graphene film on MCT thin wafer is about 80% in the mid-infrared bandwidth at room temperature and 77 K. Moreover, we find that the electrical conductance of the graphene film on the MCT substrate is about 25 times larger than that of the MCT substrate at room temperature and 77 K. These experimental findings suggest that, from a physics point of view, graphene can be utilized as transparent electrodes as a replacement for metal electrodes while producing better and cheaper MCT infrared detectors.

  7. Massless Dirac fermions in semimetal HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, M.; Grendysa, J.; Żak, D.; Tomaka, G.; Śliż, P.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Magneto-transport results obtained for the strained 100 nm thick Hg1-x CdxTe (x=0.135) layer grown by MBE on the CdTe/GaAs substrate are interpreted by the 8×8 kp model with the in-plane tensile strain. The dispersion relation for the investigated structure proves that the Dirac point is located in the gap caused by the strain. It is also shown that the fan of the Landau Levels (LL's) energy calculated for topological protected surface states for the studied HgCdTe alloy corresponds to the fan of the LL's calculated using the graphen-like Hamiltonian which gives excellent agreement with the experimental data for velocity on the Fermi level equal to vf ≈ 0.85×106 m/s. That characterized strained Hg1-x CdxTe layers (0.13 < x < 0.14) are a perfect Topological Insulator with good perspectives of further applications.

  8. Crosstalk of HgCdTe LWIR n-on-p diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yinghui; Zhang Bo; Yu Meifang; Liao Qingjun; Zhang Yan; Wen Xin; Jiang Peilu; Hu Xiaoning; Dai Ning

    2009-01-01

    Crosstalk of HgCdTe long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) n-on-p diode arrays was measured using scanning laser microscopy. During the measurement, HgCdTe diode arrays with different diode pitches were frontside illuminated by a He-Ne laser at liquid nitrogen temperature and room temperature. The experimental results show that crosstalk between the nearest neighboring diodes decreases exponentially as the diode pitch increases, and the factors that affect the obtained crosstalk are presented and analyzed. Crosstalk out of the nominal diode area (optically sensitive area) is also measured and discussed.

  9. Effect of manufacturing process sequence on the corrosion resistance characteristics of coated metallic bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, Ender; Cora, Ömer Necati; Koç, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    Metallic bipolar plate (BPP) with high corrosion and low contact resistance, durability, strength, low cost, volume, and weight requirements is one of the critical parts of the PEMFC. This study is dedicated to understand the effect of the process sequence (manufacturing then coating vs. coating then manufacturing) on the corrosion resistance of coated metallic bipolar plates. To this goal, three different PVD coatings (titanium nitride (TiN), chromium nitride (CrN), zirconium nitride (ZrN)), with three thicknesses, (0.1, 0.5, 1 μm) were applied on BPPs made of 316L stainless steel alloy before and after two types of manufacturing (i.e., stamping or hydroforming). Corrosion test results indicated that ZrN coating exhibited the best corrosion protection while the performance of TiN coating was the lowest among the tested coatings and thicknesses. For most of the cases tested, in which coating was applied before manufacturing, occurrence of corrosion was found to be more profound than the case where coating was applied after manufacturing. Increasing the coating thickness was found to improve the corrosion resistance. It was also revealed that hydroformed BPPs performed slightly better than stamped BPPs in terms of the corrosion behavior.

  10. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... understood. Research indicates an orientation within the manufacturing layer and efforts have been made to achieve a more uniform orientation within the part. A vat polymerization machine consisting of a resin vat and a moving build plate has been simulated using the fluid flow module of Comsol Multiphysics...... photopolymer resin. The prediction can be used to identify potential clusters or misalignment of fibers and in the future allow for optimization of the machine design and manufacturing process....

  11. SWIR HgCdTe avalanche photiode focal plane array performances evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borniol, E.; Rothman, J.; Salveti, F.; Feautrier, P.

    2017-11-01

    One of the main challenges of modern astronomical instruments like adaptive optics (AO) systems or fringe trackers is to deal with the very low photons flux detection scenarios. The typical timescale of atmospheric turbulences being in the range of some tens of milliseconds, infrared wavefront sensors for AO systems needs frame rates higher than 1 KHz leading to integration times lower than 1 ms. This integration time associated with a low irradiance results in a few number of integrated photons per frame per pixel. To preserve the information coming from this weak signal, the focal plane array (FPA) has to present a low read out noise, a high quantum efficiency and a low dark current. Up to now, the output noise of high speed near infrared sensors is limited by the silicon read out circuit noise. The use of HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes with high gain at moderate reverse bias and low excess noise seems then a logical way to reduce the impact of the read noise on images signal to noise ratio. These low irradiance passive imaging applications with integration times in the millisecond range needs low photodiode dark current and low background current. These requirements lead to the choice of the photodiode cut off wavelength. The short wave infrared (SWIR) around 3 μm is a good compromise between the gain that can be obtain for a given APD bias and the background and dark current. The CEA LETI HgCdTe APD technology, and a fine analysis of the gain curve characteristic are presented in [1] and won't be detailed here. The response time of the APD is also a key factor for a high frame rate FPA. This parameter has been evaluated in [2] and the results shows cut off frequencies in the GHz range. In this communication we report the performances of a SWIR APD FPA designed and fabricated by CEA LETI and SOFRADIR for astrophysical applications. This development was made in the frame of RAPID, a 4 years R&D project funded by the French FUI (Fond Unique Interministériel). This

  12. Thermal Cycle Annealing and its Application to Arsenic-Ion Implanted HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-26

    Rao Mulpuri Sina Simingalam, Priyalal Wijewarnasuriya, Mulpuri V. Rao 1720BH c. THIS PAGE The public reporting burden for this collection of...Implanted HgCdTe Sina Simingalama,b,c, Priyalal Wijewarnasuriyab, Mulpuri V. Raoc a. School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George

  13. Arsenic complexes optical signatures in As-doped HgCdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemain, F.; Robin, I. C.; Brochen, S.; Ballet, P.; Gravrand, O.; Feuillet, G. [CEA-LETI Minatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-04-08

    In this paper, the optical signatures of arsenic complexes in As-doped HgCdTe samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy are clearly identified using comparison between photoluminescence spectra, Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure, and Hall measurements. The ionization energies of the different complexes are measured both by photoluminescence and Hall measurements.

  14. A method to eliminate wetting during the homogenization of HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1986-01-01

    Adhesion of HgCdTe samples to fused silica ampoule walls, or 'wetting', during the homogenization process was eliminated by adopting a slower heating rate. The idea is to decrease Cd activity in the sample so as to reduce the rate of reaction between Cd and the silica wall.

  15. Monolithic dual-band HgCdTe infrared detector structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parish, G

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A monolithic HgCdTe photoconductive device structure is presented that is suitable for dual-band optically registered infrared photodetection in the two atmospheric transmission windows of 3-5 mu m and 8-12 mu m, which correspond to the mid...

  16. Arsenic complexes optical signatures in As-doped HgCdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemain, F.; Robin, I. C.; Brochen, S.; Ballet, P.; Gravrand, O.; Feuillet, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the optical signatures of arsenic complexes in As-doped HgCdTe samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy are clearly identified using comparison between photoluminescence spectra, Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure, and Hall measurements. The ionization energies of the different complexes are measured both by photoluminescence and Hall measurements.

  17. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... applications, strength and stiffness are crucial factors to a successful implementation of cured photopolymer thermosets. Hence, fiber-reinforced polymers have recently been introduced. The behavior and especially orientation of fibers during the vat photopolymerization process has yet not been fully...

  18. Very high resolution detection of gamma radiation at room-temperature using P-I-N detectors of CdZnTe and HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. J.; Rhiger, D. R.; Sen, S.; Kalisher, M. H.; James, K.; Reid, C. P.; Gerrish, V.; Baccash, C. O.

    1994-08-01

    High-energy photon detectors have been constructed by engineering and fabricating p-i-n diode structures consisting of bulk CdZnTe and epitaxial HgCdTe. The p-i-n structure was obtained by liquid-phase epitaxial growth of p and n doped HgCdTe layers on 'intrinsic' CdZnTe material about 1mm thick and approximately 25mm square. Curve tracing shows I-V curves with diode characteristics having resistivity above 1011 Omega -cm and leakage current of less than 400 pA to about - 60V reverse bias on a typical test piece approximately 5 x 8 x 1 mm. Spectra of similar test pieces have been obtained at room temperature with various nuclear isotopic sources over the range of 22 keV to 662 keV which show exceptionally high energy resolution. Resolution as good as 1.82% FWHM was obtained for the 356 keV line of 133Ba with a P/V = 3.4. The performance of these detectors combined with contemporary infrared technology capable of fabricating 2D arrays of these II-VI materials opens up manifold exciting applications in astrophysics, medical, industrial, environmental, and defense spectroscopy and imaging.

  19. Method of manufacturing Ross differential filters for selection of characteristic radiation of element to be determined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, E; Bumbalova, A

    1978-02-15

    The method of filter manufacturing described consists in that an element in powder form, e.g., cadmium or tin, or oxides, e.g., cadmium oxide or tin oxide are compacted at a pressure of 500 to 2000 kg/cm/sup 2/ with powder fillers, such as lactose, glucose, calcium phosphates, cellulose or starch. The filter surface is finished with fixation agents, e.g., polystyrene chloroform solutions. Thus, the need for filter balancing is eliminated. Accurate proportioning of the filtering element of the compacted mixture and accurate balancing are achieved by reducing the filtering element content.

  20. Use of alternative fuels in cement manufacture. Effect on clinker and cement characteristics and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares industrial clinker and cement produced using conventional and alternative fuels (animal meal, tyres or a mixture of the two. The results show no relevant differences in terms of mineralogical composition between the clinker manufactured with alternative fuels and the product obtained using conventional fuel. Clinker produced with alternative fuels at any one factory have a very similar or even lower content in heavy metals than the product manufactured with conventional fuel in the same plant (with the sole exception of Zn when the alternative fuel used is shredded tyres. Mineralogical and morphological analyses reveal no significant differences between the two types of products that can be attributed to the type of fuel used in their manufacture. All six types of cement studied are compliant with the existing legislation as regards both physical and chemical properties. Cement compressive strength is found to be to legal standards regardless of the type of fuel used. Finally, the rheological properties of the cement paste are observed to be unaffected by the type of fuel.

    Se han estudiado clínkeres y cementos obtenidos en procesos industriales que han utilizado combustibles convencionales y combustibles alternativos (harinas cárnicas, neumáticos usados y mezclas de ambos. Los resultados obtenidos han demostrado que los clínkeres fabricados con los combustibles alternativos no presentan diferencias significativas en la composición mineralógica respecto a los obtenidos con combustibles convencionales. Los contenidos de metales pesados en los clínkeres procedentes de la misma fábrica (a excepción de los contenidos en Zn en aquéllos que utilizan neumáticos son muy similares o incluso inferiores a los fabricados con combustibles convencionales. Los análisis mineralógico y morfológico de los clínkeres no evidencian diferencias asignables al tipo de combustible utilizado. Todos los cementos estudiados cumplen

  1. Evaluation of surface characteristics of rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by different manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U; Gurel, M

    2017-02-01

    Instrument fracture is a serious concern in endodontic practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface quality of new and used rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments manufactured by the traditional grinding process and twisting methods. Total 16 instruments of two rotary NiTi systems were used in this study. Eight Twisted Files (TF) (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and 8 Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) instruments were evaluated. New and used of 4 experimental groups were evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). New and used instruments were analyzed on 3 points along a 3 mm. section at the tip of the instrument. Quantitative measurements according to the topographical deviations were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed with paired samples t-test and independent samples t-test. Mean root mean square (RMS) values for new and used TF 25.06 files were 10.70 ± 2.80 nm and 21.58 ± 6.42 nm, respectively, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P instruments produced by twisting method (TF 25.06) had better surface quality than the instruments produced by traditional grinding process (Mtwo 25.06 files).

  2. Chemical and physical characteristics of tar samples from selected Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, J.; Taylor, B.; Mauro, D.; Young, M.

    1993-05-01

    A multiyear, multidisciplinary project concerning the toxicity of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) tarry residues was initiated by EPRI under the Environmental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) Program. This report concerns one portion of that work -- the collection and chemical characterization of tar samples from several former MGP sites. META Environmental, Inc. and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. were contracted by EPRI to collect several samples of tarry residues from former MGP sites with varied historical gas production processes and from several parts of the country. The eight tars collected during this program were physically very different. Some tars were fluid and easily pumped from existing wells, while other tars were thicker, semi-solid, or solid. Although care was taken to collect only tar, the nature of the residues at several sites made it impossible not to collect other material, such as soil, gravel, and plant matter. After the samples were collected, they were analyzed for 37 organic compounds, 8 metals, and cyanide. In addition, elemental analysis was performed on the tar samples for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen content and several physical/chemical properties were determined for each tar. The tars were mixed together in different batches and distributed to researchers for use in animal toxicity studies. The results of this work show that, although the tars were produced from different processes and stored in different manners, they had some chemical similarities. All of the tars, with the exception of one unusual solid tar, contained similar relative abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  3. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory J.; Strange, Jeremy; Jennings, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system s liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS), but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.57 lb. Performance of the heat exchanger met the requirements and the model predictions. The water side and gas side pressure drops were less 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively, and an effectiveness of 94% was measured at the nominal air side pressure of 4.1 psia.

  4. Nanomaterial release characteristics in a single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    As carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in various applications, exposure assessment also increases in importance with other various toxicity tests for CNTs. We conducted 24-h continuous nanoaerosol measurements to identify possible nanomaterial release in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing workplace. Four real-time aerosol instruments were used to determine the nanosized and microsized particle numbers, particle surface area, and carbonaceous species. Task-based exposure assessment was carried out for SWCNT synthesis using the arc plasma and thermal decomposition processes to remove amorphous carbon components as impurities. During the SWCNT synthesis, the black carbon (BC) concentration was 2–12 μg/m 3 . The maximum BC mass concentrations occurred when the synthesis chamber was opened for harvesting the SWCNTs. The number concentrations of particles with sizes 10–420 nm were 10,000–40,000 particles/cm 3 during the tasks. The maximum number concentration existed when a vacuum pump was operated to remove exhaust air from the SWCNT synthesis chamber due to the penetration of highly concentrated oil mists through the window opened. We analyzed the particle mass size distribution and particle number size distribution for each peak episode. Using real-time aerosol detectors, we distinguished the SWCNT releases from background nanoaerosols such as oil mist and atmospheric photochemical smog particles. SWCNT aggregates with sizes of 1–10 μm were mainly released from the arc plasma synthesis. The harvesting process was the main release route of SWCNTs in the workplace

  5. [Characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission from electronic products processing and manufacturing factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ru; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Based on the EPA method T0-11 and 14/15 for measurement of toxic organics in air samples, fast VOCs detector, Summa canister and DNPH absorbent were used to determine the VOCs concentrations and the compositions in the ambient air of the workshops for different processes as well as the emission concentration in the exhaust gas. In all processes that involved VOCs release, concentrations of total VOCs in the workshops were 0.1-0.5 mg x m(-3), 1.5-2.5 mg x m(-3) and 20-200 mg x m(-3) for casting, cutting and painting respectively. Main compositions of VOCs in those workshops were alkanes, eneynes, aromatics, ketones, esters and ethers, totally over 20 different species. The main compositions in painting workshop were aromatics and ketones, among which the concentration of benzene was 0.02-0.34 mg x m(-3), toluene was 0.24-3.35 mg x m(-3), ethyl benzene was 0.04-1.33 mg x m(-3), p-xylene was 0.13-0.96 mg x m(-3), m-xylene was 0.02-1.18 mg x m(-3), acetone was 0.29-15.77 mg x m(-3), 2-butanone was 0.06-22.88 mg x m(-3), cyclohexene was 0.02-25.79 mg x m(-3), and methyl isobutyl ketone was 0-21.29 mg x m(-3). The VOCs emission from painting process was about 14 t x a(-1) for one single manufacturing line, and 840 t x a(-1) for the whole factory. According to the work flows and product processes, the solvent used during painting process was the main source of VOCs emission, and the exhaust gas was the main emission point.

  6. Exposure Characteristics of Nanoparticles as Process By-products for the Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jin-Ho; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Sick; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the exposure properties of nanoparticles (NPs; semiconductor manufacturing processes. The measurements of airborne NPs were mainly performed around process equipment during fabrication processes and during maintenance. The number concentrations of NPs were measured using a water-based condensation particle counter having a size range of 10-3,000 nm. The chemical composition, size, and shape of NPs were determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The resulting concentrations of NPs ranged from 0.00-11.47 particles/cm(3). The concentration of NPs measured during maintenance showed a tendency to increase, albeit incrementally, compared to that measured during normal conditions (under typical process conditions without maintenance). However, the increment was small. When comparing the mean number concentration and standard deviation (n ± σ) of NPs, the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process was the highest (3.45 ± 3.65 particles/cm(3)), and the dry etch (ETCH) process was the lowest (0.11 ± 0.22 particles/cm(3)). The major NPs observed were silica (SiO2) and titania (TiO2) particles, which were mainly spherical agglomerates ranging in size from 25-280 nm. Sampling of semiconductor processes in CMP, chemical vapor deposition, and ETCH reveled NPs were particle size exceeded 100 nm in diffusion, metallization, ion implantation, and wet cleaning/etching process. The results show that the SiO2 and TiO2 are the major NPs present in semiconductor cleanroom environments.

  7. Nanomaterial release characteristics in a single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jun Ho [EcoPictures Co., Ltd (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Bae, Gwi-Nam, E-mail: gnbae@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    As carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in various applications, exposure assessment also increases in importance with other various toxicity tests for CNTs. We conducted 24-h continuous nanoaerosol measurements to identify possible nanomaterial release in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing workplace. Four real-time aerosol instruments were used to determine the nanosized and microsized particle numbers, particle surface area, and carbonaceous species. Task-based exposure assessment was carried out for SWCNT synthesis using the arc plasma and thermal decomposition processes to remove amorphous carbon components as impurities. During the SWCNT synthesis, the black carbon (BC) concentration was 2–12 μg/m{sup 3}. The maximum BC mass concentrations occurred when the synthesis chamber was opened for harvesting the SWCNTs. The number concentrations of particles with sizes 10–420 nm were 10,000–40,000 particles/cm{sup 3} during the tasks. The maximum number concentration existed when a vacuum pump was operated to remove exhaust air from the SWCNT synthesis chamber due to the penetration of highly concentrated oil mists through the window opened. We analyzed the particle mass size distribution and particle number size distribution for each peak episode. Using real-time aerosol detectors, we distinguished the SWCNT releases from background nanoaerosols such as oil mist and atmospheric photochemical smog particles. SWCNT aggregates with sizes of 1–10 μm were mainly released from the arc plasma synthesis. The harvesting process was the main release route of SWCNTs in the workplace.

  8. Linear Mode HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Counting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William, III; Beck, Jeffrey; Scritchfield, Richard; Skokan, Mark; Mitra, Pradip; Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James; Carpenter, Darren; Lane, Barry

    2015-01-01

    An overview of recent improvements in the understanding and maturity of linear mode photon counting with HgCdTe electron-initiated avalanche photodiodes is presented. The first HgCdTe LMPC 2x8 format array fabricated in 2011 with 64 micron pitch was a remarkable success in terms of demonstrating a high single photon signal to noise ratio of 13.7 with an excess noise factor of 1.3-1.4, a 7 ns minimum time between events, and a broad spectral response extending from 0.4 micron to 4.2 micron. The main limitations were a greater than 10x higher false event rate than expected of greater than 1 MHz, a 5-7x lower than expected APD gain, and a photon detection efficiency of only 50% when greater than 60% was expected. This paper discusses the reasons behind these limitations and the implementation of their mitigations with new results.

  9. Firm and Auditor Characteristics, and Audit Report Lag in Manufacturing Companies Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtaruddin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting is relevant. Its manifestation can be seen from the timeliness of reporting. Timeliness could be judged from the audit report lag, which is the length of time from the end of company’s fiscal year to the date of auditor's report. This research aims to empirically examine the influence of firm size, operation complexity, auditor quality, and auditor's opinion on audit report lag of manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The population of this research consists of manufacturing companies, listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2008 to 2012 as many as 111 companies with the research’s sample of 65 companies or 325 observational data, which were selected by purposive sampling method. The data are secondary data obtained from Indonesia Stock Exchange. The research proves that simultaneously, all variables significantly influence the audit report lag. Subsequently in partial, variables ‘firm size’, ‘auditor's opinion’ have a significant and positive effect on audit report lag, the ‘auditor quality’ has a significant and negative effect on audit report lag, while the variable ‘operation complexity’ has no significant effect on audit report lag. The coefficient of determination ?(R?^2 in this study was 0.192 or 19.2 % and the remaining 80.8 % is influenced by other factors that were not examined.

  10. Release characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes during manufacturing and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, I; Kishimoto, A; Kotake, M; Hashimoto, N; Gotoh, K

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the release characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized by a pilot-scale plant. In addition to on-site aerosol measurements at the pilot-scale plant where the CNTs were synthesized, harvested, and packed, we conducted dustiness tests by vortex shaking and by transferring CNTs from one bowl to another. In the results of the on-site aerosol measurements, slight increases in the concentration were observed by aerosol monitoring instruments in the enclosure where CNTs were harvested and packed. In filter samples collected in this enclosure, micron-sized CNT clusters were observed by electron microscopy analysis. For samples collected outside the enclosure or during other processes, no CNTs were observed. The concentrations of elemental carbon at all locations were lower than the proposed occupational exposure limits of CNTs. The results of the dustiness tests revealed that submicron-sized particles were dominant in the number concentration measured by aerosol monitoring instruments, whereas micron-sized CNT clusters were mainly observed by electron microscopy analysis. The results of dustiness tests indicate that these CNTs have a low release characteristic. The lower drop impact of CNT clusters due to their lower bulk density resulted in lower CNT release from falling CNTs.

  11. Modification of cementitious binder characteristics following a change in manufacturing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coninck, P. de; Ferre, B.; Moinard, M.; Tronche, E.

    2015-01-01

    CEA is developing conditioning processes for the disposal of legacy nuclear waste. One of the waste materials is magnesium cladding removed from fuel elements irradiated in nuclear reactors. The final specifications that must be met by the packages mainly include mechanical strength, cracking, waste immobilization, and H 2 release. A matrix material has been selected that complies with the requirements. This material is a geo-polymer mortar. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact on the matrix material characteristics of a change in scale with the objective of industrializing a solid magnesium waste retrieval process. The process parameters tested were different production volumes (0.7, 210 and 1000 liter packages) and process temperatures (10, 22 and 40 C. degrees). 3 types of mixers were used to scale up the production volume. The results show that the process temperature has a significant impact on the viscosity, workability time and temperature of the matrix. The size of the mixers did not significantly influence the material characteristics

  12. Bioresorbable composite screws manufactured via forging process: pull-out, shear, flexural and degradation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfel, R M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Rudd, C D

    2013-02-01

    Bioresorbable screws have the potential to overcome some of the complications associated with metallic screws currently in use. Removal of metallic screws after bone has healed is a serious issue which can lead to refracture due to the presence of screw holes. Poly lactic acid (PLA), fully 40 mol% P(2)O(5) containing phosphate unidirectional (P40UD) and a mixture of UD and short chopped strand random fibre mats (P40 70%UD/30%RM) composite screws were prepared via forging composite bars. Water uptake and mass loss for the composite screws manufactured increased significantly to ∼1.25% (P=0.0002) and ∼1.1% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 42 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. The initial maximum flexural load for P40 UD/RM and P40 UD composite screws was ∼60% (P=0.0047) and ∼100% (P=0.0037) higher than for the PLA screws (∼190 N), whilst the shear load was slightly higher in comparison to PLA (∼2.2 kN). The initial pull-out strengths for the P40 UD/RM and PLA screws were similar whereas that for P40 UD screws was ∼75% higher (P=0.022). Mechanical properties for the composite screws decreased initially after 3 days of immersion and this reduction was ascribed to the degradation of the fibre/matrix interface. After 3 days interval the mechanical properties (flexural, shear and pull-out) maintained their integrity for the duration of the study (at 42 days). This property retention was attributed to the chemical durability of the fibres used and stability of the matrix properties during the degradation process. It was also deemed necessary to enhance the fibre/matrix interface via use of a coupling agent in order to maintain the initial mechanical properties acquired for the required period of time. Lastly, it is also suggested that the degrading reinforcement fibres may have the potential to buffer any acidic products released from the PLA matrix. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-Photon-Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to develop single-photon-sensitive short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) avalanche photodiode (APD) receivers based on linear-mode HgCdTe APDs, for application by NASA in light detection and ranging (lidar) sensors. Linear-mode photon-counting APDs are desired for lidar because they have a shorter pixel dead time than Geiger APDs, and can detect sequential pulse returns from multiple objects that are closely spaced in range. Linear-mode APDs can also measure photon number, which Geiger APDs cannot, adding an extra dimension to lidar scene data for multi-photon returns. High-gain APDs with low multiplication noise are required for efficient linear-mode detection of single photons because of APD gain statistics -- a low-excess-noise APD will generate detectible current pulses from single photon input at a much higher rate of occurrence than will a noisy APD operated at the same average gain. MWIR and LWIR electron-avalanche HgCdTe APDs have been shown to operate in linear mode at high average avalanche gain (M > 1000) without excess multiplication noise (F = 1), and are therefore very good candidates for linear-mode photon counting. However, detectors fashioned from these narrow-bandgap alloys require aggressive cooling to control thermal dark current. Wider-bandgap SWIR HgCdTe APDs were investigated in this program as a strategy to reduce detector cooling requirements.

  14. A study on the chemical characteristics changes throughout the manufacture and ripening of Lighvan cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzae

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lighvan cheese is one of the traditional cheeses which have the most high quantity of use in Iran. It is produced in South East of Tabriz in North West of Iran. The raw milk of ewe together with 20% -30% of goat's milk, without yeast, are used for its production. Its taste is mild salty and its scent is pleasant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical indexes changes including salt percentage, the degree of acidity, pH, dry mater, ashes, and protein during the production and ripening. For this purpose, after coordinating with 10 local cheese producers, one batch from each producer and from each batch 20 tins, weighing 1 kg, which in total was 200 newly packaged cheese were purchased randomly. The tins were kept in special caves for 30 days in the region and then 60 days in refrigerator. In each batch sample of the raw milk, clot after rising and before salting, the cheese during the package time in tin and the cheese sample on 15th, 30th, 60th, and 90th days of ripining was analyzed chemically. The results of the study from the initial days of production to the end of the ripening period indicated the following changes: the rate of fat from 6.8 ± 0.25 in milk to 24.55±0.95 in samples, pH from 5.94± 0.06 in milk to 4.4±0.11 in samples, acidity from 39.4 ± 5.99 D° in milk to 119.4±5.38 in samples, rate of ash from 1.77±0.23 in milk to 8.09±2.32 in samples, the percentage of dry mater from 16.52±0.74 in milk to 43.57±1.34 in samples, and finally the percentage of protein from 4.45±1/12 in milk to 14.2±1.4 in samples. This result suggests that Lighvan cheese has unique characteristics in terms of its alteration procedure and chemical characteristics and based on the standard criterion in Iran, 2344-1, it is white cheese ripened brine in terms of chemical characteristics and fatty cheese in terms of the percentage of fat.

  15. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil to finishing barrows on processing characteristics and shelf life of commercially manufactured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Kim, G D; Boler, D D; Kerr, B J; Dilger, A C

    2018-05-12

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of feeding soybean oil (SO) with varying levels of peroxidation on fresh belly characteristics, processing yields, and shelf life of commercially manufactured bacon stored under food-service style conditions. Fifty-six barrows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets containing 10% fresh SO (22.5°C) or thermally processed SO (45°C for 288 h, 90°C for 72 h, or 180°C for 6 h), each infused with air at a rate of 15L/min. Individually housed pigs were provided ad libitum access to feed for 81 d. On d 82 pigs were slaughtered and on d 83 carcasses were fabricated and bellies collected for recording of weight, dimensions, and flop distance. Belly adipose tissue cores were collected for analysis of iodine value (IV) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR-IV). Bacon was manufactured at a commercial processing facility and sliced bacon was subsequently transferred to food-service style packaging and subjected to 0, 30, 60, or 90 d storage at -20°C. Stored bacon was evaluated for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and trained sensory evaluation of oxidized odor and flavor. Fresh belly and bacon processing traits were analyzed as a one-way ANOVA with the fixed effect of SO; whereas, shelf life traits were analyzed as a one-way ANOVA repeated in time. There was no effect (P ≥ 0.30) of SO on belly weight, length, width, or thickness; but bellies of pigs fed 90°C SO had greater (P ≤ 0.04) flop distance (more firm) than all other SO treatments. Belly fat NIR-IV of pigs fed 90°C SO were 10.22 units less (P processed at 90°C and 180°C reduced belly adipose tissue IV, but feeding peroxidized SO did not affect processing yields or shelf life characteristics of commercially manufactured bacon.

  16. The development of the room temperature LWIR HgCdTe detectors for free space optics communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Piotr; Gawron, Waldemar; Mikołajczyk, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    There are many room temperature applications to include free space optics (FSO) communication system combining quantum cascade lasers sources where HgCdTe long-wave (8-12 micrometer) infrared radiation (LWIR) detector reaching ultrafast response time 109 cmHz1/2/W. Since commercially available FSO could operate separately in SWIR, MWIR and LWIR range - the dual band detectors should be implemented into FSO. This paper shows theoretical performance of the dual band back-to-back MWIR and LWIR HgCdTe detector operating at 300 K pointing out the MWIR active layer influence on LWIR operating regime.

  17. Characteristic and Competency Measurement Instrument Development for Maintenance Staff of Mechanical Expertise with SECI Method: A Case of Manufacturing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatmavidya, P. A.; Soesanto, R. P.; Kurniawati, A.; Andrawina, L.

