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Sample records for hg-in liquid alloys

  1. Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Thakur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg_1_0In_9_0, Hg_3_0In_7_0_,_. Hg_5_0In_5_0, Hg_7_0In_3_0, and Hg_9_0Pb_1_0) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the local arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.

  2. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  3. Measurement of chemical diffusion coefficients in liquid binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keita, M.; Steinemann, S.; Kuenzi, H.U.

    1976-01-01

    New measurements of the chemical diffusion coefficient in liquid binary alloys are presented. The wellknown geometry of the 'capillary-reservoir' is used and the concentration is obtained from a resistivity measurement. The method allows to follow continuously the diffusion process in the liquid state. A precision of at least 10% in the diffusion coefficient is obtained with a reproductibility better than 5%. The systems Hg-In, Al-Sn, Al-Si have been studied. Diffusion coefficients are obtained as a function of temperature, concentration, and geometrical factors related to the capillary (diameter, relative orientation of density gradient and gravity). (orig.) [de

  4. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process

  5. Liquid agents for dispersion of hard alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putintseva, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of dispersant properties on granulometric, chemical, and phase composition of the products of WC hard alloy electroerosion are considered. It is established that an increase of liquid dispersant permittivity results in enhanced powder dispersity, and an increase of boiling temperature and kinematic viscosity of a hydrocarbon liquid promotes a carbon loss from WC and intensifies pyrolysis of the liquid.On electroerosion of WC base hard alloy in oil a powder particle consists of b-WC+W 2 C phases, in kerosine - of a-WC+b-WC, in distilled water - of W+W 2 C. The viscosity of liquid dispersants practically has no effect on powder particle size [ru

  6. NANOMETER SUPERSTRUCTURE IN LIQUID ALKALI THALLIUM ALLOYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, R; VERKERK, P; HOWELLS, WS; DEWIJS, GA; VANDERHORST, F; VANDERLUGT, W

    1993-01-01

    Structure factors obtained from neutron diffraction measurements on liquid K-Tl and Cs-Tl alloys exhibit large prepeaks at approximately 0.77 angstrom-1 and 0.70 angstrom-1, respectively. It is concluded that the liquid contains large units of thallium atoms, possibly bearing some resemblance to

  7. Electrical resistivity of liquid noble metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis Alam, M.; Tomak, M.

    1983-08-01

    Calculations of the dependence of the electrical resistivity in liquid Ag-Au, Cu-Ag, Cu-Au binary alloys on composition are reported. The structure of the binary alloy is described as a hard sphere system. A one-parameter local pseudopotential, which incorporates s-d hybridization effects phenomenologically, is employed in the resistivity calculation. A reasonable agreement with experimental trends is observed in cases where experimental information is available. (author)

  8. Liquid alloys: New perspectives and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.L.; Leonard, S.R.; Johnson, G.K.; Price, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    In this paper, we will focus on one of many unusual liquid semiconducting alloys, K-Pb. The thermodynamic and electrical properties will be discussed and analyzed in terms of a disorder model introduced first by Wagner for crystalline semiconductors. The structure of the equiatomic alloy will be presented; interpretation of the first sharp diffraction peak in the total structure factor is based on the local structures in the crystalline phase and should be viewed as an example of the interrelation between the solid and liquid properties

  9. Enhanced spectrophotometric detection of Hg in water samples by surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles after preconcentration with vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Estefanía M.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2016-10-01

    This article presents an efficient, simple, and cost-effective method for the determination of trace amounts of Hg by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) coupled to microvolume UV-Vis spectrophotometry. This method correlates changes in the intensity of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOABr) coated Au nanoparticles (NPs) after interaction with Hg2+ ion. Spectroscopic measurements of the TOABr-coated Au NPs phase with particular absorption properties (strong and well-defined absorption bands) after analyte extraction by VALLME, provide an accurate and sensitive determination of Hg in water samples, comparable with measurements obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Different variables including sample volume, extraction time, and TOABr-coated Au NPs dispersion volume were carefully studied; final experimental conditions were 5 mL, 120 μL and 5 min respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.8 ng mL- 1. The calibration curve was linear at concentrations between the limit of quantification (LOQ) (4.9 ng mL- 1) and up to at least 120 ng mL- 1 of Hg. The relative standard deviation for six replicate determinations of 20 ng mL- 1 of Hg was 4.7%. This method exhibited an excellent analytical performance in terms of selectivity and sensitivity and it was finally applied for Hg determination in spiked tap and mineral water samples.

  10. Viscosity of Ga-Li liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyaev, Dmitriy; Boretsky, Evgeny; Verkhorubov, Dmitriy

    2018-03-01

    The measurement of dynamic viscosity of Ga-Li liquid alloys has been performed using low-frequency vibrational viscometer at five temperatures in the range 313-353 K and four gallium-based dilute alloy compositions containing 0-1.15 at.% Li. It was found that the viscosity of the considered alloys increases with decreasing temperature and increasing lithium concentration in the above ranges. It was shown that dependence of the viscosity of Ga-Li alloys in the investigated temperature range has been described by Arrhenius equation. For this equation the activation energy of viscous flow and pre-exponential factor were calculated. This study helped to determine the conditions of the alkali metals separating process in gallam-exchange systems.

  11. Surface studies of liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastasz, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metals and alloys have been proposed for use in nuclear fusion reactors to serve as replaceable plasma-facing surfaces that remove particles and heat from reacting plasmas. Several materials are being considered for this purpose including lithium, gallium, and tin as well as some of the alloys made from these elements. In order to better understand the properties of liquid surfaces, the technique of low-energy ion scattering was used to examine the surface composition of several of these materials in vacuum as a function of temperature. Oxygen is found to rapidly segregate to the surface of several metallic liquids. The segregation process can be interpreted using a simple thermodynamic model based on Gibbs theory. In the case of an alloy of Sn and Li, Li also segregates to the liquid surface. This provides a means to produce a surface enriched in Li, which is more plasma compatible than Sn, without the need to handle large quantities of liquid Li. (author)

  12. Many-Body Potentials For Binary Immiscible liquid Metal Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaguelle, H.

    2004-01-01

    The modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type many- body potentials have been constructed for three binary liquid immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Ag- Cu. The MAEAM potential functions are fitted to both solid and liquid state properties for only liquid pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM effective potentials, partial structure factors and pair distribution functions of these binary liquid metal alloys have been calculated using the thermodynamically self-consistent variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory of liquids. A good agreement with the available experimental data for structure has

  13. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  14. Electrical resistivity of liquid Ag-Au alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis Alam, M.; Tomak, M.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of the dependence of the electrical resistivity in liquid Ag-Au binary alloy on composition are reported. The structure of the binary alloy is described as a hard-sphere system. A one-parameter local pseudopotential, which incorporates s-d hybridization effects phenomenologically, is employed in the resistivity calculation. A reasonable agreement with experimental trend is observed. (author)

  15. Surface tension modelling of liquid Cd-Sn-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fima, Przemyslaw; Novakovic, Rada

    2018-06-01

    The thermodynamic model in conjunction with Butler equation and the geometric models were used for the surface tension calculation of Cd-Sn-Zn liquid alloys. Good agreement was found between the experimental data for limiting binaries and model calculations performed with Butler model. In the case of ternary alloys, the surface tension variation with Cd content is better reproduced in the case of alloys lying on vertical sections defined by high Sn to Zn molar fraction ratio. The calculated surface tension is in relatively good agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the surface segregation of liquid ternary Cd-Sn-Zn and constituent binaries has also been calculated.

  16. Density of Ni-Al Alloys in Liquid and Solid-Liquid Coexistence State Measured by a Modified Pycnometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Feng XIAO; Zushu LI; Zainan TAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of Ni-Al alloys in both liquid state and solid-liquid coexistence state was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It was found that the density of NI-Al alloys decreases with increasing temperature and Al concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Al binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and Al concentration. The partial molar volume of Al in NI-Al binary alloy was calculated approximately. The molar volume of liquid NI-Al alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear molar volume.

  17. The solubility of metals in Pb-17Li liquid alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.; Feuerstein, H.

    1992-01-01

    The solubility data of iron in the eutectic alloy Pb-17Li which were evaluated from corrosion tests in a turbulent flow of the molten alloy are discussed in the frame of solubilities of the transition metals in liquid lead. It is shown that the solubility of iron in the alloy is close to that in lead. This is also the fact for several other alloying elements of steels. A comparison of all known data shows that they are in agreement with generally shown trends for the solubility of the transition metals in low melting metals. These trends indicate comparably high solubilities of nickel and manganese in the liquid metals, lower saturation concentration of vanadium, chromium, iron, and cobalt, and extremely low solubility of molybdenum. (orig.)

  18. Solubility of uranium in liquid gallium, indium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Yamschikov, Leonid F.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) employing molten salts and liquid metals as working media is considered as a possible alternative to the existing liquid extraction (PUREX) processes. Liquid salts and metals allow reprocessing highly irradiated high burn-up fuels with short cooling times, including the fuels of fast neutron reactors. Pyrochemical technology opens a way to practical realization of short closed fuel cycle. Liquid low-melting metals are immiscible with molten salts and can be effectively used for separation (or selective extraction) of SNF components dissolved in fused salts. Binary or ternary alloys of eutectic compositions can be employed to lower the melting point of the metallic phase. However, the information on SNF components behaviour and properties in ternary liquid metal alloys is very scarce

  19. Diffusion slowdown in the nanostructured liquid Ga-Sn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podorozhkin, Dmitri Y.; Charnaya, Elena V.; Lee, Min Kai; Chang, Lieh-Jeng; Haase, Juergen; Michel, Dieter; Kumzerov, Yurii A.; Fokin, Alexsandr V.

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion of gallium in liquid Ga-Sn alloy embedded into different porous silica matrices was studied by NMR. Spin relaxation was measured for two gallium isotopes, 71 Ga and 69 Ga, at two magnetic fields. Pronounced rise of quadrupole contribution to relaxation was observed for the nanostructured alloy which increased with decreasing the pore size. The correlation time of atomic mobility was evaluated and found to be much larger than in the relevant bulk melt which evidenced a pronounced diffusion slowdown in the Ga-Sn alloy under nanoconfinement. It is shown that the diffusion was slower by a factor of 30 for the alloy within 7 nm pores. The spectral densities of electric field gradients at zero frequency were found to double for the finest pores. The Knight shift was found to decrease but slightly for the nanostructured alloy. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Structure of Mn40Zn60 liquid alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbihi, D Es; Grosdidier, B; Gasser, J G

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the structural study of the Mn 40 Zn 60 liquid alloy, whose two components have a high vapour pressure. The structure has been measured by neutron diffraction. The investigation of the chemical order in this alloy was readily made possible. This is due to the manganese negative scattering length which allows a good contrast. A magnetic correction has been considered since manganese is paramagnetic in the liquid state. An 'effective' spin is obtained and its value is discussed. The interpretation of the atomic structure is done in the frame of the Bhatia-Thornton formalism, (S NN (q), S NC (q), S CC (q)) which allows to separate topological, size and chemical effects. It appears clearly that manganese ions and zinc ions have approximately the same radius in the alloy as S NC (q) ≅ 0. The Bhatia-Thornton number-number partial structure factor S NN (q) has been approximated by a linear combination of the experimental structure factors of the two alloy pure components. In the frame of this assumption, the Bhatia-Thornton concentration-concentration partial structure factor S CC (q) is obtained, and shows clearly that this alloy is hetero-coordinated. The hard sphere model cannot explain the structure of this alloy. Its behaviour is compared to other manganese-polyvalent alloys and the general trends are discussed

  1. Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloys (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Jiantong

    2004-01-01

    The diameter (d f ) of diffusion fluid cluster before and after phase transition has been calculated in terms of the paper ''Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloy (1)'' Physics Letters. A 326 (2004) 429-435, to verify quantitatively the discontinuity of structural phase transition; the phenomena of thermal contraction and thermal expansion during the phase transition, together with the evolution model of discontinuous structural phase transition are also discussed in this Letter to explore further the nature of structural transition; In addition, based on the viscosity experimental result mentioned in paper [Y. Waseda, The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials--Liquids and Amorphous Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980], we present an approach to draw an embryo of the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram for binary alloys above liquidus in the paper, expecting to guide metallurgy process so as to improve the properties of alloys. The idea that controls amorphous structure and its properties by means of the L-L phase diagram for alloys and by the rapid cooling technique to form the amorphous alloy has been brought forward in the end

  2. Electrical resistivity of Al-Cu liquid binary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, P. P.; Patel, J. J.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    Present paper deals with the electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid Al-Cu binary alloy. To describe electron-ion interaction we have used our parameter free model potential along with Faber-Ziman formulation combined with Ashcroft-Langreth (AL) partial structure factor. To see the influence of exchange and correlation effect, Hartree, Taylor and Sarkar et al local field correlation functions are used. From present results, it is seen that good agreements between present results and experimental data have been achieved. Lastly we conclude that our model potential successfully produces the data of electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid Al-Cu binary alloy.

  3. Surface tension of liquid Al-Cu binary alloys.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Julianna; Brillo, Jürgen; Egry, Ivan; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Surface tension data of liquid Al–Cu binary alloys have been measured contactlessly using the technique of electromagnetic levitation. A digital CMOS-camera (400 fps) recorded image sequences of the oscillating liquid sample and surface tensions were determined from analysis of the frequency spectra. Measurements were performed for samples covering the entire range of composition and precise data were obtained in a broad temperature range. It was found that the surface tensions can ...

  4. Internal friction behavior of liquid Bi-Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Aiqing; Guo Lijun; Liu Changsong; Jia Erguang; Zhu Zhengang

    2005-01-01

    Pure Bi and Sn and four Bi-Sn alloys distributed on the entire concentration range were selected for internal-friction investigation over a wide temperature range. There exist two peaks in the plots of internal friction versus temperature for liquid Sn, Bi-Sn60 and Bi-Sn90 alloys, one peak being located at about 480 - bar Cand another at about 830 - bar C. Only a single internal-friction peak at about 830 - bar C occurs in liquid Bi-Sn43 (eutectic composition). No internal-friction peak appears in liquid Bi-Sn20 alloy and pure Bi. The height of the internal-friction peaks depends on the content of Sn. The present finding suggests that Sn-rich Bi-Sn alloys may inherit the internal-friction behaviors of pure Sn, whereas Bi-rich Bi-Sn alloy seems to be like pure Bi. The position of the internal-friction peaks is frequency dependent, which resembles the internal-friction feature in structure transition in solids

  5. Internal friction behavior of liquid Bi-Sn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Aiqing [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Guo Lijun [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu Changsong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Jia Erguang [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhu Zhengang [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China)]. E-mail: zgzhu@issp.ac.cn

    2005-12-01

    Pure Bi and Sn and four Bi-Sn alloys distributed on the entire concentration range were selected for internal-friction investigation over a wide temperature range. There exist two peaks in the plots of internal friction versus temperature for liquid Sn, Bi-Sn60 and Bi-Sn90 alloys, one peak being located at about 480{sup -}bar Cand another at about 830{sup -}bar C. Only a single internal-friction peak at about 830{sup -}bar C occurs in liquid Bi-Sn43 (eutectic composition). No internal-friction peak appears in liquid Bi-Sn20 alloy and pure Bi. The height of the internal-friction peaks depends on the content of Sn. The present finding suggests that Sn-rich Bi-Sn alloys may inherit the internal-friction behaviors of pure Sn, whereas Bi-rich Bi-Sn alloy seems to be like pure Bi. The position of the internal-friction peaks is frequency dependent, which resembles the internal-friction feature in structure transition in solids.

  6. Estimation of the viscosities of liquid binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Su, Xiang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    As one of the most important physical and chemical properties, viscosity plays a critical role in physics and materials as a key parameter to quantitatively understanding the fluid transport process and reaction kinetics in metallurgical process design. Experimental and theoretical studies on liquid metals are problematic. Today, there are many empirical and semi-empirical models available with which to evaluate the viscosity of liquid metals and alloys. However, the parameter of mixed energy in these models is not easily determined, and most predictive models have been poorly applied. In the present study, a new thermodynamic parameter Δ G is proposed to predict liquid alloy viscosity. The prediction equation depends on basic physical and thermodynamic parameters, namely density, melting temperature, absolute atomic mass, electro-negativity, electron density, molar volume, Pauling radius, and mixing enthalpy. Our results show that the liquid alloy viscosity predicted using the proposed model is closely in line with the experimental values. In addition, if the component radius difference is greater than 0.03 nm at a certain temperature, the atomic size factor has a significant effect on the interaction of the binary liquid metal atoms. The proposed thermodynamic parameter Δ G also facilitates the study of other physical properties of liquid metals.

  7. Density Measurement of Liquid Ni-Ta Alloys by a Modified Sessile Drop Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; XIAO Feng; TAO Zainan; Kusuhiro Mukai

    2005-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Ta alloys was measured by using a modified sessile drop method. It is found that the density of the liquid Ni-Ta alloys decreases with the increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of tantalum concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Ta binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and tantalum concentration.

  8. Hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Weng Kuiping; Hou Jianping; Yang Guangling; Zeng Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method has been carried out in own liquid lithium-lead bubbler (LLLB). Experimental results show that, He is more suitable than Ar as carrier gas in the filler tower. The higher temperature the tower is, the greater hydrogen content the tower exports. Influence of carrier gas flow rate on the hydrogen content in the export is jagged, no obvious rule. Although the difference between experimental results and literature data, but it is feasible that hydrogen isotopes extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead by gas-liquid contact method, and the higher extraction efficiency increases with the growth of the residence time of the alloy in tower. (authors)

  9. Diffusion of alloying elements in liquid nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, G.S.; Majboroda, V.P.; Permyakova, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    Values of diffusion coefficients for chromium, vanadium, zinc, silicon, tin, antimony, lead and zirconium in liquid nickel are determined within 1500-1700 deg C temperature range using annular gap technique. The data obtained are explained concerning microheterogeneous structure of metallic melts

  10. Electric field fluctuations in liquid tellurium alloys a hint to bond character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulick, C.A.; Brinkmann, R.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; von Hartrott, M.; Kiehl, M.; Maxim, P.; Quitmann, D.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic scale electric field fluctuations in liquid tellurium alloys are detected as they induce nuclear spin relaxation rate RQ in noble gas impurity atoms, via quadrupolar interaction. Results for Xe in liquid Ag, Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn---Te alloys are discussed, assuming that bonding in these alloys

  11. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Co–Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakymovych, A.; Fürtauer, S.; Elmahfoudi, A.; Ipser, H.; Flandorfer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The enthalpies of mixing of liquid Co–Sn alloys between T = (673 and 1773) K. • The temperature dependence of the enthalpies of mixing was described. • Full report of measured values including polynomial coefficients. - Abstract: A literature overview of enthalpy of mixing data for liquid Co–Sn alloys shows large scattering but no clear temperature dependence. Therefore drop calorimetry was performed in the Co–Sn system at twelve different temperatures in 100 K steps in the temperature range (673 to 1773) K. The integral enthalpy of mixing was determined starting from 1173 K and fitted to a standard Redlich–Kister polynomial. In addition, the limiting partial molar enthalpy of Co in Sn was investigated by small additions of Co to liquid Sn at temperatures (673 to 1773) K. The integral and partial molar enthalpies of the Co–Sn system generally show an exothermic mixing behavior. Significant temperature dependence was detected for the enthalpies of mixing. The minimum integral enthalpy values vary with rising temperature from approx. −7820 J/mol at T = 1173 K to −1350 J/mol at T = 1773 K; the position of the minimum is between (59 and 61) at.% Co. The results are discussed and compared with literature data available for this system. X-ray studies and scanning electron microscopy of selected alloys obtained from the calorimetric measurements were carried out in order to check the completeness of the solution process

  12. Thermophysical properties of some liquid binary Mg-based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plevachuk Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some structure-sensitive thermophysical properties, namely, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of liquid binary alloys Al33.3Mg66.7, Mg47.6Zn52.4 and Mg33.3Zn66.7 (all in wt.%, as the most promising cast alloys to fabricate components for cars, aircraft and other complex engineering products, were investigated. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power were measured in a wide temperature range by the four-point contact method. The thermal conductivity was measured by the steady-state concentric cylinder method. The obtained results are compared with literature experimental and calculated data.

  13. Stretchable microelectrode array using room-temperature liquid alloy interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, P; Ziaie, B; Taylor, R; Chung, C; Higgs, G; Pruitt, B L; Ding, Z; Abilez, O J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a stretchable microelectrode array for studying cell behavior under mechanical strain. The electrode array consists of gold-plated nail-head pins (250 µm tip diameter) or tungsten micro-wires (25.4 µm in diameter) inserted into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform (25.4 × 25.4 mm 2 ). Stretchable interconnects to the outside were provided by fusible indium-alloy-filled microchannels. The alloy is liquid at room temperature, thus providing the necessary stretchability and electrical conductivity. The electrode platform can withstand strains of up to 40% and repeated (100 times) strains of up to 35% did not cause any failure in the electrodes or the PDMS substrate. We confirmed biocompatibility of short-term culture, and using the gold pin device, we demonstrated electric field pacing of adult murine heart cells. Further, using the tungsten microelectrode device, we successfully measured depolarizations of differentiated murine heart cells from embryoid body clusters

  14. A thermodynamic investigation of liquid gold-antimony alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayer, E.; Castanet, R.

    1995-01-01

    The enthalpies of mixing of liquid Au-Sb alloys were determined between 906 and 1028 K giving Δ mix H o m = x Sb x Au (-11.234-1.1078x Sb + 5.713x Sb 2 ) kJ mol -1 . The minimum was found at x Sb = 0.45 with Δ mix H o m = -2.62 ± 0.2 kJ mol -1 contrary to published measurements on liquid Au-Sb alloys. The limiting partial molar enthalpy of Au in Sb at 935 K was measured to Δ mix h o m (Au, liq, in ∞Sb, liq) = -6.05 ± 0.4 kJ mol -1 . The enthalpy of formation of the solid compound AuSb 2 determined at 298 K by solution calorimetry in liquid Sb, Δ f H o m (AuSb 2 ) = -5.40 ± 0.6 kJ mol -1 , is found in fair agreement with literature data. DTA measurements were performed on the Au-rich part of the liquidus and a new liquidus curve is suggested between Au and the eutectic concentration. The eutectic point was found at 630.37 ± 0.25 K and x Sb 0.350. (orig.)

  15. Liquid-liquid structure transition and nucleation in undercooled Co-B eutectic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yixuan [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an, Shanxi (China); Universite Grenoble Alpes, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); CNRS, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); Li, Jinshan; Wang, Jun; Kou, Hongchao [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an, Shanxi (China); Beagunon, Eric [Universite Grenoble Alpes, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); CNRS, LNCMI, Grenoble (France)

    2017-06-15

    Cyclic superheating and cooling were carried out for the undercooled hypereutectic Co{sub 80}B{sub 20}, eutectic Co{sub 81.5}B{sub 18.5,} and hypoeutectic Co{sub 83}B{sub 17} alloys. For each alloy, there is a critical overheating temperature T{sub c}° at which there is a sharp increase of the mean undercooling, i.e., below (above) T{sub c}°, and the mean undercooling is about 80 °C (200 °C). DSC measurements show that there is a thermal absorption peak in the heating process, the peak temperature of which is nearly equal to the critical overheating temperature, indicating that the temperature-induced liquid-liquid structure transition does occur and should relate highly to nucleation in the undercooled Co-B eutectic melts. The effect of the liquid-liquid structure transition on nucleation was interpreted by the recent nucleation theory that considers the structures of overheated melts, and the composition-dependent overheating temperature was ascribed to the change of local favored structures. The present work provides further evidences for the liquid-liquid structure transition and is helpful for understanding solidification in undercooled melts. (orig.)

  16. Liquid Phase Sintering of Highly Alloyed Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Troels

    1996-01-01

    Liquid phase sintering of stainless steel is usually applied to improve corrosion resistance by obtaining a material without an open pore system. The dense structure normally also give a higher strength when compared to conventional sintered steel. Liquid phase sintrering based on addition...... of boride to AISI 316L type steels have previously been studied, but were found to be sensitive to intergranular corrosion due to formation of intermetallic phases rich in chromium and molybdenum. In order to improve this system further, new investigations have focused on the use of higher alloyed stainless...... steel as base material. The stainless base powders were added different amounts and types of boride and sintered in hydrogen at different temperatures and times in a laboratory furnace. During sintering the outlet gas was analyzed and subsequently related to the obtained microstructure. Thermodynamic...

  17. Density of liquid NiCoAlCr quarternary alloys measured by modified sessile drop method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; ZHANG Shu-fang; XIAO Feng; YANG Ling-chuan; DONG Jian-xin; CAO Chun-lan; TAO Zai-nan; K. MUKAI

    2006-01-01

    The densities of liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys with a fixed molar ratio of Ni to Co to Al (x(Ni)-x(Co)-x(Al)≈73-12-15) which is close to the average value of the commercial Ni-based superalloys TMS75, INCO713, CM247LC and CMSX-4, and the mass fraction of chromium changes from 0 to 9% were measured by a modified sessile drop method. It is found that with increasing temperature and chromium concentration in the alloys, the densities of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys decrease, whereas the molar volume of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys increases. And the liquid densities of NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, cobalt, aluminum and chromium in the corresponding Ni-bases binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental ones, i.e. within the error tolerance range the densities of the liquid Ni-based multi-component alloys can be predicted from the partial volumes of elements in Ni-based binary alloys in liquid state. The molar volume of liquid NiCoAlCr binary alloy shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing and the deviation changes small with the increase of chromium concentration at the same temperature.

  18. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinematic viscosity of liquid Al-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, N Yu; Popel, P S

    2008-01-01

    Temperature dependences of kinematic viscosity n of liquid Al 100-x -Cu x alloys (x = 0.0, 10.0, 17.1, 25.0, 32.2, 40.0 and 50.0 at.%) were measured. A technique based on registration of the period and the decrement of damping of rotating oscillations of a cylindrical crucible with a melt was used. Viscosity was calculated in low viscous liquids approximation. Measurements were carried out in vacuum in crucibles of BeO with a temperature step of 30 deg. C and isothermal expositions of 10 to 15 minutes during both heating up to 1100-1250 deg. C and subsequent cooling. We have discovered branching of heating and cooling curves v(T) (hysteresis of viscosity) below temperatures depending on the copper content: 950 deg. C at 10 and 17.1 at.% Cu, 1050 deg. C at 25 and 40 at.% Cu, 850 deg. C at 32.2 at.% Cu. For samples with 10 and 17.1 at.% Cu the cooling curve 'returns' to the heating one near 700 deg. C. An abnormally high spreading of results at repeated decrement measurements was fixed at heating of the alloy containing 50 at.% Cu above 1000 deg. C. During subsequent cooling the effect disappeared. Isotherms of kinematic viscosity have been fitted for several temperatures

  20. Density of Liquid Ni-Mo Alloys Measured by a Modified Sessile Drop Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Zushu LI; ZaiNan TAO; Feng XIAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of liquid binary Ni-Mo alloys with molybdenum concentration from 0 to 20% (mass fraction) was measured by a modified sessile drop method. It has been found that the density of the liquid Ni-Mo alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Mo binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The partial molar volume of molybdenum in Ni-Mo binary alloy has been approximately calculated as [13.18 - 2.65 × 10-3T + (-47.94 + 3.10 × 10-2T) × 10-2XMo] × 10-6m3·mol-1. The molar volume of Ni-Mo alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing molar volume.

  1. A vanadium alloy for the application in a liquid metal blanket of a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstedt, H. U.; Grundmann, M.; Konys, J.; Perić, Z.

    1988-07-01

    The vanadium alloy V3Ti1Si has been corrosion tested in liquid lithium and the eutectic alloy Pb-17Li at 550°C. This alloy has a comparable corrosion resistance to the alloy V15Cr5Ti in lithium. In this molten metal it is superior to stainless steel AISI 316. In the Pb-17Li melt it is even superior to martensitic steels. The alloy has only a weak tendency to be dissolved. It is sensitive to an exchange of non-metallic elements, which causes the formation of a hardened surface layer. These chemical effects are influenced by the mass and surface ratios of the vanadium alloy to the molten metals and other structural materials. These ratios are unfavorable in the two test loops. The effects might be less pronounced in a vanadium alloy/liquid metal fusion reactor blanket.

  2. The excess enthalpies of liquid Ge-Pb-Te alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Binder, J.; Schlieper, A.

    1997-01-01

    The excess enthalpies of liquid alloys in the ternary system Ge-Pb-Te were determined at 1210 K in a heat flow calorimeter for five sections Ge y Pb 1-y -Te with y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8 and at 1153 K for Ge 0.5 Pb 0.5 -Te. The enthalpy surface in the ternary system is determined by a valley of exothermic minima, stretching from an exothermic minimum at the composition GeTe to one at the composition PbTe in the respective binaries. The excess enthalpies in the limiting metallic binary were adapted with the Redlich-Kister formalism. For the description of the thermodynamic functions in the ternary system the equation of Bonnier was taken using ternary coefficients. The calculated curves are in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  3. Continuous extraction of molten chloride salts with liquid cadmium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    A pyrochemical method is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide contnuous multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and liquid cadmium alloys at 500 degrees C. The extraction method will be used to recover transuranic (TRU) elements from the process salt in the electroretiner used in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR is one of the Department of Energy's advanced power reactor concepts. The recovered TRU elements are returned to the electrorefiner. The extracted salt undergoes further processing to remove rare earths and other fission products so that most of the purified salt can also be returned to the electrorefiner, thereby extending the useful life of the process salt many times

  4. Improved alloys for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An alloy is specified suitable for use at elevated temperatures and especially in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor consisting essentially of a nickel-chromium steel having a specified range of composition of C, Mn, Si, Zr, V, Ni, Cr, Ti, Al, Mo, B, and the balance iron with incidental impurities, the alloy exhibiting a swelling at peak swelling temperature of less than 10% wherein the matrix composition has after heat treatment at a temperature within the range of 1000 0 C to 1100 0 C for about one half hour followed by aging at a temperature within the range of from 700 0 C to 815 0 C for a time period of between 10 to 24 hours, the longer hours being associated with the lower temperatures and vice-versa, and after the removal of the non-equilibrium gamma prime and other precipitated phases a composition within a specified range of composition of Ni, Cr, Ti, Al, Mo, the balance being essentially iron. (U.K.)