    2018-03-01

    Human resource is an important factor for a company to gain competitiveness, therefore competencies of each individual in a company is a basic characteristic that is taken into account. The increasing employee’s competency will affect directly to the company's performance. The purpose of this research is to improve the quality of human resources of maintenance staff in manufacturing company by designing competency measurement instrument that aims to assess the competency of employees. The focus of this research is the mechanical expertise of maintenance staff. SECI method is used in this research for managing knowledge that is held by senior employees regarding employee competence of mechanical expertise. The SECI method converts the knowledge of a person's tacit knowledge into an explicit knowledge so that the knowledge can be used by others. The knowledge that is gathered from SECI method is converted into a list of competence and break down into the detailed competency. Based on the results of this research, it is known that 11 general competencies, 17 distinctive competencies, 20 indicators, and 20 item list for assessing the competencies are developed. From the result of competency breakdown, the five-level instrument of measurement is designed which can assist in assessing employee’s competency for mechanical expertise.

  18. Optical study of HgCdTe infrared photodetectors using internal photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, Yan-Feng; Unil Perera, A. G.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) applied to a n-type Hg 1−x Cd x Te/Hg 1−y Cd y Te heterojunction. An exponential line-shape of the absorption tail in HgCdTe is identified by IPE fittings of the near-threshold quantum yield spectra. The reduction of quantum yield (at higher photon energy) below the fitting value is explained as a result of carrier-phonon scatterings. In addition, the obtained bias independence of the IPE threshold indicates a negligible electron barrier at the heterojunction interface

  19. Influence of Powder Characteristics on Formation of Porosity in Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iebba, Maurizio; Astarita, Antonello; Mistretta, Daniela; Colonna, Ivano; Liberini, Mariacira; Scherillo, Fabio; Pirozzi, Carmine; Borrelli, Rosario; Franchitti, Stefania; Squillace, Antonino

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to study the genesis of defects in titanium components made through two different additive manufacturing technologies: selective laser melting and electron beam melting. In particular, we focussed on the influence of the powders used on the formation of porosities and cavities in the manufactured components. A detailed experimental campaign was carried out to characterize the components made through the two additive manufacturing techniques aforementioned and the powders used in the process. It was found that some defects of the final components can be attributed to internal porosities of the powders used in the manufacturing process. These internal porosities are a consequence of the gas atomization process used for the production of the powders themselves. Therefore, the importance of using tailored powders, free from porosities, in order to manufacture components with high mechanical properties is highlighted.

  20. Status of HgCdTe Barrier Infrared Detectors Grown by MOCVD in Military University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Jóźwikowski, K.; Martyniuk, P.; Gawron, W.; Madejczyk, P.; Kowalewski, A.; Markowska, O.; Rogalski, A.; Rutkowski, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present the status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with an emphasis on technological progress in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. It is shown that MOCVD technology is an excellent tool for HgCdTe barrier architecture growth with a wide range of composition, donor /acceptor doping, and without post-grown annealing. The device concept of a specific barrier bandgap architecture integrated with Auger-suppression is as a good solution for high-operating temperature infrared detectors. Analyzed devices show a high performance comparable with the state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. Dark current densities are close to the values given by "Rule 07" and detectivities of non-immersed detectors are close to the value marked for HgCdTe photodiodes. Experimental data of long-wavelength infrared detector structures were confirmed by numerical simulations obtained by a commercially available software APSYS platform. A detailed analysis applied to explain dark current plots was made, taking into account Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, and tunneling currents.

  1. Evaluation of Space Radiation Effects on HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Sullivan, William III; Beck, Jeff; Hubbs, John E.

    2018-01-01

    We report the results from proton and gamma ray radiation testing of HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays developed by Leonardo DRS for space lidar detectors. We tested these devices with both approximately 60 MeV protons and gamma rays, with and without the read out integrated circuit (ROIC). We also measured the transient responses with the device fully powered and with the APD gain from unity to greater than 1000. The detectors produced a large current impulse in response to each proton hit but the response completely recovered within 1 microsecond. The devices started to have persistent damage at a proton fluence of 7e10 protons/cm2, equivalent to 10 krad(Si) total ionization dose. The dark current became much higher after the device was warmed to room temperature and cooled to 80K again, but it completely annealed after baking at 85 C for several hours. These results showed the HgCdTe APD arrays are suitable for use in space lidar for typical Earth orbiting and planetary missions provided that provisions are made to heat the detector chip to 85 C for several hours after radiation damage becomes evident that system performance is impacted.

  2. Comparison of Measured Dark Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C. J.; Marshall, P. W.; Howe, C. L.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Ladbury, R.; Jordan, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distributions were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [1]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. While the nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) contributes only a small fraction of the total nonionizing damage energy, its inclusion in the shape of the damage across the array is significant. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3-5], a Geant4 [4,6] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  3. Effect of surface fields on the dynamic resistance of planar HgCdTe mid-wavelength infrared photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kai; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Yi-Yu [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Song-Min; Xie, Xiao-Hui; Lin, Chun, E-mail: chun-lin@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Jian-Xin; Zhang, Qin-Yao, E-mail: qinyao@mail.sitp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Li, Yang [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-05-28

    This work investigates the effect of surface fields on the dynamic resistance of a planar HgCdTe mid-wavelength infrared photodiode from both theoretical and experimental aspects, considering a gated n-on-p diode with the surface potential of its p-region modulated. Theoretical models of the surface leakage current are developed, where the surface tunnelling current in the case of accumulation is expressed by modifying the formulation of bulk tunnelling currents, and the surface channel current for strong inversion is simulated with a transmission line method. Experimental data from the fabricated devices show a flat-band voltage of V{sub FB}=−5.7 V by capacitance-voltage measurement, and then the physical parameters for bulk properties are determined from the resistance-voltage characteristics of the diode working at a flat-band gate voltage. With proper values of the modeling parameters such as surface trap density and channel electron mobility, the theoretical R{sub 0}A product and corresponding dark current calculated from the proposed model as functions of the gate voltage V{sub g} demonstrate good consistency with the measured values. The R{sub 0}A product remarkably degenerates when V{sub g} is far below or above V{sub FB} because of the surface tunnelling current or channel current, respectively; and it attains the maximum value of 5.7×10{sup 7} Ω · cm{sup 2} around the transition between surface depletion and weak inversion when V{sub g}≈−4 V, which might result from reduced generation-recombination current.

  4. Composition, functional properties and sensory characteristics of Mozzarella cheese manufactured from different somatic cell counts in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Andreatta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, composition, functional properties and sensory characteristics of Mozzarella cheese produced from milk with somatic cell counts (SCC at low (800,000 cells/mL levels were investigated. Three batches of cheese were produced for each SCC category. The cheeses were vacuum packed in plastic bags and analysed after 2, 9, 16, 23 and 30 days of storage at 4ºC. SCC level did not affect the moisture, fat, total protein and ash content, mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, and sensory parameters of Mozzarella cheese. However, meltability increased in cheese manufactured from high SCC milk. Results indicated that raw milk used to produce Mozzarella cheese should not contain high SCC (>800,000 cells/mL in order to avoid changes in the functional properties of the Mozzarella cheese.No presente estudo foram investigadas a composição, as propriedades funcionais e as características sensoriais do queijo Mussarela produzido a partir de leite com contagens de células somáticas (CCS em níveis baixos (800.000 CS/mL. Foram produzidos 3 lotes de queijo para cada CCS. Os queijos foram embalados a vácuo e analisados após 2, 9, 16, 23 e 30 dias de armazenamento a 4ºC. O nível de CS não afetou a umidade, os teores de gordura, proteína total e cinzas, os níveis de bactérias mesófilas e psicrotróficas, e os parâmetros sensoriais do queijo Mussarela. Entretanto, houve aumento da capacidade de derretimento no queijo fabricado com leite de alta CCS. Os resultados indicam que o leite cru utilizado para a produção de queijo Mussarela não deve conter níveis de CS acima de 800.000/mL, para evitar alterações nas propriedades funcionais do queijo Mussarela.

  5. Effect of Fly Ash Fortification in the Manufacture Process of Making Concrete towards Characteristics of Concrete in Sulfuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Handaya Saputra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is a silica or alumino silica material that can be used as a constituent of cement in the concrete manufacturing process. Utilization of fly ash aims to improve durability and minimize the reduction of concrete’s compressive strength exposed to an acidic environment, which can be achieved through the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash with Ca(OH within concrete. The reduced content of Ca(OH through pozzolanic reaction will minimize the tendency of ettringite formation (compounds that cause deterioration and decrease the compressive strength of concrete. In order to determine the relation between fly ash replenishment into concrete with concrete’s characteristics (compressive strength and durability under acidic environment, the research is conducted by varying the fly ash composition ranging from 0%, 5%, 25%, 50%, up to 75%, and the concentration of H22SO solution as an immersion medium ranging from 0%, 5%, 10%, up to 15% (v/v. The research is carried out by immersing the concrete samples for 4 days in H4 solution with various concentrations. Characterization of concrete’s durability and compressive strength is reviewed from the concrete’s weight loss percentage and reduction of concrete’s compressive strength percentage after immersion. Based on the research results, for each variation of H2SO concentration used, the minimum concrete’s weight loss percentage (maximum durability and the minimum reduction of concrete’s compressive strength percentage is found in the use of fly ash by 75%. For each concentration variations of H42SO solution as an immersion medium ranging from 5%, 10%, up to 15% (v/v, the minimum concrete’s weight loss percentage was 0.47%, 0.87%, 1.28% (respectively, whilst the minimum reduction of concrete’s compressive strength percentage was 5.71%, 14.29%, 17.14% (respectively. It was concluded that the use of fly ash can improve the durability and minimize the reduction of compressive strength of concrete

  6. Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors With Built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-Room Temperature Operation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared arrays operating at 77K can now be tailored in a wide range of wavelengths from 1 to 14 microns. However, due to the cooling...

  7. Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors With Built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-Room Temperature Operation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared arrays operating at 77K can now be tailored in a wide range of wavelengths from 1 to14 um. However, the cooling requirements make...

  8. Temperature-sensitive junction transformations for mid-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detector arrays by laser beam induced current microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Weicheng [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Hu, Weida, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Lin, Tie; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Cheng, Xiang' ai, E-mail: xiang-ai-cheng@126.com; Wang, Rui [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2014-11-10

    In this paper, we report on the disappearance of the photosensitive area extension effect and the unusual temperature dependence of junction transformation for mid-wavelength, n-on-p HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detector arrays. The n-type region is formed by B{sup +} ion implantation on Hg-vacancy-doped p-type HgCdTe. Junction transformations under different temperatures are visually captured by a laser beam induced current microscope. A physical model of temperature dependence on junction transformation is proposed and demonstrated by using numerical simulations. It is shown that Hg-interstitial diffusion and temperature activated defects jointly lead to the p-n junction transformation dependence on temperature, and the weaker mixed conduction compared with long-wavelength HgCdTe photodiode contributes to the disappearance of the photosensitive area extension effect in mid-wavelength HgCdTe infrared detector arrays.

  9. Manufacturers-Retailers: The New Actor in the U.S. Furniture Industry. Characteristics and Implications for the Chinese Furniture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Martínez Murillo

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990s the American furniture industry faces a transition period. Manufacturers, one of its most important actors made its entrance into the retail industry. This shift has had deep consequences not only for the American furniture industry as a whole, but also for other international furniture industries, especially the Chinese. The present work aims to analyze this actor based on the distinction provided by the Global Commodity Chain Theory. It stresses its characteristics, structur...

  10. Extended short wavelength infrared HgCdTe detectors on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Hansel, D.; Mukhortova, A.; Chang, Y.; Kodama, R.; Zhao, J.; Velicu, S.; Aqariden, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report high-quality n-type extended short wavelength infrared (eSWIR) HgCdTe (cutoff wavelength 2.59 μm at 77 K) layers grown on three-inch diameter CdTe/Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). This material is used to fabricate test diodes and arrays with a planar device architecture using arsenic implantation to achieve p-type doping. We use different variations of a test structure with a guarded design to compensate for the lateral leakage current of traditional test diodes. These test diodes with guarded arrays characterize the electrical performance of the active 640 × 512 format, 15 μm pitch detector array.

  11. MTF measurement and analysis of linear array HgCdTe infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Lin, Chun; Chen, Honglei; Sun, Changhong; Lin, Jiamu; Wang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    The slanted-edge technique is the main method for measurement detectors MTF, however this method is commonly used on planar array detectors. In this paper the authors present a modified slanted-edge method to measure the MTF of linear array HgCdTe detectors. Crosstalk is one of the major factors that degrade the MTF value of such an infrared detector. This paper presents an ion implantation guard-ring structure which was designed to effectively absorb photo-carriers that may laterally defuse between adjacent pixels thereby suppressing crosstalk. Measurement and analysis of the MTF of the linear array detectors with and without a guard-ring were carried out. The experimental results indicated that the ion implantation guard-ring structure effectively suppresses crosstalk and increases MTF value.

  12. HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detectors for Airborne and Spaceborne Lidar at Infrared Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.; Beck, Jeffrey D.; Mitra, Pradip; Reiff, Kirk; Yang, Guangning

    2017-01-01

    We report results from characterizing the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) sensorchip assemblies (SCA) developed for lidar at infrared wavelength using the high density vertically integrated photodiodes (HDVIP) technique. These devices demonstrated high quantum efficiency, typically greater than 90 between 0.8 micrometers and the cut-off wavelength, greater than 600 APD gain, near unity excess noise factor, 6-10 MHz electrical bandwidth and less than 0.5 fW/Hz(exp.1/2) noise equivalent power (NEP). The detectors provide linear analog output with a dynamic range of 2-3 orders of magnitude at a fixed APD gain without averaging, and over 5 orders of magnitude by adjusting the APD and preamplifier gain settings. They have been successfully used in airborne CO2 and CH4 integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar as a precursor for space lidar applications.

  13. Evaluation of the stiffness characteristics of square pore CoCrMo cellular structures manufactured using laser melting technology for potential orthopaedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlehurst, Kevin; Wang, Chang Jiang; Stanford, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The compressive properties of CoCrMo cellular structures were investigated. • CoCrMo cellular structures with bone like properties have been presented. • An expression has been proposed to predict the effective elastic modulus. • Structural variation and heterogeneities were modelled within a cellular structure. - Abstract: In order to improve the stress shielding characteristics of orthopaedic devices implants that mimic the mechanical behaviour of bone need to be considered. Additive layer manufacturing processes provide a capability to produce orthopaedic implants with tailored mechanical properties. In this work cobalt chrome molybdenum cellular structures have been designed and manufactured using selective laser melting, with volume based porosity ranging between 25% and 95%. The effective mechanical properties have been determined through uniaxial compression testing and compared to numerical and analytical predictions where differences were observed. Cellular structures have been presented that exhibit similar stiffness and strength characteristics when compared to cortical and cancellous bone in the human femur. An expression has been proposed to predict the effective elastic modulus of cobalt chrome molybdenum cellular structures with volumetric porosity of 65% and above. A finite element modelling technique has been used to demonstrate that structural variation and heterogeneities that are associated with the manufacture of cellular structures can significantly decrease the effective stiffness

  14. Fifty years of HgCdTe at Texas Instruments and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael A.

    2009-05-01

    Work on HgCdTe began at Texas Instruments in the early 1960s, and continued through 1997 when TI's defense business was sold first to Raytheon, and subsequently in 1998 to DRS Technologies. This presentation traces the history of HgCdTe's evolution throughout this timeframe to the present day, as viewed through the eyes of the author and several of his TI contemporaries who have survived the experience. The materials technology will be traced from the early days of bulk growth by the solid state recrystalization technique, through the traveling heater method of growth, to liquid phase epitaxy from large Te-rich melts, to vapor phase growth by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The evolution of detector device architectures at TI over the years will be discussed, from the early, successful days of photoconductors and the Common Module System, through the somewhat problematic and relatively unsuccessful foray into charge coupled and charge injection devices for 2nd generation FPAs for the Javelin program, to the outstandingly successful development of the vertically integrated photodiode (VIP) and high density VIP FPA architectures for mono-color and multi-color 3rd generation systems. The versatile, and unique nature of this infrared semiconductor materials system will be highlighted by reference to current work at DRS Technologies into electron avalanche photodiodes (EAPDs), for use in active/passive IR systems, and high operating temperature (HOT) detectors, which threaten to eventually offer BLIP photon detection at uncooled operating temperatures, over the whole IR spectrum from 1 to 12um.

  15. Manufacturers-Retailers: The New Actor in the U.S. Furniture Industry. Characteristics and Implications for the Chinese Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Martínez Murillo

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990s the American furniture industry faces a transition period. Manufacturers, one of its most important actors made its entrance into the retail industry. This shift has had deep consequences not only for the American furniture industry as a whole, but also for other international furniture industries, especially the Chinese. The present work aims to analyze this actor based on the distinction provided by the Global Commodity Chain Theory. It stresses its char...

  16. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012-2013 Academic Years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-06-01

    Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model. Descriptive epidemiological study. High school football concussion and helmet data were collected from academic years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. The certified athletic trainers of participating schools submitted athlete-exposure (AE) and injury information weekly. Participating schools reported 2900 football concussions during 3,528,790 AEs for an overall rate of 8.2 concussions per 10,000 AEs. Concussion rates significantly increased from 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 overall (P = .006) as well as in competition (P = .027) and practice (P = .023). Characteristics of concussed football players (ie, mean number of symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play) were similar among players wearing new helmets when compared with reconditioned helmets. Fewer players wearing an old/not reconditioned helmet had concussion symptoms resolve within 1 day compared with players wearing a new helmet. Despite differences in the manufacturers and models of helmets worn by all high school football players compared with players who sustained a concussion, the mean number of concussion symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play were similar for concussions sustained by football players wearing the most common helmet

  18. The Analysis of Company Characteristic Influence Toward CSR Disclosure: Empirical Evidence of Manufacturing Companies Listed in Jsx

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Arief; Widyasari, Kurnia Nur

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of company characteristic toward Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure. The research is using the proxy of management ownership, leverage, size, profitability and company profile as the variable of company characteristic, while the CSR disclosure, unlike the previous researches, is proxied by dummy score from the companies' mandatory disclosure based on the items of Public Environmental Reporting Initiative (PERI) and Global Reporting Initiative Soci...

  19. High-Operating Temperature HgCdTe: A Vision for the Near Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Carmody, M.; Piquette, E.; Dreiske, P.; Chen, A.; Yulius, A.; Edwall, D.; Bhargava, S.; Zandian, M.; Tennant, W. E.

    2016-09-01

    We review recent advances in the HgCdTe material quality and detector performance achieved at Teledyne using molecular beam epitaxy growth and the double-layer planar hetero-junction (DLPH) detector architecture. By using an un-doped, fully depleted absorber, Teledyne's DLPH architecture can be extended for use in high operating temperatures and other applications. We assess the potential achievable performance for long wavelength infrared (LWIR) hetero-junction p-lightly-doped n or p-intrinsic- n (p-i-n) detectors based on recently reported results for 10.7 μm cutoff 1 K × 1 K focal plane arrays (FPAs) tested at temperatures down to 30 K. Variable temperature dark current measurements show that any Shockley-Read-Hall currents in the depletion region of these devices have lifetimes that are reproducibly greater than 100 ms. Under the assumption of comparable lifetimes at higher temperatures, it is predicted that fully-depleted background radiation-limited performance can be expected for 10- μm cutoff detectors from room temperature to well below liquid nitrogen temperatures, with room-temperature dark current nearly 400 times lower than predicted by Rule 07. The hetero-junction p-i-n diode is shown to have numerous other significant potential advantages including minimal or no passivation requirements for pBn-like processing, low 1/ f noise, compatibility with small pixel pitch while maintaining high modulation transfer function, low crosstalk and good quantum efficiency. By appropriate design of the FPA dewar shielding, analysis shows that dark current can theoretically be further reduced below the thermal equilibrium radiative limit. Modeling shows that background radiation-limited LWIR HgCdTe operating with f/1 optics has the potential to operate within √2 of background-limited performance at 215 K. By reducing the background radiation by 2/3 using novel shielding methods, operation with a single-stage thermo-electric-cooler may be possible. If the

  20. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Principal Characteristics of Microsilica Obtained from Silicon Manufacture Wastes and Used in Concrete Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanov, V. B.; Putsenko, K. N.

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the survey of foreign and domestic literature over the past 65 years devoted to the study of the properties and the technology of applying microsilica in the capacity of modifying additives to concretes. Microsilica obtained as a by-product from the waste of ferroalloy plants and from the plants involved in production of silicon compounds is discussed. Analysis of the principal characteristics of different types of microsilica obtained from different sources is conducted.

  2. HgCdTe APD-based linear-mode photon counting components and ladar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Michael; Wehner, Justin; Edwards, John; Chapman, George; Hall, Donald N. B.; Jacobson, Shane M.

    2011-05-01

    Linear mode photon counting (LMPC) provides significant advantages in comparison with Geiger Mode (GM) Photon Counting including absence of after-pulsing, nanosecond pulse to pulse temporal resolution and robust operation in the present of high density obscurants or variable reflectivity objects. For this reason Raytheon has developed and previously reported on unique linear mode photon counting components and modules based on combining advanced APDs and advanced high gain circuits. By using HgCdTe APDs we enable Poisson number preserving photon counting. A metric of photon counting technology is dark count rate and detection probability. In this paper we report on a performance breakthrough resulting from improvement in design, process and readout operation enabling >10x reduction in dark counts rate to ~10,000 cps and >104x reduction in surface dark current enabling long 10 ms integration times. Our analysis of key dark current contributors suggest that substantial further reduction in DCR to ~ 1/sec or less can be achieved by optimizing wavelength, operating voltage and temperature.

  3. Ultra-Low Dark Current HgCdTe Detector in SWIR for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, C.; Boulade, O.; Gravrand, O.; Lobre, C.; Guellec, F.; Sanson, E.; Ballet, P.; Santailler, J. L.; Moreau, V.; Zanatta, J. P.; Fieque, B.; Castelein, P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents recent developments at Commissariat à l'Energie atomique, Laboratoire d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Information infrared laboratory on processing and characterization of p-on- n HgCdTe (MCT) planar infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) in short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral band for the astrophysics applications. These FPAs have been grown using both liquid phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy on a lattice-matched CdZnTe substrate. This technology exhibits lower dark current and lower series resistance in comparison with n-on- p vacancy-doped architecture and is well adapted for low flux detection or high operating temperature. This architecture has been evaluated for space applications in long-wave infrared and very-long-wave infrared spectral bands with cut-off wavelengths from 10 μm up to 17 μm at 78 K and is now evaluated for the SWIR range. The metallurgical nature of the absorbing layer is also examined and both molecular beam epitaxy and liquid phase epitaxy have been investigated. Electro-optical characterizations have been performed on individual photodiodes from test arrays, whereas dark current investigation has been performed with a fully functional readout integrated circuit dedicated to low flux operations.

  4. Enhanced numerical analysis of three-color HgCdTe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwikowski, K.; Rogalski, A.

    2007-04-01

    The performance of three-color HgCdTe photovoltaic heterostructure detector is examined theoretically. In comparison with two-color detectors with two back-to-back junctions, three-color structure contain an absorber of intermediate wavelength placed between two junctions, and electronic barriers are used to isolate this intermediate region. This structure was first proposed by British workers. Enhanced original computer programs are applied to solve the system of non-linear continuity equations for carriers and Poisson equations. In addition, the numerical analysis includes the dependence of absorption coefficient on Burstein effect as well as interference effects in heterostructure with metallic electrical contacts. Three detector structures with different localizations of separating barriers are analyzed. The calculations results are presented in the form of spatial distributions of bandgap energy and quantum efficiency. It is shown that the performance of the detector is critically dependent on the barrier's doping level and position in relation to the junction. This behavior is serious disadvantage of the considered three color detector. A small shift of the barrier location and doping level causes serious changes in spectral responsivity.

  5. Numerical analysis of three-colour HgCdTe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwikowski, K.; Rogalski, A.

    2007-12-01

    The performance of three-colour HgCdTe photovoltaic heterostructure detector is examined theoretically. In comparison with two-colour detectors with two back-to-back junctions, three-colour structure contains an absorber of intermediate wavelength placed between two junctions and electronic barriers are used to isolate this intermediate region. This structure was first proposed by British workers. Three-detector structures with different localizations of separating barriers are analyzed. The calculation results are presented in the form of spatial distributions of bandgap energy and quantum efficiency. Enhanced original computer programs are applied to solve the system of non-linear continuity equations for carriers and Poisson equations. In addition, the numerical analysis includes the dependence of absorption coefficient on Burstein effect as well as interference effects in heterostructure with metallic electrical contacts. It is shown that the performance of the detector is critically dependent on the barrier’s doping level and position in relation to the junction. This behaviour is serious disadvantage of the considered three-colour detector. A small shift of the barrier location and doping level causes serious changes in spectral responsivity.

  6. Study of CdTe and HgCdTe thin films obtained by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium telluride polycrystalline thin films were fabricated on SnO 2 -coated glass substrates by potentiostatic electrodeposition and characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDAX), optical and electrical measurements. The films dseposited at potentials more positive than -0.65 V vs.SCE were p-type but those deposited at more negative potentials were n-type. All CdTe thin films showed a band-gap energy about 1.45 eV and a large absorption coeffici-ent (a=10 5 cm -1 ) above de band edge. The addition of even small amounts of mercury to the CdTe produces higuer conductivity values and lower band-gap energies. We have prepared HgCdTe thin films where the band-gap energies ranged between 0.93 and 0.88 eV depending on the ratio of mercury to cadmium. Heat treatment at 300 0 C increases the crystalline diameter and alter the composition of the electrodeposited films, a decrease of the resistivity values was also observed. (Author)

  7. Outlet strut fracture of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave valves: can valve-manufacturing characteristics explain the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, R Z; Morton, L S; Beirne, M; Blot, W J; Lawford, P V; Hose, R; Taylor, K M

    2001-06-01

    Björk-Shiley 60 degrees convexo-concave prosthetic heart valves (Shiley, Inc, Irvine, Calif, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Inc) continue to be a concern for approximately 35,000 nonexplanted patients worldwide, with approximately 600 events reported to the manufacturer to date. Fractures of the outlet struts of the valves began to appear in the early 1980s and have continued to the present, but their causes are only partially understood. A matched case-control study was conducted evaluating manufacturing records for 52 valves with outlet strut fractures and 248 control subjects matched for age at implantation, valve size, and valve position. In addition to the risk factors recognized as determinants of outlet strut fracture, the United Kingdom case-control study has observed 7- to 9-fold increased risk with performance of multiple hook deflection tests. This test was performed more than once, usually after rework on the valve. Six valves in this study underwent multiple hook deflection tests, of which 4 experienced an outlet strut fracture. Cracks and further rework were noted for these valves. Significant associations were also observed between outlet strut fracture and disc-to-strut gap measurements taken before the attachment of the sewing ring. It is our view that a combination of factors related to valve design, manufacturing process, and patient characteristics are responsible for outlet strut fractures of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave valves. Multiple hook deflection tests have emerged as a potential new risk factor for outlet strut fracture in both The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. This factor appears to be correlated with the presence of other abnormalities. A further study is needed to investigate the factors correlated with multiple hook deflection tests. On confirmation of risk, the presence of multiple hook deflection tests may be added to equations, quantifying the risk of outlet strut fracture for comparison against risk of mortality and serious

  8. Using mathematical modelling of the changes in the characteristics of the bodies during SHS-process for porous ceramic filters manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Славоміровна Повстяна

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Porous ceramic materials possess great lifetime, high mechanical strength, are resistant to household effects and easy to use. The binder volume fraction and normalized pressure as a function of the temperature in the SHS process in the ceramic body have been studied in this work. Basing on theoretical calculations the temperature range of the binder burnout has been determined. The theoretical results can be used to predict and obtain porous ceramic filters with predetermined characteristics. The theoretical calculations were used in the manufacture of experimental samples of porous ceramic bodies obtained on the basis of 18H2N4MA steel scale and the saponite. Pressing in a hydraulic press was used to manufacture ceramic pieces. Unilateral press mould made of stainless steel was used to form the samples. Pressing was carried out in the pressure range of 10-25 MPa. The resulting pieces were formed in cylinders of 30mm in diameter and 40 mm height. Sintering of the samples was conducted in the modernized reactor for the SHS process. Mathematical justification of SHS process made it possible to avoid the formation of cracks in the ceramic bodies and crumble areas

  9. Social manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  10. Long wavelength stimulated emission up to 9.5 μm from HgCdTe quantum well heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, S. V.; Rumyantsev, V. V., E-mail: rumyantsev@ipmras.ru; Dubinov, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Antonov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kadykov, A. M. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB, Université Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Mikhailov, N. N. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Dvoretskii, S. A. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-29

    Stimulated emission from waveguide HgCdTe structures with several quantum wells inside waveguide core is demonstrated at wavelengths up to 9.5 μm. Photoluminescence line narrowing down to kT energy, as well as superlinear rise in its intensity evidence the onset of the stimulated emission, which takes place under optical pumping with intensity as small as ∼0.1 kW/cm{sup 2} at 18 K and 1 kW/cm{sup 2} at 80 K. One can conclude that HgCdTe structures potential for long-wavelength lasers is not exhausted.