  5. A Technique for Dynamic Corrosion Testing in Liquid Lead Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Eric Paul; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2001-04-01

    An experimental apparatus for the investigation of the flow-assisted dissolution and precipitation (corrosion) of potential fuel cladding and structural materials to be used in liquid lead alloy cooled reactors has been designed. This experimental project is part of a larger research effort between Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology to investigate the suitability of lead, lead-bismuth, and other lead alloys for cooling fast reactors designed to produce low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The INEEL forced convection corrosion cell consists of a small heated vessel with a shroud and gas flow system. The gas flow rates, heat input, and shroud and vessel dimensions have been adjusted so that a controlled coolant flow rate, temperature, and oxygen potential are created within the downcomer located between the shroud and vessel wall. The ATHENA computer code was used to design the experimental apparatus and estimate the fluid conditions. The corrosion cell will test steel that is commercially available in the U. S. to temperatures above 650oC.

  6. Surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti binary alloys measured by electromagnetic levitation and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, S.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.; Novakovic, R.

    2011-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti alloys has been measured by using the containerless technique of electromagnetic levitation and theoretically calculated in the framework of the compound formation model. Measurements have been carried out on alloys covering the entire range of composition and over the temperature range 1275-2050 K. For all investigated alloys the surface tension can be described by a linear function of the temperature with negative slope. Due to the presence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state the surface properties of liquid Cu-Ti alloys are satisfactory described by the compound formation model.

  7. Study on corrosion resistance of high - entropy alloy in medium acid liquid and chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, I; Buluc, G; Florea, R M; Carcea, I; Soare, V

    2015-01-01

    High-entropy alloy is a new alloy which is different from traditional alloys. The high entropy alloys were started in Tsing Hua University of Taiwan since 1995 by Yeh et al. Consisting of a variety of elements, each element occupying a similar compared with other alloy elements to form a high entropy. We could define high entropy alloys as having approximately equal concentrations, made up of a group of 5 to 11 major elements. In general, the content of each element is not more than 35% by weight of the alloy. During the investigation it turned out that this alloy has a high hardness and is also corrosion proof and also strength and good thermal stability. In the experimental area, scientists used different tools, including traditional casting, mechanical alloying, sputtering, splat-quenching to obtain the high entropy alloys with different alloying elements and then to investigate the corresponding microstructures and mechanical, chemical, thermal, and electronic performances. The present study is aimed to investigate the corrosion resistance in a different medium acid and try to put in evidence the mechanical properties. Forasmuch of the wide composition range and the enormous number of alloy systems in high entropy alloys, the mechanical properties of high entropy alloys can vary significantly. In terms of hardness, the most critical factors are: hardness/strength of each composing phase in the alloy, distribution of the composing phases. The corrosion resistance of an high entropy alloy was made in acid liquid such as 10%HNO 3 -3%HF, 10%H 2 SO 4 , 5%HCl and then was investigated, respectively with weight loss experiment. Weight loss test was carried out by put the samples into the acid solution for corrosion. The solution was maintained at a constant room temperature. The liquid formulations used for tests were 3% hydrofluoric acid with 10% nitric acid, 10% sulphuric acid, 5% hydrochloric acid. Weight loss of the samples was measured by electronic scale. (paper)

  8. Correlation Between Superheated Liquid Fragility And Onset Temperature Of Crystallization For Al-Based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous alloys or metallic glasses have attracted significant interest in the materials science and engineering communities due to their unique physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The viscous flow of amorphous alloys exhibiting high strain rate sensitivity and homogeneous deformation is considered to be an important characteristic in thermoplastic forming processes performed within the supercooled liquid region because it allows superplastic-like deformation behavior. Here, the correlation between the superheated liquid fragility, and the onset temperature of crystallization for Al-based alloys, is investigated. The activation energy for viscous flow of the liquid is also investigated. There is a negative correlation between the parameter of superheated liquid fragility and the onset temperature of crystallization in the same Al-based alloy system. The activation energy decreases as the onset temperature of crystallization increases. This indicates that the stability of a superheated liquid can affect the thermal stability of the amorphous alloy. It also means that a liquid with a large superheated liquid fragility, when rapidly solidified, forms an amorphous alloy with a low thermal stability.

  9. Thermophysical properties of solid and liquid pure and alloyed Pu: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivineau, M., E-mail: michel.boivineau@cea.f [CEA, Centre de Valduc, Departement de Recherches sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-08-01

    The thermophysical properties of both solid and liquid pure and alloyed plutonium have been investigated up to 4000 K by use of a resistive pulse heating technique, the so-called isobaric expansion experiment (IEX). Electrical resistivity, specific volume (density), latent heats of transformations, heat of fusion have been measured and extended in the whole liquid region. Additional static measurements have been also performed in order to determine the heat transport properties such as heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of plutonium alloys. After a first part devoted to additional results on pure Pu under rapid heating, this paper mostly deals with studies on different delta-stabilized Pu alloys in the high temperature range, particularly in the liquid state which is the principal originality of this work. In addition to the thermophysical data mentioned above, an attention is also paid onto sound velocity measurements on these alloys in the solid and liquid states. Hence, an anomalous behavior such as elastic softening is confirmed in the delta phase as already reported previously. Moreover, sound velocity and equation of state parameters (adiabatic and thermal bulk moduli, Grueneisen parameter, and specific heats ratio) have been investigated on liquid alloyed Pu. Such results confirm previous works on liquid pure Pu by presenting an atypical dual behavior of sound velocity, and are discussed in terms of delocalization process of the 5f electrons of both liquid pure and alloyed Pu.

  10. Correlation between the resistivity and the atomic clusters in liquid Cu-Sn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Zhang, Jinyang; Hu, Xun; Li, Cancan; Zhao, Degang; Teng, XinYing; Yang, Cheng

    2018-05-01

    The liquid structure of CuxSn100-x (x = 0, 10, 20, 33, 40, 50, 60, 75, 80 and 100) alloys with atom percentage were investigated with resistivity and viscosity methods. It can be found from the resistivity data that the liquid Cu75Sn25 and Cu80Sn20 alloys had a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR), and liquid Cu75Sn25 alloy had a minimum value of -9.24 μΩ cm K-1. While the rest of liquid Cu-Sn alloys had a positive TCR. The results indicated that the Cu75Sn25 atomic clusters existed in Cu-Sn alloys. In addition, the method of calculating the percentage of Cu75Sn25 atomic clusters was established on the basis of resistivity theory and the law of conservation of mass. The Cu75Sn25 alloy had a maximum volume of the atomic clusters and a highest activation energy. The results further proved the existence of Cu75Sn25 atomic clusters. Furthermore, the correlation between the liquid structure and the resistivity was established. These results provide a useful reference for the investigation of liquid structure via the sensitive physical properties to the liquid structure.

  11. Corrosion resistance investigation of vanadium alloys in liquid lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovitskaya, I. V., E-mail: symp@imet.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Russian Federation); Lyublinskiy, I. E. [JSC Red Star (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G. G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (Russian Federation); Paramonova, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Russian Federation); Korshunov, S. N.; Mansurova, A. N. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Lyakhovitskiy, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Russian Federation); Zharkov, M. Yu. [JSC Red Star (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A major concern in using vanadium alloys for first wall/blanket systems in fusion reactors is their activity with regard to nonmetallic impurities in the coolants. This paper presents the results of studying the corrosion resistance in high-purity liquid lithium (with the nitrogen and carbon content of less than 10{sup –3} wt %) of vanadium and vanadium alloys (V–1.86Ga, V–3.4Ga–0.62Si, V–4.81Ti–4.82Cr) both in the initial state and preliminarily irradiated with Ar+ ions with energy of 20 keV to a dose of 10{sup 22} m{sup –2} at an irradiation temperature of ~400°C. The degree of corrosion was estimated by measuring the changes in the weight and microhardness. Corrosion tests were carried out under static isothermal conditions at a temperature of 600°C for 400 h. The identity of corrosion mechanisms of materials both irradiated with Ar ions and not irradiated, which consisted in an insignificant penetration of nitrogen into the materials and a substantial escape of oxygen from the materials, causing the formation of a zone with a reduced microhardness near the surface, was established. The influence of the corrosive action of lithium on the surface morphology of the materials under study was found, resulting in the manifestation of grain boundaries and slip lines on the sample surface, the latter being most clearly observed in the case of preliminary irradiation with Ar ions.

  12. Liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys as electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1981-06-01

    The article reviews the theory of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys, within the framework of linear screening theory for the electron-ion interactions. (author)

  13. Experimental system design of liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler for DFLL-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Li Junge; Xu Shaomei; Weng Kuiping

    2011-01-01

    The liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler is a very important composition in the tritium unit of Chinese Dual-Functional Lithium Lead Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM). In order to complete the construction and run of the bubbler experimental system,overall design of the system, main circuit design and auxiliary system design have been proposed on the basis of theoretical calculations for the interaction of hydrogen isotope with lithium-lead alloy and experiment for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by bubbling with rotational jet nozzle. The key of this design is gas-liquid exchange packed column, to achieve the measurement and extraction of hydrogen isotopes from liquid lithium-lead alloy. (authors)

  14. Knight shift of 23Na and 7Li nuclei in liquid sodium-lithium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitsma, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    The Knight shift of 23 Na and 7 Li nuclei in liquid sodium-lithium alloys has been measured. Some aspects of the theoretical interpretation of the Knight shift within the diffraction model, are clarified

  15. Dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy for use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy is provided which has high-temperature strength and is readily fabricable at ambient temperatures, and which is useful as structural elements of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. 4 tables

  16. Density and atomic volume in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of Metal Physics; Egry, I.; Brillo, J.; Holland-Moritz, D. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Raumsimulation; Kaban, I. [Chemnitz Univ. of Technolgy (Germany). Inst. of Physics

    2007-02-15

    The density of liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys have been determined over a wide temperature range by a noncontact technique combining electromagnetic levitation and optical dilatometry. The temperature and composition dependences of the density are analysed. A negative excess volume correlates with the negative enthalpy of mixing, compound forming ability and chemical short-range ordering in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni alloys. (orig.)

  17. On the atomic structure of liquid Ni-Si alloys: a neutron diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S.; Marczinke, J.; Hennet, L.; Hoyer, W.; Cuello, G. J.

    2009-09-01

    The atomic structure of the liquid NiSi and NiSi2 alloys is investigated by means of neutron diffraction experiments with isotopic substitution. From experimental data-sets obtained using four Ni isotopes, partial structure factors and pair correlation functions are obtained by applying a reverse Monte Carlo modelling approach. Both alloys were found to exhibit a strong tendency to hetero-coordination within the first coordination shell. In particular, covalent Si-Si bonds with somewhat greater distances seem to influence the structure of the liquid NiSi alloy.

  18. On the atomic structure of liquid Ni-Si alloys: a neutron diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, S; Marczinke, J; Hoyer, W [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Hennet, L [CNRS-CEMHTI, University of Orleans, F-45071 Orleans (France); Cuello, G J, E-mail: sascha.gruner@physik.tu-chemnitz.d [Institute Laue-Langevin, PO Box 156, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2009-09-23

    The atomic structure of the liquid NiSi and NiSi{sub 2} alloys is investigated by means of neutron diffraction experiments with isotopic substitution. From experimental data-sets obtained using four Ni isotopes, partial structure factors and pair correlation functions are obtained by applying a reverse Monte Carlo modelling approach. Both alloys were found to exhibit a strong tendency to hetero-coordination within the first coordination shell. In particular, covalent Si-Si bonds with somewhat greater distances seem to influence the structure of the liquid NiSi alloy.

  19. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  20. Study of solubility of akaline earth metals in liquid iron and in alloys on its base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, Yu.A.; Archugov, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Solubility of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium in liquid iron and its alloys with aluminium, silicon, nickel, chromium and carbon at 1600 deg C has been measured. Interaction parameters taking account of the effect of added elements on alkaline earth metal solubility in liquid iron have been estimated

  1. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni 26 Zr 74 . In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

  2. Ferrous alloy metallurgy, liquid lithium corrosion and welding. Final report, April 1, 1973-March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.L.; Matlock, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    This research program consists of two parts: an evaluation of the corrosion behavior of ferrous alloys in liquid lithium, and a study of microstructure development and properties of dissimilar metal weldments. A ten-year overview of the research accomplishments made is presented. The effects of liquid lithium on both uniform corrosion and grain boundary penetration in ferrous alloys has been investigated as a function of time, temperature, base metal alloy content, and liquid lithium nitrogen content. Kinetic equations for the various corrosion processes have been developed and analyzed with respect to models for corrosion and corrosion product development. The effects of liquid lithium on mechanical properties, particularly fatigue, have been studied. Results have shown that in both austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels, liquid lithium significantly reduces the mechanical integrity of all materials by inducing liquid metal embrittlement. A model for liquid metal embrittlement induced damage during fatigue was developed and shown to correlate with the experimental results. Microstructural development in austenitic weld metal, with particular emphasis on new grades with reduced chromium contents, has been investigated. The microstructures have been correlated with alloy content and the basics of a thermodynamic model for predicting weld metal microstructure has been developed. The high temperature mechanical behavior of dissimilar metal weldments (austenitic stainless steel to ferritic steel) has been investigated with the impression-creep test technique. Observed microstructural changes with position across the weldment are shown to correlate directly with creep behavior. A model based on deformation of composite materials was developed

  3. X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of some liquid alkali metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijben, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental techniques and correction procedures have been searched for, which allow a reliable and accurate determination of the structure factors of simple liquid metals, particularly in the small-angle region. A study of binary alloys was carried out and showed that clustering of like atoms (a tendency to phase separation) occurs, indicating special structural aspects. The densities of Na-K, Na-Cs, K-Rb alloys were also measured. (C.F.)

  4. Surface properties and wetting behavior of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyarchuk V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface tension and density measurements of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys were carried out over a wide temperature range by using the sessile drop method. The surface tension experimental data were analyzed by the Butler thermodynamic model in the regular solution approximation. The wetting characteristics of these alloys on Cu and Ni substrates have been also determined. The new experimental results were compared with the calculated values as well as with data available in the literature.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis and evaluation of the nitrogen solubility in liquid Nb and Fe-Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Caian

    1994-01-01

    Experimental information on the nitrogen solubility in liquid Nb and Fe-Nb alloys has been critically analysed and then utilized to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of the Nb-N and Fe-Nb-N liquid phases on the basis of thermodynamic models of Gibbs energy. A thermodynamic description of the Fe-Nb-N liquid phase was obtained, which has been used to calculate the N solubility in comparison with experimental results. The effect of an addition of Nb on the temperature dependence of the N solubility in liquid Fe has been examined by comparing with the effect of the Cr and V additions. It has been shown that the N solubility in liquid Nb and Fe-Nb alloys under various conditions is well described by the present calculation. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic Susceptibility of liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimakura Hironori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For rare earth alloys, the indirect interaction of RKKY is at work between rare-earth atoms. Therefore, the magnetism of them depends on the number of conduction electrons and the distance between rare-earth metals. In this work, to reveal the relationship between the number of conduction electrons and magnetic property of rare earth metal alloys, magnetic susceptibility measurements for liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge was performed by Faraday method. As the results, it was observed that the sign of paramagnetic Curie temperature of Cu-Gd alloys are positive at all composition, while Ga-Gd and Ge-Gd alloys show negative paramagnetic Curie temperature at certain composition. Moreover, it was indicated when the alloy at certain composition shows highest melting temperature, it has the lowest paramagnetic Curie temperature.

  7. Calorimetric measurements of the Ca-Li liquid alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębski A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ternary Cu-Al-Sn phase diagram is the base for several important types of alloys, with relevant industrial interest and applications. The knowledge of the melting/solidification alloys characteristics are determinant for their preparation and properties control. However, there is a lack of experimental information on the ternary phase diagram, at high temperature. In this work, several alloys, with high copper content and additions of Al, up to 10%, and Sn, up to 14% (in wt%, were studied by thermal analysis and by isothermal phase equilibria determination. The alloys liquidus and solidus lines and the binary α + β phase field, at 800 °C, are presented for the studied range of compositions.

  8. Theoretical calculations of the surface tension of Ag(1-x)-Cu(x) liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A thermodynamic model for calculating the surface tension, and its temperature and composition dependences, of liquid binary alloys is described. → The model does not require the prior knowledge of the surface concentration and Gibbs energy. → The surface tension of the liquid Ag-Cu binary alloys has been calculated as a function of temperature and concentration. → The calculated values agree well with existing experimental data. - Abstract: The surface tension of silver-copper binary liquid alloys is calculated, in the frame work of Eyring theory. The calculations were made for different compositions (mole fraction, x Cu = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), in the temperature range 1100-1800 K. The surface tension decreases with temperature increase, at a fixed copper fraction x Cu , and increases with increasing copper content. The calculated results are appropriately compared with existing literature data.

  9. Proofs of cluster formation and transitions in liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Calculational and experimental proofs are presented indicating to existence of clusters in liquid metals and alloys. Systems of liquid alloys both on the base of ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals (Fe-C, Ni-C, Co-C, Fe-Ni, Ni-Mo, Co-Cr, Co-V as well as In-Sn, Bi-Sn, Si-Ge and others) are studied experimentally. It is shown that the general feature of the systems studied is sensitivity of a volume to change in structure, to replacement fcc structure on bcc or to initiation-dissociation of intermetallic compounds AxBy. It is shown that both in pure liquid metals and in their.alloys there are clusters as ordered aggregate of atoms

  10. Computation of infinite dilute activity coefficients of binary liquid alloys using complex formation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com; Oshakuade, O.M.

    2016-04-15

    A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ{sup ∞}s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ{sup ∞}s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ{sup ∞}s of 10 binary alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ{sup ∞}s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ{sup ∞}s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ{sup ∞}s and then used the γ{sup ∞}s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ{sup ∞}s of binary liquid alloys.

  11. The use of alloy 117 as a liquid metal current collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maribo, David; Sondergaard, Neal

    1987-09-01

    Low melting point, bismuth based alloys are potential replacements for NaK78 as liquid metal slip ring material because of their lower reactivity and potentially greater hydrodynamic stability. This paper describes experiments with one such alloy in a model of a 300 kW superconducting homopolar motor using close clearance braid type collectors. Slip ring tip velocities varied from 5 to 20 m/s and currents ranging from 500 to 2000 A. Viscous power losses tend to follow a simple turbulent mode. In all, the data supports the use of low melting point alloys as an alternative to Na78.

  12. Speciation of Hg in lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, Vesna; Horvat, Milena

    2002-01-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as a suitable tool for monitoring the relative levels of atmospheric pollutants. Lichens have neither roots, a waxy cuticle nor stomata: hence, for mineral nutrition they are largely dependent on wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere. Moreover, lichens are perennial and can accumulate elements over long periods of time. Therefore, concentrations of elements in lichens represent the average levels of elements in the atmosphere for a long period of time. The epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes is a good bioindicator of air pollution with total mercury (THg). In addition, it contains small amounts of methylmercury (MeHg + ). The first aim of our work was to test analytical techniques for determination of MeHg in lichens taken from different locations in Idrija and reference locations

  13. Enhanced Densification of PM Steels by Liquid Phase Sintering with Boron-Containing Master Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattur Sundaram, Maheswaran; Surreddi, Kumar Babu; Hryha, Eduard; Veiga, Angela; Berg, Sigurd; Castro, Fransisco; Nyborg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Reaching high density in PM steels is important for high-performance applications. In this study, liquid phase sintering of PM steels by adding gas-atomized Ni-Mn-B master alloy was investigated for enhancing the density levels of Fe- and Mo- prealloyed steel powder compacts. The results indicated that liquid formation occurs in two stages, beginning with the master alloy melting (LP-1) below and eutectic phase formation (LP-2) above 1373 K (1100 °C). Mo and C addition revealed a significant influence on the LP-2 temperatures and hence on the final densification behavior and mechanical properties. Microstructural embrittlement occurs with the formation of continuous boride networks along the grain boundaries, and its severity increases with carbon addition, especially for 2.5 wt pct of master alloy content. Sintering behavior, along with liquid generation, microstructural characteristics, and mechanical testing revealed that the reduced master alloy content from 2.5 to 1.5 wt pct (reaching overall boron content from 0.2 to 0.12 wt pct) was necessary for obtaining good ductility with better mechanical properties. Sintering with Ni-Mn-B master alloy enables the sintering activation by liquid phase formation in two stages to attain high density in PM steels suitable for high-performance applications.

  14. Formation of electrically insulating coatings on aluminided vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3-5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. Reaction of the aluminide layer with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium provides a means of developing an in-situ electrical insulator coating on the surface of the alloys. The electrical resistivity of A1N coatings on aluminided V and V-20 wt.% Ti was determined in-situ

  15. Effective interactions between concentration fluctuations and charge transfer in chemically ordering liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Tosi, M.P.

    1992-08-01

    The correlations between long-wavelength fluctuations of concentration in a liquid binary alloy are determined by a balance between an elastic strain free energy and an Ornstein-Zernike effective interaction. The latter is extracted from thermodynamic data in the case of the Li-Pb system, which is well known to chemically order with stoichiometric composition corresponding to Li 4 Pb. Strong attractive interactions between concentration fluctuations near the composition of chemical ordering originate from electronic charge transfer, which is estimated from the electron-ion partial structure factors as functions of composition in the liquid alloy. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs

  16. Energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the line of phase separation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, G M; Ziauddin-Ahmed, A Z

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the solid-liquid phase separation line. A microscopic theory based on the first order perturbation has been applied. The interionic interaction and a reference liquid are the fundamental components of the theory. These are described by a local pseudopotential and the hard sphere liquids, respectively. The results of calculations reveal a characteristic feature that the energy of formation becomes minimum at the equiatomic composition, and thus indicates maximal mix-ability at this concentration. The energy of formation at a particular thermodynamic state that is at T 1173 K predicts the experimental trends fairly well.

  17. Liquid Segregation Phenomenological Behaviors of Ti14 Alloy during Semisolid Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The liquid segregation phenomenon and its effect on deformation mechanism of Ti14 alloy in semisolid metal processing were investigated by thermal simulation test. Microstructure of depth profile was determined by cross-section quantitative metallography, and liquid segregation phenomenon was described by Darcy's law. The results show that segregation phenomenon was affected by solid fraction, strain rate, and deformation rate. More liquid segregated from center to edge portion with high strain rate and/or deformation ratio as well as low solid fraction, which caused different distribution of dominating deformation mechanism. The relationship between liquid segregation and main deformation mechanism was also discussed by phenomenological model.

  18. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  19. Solid - solid and solid - liquid phase transitions of iron and iron alloys under laser shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Krygier, A.; Appel, K.; Galtier, E.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Lee, H. J.; McBride, E. E.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nemausat, R.; Vinci, T.; Zhu, D.; Ozaki, N.; Fiquet, G.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the properties of iron and iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is crucial for understanding and modelling planetary interiors. While Earth-size and Super-Earth Exoplanets are being discovered in increasingly large numbers, access to detailed information on liquid properties, melting curves and even solid phases of iron and iron at the pressures and temperatures of their interiors is still strongly limited. In this context, XFEL sources coupled with high-energy lasers afford unique opportunities to measure microscopic structural properties at far extreme conditions. Also the achievable time resolution allows the shock history and phase transition mechanisms to be followed during laser compression, improving our understanding of the high pressure and high strain experiments. Here we present recent studies devoted to investigate the solid-solid and solid-liquid transition in laser-shocked iron and iron alloys (Fe-Si, Fe-C and Fe-O alloys) using X-ray diffraction and X-ray diffuse scattering. Experiment were performed at the MEC end-station of the LCLS facility at SLAC (USA). Detection of the diffuse scattering allowed the identification of the first liquid peak position along the Hugoniot, up to 4 Mbar. The time resolution shows ultrafast (between several tens and several hundreds of picoseconds) solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions. Future developments at XFEL facilities will enable detailed studies of the solid and liquid structures of iron and iron alloys as well as out-of-Hugoniot studies.

  20. Solution properties of solid and liquid potassium-indium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, T.; Saboungi, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    It was recently shown by a combination of electrical resistivity, thermodynamic, and structural measurements that equiatomic alloys formed between K or Na and either Bi, Sb, Te, or Pb show pronounced deviations from ordinary metallic behavior and from ideal solution behavior, e.g., small values for the electrical conductivity and sharp peaks for the Darken excess stability function. Physical explanation of this behavior has been advanced on the basis of the formation of complex structural species similar to those reported for the corresponding solid alloys. The authors have chosen K-In alloys for several reasons. Phase diagram considerations coupled with small electronegativity differences between K and In would lead one to predict small deviations from ideal behavior, thus, this system would be suitable to test for oddities in alloy solution behavior in systems which deviate little from ideal behavior. Others have demonstrated that the position of the peak in the electrical resistivity changed in going from Li to Na and to K in the following sequence X/sub In/ ≅ 0.25, 0.40, and 0.50, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of these alloys would be expected to present similar trends

  1. On the self-diffusion process in liquid metals and alloys by the radioactive tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganovici, L.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of self-diffusion process in liquid metals and alloys is presented. There are only a few pure metals for which diffusion coefficients in a liquid state are known. The thesis aims at increasing the number of liquid metals for which diffusion coefficients are available, by determining these values for liquids: Cd, Tl, Sb and Te. The self-diffusion coefficients of Te in some tellurium based liquid alloys such as Tl 2 Te, PbTe and Bi 90 Te 10 were also determined. Self-diffusion coefficients have been measured using two radioactive tracer methods: a) the capillary-reservoir method; b) the semi-infinite capillary method. The self-diffusion coefficients were derived from the measured radioactive concentration profile, using the solutions of Fick's second law for appropriate initial and limit conditions. The temperature dependence study of self-diffusion coefficients in liquids Cd, Tl, Sb and Te, was used to check some theoretical models on the diffusion mechanism in metallic melts. The experimental diffusion data interpreted in terms of the Arrhenius type temperature dependence, was used to propose two simple empiric relations for determining self diffusion coefficients of group I liquid metals and for liquid semi-metals. It was established a marked decrease of self-diffusion coefficients of liquid Te close to the solidification temperature. The diffusivity of Te in liquid Tl 2 Te points to an important decrease close to the solidification temperature. A simplified model was proposed for the diffusion structural unit in this alloy and the hard sphere model for liquid metals was checked by comparing the theoretical and experimental self-diffusion coefficients. (author)

  2. Investigation of models to predict the corrosion of steels in flowing liquid lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbaud-Celerier, F.; Barbier, F.

    2001-01-01

    Corrosion of steels exposed to flowing liquid lead alloys can be affected by hydrodynamic parameters. The rotating cylinder system is of interest for the practical evaluation of the fluid velocity effect on corrosion and for the prediction of the corrosion behavior in other geometries. Models developed in aqueous medium are tested in the case of liquid metal environments. It is shown that equations established for the rotating cylinder and the pipe flow geometry can be used effectively in liquid lead alloys (Pb-17Li) assuming the corrosion process is mass transfer controlled and the diffusion coefficient of dissolved species is known. The corrosion rate of martensitic steels in Pb-17Li is shown to be independent of the geometry when plotted as a function of the mass transfer coefficient. Predictions about the corrosion of steel in liquid Pb-Bi are performed but experiments are needed to validate the results obtained by modeling

  3. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag–In–Sb alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA ZIVKOVIC

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of calculations of the thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag–In–Sb alloys are presented in this paper. The Redlich–Kister–Muggianu model was used for the calculations. Based on known thermodynamic data for constitutive binary systems and available experimental data for the investigated ternary system, the ternary interaction parameter for the liquid phase in the temperature range 1000–1200 K was determined. Comparison between experimental and calculated results showed their good mutual agreement.

  4. Microstructural anomalies in a W-Ni alloy liquid phase sintered under microgravity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Iacocca, R.G.; Johnson, J.L.; German, R.M.; Kohara, Shiro

    1995-01-01

    The gravitational role in liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a problem of great interest in both materials science and engineering practice. Gravity-induced microstructural gradients in grain size, grain shape, and solid volume fraction have been well documented in liquid phase sintered tungsten heavy alloys and have been analyzed by a number of theoretical models. However, gravity may have many unknown effects on LPS, which can only be revealed by experiments conducted under microgravity conditions

  5. Thermochemistry of liquid Ni–Sb–Sn alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, R.; Kroupa, Aleš; Terzieff, P.; Ipser, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 536, MAY (2012), s. 68-73 ISSN 0040-6031 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08053 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Ni-Sb-Sn alloys * thermochemistry * vapor pressure measurements Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2012

  6. Development of aluminide coatings on vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, D.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3/5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed V and V-20 wt.% Ti capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. After each test, the capsules were opened and the samples were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyzed by electron-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Hardness of the coating layers and bulk alloys was determined by microidentation techniques. The nature of the coatings, i.e., surface coverage, thickness, and composition, varied with exposure time and temperature, solute concentration in lithium, and alloy composition. Solute elements that yielded adherent coatings on various substrates can provide a means of developing in-situ electrical insulator coatings by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium

  7. Impact of medium-range order on the glass transition in liquid Ni-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y. J.; Entel, P.

    2011-09-01

    We study the thermophysical properties and structure of liquid Ni-Si alloys using molecular dynamics simulations. The liquid Ni-5% and 10%Si alloys crystallize to form the face-centered cubic (Ni) at 900 and 850 K, respectively, and the glass transitions take place in Ni-20% and 25%Si alloys at about 700 K. The temperature-dependent self-diffusion coefficients and viscosities exhibit more pronounced non-Arrhenius behavior with the increase of Si content before phase transitions, indicating the enhanced glass-forming ability. These appearances of thermodynamic properties and phase transitions are found to closely relate to the medium-range order clusters with the defective face-centered cubic structure characterized by both local translational and orientational order. This locally ordered structure tends to be destroyed by the addition of more Si atoms, resulting in a delay of nucleation and even glass transition instead.

  8. PREDICTION OF THE MIXING ENTHALPIES OF BINARY LIQUID ALLOYS BY MOLECULAR INTERACTION VOLUME MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W.Yang; D.P.Tao; Z.H.Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of 23 binary liquid alloys are calculated by molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), which is a two-parameter model with the partial molar infinite dilute mixing enthalpies. The predicted values are in agreement with the experimental data and then indicate that the model is reliable and convenient.