  11. Relationships between response surfaces for tablet characteristics of placebo and API-containing tablets manufactured by direct compression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takahiro; Shirotori, Kaede; Oishi, Takuya; Kosugi, Atsushi; Kumada, Shungo; Hirai, Daijiro; Takayama, Kozo; Onuki, Yoshinori

    2017-10-30

    In this study, we evaluated the correlation between the response surfaces for the tablet characteristics of placebo and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing tablets. The quantities of lactose, cornstarch, and microcrystalline cellulose were chosen as the formulation factors. Ten tablet formulations were prepared. The tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) of tablets were measured as tablet characteristics. The response surfaces for TS and DT were estimated using a nonlinear response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation, and were then compared with those of placebo tablets. A correlation was clearly observed for TS and DT of all APIs, although the value of the response surfaces for TS and DT was highly dependent on the type of API used. Based on this knowledge, the response surfaces for TS and DT of API-containing tablets were predicted from only two and four formulations using regression expression and placebo tablet data, respectively. The results from the evaluation of prediction accuracy showed that this method accurately predicted TS and DT, suggesting that it could construct a reliable response surface for TS and DT with a small number of samples. This technique assists in the effective estimation of the relationships between design variables and pharmaceutical responses during pharmaceutical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical characteristics and solubility of long-lived airborne particulates in uranium producing and manufacturing facilities. Phase III - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.; Stuart, D.C.; Stothers, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The rates of dissolution in simulated lung fluid of uranium from aerosols associated with various stages of the yellowcake manufacturing process have been studied. Dusts were collected from eight workplace locations. Each dust sample was resuspended in the laboratory and collected on glass fibre substrates using cascade impactor sampling methods. The two particle size fractions collected were less than 7 microns and 10-7 microns. Each sample was prepared in duplicate. In all, 32 aerosol samples were prepared for solubility extraction studies. The aerosol-bearing filters were subjected to parallel extractions by simulated lung fluid under continuous flow, at 37 deg C at pH 7.4, over a period of 68.5 days. Ten lung fluid fractions were collected at predetermined time intervals and analyzed to allow estimates of uranium dissolution rates as a function of time. After completion of the 68.5 day simulated lung fluid extraction, the residual samples were subjected to a more aggressive nitric acid extraction for 48 hours. The fraction of uranium dissolved over the first 12 hours varied from 27% to 98% for seven of the eight yellowcake samples. For these yellowcake samples, the fractions of uranium dissolved over the first 36 hours and over the full 68.5 days ranged from 49% to 99% and 80% to 100% respectively. The eighth sample was a calcined yellowcake. The rate of dissolution for the calcined yellowcake was less than 4.5% over the first 12 hours and less than 10% over 68.5 days. No influence of particle size on the rate of dissolution was found. Most of the uranium was dissolved by the simulated lung fluid for seven of the eight yellowcake samples. As a result, the nitric acid extraction of the residual samples had little effect on these seven samples. The nitric acid extraction of the calcined sample, which was found to be relatively insoluble in simulated lung fluid, dissolved a further 21% to 36.1% of the uranium. (author). 9 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  13. A Highly Sensitive Multi-Element HgCdTe E-APD Detector for IPDA Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeff; Welch, Terry; Mitra, Pradip; Reiff, Kirk; Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James

    2014-01-01

    An HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode (e-APD) detector has been developed for lidar receivers, one application of which is integrated path differential absorption lidar measurements of such atmospheric trace gases as CO2 and CH4. The HgCdTe APD has a wide, visible to mid-wave-infrared, spectral response, high dynamic range, substantially improved sensitivity, and an expected improvement in operational lifetime. A demonstration sensor-chip assembly consisting of a 4.3 lm cutoff HgCdTe 4 9 4 APD detector array with 80 micrometer pitch pixels and a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor readout integrated circuit was developed. For one typical array the APD gain was 654 at 12 V with corresponding gain normalized dark currents ranging from 1.2 fA to 3.2 fA. The 4 9 4 detector system was characterized at 77 K with a 1.55 micrometer wavelength, 1 microsecond wide, laser pulse. The measured unit gain detector photon conversion efficiency was 91.1%. At 11 V bias the mean measured APD gain at 77 K was 307.8 with sigma/mean uniformity of 1.23%. The average, noise-bandwidth normalized, system noise-equivalent power (NEP) was 1.04 fW/Hz(exp 1/2) with a sigma/mean of 3.8%. The measured, electronics-limited, bandwidth of 6.8 MHz was more than adequate for 1 microsecond pulse detection. The system had an NEP (3 MHz) of 0.4 fW/Hz(exp 1/2) at 12 V APD bias and a linear dynamic range close to 1000. A gain-independent quantum-limited SNR of 80% of full theoretical was indicative of a gain-independent excess noise factor very close to 1.0 and the expected APD mode quantum efficiency.

  14. Numerical simulation of crosstalk in reduced pitch HgCdTe photon-trapping structure pixel arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jonathan; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-06-17

    We have investigated crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. We have found that, compared to non-PT pixel arrays with similar geometry, the array employing the PT structure has a slightly higher optical crosstalk. However, when the total crosstalk is evaluated, the presence of the PT region drastically reduces the total crosstalk; making the use of the PT structure not only useful to obtain broadband operation, but also desirable for reducing crosstalk in small pitch detector arrays.

  15. Performances of a HGCDTE APD based direct detection lidar at 2 μm. Application to dial measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Fabien; Dumas, Arnaud; Rothman, Johan; Edouart, Dimitri; Cénac, Claire; Pellegrino, Jessica

    2018-04-01

    A lidar receiver with a direct detection chain adapted to a HgCdTe APD based detector with electric cooling is associated to a 2.05 μm Ho :YLF pulsed dual wavelength single mode transmitter to provide the first atmospheric lidar measurements using this technology. Experiments confirm the outstanding sensitivity of the detector and hightligth its huge potential for DIAL measurements of trace gas (CO2 and H2O) in this spectral domain. Performances of coherent vs direct detection at 2.05 μm is assessed.

  16. Performances of a HGCDTE APD based direct detection lidar at 2 μm. Application to dial measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibert Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A lidar receiver with a direct detection chain adapted to a HgCdTe APD based detector with electric cooling is associated to a 2.05 μm Ho :YLF pulsed dual wavelength single mode transmitter to provide the first atmospheric lidar measurements using this technology. Experiments confirm the outstanding sensitivity of the detector and hightligth its huge potential for DIAL measurements of trace gas (CO2 and H2O in this spectral domain. Performances of coherent vs direct detection at 2.05 μm is assessed.

  17. Structural properties of layers of HgCdTe, grown by the laser epitaxy method on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyatsko, S.V.; Vergush, M.M.; Litvin, P.M.; Kozirjev, Yu.M.; Shevlyakov, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films (0.1-1.5 μm) of HgCdTe on substrates Si (100) and Si (111) from monocrystal and pressed sources Hg 1-x Cd x Te (x=0.22) sprayed by laser IR radiation were grown and are investigated. The concentration of macro defects (drops) on the surface of films is determined by the relation of the diameter of a laser beam and depth of the crater, formed by laser irradiation. The size of crystal grains almost does not depend on the temperature of a substrate and power densities of a laser radiation and increases with the thickness of a layer

  18. Performances of a HGCDTE APD Based Detector with Electric Cooling for 2-μm DIAL/IPDA Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumas A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on design and testing of an HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode (APD detector assembly for lidar applications in the Short Wavelength Infrared Region (SWIR : 1,5 - 2 μm. This detector consists in a set of diodes set in parallel -making a 200 μm large sensitive area- and connected to a custom high gain TransImpedance Amplifier (TIA. A commercial four stages Peltier cooler is used to reach an operating temperature of 185K. Crucial performances for lidar use are investigated : linearity, dynamic range, spatial homogeneity, noise and resistance to intense illumination.

  19. Design and analysis of drum lathe for manufacturing large-scale optical microstructured surface and load characteristics of aerostatic spindle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongxu; Qiao, Zheng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Huiming; Li, Guo

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a four-axis ultra-precision lathe for machining large-scale drum mould with microstructured surface is presented. Firstly, because of the large dimension and weight of drum workpiece, as well as high requirement of machining accuracy, the design guidelines and component parts of this drum lathe is introduced in detail, including control system, moving and driving components, position feedback system and so on. Additionally, the weight of drum workpiece would result in the structural deformation of this lathe, therefore, this paper analyses the effect of structural deformation on machining accuracy by means of ANSYS. The position change is approximately 16.9nm in the X-direction(sensitive direction) which could be negligible. Finally, in order to study the impact of bearing parameters on the load characteristics of aerostatic journal bearing, one of the famous computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software, FLUENT, is adopted, and a series of simulations are carried out. The result shows that the aerostatic spindle has superior performance of carrying capacity and stiffness, it is possible for this lathe to bear the weight of drum workpiece up to 1000kg since there are two aerostatic spindles in the headstock and tailstock.

  20. Cryopreservation does not alter main characteristics of Good Manufacturing Process-grade human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells including immunomodulating potential and lack of malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzkendorf, Jana; Nerger, Katrin; Hering, Julian; Moegel, Angelika; Hoffmann, Katrin; Hoefers, Christiane; Mueller-Tidow, Carsten; Mueller, Lutz P

    2015-02-01

    The immunomodulating capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) qualifies them as a therapeutic tool in several diseases. However, repeated transplantation with products of reproducible characteristics may be required. This could be achieved with cryopreserved aliquots of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-grade MSCs. However, the impact of cryopreservation on the characteristics of GMP-MSCs is ill defined. We produced fresh and cryopreserved MSCs from human donors with a xenogen-free GMP protocol. Immunogenicity and immunomodulating capacity were tested in co-culture with putative recipient-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Risk of malignant transformation was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Cryopreservation had no impact on viability and consensus criteria of MSCs. In co-culture with PBMCs, MSCs showed low immunogenicity and suppressed mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC irrespective of cryopreservation. Cytogenetic aberrations were not observed consistently in fresh and cryopreserved products, and no signs of malignant transformation occurred in functional assays. MSC products from an elderly pretreated donor showed reduced functional quality, but imminent failure of functional criteria could be detected by an increased population doubling time in early passages. This study is the first systematic analysis on cryopreservation of xenogen-free human bone marrow-derived GMP-MSCs. The data support that cryopreservation does not alter the characteristics of the cells and thus may allow the generation of products for serial transplantation. In addition, the protocol allowed early detection of MSC products with low functional capacity. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  2. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  3. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  4. Numerical simulation of quantum efficiency and surface recombination in HgCdTe IR photon-trapping structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jonathan; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-06-01

    We have investigated the quantum effiency in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon-trapping structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. We have found that the quantum efficiency depends heavily on the passivation of the pillar surface. Pillars passivated with anodicoxide have a large fixed positive charge on the pillar surface. We use our three-dimensional numerical simulation model to study the effect of surface charge and surface recombination velocity on the exterior of the pillars. We then evaluate the quantum efficiency of this structure subject to different surface conditions. We have found that by themselves, the surface charge and surface recombination are detrimental to the quantum efficiency but the quantum efficiency is recovered when both phenomena are present. We will discuss the effects of these phenomena and the trade offs that exist between the two.

  5. Examination of formulation and process factors on the characteristics of fast dissolving and fast disintegrating tablets manufactured by a direct compression process.

    OpenAIRE

    Pabari, Ritesh M

    2010-01-01

    Oral dosage forms are the safest and most convenient dosage forms and of these tablets are the most popular with patients because of their portability, ease and convenience of dose intake and with manufacturers because of their simple and low cost manufacturing process. Fast disintegrating dissolving tablets (FDDTs), a more recent innovation, have gained a great deal of attention particularly for use in various patient groups such as the paediatric, geriatric, travelling patients and patients...

  6. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  7. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  8. A systematic assessment of quality assurance-based food safety management system of Chinese edible oil manufacturer in view of context characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yingxue; He, Zhen; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a framework of a food safety management system-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI), for the assessment of the context of a Chinese edible oil manufacture through the view of a case study, and an evaluation of the performance of the FSMS of a Chinese edible oil company. The study

  9. Quality characteristics of Dutch-style fermented sausages manufactured with partial replacement of pork back-fat with pure, pre-emulsified or encapsulated fish oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josquin, N.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dutch-style fermented sausages were manufactured with 15% and 30% pork back-fat substitution by pure or commercial encapsulated fish oil, either added as such or as pre-emulsified mixture with soy protein isolate. Adding commercial encapsulated fish oil was the most important factor influencing the

  10. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  11. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  12. Additive manufacturing of metals: a brief review of the characteristic microstructures and properties of steels, Ti-6Al-4V and high-entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsse, Stéphane; Hutchinson, Christopher; Gouné, Mohamed; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present a brief review of the microstructures and mechanical properties of selected metallic alloys processed by additive manufacturing (AM). Three different alloys, covering a large range of technology readiness levels, are selected to illustrate particular microstructural features developed by AM and clarify the engineering paradigm relating process–microstructure–property. With Ti-6Al-4V the emphasis is placed on the formation of metallurgical defects and microstructures induced by AM and their role on mechanical properties. The effects of the large in-built dislocation density, surface roughness and build atmosphere on mechanical and damage properties are discussed using steels. The impact of rapid solidification inherent to AM on phase selection is highlighted for high-entropy alloys. Using property maps, published mechanical properties of additive manufactured alloys are graphically summarized and compared to conventionally processed counterparts. PMID:28970868

  13. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  14. Virtual CIM and Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sev V.Nagalingam; Grier C.I.Lin

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing enterprises play an important role in improving the economic environment of a country.Today, the capability to produce high quality products with shorter delivery time and the ability to produce according to the diverse customer requirements has become the characteristics of successful manufacturing industries. Application of intelligent manufacturing systems and Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) are the most effective methods for overcoming the issues faced by present day manufactures while retaining the employment level and revenue of a country in today's highly competitive global market. With the developments taking place in CIM and its related technologies, the application of CIM in manufacturing enterprises has become a reality from the dream. This paper highlights the historical developments towards automation and the need for CIM systems. Furthermore, it analyses some new terms such as agile manufacturing, digital manufacturing, agent-based manufacturing and others, which have been emerging recently, and argues all these new technologies are the subsystems of CIM. In addition, this paper provides a new direction in CIM to fulfil the emerging challenges in today's global market and to satisfy the emerging need of virtual enterprises in the form of Virtual CIM.

  15. Characteristics of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere used in carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Peng, Yen-Ping; Yen, Ting-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were estimated for different particle size distributions in a carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant on 15 days in March and April of 2014. A total of 75 integrated air samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI). Particle-bound PCDD/Fs were analyzed using a high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). Concentrations of thoracic particles and total particles produced in the carbon black feeding process of a tire manufacturing plant were measured in ranges of 0.19-2.61 and 0.28-4.22 mg/m(3), respectively. On all sampling days, the three most abundant species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF. The mean concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were 0.74-6.83 pg/m(3) within five particle size ranges. Total I-TEQ in particulate matter (PM)18 and PM2.5-10, respectively. However, the total I-TEQ of thoracic PM contributed approximately 74 % of the total I-TEQ of total PM. The assessment of health risk indicates that exposure to fractions of thoracic PM by inhalation poses a significant cancer risk (>10(-6)).

  16. Manufacturing best practices and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szász, Levente; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    whether a) home and host country characteristics moderate the association between manufacturing practices and performance, and, thus, whether b) there are manufacturing practices that are universally best. Manufacturing practices and performance are measured using data collected through the fifth round...... analysis is used to develop groups of companies based on home and host country development. Exploratory factor analysis is applied to create bundles of manufacturing practices and performance measures. Then, using moderated multiple regressions (MMR) with interaction factor, and separate multiple...... regression analyses for each group of companies, bundles of manufacturing practices are identified that lead to best-in-class performance improvements. A range of control variables is introduced to help interpret the results. The study shows that home and host country context does affect the association...

  17. Development of HgCdTe large format MBE arrays and noise-free high speed MOVPE EAPD arrays for ground based NIR astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, G.; Baker, I.; Downing, M.; Alvarez, D.; Ives, D.; Mehrgan, L.; Meyer, M.; Stegmeier, J.; Weller, H. J.

    2017-11-01

    Large format near infrared HgCdTe 2Kx2K and 4Kx4K MBE arrays have reached a level of maturity which meets most of the specifications required for near infrared (NIR) astronomy. The only remaining problem is the persistence effect which is device specific and not yet fully under control. For ground based multi-object spectroscopy on 40 meter class telescopes larger pixels would be advantageous. For high speed near infrared fringe tracking and wavefront sensing the only way to overcome the CMOS noise barrier is the amplification of the photoelectron signal inside the infrared pixel by means of the avalanche gain. A readout chip for a 320x256 pixel HgCdTe eAPD array will be presented which has 32 parallel video outputs being arranged in such a way that the full multiplex advantage is also available for small sub-windows. In combination with the high APD gain this allows reducing the readout noise to the subelectron level by applying nondestructive readout schemes with subpixel sampling. Arrays grown by MOVPE achieve subelectron readout noise and operate with superb cosmetic quality at high APD gain. Efforts are made to reduce the dark current of those arrays to make this technology also available for large format focal planes of NIR instruments offering noise free detectors for deep exposures. The dark current of the latest MOVPE eAPD arrays is already at a level adequate for noiseless broad and narrow band imaging in scientific instruments.

  18. Distribution of illegal incident characteristics: cases of bank fraud and embezzlement, computer-related crime, and insider theft from drug manufacturers and distributors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineke, J M

    1979-10-01

    Three data sets were used to estimate joint and conditional probability distributions between various variables of interest in bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E) cases of $10,000 dollars or more, computer-related crime cases of various types, and cases of insider theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. This report describes in tabular form the information contained in the three rather extensive data sets from industries facing insider threats which, in one or more dimensions, are analogous to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The data in Tables 1 through 29 were computed from the 313 cases of bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E) representing losses of $10,000 or more reported to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for the period 1977 to 1978. The data in Tables 30 through 64 were computed from the 461 cases of computer-related crime obtained from SRI International for the period 1958 to 1978. These incidents include inventory manipulations designed to hide errors, phony entries used to cover embezzlements, schemes used to penetrate a system and surreptitiously bring about a system crash, and sabotage. The data in Tables 65 through 67 were computed from data reported by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) for the period 1973 to 1978. These data, though limited, provided several interesting insights into the insider-threat problem.

  19. Manufactured volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Noemi; Meuli, Martin; Subotic, Ulrike; Moehrlen, Ueli; Mazzone, Luca; Arlettaz, Romaine

    2013-06-01

    Malrotation with a common mesentery is the classical pathology allowing midgut volvulus to occur. There are only a few reports of small bowel volvulus without malrotation or other pathology triggering volvulation. We describe three cases of small bowel volvulus in very premature newborns with a perfectly normal intra-abdominal anatomy and focus on the question, what might have set off volvulation. In 2005 to 2008, three patients developed small bowel volvulus without any underlying pathology. Retrospective patient chart review was performed with special focus on clinical presentation, preoperative management, intraoperative findings, and potential causative explanations. Mean follow-up period was 46 months. All patients were born between 27 and 31 weeks (mean 28 weeks) with a birth weight between 800 and 1,000 g (mean 887 g). They presented with an almost identical pattern of symptoms including sudden abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, erythema of the abdominal wall, high gastric residuals, and radiographic signs of ileus. All of them were treated with intensive abdominal massage or pelvic rotation to improve bowel movement before becoming symptomatic. Properistaltic maneuvers including abdominal massage and pelvic rotation may cause what we term a "manufactured" volvulus in very premature newborns. Thus, this practice was stopped. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Effects of retail style or food service style packaging type and storage time on sensory characteristics of bacon manufactured from commercially sourced pork bellies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Bohrer, B M; Holmer, S F; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-06-01

    Objectives were to characterize differences in pork bellies that were stored frozen for different durations prior to processing and characterize sensory properties of the bacon derived from those bellies when stored in either retail or food service style packaging. Bellies (n = 102) were collected from 4 different time periods, fresh bellies (never frozen) and bellies frozen for 2, 5, or 7 mo, and manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Food service bacon was packaged in oxygen-permeable polyvinyl lined boxes layered on wax-covered lined paper and blast frozen (-33 °C) for 45 or 90 d after slicing. Retail bacon was vacuum-packaged in retail packages and refrigerated (2 °C) in the dark for 60 or 120 d after slicing. At the end of respective storage times after slicing, bacon was analyzed for sensory attributes and lipid oxidation. Off-flavor and oxidized odor of bacon increased (P food service packaged bacon from frozen bellies, but was unchanged (P ≥ 0.07) with time in food service packaged bacon from fresh bellies. Lipid oxidation was also unchanged (P ≥ 0.21) over time in retail packaged bacon, with the exception of bellies frozen for 5 mo, which was increased from day 0 to day 90. Overall, off-flavor, oxidized odor, and lipid oxidation increased as storage time after processing increased. Freezing bellies before processing may exacerbate lipid oxidation as storage time after processing was extended. Bacon can be packaged and managed several different ways before it reaches the consumer. This research simulated food service (frozen) and retail packaged (refrigerated) bacon over a range of storage times after slicing. Off-flavor and oxidized odor increased as storage time after processing increased in both packaging types. Lipid oxidation increased as storage time after slicing increased to a greater extent in food service packaging. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. The impact of fit manufacturing on green manufacturing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ang Nian; Sin, Tan Chan; Fathullah, M.; Lee, C. C.

    2017-09-01

    Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing are a new trend principle and concept. They are getting popular in industrial. This paper is identifying the impact between Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing. Besides Fit manufacturing, Lean manufacturing, Agile manufacturing and Sustainable manufacturing gives big impacts to Green Manufacturing. On top of that, this paper also discuss the benefits of applying Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing in industrial as well as environment. Hence, applications of Fit manufacturing and Green Manufacturing are increasing year by year.

  2. Toward New-Generation Intelligent Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent manufacturing is a general concept that is under continuous development. It can be categorized into three basic paradigms: digital manufacturing, digital-networked manufacturing, and new-generation intelligent manufacturing. New-generation intelligent manufacturing represents an in-depth integration of new-generation artificial intelligence (AI technology and advanced manufacturing technology. It runs through every link in the full life-cycle of design, production, product, and service. The concept also relates to the optimization and integration of corresponding systems; the continuous improvement of enterprises’ product quality, performance, and service levels; and reduction in resources consumption. New-generation intelligent manufacturing acts as the core driving force of the new industrial revolution and will continue to be the main pathway for the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry in the decades to come. Human-cyber-physical systems (HCPSs reveal the technological mechanisms of new-generation intelligent manufacturing and can effectively guide related theoretical research and engineering practice. Given the sequential development, cross interaction, and iterative upgrading characteristics of the three basic paradigms of intelligent manufacturing, a technology roadmap for “parallel promotion and integrated development” should be developed in order to drive forward the intelligent transformation of the manufacturing industry in China. Keywords: Advanced manufacturing, New-generation intelligent manufacturing, Human-cyber-physical system, New-generation AI, Basic paradigms, Parallel promotion, Integrated development

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  4. Some n-p (Hg,Cd)Te photodiodes for 8-14 micrometer heterodyne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J. F.; Flanagan, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    The results describing the dc and CO2 laser heterodyne characteristics of a three element photodiode array and single element and four element photodiode arrays are presented. The measured data shows that the n(+)-p configuration is capable of achieving bandwidths of 475 to 725 MHz and noise equivalent powers of 3.2 x 10 to the minus 20th power W/Hz at 77 K and 1.0 x 10 to the minus 19th power W/Hz at 145 K. The n(+)-n(-)-p photodiodes exhibited wide bandwidths (approximately 2.0 GHz) and fairly good effective heterodyne quantum efficiencies (approximately 13-30 percent at 2.0 GHz). Noise equivalent powers ranging from 1.44 x 10 to the minus 19th power W/Hz to 6.23 x 10 to the minus 20th power W/Hz were measured at 2.0 GHz.

  5. Raw materials from the region of Rio Claro - SP for the manufacture of ceramic coatings: technological characteristics and geological-technological modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, R.A.; Roveri, C.D.; Maestrelli, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    The Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Polo (PCSG) is the largest national producer of ceramic tiles, located in east-central region of Sao Paulo, encompassing different cities. PCSG uses various clays as the main raw material from the Corumbatai Formation, which is inserted in the Sedimentary Basin of Parana, with more than 1.5 square kilometers. In this context, X-ray diffractograms of samples from different areas of PCSG were used for application of the cluster analysis. Aiming to group the samples in families and subsequently to seek the most representative for the complete analysis. Also, ceramic tests were made by the following methods: the green bulk density after pressing, flexural strength modulus for green. , tests were conducted after firing at 1070 °C and 1120 °C: apparent density after drying, flexural modulus; after firing: apparent density after firing, water absorption linear shrinkage sintering, apparent porosity, modulus of resistance to bending after burning. Further, from the georeferenced sample were created tables for industry in the area, to facilitate the identification of new sample by XRD. Furthermore, the 3D model of the region was developed from the interesting characteristics for ceramic use, using Micromine Mining Software, Enterprise Micromine. (author)

  6. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  7. Highly Efficient Spin-to-Charge Current Conversion in Strained HgTe Surface States Protected by a HgCdTe Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, P.; Thomas, C.; Fu, Y.; Vila, L.; Haas, B.; Jouneau, P.-H.; Gambarelli, S.; Meunier, T.; Ballet, P.; Attané, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of spin-to-charge current conversion in strained mercury telluride at room temperature, using spin pumping experiments. We show that a HgCdTe barrier can be used to protect the HgTe from direct contact with the ferromagnet, leading to very high conversion rates, with inverse Edelstein lengths up to 2.0 ±0.5 nm . The influence of the HgTe layer thickness on the conversion efficiency is found to differ strongly from what is expected in spin Hall effect systems. These measurements, associated with the temperature dependence of the resistivity, suggest that these high conversion rates are due to the spin momentum locking property of HgTe surface states.

  8. Manufacturing processes 2 grinding, honing, lapping

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Presents a view of the most common machining and non-machining manufacturing processes. This volume describes the characteristics of abrasive tools, their design and manufacturing, followed by the fundamentals of grinding fluids. It also discusses grinding of different materials (steel, cast iron, hard and brittle materials, nickel and titanium).

  9. Correlation of Etch Pits and Dislocations in As-grown and Thermal Cycle-Annealed HgCdTe(211) Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghayenegar, M.; Jacobs, R. N.; Benson, J. D.; Stoltz, A. J.; Almeida, L. A.; Smith, David J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports observations of the different types of etch pits and dislocations present in thick HgCdTe (211) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CdTe/Si (211) composite substrates. Dislocation analysis for as-grown and thermal cycle-annealed samples has been carried out using bright-field transmission electron microscopy. Triangular pits present in as-grown material are associated with a mixture of Frank partials and perfect dislocations, while pits with fish-eye shapes have perfect dislocations with 1/2[0\\bar{1}1] Burgers vector. The dislocations beneath skew pits are more complex as they have two different crystallographic directions, and are associated with a mixture of Shockley partials and perfect dislocations. Dislocation analysis of samples after thermal cycle annealing (TCA) shows that the majority of dislocations under the etch pits are short segments of perfect dislocations with 1/2[0\\bar{1}1] Burgers vector while the remainder are Shockley partials. The absence of fish-eye shape pits in TCA samples suggests that they are associated with mobile dislocations that have reacted during annealing, causing the overall etch pit density to be reduced. Very large pits with a density ˜2×103 cm-2 are observed in as-grown and TCA samples. These defects thread from within the CdTe buffer layer into the upper regions of the HgCdTe layers. Their depth in as-grown material is so large that it is not possible to locate and identify the underlying defects.

  10. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...

  11. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  12. Manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kalpakjian, Serope; Vijai Sekar, K S

    2014-01-01

    For courses in manufacturing processes at two- or four-year schools. An up-to-date text that provides a solid background in manufacturing processes. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, SI Edition, 7e, presents a mostly qualitative description of the science, technology, and practice of manufacturing. This includes detailed descriptions of manufacturing processes and the manufacturing enterprise that will help introduce students to important concepts. With a total of 120 examples and case studies, up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of all topics, and superior two-color graphics, this text provides a solid background for manufacturing students and serves as a valuable reference text for professionals. Teaching and Learning Experience To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will: * Apply Theory and/or Research: An excellent overview of manufacturing conceptswith a balance of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices. * Engage Students: E...

  13. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  14. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  15. Manufacturing Industry, Industry Study, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Shuib, Lieutenant Colonel, Royal Malaysian Air Force Kevin Brennan, Commander, U.S. Navy Mr. K. Ilia Christman, Department of the Navy Robert Costa...panel to review the impact of taxation , regulatory compliance, and benefits burdens on domestic manufacturers. Review would bring focus to ways...Finally, the MISG considered the effect of these 14 characteristics on the U.S. Manufacturing Industry vis-à-vis Chinese and Malaysian

  16. Measuring Manufacturing Innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2017-01-01

    Globalization and customization increases the pressure on manufacturing companies, and the ability to provide innovativeness is a potential source of competitive advantage. This paper positions the manufacturing entity in the innovation process, and investigates the relation between innovation vers...... technology and organizational concepts. Based on Danish survey data from the European Manufacturing Survey (EMS-2015) this paper finds that there is a relation between innovative companies, and their level of technology and use of organizational concepts. Technology and organizational concepts act...... as manufacturing levers to support the manufacturing and production system to provide innovativeness. The managerial implication lies in building manufacturing capabilities to support the innovative process, by standardization, optimization and creating stability in combination with automation and advanced...

  17. Manufacturing ontology through templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry contains a high volume of knowhow and of high value, much of it being held by key persons in the company. The passing of this know-how is the basis of manufacturing ontology. Among other methods like advanced filtering and algorithm based decision making, one way of handling the manufacturing ontology is via templates. The current paper tackles this approach and highlights the advantages concluding with some recommendations.

  18. Manufacturing knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw , Duncan; Edwards , John

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The study sought to understand the components of knowledge management strategy from the perspective of staff in UK manufacturing organisations. To analyse this topic we took an empirical approach and collaborated with two manufacturing organisations. Our main finding centres on the key components of a knowledge management strategy, and the relationships between it and manufacturing strategy and corporate strategy. Other findings include: the nature of knowledge in manufact...

  19. Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering | Classification | College of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  20. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  1. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  2. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  4. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  5. Modern manufacturing engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent research and trends in Manufacturing Engineering. The chapters emphasize different aspects of the transformation from materials to products. It provides the reader with fundamental materials treatments and the integration of processes. Concepts such as green and lean manufacturing are also covered in this book.

  6. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  7. Method of manufacturing semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.S.E.

    1980-01-01

    A method of improving the electrical characteristics of semiconductor devices such as SCR's, rectifiers and triacs during their manufacture is described. The system consists of electron irradiation at an energy in excess of 250 KeV and most preferably between 1.5 and 12 MeV, producing an irradiation dose of between 5.10 12 and 5.10 15 electrons per sq. cm., and at a temperature in excess of 100 0 C preferably between 150 and 375 0 C. (U.K.)

  8. Manufacture of disposal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolvi, L.

    2009-12-01

    The report summarizes the development work carried out in the manufacturing of disposal canister components, and present status, in readiness for manufacturing, of the components for use in assembly of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. The disposal canister consist of two major components: the nodular graphite cast iron insert and overpack of oxygen-free copper. The manufacturing process for copper components begins with a cylindrical cast copper billet. Three different manufacturing processes i.e. pierce and draw, extrusion and forging are being developed, which produce a seamless copper tube or a tube with an integrated bottom. The pierce and draw process, Posiva's reference method, makes an integrated bottom possible and only the lid requires welding. Inserts for BWR-element are cast with 12 square channels and inserts for VVER 440-element with 12 round channels. Inserts for EPR-elements have four square channels. Casting of BWR insert type has been studied so far. Experience of casting inserts for PWR, which is similar to the EPR-type, has been got in co-operation with SKB. The report describes the processes being developed for manufacture of disposal canister components and some results of the manufacturing experiments are presented. Quality assurance and quality control in manufacture of canister component is described. (orig.)