  9. Pressure-induced structural change in liquid GaIn eutectic alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Q.; Ahmad, A. S.; Ståhl, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction reveals a pressure induced crystallization at about 3.4 GPa and a polymorphic transition near 10.3 GPa when compressed a liquid GaIn eutectic alloy up to ~13 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell. Upon decompression, the high pressure crystalline phase...

  10. Interfacial morphologies and growth modes of F.C.C. metallic crystals from liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camel, Denis

    1980-01-01

    Equilibrium and growth morphologies of f.c.c. metallic crystals in contact with liquid alloys have been observed in-situ using transmission electron microscopy. These morphologies have been discussed in terms of atomic interfacial structure and growth mechanisms with the help of a statistical thermodynamic model which takes into account the effects of chemical interactions and interfacial adsorption. (author) [fr

  11. Austenitic stainless steel alloys with high nickel contents in high temperature liquid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konvicka, H.R.; Schwarz, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni base alloys (nickel content: from 15 to 70 wt%, Chromium content: 15 wt%, iron: balance) together with stainless steel (W.Nr. 1.4981) have been exposed to flowing liquid sodium at 730 0 C in four intervals up to a cumulative exposure time of 1500 hours. Weight change data and the results of post-exposition microcharacterization of specimens are reported. The corrosion rates increase with increasing nickel content and tend to become constant after longer exposure times for each alloy. The corrosion rate of stainless steel is considerably reduced due to the presence of the base alloys. Different kinetics of nickel poor (up to 35% nickel) and nickel rich (> 50% nickel) alloys and nickel transport from nickel rich to nickel poor material is observed. (orig.)

  12. Chemical short range order and magnetic correction in liquid manganese–gallium zero alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosdidier, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Ben Abdellah, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Innovation and Management of Industrial Systems, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, College of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier , P.O. Box 416, Postal code 90000, Tangier (Morocco); Université Internationale de Rabat, Parc Technopolis Rabat-Shore, 11100 Sala El Jadida (Morocco); Osman, S.M., E-mail: osm@squ.edu.om [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Ataati, J. [Innovation and Management of Industrial Systems, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, College of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, P.O. Box 416, Postal code 90000, Tangier (Morocco); Gasser, J.G. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-12-15

    The Mn{sub 66}Ga{sub 34} alloy at this particular composition is known to be zero alloy in which the linear combination of the two neutron scattering lengths weighted by the atomic compositions vanish. Thus for this specific concentration, the effect of the partial structure factors S{sub NN} and S{sub NC} is cancelled by a weighted term, which value is zero. Then the measured total structure factor S(q) gives directly the concentration–concentration structure factor S{sub CC}(q). We present here the first experimental results of neutron diffraction on the Mn{sub 66}Ga{sub 34} “null matrix alloy” at 1050 °C. The main peak of the experimental S{sub CC}(q) gives a strong evidence of a hetero-atomic chemical order in this coordinated alloy. This order also appears in real space radial distribution function which is calculated by the Fourier transform of the structure factor. The degree of hetero-coordination is discussed together with other manganese-polyvalent alloys. However manganese also shows abnormal magnetic scattering in the alloy structure factor which must be corrected. This correction gives an experimental information on the mean effective spin of manganese in this liquid alloy. We present the first critical theoretical calculations of the magnetic correction factor in Mn–Ga zero-alloy based on our accurate experimental measurements of S{sub CC}(q).

  13. Mechanical properties of molybdenum alloyed liquid phase-sintered tungsten-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P.B.; German, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tungsten-based composites are fabricated from mixed elemental powders using liquid phase sintering, usually with a nickel-iron matrix. During sintering, the tungsten undergoes grain growth, leading to microstructure coarsening that lowers strength but increases ductility. Often the desire is to increase strength at the sacrifice of ductility, and historically, this has been performed by postsintering deformation. There has been considerable research on alloying to adjust the as-sintered mechanical properties to match those of swaged alloys. Prior reports cover many additions, seemingly including much of the periodic table. Unfortunately, many of the modified alloys proved disappointing, largely due to degraded strength at the tungsten-matrix interface. Of these modified alloys, the molybdenum-containing systems exhibit a promising combination of properties, cost, and processing ease. For example, the 82W-8Mo-7Ni-3Fe alloy gives a yield strength that is 34% higher than the equivalent 90W-7Ni-3Fe alloy (from 535 to 715 MPa) but with a 33% decrease in fracture elongation (from 30 to 20% elongation). This article reports on experiments geared to promoting improved properties in the W-Mo-Ni-Fe alloys. However, unlike the prior research which maintained a constant Ni + Fe content and varied the W:Mo ratio, this study considers the Mo:(Ni + Fe) ratio effect for 82, 90, and 93 wt pct W

  14. Limets 2: a hot-cell test set-up for Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) studies in liquid lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bosch, J.; Bosch, R.W.; Al Mazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. In the nuclear energy sector one of the main candidate designs for the accelerator driven system (ADS) uses liquid lead or lead bismuth eutectic both as a coolant and as spallation target. In the fusion community liquid lead lithium eutectic is considered as a possible coolant for the blanket and as a tritium source. Therefore the candidate materials for such structural components should not only comply with the operating conditions but in addition need to guarantee chemical and physical integrity when coming into contact with the lead alloys. The latter phenomena can be manifested in terms of erosion/corrosion. and/or of the so called liquid metal embrittlement (LME). Thus the susceptibility to LME of the structural materials under consideration to be used in such applications should be investigated in contact with the various lead alloys. LME, if occurring in any solid metal/liquid meta] couple, is likely to increase with irradiation hardening as localised stresses and crack initiations can promote it. To investigate the mechanical response of irradiated materials in contact with a liquid metal under representative conditions, a dedicated testing facility has recently been developed and built at our centre. It consists of an instrumented hot cell. equipped with a testing machine that allows mechanical testing of active materials in contact with active liquid lead lithium and liquid lead bismuth under well controlled chemistry conditions. The specificity of the installation is to handle highly activated and contaminated samples. Also a dedicated dismantling set-up has been developed that allows to retrieve the samples from the irradiation rig without any supplementary damage. In this presentation we will focus on the technical design of this new installation, its special features that have been developed to allow testing in a hot environment and the modifications and actions that have been taken to allow testing in liquid lead

  15. Diffusion dynamics in liquid and undercooled Al-Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stueber, Sebastian

    2009-10-05

    This work presents data on Ni self-diffusion in binary Al-Ni alloys with high precision. For this, we combined two techniques: containerless electromagnetic levitation to position the samples, and neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy to measure the decay of the self-correlation. This combination offers new measurement ranges, especially at low temperatures, several hundreds of Kelvin below the liquidus temperature. Because without container, the primary cristallization seeds for the metallic melt are avoided. But it is also possible to measure reactive samples, and at very high temperatures at and above 2000K, as problematic reactions with the containing cask won't occur. Furthermore this technique also enables measurements at higher momentum transfer q, as one does not have to limit the q-range of the measurement to avoid Bragg peaks of the solid container material. By this time-of-flight spectroscopy on levitated metallic melts, it is possible to determine the Ni self-diffusion in these alloys directly and on an absolute scale. The dependence of the Ni self-diffusion coefficient on temperature and concentration was studied in pure Ni and binary Al-Ni alloys. In a temperature range of several hundred degrees, we always found Arrhenius-like temperature dependence of the diffusion, irrespective of possible undercooling. In the context of these measurements, we also studied the interdependence between diffusivity in the metallic melt and its quasielastic structure factor. Time-of-flight spectroscopy made it also possible to derive the dynamic partial structure factors of the binary alloy Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 20}. All this to enable a better understanding of the atomic processes in the metallic melt, especially of the undercooled melt, as an alloy is always formed out of the (undercooled) melt of its stoichiometric compounds. For this, material transport and diffusion are immensely important. The final goal would be materials design from the melt, i.e. the prediction

  16. Diffusion dynamics in liquid and undercooled Al-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueber, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    This work presents data on Ni self-diffusion in binary Al-Ni alloys with high precision. For this, we combined two techniques: containerless electromagnetic levitation to position the samples, and neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy to measure the decay of the self-correlation. This combination offers new measurement ranges, especially at low temperatures, several hundreds of Kelvin below the liquidus temperature. Because without container, the primary cristallization seeds for the metallic melt are avoided. But it is also possible to measure reactive samples, and at very high temperatures at and above 2000K, as problematic reactions with the containing cask won't occur. Furthermore this technique also enables measurements at higher momentum transfer q, as one does not have to limit the q-range of the measurement to avoid Bragg peaks of the solid container material. By this time-of-flight spectroscopy on levitated metallic melts, it is possible to determine the Ni self-diffusion in these alloys directly and on an absolute scale. The dependence of the Ni self-diffusion coefficient on temperature and concentration was studied in pure Ni and binary Al-Ni alloys. In a temperature range of several hundred degrees, we always found Arrhenius-like temperature dependence of the diffusion, irrespective of possible undercooling. In the context of these measurements, we also studied the interdependence between diffusivity in the metallic melt and its quasielastic structure factor. Time-of-flight spectroscopy made it also possible to derive the dynamic partial structure factors of the binary alloy Al 80 Ni 20 . All this to enable a better understanding of the atomic processes in the metallic melt, especially of the undercooled melt, as an alloy is always formed out of the (undercooled) melt of its stoichiometric compounds. For this, material transport and diffusion are immensely important. The final goal would be materials design from the melt, i.e. the prediction of alloy

  17. Structure of liquid Au-Si alloys around the eutectic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-Mail: takeda@rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fujii, H. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Fujita, S. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Yokota, Y. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouo Mikazuki-cho, Sayou-gun Hyogo 670-5198 (Japan)

    2007-03-25

    X-ray diffraction measurements have been carried out for liquid Au-Si alloys around the eutectic region by the transmission method using high-energy X-ray to investigate the atomic arrangements in the liquid state. From the temperature dependence of the observed structure factors, the partial pair correlation and the detailed atomic arrangements will be discussed on the basis of a Reverse Monte Carlo analysis. The reproduced atomic arrangements around the eutectic region suggest the substitution structure and also rather dense liquid with decreasing temperature.

  18. Tape transfer atomization patterning of liquid alloys for microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-02-12

    Stretchable electronics offers unsurpassed mechanical compliance on complex or soft surfaces like the human skin and organs. To fully exploit this great advantage, an autonomous system with a self-powered energy source has been sought for. Here, we present a new technology to pattern liquid alloys on soft substrates, targeting at fabrication of a hybrid-integrated power source in microfluidic stretchable electronics. By atomized spraying of a liquid alloy onto a soft surface with a tape transferred adhesive mask, a universal fabrication process is provided for high quality patterns of liquid conductors in a meter scale. With the developed multilayer fabrication technique, a microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer device with an integrated LED was demonstrated, which could survive cycling between 0% and 25% strain over 1,000 times.

  19. Temperature and pressure dependent osmotic pressure in liquid sodium-cesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, R.I.M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of the osmotic pressure in terms of the concentration fluctuations of mixtures and the equations of state of the pure liquids is considered. The temperature and pressure dependent experimentally measured concentration-concentration correlations in the long wavelength limit of liquid sodium-cesium alloys are used to demonstrate the appreciable dependence of the temperature and pressure on the osmotic pressure as a function of concentration. Introducing interchange energies as functions of temperature and pressure, our analysis is consistent with the Flory model. Thus, a formalism for evaluating the state dependent osmotic pressure is developed and our numerical work is considered to be an extension of the calculations of Rashid and March in the sense that a temperature and pressure dependent interchange energy parameter that more closely parameterizes the state dependent concentration fluctuations in the liquid alloys, is used. (author)

  20. Corrosion of ferrous alloys in nitrogen contaminated liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.L.; Bradley, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid lithium penetration of 304L stainless steel and Armco iron grain boundaries has been studied. The penetration kinetics for the 304L stainless steel was found to be diffusion controlled. The measured temperature dependent delay time has been associated with the initial formation of the corrosion product at the grain boundary. Nitrogen in the stainless steel or the liquid lithium has been found to accelerate the rate of attack without changing the apparent activation energy. Grain boundary grooving of Armco iron in liquid lithium indicates that the controlling mass transport is also through a corrosion product present as a surface film. Stresses as small as 12 MPa have been found to give rise to a fifty-fold increase in the rate of penetration of Armco iron by liquid lithium

  1. The complex structure of liquid Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Jingyu; Gu Tingkun; Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Southern Campus, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Hui [Shandong High Performance Computing Center, Shandong University, Southern Campus, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-04-15

    By applying ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to liquid Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy, the hetero-coordination tendency is discovered by Bathia-Thornton partial correlation functions and a chemical short-range parameter. However the local structural environment of Sn in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy resembles that of liquid Sn by Voronoi analysis. A new feature, i.e. a subpeak in between the first and second peaks, is discovered by the present method which implies that topologically disordered {beta}-Sn-type structural units may exist in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy. The local density states of electrons show that both Cu-Sn and Sn-Sn bonding exist in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy. This work suggests that chemical short-range order between unlike atoms and self-coordination between Sn atoms coexists in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy.

  2. High temperature ultrasonic transducers for imaging and measurements in a liquid Pb/Bi eutectic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Voleisis, Algirdas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Mazeika, Liudas; Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Kupschus, Peter; Abderrahim, Hamid Aït

    2005-04-01

    In some nuclear reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS) the core is intended to be cooled by means of a heavy liquid metal, for example, lead-bismuth (Pb/Bi) eutectic alloy. For safety and licensing reasons, an imaging method of the interior of ADS, based on application of ultrasonic waves, has thus to be developed. This paper is devoted to description of developed various ultrasonic transducers suitable for long term imaging and measurements in the liquid Pb/Bi alloy. The results of comparative experimental investigations of the developed transducers of different designs in a liquid Pb/Bi alloy up to 450 degrees C are presented. Prototypes with different high temperature piezoelectric materials were investigated: PZT, bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12), lithium niobate (LiNbO3), gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) and aluminum nitride (A1N). For acoustic coupling with the metal alloy, it was proposed to coat the active surface of the transducers by diamond like carbon (DLC). The radiation robustness was assessed by exposing the transducers to high gamma dose rates in one of the irradiation facilities at SCK x CEN. The experimental results proved that the developed transducers are suitable for long-term operation in harsh conditions.

  3. Control of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by iron-titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakane, Shinji; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium is one of the most important steps in creating a liquid lithium blanket system. In this study, in order to verify the nitrogen gettering performance of Fe-Ti alloy, the variation in the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium, into which Fe-10 at.% Ti or Fe-5 at.% Ti getter was immersed, was examined. The results confirmed a gettering performance of Fe-Ti alloy comparable to that of V-Ti alloy, although the effects were not durable in either the Fe-Ti or the V-Ti alloy. After the immersion test, the existing states of nitrogen absorbed in the gettering material were analyzed by means of XRD, XMA and XPS. TiN and some nitrogen dissolved in α-Fe without forming TiN were observed. It was indicated that nitrogen gettering is prevented not only by the surface nitrides, but also by the internal diffusion barriers originating from the absorbed nitrogen

  4. Liquid-liquid phase separation and solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy with different cooling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Lin; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Lin; Wu, Di; Zuo, Min; Zhao, Degang

    2018-03-01

    The cooling rate has a significant effect on the solidification behavior and microstructure of monotectic alloy. In this study, different cooling rate was designed through casting in the copper mold with different bore diameters. The effects of different cooling rate on the solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 (at.%) immiscible alloy have been investigated. The liquid-liquid phase separation of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy melt was investigated by resistivity test. The solidification microstructure and phase analysis of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy were performed by the SEM and XRD, respectively. The results showed that the liquid-liquid phase separation occurred in the solidification of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic melt from 917 °C to 653 °C. The monotectic temperature, liquid phase separation temperature and immiscibility zone of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was lower than those of Al-Bi binary monotectic alloy. The solidification morphology of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was very sensitive to the cooling rate. The Al/Bi core-shell structure formed when Al55Bi36Cu9 melt was cast in the copper mold with a 8 mm bore diameter.

  5. Solid-liquid phase equilibria of Fe-Cr-Al alloys and spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, J. W.; Hu, R.; Ushakov, S. V.; Shin, D.; Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Navrotsky, A.

    2017-08-01

    Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are candidate accident tolerant cladding materials. There is a paucity of data concerning the melting behavior for FeCrAl and its oxides. Analysis tools have therefore had to utilize assumptions for simulations using FeCrAl cladding. The focus of this study is to examine in some detail the solid-liquid phase equilibria of FeCrAl alloys and spinels with the aim of improving the accuracy of severe accident scenario computational studies.

  6. Phase diagram of nanoscale alloy particles used for vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter

    2008-02-01

    We use transmission electron microscopy observations to establish the parts of the phase diagram of nanometer sized Au-Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition and, hence, their exchange of semiconductor material with the NWs. We find that the phase diagram of the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy, which explains discrepancies between actual growth results and predictions on the basis of the bulk-phase equilibria. Our findings provide the basis for tailoring vapor-liquid-solid growth to achieve complex one-dimensional materials geometries.

  7. Liquid demixing and microstructure formation in ternary Al-Sn-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, D.; Groebner, J. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-07-25

    The complex features of the Al-Sn-Cu phase diagram, dominated by ternary liquid demixing, are revealed by a combination of thermodynamic modeling and experimental studies. Nine ternary alloys were selected to cover all essential features involving the liquidus surface and the invariant solidification reactions. These were analyzed by differential thermal analysis as well as microstructural and local chemical analysis of solidified microstructures. Three different monotectic invariant reactions occur in this system. Small changes in alloy composition may produce distinctly different microstructures with primary crystallization and secondary demixing or vice versa.

  8. Gibbs free energy of formation of liquid lanthanide-bismuth alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiawei; Yamana, Hajimu; Moriyama, Hirotake

    2001-01-01

    The linear free energy relationship developed by Sverjensky and Molling provides a way to predict Gibbs free energies of liquid Ln-Bi alloys formation from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous trivalent lanthanides (Ln 3(5(6+ ). The Ln-Bi alloys are divided into two isostructural families named as the LnBi 2 (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Pm) and LnBi (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb). The calculated Gibbs free energy values are well agreed with experimental data

  9. Interactions between drops of a molten aluminum-lithium alloy and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    In certain hypothesized nuclear reactor accident scenarios, 1- to 10-g drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys might contact liquid water. Because vigorous steam explosions have occurred when large amounts of molten aluminum-lithium alloys were released into water or other coolants, it becomes important to know whether there will be explosions if smaller amounts of these molten alloys similarly come into contact with water. Therefore, the authors released drops of molten Al-3.1 wt pct Li alloy into deionized water at room temperature. The experiments were performed at local atmospheric pressure (0.085 MPa) without pressure transient triggers applied to the water. The absence of these triggers allowed them to (a) investigate whether spontaneous initiation of steam explosions would occur with these drops and (b) study the alloy-water chemical reactions. The drop sizes and melt temperatures were chosen to simulate melt globules that might form during the hypothesized melting of the aluminum-lithium alloy components

  10. Density of liquid NiCrAlMo quarternary alloys measured by a modified sessile drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L.; Wang, Y.F.; Xiao, F.; Tao, Z.N.; MuKai, K.

    2006-01-01

    The densities of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys with a fixed molar ratio of Ni:Cr:Al (approximately as 73:14:13) and molybdenum concentration from 0 to 10 mass% were measured by a modified sessile drop method (MSDM). It was found that the density of the liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration. The molar volume of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The density of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, chromium, aluminum and molybdenum in the corresponding Ni-based binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental results, means, within the error tolerance range the density of liquid Ni-based multi-component alloys can be predicted from the partial volumes of elements in Ni-based binary alloys in liquid state

  11. Interaction of alumina with liquid Pb{sub 83}Li{sub 17} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Uttam, E-mail: uttamj@barc.gov.in [Fusion Reactor Materials Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mukherjee, Abhishek; Sonak, Sagar; Kumar, Sanjay [Fusion Reactor Materials Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, Ratikant [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Krishnamurthy, Nagaiyar [Fusion Reactor Materials Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The role of oxygen in the interaction of alumina with Pb{sub 83}Li{sub 17} alloy was studied. • Li of Pb{sub 83}Li{sub 17} alloy undergoes oxidation even in flowing high pure argon atmosphere. • It was seen that alumina reacts with Pb{sub 83}Li{sub 17} alloy at 550 °C to form LiAlO{sub 2} compound. • The reaction is rapid in the presence of oxygen and happens more slowly in the presence of flowing argon. - Abstract: Eutectic lead lithium (Pb{sub 83}Li{sub 17}) alloy is being considered a coolant, neutron multiplier and tritium breeder for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Fusion Power Reactors (FPR). In order to reduce the magneto-hydrodynamic drag (MHD) and to prevent corrosion of structural materials due to the flow of lead lithium (Pb{sub 83}Li{sub 17}) alloy, alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is proposed as a candidate ceramic coating material. Interaction of liquid Pb{sub 83}Li{sub 17} alloy with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the operating temperature of these reactors is therefore an important issue. The present paper deals with the characterization of Pb{sub 83}Li{sub 17} alloy and its interaction with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the reactor operating temperature. The interaction was studied using EPMA, XRD and thermal analysis technique. The result indicates that alumina can interact with Pb{sub 83}Li{sub 17} alloy at 550 °C even in high purity argon atmosphere. The role of oxygen in the interaction process has also been discussed.

  12. Thermodynamic properties and atomic structure of Ca-based liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poizeau, Sophie

    To identify the most promising positive electrodes for Ca-based liquid metal batteries, the thermodynamic properties of diverse Ca-based liquid alloys were investigated. The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Sb alloys were determined by emf measurements. It was found that Sb as positive electrode would provide the highest voltage for Ca-based liquid metal batteries (1 V). The price of such a battery would be competitive for the grid-scale energy storage market. The impact of Pb, a natural impurity of Sb, was predicted successfully and confirmed via electrochemical measurements. It was shown that the impact on the open circuit voltage would be minor. Indeed, the interaction between Ca and Sb was demonstrated to be much stronger than between Ca and Pb using thermodynamic modeling, which explains why the partial thermodynamic properties of Ca would not vary much with the addition of Pb to Sb. However, the usage of the positive electrode would be reduced, which would limit the interest of a Pb-Sb positive electrode. Throughout this work, the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM) was used for the first time for alloys with thermodynamic properties showing strong negative deviation from ideality. This model showed that systems such as Ca-Sb have strong short-range order: Ca is most stable when its first nearest neighbors are Sb. This is consistent with what the more traditional thermodynamic model, the regular association model, would predict. The advantages of the MIVM are the absence of assumption regarding the composition of an associate, and the reduced number of fitting parameters (2 instead of 5). Based on the parameters derived from the thermodynamic modeling using the MIVM, a new potential of mixing for liquid alloys was defined to compare the strength of interaction in different Ca-based alloys. Comparing this trend with the strength of interaction in the solid state of these systems (assessed by the energy of formation of the intermetallics), the systems with

  13. Optimization method for the study of the properties of Al-Sn binary liquid alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, G.K. [University Department of Physics, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur (India); Pulchowk Campus, IOE, Tribhuvan University, Lalitpur (Nepal); Singh, B.K. [University Department of Physics, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur (India); Jha, I.S. [M.M.A.M. Campus, Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar (Nepal); Singh, B.P. [University Department of Physics, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur (India); Adhikari, D., E-mail: adksbdev@yahoo.com [M.M.A.M. Campus, Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar (Nepal)

    2017-06-01

    The best fit value of order energy parameter (W) has been estimated over the entire range of concentration in Al-Sn binary liquid alloy at a specified temperature to determine the thermodynamic properties and concentration fluctuations, obtained by a theoretical formalism in which the combined effect of size ratio, entropic and enthalpic effect is considered. The values of W at different temperatures have been determined by finding the temperature derivative of W which are then used for the optimization procedure in order to determine the corresponding values of excess free energy of mixing, partial excess free energy of mixing and activity of the components involved in the alloy. These parameters have been used to calculate the concentration fluctuations in long wavelength limit {S_c_c(0)} at different temperatures over the entire range of concentration which predict the stability of the alloy at different temperatures.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of the liquid Bi-Cu-Sn lead-free solder alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyto M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The electromotive force measurement method was employed to determine the thermodynamic properties of liquid Bi-Cu-Sn alloys using solid electrolyte galvanic cells as shown below: Kanthal+Re, Bi-Cu-Sn, SnO2 | Yttria Stabilized Zirconia | air, Pt, Po2=0.2:1 atm Measurements were carried out for three cross-sections with constant Bi/Cu ratio equal to: 1/3, 1 and 3 and for various tin content varying every 10%, resulting in a total of 26 different alloy compositions. The temperature of the measurements varied within the range from 973 to 1325 K. A linear dependence of the e.m.f. on temperature was observed for all alloy compositions and the appropriate line equations were derived. Tin activities were calculated as function of composition and temperature. Results were presented in tables and figures.

  15. Magnetic susceptibility of CoFeBSiNb alloys in liquid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, V., E-mail: vesidor@mail.ru [Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Hosko, J. [Institute of Physics SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mikhailov, V.; Rozkov, I.; Uporova, N. [Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Svec, P.; Janickovic, D.; Matko, I.; Svec Sr, P. [Institute of Physics SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Malyshev, L. [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-15

    The influence of small additions of gallium and antimony on magnetic susceptibility of the bulk glass forming Co{sub 47}Fe{sub 20.9}B{sub 21.2}Si{sub 4.6}Nb{sub 6.3} alloy was studied in a wide temperature range up to 1830 K by the Faraday’s method. The undercooling for all the samples was measured experimentally. Both Ga and Sb additions were found to increase liquidus and solidification temperatures. However, gallium atoms strengthen interatomic interaction in the melts, whereas antimony atoms reduce it. - Highlights: • Bulk metallic glasses from CoFeBSiNb-based alloys were produced as in situ composites. • Magnetic susceptibility of these alloys was measured in a wide temperature range including liquid state. • Undercooling of these melts was measured experimentally. • Ga additions strengthen interatomic interaction in BMG melts, whereas Sb atoms reduce it.

  16. Phase separation and structure formation in gadolinium based liquid and glassy metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    In this PhD research the liquid-liquid phase separation phenomena in Gd-based alloys was investigated in terms of phase equilibria, microstructure formation upon quenching the melt and corresponding magnetic properties of phase-separated metallic glasses. The phase diagrams of the binary subsystems Gd-Zr and Gd-Ti were experimentally reassessed. Especially the phase equilibria with the liquid phase could be determined directly by combining in situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction with electrostatic levitation of the melt. The Gd-Zr system is of eutectic type with a metastable miscibility gap. The eutectic composition at 18 ± 2 at.% Zr, the liquidus line and the coexistence of bcc-Zr and bcc-Gd at elevated temperature could be determined. The Gd-Ti system is a monotectic system. The experimental observations in this work led to improved new Gd-Zr and Gd-Ti phase diagrams. The phase equilibria of the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system were analyzed for two alloy compositions. The XRD patterns for molten Gd 35 Ti 35 Co 30 gave direct evidence for the coexistence of two liquid phases formed by liquid-liquid phase separation. The first experimental and thermodynamic assessment of the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system revealed that the stable miscibility gap of binary Gd-Ti extends into the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system (up to about 30 at.% Co). New phase-separated metallic glasses were synthesized in Gd-TM-Co-Al (TM = Hf, Ti or Zr) alloys. The microstructure was characterized in terms of composition and cooling rate dependence of phase separation. Due to large positive enthalpy of mixing between Gd on the one side and Hf, Ti or Zr on the other side, the alloys undergo liquid-liquid phase separation during rapid quenching the melt. The parameters determining the microstructure development during phase separation are the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase, kinetic parameters and quenching conditions. By controlling these parameters and conditions the microstructure can be

  17. Effect of strontium on liquid structure of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys using high-energy X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srirangam, P.; Kramer, M.J.; Shankar, S.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-ray diffraction experiments were performed using a synchrotron beam source to investigate the effect of strontium on the liquid atomic structure of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys. The high-temperature liquid diffraction experiments were carried out on Al alloys with 3, 7, 10 and 12.5 (eutectic) wt.% Si, respectively, with 0 and 0.04 wt.% addition of Sr to each of the alloys. Further, the diffraction data for all the alloys were obtained at various melt temperatures (5-220 K) above the respective liquidus temperature. It was observed that the addition of 0.04 wt.% Sr results in significant change in the liquid structure parameters, such as structure factor, pair distribution function, radial distribution function, coordination number and packing density, at any given melt temperature of the alloy. Salient observations were that, for any specific alloy and temperature, addition of Sr significantly decreases coordination number and packing density. Further, with the addition of Sr in the liquid alloy, the atomic coordination number and packing density increases with decreasing temperature and decreasing Si content of the alloy. The results coupled with prior knowledge have enabled an in-depth understanding of the nucleation environment of the solidifying phases, specifically the role of Sr in delaying the clustering tendencies (nucleation) of the eutectic Si phase.

  18. Quadrupole interaction studies of Hg in Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J.C.; Krien, K.; Herzog, P.; Folle, H.R.; Freitag, K.; Reuschenbach, F.; Reuschenbach, M.; Trzcinski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation and nuclear orientation studies of the electric quadrupole interaction for Hg in Sb have been performed. The effective field gradients at room temperature and below 0.05K have been derived. These two values are no indication for an anomalous temperature dependence of the effective field gradient for Hg in Sb. The value of the electric field gradient fits well into the systematics for Hg in other hosts. It is shown that the electronic enhancements of the field gradients are correlated to the valence of the impurities and are rather insensitive to the host properties. (orig./HPOE) [de

  19. Diffusion in a liquid alloy - theories and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastang, C.

    1997-01-01

    Different theories concerning the calculation of diffusion coefficients in liquid metals, as well for auto as for hetero-diffusion are presented and some experimental procedures using tracer techniques in shear cells and capillary tubes are described. Diffusion curves are calculated with the TRIO-EF code. Calculated and measured values of diffusion coefficients are compared and discussed with regard to various diffusion mechanisms. Copper gadolinium mixtures have been investigated in more detail. (C.B.)