  9. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  10. Manufacture of Damascus steel: Metallographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criado, A.J.; Martinez, J.A.; Calabres, R.; Arias, D.

    1997-01-01

    Damascus Steel is the denomination that the Europeans gave to the material with which the musulman swords were manufactured during the Era of the Crusades. This hypereutectoid steel presents a high content in carbon more than 0.8%, and in some cases up to 2% in weight. The secret of its good mechanical characteristics is based in the hot forging process in the temperatures interval between 650 and 850 degree centigree. The final quenching in water brine or other aqueous solutions, confers to the swords manufactured with this steel a good resistance to its cutting edge and a high toughness. In the present investigation, the manufacture processes of this type of steel are studied. Electronic scanning microscopy has been applied to the study of materials manufactured by the authors following the ancient craftsmen methods of forging and quenching. (Author) 16 refs

  11. Micro/Nano manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of an increasing amount of interest and research effort worldwide in both academia and industry over the past 10 years.Traditional (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro......-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology ecosystems are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via...

  12. Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand K.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Wu, Stewart; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Kawa, Stephan R.; Yang, Mei Ying Melissa; DiGangi, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    Here we report on measurements made with an improved CO2 Sounder lidar during the ASCENDS 2014 and 2016 airborne campaigns. The changes made to the 2011 version of the lidar included incorporating a rapidly wavelength-tunable, step-locked seed laser in the transmitter, using a much more sensitive HgCdTe APD detector and using an analog digitizer with faster readout time in the receiver. We also improved the lidar's calibration approach and the XCO2 retrieval algorithm. The 2014 and 2016 flights were made over several types of topographic surfaces from 3 to 12 km aircraft altitudes in the continental US. The results are compared to the XCO2 values computed from an airborne in situ sensor during spiral-down maneuvers. The 2014 results show significantly better performance and include measurement of horizontal gradients in XCO2 made over the Midwestern US that agree with chemistry transport models. The results from the 2016 airborne lidar retrievals show precisions of ˜ 0.7 parts per million (ppm) with 1 s averaging over desert surfaces, which is an improvement of about 8 times compared to similar measurements made in 2011. Measurements in 2016 were also made over fresh snow surfaces that have lower surface reflectance at the laser wavelengths. The results from both campaigns showed that the mean values of XCO2 retrieved from the lidar consistently agreed with those based on the in situ sensor to within 1 ppm. The improved precision and accuracy demonstrated in the 2014 and 2016 flights should benefit future airborne science campaigns and advance the technique's readiness for a space-based instrument.

  13. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  14. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show...

  15. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  16. MEDICAL MANUFACTURING INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorin Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies was to improve the design and manufacturing process by selective laser melting, of new medical implants. After manufacturing process, the implants were measured, microscopically and mechanical analyzed. Implants manufactured by AM can be an attractive option for surface coatings to improve the osseointegration process. The main advantages of customized implants made by AM process are: the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, better cosmesis, reduced surgical times and better performance over their generic counterparts. These medical manufacturing changes the way that the surgeons are planning surgeries and engineers are designing custom implant. AM process has eliminated the constraints of shape, size, internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of implantation according to CT images. This article will review some custom implants fabricated in DME using biocompatible titanium.

  17. Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... 53 Designing Financial Systems in East Asia and Japan ..... 5.3 Weights for the industrial production index (%) ..... The demand for manufactured goods for this low level of consumption per capita also tends to be very low.

  18. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  19. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  20. [Chinese medicine industry 4.0:advancing digital pharmaceutical manufacture toward intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2016-01-01

    A perspective analysis on the technological innovation in pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine unveils a vision on "Future Factory" of Chinese medicine industry in mind. The strategy as well as the technical roadmap of "Chinese medicine industry 4.0" is proposed, with the projection of related core technology system. It is clarified that the technical development path of Chinese medicine industry from digital manufacture to intelligent manufacture. On the basis of precisely defining technical terms such as process control, on-line detection and process quality monitoring for Chinese medicine manufacture, the technical concepts and characteristics of intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture as well as digital pharmaceutical manufacture are elaborated. Promoting wide applications of digital manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine is strongly recommended. Through completely informationized manufacturing processes and multi-discipline cluster innovation, intelligent manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine should be developed, which would provide a new driving force for Chinese medicine industry in technology upgrade, product quality enhancement and efficiency improvement. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  2. DECOMPOSITION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Z.N. Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing is a global activity that started during the industrial revolution in the late 19th century to cater for the large-scale production of products. Since then, manufacturing has changed tremendously through the innovations of technology, processes, materials, communication and transportation. The major challenge facing manufacturing is to produce more products using less material, less energy and less involvement of labour. To face these challenges, manufacturing companies must have a strategy and competitive priority in order for them to compete in a dynamic market. A review of the literature on the decomposition of manufacturing processes outlines three main processes, namely: high volume, medium volume and low volume. The decomposition shows that each sub process has its own characteristics and depends on the nature of the firm’s business. Two extreme processes are continuous line production (fast extreme and project shop (slow extreme. Other processes are in between these two extremes of the manufacturing spectrum. Process flow patterns become less complex with cellular, line and continuous flow compared with jobbing and project. The review also indicates that when the product is high variety and low volume, project or functional production is applied.

  3. Meaning and value of cloud manufacturing platform for aerospace enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Xu, Wei; Xin, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Aerospace manufacturing engineering technology status it is important symbol to measure the comprehensive strength of nation. This paper analyzes the meaning and value of aerospace enterprises, based on the concept of cloud manufacturing to the practical production and application, combined with the characteristics of aerospace enterprises.

  4. Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez, Masud

    2008-01-01

    In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...

  5. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  6. Flexibility in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reparaz, A.; Stavig, W.E.; McLees, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    From its inception Exxon Nuclear has produced both BWR and PWR fuels. This is reflected in a product line that, to date, includes over 20 fuel designs. These range from 6x6 design at one end of the spectrum to the recently introduced 17x17 design. The benefits offered include close tailoring of the fuel design to match the customer's requirements, and the ability to rapidly introduce product changes, such as the axial blanket design, with a minimal impact on manufacturing. This flexibility places a number of demands on the manufacturing organization. Close interfaces must be established, and maintained, between the marketing, product design, manufacturing, purchasing and quality organizations, and the information flows must be immediate and accurate. Production schedules must be well planned and must be maintained or revised to reflect changing circumstances. Finally, the manufacturing facilities must be designed to allow rapid switchover between product designs with minor tooling changes and/or rerouting of product flows to alternate work stations. Among the tools used to manage the flow of information and to maintain the tight integration necessary between the various manufacturing, engineering and quality organizations is a commercially available, computerized planning and tracking system, AMAPS. A real-time production data collection system has been designed which gathers data from each production work station for use by the shop floor control module of AMAPS. Accuracy of input to the system is improved through extensive use of bar codes to gather information on the product as it moves through and between work stations. This computerized preparation of material tracing has an impact on direct manufacturing records, quality control records, nuclear material records and accounting and inventory records. This is of benefit to both Exxon Nuclear and its customers

  7. Increase of manufacturability of manufacturing of difficult profile details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Ye. Semenovskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing problems arising in the process of manufacturing such complex profile parts as gears is carried out. The possible ways of simplifying the technological processes with the aim of improving the economic performance of production, as well as reducing the defect are defined. The carried out researches of influence of chemical composition of steel, its structural parameters on technological characteristics. The choice of compositions of the chemical composition of steel with the optimal ratio of physical-mechanical and technological characteristics is substantiated. The causes of deformation of parts in the process of heat treatment are established. The developed criteria for estimating this value. At the same time, the task of not only qualitative but also quantitative evaluation of such technological properties as the propensity of steels to deformation in the course of chemical-thermal treatment is solved, with the aim of introducing a single characteristic that determines the tendency of the steel to deform during hardening. Reducing the propensity of steel to deformation allowed to increase the economic performance of production by reducing the number of finishing operations.

  8. Diccionario Lean Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Ellner, Sarah María

    2016-01-01

    El Diccionario Bilingüe de Lean Manufacturing pretende ser un instrumento de apoyo a todo aquel que tenga la responsabilidad de planear, ejecutar o simplemente algún interés con las actividades de Lean Manufacturing, aportando así también conceptos claros tanto en castellano como en inglés, con el fin de entender de forma integral el alcance mismo que puede llegar a tener dicha filosofía, al igual que se proporcionara una serie de siglas y herramientas para la implementación del Lean Manufact...

  9. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1997-01-01

    BNFL has a long tradition of willingness to embrace technological challenge and a dedication to quality. This paper describes advances in the overall manufacturing philosophy at BNFL's Fuel Business Group and then covers how some new technologies are currently being employed in BNFL Fuel Business Group's flagship oxide complex (OFC), which is currently in its final stages of commissioning. This plant represents a total investment of some Pound 200 million. This paper also describes how these technologies are also being deployed in BNFL's MOX plant now being built at Sellafield and, finally, covers some new processes being developed for advanced fuel manufacture. (author)

  10. Manufacturer-distributor relationships and channel service quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, J.G.A.M.; Wetzels, M.G.M.; Koelemeijer, K.

    1997-01-01

    In today's marketplace for fast-moving consumer goods, many brands exist with similar characteristics. Development and maintenance of product differentiation becomes increasingly difficult to realize for manufacturers. Consequently, non-price competition particularly by offering high quality

  11. Analysis of the auger recombination rate in P+N-n-N-N HgCdTe detectors for HOT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, J.; Tennant, W. E.; Bellotti, E.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared (IR) photon detectors must be cryogenically cooled to provide the highest possible performance, usually to temperatures at or below ~ 150K. Such low operating temperatures (Top) impose very stringent requirements on cryogenic coolers. As such, there is a constant push in the industry to engineer new detector architectures that operate at higher temperatures, so called higher operating temperature (HOT) detectors. The ultimate goal for HOT detectors is room temperature operation. While this is not currently possibly for photon detectors, significant increases in Top are nonetheless beneficial in terms of reduced size, weight, power and cost (SWAP-C). The most common HgCdTe IR detector architecture is the P+n heterostructure photodiode (where a capital letter indicates a wide band gap relative to the active layer or "AL"). A variant of this architecture, the P+N-n-N-N heterostructure photodiode, should have a near identical photo-response to the P+n heterostructure, but with significantly lower dark diffusion current. The P+N-n-N-N heterostructure utilizes a very low doped AL, surrounded on both sides by wide-gap layers. The low doping in the AL, allows the AL to be fully depleted, which drastically reduces the Auger recombination rate in that layer. Minimizing the Auger recombination rate reduces the intrinsic dark diffusion current, thereby increasing Top. Note when we use the term "recombination rate" for photodiodes, we are actually referring to the net generation and recombination of minority carriers (and corresponding dark currents) by the Auger process. For these benefits to be realized, these devices must be intrinsically limited and well passivated. The focus of this proceeding is on studying the fundamental physics of the intrinsic dark currents in ideal P+N-n-N-N heterostructures, namely Auger recombination. Due to the complexity of these devices, specifically the presence of multiple heterojunctions, numerical device modeling techniques must be

  12. A Taxonomy of Manufacturing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Miller; Aleda V. Roth

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development and analysis of a numerical taxonomy of manufacturing strategies. The taxonomy was developed with standard methods of cluster analysis, and is based on the relative importance attached to eleven competitive capabilities defining the manufacturing task of 164 large American manufacturing business units. Three distinct clusters of manufacturing strategy groups were observed. Though there is an industry effect, all three manufacturing strategy types are obser...

  13. Experience with quality assurance in fuel design and manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, R.; Nilson, F.

    1984-01-01

    The Quality Assurance/Quality Control activities for nuclear fuel design and manufacturing described here are coordinated under a common ''Quality Assurance System For Fuel Assemblies and Associated Core Components'' which regulates the QA-functions of the development, design and manufacturing of fuel assemblies independent of the organizational assignment of the contributing technical groups. Some essential characteristics of the system are shown, using examples from design control, procurement, manufacturing and qualification of special processes. The experience is very good, it allowed a flexible and well controlled implementation of design and manufacturing innovations and contributed to the overall good fuel behavior. (orig.)

  14. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  15. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  16. Virtual manufacturing in reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo

    2000-10-01

    SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.

  17. Tolerances in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Zhang, Yang; Islam, Aminul

    This paper describes a method for analysis of tolerances in micro manufacturing. It proposes a mapping oftolerances to dimensions and compares this with current available international standards. The analysisdocuments that tolerances are not scaled down as the absolute dimension. In practice...

  18. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, J. M.

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report A lloy Development for High Burnup Cladding . Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

  19. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  20. Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

  1. Manufacturing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern...

  2. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  3. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  4. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

  5. Drug development and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  6. Properties of MIS structures based on graded-gap HgCdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadookh, S. M.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Sidorov, Yu. G.; Vasiliev, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of near-surface graded-gap layers on the electrical characteristics of MIS structures fabricated based on heteroepitaxial Hg 1-x Cd x Te films grown by molecular beam epitaxy with a two-layer SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 insulator and anodic oxide film is studied experimentally. It is shown that a larger modulation of capacitance (depth and width of the valley) is observed compared with the structures without the graded-gap layer. The field dependences of photovoltage of MIS structures with the graded-gap layers had a classical form and were characterized by a drop only in the enrichment region. For the structures without the graded-gap layer with x = 0.22, a drop in the voltage dependence of the photocurrent is observed in the region of pronounced inversion. This drop is governed by limitation of the space charge region by processes of tunneling generation via deep levels. The properties of the HgCdTe-insulator interfaces are studied.

  7. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  8. Study on Resource Configuration on Cloud Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of manufacturing is to realize the requirement of customer. In manufacturing process of cloud system, there exist a lot of resource services which have similar functional characteristics to realize the requirement. It makes the manufacturing process more diverse. To develop the quality and reduce cost, a resource configuration model on cloud-manufacturing platform is put forward in this paper. According to the generalized six-point location principle, a growth design from the requirement of customers to entities with geometric constraints is proposed. By the requirement growing up to product, a configuration process is used to match the entities with the instances which the resources in the database could supply. Different from most existing studies, this paper studies the tolerance design with multiple candidate resource suppliers on cloud manufacturing to make the market play a two-level game considering the benefit of customers and the profit of resources to give an optimal result. A numerical case study is used to illustrate the proposed model and configuration process. The performance and advantage of the proposed method are discussed at the end.

  9. Micro-manufacturing: design and manufacturing of micro-products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koç, Muammer; Özel, Tuğrul

    2011-01-01

    .... After addressing the fundamentals and non-metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes in the semiconductor industry, it goes on to address specific metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes...

  10. Reconfigurable manufacturing system for agile mass customization manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies are facing three challenges: low cost production of product, high quality standard and rapid responsiveness to customer requirements. These three goals are equally important for the manufacturing companies who want...

  11. Design and application of reconfigurable manufacturing systems in agile mass customization manufacturing environment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available processes. Many manufacturing techniques are based on the principles of Flexible Manufacturing and Dedicated Manufacturing for mass production. Reconfigurable Manufacturing System, (RMS), is a manufacturing system that can provide for Agile Manufacturing...

  12. Robot skills for manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath; Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    -asserting robot skills for manufacturing. We show how a relatively small set of skills are derived from current factory worker instructions, and how these can be transferred to industrial mobile manipulators. General robot skills can not only be implemented on these robots, but also be intuitively concatenated...... products are introduced by manufacturers. In order to compete on global markets, the factories of tomorrow need complete production lines, including automation technologies that can effortlessly be reconfigured or repurposed, when the need arises. In this paper we present the concept of general, self...... in running production facilities at an industrial partner. It follows from these experiments that the use of robot skills, and associated task-level programming framework, is a viable solution to introducing robots that can intuitively and on the fly be programmed to perform new tasks by factory workers....

  13. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  14. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  15. The manufacturers' viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the approach by six separate manufacturers to the problem of availability from their particular view point. This presentation demonstrates basic strategy: attention to high reliability at the design phase, based on positive and detailed feedback from existing plant; quality assurance at the production stage which has been planned into the production process in the form of a Q.A. manual in design; sophisticated test procedures and facilities; simplicity of design with high accuracy in production; provision of a clear operational maintenance manual, etc. The manufacturers agreed on the need to make a conscious commitment to design for high availability, taking into account both initial and ongoing operating costs in life cycle cost assessment. Predictability, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, market acceptability and maintenance support based on high quality feedback between operator and supplier were all stressed on the grounds that prevention is always better than cure

  16. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    biodegradable wipes, and bags. The gStyle clothing line consists of various types of stylish clothes for babies. All gDiapers are plastic free...offers recycling services for industrial plastics and non-serviceable containers. Industrial plastics include pails, buckets, pallets, plastic film, and...manufacturer, now recycle used soda bottles, unusable second quality fabrics and worn out garments into polyester fibers to produce many of their clothes

  17. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  18. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-31

    Kadali R. Talla R. Hugo T. Russell A. Thoreson E. Porgharibshahishahrebabak Dae-wook Kim Ellen A. Fuller J. Rick Evans 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Manufacturing (CIM) Cell .................................................................................. 8 Hurricane 130W Laser Cutter/Engraver (48” X 36...Miniature Prototype Warehouse Application using Imaging Source and RoboRealm® 3. Hurricane 130W Laser Cutter/Engraver (48” X 36”) a. Rapid

  19. Technology for Manufacturing Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Ground Processing Scheduling System (GPSS) was developed by Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center and divisions of the Lockheed Company to maintain the scheduling for preparing a Space Shuttle Orbiter for a mission. Red Pepper Software Company, now part of PeopleSoft, Inc., commercialized the software as their ResponseAgent product line. The software enables users to monitor manufacturing variables, report issues and develop solutions to existing problems.

  20. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...Hamilton • Beth Bimber Air Force Research Laboratory, Metals Branch • Eddie Schwalbach • Mike Groeber • Benjamin Leever • James Hardin...conducting more in-field, or point-of-need, manufacturing than ever before. Other areas of concentration include man- machine interface, capabilities

  1. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  2. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  3. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry. (author)

  4. 77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY... candidate's proven experience in promoting, developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing... participating in Council meetings and events are responsible for their travel, living and other personal...

  5. 76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY... experience in promoting, developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, in job... Council meetings and events are responsible for their travel, living and other personal expenses. Meetings...

  6. Manufacturing mobility in global operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization trend inevitably affects the organization of manufacturing by enterprises. It offers opportunities to examine manufacturing from a global perspective and consequently to produce where it is most appropriate. However, globalization has also led to an increase in competitive

  7. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  8. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ..., developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, job creation in the manufacturing... relevant contact information such as mailing address, fax, e-mail, fixed and mobile phone numbers and...

  9. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, D

    1978-09-27

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry.

  10. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Bai, Shuang [PolarOnyx, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is investigated using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. High-density (>99%) YSZ part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained. Microstructure features of fabricated specimens were studied with SEM, EDX, the measured micro hardness is achieved as high as 18.84 GPa. (orig.)

  11. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance...

  12. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  13. Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik; Bilberg, Arne

    This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs...... of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth....

  14. 78 FR 67117 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... preeminent destination for investment in manufacturing throughout the world'' as provided for in Section 4 of... the viewpoint of those stakeholders on current and emerging issues in the manufacturing sector. In... the U.S. manufacturing industry in terms of industry sectors, geographic locations, demographics, and...

  15. 2001 Industry Studies: Advanced Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-28

    oriented, 19 and manufacturers are employing the Internet and associated information technologies to better integrate supply chains and form extended...ways to compete in world markets . As part of this ongoing transformation, the broad implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies , processes...competitive advantages and better performance in world markets . Importantly, advanced manufacturing involves the innovative integration of new technology

  16. Good manufacturing practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the Implementation of good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The presentation is divided into next parts: Batch size; Expiration date; QC Testing; Environmental concerns; Personnel aspects; Radiation concerns; Theoretical yields; Sterilizing filters; Control and reconciliation of materials and components; Product strength; In process sampling and testing; Holding and distribution; Drug product inspection; Buildings and facilities; Renovations at BNL for GMP; Aseptic processing and sterility assurance; Process validation and control; Quality control and drug product stability; Documentation and other GMP topics; Building design considerations; Equipment; and Summary

  17. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  18. INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  19. Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Mehnen, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

  20. Manufacturing Renaissance : Return of manufacturing to western countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kianian, Babak; Larsson, Tobias; Tavassoli, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that the location of manufacturing is gradually shifting to the west again, exemplifying the ‘manufacturing renaissance’. Such a claim is based on the recent observed trend and the discussion is contextualized within the established theory that has been able to explain the location of manufacturing, that is, the product life cycle (PLC) model. Then the chapter identifies and discusses the four main drivers of this new phenomenon: (i) rising wage levels in emerging economie...

  1. Competitive manufacturing strategies for the manufacturing industries in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Gündüz; Ulusoy, Gunduz

    2003-01-01

    In this study, results of the research into competitive manufacturing strategies of companies in four different sector studies covering 82 companies from the electronics, cement, automotive manufacturers, and appliances part and component suppliers in Turkey are presented. The data used in the study are gathered by conducting four sector surveys in 1997 and 1998 using a questionnaire supported by some follow-up interviews and site visits. A competitive manufacturing strategy is represented he...

  2. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  3. Simulation modeling for quality and productivity in steel cord manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Türkseven, Can Hulusi; Turkseven, Can Hulusi; Ertek, Gürdal; Ertek, Gurdal

    2003-01-01

    We describe the application of simulation modeling to estimate and improve quality and productivity performance of a steel cord manufacturing system. We describe the typical steel cord manufacturing plant, emphasize its distinguishing characteristics, identify various production settings and discuss applicability of simulation as a management decision support tool. Besides presenting the general structure of the developed simulation model, we focus on wire fractures, which can be an important...

  4. Manufacturing halal in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In Arabic, halal literally means ‘permissible’ or ‘lawful’. Halal is no longer an expression of an esoteric form of production, trade and consumption, but part of a huge and expanding globalized market in which certification, standards and technoscience play important roles. Over the past three...... production, trade and consumption. Based on fieldwork in Malaysia, this article explores how manufacturing companies understand and practise halal certification, standards and technoscience. I argue that while existing studies of halal overwhelmingly explore micro-social aspects such as the everyday...... consumption among Muslim groups, ‘the bigger institutional picture’ that frames such consumption production and regulation are not well understood. By studying halal production, I provide an ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production and regulation that together warrant a product...

  5. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S.E.; Harrop, G.; Maricalva Gonzalez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The status of the investment and R and D programmes in the UK and Spanish fuel fabrication facilities is outlined. Due to a number of circumstances, BNFL and ENUSA have been in the forefront of capital investment, with associated commitment to engineering and scientific research and development. Carrying through this investment has allowed the embodiment of proven state of the art technologies in the design of fuel fabrication plants, with particular emphasis on meeting the future challenge of health and safety, and product quality, at an acceptable cost. ENUSA and BNFL currently supply fuel, not only to their respective 'home' markets but also to France, Belgium, Sweden, and Germany. Both organisations employ an International Business outlook and partake in focused and speculative R and D projects for the design and manufacture of nuclear fuel. (orig./HP)

  6. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  7. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  8. PDC Journeys to Product Analysis Development and Additive Manufacturing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalina Sheik Muhamad

    2015-01-01

    The technology for product development and manufacturing has gone through many advancements. It is widely recognised that it would provide competitive advantage for engineering organization in term of product development cycle, productivity, sustainability and efficiency. We begin by describing the general characteristic of design process that will need to be integrated in product life cycle management. In Nuclear Malaysia, especially in engineering design activities the majority have been using 3D modelling. This paper discusses on the current product design practiced in Nuclear Malaysia, new product development process and new manufacturing technique which is additive manufacturing. (author)

  9. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Terry C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  10. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  11. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  12. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

    2013-02-01

    This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

  13. The state of biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molowa, David T; Mazanet, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    The manufacturing of protein-based biopharmaceuticals is done in bacterial or mammalian cell cultures. While bacterial cultures are inexpensive, dependable, and approved by regulatory authorities, many complex proteins cannot be manufactured this way. Complex proteins must be manufactured in mammalian cell cultures to produce active products. Mammalian cell culture capacity is limited and has slowed the delivery of necessary biopharmaceutical products to patients. The nature of the production capacity problem and future outlook are critically examined.

  14. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  15. The Experiment Method for Manufacturing Grid Development on Single Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Youan; ZHOU Zude

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an experiment method for the Manufacturing Grid application system development in the single personal computer environment is proposed. The characteristic of the proposed method is constructing a full prototype Manufacturing Grid application system which is hosted on a single personal computer with the virtual machine technology. Firstly, it builds all the Manufacturing Grid physical resource nodes on an abstraction layer of a single personal computer with the virtual machine technology. Secondly, all the virtual Manufacturing Grid resource nodes will be connected with virtual network and the application software will be deployed on each Manufacturing Grid nodes. Then, we can obtain a prototype Manufacturing Grid application system which is working in the single personal computer, and can carry on the experiment on this foundation. Compared with the known experiment methods for the Manufacturing Grid application system development, the proposed method has the advantages of the known methods, such as cost inexpensively, operation simple, and can get the confidence experiment result easily. The Manufacturing Grid application system constructed with the proposed method has the high scalability, stability and reliability. It is can be migrated to the real application environment rapidly.

  16. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed.

  17. Manufacturing and Testing of Accelerator Superconducting Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing of superconducting magnet for accelerators is a quite complex process that is not yet fully industrialized. In this paper, after a short history of the evolution of the magnet design and construction, we review the main characteristics of the accelerator magnets having an impact on the construction technology. We put in evidence how the design and component quality impact on construction and why the final product calls for a total-quality approach. LHC experience is widely discussed and main lessons are spelled out. Then the new Nb3Sn technology, under development for the next generation magnet construction, is outlined. Finally, we briefly review the testing procedure of accelerator superconducting magnets, underlining the close connection with the design validation and with the manufacturing process

  18. Manufacturing and Testing of Accelerator Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing of superconducting magnet for accelerators is a quite complex process that is not yet fully industrialized. In this paper, after a short history of the evolution of the magnet design and construction, we review the main characteristics of the accelerator magnets having an impact on the construction technology. We put in evidence how the design and component quality impact on construction and why the final product calls for a total-quality approach. LHC experience is widely discussed and main lessons are spelled out. Then the new Nb$_{3}$Sn technology, under development for the next generation magnet construction, is outlined. Finally, we briefly review the testing procedure of accelerator superconducting magnets, underlining the close connection with the design validation and with the manufacturing process.

  19. Implementation of Lean Manufacturing in Romanian Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucenic Camelia Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of lean manufacturing is one of the main tools for attaining a higher performance level in the Romanian organisations. The study uses data collected at middle management level from organisations located in Transylvania. The organisations come from different fields of activity and are in different stages of lean implementation. The article makes use of quantitative and qualitative instruments for the evaluation of lean in the above mentioned companies. Characteristics as waste reduction, cost, quality, product design have different approaches in the companies. Their way of approach gives useful information regarding the type of company from the point of view of lean manufacturing implementation. This knowledge provides a useful support at different managerial levels in the process of decision making.

  20. Manufacturing and Testing of Accelerator Superconducting Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Manufacturing of superconducting magnet for accelerators is a quite complex process that is not yet fully industrialized. In this paper, after a short history of the evolution of the magnet design and construction, we review the main characteristics of the accelerator magnets having an impact on the construction technology. We put in evidence how the design and component quality impact on construction and why the final product calls for a total-quality approach. LHC experience is widely discussed and main lessons are spelled out. Then the new Nb3Sn technology, under development for the next generation magnet construction, is outlined. Finally, we briefly review the testing procedure of accelerator superconducting magnets, underlining the close connection with the design validation and with the manufacturing process.

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides in Biomedical Device Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Riool

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades the use of medical devices, such as catheters, artificial heart valves, prosthetic joints, and other implants, has grown significantly. Despite continuous improvements in device design, surgical procedures, and wound care, biomaterial-associated infections (BAI are still a major problem in modern medicine. Conventional antibiotic treatment often fails due to the low levels of antibiotic at the site of infection. The presence of biofilms on the biomaterial and/or the multidrug-resistant phenotype of the bacteria further impair the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. Removal of the biomaterial is then the last option to control the infection. Clearly, there is a pressing need for alternative strategies to prevent and treat BAI. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are considered promising candidates as they are active against a broad spectrum of (antibiotic-resistant planktonic bacteria and biofilms. Moreover, bacteria are less likely to develop resistance to these rapidly-acting peptides. In this review we highlight the four main strategies, three of which applying AMPs, in biomedical device manufacturing to prevent BAI. The first involves modification of the physicochemical characteristics of the surface of implants. Immobilization of AMPs on surfaces of medical devices with a variety of chemical techniques is essential in the second strategy. The main disadvantage of these two strategies relates to the limited antibacterial effect in the tissue surrounding the implant. This limitation is addressed by the third strategy that releases AMPs from a coating in a controlled fashion. Lastly, AMPs can be integrated in the design and manufacturing of additively manufactured/3D-printed implants, owing to the physicochemical characteristics of the implant material and the versatile manufacturing technologies compatible with antimicrobials incorporation. These novel technologies utilizing AMPs will contribute to development of novel

  2. Antimicrobial Peptides in Biomedical Device Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riool, Martijn; de Breij, Anna; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Nibbering, Peter H.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2017-08-01

    Over the past decades the use of medical devices, such as catheters, artificial heart valves, prosthetic joints and other implants, has grown significantly. Despite continuous improvements in device design, surgical procedures and wound care, biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) are still a major problem in modern medicine. Conventional antibiotic treatment often fails due to the low levels of antibiotic at the site of infection. The presence of biofilms on the biomaterial and/or the multidrug-resistant phenotype of the bacteria further impair the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. Removal of the biomaterial is then the last option to control the infection. Clearly, there is a pressing need for alternative strategies to prevent and treat BAI. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered promising candidates as they are active against a broad spectrum of (antibiotic-resistant) planktonic bacteria and biofilms. Moreover, bacteria are less likely to develop resistance to these rapidly-acting peptides. In this review we highlight the four main strategies, three of which applying AMPs, in biomedical device manufacturing to prevent BAI. The first involves modification of the physicochemical characteristics of the surface of implants. Immobilization of AMPs on surfaces of medical devices with a variety of chemical techniques is essential in the second strategy. The main disadvantage of these two strategies relates to the limited antibacterial effect in the tissue surrounding the implant. This limitation is addressed by the third strategy that releases AMPs from a coating in a controlled fashion. Lastly, AMPs can be integrated in the design and manufacturing of additively manufactured / 3D-printed implants, owing to the physicochemical characteristics of the implant material and the versatile manufacturing technologies compatible with antimicrobials incorporation. These novel technologies utilizing AMPs will contribute to development of novel and safe

  3. Advanced manufacturing technologies modern machining, advanced joining, sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides details and collective information on working principle, process mechanism, salient features, and unique applications of various advanced manufacturing techniques and processes belong. The book is divided in three sessions covering modern machining methods, advanced repair and joining techniques and, finally, sustainable manufacturing. The latest trends and research aspects of those fields are highlighted.

  4. Manufacturing Math Classes: An Instructional Program Guide for Manufacturing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Pamela G.; And Others

    This program guide documents a manufacturing job family curriculum that develops competence in generic work force education skills through three courses: Reading Rulers, Charts, and Gauges and Math for Manufacturing Workers I and II. An annotated table of contents lists a brief description of the questions answered in each section. An introduction…

  5. Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahender Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

  6. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Roger [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors less than 1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants.

  7. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  8. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  9. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  10. Application of manufactured products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  11. Training for New Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effects of computer-based manufacturing technologies on employment opportunities and job skills. Describes the establishment of the Industrial Technology Institute in Michigan to develop and utilize advanced manufacturing technologies, and the institute's relationship to the state's community colleges. Reviews lessons learned from…

  12. 75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... convenience. Pending applicants remain under consideration and do not need to resubmit their applications..., particularly seeking the representation of small- and medium-sized enterprises. Additional factors which may be... marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, job creation in the manufacturing sector, or the...

  13. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...

  14. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic...... of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from...... a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer...

  15. Glass manufacturing through induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boen, R.; Paya, B.; Roscini, M.; Fautrelle, Y.; Tuaz, F.; Delage, D.

    1991-01-01

    Oxides and glasses are electrical and thermal insulators, but show the characteristic of being weakly conductors of electricity when they are melt. It is then possible to heat them through HF induction. This interesting property allows the development of a melting process in cold crucible induction furnace. The process is being studied and developed by a consortium made up of CFEI, CEA Marcoule, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE and MADYLAM laboratory. The studies include 2 parts: a) One experimental part to develop the technology and research for satisfying configurations, through a small size platform (10 to 30 kg/h). The long run continuous pouring melting tests made on different kinds of glass allow to go-on with industrial range units. b) One theoretical part to understand the magneto-thermo-hydraulic phenomenon hardly in relation with the heavy dependence of the physical characteristics (electrical and heat conductivities, viscosity) according to temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs [fr

  16. Magnet cable manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.

    1985-07-01

    The superconducting magnets used in the construction of particle accelerators are mostly built from flat, multistrand cables with rectangular or keystoned cross sections. The superconducting strands are mostly circular but a design of a cable made of preflattened wires was proposed a few years ago under the name of Berkeley flat; such cable shows some interesting characteristics. Another design consists of a few smaller precabled wires (e.g. 6 around 1). This configuration allows smaller filaments and a better transposition of the current elements. The Superconducting Super Collider project involves the largest amount of superconducting cable ever envisaged for a single machine. Furthermore, the design calls for exceptional accuracy and improved characteristics of the cable. A part of the SSC research and development program is focused on these important questions. In this paper we emphasize the difference between the conventional cabling and wires with superconducting. A new concept for the tooling will be introduced as well as the necessary characteristics of a specialized cabler. 5 figs

  17. Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearrow, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

  18. Process and control systems for composites manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiang, T. H.; Wanamaker, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A precise control of composite material processing would not only improve part quality, but it would also directly reduce the overall manufacturing cost. The development and incorporation of sensors will help to generate real-time information for material processing relationships and equipment characteristics. In the present work, the thermocouple, pressure transducer, and dielectrometer technologies were investigated. The monitoring sensors were integrated with the computerized control system in three non-autoclave fabrication techniques: hot-press, self contained tool (self heating and pressurizing), and pressure vessel). The sensors were implemented in the parts and tools.

  19. Outsourcing of Logistics Activities in Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ogorelc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The external supply of logistics se1vices is part of a trend towardoutsourcing non-core logistics activities. The scope ofthird-party logistics may range from a relatively limited combinationof activities (e.g. transportation and warehousing to acomprehensive set of logistics se1vices.The authors first discuss the characteristics of business logisticsin manufacturing indusfly, to be taken into account inlogistics outsourcing. They particularly point out the motimtionsfor logistics outsourcing, the possibilities of outsourcing,as well as supplier selection. Finally they analyze the outsourcingin the reverse logistics.

  20. Organizing for manufacturing innovation. The case of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Krabbendam, Koos

    1992-01-01

    addressing the manufacturing innovation process are even fewer and provide little insight into its true nature. Consequently, little is known about the effective organization of such processes. In the present article an organization model of manufacturing innovation is described, and its practicability...... the implementation of new technology effectively. This is not surprising, considering the innovative nature of this process. Although there is a host of literature on innovation, organization and (the benefits of) new technology, the literature in which these areas are linked together is scarce. Publications...... assessed using the results of seven case studies of the implementation of flexible manufacturing systems in British, Belgian and Dutch mechanical engineering companies....

  1. Detecting Attacks in CyberManufacturing Systems: Additive Manufacturing Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Mingtao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CyberManufacturing System is a vision for future manufacturing where physical components are fully integrated with computational processes in a connected environment. However, realizing the vision requires that its security be adequately ensured. This paper presents a vision-based system to detect intentional attacks on additive manufacturing processes, utilizing machine learning techniques. Particularly, additive manufacturing systems have unique vulnerabilities to malicious attacks, which can result in defective infills but without affecting the exterior. In order to detect such infill defects, the research uses simulated 3D printing process images as well as actual 3D printing process images to compare accuracies of machine learning algorithms in classifying, clustering and detecting anomalies on different types of infills. Three algorithms - (i random forest, (ii k nearest neighbor, and (iii anomaly detection - have been adopted in the research and shown to be effective in detecting such defects.

  2. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Modular Rapidly Manufactured SmallSat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize advanced manufacturing processes to design and fabricate a fully functional prototype flight model, with the goal of demonstrating rapid on-orbit assembly of...

  3. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure study of arsenic in HgCdTe: p-type doping linked to nonsubstitutional As incorporation in an unknown AsHg8 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biquard, X.; Alliot, I.; Ballet, P.

    2009-01-01

    An extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) investigation has been carried out on arsenic-doped Hg 70 Cd 30 Te samples. The incorporation of atomic arsenic has been achieved using a nonconventional radio-frequency plasma source in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor. Two samples from the same epitaxial wafer have been studied. One underwent a 400 deg. C activation annealing under Hg pressure, leading to n to p-type conversion. In the commonly admitted scenario, this conversion is associated with the annealing-induced migration of As from a Hg site to a Te site. This study shows that this is not the case. Before annealing, As is found to be involved in noncrystalline structures: 50% inside an As 2 Te 3 chalcogenide glass and 50% inside a new AsHg 8 compact structure. After annealing, the As 2 Te 3 chalcogenide glass disappears, 31% of As occupies Hg sites and 69% incorporates inside this new AsHg 8 compact structure that occupies Te sites. The EXAFS results are in excellent agreement with 77 K Hall-effect measurements. The new AsHg 8 structure is found to have an acceptor behavior. Overall, this study provides an entirely new vision of extrinsic p-type doping of HgCdTe as well as the first experimental evidence of As site transfer induced by annealing.

  4. Knowledge Transfer and Manufacturing Relocation in International Manufacturing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov

    2014-01-01

    This paper is built on six longitudinal case studies of knowledge transfer in manufacturing relocation. By focusing on tacit and explicit knowledge the paper introduces a model for identification of knowledge in relation to four task situations on the shop floor in a manufacturing environment...... after relocation. Finally the paper discusses how “dispatching capacity” and “absorptive capacity” can improve the process....

  5. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  6. Support given by the manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomer, E.

    1993-01-01

    As regards German NPP, the purchaser has the control function and the manufacturer the role of a general planner binding together all supply lots. Therefore the manufacturer possesses a very broad and thorough detailed knowledge of the plant functioning and becomes a life-long important partner of the plant. Such partnership requires from the manufacturer to provide continuously available and economical services to the plant; he must work purposefully in a quality-conscious and innovative way. This is his vision, and he will comply with it over the whole service life of the plant. The importance of services is illustrated by a large number of examples. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Micro manufacturing techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu

    2013-01-01

    Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

  8. An Assessment of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Implementation in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Yasin Shaikh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AMTs (Advanced Manufacturing Technologies has always been the high interest and core issue for the manufacturing enterprises to get rapid production for global market place. The developed countries have achieved its competitive advantage by implementing this unique model of technologies with full range of systems. In developing countries, the implementation of such technologies is not much common due to so many reasons, (political, social, economical and technical but entrepreneurs of growing economies are contemplating to reshape long term strategy to adopt Computer systems oriented technologies in their manufacturing companies to meet the growing needs of their indigenous market on one hand and to make a place in the international market on the other. Although, very few manufacturing organization do meet the global market requirements. But there is still lot of efforts to be taken for world class competition. An attempt has been made in this paper to develop a conceptual model taking in to account the three parameters such as, Direct, Indirect and Administrative AMTs. This research work further attempts to present an empirical data analysis conducted in the manufacturing enterprises in province of Sindh, Pakistan. The overall indigenous progress of manufacturing enterprises as according to the data collected from 60 companies reveals that the AMTs systems are partially understood and practiced that is also one of the cause towards slow progress of national exchequer.

  9. Cloud Manufacturing Service Paradigm for Group Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingtao Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous refinement of specialization requires that the group manufacturing company must be constantly focused on how to concentrate its core resources in special sphere to form its core competitive advantage. However, the resources in enterprise group are usually distributed in different subsidiary companies, which means they cannot be fully used, constraining the competition and development of the enterprise. Conducted as a response to a need for cloud manufacturing studies, systematic and detailed studies on cloud manufacturing schema for group companies are carried out in this paper. A new hybrid private clouds paradigm is proposed to meet the requirements of aggregation and centralized use of heterogeneous resources and business units distributed in different subsidiary companies. After the introduction of the cloud manufacturing paradigm for enterprise group and its architecture, this paper presents a derivation from the abstraction of paradigm and framework to the application of a practical evaluative working mechanism. In short, the paradigm establishes an effective working mechanism to translate collaborative business process composed by the activities into cloud manufacturing process composed by services so as to create a foundation resulting in mature traditional project monitoring and scheduling technologies being able to be used in cloud manufacturing project management.

  10. Manufacturing development of low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Baxi, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    General Atomics is developing manufacturing methods for vanadium alloys as part of a program to encourage the development of low activation alloys for fusion use. The culmination of the program is the fabrication and installation of a vanadium alloy structure in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the Radiative Divertor modification. Water-cooled vanadium alloy components will comprise a portion of the new upper divertor structure. The first step, procuring the material for this program has been completed. The largest heat of vanadium alloy made to date, 1200 kg of V-4Cr-4Ti, has been produced and is being converted into various product forms. Results of many tests on the material during the manufacturing process are reported. Research into potential fabrication methods has been and continues to be performed along with the assessment of manufacturing processes particularly in the area of joining. Joining of vanadium alloys has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for their use in the Radiative Divertor Program. Joining processes under evaluation include resistance seam, electrodischarge (stud), friction and electron beam welding. Results of welding tests are reported. Metallography and mechanical tests are used to evaluate the weld samples. The need for a protective atmosphere during different welding processes is also being determined. General Atomics has also designed, manufactured, and will be testing a helium-cooled, high heat flux component to assess the use of helium cooled vanadium alloy components for advanced tokamak systems. The component is made from vanadium alloy tubing, machined to enhance the heat transfer characteristics, and joined to end flanges to allow connection to the helium supply. Results are reported

  11. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  12. Copper Disk Manufactured at the Space Optics Manufacturing and Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This photograph shows Wes Brown, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) lead diamond tuner, an expert in the science of using diamond-tipped tools to cut metal, inspecting the mold's physical characteristics to ensure the uniformity of its more than 6,000 grooves. This king-size copper disk, manufactured at the Space Optics Manufacturing and Technology Center (SOMTC) at MSFC, is a special mold for making high resolution monitor screens. This master mold will be used to make several other molds, each capable of forming hundreds of screens that have a type of lens called a fresnel lens. Weighing much less than conventional optics, fresnel lenses have multiple concentric grooves, each formed to a precise angle, that together create the curvature needed to focus and project images. The MSFC leads NASA's space optics manufacturing technology development as a technology leader for diamond turning. The machine used to manufacture this mold is among many one-of-a-kind pieces of equipment of MSFC's SOMTC.

  13. Characteristics of cheeses manufactured using pepsin from adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... (VP) was assessed using three types of cheeses namely Alpine, Tilister and Pastafilata (Pasta). ... pepsin waa an apprqpriate renner substitute for the small scale cheese processors.

  14. Characteristics of Cheeses Manufactured Using Pepsin from Adult '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significam dijforen,(:es:(p> 005) ~etwelfn level~.of pepsin and types of extractiQn me4.iafor pepsin, HCI andvi~egar .... AlpiIl~, a~~ I,>asla .chees~,'Yas ,m~d.~ .as de-. Church and MuslIms. The only ..... coagulation time of mi'lk'(Medina e't:al:, ~.

  15. In-situ acoustic signature monitoring in additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Lucas W.; Taheri, Hossein; Bigelow, Timothy A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Faierson, Eric J.

    2018-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly maturing process for the production of complex metallic, ceramic, polymeric, and composite components. The processes used are numerous, and with the complex geometries involved this can make quality control and standardization of the process and inspection difficult. Acoustic emission measurements have been used previously to monitor a number of processes including machining and welding. The authors have identified acoustic signature measurement as a potential means of monitoring metal additive manufacturing processes using process noise characteristics and those discrete acoustic emission events characteristic of defect growth, including cracks and delamination. Results of acoustic monitoring for a metal additive manufacturing process (directed energy deposition) are reported. The work investigated correlations between acoustic emissions and process noise with variations in machine state and deposition parameters, and provided proof of concept data that such correlations do exist.

  16. Many Manufactured Nanosats, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To achieve the capability to affordably produce scores of nano-spacecraft for envisioned constellation missions, a new manufacturing process is needed to reduce the...

  17. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  18. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990

  19. Flexible automated manufacturing for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube Hansen, David; Bilberg, Arne; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2017-01-01

    SMEs are in general highly flexible and agile in order to accommodate the customer demands in the paradigm of High Mix-Low Volume manufacturing. The flexibility and agility have mainly been enabled by manual labor, but as we are entering the technology and data driven fourth industrial revolution......, where augmented operators and machines work in cooperation in a highly flexible and productive manufacturing system both an opportunity and a need has raised for developing highly flexible and efficient automation....

  20. Whither North Carolina furniture manufacturing?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Lacy

    2004-01-01

    North Carolina's furniture manufacturing industry has contracted in recent years as imports have gained a greater share of the domestic furniture market. Rapid growth of the furniture industry in China and a surge in exports from that country to the United States in particular have contributed to plant closings and consolidation of operations in the state. North Carolina's furniture manufacturers are adapting to the emergence of global competition and are developing new corporate strategies t...

  1. Manufacturing development for the SAFE 100 kW core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Robert; Roman, Jose; Salvail, Pat

    2002-01-01

    In stark contrast to what is sometimes considered the norm in traditional manufacturing processes, engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) arc in the practice of altering the standard in an effort to realize other potential methods in core manufacturing. While remaining within the bounds of the materials database, we are researching into core manufacturing techniques that may have been overlooked in the past due to funding and/or time constraints. To augment proven core fabrication capabilities we are pursuing plating processes as another possible method for core build-up and assembly. Although brazing and a proprietary HIP cycle are used for module assembly (proven track record for stability and endurance), it is prudent to pursue secondary or backup methods of module and core assembly. For this reason heat tube manufacture and module assembly by means of plating is being investigated. Potentially, the plating processes will give engineers the ability to manufacture replacement modules for any module that might fail to perform nominally, and to assemble/disassemble a complete core in much less time than would be required for the conventional Braze-HIP process. Another area of improvement in core manufacturing capabilities is the installation of a sodium and lithium liquid metal heat pipe fill machine. This, along with the ability to Electron Beam Weld heat pipe seals and wet-in the pipes in the necessary vacuum atmosphere, will eliminate the need to ship potentially hazardous components outside for processing. In addition to developing core manufacturing techniques, the SAFE manufacturing team has been evaluating the thermal heat transfer characteristics, and manufacturability of several heat exchanger design concepts

  2. Revisiting System Paradigms from the Viewpoint of Manufacturing Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuming Bi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A system paradigm is an abstract representation of system; it includes system architecture used to determine the types and numbers of components and their relations in the system. The design of system paradigm relies on customers’ requirements and the characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Many system paradigms and design guidelines have been proposed for a variety of customers’ needs including functions, cost, quality, personalization, and lead time of products. However, the consideration of sustainability becomes essential to today’s manufacturing systems; a new challenge is how to evolve existing paradigms to accommodate the requirements of sustainability. In contrast to ample research activities on system paradigms in past decades, recent studies on system paradigms have been restricted, partially due to unclear research directions. Limited works can be found on conceiving new manufacturing system paradigms from the perspective of sustainability; most of the related literature concerns the new requirements of sustainability. The objectives of this work are (i to examine the requirements of manufacturing systems in a wider scope; (ii to revisit existing paradigms to clarify their limitations and bottlenecks; and eventually (iii to identify some research directions, which will lead to a solution of sustainable manufacturing. To achieve these objectives, firstly, a brief description of today’s manufacturing environment is provided. Secondly, the requirements of sustainability are discussed, and the relevant researches on system sustainability are surveyed. Thirdly, the reconfigurable system paradigm is focused, and the gaps between a reconfigurable manufacturing system and a sustainable manufacturing system are discussed. Finally, the future endeavors towards to the next-generation manufacturing system paradigms are discussed.

  3. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin

    2017-08-01

    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  4. Crowd wisdom drives intelligent manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Lu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – A fundamental problem for intelligent manufacturing is to equip the agents with the ability to automatically make judgments and decisions. This paper aims to introduce the basic principle for intelligent crowds in an attempt to show that crowd wisdom could help in making accurate judgments and proper decisions. This further shows the positive effects that crowd wisdom could bring to the entire manufacturing process. Design/methodology/approach – Efforts to support the critical role of crowd wisdom in intelligent manufacturing involve theoretical explanation, including a discussion of several prevailing concepts, such as consumer-to-business (C2B, crowdfunding and an interpretation of the contemporary Big Data mania. In addition, an empirical study with three business cases was conducted to prove the conclusion that our ideas could well explain the current business phenomena and guide the future of manufacturing. Findings – This paper shows that crowd wisdom could help make accurate judgments and proper decisions. It further shows the positive effects that crowd wisdom could bring to the entire manufacturing process. Originality/value – The paper highlights the importance of crowd wisdom in manufacturing with sufficient theoretical and empirical analysis, potentially providing a guideline for future industry.

  5. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  6. Exploring manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler manufacturing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep Singh, Chandan; Singh Khamba, Jaimal; Singh, Rajdeep; Singh, Navdeep

    2014-07-01

    The two wheeler industry of India is one of the most dependable industries as every person has at least a two wheeler with him, if not any four wheeler. Earlier there were scooters like Bajaj Chetak, Priya but with evolution of motorcycles like splendor, splendor+, etc. the scooter market started declining but with arrival of gearless scooters like Honda Activa, Scooty Pep, etc. the market place has become increasingly competitive in recent time and industries are facing tough test of improving products and thus market share. The competitiveness among industries is an important issue. Competency development is a vital tool to enhance the competitiveness of industries. Based, on aggregate performance of a firm, it comprehensively explores the varying importance of manufacturing competencies and drives of industrial competitiveness. Hence by, exploring the manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler industry, one can reflect the competitiveness of two wheeler manufacturing industry as a whole. This study presents various factors of manufacturing competencies affecting industrial competitiveness as the significance of these competencies is increasing day by day in two wheeler manufacturing industry.

  7. Exploring manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler manufacturing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Chandan Deep; Khamba, Jaimal Singh; Singh, Rajdeep; Singh, Navdeep

    2014-01-01

    The two wheeler industry of India is one of the most dependable industries as every person has at least a two wheeler with him, if not any four wheeler. Earlier there were scooters like Bajaj Chetak, Priya but with evolution of motorcycles like splendor, splendor+, etc. the scooter market started declining but with arrival of gearless scooters like Honda Activa, Scooty Pep, etc. the market place has become increasingly competitive in recent time and industries are facing tough test of improving products and thus market share. The competitiveness among industries is an important issue. Competency development is a vital tool to enhance the competitiveness of industries. Based, on aggregate performance of a firm, it comprehensively explores the varying importance of manufacturing competencies and drives of industrial competitiveness. Hence by, exploring the manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler industry, one can reflect the competitiveness of two wheeler manufacturing industry as a whole. This study presents various factors of manufacturing competencies affecting industrial competitiveness as the significance of these competencies is increasing day by day in two wheeler manufacturing industry

  8. Good manufacturing practices of artisanal products in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros, J.M.S.D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the importance of good manufacturing practices in the elaboration of artisanal products, aiming to generate a discussion about this subject. The elaboration of artisanal food has been gaining prominence in several countries of the world since these products carry the identity and culture of a place. The traditional and artisanal way of manufacturing provides the food with a variation in its characteristics, which makes it peculiar in comparison to its similar, pleasing the most diverse demands of consumers. In addition, they are considered healthier and natural foods. In the Northeast of Brazil, these products are highlighted by the significant commercialization, being sources of income generation for the region. Among the most prominent products are the coalho and butter types cheeses, bottled butter and carne de sol. Despite the economic and cultural importance of these products, the traditional way of manufacturing, without proper hygiene care, can be a limiting factor for the formal commercialization of these products. Therefore, adopting good manufacturing practices at artisanal food processing places may be the first step towards the production of higher quality products that meet the requirements of the legislation but retain their artisanal manufacturing characteristics.

  9. Pulmonary toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Brian Christopher

    Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in effective aerodynamic diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry; for instance, the smaller the size of particles, the greater their specific surface area. The chemistry and toxicity of insoluble particles depends on their surface area, since chemical reactions may happen with the environment on the surface. Oxidation and reduction may occur on the surfaces of particles after they are produced. For instance, it is known that carbonaceous particles from vehicle exhaust and industrial emission may interact with reactive species like ozone in their ambient environment, altering the surface chemistry of the particles. Reaction with species in the environment may cause changes in the chemical functionality of the surface and change the toxic properties of the particles when they are inhaled. Furthermore, metals on the surface of inhalable particles can contribute to their toxicity. Much attention has been given to the presence of iron on the surfaces of inhalable particles in the environment. After particle inhalation, particles are endocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the immune response to foreign matter. They are exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative burst, which can cause the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction, causing oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and cell death. The toxicity of particles that contain metals depends on the redox activity and bioavailability of the metals, the causes of thich have not yet been adequately explored. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy showed

  10. Technical Efficiency of Thai Manufacturing SMEs: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Charoenrat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.

  11. Manufacturing of biodrugs: need for harmonization in regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Choudhury, Koel; Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2009-01-01

    Biodrugs (biologics) are much more complex than chemically synthesized drugs because of their structural heterogeneity and interactions within a given biologic system. The manufacturing process in the biodrug industry varies with each type of molecule and is far more elaborate and stringent due to the use of living organisms and complex substrates. Product purity and altered structural characteristics leading to potential immunogenicity have often been of concern when establishing quality and safety in the use of biodrugs. Regulatory compliance in manufacturing and commercialization of biodrugs involves quality control, quality assurance, and batch documentation. Many factors such as host cell development, cell bank establishment, cell culture, protein production, purification, analysis, formulation, storage, and handling are critical for ensuring the purity, activity, and safety of the finished product. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for biodrugs has been developed in certain regions such as the EU, US, and Japan. Due to differences in manufacturing methods and systems, product-specific GMP guidelines are evolving. In general, there are variations in GMP guidelines between countries, which lead to difficulty for the manufacturers in conforming to different standards, thus entailing delays in the commercialization of biodrugs. There is a need to develop a unified regulatory guideline for biodrug manufacturing across various countries, which would be helpful in the marketing of products and trade. This review deals with the comparative framework and analysis of GMP regulation of biodrugs.

  12. Canadian Manufacturing Malaise: Three Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Krzepkowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The danger in politicians promoting the idea that “Dutch Disease” is responsible for the decline of the Ontario manufacturing sector is that the suggestion implies that Canada’s manufacturing sector will bounce back if only we could slow down oil sands development, or if the Canadian dollar were to devalue. In reality, evidence suggests that the decline in Ontario manufacturing is the result of long-term structural changes in the economy, independent of the rise of the country’s natural-resource sector and the rising dollar. And the sooner policymakers realize that, and stop blaming the decline in manufacturing on Dutch Disease (which holds that a booming natural-resource sector that drives up our dollar makes our manufacturing exports less competitive the sooner they can get to work on helping manufacturing-dependent regions transition to the evolving economy. A closer analysis of Canada’s manufacturing sector shows that jobs in that sector have been disappearing across the country since the end of the Second World War, with the sector’s share of employment falling dramatically well before rapid development began to take hold in the oil sands, and back when Canada’s dollar was still worth far less than the American dollar. It is a trend that has been occurring among most of our OECD peers, including the United States, which may be due to the widespread reallocation of production to lower cost countries. But it is also true that Canada’s manufacturing productivity performance in particular has been declining for a generation, with especially poor performance in the last decade, when labour productivity in Canada grew at just a quarter of the U.S. rate. Meanwhile, capital investment that may have improved the competitiveness of Canadian manufacturing has been anemic. Yet there is no particular reason to lament the scaling-down of manufacturing jobs in Ontario. The province remains just as economically important, as a share of

  13. Technological dispute for manufacturing population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Hevko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New designs of technological equipment are presented – a variegated unit for adjusting the machine for precise manufacturing of a cut or on a tool of a tester, or on a workpiece, and also a design of a control device for measuring average diameters of taps. An important element in the manufacture of cutting tools is the manufacture of appropriate technological equipment. So for the manufacture of taps, it is necessary to develop the design of technological equipment for the adjustment of the necessary design parameters, as well as the design of control devices for their parameters. To provide these operations to instruments are the requirements of accuracy, productivity, stability, cost of production and a number of others. The new design of the technological equipment for the adjustment of the machine for precise manufacturing of the cutting is presented. The design of the control device for measuring the average diameter of the taps is also given. The advantages of the device include improving the quality of processing and working out the design on the technological.

  14. Additive manufacturing in maxillofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincă Luciana Laura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the benefits of using additive manufacturing technologies in maxillofacial reconstruction are highlighted. Based on a real clinical case, the paper describes the manufacture of an implant prototype replacing the right zygomatic bone and a part of maxilla using additive manufacturing technologies. The face is the most expressive part of the human body that makes us unique. It was shown that the maxillofacial prostheses help to improve the psychological state of patients affected by, because low self esteem feeling appears commonly to this patients with the facial defects. The aim of this paper is to show how using additive manufacturing technologies methods within this research, the producing a surgical model will help surgeon to improve the pre-operative planning. For this we used additive manufacturing technologies such as Stereolitography to achieve the biomodel and FDM-fused deposition modelling to obtain a prototype model because these technologies make it possible to obtain prosthesis according to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation.

  15. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  16. Asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique set of physical and chemical properties of asbestos has led to its many industrial applications, such as roof coverings, textiles, rope, cord and yarn, paper, friction and composition materials, household product, acid-resistant filters, packing, insulation, and certain types of lagging, amongst others. In Poland asbestos-containing products were manufactured from raw materials imported mainly from the former Soviet Union, with production launched at the beginning of 20th century. According to Annex 4 to the Act of 19 June 1997 on the prohibition of the use of asbestos-containing products, there were 28 asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The current survey was undertaken to enable asbestos manufacturing plants to be arranged, described and divided in order to contribute to further surveys.

  17. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  18. JIT Manufacturing: A Survey of Implementations in Small and Large U.S. Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. White; John N. Pearson; Jeffrey R. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the diffusion of Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing from Japanese manufacturers to U.S. manufacturers has progressed at an accelerated rate. At this stage of the diffusion process, JIT implementations are more common and more advanced in large U.S. manufacturers than in small; consequently, U.S. businessmen's understanding of issues associated with JIT implementations in large manufacturers is more developed than that of small manufacturers. When small manufacturers repre...

  19. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part I. Liquid route processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2008-01-01

    With its interesting and particular characteristics, cellular metals are taking part of the great family of new materials. They can have open or closed porosity. At the present time, the major challenge for the materials researchers is based in the manufacturing techniques improvement in order to obtain reproducible and reliable cellular metals with quality. In the present paper, the different production methods to manufacture cellular metals by liquid route are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 106 refs

  20. The International Location Decision: A Study of Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touray, Ebou; Schmidt, Andreas; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to build a broader understanding of the international location decision (ILD) of manufacturing by investigating and mapping Danish manufacturing firms’ related activities and underlying processes. Using an exploratory survey ap-proach on 17 Danish firms, the study shows...... there is less emphasis on cost than in past studies and a large unstructured human influence. A framework containing six catego-ries of ILD factors—cost, labor and social characteristics, infrastructure, politics and regulations, economics, and markets and resources—and an assessment of their respec-tive single...