  20. Thermodynamic and surface properties of liquid Co–Cr–Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.; Delsante, S.; Borzone, G.; Zivkovic, D.; Novakovic, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The liquid phases of Co–Cr, Co–Ni and Cr–Ni were modelled by the Quasi Chemical Approximation for regular solutions. • The excess Gibbs free energy of mixing of the liquid Co–Cr–Ni phase is estimated by the three thermodynamic models. • Prediction of structure can compensate the lack of structural data of Co–Cr, Co–Ni and Cr–Ni melts. • Thermodynamic modelling of the surface properties of Co–Cr–Ni melts. • Weak effects of short range ordering among nearest neighbours in Co–Cr, Co–Ni and Cr–Ni liquid alloys can be deduced. -- Abstract: Direct measurements of bulk and surface properties of liquid alloys at elevated temperatures are often technically difficult or even impossible, and therefore, theoretical models can be used to estimate missing property values. The energetics of mixing in liquid Co–Cr, Cr–Ni and Co–Ni systems has been analysed through the study of the concentration dependence of various thermodynamic, surface (surface tension and surface composition) and structural properties (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) by the first or the Quasi-Chemical Approximation (QCA) for regular solutions, developed by Bhatia and Singh, in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with the Quasi-Lattice Theory (QLT). The results obtained for these binary systems have been extended to study the thermodynamics and surface properties of ternary Co–Cr–Ni liquid alloys

  1. Metastable Phase Separation and Concomitant Solute Redistribution of Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn Ternary Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Mei, Zhang; Wei-Li, Wang; Ying, Ruan; Bing-Bo, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn ternary alloys with lower Sn contents are usually assumed to display a peritectic-type solidification process under equilibrium condition. Here we show that liquid Fe 47.5 Cu 47.5 Sn 5 ternary alloy exhibits a metastable immiscibility gap in the undercooling range of 51–329 K (0.19T L ). Macroscopic phase separation occurs once undercooling exceeds 196 K and causes the formation of a floating Fe-rich zone and a descending Cu-rich zone. Solute redistribution induces the depletion of Sn concentration in the Fe-rich zone and its enrichment in the Cu-rich zone. The primary Fe phase grows dendritically and its growth velocity increases with undercooling until the appearance of notable macrosegregation, but will decrease if undercooling further increases beyond 236 K. The microsegregation degrees of both solutes in Fe and Cu phases vary only slightly with undercooling. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  2. Surface, dynamic and structural properties of liquid Al-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, R.; Giuranno, D.; Ricci, E.; Tuissi, A.; Wunderlich, R.; Fecht, H.-J.; Egry, I.

    2012-01-01

    The systems containing highly reactive element such as Ti are the most difficult to be determined experimentally and therefore, it is often necessary to estimate the missing values by theoretical models. The thermodynamic data of the Al-Ti system are scarce, its phase diagram is still incomplete and there are very few data on the thermophysical properties of Al-Ti melts. The study on surface, dynamic and static structural properties of liquid Al-Ti alloys has been carried out within the framework of the Compound Formation Model. In spite of the experimental difficulties, the surface tension of liquid Al-2 at.%Ti alloy has been measured over a temperature range by the pinned drop method.

  3. Thermophysical property of undercooled liquid binary alloy composed of metallic and semiconductor elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H P; Wei, B, E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2009-02-07

    The thermophysical properties of the liquid Ni-Si binary alloy system were investigated by the molecular dynamics method. The properties investigated include density, excessive volume, enthalpy, mixing enthalpy and specific heat at both superheated and undercooled states. It is found that the density decreases with an increase in the Si content, and so do the temperature coefficients. If the Si content is smaller than 30%, the density changes linearly with the temperature. If it is larger than 30%, the density is a quadratic function of the temperature. The simulated enthalpies of different composition alloys increase linearly with a rise in temperature. This indicates that the specific heats of Ni-Si alloys change little with temperature. The specific heat versus composition first decreases to a minimum value at 50% Si, then experiences a rise to a maximum value at 90% Si and finally falls again. According to the excessive volume and mixing enthalpy, it can be deduced that the Ni-Si alloy system seriously deviates from the ideal solution. Moreover, a comparison was also performed between the present results and the approximated values by the Neumann-Kopp rule. It reveals that this work provides reasonable data in a broad temperature range, especially for the metastable undercooled liquid state.

  4. Thermophysical property of undercooled liquid binary alloy composed of metallic and semiconductor elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. P.; Wei, B.

    2009-02-01

    The thermophysical properties of the liquid Ni-Si binary alloy system were investigated by the molecular dynamics method. The properties investigated include density, excessive volume, enthalpy, mixing enthalpy and specific heat at both superheated and undercooled states. It is found that the density decreases with an increase in the Si content, and so do the temperature coefficients. If the Si content is smaller than 30%, the density changes linearly with the temperature. If it is larger than 30%, the density is a quadratic function of the temperature. The simulated enthalpies of different composition alloys increase linearly with a rise in temperature. This indicates that the specific heats of Ni-Si alloys change little with temperature. The specific heat versus composition first decreases to a minimum value at 50% Si, then experiences a rise to a maximum value at 90% Si and finally falls again. According to the excessive volume and mixing enthalpy, it can be deduced that the Ni-Si alloy system seriously deviates from the ideal solution. Moreover, a comparison was also performed between the present results and the approximated values by the Neumann-Kopp rule. It reveals that this work provides reasonable data in a broad temperature range, especially for the metastable undercooled liquid state.

  5. Homogeneous nucleation ahead of the solid-liquid interface during rapid solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.; Elmer, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    In recent rapid solidification experiments on Al-5%Be alloys, a Liquid Phase Nucleation (LPN) model was developed to explain the formation of periodic arrays of randomly-oriented Be-rich particles in an Al-rich matrix. In the LPN model, Be droplets were assumed to nucleate in the liquid ahead of the solid-liquid interface, but no justification for this was given. Here the authors present a model which considers the geometric constraints (imposed by proximity to the interface) on the number of solute atoms available to form a nucleus. Calculations based on this model predict that nucleation of second-phase particles can be most likely a short distance ahead of the interface in immiscible binary systems such as Al-Be. As part of the nucleation calculations, a semi-empirical method of calculating solid-liquid surface tensions in binary systems was developed, and is presented in the Appendix

  6. Effect of liquid properties on laser ablation of aluminum and titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Peixuan, E-mail: oypx12@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Peijie [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Leksina, E.G.; Michurin, S.V. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); He, Liangju [School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous surfaces are formed in Al alloy after wet ablation due to phase explosion. • A higher ablation rate is produced in glycerin than that in water and isopropanol. • Effect of liquid properties on mass-removal mechanisms was discussed. • Phase explosion and plasma-induced pressure contribute greatly to mass removal. • Density, heat conductivity and shock impendence of liquid affect ablation rates. - Abstract: In order to study the effect of liquid properties on laser ablation in liquids, aluminum 5A06 and titanium TB5 targets were irradiated by single-pulse infrared laser in isopropanol, distilled water, glycerin and as a comparison, in air, respectively. Craters induced by laser ablation were characterized using scanning electron and white-light interferometric microscopies. The results show that for liquid-mediated ablation, craters with porous surface structures were formed in aluminum target through phase explosion, while no micro-cavities were formed in titanium target owing to high critical temperature of titanium. In addition, ablation rates of aluminum and titanium targets vary with types of ambient media in accordance with such sequence: air < isopropanol < water < glycerin. Further, the influence of liquid properties on material-removal mechanisms for laser ablation in liquid is discussed. It is concluded that the density, thermal conductivity and acoustical impedance of liquid play a dominant role in laser ablation efficiency.

  7. Intermetallic and electrical insulator coatings on high-temperature alloys in liquid-lithium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems for fusion-reactor blanket, applications, the corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. When the system is cooled by liquid metals, insulator coatings are required on piping surfaces in contact with the coolant. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural wall, and Be-V intermetallic coatings for first-wall components that face the plasma. Vanadium and V-base alloys are leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Various intermetallic films were produced on V-alloys and on Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid Li containing 2 at temperatures of 500--1030 degree C. CaO electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the oxygen-rich layer with <5 at. % Ca dissolved in liquid Li at 400--700 degree C. The reaction converted the oxygen-rich layer to an electrically insulating film. This coating method is applicable to reactor components because the liquid metal can be used over and over; only the solute within the liquid metal is consumed. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid Li at high temperatures

  8. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ag–Bi–Cu alloys at 1073 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fima, Przemysław; Flandorfer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Partial and integral mixing enthalpies of liquid Ag–Bi–Cu alloys were determined. • Integral mixing enthalpies are small and endothermic, similar to limiting binaries. • The ternary data were fitted on the basis of Redlich–Kister–Muggianu model. - Abstract: The Ag–Bi–Cu system is among those ternary systems which have not been fully studied yet, in particular the thermodynamic description of the liquid phase is missing. Partial and integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid ternary Ag–Bi–Cu alloys were determined over a broad composition range along six sections: x(Ag)/x(Bi) = 0.25, 1, 4; x(Ag)/x(Cu) = 1.5; x(Bi)/x(Cu) = 1.86, 4. Measurements were carried out at 1073 K using two Calvet type microcalorimeters and drop calorimetric technique. It was found that integral enthalpies of mixing are small and endothermic, similarly to limiting binary alloys. The ternary data were fitted on the basis of an extended Redlich–Kister–Muggianu model for substitutional solutions. There are no significant additional ternary interactions

  9. Shape distortion and dimensional precision in tungsten heavy alloy liquid phase sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuwen Yi; German, R.M.; Lu, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Microstructure effects on densification and shape distortion in liquid phase sintering of tungsten heavy alloy were investigated. Microstructure parameters such as the solid volume fraction, dihedral angle, initial porosity, and pore size were varied to measure densification and distortion behavior during LPS using W-Ni-Cu alloys. Green compacts were formed using ethylene-bis-stearamide as a pore-forming agent with the amount of polymer controlling the initial porosity. Different initial pore sizes were generated by varying the polymer particle size. Dihedral angle was varied by changing the Ni:Cu ratio in the alloys. Finally, the solid volume fraction was adjusted via the tungsten content. Distortion was quantified using profiles determined with a coordinate measuring machine to calculate a distortion parameter. Sintering results showed that solid volume fraction and dihedral angle are the dominant factors on densification and distortion during liquid phase sintering. Distortion decreases with increasing solid volume fraction and dihedral angle, while initial porosity and pore size have no observable effect on distortion at nearly full densification. Various strategies emerge to improve distortion control in liquid phase sintering. (author)

  10. Alloying of Yb-Cu and Yb-Ag utilizing liquid ammonia metal solutions of ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, H.; Yoshimura, T.; Sakata, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In the course of the studies on preparation of novel compounds using the dissolution of Eu or Yb metals in liquid ammonia, the formation of Yb-Cu and Yb-Ag intermetallic films has been found. When Cu or Ag metal powders were placed in a reactor containing a solution of Yb metal in liquid ammonia, the dissolved Yb readily react with the Cu or Ag metal particles to form surface alloy compounds. X-ray diffraction of Yb-Cu showed that upon thermal treatment above 673 K, the Yb metal deposited on the Cu particles reacted together to be transformed into the YbCu 6.5 intermetallic compound. A characteristic endothermic peak at 749 K, due to alloying of Yb-Cu, was observed by the differential scanning calorimeter measurements. By use of the high reactivity of liquid ammonia metal solutions of ytterbium, it was found that the ytterbium intermetallic films were readily formed under mild conditions. Yb-Cu and Yb-Ag exhibited enhanced catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of ethene as a result of alloying

  11. Temperature dependence of the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria); Azeez, A.A. [African University of Science and Technology, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2017-05-15

    The effects of temperature on the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys have been theoretically investigated, using a combination of self association model, Darken's thermodynamic equation for diffusion, empirical model for viscosity and a statistical mechanics model. The results from this study show that change in temperature resulted in cross-over effects in bulk and surface properties. We also found that with an increase in temperature, a pronounced asymmetry of viscosity isotherm is significantly reduced, and viscosity isotherm exhibited anomalous behaviour. Our results reveal that the homocoordination tendency in Zn-Cd liquid alloys is not strong and reduces with increasing temperature. The study further suggests a pronounced segregation of Cd-atoms at the surface of Zn-Cd liquid alloys and the extent of segregation reduces with temperature. We as well found that, in addition to the reported understanding that size-factor determines the compositional location of asymmetry of the viscosity isotherm, temperature is an operating parameter that has effect, not only on the composition of asymmetry, but also on the magnitude of asymmetry. In all the properties investigated, the most pronounced effect of temperature (52.9 %) is on the viscosity while the least effect (7.1 %) is on the surface tension. (orig.)

  12. Thermodynamic properties of liquid silver-antimony alloys determined from emf measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyzak, Agnieszka; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the liquid Ag-Sb alloys were determined using solid oxide galvanic cells with zirconia electrolyte. The emfs of the cells:Ag x Sb (1-x), Sb 2 O 3 /O 2- /airwere measured in the temperatures range 950-1100K in the whole range of the alloy compositions.First, the Gibbs free energy of formation of liquid Sb 2 O 3 from pure elements was derived:ΔG o f(Sb2O3) (J/mol)=-687100+243.23T.Next, the activities of antimony were measured as a function of the alloy compositions, x. Redlich-Kister polynomial expansion was used to describe the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase. From the model equations the limiting value of the logarithm of activity coefficient of antimony in silver was obtained as a function of temperature:lnγ Sb 0 =-3812.5/T+0.4112.The obtained results were compared with the experimental values reported in the literature

  13. Perspectives for tritium recovery from liquid Pb83Li17 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary analysis has been made on the perspectives of tritium recovery from a blanket constituted by liquid Pb 83 Li 17 alloy, by investigating the Tsub(2g) 2T alloy thermodynamic behaviour and trying to individuate those chemico-physical characteristics of which knowledge is useful for the effective design of the apparatus. In the light of the recent work carried out on the systems, hydrogen and its isotopes with molten Li-Pb eutectics, it has been possible to individuate a fair reliability of the Sieverts constant for the T 2 -Pb 83 Li 17 system. As far as the kinetics of the tritium desorption process from the liquid phase are concerned, the hydrogen (and its isotopes) transfer rates across the liquid interphase have been evaluated. Even though in first approximation the diffusion coefficient of tritium in the molten alloy at 400 0 C has been found. Then, the processing equations of attractive tritium recovery systems have been presented, individuating the fundamental parameters and reporting an example of applied engineering of the desorption system in a packed column. None of these tritium recovery systems seem incompatible at the actual state of the research

  14. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of the liquid and amorphous structure of Mg65Cu25Gd10 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, R.; Zhao, Y.F.; Liu, X.J.; Liu, Z.K.; Hui, X.

    2013-01-01

    The liquid and amorphous structures of Mg 65 Cu 25 Gd 10 alloy were studied by using molecular dynamics methods within the frame of density functional theory. The generalized and partial pair correlation functions, structure factors, coordination numbers and bond pairs for this alloy were analyzed. It is shown that this alloy exhibit typical characterization of liquid structure at the temperature higher than 750 K, and of amorphous structure with shoulders on the second diffuse peaks of the pair correlation functions curves at room temperature. The local short and medium range ordering tends to be increased with the decrease of temperature. Both the liquid and the amorphous structures are mainly composed of icosahedral type of bond pairs. Perfect and distorted icosahedra can be differentiated from the atomic configuration of the amorphous alloy

  15. Behavior of liquid Li-Sn alloy as plasma facing material on ISTTOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J.P.S., E-mail: jpsloureiro@ipfn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Tabarés, F.L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Ciemat, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Gomes, R.; Alves, E.; Mateus, R.; Pereira, T.; Alves, H.; Figueiredo, H. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-04-15

    The high power loads impinging on the first wall and particularly the divertor of fusion reactors is a decisive factor to the success of nuclear fusion. An alternative to solid plasma facing components is the use of liquid metals such as lithium or tin due to the regenerative properties of the liquid surface. Another suitable candidate is the eutectic lithium tin alloy (30 at.% Li) which is suggested to display beneficial properties of both its constituent elements. The application of these materials as liquid metal plasma facing components depends on several factors such as their affinity to retain hydrogenic isotopes and the discharge performance degradation induced by the enhanced impurity contamination, among others. An experimental setup has been developed to produce and expose samples to ISTTOK plasmas on both liquid and solid states. Samples of Li-Sn alloy were exposed at ISTTOK to deuterium plasmas. Post-mortem analysis of the samples was performed by means of ion beam diagnostics. To quantify the fuel retention on the samples the nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique was applied. Complementary, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used for determination material composition, particularly of impurities, on the samples. Regardless of the high sensitivity of these techniques no deuterium was detected in the samples. Emission of the Li-I 670.7 nm line indicates that there was interaction of the plasma with the samples. Alternative reasons for the low retention of this material are discussed. Lithium segregation to the surface of the sample was observed.

  16. Thermal bonding of light water reactor fuel using nonalkaline liquid-metal alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.F.; Tulenko, J.S.; Schoessow, G.J.; Connell, R.G. Jr.; Dubecky, M.A.; Adams, T.

    1996-01-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance is limited by thermal and mechanical constraints associated with the design, fabrication, and operation of fuel in a nuclear reactor. A technique is explored that extends fuel performance by thermally bonding LWR fuel with a nonalkaline liquid-metal alloy. Current LWR fuel rod designs consist of enriched uranium oxide fuel pellets enclosed in a zirconium alloy cylindrical clad. The space between the pellets and the clad is filled by an inert gas. Because of the low thermal conductivity of the gas, the gas space thermally insulates the fuel pellets from the reactor coolant outside the fuel rod, elevating the fuel temperatures. Filling the gap between the fuel and clad with a high-conductivity liquid metal thermally bonds the fuel to the cladding and eliminates the large temperature change across the gap while preserving the expansion and pellet-loading capabilities. The application of liquid-bonding techniques to LWR fuel is explored to increase LWR fuel performance and safety. A modified version of the ESCORE fuel performance code (ESBOND) is developed to analyze the in-reactor performance of the liquid-metal-bonded fuel. An assessment of the technical feasibility of this concept for LWR fuel is presented, including the results of research into materials compatibility testing and the predicted lifetime performance of liquid-bonded LWR fuel. The results show that liquid-bonded boiling water reactor peak fuel temperatures are 400 F lower at beginning of life and 200 F lower at end of life compared with conventional fuel

  17. Hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by bubbling with rotational jet nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Yang Tongzai; Guan Rui; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    The technology of tritium extraction from lithium-lead alloy has been simulated, hydrogen extraction from lithium-lead alloy by bubbling with rotational jet nozzle being used to simulate tritium in the study based on the introduction of fluid dynamics to establish algebraic model. The results show that the higher than lithium-lead melting temperature, the higher cumulative hydrogen extraction efficiency, and gas holdup of bubble column is little affected by the impeller diameter. Gas holdup when using small aperture is slightly higher when using large aperture only at a high helium flow rate, but the smaller the aperture, the greater the bubble surface area, and a marked increase in intensity of flow circulation for liquid lithium-lead with the increase of helium flow rate, hydrogen extraction rate increases too. Moreover, influence of the jet rotational velocity on hydrogen extraction is limited. (authors)

  18. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-01-01

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi 2 composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al 8 Cr 5 and CrNi 2 chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  19. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-06-15

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi(2) composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al(8)Cr(5) and CrNi(2) chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  20. Intermediate strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane Francis; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2017-06-20

    An alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6 to 8.5 Cr, 5.5 to 13.5 Mo, 0.4 to 7.5 W, 1 to 2 Ti, 0.7 to 0.85 Mn, 0.05 to 0.3 Al, up to to 0.1 Co, 0.08 to 0.5 C, 1 to 5 Ta, 1 to 4 Nab, 1 to 3 Hf, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 36 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 40 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 72.1 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm2sec)].times.10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 8 to 25.

  1. Structure and electrical resistivity of alkali-alkali and lithium-based liquid binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Mukherjee, K.K.

    1990-01-01

    Harmonic model potential, developed and used for simple metals is applied here to evaluate hardsphere diameters, which ensure minimum interionic pair potential for alkali-alkali (Na-K, Na-Rb, Na-Cs, K-Rb, K-Cs) and lithium-based (Li-Na, Li-Mg, Li-In, Li-Tl) liquid binary alloys as a function of composition for use in the determination of their partial structure factors. These structure factors are then used to calculate electrical resistivities of alloys considered. The computed values of electrical resistivity as a function of composition agree both, in magnitude and gradient reasonably well with experimental values in all cases except in Cs systems, where the disagreement is appreciable. (author)

  2. Liquid oxygen LOX compatibility evaluations of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys: Investigation of the Alcoa 2090 and MMC weldalite 049 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys is investigated. Alloy systems of Alcoa 2090, vintages 1 to 3, and of Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) Weldalite 049 were evaluated for their behavior related to the LOX compatibility employing liquid oxygen impact test conditions under ambient pressures and up to 1000 psi. The developments of these aluminum lithium alloys are of critical and significant interest because of their lower densities and higher specific strengths and improved mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. Of the different LOX impact tests carried out at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), it is seen that in certain test conditions at higher pressures, not all Al-Li alloys are LOX compatible. In case of any reactivity, it appears that lithium makes the material more sensitive at grain boundaries due to microstructural inhomogeneities and associated precipitate free zones (PFZ). The objectives were to identify and rationalize the microstructural mechanisms that could be relaxed to LOX compatibility behavior of the alloy system in consideration. The LOX compatibility behavior of Al-Li 2090 and Weldalite 049 is analyzed in detail using microstructural characterization techniques with light optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis, and surface studies using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), electron spectroscopy in chemical analysis (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Differences in the behavior of these aluminum lithium alloys are assessed and related to their chemistry, heat treatment conditions, and microstructural effects.

  3. Structure factors and phonon dispersion in liquid Li0.61Na0.39 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratap, Arun; Lad, Kirit N.; Raval, K.G.

    2004-01-01

    The phonon spectra for liquid Li and Na have been computed through the phenomenological model of Bhatia and Singh for disordered systems like liquids and glasses and the obtained results have been compared with the available data obtained by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) experiments. The effective pair potentials and their space derivatives are important ingredients in the computation of the dispersion curves. The pair potentials are obtained using the pseudo-potential theory. The empty core model proposed by Ashcroft is widely used for pseudo-potential calculations for alkali metals. But, it is thought to be unsuitable for Li because of its simple 1s electronic structure. However, it can be used with an additional term known as Born-Mayer (BM) core term. The influence of the BM core term on the phonon dispersion is discussed. The same pseudo-potential formalism has been employed to obtain the dispersion relation in liquid Li 0.61 Na 0.39 alloy. Apart from the phonon spectra, the Ashcroft-Langreth structure factors in the alloy are derived in the Percus-Yevick approximation. (author)

  4. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Cu-Fe-Hf alloys at 1873 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agraval, Pavel; Turchanin, Mikhail [Donbass State Engineering Academy, Kramatorsk (Ukraine). Metallurgical Dept.; Dreval, Liya [Donbass State Engineering Academy, Kramatorsk (Ukraine). Metallurgical Dept.; Materials Science International Services GmbH (MSI), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    In the ternary Cu-Fe-Hf system, the mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys were investigated at 1873 K using a high-temperature isoperibolic calorimeter. The experiments were performed along the sections x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 3/1, 1/1 at x{sub Hf} = 0-0.47 and along the section x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 1/3 at x{sub Hf} = 0-0.13. The limiting partial enthalpies of mixing of undercooled liquid hafnium in liquid Cu-Fe alloys, Δ{sub mix} anti H{sub Hf}{sup ∞}, are (-122 ± 9) kJ mol{sup -1} (section x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 3/1), (-106 ± 9) kJ mol{sup -1} (section x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 1/1), and (-105 ± 2) kJ mol{sup -1} (section x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 1/3). In the investigated composition range, the integral mixing enthalpies are sign-changing. For the integral mixing enthalpy, an analytical expression was obtained by the least squares fit of the experimental results using the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu polynomial.

  5. Towards High-Frequency Shape Memory Alloy Actuators Incorporating Liquid Metal Energy Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Darren; Mingear, Jacob; Bielefeldt, Brent; Rohmer, John; Zamarripa, Jessica; Elwany, Alaa

    2017-12-01

    Large shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators are currently limited to applications with low cyclic actuation frequency requirements due to their generally poor heat transfer rates. This limitation can be overcome through the use of distributed body heating methods such as induction heating or by accelerated cooling methods such as forced convection in internal cooling channels. In this work, a monolithic SMA beam actuator containing liquid gallium-indium alloy-filled channels is fabricated through additive manufacturing. These liquid metal channels enable a novel multi-physical thermal control system, allowing for increased heating and cooling rates to facilitate an increased cyclic actuation frequency. Liquid metal flowing in the channels performs the dual tasks of inductively heating the surrounding SMA material and then actively cooling the SMA via forced internal fluid convection. A coupled thermoelectric model, implemented in COMSOL, predicts a possible fivefold increase in the cyclic actuation frequency due to these increased thermal transfer rates when compared to conventional SMA forms having external heating coils and being externally cooled via forced convection. The first ever experimental prototype SMA actuator of this type is described and, even at much lower flow rates, is shown to exhibit a decrease in cooling time of 40.9%.

  6. Structure of the liquid-vapor interface of a dilute ternary alloy: Pb and In in Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bin; Li Dongxu; Rice, Stuart A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of experimental studies of how the competition between two solutes to segregate in the liquid-vapor interface of a dilute ternary alloy influences the composition and structure of that interface. The system studied has small amounts of Pb and In dissolved in Ga; it differs from a previous study of dilute alloys containing small amounts of Pb and Sn dissolved in Ga by the addition of a new variable, namely, the valence difference between the solute atoms Pb and In. This valence difference influences the electron density distribution in the alloy liquid-vapor interface in proportion to the excess concentrations of the solute species in the interface, and thereby should affect the structure of the interface. We find that for a ternary PbInGa alloy that contains 0.039 at. % Pb and 6.31 at. % In, the Pb that segregates in the liquid-vapor interface forms a two-dimensional hexagonal crystal phase that undergoes a first-order transition to a disordered phase at T=29.0±0.1 deg. C. The two-dimensional crystalline Pb forms about 0.6 of a full monolayer; the remainder of the outer stratum of the liquid-vapor interface is filled with two-dimensional liquid In. For a ternary PbInGa alloy that contains the same amount of Pb and 12.2 at. % In, the Pb that segregates in the liquid-vapor interface forms a two-dimensional liquid down to 26.0 deg. C, the lowest temperature at which data were taken. For temperatures in excess of 29.0 deg. C two-dimensional liquid Pb and two-dimensional liquid In coexist in the interface, with the fractional occupation of the monolayer by In exceeding the fractional occupation by Pb

  7. Laser-induced surface modification of metals and alloys in liquid argon medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, V S; Kazakevich, P V; Yaresko, P S; Kamynina, D A

    2016-01-01

    Micro and nanostructuring of metals and alloys surfaces (Ti, Mo, Ni, T30K4) was considered by subnanocosecond laser radiation in stationary and dynamic mode in the liquid argon, ethanol and air. Depending of structures size on the samples surface from the energy density and the number of pulses were built. Non-periodic (NSS) and periodic (PSS) surface structures with periods about λ-λ/2 were obtained. PSS formation took place as at the target surface so at the NSS surface. (paper)

  8. Wettability in the liquid Cu-Ag alloy – fireproof material – gas phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siwiec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, results of wettability studies on the liquid metal – fireproof material – gas phase system using copper and Cu-Ag alloys as well as typical fireproof materials, i.e. aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide and graphite, are presented. Contact angle measurements were conducted at 1 373–1 573 K by means of a high-temperature microscope coupled with a camera and a computer equipped with a program for recording and analysing images. For the measurements, the sessile drop method was used.

  9. Interaction of InGa liquid alloy coolant with gold coated optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    A significant reaction is reported between gold surfaces and an indium-gallium eutectic liquid alloy often used to transfer heat away from optical elements in high power synchrotron radiation beamlines. This reaction proceeds at the slightly elevated temperatures (70 degrees C) typical of conservative bakeouts used to achieve ultrahigh vacuum in the chambers which house these optical elements (mirrors, gratings, and crystals) without damaging their highly precise figure and finish. The nature and extent of this reaction is discussed, based mostly on the experience gained recently during the vacuum commissioning of two mirror chambers for a VUV wiggler-based synchrotron radiation beamline. 2 refs., 5 figs

  10. First-principles study of the structural and dynamic properties of the liquid and amorphous Li–Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Han-Hsin; Kuo, Chin-Lung, E-mail: chinlung@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jian-Ming [National Center for High-Performance Computing, Tainan 74147, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-21

    We have performed density functional theory calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the structures and dynamic properties of the liquid and amorphous Li{sub x}Si alloys over a range of composition from x = 1.0 − 4.8. Our results show that Si atoms can form a variety of covalently bonded polyanions with diverse local bonding structures in the liquid alloys. Like in c-LiSi, Si atoms can form a continuous bond network in liquid Li{sub 1.0}Si at 1050 K, while it gradually disintegrates into many smaller Si polyanions as the Li content increases in the alloys. The average sizes of Si polyanions in these liquid alloys were found to be relatively larger than those in their crystalline counterparts, which can even persist in the highly lithiated Li{sub 4.81}Si alloy at 1500 K. Our results also show that amorphous Li{sub x}Si alloys have similar local bonding structures but a largely increased short-range order as compared to their liquid counterparts. The differences between the average coordination number of each atomic pair in amorphous solids and that in the liquids are less than 1.1. Furthermore, our calculations reveal that Li and Si atoms can exhibit very distinct dynamic behaviors in the liquids and their diffusivities appear to be largely dependent on the chemical composition of the alloys. The diffusivity of Li was found to increase with the Li content in the alloys primarily because of the reduced interactions between Li and Si atoms, while the Si diffusivity also increases due to the gradual disintegration of the strongly interconnected Si bond network. The diffusivity of Li in amorphous Li{sub x}Si was predicted to lie in the range between 10{sup −7} and 10{sup −9} cm{sup 2}/s at 300 K, which is more than 20-fold larger than that of Si over the composition range considered. Our calculations further show that the diffusivities of both Li and Si can increase by two orders of magnitude as x increases from 1.0 to 3.57 in amorphous Li

  11. Estimation of Enthalpy of Formation of Liquid Transition Metal Alloys: A Modified Prescription Based on Macroscopic Atom Model of Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Subramanian; Saibaba, Saroja

    2016-09-01

    The enthalpy of formation Δo H f is an important thermodynamic quantity, which sheds significant light on fundamental cohesive and structural characteristics of an alloy. However, being a difficult one to determine accurately through experiments, simple estimation procedures are often desirable. In the present study, a modified prescription for estimating Δo H f L of liquid transition metal alloys is outlined, based on the Macroscopic Atom Model of cohesion. This prescription relies on self-consistent estimation of liquid-specific model parameters, namely electronegativity ( ϕ L) and bonding electron density ( n b L ). Such unique identification is made through the use of well-established relationships connecting surface tension, compressibility, and molar volume of a metallic liquid with bonding charge density. The electronegativity is obtained through a consistent linear scaling procedure. The preliminary set of values for ϕ L and n b L , together with other auxiliary model parameters, is subsequently optimized to obtain a good numerical agreement between calculated and experimental values of Δo H f L for sixty liquid transition metal alloys. It is found that, with few exceptions, the use of liquid-specific model parameters in Macroscopic Atom Model yields a physically consistent methodology for reliable estimation of mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys.