  1. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  2. Measure of manufacturing performance in advanced manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ron, de A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the financial risks as a result of the high investments, decisions concerning investing in advanced manufacturing systems are difficult. The difficulty to decide is gained by the lack of a well-defined measure to support decisions and alarming messages from the industry concerning inverse

  3. The manufacturing blueprint environment : Bringing intelligence into manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazoglou, Mike; Elgammal, Amal

    Manufacturers today are rapidly moving into a business climate that is characterized by the ability to fulfill orders on demand by doing business through short-term networks where they negotiate value-adding processes dynamically – taking into account quality, time, price, viability, sustainability,

  4. Introduction to semiconductor manufacturing technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    IC chip manufacturing processes, such as photolithography, etch, CVD, PVD, CMP, ion implantation, RTP, inspection, and metrology, are complex methods that draw upon many disciplines. [i]Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies, Second Edition[/i] thoroughly describes the complicated processes with minimal mathematics, chemistry, and physics; it covers advanced concepts while keeping the contents accessible to readers without advanced degrees. Designed as a textbook for college students, this book provides a realistic picture of the semiconductor industry and an in-depth discuss

  5. Strategi Bersaing dengan Agile Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Tussifah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage now increasingly rests upon a dynamic capability to compete successfully in an environment of frequent, challenging and unpredictable change. The agile manufacturing a recently popularized concept has been advocated as the 21st century manufacturing paradigm. In adopting and developing the key elements of agile manufactruring, there is requirement for enterprises to overcome the philosophical challenges of a shift from mass/lean production to the customization of agility. Beside that, enterprises should explore the key success factors to support succesfull agile implementation.

  6. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  7. Carbon-On-Carbon Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Buchanan, Larry (Inventor); Banzon, Jr., Jose T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The presently disclosed technology relates to carbon-on-carbon (C/C) manufacturing techniques and the resulting C/C products. One aspect of the manufacturing techniques disclosed herein utilizes two distinct curing operations that occur at different times and/or using different temperatures. The resulting C/C products are substantially non-porous, even though the curing operation(s) substantially gasify a liquid carbon-entrained filler material that saturates a carbon fabric that makes up the C/C products.

  8. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  9. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  10. Modeling OPC complexity for design for manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Puneet; Kahng, Andrew B.; Muddu, Swamy; Nakagawa, Sam; Park, Chul-Hong

    2005-11-01

    Increasing design complexity in sub-90nm designs results in increased mask complexity and cost. Resolution enhancement techniques (RET) such as assist feature addition, phase shifting (attenuated PSM) and aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) help in preserving feature fidelity in silicon but increase mask complexity and cost. Data volume increase with rise in mask complexity is becoming prohibitive for manufacturing. Mask cost is determined by mask write time and mask inspection time, which are directly related to the complexity of features printed on the mask. Aggressive RET increase complexity by adding assist features and by modifying existing features. Passing design intent to OPC has been identified as a solution for reducing mask complexity and cost in several recent works. The goal of design-aware OPC is to relax OPC tolerances of layout features to minimize mask cost, without sacrificing parametric yield. To convey optimal OPC tolerances for manufacturing, design optimization should drive OPC tolerance optimization using models of mask cost for devices and wires. Design optimization should be aware of impact of OPC correction levels on mask cost and performance of the design. This work introduces mask cost characterization (MCC) that quantifies OPC complexity, measured in terms of fracture count of the mask, for different OPC tolerances. MCC with different OPC tolerances is a critical step in linking design and manufacturing. In this paper, we present a MCC methodology that provides models of fracture count of standard cells and wire patterns for use in design optimization. MCC cannot be performed by designers as they do not have access to foundry OPC recipes and RET tools. To build a fracture count model, we perform OPC and fracturing on a limited set of standard cells and wire configurations with all tolerance combinations. Separately, we identify the characteristics of the layout that impact fracture count. Based on the fracture count (FC) data

  11. Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA)Users Manual (Version 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.

    2003-01-27

    The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is a software tool that predicts manufactured home energy consumption and recommends weatherization retrofit measures. It was developed to assist local weatherization agencies working with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. Whether new or experienced, employed within or outside the Weatherization Assistance Program, all users can benefit from incorporating MHEA into their manufactured home weatherization programs. DOE anticipates that the state weatherization assistance programs that incorporate MHEA into their programs will find significant growth in the energy and cost savings achieved from manufactured home weatherization. The easy-to-use MHEA uses a relatively standard Windows graphical interface for entering simple inputs and provides understandable, usable results. The user enters information about the manufactured home construction, heating equipment, cooling equipment appliances, and weather site. MHEA then calculates annual energy consumption using a simplified building energy analysis technique. Weatherization retrofit measures are evaluated based on the predicted energy savings after installation of the measure, the measure cost, and the measure life. Finally, MHEA recommends retrofit measures that are energy and cost effective for the particular home being evaluated. MHEA evaluates each manufactured home individually and takes into account local weather conditions, retrofit measure costs, and fuel costs. The recommended package of weatherization retrofit measures is tailored to the home being evaluated. More traditional techniques apply the same package of retrofit measures to all manufactured homes, often the same set of measures that are installed into site-built homes. Effective manufactured home weatherization can be achieved only by installing measures developed specifically for manufactured homes. The unique manufactured home construction characteristics require that

  12. Pellet to Part Manufacturing System for CNCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chesser, Phillip C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lloyd, Peter D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bandari, Yashwanth Kumar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Jason [Hybrid Manufacturing Technologies, Swadlincote (United Kingdom); Gaul, Katherine T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-03-14

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with Hybrid Manufacturing Technologies to develop a compact prototype composite additive manufacturing head that can effectively extrude injection molding pellets. The head interfaces with conventional CNC machine tools enabling rapid conversion of conventional machine tools to additive manufacturing tools. The intent was to enable wider adoption of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology and combine BAAM technology with conventional machining systems.

  13. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  14. Nano Manufacturing - Products and Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    The use of micro and nano technologies in components and products not only sets new demands to the manufacturing technologies. Product concepts have to be rethought and redefined in order to implement the micro and nano technologies into functional systems. Both a technology driven and a product ...

  15. Josiah Wedgwood, Manufacturing and Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Robin; Popp, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Craft and industrial manufacture are often seen as dichotomous, with craft being marginalized during the process of industrialization. We want to look beyond this position, searching for craft in places where it has gone unnoticed and where it might have bloomed anew in the interstices created...

  16. Manufacturer Usage Description Specification Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturer Usage Description Specification (MUDS) is aframework under RFC development that aims to automate Internet access control rules for IoT devices . These access controls prevent malicious IoT devices from attacking other devices and also protect the IoT devices from being attacked by other devices.We are implementing this framework and trying to improve its security.

  17. Fuel manufacture and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepenack, H.; Raab, K.

    1975-01-01

    The different steps in fuel and fuel element manufacturing from the conversion of UF 6 to UO 2 to the assembling of the whole fuel element are shortly described. Each of this fabrication steps must satisfy well-defined quality criteria which are checked in certain analyses or tests. (RB) [de

  18. Acylinder and freeform optical manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank; DeFisher, Scott; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Aspheric cylinders have the ability to improve optical performance over standard cylindrical surfaces. Over the last several years there has also been development into the application and functionality of utilizing freeform surfaces to improve optical performance. Freeforms have the ability to not only improve image quality over a greater field of view, but can open up the design space of an optical system making it more compact. Freeform geometries, much like aspheric cylinders, may not have an axis of rotation to spin the optic about during manufacturing. This leads to costly fabrication processes and custom metrology set ups, which may inhibit their use. Over the last several years, OptiPro Systems has developed and optimized our eSX grinding, UFF and USF polishing, UltraSurf metrology, and ProSurf software programming technologies to make the processing of these complex geometries much easier and deterministic. In this paper we will discuss the challenges associated with manufacturing complex shapes like aspheric cylinders as well as freeform geometries, and how several technologies working together can overcome them. The technologies focus on metrology feedback to a grinding and polishing machine that is controlled through an iterative computer aided manufacturing software system. We will also present examples of these hard to manufacture shapes with results.

  19. 77 FR 56811 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... consideration for appointment must be received by the Office of Advisory Committees by close of business on... of responsibility) that are leaders within their local manufacturing communities and industry sectors... Subcommittee. The purpose of this subcommittee will be to examine factors that impact the long-term strategic...

  20. Manufacturing in the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    and export. However, the character and activities of these industries are profoundly changing as they become increasingly knowledge intensive. Thus, innovation processes and knowledge production in manufacturing are much more complex than suggested by the classic division into high-, medium-and low...

  1. Aggregate modeling of manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, A.A.J.; Armbruster, H.D.; Kempf, K.G.; Keskinocak, P.; Uzsoy, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we will present three approaches to model manufacturing systems in an aggregate way leading to fast and effective (i.e., scalable) simulations that allow the development of simulation tools for rapid exploration of different production scenarios in a factory as well as in a whole

  2. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  3. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  4. Quality assurance in tube manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, H.

    1976-01-01

    Reliability in service essential for many high-technology products fabricated today. This is particularly the case within the nuclear industry. Here defective materials or components may have diastrous consequences to the safety of human beings and the environment. A new concept - Quality Assurance - originates from this industry. The concept implies that all contractors, fabricators and material manufactures involved must prove that the quality control system used, fulfits particular requirements at all manufacturing, inspection and testing stages. These requirement are laid down in two standards issued by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. These standards are discussed in the paper. As a manufacturer of steel products for nuclear applications Sandvik has been forced to establish a quality assurance system according to these principles. The Sandvik approach is briefly described with regard to organisation and other major quality assurance activities. Further the education and training of operators and technicians is touched upon. Finally some viewpoints regarding audits performed by customers of steel manufacturers are expressed. (author)

  5. Typology of customer driven manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, J.C.; Wortmann, J.C.; Muntslag, D.R.; Timmermans, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this chapter has been to introduce a variety of customer driven manufacturing situations. This variety has been placed in a two-dimensional grid, which constitutes a typology. For some of these types, production management issues were discussed in section 6.3. It was concluded that an

  6. 77 FR 66179 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... herein for convenience. Members will be selected in accordance with applicable Department of Commerce... this ability, the Department will consider such factors as, but not limited to, the candidate's proven experience in promoting, developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, job...

  7. Capillary Sharp Inner Edge Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jan; Studenovský, K.; Najdek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 35 (2009), s. 19-25 ISSN 1584-5982. [MECAHITECH 09 /1./. Bukurešť, 08.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : capillary * edge * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  8. CNC Preparation Meets Manufacturing Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This article features the machining technology program at Cape Fear Community College (CFCC) of Wilmington, North Carolina. North Carolina's Cape Fear Community College is working to meet diverse industry needs through its CNC training. The school's program has gained the attention of the local manufacturing community and students when it shifted…

  9. Hydrogen manufacturing using plasma reformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A.; Hochgreb, S.; O`Brien, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Manufacturing of hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels is needed for a variety of applications. These applications include fuel cells used in stationary electric power production and in vehicular propulsion. Hydrogen can also be used for various combustion engine systems. There is a wide range of requirements on the capacity of the hydrogen manufacturing system, the purity of the hydrogen fuel, and capability for rapid response. The overall objectives of a hydrogen manufacturing facility are to operate with high availability at the lowest possible cost and to have minimal adverse environmental impact. Plasma technology has potential to significantly alleviate shortcomings of conventional means of manufacturing hydrogen. These shortcomings include cost and deterioration of catalysts; limitations on hydrogen production from heavy hydrocarbons; limitations on rapid response; and size and weight requirements. In addition, use of plasma technology could provide for a greater variety of operating modes; in particular the possibility of virtual elimination of CO{sub 2} production by pyrolytic operation. This mode of hydrogen production may be of increasing importance due to recent additional evidence of global warming.

  10. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of

  11. UK manufacturers construction joint venture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the legal and commercial framework for UK manufacturers to collaborate in a construction venture for a small combustion/steam cycle power plant fueled with biomass. The integration of technology and project plan, the working capital and capitalisation, financial aspects, the market plan, turnkey packages, joint venture entities, and collaboration are discussed. (UK)

  12. Aggregate modeling of manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, A.A.J.; Armbruster, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    In this report we will present three approaches to model manufacturing systems in an aggregate way leading to fast and effective (i.e., scalable) simulations that allow the development of simulation tools for rapid exploration of different production scenarios in a factory as well as in a whole

  13. Trial manufacture of an insulated amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Shigeo; Matsuura, Kiyokata.

    1978-10-01

    Trial manufacture of an insulated amplifier was carried out. The input signals are divided by filters Th and Tl into high frequency component and low frequency component. The high frequency component drives a transformer T 1 , and secondary signals are induced. The low frequency component drives a transformer T 2 through a buffer and a modulator. The secondary signals from both transformers are recombined to make the output signals. Compensation for the frequency characteristics of the high frequency transformer and that for the effect of a filter in the demodulation circuit for low frequency component are considered. The time constant of output signals for rectangular input signals was 30 microsec, when only the low frequency part is operated. The drift of the direct current level is within 5 mV. The characteristic features of the high frequency part was also investigated. The overall characteristic features of this amplifier were good for the frequency range of 0 to 500 kHz. (Kato, T.)

  14. 77 FR 38269 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Biotechnology and Healthcare... the scope of manufacturing authority on behalf of Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Amgen), within Subzone..., the Board hereby orders: The application to expand the scope of manufacturing authority under zone...

  15. Technology Sharing in Manufacturing Business Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    , consultants, partners, and others. However, the distinction between the focal firm, on the one hand, and networks, on the other, is in this paper argued to be too extensive without intermediating nuances. Less focus is given to an in-between perspective configured by business groups or concerns here defined...... as parent corporations with subsidiary companies. It is this perspective of business groups with characteristics between individual firms and open networks that is of interest in this paper. The focus is on manufacturing business groups in which the companies will typically have individual as well as common......Technology represents the primordial force for companies and organizations in securing long-term competitiveness. In the intensive search to access new technology, organizations are more and more looking beyond the borders of the focal firm and becoming involved in various networks with suppliers...

  16. Fashion garment manufacturing - FGM and cyclability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, F. D.; Dos Santos, M. C. L.

    2017-10-01

    This article, derived from an ongoing research, presents the possibilities of reducing the inappropriate disposal of textile residues generated by the fabric cutting sector of the Fashion Garment Manufacturing (FGM). The raw material used is very varied, resulting in a large number of productive processes. FGM produces clothing that has as its main features a short life cycle, a high rate of diversification and differentiation, and small production batches, resulting in few similar parts. The production process is differentiated according to the characteristics of the fabric and the look of the garment. During the production process, at least 10% of textile waste is generated during the cutting process, which is constantly discarded in an inadequate way. The Cyclability theory is researched aiming at the possibility of reduction in the generation of waste and elimination of inappropriate disposal. The case study presents the action research carried out in three small Brazilian companies to study the applicability of the Cyclability theory.

  17. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the

  18. Research on networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangdong; Qi, Guoning; Xie, Qingsheng; Lu, Yujun

    2005-12-01

    Networked manufacturing is a trend of reciprocating pump industry. According to the enterprises' requirement, the architecture of networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry was proposed, which composed of infrastructure layer, system management layer, application service layer and user layer. Its main functions included product data management, ASP service, business management, and customer relationship management, its physics framework was a multi-tier internet-based model; the concept of ASP service integration was put forward and its process model was also established. As a result, a networked manufacturing system aimed at the characteristics of reciprocating pump industry was built. By implementing this system, reciprocating pump industry can obtain a new way to fully utilize their own resources and enhance the capabilities to respond to the global market quickly.

  19. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-10-01

    Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.

  20. Changes in the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of Serrano cheese during manufacture and ripening Evolução das características microbiológicas e físico-químicas durante a elaboração e maturação do queijo Serrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claucia Fernanda Volken de Souza

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora present in six Serrano cheese batches (3 ripened in Summer and 3 in Winter were studied during production and ripening, to microbiologically characterize this cheese, which is traditionally manufactured by farmers in the south of Brazil, using raw cow milk, without the addition of starter cultures. The levels of several microbial groups were enumerated in the milk, curd and different stages of the 60-day long ripening period. Values of some physicochemical parameters, such as pH, titratable acidity, water activity, moisture and NaCl content were also determined. The correlation coefficients between these parameters and the microbial groups throughout ripening were determined. The influence of the season of the year was also studied. Results demonstrated that the microflora and the physicochemical characteristics of Serrano cheese changed significantly during the 60-day ripening period, especially in Summer. Almost all microbial groups reached their highest counts after the 7th day of maturation, steadily decreasing towards the end of the process. Higher microbial counts during the first week of ripening was accompanied by lactic acid production and, as a consequence, a sharp drop in the pH of cheese was observed. Lactic acid bacteria comprised the main microbial group present in Serrano cheese and their counts were similar to the total viable counts at all sampling points. The abundance of lactobacilli during the manufacture and ripening suggests that these microorganisms may play an important role in the production of Serrano cheese. In conclusion, this work shows the importance of ripening time being longer than 30 days to allow for microbiological stabilization of this artisanal product. Also, except for halotolerants and moulds counts, and for moisture content, there were no significant differences observed either for microbial counting or for physicochemical characteristics of the cheese concerning the season

  1. Lean manufacturing in Indian context: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to examine the implementation of Lean Manufacturing system in the Indian industries. Predominant elements of Lean Manufacturing, benefits gained after its implementation and obstacles observed by Indian Industry have been recognized. The results of this survey support the opinion that Lean Manufacturing had potential to improve the organizational performance of Indian industries. Nevertheless, Indian industries are required to be passionate to transform their manufacturing by adopting Lean manufacturing to gain the full benefits. A large numbers of literature papers are available on the better side of Lean manufacturing approach and its benefits gained by manufacturing organizations after implementation. But the adverse impacts of Lean manufacturing are not discussed to a great extent. Some drawbacks of Lean manufacturing are also highlighted in this paper.

  2. Glocalized Production - A Holistic Approach for Future Manufacturing at The LEGO Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    ) and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). RMS is a manufacturing system that is designed for rapid changes. It is based on core characteristics such as modularity, convertibility, customized flexibility, etc.. RM is the use of Additive Manufacturing (AM –commonly referred to as 3D printing) for the production......Global production is changing. Changes in production paradigms, global competition, manufacturing technologies, and new mega trends such as individualization, inflict immense challenges on global manufacturers. A new holistic approach for facing supply chain and production challenges is proposed...... facilities, the establishment of production close to main markets, and the creation of a global network of independent factories and supply chains with local manufacturing. Doing so will potentially increase responsiveness, cut transportation costs, reduce complexity, enable production to demand rather than...

  3. The effectiveness of lean manufacturing audits in measuring operational performance improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taggart, P.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that lean manufacturing audits are an effective way to measure improvements in operational performance was tested using 64 manufacturing sites owned by a FTSE 100 company. Commonly-used lean characteristics were evaluated: policy deployment, standardised work, visual management and housekeeping, quick changeover techniques, total productive maintenance, continuous improvement (kaizen, error proofing, cultural awareness, material control, and levelling (heijunka. Operational performance was assessed employing commonly-used operational performance measures: on-time-delivery, inventory turns, and direct labour utilisation. The findings are that lean manufacturing audits are effective in measuring improvements in operational performance provided that the audit scope and the lean characteristics are aligned up front.

  4. Advance Manufacturing Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) brings together manufacturers, research institutions, suppliers, and universities to investigate manufacturing processes, information, and materials technologies critical to advance domestic manufacturing of clean energy products, and to support energy productivity across the entire manufacturing sector.

  5. Five-Axis Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Nuclear Component Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Wenning, Justin; Terrani, Kurt; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Norfolk, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a three-dimensional metal printing technology which uses high-frequency vibrations to scrub and weld together both similar and dissimilar metal foils. There is no melting in the process and no special atmosphere requirements are needed. Consequently, dissimilar metals can be joined with little to no intermetallic compound formation, and large components can be manufactured. These attributes have the potential to transform manufacturing of nuclear reactor core components such as control elements for the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These components are hybrid structures consisting of an outer cladding layer in contact with the coolant with neutron-absorbing materials inside, such as neutron poisons for reactor control purposes. UAM systems are built into a computer numerical control (CNC) framework to utilize intermittent subtractive processes. These subtractive processes are used to introduce internal features as the component is being built and for net shaping. The CNC framework is also used for controlling the motion of the welding operation. It is demonstrated here that curved components with embedded features can be produced using a five-axis code for the welder for the first time.

  6. Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Iaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method of in-situ process monitoring in the digital light processing (DLP 3D printer. It is based on the continuous measurement of the adhesion force between printing surface and bottom of a liquid resin bath. This method is suitable only for the bottom-up DPL printers. Control system compares the force at the moment of unsticking of printed layer from the bottom of the tank, when it has the largest value in printing cycle, with theoretical value. Implementation of suggested algorithm can make detection of faults during the printing process possible.

  7. Modular mechatronic control of reconfigurable manufacturing system for mass customization manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies are faced with the challenge of unpredictable, high frequency market changes in both local and international markets. There is a need for greater, more effective responsiveness by manufacturers to change their manufacturing...

  8. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  9. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  10. Additive Design and Manufacturing of Jet Engine Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinlian Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The additive design (AD and additive manufacturing (AM of jet engine parts will revolutionize the traditional aerospace industry. The unique characteristics of AM, such as gradient materials and micro-structures, have opened up a new direction in jet engine design and manufacturing. Engineers have been liberated from many constraints associated with traditional methodologies and technologies. One of the most significant features of the AM process is that it can ensure the consistency of parts because it starts from point(s, continues to line(s and layer(s, and ends with the competed part. Collaboration between design and manufacturing is the key to success in fields including aerodynamics, thermodynamics, structural integration, heat transfer, material development, and machining. Engineers must change the way they design a part, as they shift from the traditional method of “subtracting material” to the new method of “adding material” in order to manufacture a part. AD is not the same as designing for AM. A new method and new tools are required to assist with this new way of designing and manufacturing. This paper discusses in detail what is required in AD and AM, and how current problems can be solved.

  11. Taxonomies for Reasoning About Cyber-physical Attacks in IoT-based Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT has transformed many aspects of modern manufacturing, from design to production to quality control. In particular, IoT and digital manufacturing technologies have substantially accelerated product development- cycles and manufacturers can now create products of a complexity and precision not heretofore possible. New threats to supply chain security have arisen from connecting machines to the Internet and introducing complex IoT-based systems controlling manufacturing processes. By attacking these IoT-based manufacturing systems and tampering with digital files, attackers can manipulate physical characteristics of parts and change the dimensions, shapes, or mechanical properties of the parts, which can result in parts that fail in the field. These defects increase manufacturing costs and allow silent problems to occur only under certain loads that can threaten safety and/or lives. To understand potential dangers and protect manufacturing system safety, this paper presents two taxonomies: one for classifying cyber-physical attacks against manufacturing processes and another for quality control measures for counteracting these attacks. We systematically identify and classify possible cyber-physical attacks and connect the attacks with variations in manufacturing processes and quality control measures. Our taxonomies also provide a scheme for linking emerging IoT-based manufacturing system vulnerabilities to possible attacks and quality control measures.

  12. The impact of manufacturing complexity drivers on performance-a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huah Leang, Suh; Mahmood, Wan Hasrulnizzam Wan; Rahman, Muhamad Arfauz A.

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing systems, in pursuit of cost, time and flexibility optimisation are becoming more and more complex, exhibiting a dynamic and nonlinear behaviour. Unpredictability is a distinct characteristic of such behaviour and effects production planning significantly. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the priority level and current achievement of manufacturing performance in Malaysia’s manufacturing industry and the complexity drivers on manufacturing productivity performance. The results showed that Malaysia’s manufacturing industry prioritised product quality and they managed to achieve a good on time delivery performance. However, for other manufacturing performance, there was a difference where the current achievement of manufacturing performances in Malaysia’s manufacturing industry is slightly lower than the priority given to them. The strong correlation of significant value for priority status was observed between efficient production levelling (finished goods) and finish product management while the strong correlation of significant value for current achievement was minimised the number of workstation and factory transportation system. This indicates that complexity drivers have an impact towards manufacturing performance. Consequently, it is necessary to identify complexity drivers to achieve well manufacturing performance.

  13. Safety in a Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopczewski Marian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety systems include the functioning of the institutions of a state, central, and local government, businesses, and social organizations. Research in this discipline should contribute to the development of the theoretical foundations and systems of national and international security and operating systems in the area of technical safety. Technical safety engineering should deal with a design, build, operation, and decommissioning of technical measures in order to minimize the opportunities and the size of their negative impact on the environment, people, and the good of civilization. With this in mind, the main purpose of the research was to evaluate the safety of technical manufacturing company that uses a wide machine park. A plant manufacturing parts and components for automobiles was the audited company.

  14. Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

    2012-01-01

    All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

  15. RESHORING IN MANUFACTURING AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The extent of offshoring and outsourcing recorded in manufacturing and services in the last two decades has gradually eroded the advantage of the global arbitrage of labor costs. Along with other factors, this process began to change the options of international relocation of some companies that initially had adopted such a strategy, generating a reverse trend for returning in the country of origin of manufacturing and other activities. This process, called "reshoring," has recently started to gain some consistency. The trend is most notable in the sphere of production. In terms of business and IT services we cannot yet speak of a tangible start of the reshoring phenomenon, as it does in the sphere of production. Nevertheless we can see a slowdown in the offshoring of services and the emergence of new strategies in the field.

  16. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  17. Cyber Enabled Direct Digital Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    optimization of both clad height and dilution by varying travel speed, laser power and powder flow rate. Song et al. (2011) developed a two-input...Systems and Test Methodologies (F2921), Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Titanium -6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Powder Bed Fusion (F2924... Powder Nozzles</title> <creator>ARL at PSU</creator> 38 <description>Orientation of powder nozzles relative to substrate and laser beam.</description

  18. Exploring Danish Innovative Manufacturing Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores several dimensions of Danish industry’s innovative performance with respect to the paradigm of the fifth generation innovation model that was suggested by Rothwell [Int. Market. Rev. 11 (1994) 7]. These dimensions include a general status of innovativeness in Danish companies...... manufacturing companies demonstrate an innovative performance close to the fourth generation of innovation, which is slightly different than it is perceived publicly....

  19. Robotics and automation in manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    NEI involvement in Heysham II and Torness included contracts for equipment both for the Nuclear Island and for non-nuclear associated plant. Fundamental to the approach to manufacture was the capital investment in plant and facilities to ensure the quality requirements were met with economic production methods and prompt delivery. Some of the production facilities for a selection of varied components are described. Examples of subsequent development of facilities are given to illustrate their current capability. (author)

  20. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  1. QUALITY IN WORLD CLASS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Class Manufacturing (WCM is a contemporary concept that is applied by the world leaders in the business. In this concept, one of the nine pillars is directly related to the quality and the other eight are related to it indirectly. That is why is very important to investigate relations between this concept and concept of model of quality. In the end of this paper are appointed the examples of best practice.

  2. Attracting young talents to manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perini, Stefano; Oliveira, Manuel; Costa, Joao

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, despite the global economic crisis, manufacturing is facing a serious difficulty in the recruitment of the brightest high-skilled human resources. National and international institutions have provided important guidelines to combat this skills mismatch and several innovations h...... with the Experiments, Interaction with real companies, Social networks, Challenges and making real products, Career management and skills orientation, are explained in detail with the support of examples of application...

  3. Robotics In Manufacturing: Army View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F. J.

    1983-05-01

    (Figure 1) This is an outline of my presentation today. The U. S. Army has a dual interest in the use of robots, namely: 1. As a substitute for or an extension of the soldier in the battlefield, and 2. in the factories that make Army materiel, or - as we call it -the the production base. The Production Base can again be divided into three separate segments, i.e., the Army owned and operated facilities or GOG6s, such as Rock Island and Watervliet arsenals, and not to be overlooked, the depot operations. There the Army manufactures gun tubes and other related parts for artillery weapons and repairs and overhauls them. A second category is the Army owned and contractor operated facilities or GOCOs,such as the ammunition plants, the tank plants at Lima, Ohio and Warren, Michigan and the Stratford Engine Plant in Connecticut where gas turbines for helicopter and the Abrams tank are manufactured. The last category covers the industrial base, that is those factories which are not only operated but also owned by the contractor himself also referred to as COCOs. You can see from this description that the Army is supported by a base which produces a diversified line of products. Therefore, the task of technology development and technology insertion is considerably more complex than what one encounters in the average U. S. Manufacturing organization.

  4. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  5. Information technology in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshagiri Rao, G.R.; Arora, U.K.; Mohanty, Deepak; Siva Kumar, G.V.S.M.; Banerjee, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    NFC, Hyderabad is engaged in manufacturing of fuel assemblies required for Indian Nuclear Power Programme. During the manufacturing process, the basic Uranium Fuel and Zirconium alloy cladding tubes travels through several work centers, machines and exposes to various process parameters. For analyzing the fuel performance these parameters are indicators and is a requirement to record such history by both manufacturer and customer. NFC has planned to deploy Information Technology (IT) Systems from MDU/UOC Dissolution to Finished Fuel Assembly dispatch stage by using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID)/Barcode Technologies. IT Systems are connected to electronic weigh balances to acquire material weight data automatically. The IT Systems are also designed to receive data from small Island Systems like Helium leak testing equipments. As a pilot project the system is initially implemented from empty tube Tray preparation stage to Fuel Assembly Packing and dispatch stage, containing about more than 14 processes. The system was built using open source technology platform and was deployed on a cost effective Hardware environment. The present paper describes the development process of the system, Implementation challenges faced and change management. The paper also discusses about fruits of implementation and productivity improvements. (author)

  6. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  8. Current trend in latex dipped products manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The paper present the activities in dipped products manufacturing in Malaysia; the activities carried out by MARGMA - Malaysian Rubber Glove manufacturer; other issues discussed such as labour, pricing environmental issue, product certification in this activity

  9. THE DYNAMICS OF BEST MANUFACTURING PRACTICES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Acur, Nuran; Boer, Harry

    and manufacturing, and improving manufacturing process maintain their status as best practices, while servitization and supply chain management are new best practices. Globalization and responsibility are proposed as promising practices, and technology is suggested as a qualifying practice....

  10. Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, Jason R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis presentation from the WPTO FY14-FY16 Peer Review. The project objective is to provide data and insights to inform investment strategies, policy, and other decisions to promote economic growth and manufacturing.

  11. Recent development of cellular manufacturing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be manufactured in a cell, and the machines, which will comprise that cell, can be ... approaches for the CF problem which is referred to as Production Flow Analysis (PFA). ... programming model of cellular manufacturing system design which ...

  12. Statistical and Computational Techniques in Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, interest in developing statistical and computational techniques for applied manufacturing engineering has been increased. Today, due to the great complexity of manufacturing engineering and the high number of parameters used, conventional approaches are no longer sufficient. Therefore, in manufacturing, statistical and computational techniques have achieved several applications, namely, modelling and simulation manufacturing processes, optimization manufacturing parameters, monitoring and control, computer-aided process planning, etc. The present book aims to provide recent information on statistical and computational techniques applied in manufacturing engineering. The content is suitable for final undergraduate engineering courses or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. This book serves as a useful reference for academics, statistical and computational science researchers, mechanical, manufacturing and industrial engineers, and professionals in industries related to manu...