  12. Applicability of Al-powder-alloy coating to corrosion barriers of 316SS in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Sato, Hidetomo; Yokota, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    A new Al-alloy coating method using Al, Ti and Fe powders has been applied to 316SS in order to develop corrosion resistant coating in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The 316SS plates with coating layers of different Al concentrations were exposed to liquid LBE with controlled oxygen concentrations of 10 -6 to 10 -4 mass% at 823 K for 3600 ks. While surface oxidation and grain boundary corrosion accompanied by liquid LBE penetration are observed in 316SS without Al-alloy coating, the Al-alloy coating is effective to protect such severe corrosion attacks in liquid LBE. Although the coating layer containing 2.8 mass% Al does not always keep sufficient corrosion resistance, good corrosion resistance is obtained through the Al-oxide film formed in liquid LBE in the coating layer where the average Al concentration is 4.2 mass%. Cracks are formed in the coating layer containing 17.8 mass% Al during the coating process. The Al-powder-alloy coating applied to 316SS is promising as a corrosion resistant coating method in liquid LBE environment. (author)

  13. Particle and liquid motion in semi-solid aluminium alloys: A quantitative in situ microradioscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabler, S.; Ershov, A.; Rack, A.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Baumbach, T.; Banhart, J.

    2013-01-01

    Semi-solid melts exhibit a very unpredictable rheology and filling dynamics, when injected into thin-walled components. Optimization of the process requires an insight into the casting process during injection. For this purpose we injected semi-solid an Al–Ge alloy into two different thin channel geometries while recording high resolution radiographs at fast frame rates (up to 1000 images per s). Comparison of a bottleneck channel, which has previously been used for slower experiments, with a right-angle turn geometry reveals a significant influence of the channel shape on the flow behaviour of the particle–liquid mixture. While the bottleneck is quickly sealed with densified solid, turbulences in the right-angle turn apparently permit solid particles and clusters to move conjointly with the liquid and thus achieve a more complete filling. Single particle trajectories and rapid break-up of solid skeletons in such a system have been observed for the first time in situ

  14. Thermodynamic properties of liquid copper-indium-tin alloys determined from e.m.f. measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Gierlotka, Wojciech; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics properties of liquid Cu-In-Sn alloys were determined using solid oxide galvanic cells with zirconia electrolyte: (I)Re+kanthal,Cu x -In y -Sn (1-x-y) ,'In 2 O 3 '//ZrO 2 +(Y 2 O 3 )//NiO,Ni,Pt in the temperature range (973 to 1223) K. Applied In 2 O 3 can be either pure or in the solid solutions with SnO 2 . Thermodynamics properties of the liquid phase were described by the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu formula. Using the commercial software different phase relations in the ternary system were calculated and compared with experimental data found in the literature

  15. Sulfur solubility of liquid and solid Fe-Cr alloys. A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, Peter [Leoben Univ. (Austria). Dept. of General, Analytical and Physical Chemistry

    2015-04-15

    Gibbs energy modeling for sulfur solving liquid and solid iron-chromium phases with body- and face-centered cubic structure has been carried out using a substitutional approach. Experimental data available from the literature on sulfur potentials in the temperature range 1 525 to 1 755 C for the liquid metallic phase and 1 000 to 1 300 C for the solid alloys have been taken into consideration. Recent thermodynamic evaluations of the Fe-S and Cr-S binary subsystems served as basis for the presented work. The obtained models allow a satisfactory reproduction of the majority of the sulfur potential data as well as the prediction of an isothermal partial section at 1 300 C. Consistent embedding of the optimized Gibbs energies within a recent thermodynamic modeling of the complete Cr-Fe-S system is achieved.

  16. Compatibility of 316L stainless steel with the liquid alloy Pb17Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broc, M.; Fauvet, P.; Flament, T.; Terlain, A.; Sannier, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of 316L austenitic stainless steel in liquid eutectic lead alloy is investigated. The 316L is a possible structural material for fusion reactors. The obtained results are summarized and compared with other experimental data. The mechanisms which control the corrosion process are discussed. The investigation shows that whatever, the hydraulic flow, the corrosion of 316L stainless steel exposed to Pb17Li is characterized by the formation of a porous ferritic layer. The corrosion kinetics is mainly dependent on temperature, hydraulic flow and metallurgical state of the steel. At 400 0 C in turbulent flow, the corrosion rate at steady state of 316L solution annealed is estimated to 27 microns/year to which a depth of 25 microns has to be added to take into account the initial transient period. From overall available results, dissolution and solid state transformation in case of turbulent flow and diffusion in liquid phase for laminar flow, may be suggested

  17. Static structure, microscopic dynamics and electronic properties of the liquid Bi–Li alloy. An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, J; Alemany, M M G; Gallego, L J; González, L E; González, D J

    2013-01-01

    We report an ab initio molecular dynamics study of the static, dynamic and electronic properties of the liquid Bi x Li 1−x alloy, which is a complex binary system with a marked tendency to heterocoordination. The calculated total static structure factors are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The partial dynamic structure factors exhibit side peaks indicative of propagating density fluctuations, and for some concentrations we have found a density fluctuation mode with phase velocity greater than the hydrodynamic sound velocity. We have also evaluated other dynamical properties such as the diffusion coefficients, the shear viscosity and the adiabatic sound velocity. The electronic density of states show that the liquid Bi x Li 1−x alloy has a metallic character, although with strong deviations from the free-electron parabolic curve. The results reported improve the understanding of binary liquid alloys with both fast and slow propagating collective modes. (paper)

  18. Efficient analytical expressions for dynamic structure of liquid binary alloys: K–Cs as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wax, Jean-François; Bryk, Taras; Johnson, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    A fitting scheme for analysis of collective dynamics in liquid binary alloys is proposed. It is based on explicit treatment of contributions from three relaxing modes and two types of propagating modes to the partial density–density time correlation functions and corresponding partial dynamic structure factors. Exact sum rules for each partial dynamic structure factor were taken into account. The proposed fitting scheme was applied to the liquid equimolar K–Cs alloy. Analysis of simulation-derived partial time correlation functions as well as of their corresponding Bhatia–Thornton ‘number-concentration’ combinations allowed dispersion and damping of the two branches of collective excitations and the behaviour of relaxing modes in a wide range of wave numbers to be obtained. A comparison with the inelastic neutron-scattering intensities for the liquid K–Cs alloy was performed. (paper)

  19. A note on the entropy of mixing of liquid sodium-caesium and other binary alkali alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.A.; Gallego, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The entropy of formation of Na-Cs liquid alloys. ΔS, is nearly ideal. This is surprising considering that the ratio between the pure metal volumes is about 3.0. In this Letter it is shown by means of a density functional calculation that the ratio between the effective volumes in the liquid alloy changes to nearly 1.5. This ratio, used in conjunction with Flory's formula for the entropy of mixing, allows quite accurate reproduction of the ideal behaviour of ΔS. It is also shown that this feature of the ratios of atomic volumes is not exclusive to Na-Cs but is common to all the family of binary liquid alkali alloys. (author)

  20. Development of an atomic mobility database for liquid phase in multicomponent Al alloys. Focusing on binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Du, Yong; Zhang, Lijun [Central South Univ., Changsha, Hunan (China). State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy; Liu, Dandan [Central South Univ., Changsha, Hunan (China). State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy; Central South Univ., Changsha, Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Chen, Qing; Engstroem, Anders [Thermo-Calc Software AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    An atomic mobility database for binary liquid phase in multicomponent Al-Cu-Fe-Mg-Mn-Ni-Si-Zn alloys was established based on critically reviewed experimental and theoretical diffusion data by using DICTRA (Diffusion Controlled TRAnsformation) software. The impurity diffusivities of the elements with limited experimental data are obtained by means of the least-squares method and semi-empirical correlations. Comprehensive comparisons between the calculated and measured diffusivities indicate that most of the reported diffusivities can be well reproduced by the currently obtained atomic mobilities. The reliability of this diffusivity database is further validated by comparing the simulated concentration profiles with the measured ones, as well as the measured main inter-diffusion coefficients of liquid Al-Cu-Zn alloys with the extrapolated ones from the present binary atomic mobility database. The approach is of general validity and applicable to establish mobility databases of other liquid alloys. (orig.)

  1. High strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-01-10

    An essentially cobalt-free alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.3 to 7.2 Cr, 0.5 to 2 Al, 0 to 5 Fe, 0.7 to 0.8 Mn, 9 to 12.5 Mo, 0 to 6 Ta, 0.75 to 3.5 Ti, 0.01 to 0.25 Nb, 0.2 to 0.6 W, 0.02 to 0.04 C, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0001 to 0.002 N, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by a .gamma.' microstructural component in the range of 3 to 17.6 weight percent of the total composition. The alloy is further characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 60 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 70 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 700 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 5.5 to 17.

  2. High strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-01-10

    An essentially cobalt-free alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.3 to 7.2 Cr, 0.5 to 2 Al, 0 to 5 Fe, 0.7 to 0.8 Mn, 9 to 12.5 Mo, 0 to 6 Ta, 0.75 to 3.5 Ti, 0.01 to 0.25 Nb, 0.2 to 0.6 W, 0.02 to 0.04 C, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0001 to 0.002 N, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by a .gamma.' microstructural component in the range of 3 to 17.6 weight percent of the total composition. The alloy is further characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 60 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 70 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 700 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 5.5 to 17.

  3. Evaluation of thermal conductivity for liquid lead lithium alloys at various Li concentrations based on measurement and evaluation of density, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi, E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nr.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nakajima, Yuu; Tsuji, Mitsuyo [Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Nozawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasyo-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: Thermal diffusivities and thermal conductivities of liquid Pb–Li alloys (Pb–5Li, Pb–11Li and Pb–17Li). - Highlights: • The densities and specific heats of liquid Pb–Li alloys are evaluated based on the previous studies, and mathematically expressed in the equations with the functions of temperature and Li concentration. • The thermal diffusivities of liquid Pb–Li alloys (i.e., Pb–5Li, Pb–11Li and Pb–17Li) are obtained by laser flash method, and mathematically expressed in the equations with the functions of temperature and Li concentration. • The thermal conductivities of liquid Pb–Li alloys were evaluated and mathematically expressed in the equations with the functions of temperature and Li concentration. - Abstract: The thermophysical properties of lead lithium alloy (Pb–Li) are essential for the design of liquid Pb–Li blanket system. The purpose of the present study is to make clear the density, the thermal diffusivity and the heat conductivity of the alloys as functions of temperature and Li concentration. The densities of the solid alloys were measured by means of the Archimedean method. The densities of the alloys at 300 K as a function of Li concentration (0 at% < χ{sub Li} < 28 at%) were obtained in the equation as ρ{sub (300} {sub K)} [g/cm{sup 3}] = −6.02 × 10{sup −2} × χ{sub Li} + 11.3. The density of the liquid alloys was formulated as functions of temperature and Li concentration (0 at% < χ{sub Li} < 30 at%), and expressed in the equation as ρ [g/cm{sup 3}] = (9.00 × 10{sup −6} × T − 7.01 × 10{sup −2}) × χ{sub Li} + 11.4 − 1.19 × 10{sup −3}T. The thermal diffusivity of Pb, Pb–5Li, Pb–11Li and Pb–17Li were measured by means of laser flash method. The thermal diffusivity of Pb–17Li was obtained in the equation as α{sub Pb–17Li} [cm{sup 2}/s] = 3.46 × 10{sup −4}T + 1.05 × 10{sup −1} for the temperature range between 573 K and 773 K. The thermal conductivity of

  4. Study of Thermodynamics of Liquid Noble-Metals Alloys Through a Pseudopotential Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbs-Bogoliubov (GB) inequality is applied to investigate the thermodynamic properties of some equiatomic noble metal alloys in liquid phase such as Au-Cu, Ag-Cu, and Ag-Au using well recognized pseudopotential formalism. For description of the structure, well known Percus-Yevick (PY) hard sphere model is used as a reference system. By applying a variation method the best hard core diameters have been found which correspond to minimum free energy. With this procedure the thermodynamic properties such as entropy and heat of mixing have been computed. The influence of local field correction function viz; Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F), and Sarkar et al. (S) is also investigated. The computed results of the excess entropy compares favourably in the case of liquid alloys while the agreement with experiment is poor in the case of heats of mixing. This may be due to the sensitivity of the heats of mixing with the potential parameters and the dielectric function. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Enthalpies of mixing in binary liquid alloys of lutetium with 3d metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Michael; Berezutski, Vadim [National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv (Ukraine). I. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science; Usenko, Natalia; Kotova, Natalia [Taras Shevchenko National Univ., Kyiv (Ukraine). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-01-15

    The enthalpies of mixing in binary liquid alloys of lutetium with chromium, cobalt, nickel and copper were determined at 1 773 - 1 947 K by isoperibolic calorimetry. The enthalpies of mixing in the Lu-Cr melts (measured up to 40 at.% Cr) demonstrate endothermic effects (ΔH = 6.88 ± 0.66 kJ . mol{sup -1} at x{sub Lu} = 0.60), whereas significant exothermic enthalpies of mixing have been established within a wide composition region for the Co-Lu, Ni-Lu and Cu-Lu liquid alloys. Minimum values of the integral enthalpy of mixing are as follows: ΔH{sub min} = -23.57 ± 1.41 kJ . mol{sup -1} at x{sub Lu} = 0.38 for the Co-Lu system; ΔH{sub min} = -48.65 ± 2.83 kJ . mol{sup -1} at x{sub Lu} = 0.40 for the Ni-Lu system; ΔH{sub min} = -24.63 ± 1.52 kJ . mol{sup -1} at x{sub Lu} = 0.37 for the Cu-Lu system.

  6. Surface tension and density of liquid In-Sn-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pstruś, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Using the dilatometric method, measurements of the density of liquid alloys of the ternary system In-Sn-Zn in four sections with a constant ratio Sn:In = 24:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, for various Zn additions (5, 10, 14, 20, 3 5, 50 and 75 at.% Zn) were performed at the temperature ranges of 500-1150 K. Density decreases linearly for all compositions. The molar volume calculated from density data exhibits close to ideal dependence on composition. Measurements of the surface tension of liquid alloys have been conducted using the method of maximum pressure in the gas bubbles. There were observed linear dependences on temperature with a negative gradients dσ/dT. Generally, with two exceptions, there was observed the increase of surface tension with increasing content of zinc. Using the Butler's model, the surface tension isotherms were calculated for temperatures T = 673 and 1073 K. Calculations show that only for high temperatures and for low content of zinc (up to about 35 at.%), the modeling is in very good agreement with experiment. Using the mentioned model, the composition of the surface phase was defined at two temperatures T = 673 and 973 K. Regardless of the temperature and of the defined section, the composition of the bulk is very different in comparison with the composition of the surface.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys systems Fe - Ni - O - Me - Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н.О. Шаркіна

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  In the isoperabelic calorimeter at 1870 are determined partial and integral enthalpies of mixture of liquid alloys of systems Fe – Ni – O - Me and Fe – Ni – O – Me – Si, where Me – IVb-, Vb-, VIb-metals. The basis of alloy was served invars with the contents of oxygen by 0,06 %. Established, that the melts of systems Fe – Ni – O – IVb- (Vb--metals are characterized by strong interparticle interplay. The components of the maiden portions IVb- (Vb--metals in Fe – Ni – O melts are accompanied by very large exothermal effects (from – 400 up to – 1000 kJ/mol, which one considerably surpass those in double melts Fe(Ni – Me. The subsequent portions IVb- (Vb--metals caused smaller allocation of a heat (in limits from – 100 up to – 30 kJ/mol, that is conditioned by a decrease of the contents of dissolved oxygen. The partial enthalpies of mixture of molybdenum and tungsten in melts Fe – Ni – O are close to those in a nickel, and for a chromium exceed them. Is rotined, that D` HSi in liquid alloys Fe – Ni – O – Mo (– 450 kJ/mol considerably surpass that are characteristic for a nickel (– 50 kJ/mol. It is explained by interplay of silicon with the stayed dissolved oxygen in initial melts of a system Fe – Ni – O – Mo.

  8. Potentiostatic control of ionic liquid surface film formation on ZE41 magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiadis, Jim; Neil, Wayne C; Bunter, Andrew; Howlett, Patrick C; Hinton, Bruce R W; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The generation of potentially corrosion-resistant films on light metal alloys of magnesium have been investigated. Magnesium alloy, ZE41 [Mg-Zn-Rare Earth (RE)-Zr, nominal composition approximately 4 wt % Zn, approximately 1.7 wt % RE (Ce), approximately 0.6 wt % Zr, remaining balance, Mg], was exposed under potentiostatic control to the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium diphenylphosphate, denoted [P(6,6,6,14)][DPP]. During exposure to this IL, a bias potential, shifted from open circuit, was applied to the ZE41 surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used to monitor the evolution of film formation on the metal surface during exposure. The EIS data indicate that, of the four bias potentials examined, applying a potential of -200 mV versus OCP during the exposure period resulted in surface films of greatest resistance. Both EIS measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging indicate that these surfaces are substantially different to those formed without potential bias. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) elemental mapping of the films was utilized to ascertain the distribution of the ionic liquid cationic and anionic species relative to the microstructural surface features of ZE41 and indicated a more uniform distribution compared with the surface following exposure in the absence of a bias potential. Immersion of the treated ZE41 specimens in a chloride contaminated salt solution clearly indicated that the ionic liquid generated surface films offered significant protection against pitting corrosion, although the intermetallics were still insufficiently protected by the IL and hence favored intergranular corrosion processes.

  9. An Electrochemical Investigation of the Chemical Diffusivity in Liquid Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Salvador A.

    The liquid metal battery has been shown to be a viable candidate for grid-scale energy storage, due to its fast kinetics and ability to be constructed from economically feasible materials. Various of the liquid metal couples that form high stable voltages, such as the calcium chemistries, are rate limited because they tend to form solid intermetallic compounds with high melting points. In order to understand and better engineer these batteries, the kinetic properties of these liquid alloys, in particular the chemical diffusivity, must be known accurately so that it can be used as input in computational simulations to avoid the nucleation of any solids. Unfortunately, the dominant experimental methods for measuring diffusion in liquid metals today are unreliable because the measurement timescales are on the order of days, require long capillaries susceptible to buoyancy-driven flow from temperature fluctuations, and composition analysis must be done ex-situ as a solid. To counter all these problems, a new and novel method for measuring the chemical diffusivity of metals in liquid alloys derived from electrochemical principles is presented in this thesis. This new method has the advantage of operating in shorter times scales of minutes rather than days, and requires the use of small capillaries which collectively minimize the effect of convectively-driven flow caused from temperature gradients. This new method was derived by solving the same boundary conditions required by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique for solid-state electrodes. To verify the validity of the new theoretical derivation, the method was used to measure the chemical diffusivity of calcium in liquid bismuth within the temperature range of 550 - 700 °C using a three-electrode setup with a ternary molten salt electrolyte. Three compositions where studied (5% Ca-Bi, 10% Ca-Bi, and 15% Ca-Bi) for comparison. The chemical diffusion coefficient was found to range between (6.77 +/- 0.21)x

  10. The dependence of activity coefficient on intensive thermodynamic parameters in a liquid Fe-N-V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutny, A.; Siwka, J. [Faculty of Materials Processing Technology and Applied Physics, Technical Univ. of Czestochowa (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    The article presents the methodology and results of experimental studies on the solubility of nitrogen in liquid Fe-V alloys. Tests were carried out using the levitation metal melting technique. Liquid alloys of Fe-V ([%V]{sub wt.%} 1.5; 2.5; 4,0; 5.8; 7.8; 12.2; 45%) were saturated with nitrogen at temperatures of 2073, 2173, 2273 K. The partial pressure of nitrogen was varied in the range 0.001-2.5 MPa. The experiment involved melting a 1 g specimen in an electromagnetic field generated by a levitation coil, filling the reaction chamber with nitrogen up to the required pressure and heating the specimen up to a preset temperature. High nitrogen concentrations were obtained in the samples due to the formation of high nitrogen partial pressures in the gaseous phase in the reaction chamber. In such conditions, all interactions of nitrogen in the alloy tested could be disclosed, namely: nitrogen-vanadium, nitrogen-nitrogen, and nitrogen-nitrogen-vanadium interactions. The results of the tests showed a nonlinear dependence of the activity coefficient, f{sub N}, not only on vanadium content in the alloy, but also on nitrogen content in it. Using the experimental data and the findings of the previous study on the liquid Fe-N alloy, temperature relationships of inter- and self-reaction parameters have been determined. (orig.)

  11. Oxidation of an aluminium-magnesium alloy in liquid state. Methodology of determination of mechanisms from not necessarily repeatable experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surla, Karine

    1998-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the oxidation of an aluminium-5 pc magnesium alloy in its liquid state in an oxygen environment, using thermogravimetric analysis and that of magnesium in its solid state. In a first part, the author reports a thermodynamic and bibliographical study on magnesium transformation in its solid state (Mg/O 2 and Mg/H 2 O systems, transformation with dry and humid synthetic air, oxidation inhibitors) and on Al-Mg alloy transformation in presence of oxygen (thermodynamic properties of aluminium-rich Al-Mg alloys, Al-Mg/O 2 /N 2 and Al-Mg/O 2 /N 2 /H 2 O systems). The next parts address the selection of reaction systems for the different cases (oxidation of solid magnesium in oxygen, oxidation of the Al-Mg alloy in oxygen), the modelling of the formation of magnesia from solid magnesium and from the Al-Mg alloy, and the modelling of the liquid Al-Mg A5182 alloy oxidation in oxygen [fr

  12. Gibbs free energy difference between the undercooled liquid and the beta phase of a Ti-Cr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Holzer, J. C.; Johnson, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    The heat of fusion and the specific heats of the solid and liquid have been experimentally determined for a Ti60Cr40 alloy. The data are used to evaluate the Gibbs free energy difference, delta-G, between the liquid and the beta phase as a function of temperature to verify a reported spontaneous vitrification (SV) of the beta phase in Ti-Cr alloys. The results show that SV of an undistorted beta phase in the Ti60Cr40 alloy at 873 K is not feasible because delta-G is positive at the temperature. However, delta-G may become negative with additional excess free energy to the beta phase in the form of defects.

  13. Vaporization of liquid Pb-Li eutectic alloy from 1000K to 1200K - A high temperature mass spectrometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, U.; Mukherjee, A.; Dey, G. K.

    2017-09-01

    Liquid lead-lithium eutectic will be used as a coolant in fusion reactor blanket loop. Vapor pressure of the eutectic is an important parameter to accurately predict its in-loop behavior. Past measurements of vapor pressure of the eutectic relied on indirect methods. In this paper, we report for the first time the in-situ vaporization behavior of the liquid alloy between 1042 and 1176 K by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). It was seen that the vaporization occurred by independent evaporation of lead and lithium. No complex intermetallic vapor was seen in the mass spectra. The partial pressures and enthalpy of vaporization of Pb and Li were evaluated directly from the measured ion intensities formed from the equilibrium vapor over the alloy. The activity of Li over a temperature range of 1042-1176 K was found to be 4.8 × 10-5 to that of pure Li, indicating its very low activity in the alloy.

  14. Effect Of Compaction Pressure And Sintering Temperature On The Liquid Phase Sintering Behavior Of Al-Cu-Zn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The liquid phase sintering characteristics of Al-Cu-Zn alloy were investigated with respect to various powder metallurgy processing conditions. Powders of each alloying elements were blended to form Al-6Cu-5Zn composition and compacted with pressures of 200, 400, and 600 MPa. The sintering process was performed at various temperatures of 410, 560, and 615°C in N2 gas atmosphere. Density and micro-Vickers hardness measurements were conducted at different processing stages, and transverse rupture strength of sintered materials was examined for each condition, respectively. The microstructure was characterized using optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of Zn addition on the liquid phase sintering behavior during P/M process of the Al-Cu-Zn alloy was also discussed in detail.

  15. Standard test method for tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes procedures for the tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium. The format is similar to that of other ASTM tension test standards, but the contents include modifications for cryogenic testing which requires special apparatus, smaller specimens, and concern for serrated yielding, adiabatic heating, and strain-rate effects. 1.2 To conduct a tension test by this standard, the specimen in a cryostat is fully submerged in normal liquid helium (He I) and tested using crosshead displacement control at a nominal strain rate of 10−3 s−1 or less. Tests using force control or high strain rates are not considered. 1.3 This standard specifies methods for the measurement of yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area. The determination of the elastic modulus is treated in Test Method E 111. Note 1—The boiling point of normal liquid helium (He I) at sea level is 4.2 K (−269°C or −452.1°F or 7.6°R). It decreases with geographic elevation and is...

  16. Liquid phase sintering of carbides using a nickel-molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, J.M.; Warenchak, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid phase vacuum sintering was used to densify four carbide groups. These were titanium carbide, tungsten carbide, vanadium carbide, and zirconium carbide. The liquid phase consisted of nickel with additions of molybdenum of from 6.25 to 50.0 weight percent at doubling increments. The liquid phase or binder comprised 10, 20, and 40 percent by weight of the pressed powders. The specimens were tested using 3 point bending. Tungsten carbide showed the greatest improvement in bend rupture strength, flexural modulus, fracture energy and hardness using 20 percent binder with lesser amounts of molybdenum (6.25 or 12.5 wt %) added to nickel compared to pure nickel. A refinement in the carbide microstructure and/or a reduction in porosity was seen for both the titanium and tungsten carbides when the alloy binder was used compared to using the nickel alone. Curves depicting the above properties are shown for increasing amounts of molybdenum in nickel for each carbide examined. Loss of binder phase due to evaporation was experienced during heating in vacuum at sintering temperatures. In an effort to reduce porosity, identical specimens were HIP processed at 15 ksi and temperatures averaging 110 C below the sintering g temperature. The tungsten carbide and titanium carbide series containing 80 and 90 weight percent carbide phase respectively showed improvement properties after HIP while properties decreased for most other compositions

  17. Thermophysical Properties of Solid and Liquid Ti-6Al-4V (TA6V) Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivineau, M.; Cagran, C.; Doytier, D.; Eyraud, V.; Nadal, M.-H.; Wilthan, B.; Pottlacher, G.

    2006-03-01

    Ti-6Al-4V (TA6V) titanium alloy is widely used in industrial applications such as aeronautic and aerospace due to its good mechanical properties at high temperatures. Experiments on two different resistive pulse heating devices (CEA Valduc and TU-Graz) have been carried out in order to study thermophysical properties (such as electrical resistivity, volume expansion, heat of fusion, heat capacity, normal spectral emissivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity) of both solid and liquid Ti-6Al-4V. Fast time-resolved measurements of current, voltage, and surface radiation and shadowgraphs of the volume have been undertaken. At TU-Graz, a fast laser polarimeter has been used for determining the emissivity of liquid Ti-6Al-4V at 684.5 nm and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) for measuring the heat capacity of solid Ti-6Al-4V. This study deals with the specific behavior of the different solid phase transitions (effect of heating rate) and the melting region, and emphasizes the liquid state ( T > 2000 K).

  18. Fatigue-crack propagation response of two nickel-base alloys in a liquid sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The elevated temperature fatigue-crack propagation response of Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 was characterized within a linear-elastic fracture mechanics framework in air and low-oxygen liquid sodium environments. The crack growth rates of both nickel-base alloys tested in liquid sodium were found to be considerably lower than those obtained in air. This enhanced fatigue resistance in sodium was attributed to the very low oxygen content in the inert sodium environment. Electron fractographic examination of the Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that operative crack growth mechanisms were dependent on the prevailing stress intensity level. Under low growth rate conditions, Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 fracture surfaces exhibited a faceted, crystallographic morphology in both air and sodium environments. In the higher growth rate regime, fatigue striations were observed; however, striations formed in sodium were rather ill-defined. These indistinct striations were attributed to the absence of oxygen in the liquid sodium environment. Striation spacing measurements were found to be in excellent agreement with macroscopic growth rates in both environments

  19. Concentration dependence of physical properties of liquid NaF–LiF–NdF{sub 3} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulavin, L. [Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Faculty of Physics, 2 Glushkova Ave., 03022 Kyiv (Ukraine); Plevachuk, Yu., E-mail: plevachuk@mail.lviv.ua [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 8 Kyrylo and Mephodiy Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Sklyarchuk, V. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 8 Kyrylo and Mephodiy Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Omelchuk, A.; Faidiuk, N.; Savchuk, R. [V.I. Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 prosp. Akad. Palladina, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Shtablavyy, I.; Vus, V. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 8 Kyrylo and Mephodiy Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Yakymovych, A. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry (Materials Chemistry), University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Molten NaF–LiF–NdF{sub 3} eutectic and peritectic alloys can be used in liquid salt reactors. • A stepped dissociation exists well above melting in the both alloys. • Anomalous properties behaviour proves that a short-range order persists after melting. • Transformation of structure spread to a wide temperature range in the liquid phase. - Abstract: Experimental studies of viscosity, thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity of the ionic liquid alloys NaF–LiF–NdF{sub 3} were carried out in the wide temperature intervals above the melting points. Similar temperature dependences of these properties for different melt compositions have been revealed. The alloy composition has a significant influence on the interval of melt homogeneity and behaviour of the thermoelectric power temperature coefficient. It was found that a small shift from the peritectic to eutectic composition increases considerable the viscosity. A correlation between the structure and thermophysical properties has been analyzed. The results can be used in modelling a blanket for the liquid salt reactor.

  20. Study on direct dissolution of U-10Zr alloy and distribution of uranium and zirconium in liquid cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuxing; Gao Yuan

    1997-09-01

    The effect of dissolution time, temperature, total surface area of U-10Zr alloy pellets and stirring on the dissolution and dissolution rate of uranium in liquid cadmium were studied. Cadmium containing U and Zr dissolved from U-10Zr alloy at 475 degree C and 500 degree C respectively was analyzed with electron microanalyzer. The experimental results show that at 400 degree and 500 degree C with the stirring rate of some 150 r/min, the solubilities of uranium in liquid cadmium are 0.4% and 2.2%, respectively. At the first 30 min, the dissolution rates of U-10Zr alloy pellets are 0.05 g/(cm 2 ·h) and 0.32 g/(cm 2 ·h), respectively. The suitable dissolution conditions for U-10Zr alloy pellets in liquid cadmium (the ratio of the mass of liquid cadmium to that of the pellets ≅7) are: temperature, about 480 degree C; stirring rate, about 150 r/min; dissolution time, 4 h. The distribution of uranium and zirconium in cadmium is homogeneous

  1. Prediction of liquid metal alloy radiant properties from measurements of the Hall coefficient and the direct current resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Qiu, T.

    1995-04-01

    The thermal radiative properties of high temperature solid and liquid metal alloys are particularly useful to research and development efforts in laser cladding and machining, electron beam welding and laser isotope separation. However the cost, complexity, and difficulty of measuring these properties have forced the use of crude estimates from the Hagen-Rubens relation, the Drude relations, or extrapolation from low temperature or otherwise flawed data (e.g., oxidized). The authors have found in this work that published values for the Hall coefficient and the electrical resistivity of liquid metal alloys can provide useful estimates of the reflectance and emittance of some groups of binary liquid metal and high temperature solid alloys. The estimation method computes the Drude free electron parameters, and thence the optical constants and the radiant properties from the dependence of the Hall coefficient and direct current resistivity on alloy composition (the Hall coefficient gives the free electron density and the resistivity gives the average time between collisions). They find that predictions of the radiant properties of molten cerium-copper alloy, which use the measured variations in the Hall coefficient and resistivity (both highly nonlinear) as a function of alloy fraction (rather than linear combinations of the values of the pure elements) yield a good comparison to published measurements of the variation of the normal spectral emittance (a different but also nonlinear function) of cerium-copper alloy at the single wavelength available for comparison, 0.645 μm. The success of the approach in the visible range is particularly notable because one expects a Drude based approach to improve with increasing wavelength from the visible into the infrared. Details of the estimation method, the comparison between the calculation and the measured emittance, and a discussion of what groups of elements may also provide agreement is given

  2. Newly developed EMF cell with zirconia solid electrolyte for measurement of low oxygen potentials in liquid Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayama I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the very low oxygen potential by use of stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte emf method, a new cell construction was devised. The idea was based on Janke but a zirconia rod was used instead of the zirconia crucible which contacts liquid alloy electrode. The cell was used for determination of the oxygen potentials in liquid dilute Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys. The reference electrode was Cr,Cr2O3. Emf measurements were performed in the temperature range of 1400-1580K and composition range of 0.198-3.10at%Cr-Cu alloys, and 1380-1465K, 0.085-0.761at%Zr-Cu alloys. The composition of liquid alloys were determined by picking up from the liquid alloys and ICP analysis. By use of the newly devised cell construction in this study, stable emf values were obtained at each temperature and alloy composition. Emf values were corrected by using the parameter for electronic contribution of the YSZ. Activity of Cr obeys Henry’s law and activity coefficient at infinitely dilute alloys of Cr in Cu-Cr alloys are: lng0 Cr =(3.80 at 1423K, (3.57 at 1473K, (3.38 at 1523K and (3.20 at 1573K. At 1423 K activity coefficient of Zr at infinitely diluted alloy is lnγo Zr = -4.0.

  3. Benefits of microgravity for measurement of thermo-transport coefficients in liquid metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praizey, J.P.

    1988-05-01

    After giving a brief review of thermo-transport principles, this paper describes the experimental technique used and presents the results obtained on the ground. The author determines the solutal stability conditions to be satisfied by the metal alloy so that ground thermotransport measurements are not disturbed by convection effects. The benefits of microgravity when such conditions cannot be achieved are demonstrated and the results obtained on pure Sn (isotope separation), Sn-Co, Sn-Ag and Sn-Bi during Spacelab missions in 1983 and 1985 are presented. The results of experiments carried out without the disturbing effect of convection are compared with those found in literature (experiments or calculations carried out from liquid structure models) [fr

  4. Tensile property of low activation vanadium alloy after liquid lithium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo; Li, Meimei; Hoelzer, David T.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Grossbeck, Martin L.; Matsui, Hideki

    2005-10-01

    A candidate low activation vanadium (V) alloy, V-4Cr-4Ti (NIFS-HEAT-2), was exposed to liquid lithium (Li) at 973 and 1073 K for up to 1963 hr. Contamination by carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from the Li on the order of thousands of wppm were observed. Oxygen (O) levels were reduced to the several 10 wppm level by Li exposure at 1073 K, but not at 973 K. The Li exposure caused strength degradation as measured by tensile tests at 973 and 1073 K. On the other hand, good ductility was demonstrated after the Li exposure even with the significant contamination of C and N. From microstructural observations, C and N are likely to be scavenged by Ti-C-N type precipitates. Reduction of O was attributed to disappearance of Ti-C-O type precipitates. (author)

  5. Effect of carbon and silicon on nitrogen solubility in liquid chromium and iron-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyakkinen, V.I.; Bezobrazov, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    The study is aimed at specifying the role of carbon and silicon in high-chromium melts nitridation processes. It is shown that in high-chromium melts of the Cr-Fe-C system the nitrogen solubility is reduced with the growth of carbon content and in the chromium concentration range of 70-100% at 1873 K and P N 2 =0.1 MPa it is described by the lg[%N] Cr-Fe-C =lg[%N] cr-fe -0.098[%C] equation. While decreasing the temperature the nitrogen solubility in alloys is increased. Silicon essentially decreases the nitrogen solubility in liquid chromium. For the 0-10% silicon concentration range the relation between the equilibrium content of nitrogen and silicon at 1873 K and P N 2 =0.1 MPa is described by the straight line equation [%N] Cr-Si =6.1-0.338 [%Si

  6. Phase formation in titanium alloys during their quenching from liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, S.Ya.; Kotko, A.V.; Kuz'menko, N.N.; Kulak, L.D.; Firstov, S.A.; Khaenko, B.V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of X-ray diffractin analysis, light and electron microscopy were applied to study structural state of titanium base alloys quenched from liquid state by spinning with cooling in inert gas or at the surface of solid heat exchanger. Phase formation under rapid cooling conditions was considered. The morphology of phases and mutual orientation of their crystal lattices were investigated along with the character of crystallization texture. It was revealed that on melt quenching with 10 5 -10 6 K/s cooling rates the growth of columnar branches of degenerated dendrites was accopanied by Si atoms movement of the order of 0.1 μm. Structure and crack resistance of compacted articles produced from rapidly solidified powders were under study

  7. Liquid-phase synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and related nanomaterials on preheated alloy substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi

    2018-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and related nanocarbons were selectively synthesized on commercially available alloy substrates by a simple liquid-phase technique. Fe- and Ni-rich stainless-steel (JIS SUS316L and Inconel®600, respectively) and Ni-Cu alloy (Monel®400) substrates were used for the synthesis, and each substrate was preheated in air to promote the self-formation of catalyst nanolayers on the surface. The substrates were resistance heated in ethanol without any addition of catalysts to grow CNTs. The yield of the CNTs effectively increased when the preheating process was employed. Highly aligned CNT arrays grew on the SUS316L substrate, while non-aligned CNTs and distinctive twisted fibers were observed on the other substrates. An Fe oxide layer was selectively formed on the preheated SUS316L substrate promoting the growth of the CNT arrays. Characterizations including cyclic voltammetry for the arrays revealed that the CNTs possess a comparatively defect-rich surface, which is a desirable characteristic for its application such as electrode materials for capacitors.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the thermodynamic and kinetic nitrogen absorption by liquid alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorenko, G.M.; Pomarin, Yu.M.; Orlovsky, V.Yu. [Natsional' na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Kiev (Ukraine). E.O. Paton Inst. of Electrical Welding

    1999-07-01

    The work was performed within the framework of the Ukrainian-French program of cooperation in the field of metal of high inclusion and was dedicated to joint fundamental investigation of thermodynamics and kinetics of nitrogen absorption by the Ni-20%Cr liquid alloy. The comparative investigations of kinetic absorption of nitrogen from the gas phase were performed by the method of levitation melting within the temperature range of 1600-1800 C in the atmosphere of pure nitrogen. Using the method of mathematical statistics and experimental Cp values at the different temperatures, the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant of nitrogen solution reaction in the Ni-20%Cr alloy was obtained (lgK{sub N}=1284/T-1.94). Theoretical and graphical analysis of the experimental data allowed to make the conclusion that the absorption nitrogen process is controlled by the general kinetic equation of the first degree. Using of the aforementioned results the mass transfer factors were calculated with the different temperature and were obtained their mathematical description ({beta}{sub N}{sup Ni-Cr}=-454/T+0.285). (orig.)

  9. Creep-resistant, cobalt-free alloys for high temperature, liquid-salt heat exchanger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-09-06

    An essentially Fe- and Co-free alloy is composed essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.0 to 7.5 Cr, 0 to 0.15 Al, 0.5 to 0.85 Mn, 11 to 19.5 Mo, 0.03 to 4.5 Ta, 0.01 to 9 W, 0.03 to 0.08 C, 0 to 1 Re, 0 to 1 Ru, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0005 to 0.005 N, balance Ni, the alloy being characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 25 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 38 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 25 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2 sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 3 to 10.

  10. Influence of liquid copper-silver brazing alloy on properties of high-strength and heat resistant alloys and steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of temperature, heating rate, microstructure, the duration of Cu-Ag melt attack during brazing, the thickness and the material of barrier coating on properties of materials (Ni-Cr alloys, Cr-Ni steals, a Fe-Ni base EhJ-702 alloy) being brazed is studied. The tests of specimens with a brazing alloy are carried out in the temperature range of 780-1000 deg C. It is revealed that heat resistant alloys under brazing conditions experience brittle fracture. Multiphase structure coarse grain, increased hydrogen content mechanical stress concentrators are found to intensity embrittlement of the materials. The use of barrier coating displaying a chemical affinity to the brazing alloy results in a decrease of the tendency to embrittlement

  11. Semiconductor-metal transitions in liquid In100-xSex alloys: A concentration-induced transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlat, G.; San Miguel, A.; Xu, H.; Aouizerat, A.; Blase, X.; Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of In 100-x Se x liquid alloys close to their melting points have been investigated by combining x-ray-absorption experiments with ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure data have been acquired at both the In and Se K edges in a large concentration range (x=20% to x=50% of Se content). Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations have been carried out at the two most extreme concentrations explored experimentally. Liquid InSe is found to retain a semiconducting behavior which results from a low-dimensional structure, reminiscent of that of the ambient solid phase, characterized by strong In-Se interactions within tetrahedral units. On the other side, the In 80 Se 20 liquid alloy shows a metalliclike behavior which is correlated to a more dense-packed structure

  12. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu–Zr alloys: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan; Valladares, Ariel A.; Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of Cu x Zr 100−x (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature

  13. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu–Zr alloys: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan, E-mail: jgcolin@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Ariel A., E-mail: valladar@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-542, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of Cu{sub x}Zr{sub 100−x} (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature.

  14. CaO insulator coatings on a vanadium-base alloy in liquid 2 at.% calcium-lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-01-01

    The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-15%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy (round bottom samples 6-in. long by 0.25-in. dia.) to liquid lithium that contained 2 at.% dissolved calcium was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 300-464 degrees C. The solute element, calcium in liquid lithium, reacted with the alloy substrate at these temperatures for 17 h to produce a calcium coating ∼7-8 μm thick. The calcium-coated vanadium alloy was oxidized to form a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer on V-15Cr-5Ti, measured in-situ in liquid lithium that contained 2 at.% calcium, was 1.0 x 10 10 Ω-cm 2 at 300 degrees C and 400 h, and 0.9 x 10 10 Ω-cm 2 at 464 degrees C and 300 h. Thermal cycling between 300 and 464 degrees C changed the resistance of the coating layer, which followed insulator behavior. Examination of the specimen after cooling to room temperature revealed no cracks in the CaO coating. The coatings were evaluated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray analysis. Adhesion between CaO and vanadium alloys was enhanced as exposure time increased

  15. Ultrasound-Assisted Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Magnesium Alloy Using Brass Interlayer in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei Lai; Ruishan Xie; Chuan Pan; Xiaoguang Chen; Lei Liu; Wenxian Wang; Guisheng Zou

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure evolution and oxide film behavior in ultrasound-assisted transient liquid phase (U-TLP) bonding of Mg alloy were investigated by applying different ultrasonic time at 460℃ withbrass interlayer in air.The results indicated that with increasing ultrasonic time,brass interlayer disappeared gradually and the Mg-Cu-Zn eutectic compounds were formed.The eutectic compounds in the joint decreased as the ultrasonic time increased further.The oxide removal process was divided into four steps.Continuous oxide film at the interface was partially fractured by ultrasonic vibration,and then suspended into liquid by undermining eutectic reaction.After that,the suspended oxide film was broken into small oxide fragments by ultrasonic cavitation effect,which was finally squeezed out of the joint by ultrasonic squeeze action.In addition,the mechanical properties of the joints were investigated.The maximum shear strength of the joint reached 105 MPa,which was 100% of base metal.

  16. Compliant liquid column damper modified by shape memory alloy device for seismic vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, Sourav; Mishra, Sudib Kumar; Bhowmick, Sutanu; Chakraborty, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Liquid column dampers (LCDs) have long been used for the seismic vibration control of flexible structures. In contrast, tuning LCDs to short-period structures poses difficulty. Various modifications have been proposed on the original LCD configuration for improving its performance in relatively stiff structures. One such system, referred to as a compliant-LCD has been proposed recently by connecting the LCD to the structure with a spring. In this study, an improvement is attempted in compliant LCDs by replacing the linear spring with a spring made of shape memory alloy (SMA). Considering the dissipative, super-elastic, force-deformation hysteresis of SMA triggered by stress-induced micro-structural phase transition, the performance is expected to improve further. The optimum parameters for the SMA-compliant LCD are obtained through design optimization, which is based on a nonlinear random vibration response analysis via stochastic linearization of the force-deformation hysteresis of SMA and dissipation by liquid motion through an orifice. Substantially enhanced performance of the SMA–LCD over a conventional compliant LCD is demonstrated, the consistency of which is further verified under recorded ground motions. The robustness of the improved performance is also validated by parametric study concerning the anticipated variations in system parameters as well as variability in seismic loading. (paper)

  17. Development of liquid-nitrogen-cooling friction stir spot welding for AZ31 magnesium alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Shen, Jun; Zhou, Meng-bing; Cheng, Liang; Sang, Jia-xing

    2017-10-01

    A liquid-nitrogen-cooling friction stir spot welding (C-FSSW) technology was developed for welding AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets. The liquid-nitrogen cooling degraded the deformability of the welded materials such that the width of interfacial cracks increased with increasing cooling time. The grain size of the stirred zone (SZ) and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the C-FSSW-welded joints decreased, whereas that of the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) increased with increasing cooling time. The maximum tensile shear load of the C-FSSW-welded joints welded with a cooling time of 5 or 7 s was larger than that of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW)-welded joint, and the tensile shear load decreased with increasing cooling time. The microhardness of the C-FSSW-welded joints was greater than that of the FSSW-welded joint. Moreover, the microhardness of the SZ and the HAZ of the C-FSSW-welded joints increased, whereas that of the TMAZ decreased, with increasing cooling time.

  18. Corrosion behavior of Nb-based and Mo-based super heat-resisting alloys in liquid Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, J.; Kano, S.; Morinaga, M.

    1998-07-01

    Research on structural materials which will be utilized even in the severe environment of high-temperature liquid alkali metals has been promoted in order to develop the frontiers of materials techniques. The super-heat resisting alloys which are based on refractory metals, Nb and Mo, are aimed as promising materials used in such an environment. The corrosion resistance in liquid Li and the mechanical properties such as creep and tensile strengths at high temperatures are important for these structural materials. On the basis of many experiments and analyses of these properties at 1473 K, the material design of Nb-based and Mo-based alloys has been carried out successfully. In this report, all the previous experimental results of corrosion tests in liquid Li were summarized systematically for Nb-based and Mo-based alloys. The corrosion mechanism was proposed on the basis of a series of analyses, in particular, focussing on the deposition mechanism of corrosion products on the surface and also on the initiation and growth mechanism of cracks on the corroded surface of Nb-based alloys. The principal results are as follows. (1) For the deposition mechanism, a reaction took place first between dissolved metallic elements and nitrogen which existed as an impurity in liquid Li and then corrosion products (nitrides) precipitated on the metal surface. Subsequently, another reaction took place between dissolved metallic elements in liquid Li, and corrosion products (intermetallic compounds) precipitated on the metal surface. The composition of deposited corrosion products could be predicted on the basis of the deposition mechanism. (2) For the crack initiation mechanism, the chemical potential diagrams were utilized in order to understand the formation of Li-M-O ternary oxides which caused cracks to be formed on the corroded surface. Consequently, it was evident that not only the concentration of the dissolved oxygen in the alloy but also the concentration of Li which

  19. Thermal expansion measurements by x-ray scattering and breakdown of Ehrenfest's relation in alloy liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Blodgett, M. E.; Johnson, M. L.; Vogt, A. J.; Mauro, N. A.; Kelton, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of sharp diffraction peaks as a function of temperature are routinely used to obtain precise linear expansion coefficients of crystalline solids. In this case, the relation between temperature dependent changes in peak position in momentum transfer (q 1 ) and volume expansion is straightforward (Ehrenfest's relation: q 1  = K(2π/d), where K is a constant and d is the interatomic spacing) and the data obtained are usually in close agreement with more direct measurements. With high intensity synchrotron x-ray and spallation neutron sources, it is also possible to accurately measure the positions of the much broader peaks for liquids and glasses. This has led to a debate on whether linear expansion coefficients derived from these data are an accurate representation of the volume expansion coefficients. We present here volume thermal expansion and x-ray diffraction data for a large number of glass-forming alloy liquids acquired in a containerless environment using the beamline electrostatic levitation technique. The data show a large difference in the values obtained from the two different techniques. Moreover, the position of the first peak (q 1 ) in the scattered intensity in the structure factor (S(q)) and the atomic volume v for all liquids follow a simple relationship, v∝(q 1 ) −ε . The exponent, ε = 2.28 (±0.11), is much different from the expected value of 3 from Ehrenfest's relation and shows no temperature dependence over the temperature range of the data collected

  20. Diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interfaces of dilute Bi:Ga, Tl:Ga, and Pb:Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxu; Jiang Xu; Rice, Stuart A.; Lin Binhua; Meron, Mati

    2005-01-01

    As part of a study of the in-plane wave-vector (q xy ) dependence of the effective Hamiltonian for the liquid-vapor interface, H(q), the wave-vector dependences of diffuse x-ray scattering from the liquid-vapor interfaces of dilute alloys of Bi in Ga, Tl in Ga, and Pb in Ga have been measured. In these dilute alloys the solute component segregates as a monolayer that forms the outermost stratum of the liquid-vapor interfaces, and the density distribution along the normal to the interface is stratified. Over the temperature ranges that the alloy interfaces were studied, the Tl and Pb monolayers exhibit both crystalline and liquid phases while the Bi monolayer is always liquid. The diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interfaces of these alloys displays interesting differences with that from the liquid-vapor interface of pure Ga. The presence of a segregated monolayer of solute in the liquid-vapor interface of the alloy appears to slightly suppress the fluctuations in an intermediate wave-vector range in a fashion that preserves the validity of the macroscopic capillary wave model to smaller wavelengths than in pure liquid Ga, and there is an increase in diffuse scattering when the Tl and Pb monolayers melt. The surface intrinsic roughness from fitting the wave-vector dependence of surface tension is 5.0 pm for the Tl:Ga alloy and 1.4 pm for the Bi:Ga alloy. Also, a mode of excitation that contributes to diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interface of Pb in Ga, but does not contribute to diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interface of Ga, has been identified. It is proposed that this mode corresponds to the separation of the Pb and Ga layers in the regime 1 nm -1 ≤q xy ≤10 nm -1

  1. Liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloy observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, Katja; Trampert, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Melting and crystallization dynamics of the multi-component Ge-Sb-Te alloy have been investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Starting point of the phase transition study is an ordered hexagonal Ge 1 Sb 2 Te 4 thin film on Si(111) where the crystal structure and the chemical composition are verified by scanning TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, respectively. The in-situ observation of the liquid phase at 600°C including the liquid-solid and liquid-vacuum interfaces and their movements was made possible due to an encapsulation of the TEM sample. The solid-liquid interface during melting displays a broad and diffuse transition zone characterized by a vacancy induced disordered state. Although the velocities of interface movements are measured to be in the nanometer per second scale, both, for crystallization and solidification, the underlying dynamic processes are considerably different. Melting reveals linear dependence on time, whereas crystallization exhibits a non-linear time-dependency featuring a superimposed start-stop motion. Our results may provide valuable insight into the atomic mechanisms at interfaces during the liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloys. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM observation of liquid Ge-Sb-Te phase transition due to encapsulation. • During melting: Observation of non-ordered interface transition due to premelting. • During solidification: Observation of non-linear time-dependent crystallization.

  2. Liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloy observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Katja, E-mail: katja.berlin@pdi-berlin.de; Trampert, Achim

    2017-07-15

    Melting and crystallization dynamics of the multi-component Ge-Sb-Te alloy have been investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Starting point of the phase transition study is an ordered hexagonal Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film on Si(111) where the crystal structure and the chemical composition are verified by scanning TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, respectively. The in-situ observation of the liquid phase at 600°C including the liquid-solid and liquid-vacuum interfaces and their movements was made possible due to an encapsulation of the TEM sample. The solid-liquid interface during melting displays a broad and diffuse transition zone characterized by a vacancy induced disordered state. Although the velocities of interface movements are measured to be in the nanometer per second scale, both, for crystallization and solidification, the underlying dynamic processes are considerably different. Melting reveals linear dependence on time, whereas crystallization exhibits a non-linear time-dependency featuring a superimposed start-stop motion. Our results may provide valuable insight into the atomic mechanisms at interfaces during the liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloys. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM observation of liquid Ge-Sb-Te phase transition due to encapsulation. • During melting: Observation of non-ordered interface transition due to premelting. • During solidification: Observation of non-linear time-dependent crystallization.

  3. Effect of the third element on the structure of liquid Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Y{sub 10} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dan [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Weihai Wanfeng Magnesium Industry Science and Technology Development Co. Ltd., Weihai 264209 (China); Zhu, Xun Ming [Weihai Wanfeng Magnesium Industry Science and Technology Development Co. Ltd., Weihai 264209 (China); Qin, Jing Yu, E-mail: qinjy@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Duan, Jun Peng; Wang, Ai Min [Weihai Wanfeng Magnesium Industry Science and Technology Development Co. Ltd., Weihai 264209 (China); Gu, Ting Kun [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2016-08-12

    The liquid structures of Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Y{sub 10} and its three homologous binary liquid alloys are investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics in the present work. The chemical and topological environments in all four liquid alloys are analyzed using pair distribution function, coordination number, and the Voronoi polyhedron. It shows that the Cu atoms play significant role in deciding the chemical and topological short-range orders of the Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Y{sub 10} liquid alloy. The Voronoi polyhedra in the ternary liquid alloy illustrate less varieties and longer lifetime. Moreover, the diffusion coefficients are decreased significantly in the ternary liquid alloys according to the mean square displacements. All above offer a deeper insight into how the three species work in the Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Y{sub 10} liquid alloy. - Highlights: • Cu plays crucial role in Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Y{sub 10}'s chemical and topological SROs. • Additive elements decrease varieties and prolong lifetimes of Voronoi polyhedra. • Additive elements hinder the diffusion of Mg and Y efficiently.

  4. Transient liquid phase bonding of titanium-, iron- and nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. H. M. Esfakur

    The operating temperature of land-based gas turbines and jet engines are ever-increasing to increase the efficiency, decrease the emissions and minimize the cost. Within the engines, complex-shaped parts experience extreme temperature, fatigue and corrosion conditions. Ti-based, Ni-based and Fe-based alloys are commonly used in gas turbines and jet engines depending on the temperatures of different sections. Although those alloys have superior mechanical, high temperature and corrosion properties, severe operating conditions cause fast degradation and failure of the components. Repair of these components could reduce lifecycle costs. Unfortunately, conventional fusion welding is not very attractive, because Ti reacts very easily with oxygen and nitrogen at high temperatures, Ni-based superalloys show heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking, and stainless steels show intergranular corrosion and knife-line attack. On the other hand, transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding method has been considered as preferred joining method for those types of alloys. During the initial phase of the current work commercially pure Ti, Fe and Ni were diffusion bonded using commercially available interlayer materials. Commercially pure Ti (Ti-grade 2) has been diffusion bonded using silver and copper interlayers and without any interlayer. With a silver (Ag) interlayer, different intermetallics (AgTi, AgTi2) appeared in the joint centerline microstructure. While with a Cu interlayer eutectic mixtures and Ti-Cu solid solutions appeared in the joint centerline. The maximum tensile strengths achieved were 160 MPa, 502 MPa, and 382 MPa when Ag, Cu and no interlayers were used, respectively. Commercially pure Fe (cp-Fe) was diffusion bonded using Cu (25 m) and Au-12Ge eutectic interlayer (100 microm). Cu diffused predominantly along austenite grain boundaries in all bonding conditions. Residual interlayers appeared at lower bonding temperature and time, however, voids were observed in the joint

  5. A circulating loop tester for liquid alloyed metal of lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori; Kamata, Kinya

    2002-01-01

    Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) had focused to merits of this lead-bismuth alloy, to actively carry out many works on this field such as an experience of development of heat exchanger at industrial level of intercourse with IPPE (Institute of Physics and Power Engineering) in Russia with an experience of using results for 80 years on coolant for nuclear reactor. Before about 20 years, MES developed a heat exchanger for installation at a lead-zinc separation process in a refinery in Japan under cooperation of the Mitsui Metal and Mine Co., Ltd., to deliver it for a power generation system at the Hachinohe refinery. As the heat exchanger aims at control of cooling in the separation process, it also contributes to power generation of about 4,300 kW, and now it continues to separate and contribute to self-power generation in the refinery. The heat exchanger is filled with the liquid alloyed metal of lead-bismuth for an intermediate thermal medium in its casing. The metal has some merits such as inactivity to air and water, high boiling point (1,700 centigrade), almost no volume change at its coagulation, and its minus reactivity coefficient. However, the metal has some problems to be solved, such as its steel corrosion, its purification, and control technology. To grow up lead-bismuth technology to a nuclear energy technology in Japan, the lead-bismuth circulating loop tester was produced on May, 2001, to establish application technology on this system to nuclear energy technology in Japan. (G.K.)

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of liquid structure for undercooled Zr-Nb alloys assisted with electrostatic levitation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. J.; Hu, L.; Wang, L.; Wei, B.

    2018-06-01

    The liquid structures of undercooled Zr90Nb10, Zr70Nb30 and Zr50Nb50 alloys were studied by molecular dynamics simulation combined with electrostatic levitation experiments. The densities of three alloys were measured by electrostatic levitation to modify the Zr-Nb potential functions by adjusting parameters in potential functions. In simulation, the atomic packing in Zr-Nb alloys was more ordered at lower temperatures. The Voronoi tessellation analyses indicated Nb-centered clusters were easier to form than Zr-centered clusters although the Nb content was less than 50%. The partial pair distribution functions showed that the interactions among Zr atoms are quite different to that among Nb atoms.

  7. Reply to "On Vaporization of liquid Pb-Li eutectic alloy from 1000 K to 1200 K- A high temperature mass spectrometric study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Uttam; Mukherjee, Abhishek

    2018-03-01

    This communication is in response to a letter to editor commenting on the authors' earlier paper "Vaporization of liquid Pb-Li eutectic alloy from 1000 K to 1200 K - A high temperature mass spectrometric study".

  8. Measurement of the thermophysical properties of industrial liquid metallic alloys by non-contact calorimetry under reduced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, R.K.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: The numerical modeling of casting and solidification is becoming of increased importance in industrial process design. While the numerical algorithms have made large progress towards real process design and optimization, there is a pronounced lack of precise thermophysical input data. This lack is caused by the high chemical reactivity of many metallic alloys in the liquid phase making conventional measurement techniques such as differential thermal analysis difficult if at all possible to apply. In this contribution we report about a project planning to use containerless electromagnetic processing under reduced gravity conditions for thermophysical property measurement of industrially relevant alloys. Alloys of interest are, among others, Ti-alloys, Ni-base superalloys, and steels. In preparation of this project, a survey among leading European industries was conducted revealing properties such as melting range, fraction solid/liquid, specific heat capacity, enthalpy, as well as density, viscosity and surface tension as properties most in need. Non-contact calorimetry of electromagnetically levitated specimens was developed for an investigation of the thermophysical properties of Zr-alloys in the liquid phase. These methods have been applied successfully under reduced gravity conditions on board spacelab to the measurement of the specific heat capacity by modulation calorimetry, the enthalpy of fusion, the total hemispherical emissivity and for an effective thermal conductivity. Specific examples from these experiments demonstrating the applicability of these methods for quantitative calorimetry as well as application at higher Biot numbers will be discussed. New developments include modulation calorimetry in the two phase region for the measurement of the fraction solid. (author)

  9. Quantitative assessment of liquid Ga penetration into an aluminium alloy by high-resolution X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgaki, T.; Toda, H.; Sinclair, I.; Buffiere, J.-Y.; Ludwig, W.; Kobayashi, T.; Niinomi, M.; Akahori, T.