  13. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal Deep

    cellular manufacturing system in a company is division of ... designed to be assembled from a small number of stan- ..... contingency part process route in addition to the alternate .... istic industrial manufacturing vision considering multiple.

  14. Zambian manufacturing performance in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamfwa, F.K.; Szirmai, A.; Lwamba, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Zambian manufacturing performance since 1964. It presents new estimates of labour productivity growth and total factor productivity growth. After a period of growth and labour productivity improvement till 1974, Zambian manufacturing suffered from increasing

  15. Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, Deven [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Farr, Adrian [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The parabolic trough is the most established CSP technology and carries a long history of design experimentation dating back to the 1970’s. This has led to relatively standardized collector architectures, a maturing global supply chain, and a fairly uniform cost reduction strategy. Abengoa has deployed more than 1,500MWe of CSP troughs across several countries and has built and tested full-scale prototypes of many R&D concepts. The latest trough R&D efforts involved efforts to internalize non-CSP industry experience including a preliminary DFMA principles review done with Boothroyd Dewhurst, a construction literature review by the Arizona State University School of Construction Management, and two more focused manufacturing engineering subcontracts done by Ricardo Inc. and the nonprofit Edison Welding Institute. The first two studies highlighted strong opportunities in lowering part count, standardizing components and fasteners, developing modular designs to support prefabrication and automation, and devising simple, error-proof manual assembly methods. These principles have delivered major new cost savings in otherwise “mature” products in analogous industries like automotive, truck trailer manufacture, metal building fabrication, and shipbuilding. For this reason, they were core in the design development of the SpaceTube® collector, and arguably key to its early successes. The latter two studies were applied specifically to the first-generation SpaceTube® design and were important in setting the direction of the present SolarMat project. These studies developed a methodology to analyze the costs of manufacture and assembly, and identify new tooling concepts for more efficient manufacture. Among the main opportunities identified in these studies were the automated mirror arm manufacturing concept and the need for a less infrastructure-intensive assembly line, both of which now form central pillars of the SolarMat project strategy. These new designs will be

  16. Admittance of MIS-Structures Based on HgCdTe with a Double-Layer CdTe/Al2O3 Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadukh, S. M.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Sidorov, G. Yu.; Varavin, V. S.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    Admittance of MIS structures based on n( p)- Hg1-xCdxTe (at x from 0.22 to 0.40) with SiO2/Si3N4, Al2O3, and CdTe/Al2O3 insulators is studied experimentally at 77 K. Growth of an intermediate CdTe layer during epitaxy results in the almost complete disappearance of the hysteresis of electrophysical characteristics of MIS structures based on graded-gap n-HgCdTe for a small range of the voltage variation. For a wide range of the voltage variation, the hysteresis of the capacitance-voltage characteristics appears for MIS structures based on n-HgCdTe with the CdTe/Al2O3 insulator. However, the hysteresis mechanism differs from that in case of a single-layer Al2O3 insulator. For MIS structures based on p-HgCdTe, introduction of an additional CdTe layer does not lead to a significant decrease of the hysteresis phenomena, which may be due to the degradation of the interface properties when mercury leaves the film as a result of low-temperature annealing changing the conductivity type of the semiconductor.

  17. Manufacture of large monoblock LP rotor forgings and their quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akira; Kinoshita, Shushi; Kohno, Masayoshi; Miyakawa, Mutsuhiro; Kikuchi, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing and the quality of large monoblock low pressure rotors forged from 360 ton and 420 ton ingots. To obtain good and homogenous mechanical properties throughout a rotor, a computer was used to determine the heat treatment conditions. It was found that the technique was very effective at predicting mechanical properties of a monoblock rotor. Mechanical properties including the fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation characteristics of monoblock rotor forgings proved satisfactory. (author)

  18. Productivity and Openness: Firm Level Evidence in Brazilian Manufacturing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjun Liu; Shoji Nishijima

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the productivity of Brazilian manufacturing industries, particularly addressing the influence of liberalization on productivity. We first calculate total factor productivity (TFP) by estimating the stochastic frontier production function and the inefficiency determination equation simultaneously. Then TFP growth rates are regressed on openness-related variables and other firm characteristics. The results show that firm openness to the world is a crucial determinant of ...

  19. An exploratory study of close supplier-manufacturer relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Keith; Lemke, Fred; Szwejczewski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Close relationships with selected suppliers can enable manufacturers to reduce costs, improve quality and enhance new product development. Although the advantages of close co-operation are widely acknowledged in the literature, the specific attributes of such relationships are not well understood. To address this gap, 39 managers responsible for purchasing were interviewed using a technique from psychology, which is particularly effective at uncovering the characteristics of...

  20. Manufacture of conical springs with elastic medium technology improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurguzov, S. A.; Mikhailova, U. V.; Kalugina, O. B.

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the manufacturing technology improvement by using an elastic medium in the stamping tool forming space to improve the conical springs performance characteristics and reduce the costs of their production. Estimation technique of disk spring operational properties is developed by mathematical modeling of the compression process during the operation of a spring. A technique for optimizing the design parameters of a conical spring is developed, which ensures a minimum voltage value when operated in the edge of the spring opening.

  1. Power electronic modules design and manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, William W

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionSelection ProcedureMaterialsInsulating Substrate and MetallizationBase PlateBonding MaterialPower Interconnection and TerminalEncapsulantPlastic Case and Cover Manufacturing of Power IGBT ModulesManufacturing Process Process Control/Long-Term ReliabilityManufacturing FacilitiesManufacturing Flow Charts DesignThermal ManagementCircuit PartitioningDesign Guidelines and ConsiderationsThermal Results of Different Samples

  2. Manufacturing strategies for time based competitive advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yong; Ma, Shihua; Zhou, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the current manufacturing strategies and practices of bus manufacturers in China, and to propose a framework of manufacturing strategies for time-based competitive advantages.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual research framework is devised from a review of the literature, and case studies are used to investigate the manufacturing strategies and practices in place in the case companies. Data is collected through semi-stru...

  3. Design and additive manufacture for flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Andrew J; Edmondson, Steve; Christie, Steven D R; Goodridge, Ruth D; Bibb, Richard J; Thurstans, Matthew

    2013-12-07

    We review the use of additive manufacturing (AM) as a novel manufacturing technique for the production of milli-scale reactor systems. Five well-developed additive manufacturing techniques: stereolithography (SL), multi-jet modelling (MJM), selective laser melting (SLM), laser sintering (LS) and fused deposition modelling (FDM) were used to manufacture a number of miniaturised reactors which were tested using a range of organic and inorganic reactions.

  4. Registered manufacturers of renewable energy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Registered manufacturers of renewable energy devices in India are listed. The list is arranged under the headings : solar water heating system, solar cooker, solar still and water pumping wind mill. In all 38 manufacturers are listed. The list gives the postal address, name of the contact person and phone number of each manufacturer. (M.G.B.)

  5. Handbook of manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Springer Reference Work Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology provides overviews and in-depth and authoritative analyses on the basic and cutting-edge manufacturing technologies and sciences across a broad spectrum of areas. These topics are commonly encountered in industries as well as in academia. Manufacturing engineering curricula across universities are now essential topics covered in major universities worldwide.

  6. 75 FR 71417 - Manufacturing Council Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council Membership AGENCY... marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, job creation in the manufacturing sector, or the... their travel, living and other personal expenses. Meetings are held regularly and not less than annually...

  7. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt determination...

  8. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet

    1988-01-01

    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without

  9. The manufacturing role in fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    Manufacturing companies have been involved in the CANDU fuel industry for more than 40 years. Early manufacturing contributions were the development of materials and processes used to fabricate the CANDU fuel bundle. As CANDU reactors were commissioned, the manufacturing contribution has been to produce economical, high quality fuel for the CANDU market. (author)

  10. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote

  11. Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness

  12. Method for automatically evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    A method for automatically evaluating a manufacturing technique comprises the steps of: receiving from a user manufacturing process step parameters characterizing a manufacturing process; accepting from the user a selection for an analysis of a particular lean manufacturing technique; automatically compiling process step data for each process step in the manufacturing process; automatically calculating process metrics from a summation of the compiled process step data for each process step; and, presenting the automatically calculated process metrics to the user. A method for evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique can comprise the steps of: collecting manufacturing process step characterization parameters; selecting a lean manufacturing technique for analysis; communicating the selected lean manufacturing technique and the manufacturing process step characterization parameters to an automatic manufacturing technique evaluation engine having a mathematical model for generating manufacturing technique evaluation data; and, using the lean manufacturing technique evaluation data to determine whether to transition from an existing manufacturing technique to the selected lean manufacturing technique.

  13. 77 FR 16158 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    .... FDA-1997-N-0518] (formerly 97N-0300) Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing... labeling control provisions of the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for human and... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part...

  14. Japanese manufacturing: strategy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolwijn, Piet; Brinkman, S.

    1987-01-01

    A striking characteristic of Japanese factories is the extent of process control: from both the technical and the social viewpoint the labour and production system is controlled down to the very last detail. The characteristics of management and organization which underlie this are closely

  15. A method for manufacturing monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Jacqueline; Malmejac, Yves; Schaub, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for manufacturing monocrystals, substantially free of disorder, of a metal showing an allotropic transformation at a temperature lower than its melting point. Monocrystals of the raw metal having undergone a uni-directional solidification are heated to a temperature between the allotropic transformation point and the metal melting point; the monocrystals are maintained in the vicinity of that temperature for a given period of time; they are cooled down to a temperature lower than the allotropic transformation point, then they are annealed and cooled down to room temperature. Such monocrystals are used in neutron monochromators [fr

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Porous Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirka, Michael M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Currently, helium is obtained through separation from natural gas. The current industrial process incurs significant costs and requires large energy resources to successfully achieve separation. Through utilizing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies it is possible to reduce both of these burdens when refining helium gas. The ability to engineer porosity levels within Inconel 718 discs for controlled separation of helium from natural gas was investigated. Arrays of samples fabricated using the electron beam melting process were analyzed for their relative porosity density. Based upon the measurements, full scale discs were fabricated, and subsequently tested to determine their effectiveness in separating helium from liquefied natural gas.

  17. Contemporary design and manufacturing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Taiyong; Zuo, Dunwen

    2013-01-01

    The special topic volume communicates the latest progress and research results of new theory, new technology, method, equipment and so on in Engineering Technology, and to grasp the updated technological and research trends in internationally. The major topics covered by the special volumes include Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies, Control, Automation and Detection Systems, Advanced Design Technology, Optimization and Modeling. In 80 invited and peer-reviewed papers, mechanical and other engineers describe their recent and current research and results in advanced materials and

  18. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  19. Cloud manufacturing: from concept to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lei; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Chun; Chai, Xudong; Zhao, Xinpei

    2015-02-01

    The concept of cloud manufacturing is emerging as a new promising manufacturing paradigm, as well as a business model, which is reshaping the service-oriented, highly collaborative, knowledge-intensive and eco-efficient manufacturing industry. However, the basic concepts about cloud manufacturing are still in discussion. Both academia and industry will need to have a commonly accepted definition of cloud manufacturing, as well as further guidance and recommendations on how to develop and implement cloud manufacturing. In this paper, we review some of the research work and clarify some fundamental terminologies in this field. Further, we developed a cloud manufacturing systems which may serve as an application example. From a systematic and practical perspective, the key requirements of cloud manufacturing platforms are investigated, and then we propose a cloud manufacturing platform prototype, MfgCloud. Finally, a public cloud manufacturing system for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) is presented. This paper presents a new perspective for cloud manufacturing, as well as a cloud-to-ground solution. The integrated solution proposed in this paper, including the terminology, MfgCloud, and applications, can push forward this new paradigm from concept to practice.

  20. Challenges in teaching modern manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaile, Gracious; Wang, Jyhwen; Gau, Jenn-Terng

    2015-07-01

    Teaching of manufacturing courses for undergraduate engineering students has become a challenge due to industrial globalisation coupled with influx of new innovations, technologies, customer-driven products. This paper discusses development of a modern manufacturing course taught concurrently in three institutions where students collaborate in executing various projects. Lectures are developed to contain materials featuring advanced manufacturing technologies, R&D trends in manufacturing. Pre- and post-surveys were conducted by an external evaluator to assess the impact of the course on increase in student's knowledge of manufacturing; increase students' preparedness and confidence in effective communication and; increase students' interest in pursuing additional academic studies and/or a career path in manufacturing and high technology. The surveyed data indicate that the students perceived significant gains in manufacturing knowledge and preparedness in effective communication. The study also shows that implementation of a collaborative course within multiple institutions requires a robust and collective communication platform.

  1. Membrane manufacture for peptide separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli; Salazar Moya, Octavio Ruben; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes are key tools in biomedical applications such as hemodialysis, protein separations, in the food industry, and drinking water supply from seawater. Despite of the success in different separation processes, membrane manufacture itself is at risk, since the most used solvents are about to be banned in many countries due to environmental and health issues. We propose for the first time the preparation of polyethersulfone membranes based on dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP). We obtained a series of membranes tailored for separation of solutes with molecular weight of 30, 5, 1.3, and 1.25 kg mol-1 with respective water permeances of 140, 65, 30 and 20 Lm-2h-1bar-1. We demonstrate their superior efficiency in the separation of complex mixtures of peptides with molecular weights in the range of 800 to 3500 gmol-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation leading to the pore formation in the membranes were investigated. The rheology of the solutions and the morphology of the prepared membranes were examed and compared to those of polyethersulfone in organic solvents currently used for membrane manufacture.

  2. Manufacturers' support to plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuschel, D.

    1996-01-01

    For more than 30 years now, safety and availablity of German nuclear power plants has been a common interest of the plant owners and the manufacturing company KWU. This longstanding collaboration for a common goal has created a safety culture unprecented in other countries, and a partnership worth to be continued. Due to the nuclear power phaseout policy, the priority today is on maintaining and safeguarding economically efficient operation of existing power plants. KWU have been adapting their business strategy to the change in the market, and are prepared to stick to this line. Thus KWU and plant operators see to it that the acquired competence in nuclear power plant technology will remain to be concentrated in the hands of the manufacturers. Continuing the partnership in this field, and encouraged by the placement of orders for the future EPR and the SWR 1000, KWU and plant operators will be in the position to offer a sound option for future decisions about construction of new nuclear power plants in Germany. (orig.) [de

  3. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  4. Mechanics of additively manufactured biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties. The current special issue is dedicated to understanding the mechanical behavior of AM biomaterials. Although various types of AM biomaterials are represented in the special issue, the primary focus is on AM porous metallic biomaterials. As a prelude to this special issue, this editorial reviews some of the latest findings in the mechanical behavior of AM porous metallic biomaterials so as to describe the current state-of-the-art and set the stage for the other studies appearing in the issue. Some areas that are important for future research are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fugitive emissions from nanopowder manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompetter, W. J.; Ancelet, T.; Davy, P. K.; Kennedy, J.

    2016-01-01

    In response to health and safety questions and concerns regarding particulate matter emissions from equipment used for synthesizing NiFe and TiO 2 nanopowders, a study was undertaken to assess their impact on the air quality inside and outside a laboratory where the manufacturing equipment is operated. Elemental concentrations determined by ion beam analysis (IBA) of air particulate matter (PM) samples collected hourly with a Streaker TM sampler were used to identify possible sources and estimate contributions from nanopowder production and other sources. The fugitive nanopowder emissions were the highest at the indoor sampling location when powders were being manufactured. Average fugitive emissions of 210 ng m −3 (1-h average) (maximum 2163 ng m −3 1-h average) represented 2 % (maximum 20 %) of the average PM collected (9359 ng m −3 1-h average). The measured NiFe alloy or TiO 2 PM concentrations were much smaller than the 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) workplace exposure standards (WES) for these materials (≥1,000,000 ng m −3 ). Most PM was found to be from infiltrated outdoor ambient sources. This suggests that nanopowder production in the laboratory is not likely to have adverse health effects on individuals using the equipment, although further improvements can be made to further limit exposure.Graphical abstract

  6. IMPROVED COMMUNICATION BETWEEN MANUFACTURING ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stopforth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Communication between manufacturing robots and autonomous vehicles in the industrial environment is important, sinceinstructions and information are crucial for communication between the control station and the robot station. Information is required between different manufacturing robots for optimal performance and dedication to industrial tasks within the environment. Failures in communication could cause robots to be a safety hazard or to perform tasks that are not required. This article shows how communication was improved with the use of the Robotics Communication Protocol (RCP and an extension of this protocol.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kommunikasie tussen vervaardigingsrobotte en outonome voertuie in ‘n industriële omgewing is belangrik, aangesien opdragte en inligting krities is vir kommunikasie tussen die beheerstasie en die robotstasie. Inligting word benodig tussen verskillende vervaardigingsrobotte vir optimale werkverrigting en toewyding aan take in die omgewing. Mislukte kommunikasie mag veroorsaak dat robotte ‘n veiligheidsrisiko word of veroorsaak dat onnodige take verrig word. Hierdie artikel toon hoe kommunikasie verbeter is deur die gebruik van die “robotika-kommunikasie-protokol” en ‘n uitbreiding van die protokol.

  7. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Gregory H.; Chu, Lauren; Zhou, Yu Meng; Cohen, Brooklin; Panossian, Lara; Green, Jacklyn R.; Moreland, Scott; Backes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The planetary science decadal survey for 2013-2022 (Vision and Voyages, NRC 2011) has promoted mission concepts for sample acquisition from small solar system bodies. Numerous comet-sampling tools are in development to meet this standard. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants (MPASS) materials provide an opportunity to simulate variable features at ambient temperatures and pressures to appropriately test potential sample acquisition systems for comets, asteroids, and planetary surfaces. The original "flavor" of MPASS materials is known as Manufactured Porous Ambient Comet Simulants (MPACS), which was developed in parallel with the development of the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review). The current suite of MPACS materials was developed through research of the physical and mechanical properties of comets from past comet missions results and modeling efforts, coordination with the science community at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and testing of a wide range of materials and formulations. These simulants were required to represent the physical and mechanical properties of cometary nuclei, based on the current understanding of the science community. Working with cryogenic simulants can be tedious and costly; thus MPACS is a suite of ambient simulants that yields a brittle failure mode similar to that of cryogenic icy materials. Here we describe our suite of comet simulants known as MPACS that will be used to test and validate the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review).

  8. Membrane manufacture for peptide separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2016-06-07

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes are key tools in biomedical applications such as hemodialysis, protein separations, in the food industry, and drinking water supply from seawater. Despite of the success in different separation processes, membrane manufacture itself is at risk, since the most used solvents are about to be banned in many countries due to environmental and health issues. We propose for the first time the preparation of polyethersulfone membranes based on dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP). We obtained a series of membranes tailored for separation of solutes with molecular weight of 30, 5, 1.3, and 1.25 kg mol-1 with respective water permeances of 140, 65, 30 and 20 Lm-2h-1bar-1. We demonstrate their superior efficiency in the separation of complex mixtures of peptides with molecular weights in the range of 800 to 3500 gmol-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation leading to the pore formation in the membranes were investigated. The rheology of the solutions and the morphology of the prepared membranes were examed and compared to those of polyethersulfone in organic solvents currently used for membrane manufacture.

  9. Fugitive emissions from nanopowder manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompetter, W. J., E-mail: b.trompetter@gns.cri.nz; Ancelet, T.; Davy, P. K.; Kennedy, J. [GNS Science (New Zealand)

    2016-07-15

    In response to health and safety questions and concerns regarding particulate matter emissions from equipment used for synthesizing NiFe and TiO{sub 2} nanopowders, a study was undertaken to assess their impact on the air quality inside and outside a laboratory where the manufacturing equipment is operated. Elemental concentrations determined by ion beam analysis (IBA) of air particulate matter (PM) samples collected hourly with a Streaker{sup TM} sampler were used to identify possible sources and estimate contributions from nanopowder production and other sources. The fugitive nanopowder emissions were the highest at the indoor sampling location when powders were being manufactured. Average fugitive emissions of 210 ng m{sup −3} (1-h average) (maximum 2163 ng m{sup −3} 1-h average) represented 2 % (maximum 20 %) of the average PM collected (9359 ng m{sup −3} 1-h average). The measured NiFe alloy or TiO{sub 2} PM concentrations were much smaller than the 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) workplace exposure standards (WES) for these materials (≥1,000,000 ng m{sup −3}). Most PM was found to be from infiltrated outdoor ambient sources. This suggests that nanopowder production in the laboratory is not likely to have adverse health effects on individuals using the equipment, although further improvements can be made to further limit exposure.Graphical abstract.

  10. Make-to-order manufacturing - new approach to management of manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniuk, A.; Waszkowski, R.

    2016-08-01

    Strategic management must now be closely linked to the management at the operational level, because only in such a situation the company can be flexible and can quickly respond to emerging opportunities and pursue ever-changing strategic objectives. In these conditions industrial enterprises seek constantly new methods, tools and solutions which help to achieve competitive advantage. They are beginning to pay more attention to cost management, economic effectiveness and performance of business processes. In the article characteristics of make-to-order systems (MTO) and needs associated with managing such systems is identified based on the literature analysis. The main aim of this article is to present the results of research related to the development of a new solution dedicated to small and medium enterprises manufacture products solely on the basis of production orders (make-to- order systems). A set of indicators to enable continuous monitoring and control of key strategic areas this type of company is proposed. A presented solution includes the main assumptions of the following concepts: the Performance Management (PM), the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and a combination of strategic management with the implementation of operational management. The main benefits of proposed solution are to increase effectiveness of MTO manufacturing company management.

  11. Process monitoring for intelligent manufacturing processes - Methodology and application to Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas

    Process monitoring provides important information on the product, process and manufacturing system during part manufacturing. Such information can be used for process optimization and detection of undesired processing conditions to initiate timely actions for avoidance of defects, thereby improving...... quality assurance. This thesis is aimed at a systematic development of process monitoring solutions, constituting a key element of intelligent manufacturing systems towards zero defect manufacturing. A methodological approach of general applicability is presented in this concern.The approach consists...... of six consecutive steps for identification of product Vital Quality Characteristics (VQCs) and Key Process Variables (KPVs), selection and characterization of sensors, optimization of sensors placement, validation of the monitoring solutions, definition of the reference manufacturing performance...

  12. Metrological assurance and traceability for Industry 4.0 and additive manufacturing in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliarov, Volodymyr; Neyezhmakov, Pavel; Prokopov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The national measurement standards from the point of view of traceability of the results of measurement in additive manufacturing in Ukraine are considered in the paper. The metrological characteristics of the national primary measurement standards in the field of geometric, temperature, optical-physical and time-frequency measurements, which took part in international comparisons within COOMET projects, are presented. The accurate geometric, temperature, optical-physical and time-frequency measurements are the key ones in controlling the quality of additive manufacturing. The use of advanced CAD/CAE/CAM systems allows to simulate the process of additive manufacturing at each stage. In accordance with the areas of the technology of additive manufacturing, the ways of improving the national measurement standards of Ukraine for the growing needs of metrology of additive manufacturing are considered.

  13. Influence of brand differential on motivation to conform and manufacturer versus store brand purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran, E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationships and characteristics that influence consumers’ purchase decision between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings have emerged as an interesting and practical area of research. From a management perspective, understanding the process by which consumers make purchase choices between these brand offerings would lead to both theoretical and practical applications. Therefore, this study attempts to enhance understanding about the factors that influence consumers’ manufacturer versus store brand purchase decisions. A conceptual model is developed to integrate the manner by which a consumer’s motivation to conform to the perceived social norm of purchasing manufacturer brand products influences this purchase decision. The model is tested using survey data. Findings indicate the importance of the intensity of perceived differences between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings in affecting consumers’ purchase intention of these products. The relationship is also mediated by consumers’ motivation to conform to manufacturer brand products in their purchase decision.

  14. Research on manufacturing service behavior modeling based on block chain theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Guangli; Liu, Ming; Yu, Shuqin; Liu, Yali; Zhang, Xu

    2018-04-01

    According to the attribute characteristics of processing craft, the manufacturing service behavior is divided into service attribute, basic attribute, process attribute, resource attribute. The attribute information model of manufacturing service is established. The manufacturing service behavior information is successfully divided into public and private domain. Additionally, the block chain technology is introduced, and the information model of manufacturing service based on block chain principle is established, which solves the problem of sharing and secreting information of processing behavior, and ensures that data is not tampered with. Based on the key pairing verification relationship, the selective publishing mechanism for manufacturing information is established, achieving the traceability of product data, guarantying the quality of processing quality.

  15. Inspection of additive manufactured parts using laser ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, D.; Bescond, C.; Lord, M.; Cao, X.; Wanjara, P.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing is a novel technology of high importance for global sustainability of resources. As additive manufacturing involves typically layer-by-layer fusion of the feedstock (wire or powder), an important characteristic of the fabricated metallic structural parts, such as those used in aero-engines, is the performance, which is highly related to the presence of defects, such as cracks, lack of fusion or bonding between layers, and porosity. For this purpose, laser ultrasonics is very attractive due to its non-contact nature and is especially suited for the analysis of parts of complex geometries. In addition, the technique is well adapted to online implementation and real-time measurement during the manufacturing process. The inspection can be performed from either the top deposited layer or the underside of the substrate and the defects can be visualized using laser ultrasonics combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). In this work, a variety of results obtained off-line on INCONEL® 718 and Ti-6Al-4V coupons that were manufactured using laser powder, laser wire, or electron beam wire deposition are reported and most defects detected were further confirmed by X-ray micro-computed tomography.

  16. Use of residual wood in the cement manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, R.

    2005-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of wood residuals in the cement manufacturing process. An outline of the cement manufacturing process was presented. Raw materials are combined in exact proportions to create a chemically correct mix, which is then pulverized in a mill. The mix is then burned in a kiln. The end product is cooled to form the pellet sized material known as clinker, which is then milled to form cement. The combustion and destruction characteristics of a cement kiln were presented. Modern cement kilns require approximately 3.2 Gj of energy to produce one tonne of cement. It was noted that wood residuals do not contain halogens, sulfur or other materials detrimental to the cement manufacturing process. Possible injection points for kilns were presented. Various studies have shown that wood residuals can be safely used as a fuel in the manufacture of cement. Environmental benefits derived from using wood included the complete destruction of organic portions, and the fact that residual ash becomes an indistinguishable part of the final product. It was concluded that wood residual materials are a satisfactory alternative fuel for the cement industry. tabs., figs

  17. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  18. Methods of Manufacture of Swords in Medieval Europe: Illustrated by the Metallography of some Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan R.

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Dark Ages in Europe, the manufacture of the swords known as «pattern-welded», flourished. This type first appeared in the third century and disappeared by the tenth century A. D. Their characteristic appearance has drawn attention to them and numerous papers have been published describing their manufacture.

    No disponible. Consultar resumen en inglés.

  19. Models for formation and choice of variants for organizing digital electronics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Lapkova, M. Y.; Polyakov, S. L.; Frolova, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The directions of organizing digital electronics manufacturing are considered by the example of surface mount technology. The basic equipment choice has to include not only individual characteristics, but also mutual influence of individual machines and the results of design for manufacturing. Application of special cases of the Utility function which are complicated in the general representation of polynomial functions are proposed for estimation of product quality in a staged automation.

  20. Implementation of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems, the Case of The LEGO Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ying; Bilberg, Arne; Hadar, Ronen

    of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS). A literature review is made to describe the advantages and core characteristics of RMS. Based on the theory, a conceptual model is developed to analyze where RMS would be most suitable and have most benefits in The LEGO Group. Finally, the conclusion is drawn based...... on the analysis through the model. Keywords: Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems, Conceptual Model of RMS, Production of The LEGO Group...

  1. Using self-organizing maps adaptive resonance theory (CARTMAP) for manufacturing feature recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jason S.; Dagli, Cihan H.

    1993-10-01

    The invariant image preprocessing of moment invariants generates an invariant representation of object features which are insensitive to position, orientation, size, illusion, and contrast change. In this study ARTMAP is used for 3-D object recognition of manufacturing parts through these invariant characteristics. The analog of moment invariants created through the image preprocessing is interpreted by a binary code which is used to predict the manufacturing part through ARTMAP.

  2. CERCA's fuel elements instrumentation manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbonnier, G.; Jarousse, C.; Pin, T.; Febvre, M.; Colomb, P.

    2005-01-01

    When research and test reactors wish to further understand the Fuel Elements behavior when operating as well as mastering their irradiation conditions, operators carry out neutron and thermo hydraulic analysis. For thermal calculation, the codes used have to be preliminary validated, at least in the range of the reactor safety operational limits. When some further investigations are requested either by safety authorities or for its own reactor needs, instrumented tools are the ultimate solution for providing representative measurements. Such measurements can be conducted for validating thermal calculation codes, at nominal operating condition as well as during transients ones, or for providing numerous and useful data in the frame of a new products qualification program. CERCA, with many years of experience for implanting thermocouples in various products design, states in this poster his manufacturing background on instrumented elements, plates or targets. (author)

  3. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  4. Additive manufacturing with polypropylene microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Jodie N; Dargaville, Tim R; Dalton, Paul D

    2017-08-01

    The additive manufacturing of small diameter polypropylene microfibers is described, achieved using a technique termed melt electrospinning writing. Sequential fiber layering, which is important for accurate three-dimensional fabrication, was achieved with the smallest fiber diameter of 16.4±0.2μm obtained. The collector speed, temperature and melt flow rate to the nozzle were optimized for quality and minimal fiber pulsing. Of particular importance to the success of this method is appropriate heating of the collector plate, so that the electrostatically drawn filament adheres during the direct-writing process. By demonstrating the direct-writing of polypropylene, new applications exploiting the favorable mechanical, stability and biocompatible properties of this polymer are envisaged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Manufacturing real wages in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López V Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the recent evolution and determinants of real wages in Mexico?s manufacturing sector, using theories based on the assumption of imperfect competition both in the product and in the labour markets, especially wage-bargain theory, insider-outsider and mark-up models. We show evidence that the Mexican labour market does not behave as a traditional competitive market. The proposed explanation for this fact is that some workers benefit from advantages when compared with others, so that they can get a greater share of the proceedings of the productive process. Also, we find that changes in the degree of competition in the market for output influence the behaviour of real wages.