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the liquid Ga penetration into an aluminium alloy by high-resolution X-ray tomography. The 3D visualization of a crack together with its surrounding grain structure was performed with the help of the Ga penetration technique. It is found that the advance directions of the crack-tip were strongly influenced by the grain microstructure and the branching of the crack is affected by grain distribution. In this study, the liquid Ga not only acts as a contrast agent for grain boundaries, but also expands the volume of the Al alloy due to Ga diffusion and associated processes. The 3D strain between the grains has been determined by microstructural gauging technique, which uses micropores as marker points. The 3D expansion of the sample volume, the volume reduction of micropores and the brittle fracture were evidently observed

  10. Ductility of Mo–12Si–8.5B alloys doped with lanthanum oxide by the liquid–liquid doping method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenhu [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); School of Materials Science & Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723000 (China); Zhang, Guojun, E-mail: zhangguojun@xaut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Wang, Shixiong [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Li, Bin; Sun, Jun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Alloys doping lanthanum oxide by L–L doped method were prepared by hot pressing. • The compression strength of alloys are superior. • The fracture toughness of alloys is improved by L–L doped method. - Abstract: Mo–12Si–8.5B (Mo–Si–B) alloys doped with different mass fractions (0.3 wt%, 0.6 wt%, and 0.9 wt%) of lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared by liquid–liquid (L–L) doping, mechanical alloying and hot pressing sintering techniques. The observation of the microstructures of the Mo–Si–B alloys reveals that the grain sizes of the alloys were refined with the increase in La{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping. The fracture toughness values of the alloys of over 10 MPa m{sup 1/2} reveal that the addition of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} via the L–L doping method can obviously improve the alloy fracture toughness compared to the alloys doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} via the solid–solid (S–S) doping method. In addition, compression tests indicate that the compression strength of the alloys was improved compared to Mo–12Si–8.5B alloys.

  11. Study of the influence of gravity on the thermodynamic equilibrium of a liquid alloy, and on its solidification: application to eutectic Al-Ge and monotectic Al-In alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinet, Bernard

    1981-01-01

    After having recalled the meaning of gravity, this research thesis addresses the study of movements within the Earth gravity field to assess accelerations for a centrifuged system, and to describe conditions which create weightlessness. The various actions of gravity on fluid phases are analysed by highlighting phenomena of convection and segregation. In a second part, the author addresses the issue of local order. The third part addresses the influence of gravity conditions on the distribution of components of a binary liquid alloy in thermodynamic equilibrium. The fourth part addresses experimental means. The next parts address the eutectic Al-Ge alloy and the monotectic Al-In alloy. Results obtained for liquid alloy are presented, and the author analyse segregations which appeared during solidification in gravity conditions between 40 and 100 g. The influence of these conditions of the structure of both alloys is then studied

  12. Measurement of hydrogen solubility and desorption rate in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium-calcium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Erck, R.; Park, E.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Hydrogen solubility in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium-calcium was measured at a hydrogen pressure of 9.09 x 10{sup {minus}4} torr at temperatures between 250 and 700{degrees}C. Hydrogen solubility in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium decreased with temperature. The measured desorption rate of hydrogen in V-4Cr-4Ti is a thermally activated process; the activation energy is 0.067 eV. Oxygen-charged V-4Cr-4Ti specimens were also investigated to determine the effect of oxygen impurity on hydrogen solubility and desorption in the alloy. Oxygen in V-4Cr-4Ti increases hydrogen solubility and desorption kinetics. To determine the effect of a calcium oxide insulator coating on V-4Cr-4Ti, hydrogen solubility in lithium-calcium alloys that contained 0-8.0 percent calcium was also measured. The distribution ratio R of hydrogen between liquid lithium or lithium-calcium and V-4Cr-4Ti increased as temperature decreased (R {approx} 10 and 100 at 700 and 250{degrees}C, respectively). However at <267{degrees}C, solubility data could not be obtained by this method because of the slow kinetics of hydrogen permeation through the vanadium alloy.

  13. Measurement of hydrogen solubility and desorption rate in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium-calcium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Erck, R.; Park, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium-calcium was measured at a hydrogen pressure of 9.09 x 10 -4 torr at temperatures between 250 and 700 degrees C. Hydrogen solubility in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium decreased with temperature. The measured desorption rate of hydrogen in V-4Cr-4Ti is a thermally activated process; the activation energy is 0.067 eV. Oxygen-charged V-4Cr-4Ti specimens were also investigated to determine the effect of oxygen impurity on hydrogen solubility and desorption in the alloy. Oxygen in V-4Cr-4Ti increases hydrogen solubility and desorption kinetics. To determine the effect of a calcium oxide insulator coating on V-4Cr-4Ti, hydrogen solubility in lithium-calcium alloys that contained 0-8.0 percent calcium was also measured. The distribution ratio R of hydrogen between liquid lithium or lithium-calcium and V-4Cr-4Ti increased as temperature decreased (R ∼ 10 and 100 at 700 and 250 degrees C, respectively). However at <267 degrees C, solubility data could not be obtained by this method because of the slow kinetics of hydrogen permeation through the vanadium alloy

  14. Study of interactions between liquid lead-lithium alloy and austenitic and martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.

    1992-06-01

    In the framework of Fusion Technology, the behaviour of structural materials in presence of liquid alloy Pb17Li is investigated. First, the diffusion coefficients of Fe and Cr have been determined at 500 deg C. Then mass transfer experiments in Pb17Li have been conducted in an anisothermal container with pure metals (Fe, Cr, Ni), Fe-Cr steels and austenitic steels. These experiments showed a very high loss of Nickel, which is an accordance with its high solubility, and Cr showed mass-losses one order of magnitude higher than for pure iron, as the diffusion coefficient of Cr is three orders of magnitude higher than for pure Fe. The corrosion rate of binary Fe-Cr and pure Fe are identical. In austenitic steels, the gamma lattice allows a higher mass-transfer of Cr than the alpha lattice, the presence of Cr slows downs the dissolution of Ni, and the porosity of corrosion layers results of losses of Cr and Ni. Finally, a review of our results and those of other laboratories allowed an identification of the corrosion limiting step. In the case of 1.4914 martensitic steel it is the diffusion of Fe in Pb17Li, while in the case of 316L austenitic steel it is the diffusion of Cr in Pb17Li

  15. Tape transfer printing of a liquid metal alloy for stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2014-09-03

    In order to make conductors with large cross sections for low impedance radio frequency (RF) electronics, while still retaining high stretchability, liquid-alloy-based microfluidic stretchable electronics offers stretchable electronic systems the unique opportunity to combine various sensors on our bodies or organs with high-quality wireless communication with the external world (devices/systems), without sacrificing enhanced user comfort. This microfluidic approach, based on printed circuit board technology, allows large area processing of large cross section conductors and robust contacts, which can handle a lot of stretching between the embedded rigid active components and the surrounding system. Although it provides such benefits, further development is needed to realize its potential as a high throughput, cost-effective process technology. In this paper, tape transfer printing is proposed to supply a rapid prototyping batch process at low cost, albeit at a low resolution of 150 μm. In particular, isolated patterns can be obtained in a simple one-step process. Finally, a stretchable radio frequency identification (RFID) tag is demonstrated. The measured results show the robustness of the hybrid integrated system when the tag is stretched at 50% for 3000 cycles.

  16. High temperature diffusion induced liquid phase joining of a heat resistant alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikstrom, N.P.; Egbewande, A.T.; Ojo, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) of a nickel base superalloy, Waspaloy, was performed to study the influence of holding time and temperature on the joint microstructure. Insufficient holding time for complete isothermal solidification of liquated insert caused formation of eutectic-type microconstituent along the joint centerline region in the alloy. In agreement with prediction by conventional TLP diffusion models, an increase in bonding temperature for a constant gap size, resulted in decrease in the time, t f, required to form a eutectic-free joint by complete isothermal solidification. However, a significant deviation from these models was observed in specimens bonded at and above 1175 deg. C. A reduction in isothermal solidification rate with increased temperature was observed in these specimens, such that a eutectic-free joint could not be achieved by holding for a time period that produced complete isothermal solidification at lower temperatures. Boron-rich particles were observed within the eutectic that formed in the joints prepared at the higher temperatures. An overriding effect of decrease in boron solubility relative to increase in its diffusivity with increase in temperature, is a plausible important factor responsible for the reduction in isothermal solidification rate at the higher bonding temperatures

  17. Tape Transfer Printing of a Liquid Metal Alloy for Stretchable RF Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hee Jeong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to make conductors with large cross sections for low impedance radio frequency (RF electronics, while still retaining high stretchability, liquid-alloy-based microfluidic stretchable electronics offers stretchable electronic systems the unique opportunity to combine various sensors on our bodies or organs with high-quality wireless communication with the external world (devices/systems, without sacrificing enhanced user comfort. This microfluidic approach, based on printed circuit board technology, allows large area processing of large cross section conductors and robust contacts, which can handle a lot of stretching between the embedded rigid active components and the surrounding system. Although it provides such benefits, further development is needed to realize its potential as a high throughput, cost-effective process technology. In this paper, tape transfer printing is proposed to supply a rapid prototyping batch process at low cost, albeit at a low resolution of 150 μm. In particular, isolated patterns can be obtained in a simple one-step process. Finally, a stretchable radio frequency identification (RFID tag is demonstrated. The measured results show the robustness of the hybrid integrated system when the tag is stretched at 50% for 3000 cycles.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of liquid silver-gallium alloys determined from e.m.f. and calorimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the liquid Ag-Ga alloys were determined using e.m.f. and calorimetric methods. In the e.m.f. method, solid oxide galvanic cells were used with zirconia electrolyte. The cells of the type W,Ag x Ga (1-x) ,Ga 2 O 3 //ZrO 2 +(Y 2 O 3 )//FeO,Fe,W were used in the temperature range from 1098 K to 1273 K, and in the range of mole fraction from x Ga = 0.1 to x Ga = 1.0. At first, the Gibbs free energy of formation of pure solid gallium oxide, Ga 2 O 3 , from pure elements was derived. Using values of the measured e.m.f. for the cell with x Ga = 1.0, the following temperature dependence was obtained: Δ f G m,Ga 2 O 3 0 (±4kJ·mol -1 J)=-1061.7235+0.2899T/K. Next, the activity of the gallium was derived as a function of the alloy composition from the values of the measured e.m.f. Activities of silver were calculated using the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The drop calorimetric measurements were carried out at two temperatures, viz. 923 K and 1123 K, using a Setaram MHTC calorimeter. Integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid binary alloys were determined at those temperatures. Finally, thermodynamic properties of the liquid alloys were described with the Redlich-Kister equation using ThermoCalc software.

  19. Electrochemistry of Zn(II)/Zn on Mg alloy from the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ming-Jay, E-mail: martinez730523@yahoo.com.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Pei-Chiung [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Kuei, E-mail: jkchang@ncu.edu.tw [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jin-Ming; Lu, Kueih-Tzu [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > Electrodeposition of Zn was successfully demonstrnated in the water- and air-stable BMP-DCA ionic liquid. While ZnCl{sub 2} is insoluble in the BMP-TFSI ionic liquid, it dissolves easily in the BMP-DCA. > Amperometric titration experiments indicated that Zn(II) probably complexed as [Zn(DCA){sub 3}]- with DCA- anion. > Chronoamperometric experiments showed that the electrodeposition of Zn on GC and Mg alloy substrates involved 3D-instantaneous nucleation/growth process. > A lower deposition rate would bring out a more uniform and compact Zn coating layer (which is also thicker) and, consequently, this coating revealed a protection capability for the Mg substrate against corrosion. - Abstract: Electrochemical reaction of Zn(II)/Zn on glassy carbon electrode(GC) and Mg alloy substrates was investigated in the room-temperature ionic liquid, N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium dicyanamide (BMP-DCA) containing ZnCl{sub 2} at 323 K. Amperometric titration experiments suggest that Zn(II) reacted with DCA anions forming [Zn(DCA){sub 3}]{sup -} complex anion, which also could be reduced to Zn metal via a single-step electron transfer process. By chronoamperometric measurements, the electrodeposition of Zn on GC and Mg alloy substrates involved three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation under diffusion control at 323 K. The Zn deposits are also systematically characterized by the techniques of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Zn layer deposited at a lower current density on Mg alloy substrates was more compact and uniform when compared to that deposited at a higher current density; consequently, this coating revealed a protection capability for the Mg substrate against corrosion.

  20. Diffusivity, activity and solubility of oxygen in liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic alloy by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Rajesh; Gnanasekaran, T.; Srinivasa, Raman S.

    2006-01-01

    The diffusivity of oxygen in liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy was measured by a potentiostatic method and is given by log(D O Pb /cm 2 s -1 )=-2.554-2384/T(+/-0.070), 818-1061K, and log(D O LBE /cm 2 s -1 )=-0.813-3612/T(+/-0.091), 811-980K. The activity of oxygen in lead and LBE was determined by coulometric titration experiments. Using the measured data, the standard free energy of dissolution of oxygen in liquid lead and LBE was derived and is given byG O(Pb) xs =-121349+16.906T(+/-560)J(gatomO) -1 ,815-1090K,G O(LBE) xs = -127398+27.938T(+/-717)J(gatomO) -1 ,812-1012K.Using the above data, the Gibbs energy of formation of PbO(s) and equilibrium oxygen pressures measured over the oxygen-saturated LBE alloy, the solubility of oxygen in liquid lead and LBE were derived. The solubility of oxygen in liquid lead and LBE are given by log(S/at.%O)=-5100/T+4.32 (+/-0.04), 815-1090K and log(S/at.%O)=-4287/T+3.53 (+/-0.06), 812-1012K respectively.

  1. Evaluation of mechanical property data on the 2219 aluminum alloy and application of the data to the design of liquid hydrogen tankage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzell, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of thin guage 2219 aluminum alloy for airborne liquid hydrogen tankage was examined. Existing data were processed using the Newman two parameter equation, a prediction was made for the life expectancy of a hypothetical liquid hydrogen tank, and additional experimental data were generated in an attempt to correct the deficiencies in the existing data.

  2. Investigation of wetting property between liquid lead lithium alloy and several structural materials for Chinese DEMO reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Wang, Weihua; Jiang, Haiyan; Zuo, Guizhong; Pan, Baoguo; Xu, Wei; Chu, Delin; Hu, Jiansheng; Qi, Junli

    2017-10-01

    The dual-cooled lead lithium (PbLi) blanket is considered as one of the main options for the Chinese demonstration reactor (DEMO). Liquid PbLi alloy is used as the breeder material and coolant. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, stainless steel and the silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite (SiCf) are selected as the substrate materials for different use. To investigate the wetting property and inter-facial interactions of PbLi/RAFM steel, PbLi/SS316L, PbLi/SiC and PbLi/SiCf couples, in this paper, the special vacuum experimental device is built, and the 'dispensed droplet' modification for the classic sessile droplet technique is made. Contact angles are measured between the liquid PbLi and the various candidate materials at blanket working temperature from 260 to 480 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the surface components of PbLi droplets and substrate materials, in order to study the element trans-port and corrosion mechanism. Results show that SiC composite (SiCf) and SiC ceramic show poor wetting properties with the liquid PbLi alloy. Surface roughness and testing temperature only provide tiny improvements on the wetting property below 480 °C. RAFM steel performs better wetting properties and corrosion residence when contacted with molten PbLi, while SS316L shows low corrosion residence above 420 °C for the decomposition of protective surface film mainly consisted of chromic sesquioxide. The results could provide meaningful compatibility database of liquid PbLi alloy and valuable reference in engineering design of candidate structural and functional materials for future fusion blanket.

  3. Effects of Tungsten Addition on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Fe-3.5B Alloy in Liquid Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tungsten addition on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Fe-3.5B alloys in a liquid zinc bath at 520 °C were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron probe micro-analysis. The microstructure evolution in different alloys is analyzed and discussed using an extrapolated Fe-B-W ternary phase diagram. Experimental results show that there are three kinds of borides, the reticular (Fe, W2B, the rod-like (Fe, W3B and flower-like FeWB. The addition of tungsten can refine the microstructure and improve the stability of the reticular borides. Besides, it is beneficial to the formation of the metastable (Fe, W3B phase. The resultant Fe-3.5B-11W (wt % alloy possesses excellent corrosion resistance to liquid zinc. When tungsten content exceeds 11 wt %, the formed flower-like FeWB phase destroys the integrity of the reticular borides and results in the deterioration of the corrosion resistance. Also, the corrosion failure resulting from the spalling of borides due to the initiation of micro-cracks in the grain boundary of borides is discussed in this paper.

  4. Influence of Zinc on the Surface Tension, Density and Molar Volume of (Ag-Sneut +Zn Liquid Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gąsior W.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dilatometric and maximum bubble pressure methods were applied for the measurements of the density and surface tension of liquid (Ag-Sneut +Zn lead-free solders. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 515 to 1223 K for the alloys of the zinc concentration equaling 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 of the mole fraction. It was found that the temperature dependence of both the density and the surface tension could be thought as linear, so they were interpreted by straight line equations. The experimental data of the molar volume of the investigated alloys were described by the polynomial dependent on the composition and temperature.

  5. Extraction of lanthanide elements and bismuth in molten lithium chloride-liquid bismuth-lithium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Makoto; Adachi, Motonari; Kai, Yuichi; Koike, Kenichi

    1987-01-01

    The equilibrium distributions of neodymium and samarium between molten LiCl and liquid Bi-Li alloy were measured in a wide range of Li-mole fraction in the alloy phase, X Li . These lanthanide elements were extracted through redox reactions. In high X Li range, X Li > 0.03, the distributions of neodymium and bismuth in the salt phase increased markedly. The anomalous increase is attributed to the formation of the compound comprized of Nd, Li, Bi and oxygen in the salt phase. The reaction processes in samarium and neodymium were very fast and the extraction rates are controlled by the diffusion processes of the solutes and metallic lithium. (author)

  6. Swimming clusters in thallium-rich liquid caesium-thallium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aart, SA; van der Lugt, W; Badyal, YS; Verkerk, P

    The purpose of the work presented here is to obtain structural information on thallium-rich caesium-thallium alloys by means of neutron diffraction. The alloys exhibit a long-range (>1 nm) superstructure. This range increases with the thallium content. The results are interpreted with the help of a

  7. Fabrication of magnetic nano liquid metal fluid through loading of Ni nanoparticles into gallium or its alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Mingfeng; Gao, Yunxia [Key Lab of Cryogenics and Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Engineering, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Lab of Cryogenics and Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Engineering, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-03-15

    In this study, Ni nanoparticles were loaded into the partially oxidized gallium and its alloys to fabricate desired magnetic nanofluid. It was disclosed that the Ni nanoparticles sharply increased the freezing temperature and latent heat of the obtained magnetic nano liquid metal fluid, while the melting process was less affected. For the gallium sample added with 10 vol% coated Ni particles, a hysteresis loop was observed and the magnetization intensity decreased with the increase of the temperature. The slope for the magnetization-temperature curve within 10–30 K was about 20 times of that from 40 K to 400 K. Further, the dynamic impact experiments of striking magnetic liquid metal droplets on the magnet revealed that the regurgitating of the leading edge of the liquid disk and the subsequent wave that often occurred in the gallium-indium droplets would disappear for the magnetic fluids case due to attraction force of the magnet. - Graphical abstract: High speed videos for the impact of striking GaIn{sub 24.5} based magnetic liquid metal droplets on a magnet plate. - Highlights: • A feasible way to fabricate magnetic nano liquid metal fluid was presented. • Ni nanoparticles sharply increased freezing temperature and latent heat of magnetic nanofluid. • A hysteresis loop phenomenon was observed for the magnetic nanofluid. • Temperature dependent magnetization spanning from 10 K to 400 K was measured. • Impact phenomena of striking magnetic droplets on magnet were disclosed.

  8. Liquid Phase Separation and the Aging Effect on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Laser Rapidly Solidified Cu100−xCrx Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hua Si

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duplex structure Cu-Cr alloys are widely used as contact materials. They are generally designed by increasing the Cr content for the hardness improvement, which, however, leads to the unfavorable rapid increase of the electrical resistivity. The solidification behavior of Cu100−xCrx (x = 4.2, 25 and 50 in wt.% alloys prepared by laser rapid solidification is studied here, and their hardness and electrical conductivity after aging are measured. The results show that the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy has the most desirable combination of hardness and conductive properties after aging in comparison with Cu-25%Cr and Cu-50%Cr alloys. Very importantly, a 50% improvement in hardness is achieved with a simultaneous 70% reduction in electrical resistivity. The reason is mainly attributed to the liquid phase separation occurring in the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy, which introduces a large a

  9. In-situ Density and Thermal Expansion Measurements of Fe and Fe-S Alloying Liquids Under Planetary Core Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Z.; Chantel, J.; Yu, T.; Sakamaki, T.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid iron is likely the dominant constituent in the cores of terrestrial planets and icy satellites such as Earth, Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Ganymede, and Io. Suggested by geophysical and geochemical observations, light elements such as S, C, Si, etc., are likely present in planetary cores. These light elements can significantly reduce the density and melting temperature of the Fe cores, and hence their abundances are crucial to our understanding of the structure and thermal history of planetary cores, as well as the generation of intrinsic magnetic fields. Knowledge on the density of Fe-light element alloying liquids at high pressures is critical to place constraints on the composition of planetary cores. However, density data on liquid Fe-light element alloys at core pressures are very limited in pressure and composition and are sometimes controversial. In this study, we extend the density dataset for Fe-rich liquids by measuring the density of Fe, Fe-10wt%S, Fe-20wt%S, Fe-27wt%S, and FeS liquids using the X-ray absorption technique in a DIA-type multianvil apparatus up to 7 GPa and 2173 K. An ion chamber (1D-detector) and a CCD camera (2D-detector) were used to measure intensities of transmitted monochromatic X-rays through molten samples, with the photon energy optimized at 40 keV. The densities were then determined from the Beer-Lambert law using the mass absorption coefficients, calibrated by solid standards using X-ray diffraction. At each pressure, density measurements were conducted at a range of temperatures above the liquidus of the samples, enabling the determination of thermal expansion. Combined with our previous results on the sound velocity of Fe and Fe-S liquids at high pressures (Jing et al., 2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 396, 78-87), these data provide tight constraints on the equation of state and thermodynamic properties such as the adiabatic temperature gradient for Fe-S liquids. We will discuss these results with implications to planetary

  10. Thermodynamic mixing effects of liquid ternary Au–Fe–Pd alloys by computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiska, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic mixing behavior of liquid Au–Fe–Pd alloys over the whole range of composition. ► Experimental investigations by means of the computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry. ► Algebraic representation of the molar excess properties by TAP series concept. ► The corresponding TAP parameters are presented. ► The values of all molar excess functions, and thermodynamic activities at 1850 K are given. - Abstract: Thermodynamic investigations on liquid ternary Au–Fe–Pd alloys have been performed by means of the computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry. The “Digital Intensity-Ratio” (DIR) – method has been applied for the determination of the thermodynamic mixing behaviour. The ternary thermodynamically adapted power (TAP) series concept is used for the algebraic representation of the molar excess properties. The corresponding TAP parameters, and the values of the molar excess quantities Z E (Z = Gibbs energy G, heat of mixing H, and entropy S) as well as the thermodynamic activities of all three constituents at 1850 K are presented.

  11. Atomic mobility in liquid and fcc Al-Si-Mg-RE (RE = Ce, Sc) alloys and its application to the simulation of solidification processes in RE-containing A357 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhao; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    This paper first provides a critical review of experimental and theoretically-predicted diffusivities in both liquid and fcc Al-Si-Mg-RE (RE = Ce, Sc) alloys as-reported by previous researchers. The modified Sutherland equation is then employed to predict self- and impurity diffusivities in Al-Si-Mg-RE melts. The self-diffusivity of metastable fcc Sc is evaluated via the first-principles computed activation energy and semi-empirical relations. Based on the critically-reviewed and presently evaluated diffusivity information, atomic mobility descriptions for liquid and fcc phases in the Al-Si-Mg-RE systems are established by means of the Diffusion-Controlled TRAnsformation (DICTRA) software package. Comprehensive comparisons show that most of the measured and theoretically-predicted diffusivities can be reasonably reproduced by the present atomic mobility descriptions. The atomic mobility descriptions for liquid and fcc Al-Si-Mg-RE alloys are further validated by comparing the model-predicted differential scanning calorimetry curves for RE-containing A357 alloys during solidification against experimental data. Detailed analysis of the curves and microstructures in RE-free and RE-containing A357 alloys indicates that both Ce and Sc can serve as the grain refiner for A357 alloys, and that the grain refinement efficiency of Sc is much higher.

  12. Atomic mobility in liquid and fcc Al-Si-Mg-RE (RE = Ce, Sc) alloys and its application to the simulation of solidification processes in RE-containing A357 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhao; Zhang, Lijun [Central South Univ., Changsha (China). State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy; Tang, Ying [Thermo-Calc Software AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2017-06-15

    This paper first provides a critical review of experimental and theoretically-predicted diffusivities in both liquid and fcc Al-Si-Mg-RE (RE = Ce, Sc) alloys as-reported by previous researchers. The modified Sutherland equation is then employed to predict self- and impurity diffusivities in Al-Si-Mg-RE melts. The self-diffusivity of metastable fcc Sc is evaluated via the first-principles computed activation energy and semi-empirical relations. Based on the critically-reviewed and presently evaluated diffusivity information, atomic mobility descriptions for liquid and fcc phases in the Al-Si-Mg-RE systems are established by means of the Diffusion-Controlled TRAnsformation (DICTRA) software package. Comprehensive comparisons show that most of the measured and theoretically-predicted diffusivities can be reasonably reproduced by the present atomic mobility descriptions. The atomic mobility descriptions for liquid and fcc Al-Si-Mg-RE alloys are further validated by comparing the model-predicted differential scanning calorimetry curves for RE-containing A357 alloys during solidification against experimental data. Detailed analysis of the curves and microstructures in RE-free and RE-containing A357 alloys indicates that both Ce and Sc can serve as the grain refiner for A357 alloys, and that the grain refinement efficiency of Sc is much higher.

  13. Study of thermoelectric power of Co-B liquid quenched amorphous alloys at relatively high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.M.N.R.; Rizvi, S.D.H.; Raza, S.M.; Rizvi, S.; Hussain, A.; Rehman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of thermoelectric power TEP were carried out for the samples of Co-1 alloy with appropriate compositions of constitutions in the temperature range, 350K< T<760K. The analysis of data shows an inverse Gaussian profile. Ziman theoretical model was used to fit the resistivity data which shows an agreement. Dynamic recovery processes as well as formation of vacancies, interstials, intersection of basal dislocations and indeed pyramidal interlocking of dislocations for seeding scattering centers are responsible for residual TEP at relatively high temperatures Co-B LQA alloys also undergo into other structural changes at such temperatures. (author)

  14. Effects of configurational changes on electrical resistivity during glass-liquid transition of two bulk metal-alloy glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P., E-mail: joharig@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-12-14

    Consequences of increase in structural fluctuations on heating Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20} and Zr{sub 46.75}Ti{sub 8.25}Cu{sub 7.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 27.5} through their glass to liquid transition range were investigated by measuring the electrical resistivity, ρ, an electron scattering property. The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR = (1/ρ) dρ/dT) of the liquid and glassy states is negative. The plots of their ρ against T in the T{sub g} (glass to liquid transition) range show a gradual change in the slope similar to the change observed generally for the plots of the density, elastic modulus, and refractive index. As fluctuations in the melt structure involve fewer configurations on cooling, ρ increases. In the energy landscape description, the melt's structure explores fewer minima with decrease in T, vibrational frequencies increase, and electron scattering and ρ increase. Plots of (−dρ/dT) against T resemble the plot of the specific heat of other glasses and show a sub-T{sub g} feature and a rapid rise at T near T{sub g}. Analysis shows that the magnitude of negative TCR is dominated by change in the phonon characteristics, and configurational fluctuations make it more negative. The TCR of the liquid and glassy states seems qualitatively consistent with the variation in the structure factor in Ziman's model for pure liquid metals as extended by Nagel to metal alloys and used to explain the negative TCR of a two-component metal glass.

  15. Wetting behavior of liquid Fe-C-Ti alloys on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbstein, M.; Froumin, N.; Frage, N.

    2008-01-01

    Wetting behavior in the (Fe-C-Ti)/sapphire system was studied at 1823 K. The wetting angle between sapphire and Fe-C alloys is higher than 90 deg. (93 deg. and 105 deg. for the alloys with 1.4 and 3.6 at.% C, respectively). The presence of Ti improves the wetting of the iron-carbon alloys, especially for the alloys with carbon content of 3.6 at.%. The addition of 5 at.% Ti to Fe-3.6 at.% C provides a contact angle of about 30 deg., while the same addition to Fe-1.4 at.% C decreases the wetting angle to 70 deg. only. It was established that the wetting in the systems is controlled by the formation of a titanium oxicarbide layer at the interface, which composition and thickness depend on C and Ti contents in the melt. The experimental observations are well accounted for by a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-Ti-Al-O-C system

  16. A review of ionic liquid surface film formation on Mg and its alloys for improved corrosion performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Peipei; Latham, Julie-Anne; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Howlett, Patrick C.; Forsyth, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are prone to corrosion upon exposure to atmosphere thus are usually protected by using a pretreatment before being employed. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) has emerged as a novel chemical in corrosion protection of reactive metals such as lithium and magnesium. This paper reviews the use of ILs in the corrosion protection of magnesium and aluminium with respect to a range of IL chemistries. Emphasis has also been placed on characterisation of the passivating films using various techniques, as well as proposed mechanisms for film formation. This review highlights that there is still much research needed to understand how to generate robust passivating films on reactive metal surfaces in the presence of ILs

  17. Experimental tests of LiSn alloys as potential liquid metal for the divertor target in a fusion reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Tabarés

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments of exposure of a LiSn alloy (Li/Sn atomic ratio= 20/80 to a hydrogen plasma in TJ-II are here presented. Solid and liquid samples have been inserted at the edge and evidence of sample melting of a solid sample during plasma exposure has been observed. A negligible perturbation of the plasma has been recorded, even when stellarator plasmas are particularly sensitive to high Z elements due to the tendency to central impurity accumulation. Melting of the sample by the plasma thermal load did not lead to any deleterious effect on the plasma performance. Strong lithium emission was detected at the LiSn sample but no sign of Sn contamination and low values of Zeff and radiated power were deduced. Hydrogen recycling was studied at two different temperatures and no change was detected in the range of 300–750K. The retention of H2 by the alloy was addressed in separate experiments at the laboratory. Values in the order of 0.01% H/(Sn+Li were deduced in agreement with in situ TDS analysis of the plasma exposed samples and previous reports.