  6. USCAR LEP ESST Advanced Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, L.J.

    2000-09-25

    The objective of this task was to provide processing information data summaries on powder metallurgy (PM) alloys that meet the partner requirements for the production of low mass, highly accurate, near-net-shape powertrain components. This required modification to existing ISO machinability test procedures and development of a new drilling test procedure. These summaries could then be presented in a web page format. When combined with information generated from the USCAR CRADA this would allow chemical, metallurgical, and machining data on PM alloys to be available to all engineering and manufacturing personnel that have access to in-house networks. The web page format also allows for the additions of other wrought materials, making this a valuable tool to the technical staffs.

  7. Development of Integration in Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Trostmann, Erik

    1996-01-01

    significance to all manufacturing industries.International standardization based on the product model definition standard STEP (ISO10303) is playing a key role in promoting a modern approach to Product Data Technology. The initial release of STEP, consisting of twelve essential parts, has recently been...... must be extended to cope with descriptions of functional behavior of products.In the robotics area, Computer Aided Robotics (CAR) systems for design, off-line programming, and simulation are currently increasing their model features with new topics, such as multi-body dynamics, realistic motion......Current international developments in the broad field of Product Data Technology are advancing rapidly and are leading up to new levels of technology in product model definition, product model communications, enterprise integration and cooperation. These developments will be of strategic...

  8. Manufacturing process and electrode properties of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Longfei; Chen, Hualing; Zhu, Zicai; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper primarily focuses on the manufacturing process of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC). First, according to the special properties of Pd, many experiments were done to determine several specific procedures, including the addition of a reducing agent and the time consumed. Subsequently, the effects of the core manufacturing steps on the electrode morphology were revealed by scanning electron microscopy studies of 22 IPMC samples treated with different combinations of manufacturing steps. Finally, the effects of electrode characteristics on the electromechanical properties, including the sheet resistivity, the elastic modulus and the electro-active performance, of IPMCs were evaluated experimentally and analyzed according to the electrode morphology. (paper)

  9. The logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The paper describe the logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant, located in Juzbado in the province of Salamanca. In the the article are described the principal elements in the supply chain and the difficulties of its management derived from the short period for the manufacturing of the nuclear fuel. It's also given a view in relation to the transportation by land sea of the nuclear components, uranium oxide powder and the manufactured fuel. The characteristics of the supply chain are determined by the plant production forecast, by the origin and high technology of the raw materials and by nuclear fuel delivery site locations. (Author)

  10. Manufacturing Methods and Technology for Digital Fault Isolation for Printed Circuit Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-25

    composite tester rank. 2-12 12-485 Information Media Department Proof Ink Art CRC Log No. 99216/pi Standard MODUTLAR Ke Nline NOTE: LEFT HAND) PAGE CNLY...support, were given prime consideration. In addition, size of the manufacturer, ATE market volume of manufacturer, and number of D/PCB testers sold of the...Hewlett Characteristic Gen Rad Automation Packard Teradyne 1. Size of Manufacturer >100M 80M >100M >100M 4 (4) 3 (3) 4 (4) 4 (4) 2. ATE Market Value of

  11. Spatial Bimetallic Castings Manufactured from Iron Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a conception for manufacturing method of skeleton castings with composite features was shown. Main application of such castings are the working organs of machines subjected to intensive abrasive and erosive wear. Skeleton geometry was based on three-dimensional cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors according to Cartesian co-ordinate system. Dimension of an elementary cell was equal to 10 mm and diameter of single connector was equal to 5 mm. For bimetallic castings preparation two Fe based alloys were used: L25SHMN cast steel for skeleton substrate and ZlCr15NiMo cast iron for working part of the casting. In presented work obtained structure was analyzed with indication of characteristic regions. Authors described phenomena occurring at the alloys interface and phases in transition zone. A thesis was formulated concerning localization of transition zone at the cast iron matrix – cast steel reinforcement interface. Direction of further studies were indicated.

  12. Cyber physical systems role in manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, A. R.; Gupta, Ragini; Nabulsi, Ahmad Al

    2018-04-01

    Empowered by the recent development in single System-on-Chip, Internet of Things, and cloud computing technologies, cyber physical systems are evolving as a major controller during and post the manufacturing products process. In additional to their real physical space, cyber products nowadays have a virtual space. A product virtual space is a digital twin that is attached to it to enable manufacturers and their clients to better manufacture, monitor, maintain and operate it throughout its life time cycles, i.e. from the product manufacturing date, through operation and to the end of its lifespan. Each product is equipped with a tiny microcontroller that has a unique identification number, access code and WiFi conductivity to access it anytime and anywhere during its life cycle. This paper presents the cyber physical systems architecture and its role in manufacturing. Also, it highlights the role of Internet of Things and cloud computing in industrial manufacturing and factory automation.

  13. Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-02-01

    Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.

  14. Manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Chang Kyu; Hwang, Bong Ha; Lee, Jong Wha; Kim, Jong Kyun; Yeum, Ki Eon; Park, Myung Ku; Hong, Soon Eon; Choi, Ho Young; An, Dae Kyu; An, Choon; Park, In Won; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Won Jae; Yoon, Ki Byung; Kim, Heung Woo; Lee, In Bae; Yeom, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Chul Ku; Sin, Keon Ju; Oh, Wan Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Yang, Song Yeul; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Byung Kwon; Chang, Kyung Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    This report on the manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment contains working contents, scope and contents of request working to the machine shop, also records the principal production design, manufacture contents and a relevant working drawing. The working content and scope of the machine shop is to support the successful and convenient performance of the R and D by manufacture and maintenance of all sorts of laboratory equipment. 11 tabs., 3 figs. (Author) .new.

  15. Manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Chang Kyu; Hwang, Bong Ha; Lee, Jong Wha; Kim, Jong Kyun; Yeum, Ki Eon; Park, Myung Ku; Hong, Soon Eon; Choi, Ho Young; An, Dae Kyu; An, Choon; Park, In Won; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Won Jae; Yoon, Ki Byung; Kim, Heung Woo; Lee, In Bae; Yeom, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Chul Ku; Sin, Keon Ju; Oh, Wan Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Yang, Song Yeul; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Byung Kwon; Chang, Kyung Duk

    1993-12-01

    This report on the manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment contains working contents, scope and contents of request working to the machine shop, also records the principal production design, manufacture contents and a relevant working drawing. The working content and scope of the machine shop is to support the successful and convenient performance of the R and D by manufacture and maintenance of all sorts of laboratory equipment. 11 tabs., 3 figs. (Author) .new

  16. Policy Reform Impact on Food Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Celikkol, Pinar; Dunn, James W.; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of agricultural policies and their reform is of major concern when addressing issues of growth, innovation and consolidation in the food manufacturing sector. Growth is one of the forces fueling the globalization of food manufacturing activities. Market- and policy-driven forces present a myriad of opportunities to influence growth and reorientation of patterns at the nexus where food manufacturing links the food system. The productivity and international competitiveness of the foo...

  17. Manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Kyun; Hwang, Chang Kyu; Hwang, Bong Ha; Lee, Jong Wha; Yeom, Ki Eon; Park, Myung Ku; Hong, Soon Hyeon; Choi, Ho Young; An, Dae Kyu; An, Choon; Park, In Won; Kim, Kyeong Sik; Lee, In Bae; Yeom, Jeong Heon; Lee, Chul Ku; Sin, Keon Ju; Oh, Wan Ho; Choi, Byung Kwon; Chang, Kyeong Duk; Lee, Young Soon

    1995-12-01

    This report on the manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment contains working contents, scope and contents of a request working to the Machine Shop, also records the principal production design, manufacture contents and a relevant working drawing. The working content and scope of the Machine Shop is to support the successful and convenient performance of the Research and development by manufacture and maintenance of all sorts of laboratory equipment. 12 tabs., 5 figs. (Author) .new

  18. Exploring sustainable manufacturing principles and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Alayón, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The manufacturing industry remains a critical force in the quest for global sustainability. An increasing number of companies are modifying their operations in favor of more sustainable practices. It is hugely important that manufacturers, irrespective of the subsector they belong to, or their organizational size, implement practices that reduce or eliminate negative environmental, social and economic impacts generated by their manufacturing operations. Consequently, scholars have called for ...

  19. TORE SUPRA vacuum vessel and shield manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blateyron, J.; Lepez, R.

    1984-01-01

    TORE SUPRA vacuum vessel and vacuum chamber shield manufacturing in progress at Jeumont-Schneider consists of three main phases: - Detail engineering and manufacturing fixture construction; - Prototype section manufacturing and process preparation; - Construction of the 6 production modules. The welding techniques adopted, call for three special automatic processes: TIG, MIG and PLASMA welding which guarantee mechanical strength, vacuum tightness and absence of distortion. Production of the modules began July 1984. (author)

  20. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  1. Manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Whang, C. K.; Lee, J. H.; Youm, K. Y.; Hong, S. H.; Choi, H. Y.; An, C.; Park, I. W.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, W. J.; Yoon, K. B.; Kim, H. W.; Lee, I. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H.; Oho, W. H.; Choi, B. K.; Jang, K. D.

    1996-12-01

    This report on the manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment contains working contents, scope and contents of a request working to the Machine Shop, also records the principal production design, manufacture contents and a relevant working drawing. The working content and scope of the Machine Shop is to support the successful and convenient performance of the R and D by manufacture and maintenance of all sorts of laboratory equipment. (author). 9 tabs., 12 figs

  2. Harnessing the Potential of Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    31 Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 Harnessing the Potential of Additive Manufacturing Bill Decker Decker is director of Technology...achieve its goal of competition throughout the acquisition life cycle. When we look at additive manufacturing , we have a much different environment. To...Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Powder Bed Fusion. This specification covers additively manufactured titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V

  3. Manufacturing of NAA laboratory clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2001-01-01

    The ''NAA laboratory clean room'' has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of ''AAN laboratory clean room'' doing by started of preparation of the ''manufacturing procedure'' refer to ''Design and manufacturing neutron activation analysis clean room laboratory''. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the ''AAN laboratory clean room'' can be cocluded that the research activity and the user sevises in P2TRR well meet to be done

  4. Research overview: Advanced Manufacturing in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Schärer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    SATW is convinced that industrial production methods will see fundamental changes over the coming years. Mastering new production technologies (advanced manufacturing) such as additive manufacturing and industry 4.0 will be vital to keep Swiss production at a competitive level. New additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing offer revolutionary opportunities and have the potential to replace traditional production methods. Industry 4.0 has seen the definition of a new concept for...

  5. Analysis of flow coefficient in chair manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković Dragoljub; Živković Slaven

    2005-01-01

    The delivery on time is not possible without the good-quality planning of deadlines, i.e. planning of the manufacturing process duration. The study of flow coefficient enables the realistic forecasting of the manufacturing process duration. This paper points to the significance of the study of flow coefficient on scientific basis so as to determine the terms of the end of the manufacture of chairs made of sawn timber. Chairs are the products of complex construction, often almost completely ma...

  6. Participative knowledge management to empower manufacturing workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campatelli, Gianni; Richter, Alexander; Stocker, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    skills. In this paper, the authors suggest a participative knowledge management approach to empower manufacturing workers. Starting from a comprehensive empirical analysis of the existing work practices in a manufacturing company, the authors have developed and validated a knowledge management system...... prototype. The prototype is aimed for training, problem solving, and facilitating the discovery, acquisition, and sharing of manufacturing knowledge. The conducted evaluation of the prototype indicates that workers' skills and level of work satisfaction will increase since the knowledge management system...

  7. Cost Accounting in the Automated Manufacturing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    1 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL M terey, California 0 DTIC II ELECTE R AD%$° NO 0,19880 -- THESIS COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO NO ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) E COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...GROUP ’" Cost Accounting ; Product Costing ; Automated Manufacturing; CAD/CAM- CIM 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by blo

  8. Manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kyun; Hwang, Chang Kyu; Hwang, Bong Ha; Lee, Jong Wha; Yeom, Ki Eon; Park, Myung Ku; Hong, Soon Hyeon; Choi, Ho Young; An, Dae Kyu; An, Choon; Park, In Won; Kim, Kyeong Sik; Lee, In Bae; Yeom, Jeong Heon; Lee, Chul Ku; Sin, Keon Ju; Oh, Wan Ho; Choi, Byung Kwon; Chang, Kyeong Duk; Lee, Young Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This report on the manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment contains working contents, scope and contents of a request working to the Machine Shop, also records the principal production design, manufacture contents and a relevant working drawing. The working content and scope of the Machine Shop is to support the successful and convenient performance of the Research and development by manufacture and maintenance of all sorts of laboratory equipment. 12 tabs., 5 figs. (Author) .new.

  9. Challenges in Additive Manufacturing of Alumina

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is seen by many as the holy grail of manufacturing, the ability to produce parts nearly autonomously. Adding material rather than removing it would eliminate the need for expensive resources and machining. The recent expiration of key 3D printing patents has led to many advances in the field and has dramatically lowered the prices of 3D printers, making them accessible to the average individual. The one area where additive manufacturing is still in its infancy is in cer...

  10. COMPONENTS PROVISION MANAGEMENT FOR MACHINE BUILDING MANUFACTURER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Bochkareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is given an approach to themanagement of components provision formachine building manufacturer based uponinternational standards and best practicesof leading international companies. Thecomplex expertise methods are used forthe development of the proposed machinebuilding manufacturer suppliers’ operational management method. At a strategic level is proposed a tool for planning the suppliers’portfolio and a machine building manufacturer supplier development methodology.

  11. Service-Oriented Strategies for Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Tim C.; Matzen, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    This chapter establishes PSS (Product/Service-Systems) approaches in the context of manufacturing firms and their existing product-oriented business. PSS can be seen as a strategy for manufacturing firms to gain competitive advantage in the market, but what market conditions and organisational......, customers and partners in business planning and strategy to reap the full benefits. Finally a path to how manufacturers can make the change from product to service-orientation is traced....

  12. Detailed design of product oriented manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sílvio Carmo; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for the detailed design and redesign of manufacturing systems within a framework of constantly fitting production system configuration to the varying production needs of products. With such an approach is achieved the design of Product Oriented Manufacturing Systems – POMS. This approach is in opposition to the fitting, before hand, of a production system to all products within a company. In this case is usual to adopt a Function Oriented Manufactur...

  13. Training for successful lean manufacturing implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ichimura, Maki; Jahankhani, Hamid; Arunachalam, Subramaniam

    2006-01-01

    Implementing lean manufacturing is a complex and everlasting task. The workers involving in production processes are the pivot of the lean manufacturing implementation. Training is known as a vehicle to assist the implementation process. Despite awareness of the training importance, so far, a little is available to assist to organise an efficient training. This paper summarises the overview of lean manufacturing and discuss the importance of human resource within lean implementation process. ...

  14. Integrated and Intelligent Manufacturing: Perspectives and Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing market competition and advances in technology, more and more countries are prioritizing advanced manufacturing technology as their top priority for economic growth. Germany announced the Industry 4.0 strategy in 2013. The US government launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP in 2011 and the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI in 2014. Most recently, the Manufacturing USA initiative was officially rolled out to further “leverage existing resources... to nurture manufacturing innovation and accelerate commercialization” by fostering close collaboration between industry, academia, and government partners. In 2015, the Chinese government officially published a 10-year plan and roadmap toward manufacturing: Made in China 2025. In all these national initiatives, the core technology development and implementation is in the area of advanced manufacturing systems. A new manufacturing paradigm is emerging, which can be characterized by two unique features: integrated manufacturing and intelligent manufacturing. This trend is in line with the progress of industrial revolutions, in which higher efficiency in production systems is being continuously pursued. To this end, 10 major technologies can be identified for the new manufacturing paradigm. This paper describes the rationales and needs for integrated and intelligent manufacturing (i2M systems. Related technologies from different fields are also described. In particular, key technological enablers, such as the Internet of Things and Services (IoTS, cyber-physical systems (CPSs, and cloud computing are discussed. Challenges are addressed with applications that are based on commercially available platforms such as General Electric (GE’s Predix and PTC’s ThingWorx.

  15. An updated methodology to review developing-country vaccine manufacturer viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luter, Nicholas; Kumar, Ritu; Hozumi, Dai; Lorenson, Tina; Larsen, Shannon; Gowda, Bhavya; Batson, Amie

    2017-07-05

    In 1997, Milstien, Batson, and Meaney published "A Systematic Method for Evaluating the Potential Viability of Local Vaccine Producers." The paper identified characteristics of successful vaccine manufacturers and developed a viability framework to evaluate their performance. This paper revisits the original study after two decades to determine the ability of the framework to predict manufacturer success. By reconstructing much of the original dataset and conducting in-depth interviews, the authors developed informed views on the continued viability of manufacturers in low- and middle-income country markets. Considering the marked changes in the market and technology landscape since 1997, the authors find the viability framework to be predictive and a useful lens through which to evaluate manufacturer success or failure. Of particular interest is how incumbent and potentially new developing-country vaccine manufacturers enter and sustain production in competitive international markets and how they integrate (or fail to integrate) new technology into the production process. Ultimately, most manufacturers will need to meet global quality standards to be viable. As governments and donors consider investments in vaccine producers, the updated viability factors will be a useful tool in evaluating the prospects of manufacturers over the mid to long term. The paper emphasizes that while up-front investments are important, other critical factors-including investments in a national regulatory authority, manufacturer independence, and ability to adapt and adopt new technology-are necessary to ensure viability. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Design - manufacturing and characterization of specific ultrasonic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.

    1985-01-01

    Optimization of ultrasonic examinations requires essentially to determine precisely parameters used for manufacturing of probes and to check characteristics of beams used. The system presented permits an automatic determination of dimensions of beams in conditions which are totally representative of those of their use. In the field of ultrasonic examinations a good estimate or knowledge of sound beams is of great help to solve difficult examination problems. The FRAMATOME's Centre d'Etude et de Recherche en Essais Non Destructifs (CEREND) : (Study and Research Center in Non-Destructive Testing) has developed and elaborated various techniques in order to improve ultrasonic examinations with specific probes. These techniques concern design, manufacturing and characterization of these probes

  17. Modelling of just-in-sequence supply of manufacturing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bányai Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The customer oriented production led to the growth of complexity of manufacturing and connected logistics processes. In many production companies one of the largest asset on balance sheet is inventory. To avoid inventory problems and to be the winners of today’s market situation manufacturing companies try to decrease heavy inventory levels through just-in-time based supply strategies. The aim of this research work is to analyse these supply strategies. The first part of the paper describes the just-in-time based supply and summarises the most important characteristics of them. The second part focuses on the modelling of just-in-sequence based in-plant supply. The models makes it possible to determine different in-plant supply strategies.

  18. Blockchain Enhanced Emission Trading Framework in Fashion Apparel Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailu Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the recent blockchain technology originally built for bitcoin transactions, various industries are exploring the opportunities to redefine their existing operational systems. In this study, an innovative environmentally sustainable solution is proposed for the fashion apparel manufacturing industry (FAMI, which is energized by blockchain. Incorporating the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS, and a novel “emission link” system, the proposed framework exposes carbon emission to the public and establishes a feature to reduce the emissions for all key steps of clothing making. Fully compatible with Industry 4.0, blockchain provides decentralization, transparency, automation, and immutability characteristics to the proposed framework. Specifically, the blockchain supported ETS framework, the carbon emissions of clothing manufacturing life cycle, and the emission link powered procedures are introduced in detail. A case study is provided to demonstrate the carbon emission evaluation procedure. Finally, a multi-criteria evaluation is performed to demonstrate the benefits and drawbacks of the proposed system.

  19. Feasibility Study on Manufacturing Lightweight Aggregates from Water Purification Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Fang; Chen, How-Ji

    2018-02-01

    This study mainly discussed the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight aggregates from water purification sludge in Taiwan. They were analysed for the physical and chemical composition before the sintering test for lightweight aggregates in a laboratory. Then the physical and mechanical properties of the synthesized aggregates were assessed. The result showed that the chemical composition of sludge in the water purification plants was within the appropriate range for manufacturing lightweight aggregate as proposed in the literature. The sintering test demonstrated that the particle density of aggregates from the ten types of water purification sludge were mostly less than 1.8 g/cm3. In addition, the dry unit weight, the organic impurity, the ignition loss, and other characteristics of synthesized aggregates met the requirement of CNS standards, while its water absorption and crushing strength also fulfilled the general commercial specifications. Therefore, reclamation of water purification sludge for production of lightweight aggregate is indeed feasible.

  20. Semiconductors integrated circuit design for manufacturability

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinki, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Because of the continuous evolution of integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM) and design for manufacturability (DfM), most books on the subject are obsolete before they even go to press. That's why the field requires a reference that takes the focus off of numbers and concentrates more on larger economic concepts than on technical details. Semiconductors: Integrated Circuit Design for Manufacturability covers the gradual evolution of integrated circuit design (ICD) as a basis to propose strategies for improving return-on-investment (ROI) for ICD in manufacturing. Where most books put the spotl

  1. Prepreg effects on honeycomb composite manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cary Joseph

    Fiber reinforced composites offer many advantages over traditional materials and are widely utilized in aerospace applications. Advantages include a high stiffness to weight ratio and excellent fatigue resistance. However, the pace of new implementation is slow. The manufacturing processes used to transform composite intermediates into final products are poorly understood and are a source of much variability. This limits new implementation and increases the manufacturing costs of existing designs. One such problem is honeycomb core crush, in which a core-stiffened structure collapses during autoclave manufacture, making the structure unusable and increasing the overall manufacturing cost through increased scrap rates. Consequently, the major goal of this research was to investigate the scaling of core crush from prepreg process-structure-property relations to commercial composite manufacture. The material dependent nature of this defect was of particular interest. A methodology and apparatus were developed to measure the frictional resistance of prepreg materials under typical processing conditions. Through a characterization of commercial and experimental prepregs, it was found that core crush behavior was the result of differences in prepreg frictional resistance. This frictional resistance was related to prepreg morphology and matrix rheology and elasticity. Resin composition and prepreg manufacturing conditions were also found to affect manufacturing behavior. Mechanical and dimensional models were developed and demonstrated utility for predicting this crushing behavior. Collectively, this work explored and identified the process-structure-property relations as they relate to the manufacture of composite materials and suggested several avenues by which manufacturing-robust materials may be developed.

  2. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Composites Integrated Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Composites Integrated Modeling (CIM) Element developed low cost, lightweight, and efficient composite structures, materials and manufacturing technologies with...

  3. Manufacturing of superconductive silver/ceramic composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifi, Behrouz; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Eriksen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing of superconducting metal/ceramic composites is a rather new discipline within materials forming processes. High Temperature SuperConductors, HTSC, are manufactured applying the Oxide-Powder-In-Tube process, OPIT. A ceramic powder containing lead, calcium, bismuth, strontium, and cop......Manufacturing of superconducting metal/ceramic composites is a rather new discipline within materials forming processes. High Temperature SuperConductors, HTSC, are manufactured applying the Oxide-Powder-In-Tube process, OPIT. A ceramic powder containing lead, calcium, bismuth, strontium...

  4. Inside-Out Manufacturing of Composite Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tooling for the manufacture of large structures from composite materials often costs much more than individual parts, rendering the processes unattractive for...

  5. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  6. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2016-01-01

    examples from industrial production, in which the added value of metrology in manufacturing is discussed and quantified. Case studies include: general manufacturing, forging, machining, and related metrology. The focus of the paper is on the improved effectiveness of metrology when used at product...... and process design stages, as well as on the improved accuracy and efficiency of manufacturing through better measuring equipment and process chains with integrated metrology for process control.......In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...

  7. Coordinating knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Along with increasing globalization, the management of international manufacturing networks is becoming increasingly important for industrial companies. This paper mainly focuses on the coordination of knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks. In this context, we propose the time......-place matrix as a tool for mapping the distribution of knowledge within manufacturing networks. Using this tool, four important questions about the coordination of knowledge transfer within a manufacturing network are identified: know-where, know-what, know-when, know-how to transfer. The relationships among...

  8. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  9. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  10. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.

    2013-04-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different

  11. A manufacturing database of advanced materials used in spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.

    1994-12-01

    Cost savings opportunities over the life cycle of a product are highest in the early exploratory phase when different design alternatives are evaluated not only for their performance characteristics but also their methods of fabrication which really control the ultimate manufacturing costs of the product. In the past, Design-To-Cost methodologies for spacecraft design concentrated on the sizing and weight issues more than anything else at the early so-called 'Vehicle Level' (Ref: DOD/NASA Advanced Composites Design Guide). Given the impact of manufacturing cost, the objective of this study is to identify the principal cost drivers for each materials technology and propose a quantitative approach to incorporating these cost drivers into the family of optimization tools used by the Vehicle Analysis Branch of NASA LaRC to assess various conceptual vehicle designs. The advanced materials being considered include aluminum-lithium alloys, thermoplastic graphite-polyether etherketone composites, graphite-bismaleimide composites, graphite- polyimide composites, and carbon-carbon composites. Two conventional materials are added to the study to serve as baseline materials against which the other materials are compared. These two conventional materials are aircraft aluminum alloys series 2000 and series 7000, and graphite-epoxy composites T-300/934. The following information is available in the database. For each material type, the mechanical, physical, thermal, and environmental properties are first listed. Next the principal manufacturing processes are described. Whenever possible, guidelines for optimum processing conditions for specific applications are provided. Finally, six categories of cost drivers are discussed. They include, design features affecting processing, tooling, materials, fabrication, joining/assembly, and quality assurance issues. It should be emphasized that this database is not an exhaustive database. Its primary use is to make the vehicle designer

  12. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzkus, C; Macé, T; Vaslin-Reimann, S; Ausset, P; Maillé, M

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO 2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different

  13. In-Space Manufacturing Project (prior to FY15: Additive Manufacturing Technology Development)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project is responsible for developing the manufacturing capabilities that will provide on-demand, sustainable operations during NASA...

  14. Subcontracting in electronics : from contract manufacturers to providers of electronic manufacturing services (EMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Liemt van, Gijsbert

    2007-01-01

    Discusses how the top contract manufacturers in the electronics industry try to become providers of electronic manufacturing services by deepening and broadening the rage of services that they offer and by diversifying into markets other than computing and telecommunications.

  15. Manufacturing footprint optimisation: a necessity for manufacturing network in changing business environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2010-01-01

    Facing the unpredictable financial crisis, optimising the footprint can be the biggest and most important transformation a manufacturer can undertake. In order to realise the optimisation, fundamental understanding on manufacturing footprint is required. Different elements of manufacturing...... footprint have been investigated independently in the existing literature. In this paper, for the purpose of relationship exploration between different elements, manufacturing footprints of three industrial companies are traced historically. Based on them, four reasons for the transformation...

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  17. Lightweight Design and Welding Manufacturing of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Car’s Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Ch. Tsirogiannis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the chassis for the hydrogen fuel cell powered car has been involved in the designing and manufacturing aspects, while taking into consideration the mass, strength, stiffness, centre of gravity (COG, and manufacturing cost requirements. Towards this direction, a chassis design is proposed employing a space frame structure and constructed by an aluminium alloy with great strength. The structural design has been derived through the lightweight engineering approaches in conjunction with the part consolidation, Design for Assembly (DFA and Design for Manufacture methods. Moreover, it has been performed in compliance with the safety regulations of the Shell Eco Marathon racing competition. The material’s principal characteristics are the great strength, the low mass, as well as the great workability, machinability, and weldability. Following the national and global environmental issues, the recyclable characteristics of the aluminium alloy are an extra asset. Furthermore, the existence of aluminium alloy manufacturers around the fabricating area provides low cost supply and fast delivery benefits. The integration of the fuel cell powered vehicle is obtained through the designing and the manufacturing processes of the chassis and the parts fitted on the chassis. The manufacturing procedures are described thoroughly; mainly consisting of the cutting and welding processes and the assembling of the parts that are fitted on the chassis. Additionally, the proper welding parameters for the custom chassis design are investigated and are selected after deductive reasoning. The quality control of the weld joints is conducted by non-destructive methods (NDT ensuring the required structural properties of the welds. A combination of the selected material, the specific type of the chassis, and the manufacturing processes lead to construction simplicity in a low manufacturing cost by using the existing laboratory equipment. Furthermore, the

  18. Manufacturability of compact synchrotron mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Gary M.

    1997-11-01

    While many of the government funded research communities over the years have put their faith and money into increasingly larger synchrotrons, such as Spring8 in Japan, and the APS in the United States, a viable market appears to exist for smaller scale, research and commercial grade, compact synchrotrons. These smaller, and less expensive machines, provide the research and industrial communities with synchrotron radiation beamline access at a portion of the cost of their larger and more powerful counterparts. A compact synchrotron, such as the Aurora-2D, designed and built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. of japan (SHI), is a small footprint synchrotron capable of sustaining 20 beamlines. Coupled with a Microtron injector, with 150 MeV of injection energy, an entire facility fits within a 27 meter [88.5 ft] square floorplan. The system, controlled by 2 personal computers, is capable of producing 700 MeV electron energy and 300 mA stored current. Recently, an Aurora-2D synchrotron was purchased from SHI by the University of Hiroshima. The Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations Beamline Optics Group was approached by SHI with a request to supply a group of 16 beamline mirrors for this machine. These mirrors were sufficient to supply 3 beamlines for the Hiroshima machine. This paper will address engineering issues which arose during the design and manufacturing of these mirrors.

  19. Manufacturing microporous membrane by polymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanny, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The starting materials for the practice of the present invention are (1) one or more organic monomers or oligomers which upon irradiation very rapidly undergo a polymerization reaction to form a solid polymer; and (2) a liquid vehicle in which the one or more organic monomers or oligomers are soluble but in which the polymer formed is insoluble. For the manufacture of microporous membrane in accordance with the invention the monomers or oligomers are dissolved in the liquid vehicle, the resulting solution is formed into a thin layer, and the thin layer of the solution is then irradiated as with ultraviolet or electron beam radiation whereupon the rapid polymerization reaction immediately ensues and the polymer formed immediately segregates from the vehicle thereby resulting in microporous membrane from which the vehicle can be removed as by evaporation or washing. Because the radiation-induced polymerization reaction and the segregation of the polymer formed are so rapid, the membrane formed has cells and communications therebetween of very small dimensions thereby providing the microporous structure. Where ultra-violet radiation is used the solution also includes a photo-initiator. (author)

  20. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.