  18. In situ observation of Ag-Cu-Ti liquid alloy/solid oxide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, O.V. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, 3 Krzhyzhanovsky Street, Kiev 142, 03680 (Ukraine)], E-mail: avdu@ukr.net; Krasovskyy, V.P. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, 3 Krzhyzhanovsky Street, Kiev 142, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2008-11-15

    In situ investigation methods are a very interesting means for understanding high-temperature interface processes. A method of direct observation of the interactions between transparent materials (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2}) and metal melts was elaborated. For the Ag-36.65 at.%Cu-8.15 at.%Ti/sapphire system, the formation of a dark compound at the interface was observed to occur at high temperature. This result does not confirm the conclusion of a neutron spectroscopy study which indicated that titanium oxides form at the interface only during solidification of the alloy. Interactions of the same alloy with SiO{sub 2} and CaF{sub 2} were also considered.

  19. Liquid structure as a guide for phase stability in the solid state: Discovery of a stable compound in the Au-Si alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasci, Emre S.; Sluiter, Marcel H.F.; Pasturel, Alain; Villars, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    A new crystalline ground state was discovered in the Au-Si system through first-principles electronic structure calculations. The new structure was found using the experimentally and theoretically determined local atomic structure in the liquid as a guide for the solid state. Local atomic structure in the liquid was matched with that for all known crystal structures as compiled in the Pauling File structural database. The best matching crystalline structures were then explicitly calculated using first-principles methods. Most candidate crystal structures were found to be close, but above the enthalpy of a composition weighted average of the face-centered cubic Au and diamond structure Si terminal phases, but one crystal structure was more stable than the terminal phases by about 10 meV atom -1 at T = 0 K. As first-principles simulations of local structure are feasible for most liquid alloys, the present methodology is applicable to other alloys lying near a eutectic composition.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of the liquid Hg-Tl alloys determined from vapour pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierlotka W.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial vapour pressure of mercury over liquid Hg-Tl liquid solutions were determined in the temperature range from 450 to 700 K by direct vapour pressure measurements carried out with the quartz gauge. From the measured ln pHg vs. T relationships activities of mercury were determined. Using Redlich-Kister formulas logarithms of the activity coefficients were described with the following equations: From which all thermodynamic functions in the solutions can be derived.

  1. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Microstructures and High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg Alloy Manufactured by Liquid Phase Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Joon-Young; Gwon, Jin-Han; Park, Jong-Kwan; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-05-01

    Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is an aluminum alloy containing at least 12.6 wt.% Si. It is necessary to evenly control the primary Si particle size and distribution in hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. In order to achieve this, there have been attempts to manufacture hypereutectic Al-Si alloy through a liquid phase sintering. This study investigated the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg alloy manufactured by liquid phase sintering process and changes in them after T6 heat treatment. Microstructural observation identified large amounts of small primary Si particles evenly distributed in the matrix, and small amounts of various precipitation phases were found in grain interiors and grain boundaries. After T6 heat treatment, the primary Si particle size and shape did not change significantly, but the size and distribution of CuAl2 ( θ) and AlCuMgSi ( Q) changed. Hardness tests measured 97.36 HV after sintering and 142.5 HV after heat treatment. Compression tests were performed from room temperature to 300 °C. The results represented that yield strength was greater after heat treatment (RT 300 °C: 351 93 MPa) than after sintering (RT 300 °C: 210 89 MPa). Fracture surface analysis identified cracks developing mostly along the interface between the primary Si particles and the matrix with some differences among temperature conditions. In addition, brittle fracture mode was found after T6 heat treatment.

  2. On the role of structure-dynamic relationship in determining the excess entropy of mixing and chemical ordering in binary square-well liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalneihpuii, R.; Shrivastava, Ruchi; Mishra, Raj Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Using statistical mechanical model with square-well (SW) interatomic potential within the frame work of mean spherical approximation, we determine the composition dependent microscopic correlation functions, interdiffusion coefficients, surface tension and chemical ordering in Ag-Cu melts. Further Dzugutov universal scaling law of normalized diffusion is verified with SW potential in binary mixtures. We find that the excess entropy scaling law is valid for SW binary melts. The partial and total structure factors in the attractive and repulsive regions of the interacting potential are evaluated and then Fourier transformed to get partial and total radial distribution functions. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental values for total structure factor and the reduced radial distribution function are observed, which consolidates our model calculations. The well-known Bhatia-Thornton correlation functions are also computed for Ag-Cu melts. The concentration-concentration correlations in the long wavelength limit in liquid Ag-Cu alloys have been analytically derived through the long wavelength limit of partial correlation functions and apply it to demonstrate the chemical ordering and interdiffusion coefficients in binary liquid alloys. We also investigate the concentration dependent viscosity coefficients and surface tension using the computed diffusion data in these alloys. Our computed results for structure, transport and surface properties of liquid Ag-Cu alloys obtained with square-well interatomic interaction are fully consistent with their corresponding experimental values.

  3. Effect of Direct Current on Solid-Liquid Interfacial Tension and Wetting Behavior of Ga–In–Sn Alloy Melt on Cu Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of direct current (DC on the wetting behavior of Cu substrate by liquid Ga–25In–13Sn alloy at room temperature is investigated using a sessile drop method. It is found that there is a critical value for current intensity, below which the decrease of contact angle with increasing current intensity is approximately linear and above which contact angle tends to a stable value from drop shape. Current polarity is a negligible factor in the observed trend. Additionally, the observed change in contact angles is translated into the corresponding change in solid-liquid interfacial tension using the equation of state for liquid interfacial tensions. The solid-liquid interfacial tension decreases under DC. DC-induced promotion of solute diffusion coefficient is likely to play an important role in determining the wettability and solid-liquid interfacial tension under DC.

  4. Parameters promoting liquid metal embrittlement of the T91 steel in lead-bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol Serre, I.; Ye, C.; Vogt, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    The use of liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a spallation target and a coolant in accelerator-driven systems raises the question of the reliability of structural materials, such as T91 martensitic steel in terms of liquid metal assisted damage and corrosion. In this study, the mechanical behaviour of the T91 martensitic steel was examined in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and in inert atmosphere. Several conditions showed the most sensitive embrittlement factor. The Small Punch Test technique was employed using smooth specimens. In this standard heat treatment, T91 appeared in general as a ductile material, and became brittle in the considered conditions if the test was performed in LBE. It turns out that the loading rate appeared as a critical parameter for the occurrence of liquid metal embrittlement (LME) of the T91 steel in LBE. Loading the T91 very slowly instead of rapidly in oxygen saturated LBE resulted in brittle fracture. Furthermore, low-oxygen content in LBE and an increase in temperature promote LME. (authors)

  5. Structure of liquid Te-based alloys used in rewritable DVDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delheusy, M.; Raty, J.Y.; Detemple, R.; Welnic, W.; Wuttig, M.; Gaspard, J.-P

    2004-07-15

    We analyze the structure of Te-based chalcogenide compounds that are used as materials for rewritable DVDs by using a combination of neutron diffraction and ab initio computer simulation. We show that in the liquid, the atoms have a low average coordination number, as the result of a Peierls distortion. The partial pair correlation functions are obtained from the computer simulation data.

  6. Alloy hardening of a smectic A liquid crystal doped with gold nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oswald, P.; Milette, J.; Relaix, S.; Reven, L.; Dequidt, A.; Lejček, Lubor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, AUG (2013), "46004-p1"-"46004-p6" ISSN 0295-5075 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : smectic A liquid crystals * gold nanoparticles * edge dislocation * precipitation hardening Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.269, year: 2013

  7. Liquid -to-glass transition in bulk glass-forming Cu55-xZr45Agx alloys using molecular dynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report results from molecular dynamics (MD studies concerning the microscopic structure of the ternary, bulk metallic glass-forming Cu55-x Zr45Agx (x=0,10,20 alloys using tight-binding potentials. Understanding of the nature of Glass Forming Ability (GFA of studied alloys, GFA parameters, glass transition temperature (T-g, melting temperature (T-m, reduced glass transition temperature (T-g/T-m, the supercooled liquid region and other parameters were simulated and compared with experiments. The computed pair distribution functions reproduce well experimental x-ray data of Inoue and co-workers. Structure analysis of the Cu-Zr-Ag alloy based on MD simulation will be also presented

  8. Mechanical properties test data of Alloy 718 for liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korth, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical property test data are reported for Alloy 718 with two heat treatments: conventional heat treatment (CHT) for base metal and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) heat treatment (IHT) for base and weld metal. Tests were conducted in air from 24 to 704 degree C and include elastic properties (Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio), tensile properties, creep-rupture properties, fatigue properties, creep-fatigue properties, and Charpy impact behavior. Effects of long term thermal aging at 538, 593, 649, and 704 degree C for times to 25,000 h are also reported for CHT material (tensile, creep-rupture, fatigue, and Charpy), and IHT material (tensile, and Charpy). 18 refs., 63 figs., 36 tabs

  9. Thermophoresis research of nanoparticles in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Zhou Tao; Liu Liang; Fang Xiaolu; Lin Daping

    2015-01-01

    Thermophoresis theory of solid particles in liquid are selected to research thermophoresis phenomenon in liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE). Thermophoretic velocity of different particles in LBE and stainless steel particles in different fluid are calculated. The results showed that, thermophoretic velocity of particles in LBE increase with the increase of temperature gradient and the decrease of particle radius. And the thermophoretic velocity of stainless steel particles two orders of magnitude lower than the Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) particles, at the same time, it is similar to copper particles in LBE. What's more, the thermophoretic velocity of stainless steel particles in LBE would one order of magnitude lower than that in water and R134a. Of course, it is still faster than that in Engine Oil and Ethyl Glycol two orders of magnitude. (author)

  10. Pressure effect on crystallization of metallic glass Fe72P11C6Al5B4Ga2 alloy with wide supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Olsen, J. S.; Gerward, Leif

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the crystallization behavior of metallic glass Fe72P11C6Al5B4Ga2 alloy with a wide supercooled liquid region has been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. In the pressure range from 0 to 2...... mobility and changes of the Gibbs free energy of various phases with pressure. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  11. Rapid ultrasound-induced transient-liquid-phase bonding of Al-50Si alloys with Zn interlayer in air for electrical packaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Lin; Yan, Jiuchun; Lai, Zhiwei; Zhao, Pizhi; Bao, Juncheng; Lv, Guicai; You, Chen; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Al-50Si alloys were joined by rapid ultrasound-induced transient-liquid-phase bonding method using Zn foil as interlayer at 390°C in air, below the melt point of interlayer. The fracture of oxide films along the edge of Si particles led to contact and inter-diffusion between aluminum substrate and Zn interlayer, and liquefied Zn-Al alloys were developed. The width of Zn-Al alloys gradually decreased with increasing the ultrasonic vibration time due to liquid squeezing out and accelerated diffusion. A stage of isothermal solidification existed, and the completion time was significantly shortened. In the liquid metal, the acoustic streaming and ultrasonic cavitations were induced. As the process developed, much more Si particles, which were particulate-reinforced phases of Al-50Si, gradually migrated to the center of soldering seam. The highest average shear strength of joints reached to 94.2MPa, and the fracture mainly occurred at the base metal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ferrous alloy metallurgy - liquid lithium corrosion and welding. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.L.; Matlock, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth has been used to evaluate the interaction between liquid lithium and an imposed stress. Fatigue crack growth data on type 304L stainless steel at 700C and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel between 500 and 700C show that for all imposed test conditions (i.e. frequency, temperature, and nitrogen content in the lithium) the interaction of lithium with the strain at the crack tip results in enhanced crack growth rates. The enhanced growth rates result from the effects of either enhanced grain boundary penetration or a change in crack propagation mechanism due to liquid metal embrittlement. Auger spectroscopy of grain boundary penetrated specimen shows that a lithium-oxygen compound forms at the grain boundary. Moessbauer evaluations of the ferrite layer of corroded type 304 stainless steel are being used to develop a model for weight loss in liquid lithium. The welding research in progress is directed to characterize the influence of variations of the austenitic weld metal composition on the microstructural and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal weldments. Weldments of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to 316 stainless steel have been investigated for fusion microstructure, thermal expansion impact strength and characterization of specific long time in-service failures. Modification of weld metal microstructures by microalloy additions is being investigated as a concept to improve weld metal properties. The behavior of a strip electrode in a gas metal arc is being investigated to determine the feasibility of gas metal arc weld strip overlay cladding

  13. Fluctuations in medium-range structure of Bi-based metallic liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, H; Takeda, S; Kawakita, Y; Ohara, K; Kohara, S; Itou, M; Tahara, S

    2012-01-01

    Liquid structure of Bi 50 Zn 50 , which is situated at around the Bi-rich end of miscibility gap in Bi-Zn system, has been investigated by neutron and x-ray diffraction experiments and following analysis using reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) structural modelling. Among the partial correlations calculated from the structural model obtained by RMC, the Zn-Zn partial has a large temperature variation. It is found that there are medium-range fluctuations in Zn distribution which have a scale of 10 Å.

  14. Development of multilayer coatings for forming dies and tools of aluminium alloy from liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, E; Ugues, D; Brytan, Z; Perucca, M

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite (Cr,Al) x N 1-x /Si 3 N 4 coating system was deposited on H11 hot work tool steel, using the Lateral Arc Rotating Cathodes (LARC (registered) ) deposition system and modulating the chemical composition of the chromium and aluminium-silicon content. Structural characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy probe, and applying x-ray diffraction, for the evaluation of phase constitution and crystallite size. In addition to the structural features, the coatings' resistance to cyclic immersions in molten aluminium alloy was evaluated. The deposited CrAlSiN coatings exhibited an fcc-Cr 1-x Al x N type structure with different aluminium contents, which directly influence hardness and wear and fatigue resistance in cyclic immersion tests. The main failure modes that occurred on the coatings' surface were soldering and thermal fatigue cracks mainly in the form of heat checks. The aluminium rich coatings were able to withstand about 15 000 cycles, whereas the decrease in the aluminium content in the coatings results in a decrease in the resistance to the immersion in molten aluminium bath. It is worthwhile to note that uncoated H11, subjected to similar testing conditions, withstood at maximum 5000 cycles.

  15. One-pot Sonochemical Synthesis of Hg-Ag Alloy Microspheres from Liquid Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Villa Krishna; Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan; Gedanken, Aharon

    2018-01-01

    Metallic mercury has always attracted much attention in various fields because of its unique characteristic of forming amalgams. Here, different phases of pure crystalline Hg-Ag amalgam microspheres are synthesized by ultrasonically reacting liquid mercury with an aqueous solution of silver nitrate. Sonicating different molar ratios of liquid metallic Hg with AgNO 3 results in the formation of pure crystalline phases of solid silver amalgams with uniform morphology. The resulting Hg-Ag amalgams from various compositions after sonication are physically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The XRD of the amalgams obtained from the molar ratios of Hg:Ag (1:1.5) and Hg:Ag (1.5:1 and 2:1) match the Schachnerite and Moschellandbergite phases, respectively, whereas the Hg-Ag amalgam prepared from a 1:1Hg:Ag molar ratio results in a mixture of the Schachnerite and Moschellandbergite phases. The obtained amalgam microspheres are between 6 and 10µm in size. The detailed thermal and chemical behaviour of the Ag-Hg systems is also investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Brittle fracture of T91 steel in liquid lead–bismuth eutectic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Changqing, E-mail: Changqing.ye@ed.univ-lille1.fr; Vogt, Jean-Bernard, E-mail: jean-bernard.vogt@univ-lille1.fr; Proriol-Serre, Ingrid, E-mail: ingrid.proriol-serre@univ-lille1.fr

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Tempering temperature is important for LBE embrittlement occurrence. • Brittle behaviour in LBE evidenced by small punch test and fatigue test. • Brittle behaviour in low oxygen LBE observed for low loading rate. - Abstract: The mechanical behaviour of the T91 martensitic steel has been studied in liquid lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) and in inert atmosphere. Several conditions were considered to point out the most sensitive embrittling factors. Smooth and notched specimens were employed for respectively monotonic and cyclic loadings. The present investigation showed that T91 appeared in general as a ductile material, and became brittle in the considered conditions only if at least tests were performed in LBE. It turns out that the loading rate appeared as a critical parameter for the occurrence of liquid metal embrittlement of T91 in LBE. For the standard heat treatment condition, loading monotonically the T91 very slowly instead of rapidly in LBE resulted in brittle fracture. Also, under cyclic loading, the crack propagated in a brittle manner in LBE.

  17. Formation of coatings from a liquid phase on the surface of iron-base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tatarek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discloses the present state of the art regarding the technology and investigations of the phenomena that take place during the formation and growth of aluminum and zinc coatings hot-dip formed on iron products. In its cognitive aspect, the study offers an in-depth analysis of the partial processes that proceed in metal bath at the solid body – liquid metal interface. It is expected that the present study will help in a more detailed description of the respective phenomena and in full explanation of the mechanism of the coating growth, taking as an example the growth of aluminum coatings. The obtained results can serve as a background for some general conclusions regarding the thickness evolution process in other hot-dip coatings.

  18. Thermodynamic modelling of Li–Sn liquid alloy based on Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, L.; Henriques, D.; Motalov, V.; Markus, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The experimental KEMS data fit well with the Redlich–Kister sub-regular solution model applied to Li–Sn melt. • The Redlich–Kister binary interaction L-parameters of the Li–Sn melt were provided in this work. • The experimental KEMS data fit well with the ideally associated mixture model, too. • The quantitative associate composition of the Li–Sn melt was given. • The thermodynamic properties of the associate-forming reactions were also provided. - Abstract: The mixing thermodynamic properties of liquid Li–Sn system, determined previously by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS), were successfully fitted to both Redlich–Kister (RK) sub-regular mixture and ideally associated mixture (IAMT) models. The RK binary interaction L parameters, as a function of temperature in the CALPHAD-type functional form, were obtained as follows: L (0) =-(108580±0.00171)+(16.4±1.6·10 -5 )·T+(1.96496·10 -9 ±2.03133·10 -6 ) ·T·ln(T) L (1) =-(96600±4700)+(3.3±43.0)·T+(4.4±5.6)·T·ln(T) L (2) =-(64670±190)-(44.4±1.7)·T+(8.44±0.22)·T·ln(T) L (3) =-(20900±1500)-(29±14)·T+(4.3±1.8)·T·ln(T) The former literature data provided only qualitative information on possible liquid associates but no quantitative associate composition was given as a function of the sample composition and temperature. The experimental KEMS data in the composition range X Li = 0 to ∼0.7 fit well with the Li(l) + Sn(l) + LiSn(l) + LiSn 2 (l) + Li 2 Sn(l) associate model. At X Li > 0.7 no associate variations – including further associate variants such as Li 4 Sn(l) etc. – could be fitted to the KEMS data. Nevertheless, in this work the Li(l) + Sn(l) + LiSn(l) + LiSn 2 (l) + Li 2 Sn(l) + Li 4 Sn(l) + Li 9 Sn(l) associate model was successfully fitted to the thermodynamic data of a selected literature study over the complete composition range. The thermodynamic data of the associate-forming reactions were also given in this paper

  19. The Liquid State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like iron, aluminium, lead, zinc, etc .. Metals are cast ... dropping molten liquid of the alloys on a rapidly spinning copper wheel. ... Ed. Computer simulation studies in ... liquids, modelling ofliquids and study of the dynamic behaviour of liquids ...

  20. Synthesis of c-oriented YbBa2Cu3O7-δ films on single and polycrystalline substrates by oxidation of liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J.S.; Merchant, N.; Maroni, V.A.; Gruen, D.M.; Tani, B.S.; Sandhage, K.H.; Craven, C.A.

    1991-11-01

    Textured superconducting films of YbBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ supported on single and polycrystalline substrates were prepared by oxidation of a liquid precursor alloy. The substrates were coated by dipping them into a molten alloy (YbBa 2 Cu 3 , m.p. ∼870 degree C), withdrawing them from the melt, then oxidizing the adhering liquid alloy layer to the corresponding oxide phase, i.e., YbBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . Samples prepared in this way exhibited a superconducting transition at ∼80 K following annealing in pure OP 2 at 500 degree C. With SrTiO 3 (100) and MgO (100) substrates, evidence was seen for the epitaxial growth of YbBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ crystals having their c-axis parallel to the [100] direction of the substrate. For polycrystalline MgO, x-ray diffraction and microstructural examination showed that the high-T c crystallites in the films were also oriented with their c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface, but the a and b axes directions were randomly oriented rather than epitaxial

  1. Phase equilibria among α-Fe(Al, Cr, Ti), liquid and TiC and the formation of TiC in Fe3Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Schneider, Andre; Zaefferer, Stefan; Frommeyer, Georg; Raabe, Dierk

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the development of high-strength Fe 3 Al-based alloys, phase equilibria among α-Fe(Al, Cr, Ti), liquid and TiC phases in the Fe-Al-Cr-Ti-C quinary system and the formation of TiC were determined. A pseudo-eutectic trough (L α + L + TiC) exists at 1470 deg C at around Fe-26Al-5Cr-2Ti-1.7C on the vertical section between Fe-26Al-5Cr (α) and Ti-46C (TiC) in at.%. Large faceted TiC precipitates form from the melt after the formation of primary α phase even in hypoeutectic alloys. The TiC formation is thought to be due to the composition change of the liquid towards the hypereutectic compositions by solidification of the primary α. In order to remove the faceted TiC, which are unfavourable for strengthening the material, two different processing routes have been successfully tested: (i) solidification with an increased rate to reduce the composition variation of the liquid during solidification, and (ii) unidirectional solidification to separate the light TiC precipitates from the melt

  2. Saturation and negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity in liquid iron-sulfur alloys at high densities from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Fabian; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; de Koker, Nico

    2018-03-01

    We report results on electronic transport properties of liquid Fe-S alloys at conditions of planetary cores, computed using first-principle techniques in the Kubo-Greenwood formalism. We describe a combined effect of resistivity saturation due to temperature, compression, and chemistry by comparing the electron mean free path from the Drude response of optical conductivity to the mean interatomic distance. At high compression and high sulfur concentration the Ioffe-Regel condition is satisfied, and the temperature coefficient of resistivity changes sign from positive to negative. We show that this happens due to a decrease in the d density of states at the Fermi level in response to thermal broadening.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF HEAT TREATMENT WITH THE LIQUID PHASE ON FORMATION OF A MICROSTRUCTURE OF EUTECTIC Al-Si-ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on the structure of the eutectic Al-Si-alloy, a theoretical substantiation process based on thermal analyzer and cooked microstructures was presented in this paper.

  4. Superconductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and electronic properties of amorphous (Mo/sub 1-x/Ru/sub x/)80P20 alloys obtained by liquid quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Poon, S.J.; Duwez, P.

    1977-11-01

    Results of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and crystallization studies on amorphous (Mo/sub 1-x/Ru/sub x/) 80 P 20 alloys obtained by liquid quenching are presented and discussed. The alloys are all found to be superconducting with transition temperatures ranging from approximately 3 0 K to approximately 9 0 K. The variation of T/sub c/ with alloy composition is compared to that obtained by Collver and Hammond for vapor quenched transition metal films. Results of magnetic susceptibility measurements are used to estimate the variation of the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, N(0), from the Pauli paramagnetic contribution. The relationship between the variation of T/sub c/ and N(0) is discussed in terms of the microscope theory of superconductivity. Finally, results of measurements of the upper critical field H/sub c2/, and the normal state electronic transport properties are presented and compared with recent theoretical models for amorphous superconductors

  5. Observation of WC grain shapes determined by carbon content during liquid phase sintering of WC-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sona Kim; Hyoun-Ee Kim; Seok-Hee Han; Jong-Ku Park

    2001-01-01

    In the composite materials of WC-Co alloys, the faceted WC grains as a hard phase are dispersed in the ductile matrix of cobalt. Properties of WC-Co alloys are affected by microstructural factors such as volume fraction of WC phase, size of WC grains, and carbon content (kinds of constituent phases). Although the properties of WC-Co alloys are inevitably affected by the shape of WC grains, the shape of WC grains has not been thrown light on the properties of WC-Co alloys yet, because it has been regarded to have a uniform shape regardless of alloy compositions. It is proved that the WC grains have various shapes varying reversibly with carbon content in the sintered WC-Co compacts. This dependency of grain shape on the carbon content is attributed to asymmetric atomic structure of WC crystal. The {10 1 - 0} prismatic planes are distinguished into two groups with different surface energy according to their atomic structures. The prismatic planes of high surface energy tend to disappear in the compacts with high carbon content. In addition, these high energy prismatic planes tend to split into low energy surfaces in the large WC grains. (author)

  6. SERS-active Ag, Au and Ag–Au alloy nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in liquids for sensing methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea-Mejía, Oscar, E-mail: oleaoscar@yahoo.com.mx [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, San Cayetano 50200, México (Mexico); Fernández-Mondragón, Mariana; Rodríguez-de la Concha, Gabriela [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, San Cayetano 50200, México (Mexico); Camacho-López, Marco [Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, San Cayetano 50925, México (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized Ag/Au nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquids. • We characterized such particles by UV–vis, TEM and EDS/STEM. • The SERS effect was studied for the obtained nanoparticles. • Pure silver nanoparticles showed the highest SERS signals. • We can sense methylene blue at a concentration of 10{sup −10} mole/L. - Abstract: We have synthesized Ag–Au nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquids using five different targets: 100% Ag, 80%Ag/20%Au, 50%Ag/50%Au, 20%Ag/80%Au and 100% Au (weight percentages). We used ethanol and methylene blue solutions in ethanol as the liquid media. The nanoparticles were mostly spherical with diameters 15, 19, 18, 23 and 11 nm, respectively. When alloyed targets were used, the resulting nanoparticles were completely alloyed forming solid solutions as evidenced by UV–vis Spectroscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The obtained nanoparticles were employed to study the SERS effect of the methylene blue molecule. All the samples showed good SERS activity, however the ones composed of pure silver showed the greatest Raman signal enhancement. Finally, pure Ag nanoparticles were used for sensing methylene blue at different concentrations. While almost no signal can be discerned from the Raman spectrum when no particles are used at a concentration of methylene blue of 1 × 10{sup −2} M (∼3000 ppm), when Ag nanoparticles are used one can observe the characteristic peak of the molecule at concentrations as low as 1 × 10{sup −10} M (∼3 × 10{sup −5} ppm)

  7. Influence of surface liquid segregation on corrosion behavior of semi-solid metal high pressure die cast aluminium alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masuku, EP

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available alloys 7075-T6 and 2024-T6. Potentiodynamic testing was performed in deaerated 3.5%NaCl solution. In separate tests, the open-circuit potential was monitored in aerated 3.5% NaCl for 30 minutes after immersion. The electrochemical tests show...

  8. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Mattas, R.

    1994-06-01

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety, and required R ampersand D program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeders and coolant. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between liquid metal and duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and radiation induced electrical degradation are not yet demonstrated. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns

  9. Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Cu-Cr-Zr-Ti Alloy Using Ni and Mn Coatings: Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, T.; Ravi, K. R.; Sivakumar, D.; Pant, Bhanu; Janaki Ram, G. D.

    2017-08-01

    High-strength copper alloys are used extensively in the regenerative cooling parts of aerospace structures. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of a Cu-Cr-Zr-Ti alloy was attempted in the present study using thin layers of elemental Ni and Mn coatings applied by electroplating. One of the base metals was given a Ni coating of 4 µm followed by a Mn coating of 15 µm, while the other base metal was given only the Ni coating (4 µm). The bonding cycle consisted of the following: TLP stage—heating to 1030 °C and holding for 15 min; homogenization stage—furnace cooling to 880 °C and holding for 2 h followed by argon quenching to room temperature. Detailed microscopy and electron probe microanalysis analysis of the brazed joints were carried out. The braze metal was found to undergo isothermal solidification within the 15 min of holding time at 1030 °C. At the end of TLP stage, the braze metal showed a composition of Cu-17Ni-9Mn (wt.%) at the center of the joint with a steep gradient in Ni and Mn concentrations from the center of the braze metal to the base metal interfaces. After holding for 2 h at 880 °C (homogenization stage), the compositional gradients were found to flatten significantly and the braze metal was found to develop a homogeneous composition of Cu-11Ni-7Mn (wt.%) at the center of the joint. In lap-shear tests, failures were always found to occur in the base metal away from the brazed region. The copper alloy base metal was found to undergo significant grain coarsening due to high-temperature exposure during brazing and, consequently, suffer considerable reduction in yield strength.

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on the structural change of liquid eutectic alloy Si15Te85 from 673 to 1373 k

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yubing; Zhao Gang; Liu Changsong; Zhu Zhengang

    2010-01-01

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and inherent structure formalism, the local atomic structure and electronic properties of liquid Si 15 Te 85 alloy were studied at eight different temperatures from 673 to 1373 K. In comparison with available experimental data, our calculated structure factors are acceptable. With increasing temperature from 773 to 1173 K, the calculated total coordination number N Total increases gradually in contrast to the behavior of a classical isotropic fluid. Our results of pair-correlation functions, bond-angle distribution functions and angular limited triplet correlation functions suggest that the temperature-dependence of the preserved sp 3 hybridization of Si atoms and Peierls-type distorted local structure around Te atoms both play important roles in the structural change of Si 15 Te 85 characterized by thermodynamic anomalies.

  11. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on the structural change of liquid eutectic alloy Si{sub 15}Te{sub 85} from 673 to 1373 k

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yubing, E-mail: ybwang1985@gmail.co [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Post Office 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhao Gang [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Ludong University, Hongqi Road, No. 186, Yantai 264025 (China); Liu Changsong; Zhu Zhengang [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Post Office 1129, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and inherent structure formalism, the local atomic structure and electronic properties of liquid Si{sub 15}Te{sub 85} alloy were studied at eight different temperatures from 673 to 1373 K. In comparison with available experimental data, our calculated structure factors are acceptable. With increasing temperature from 773 to 1173 K, the calculated total coordination number N{sub Total} increases gradually in contrast to the behavior of a classical isotropic fluid. Our results of pair-correlation functions, bond-angle distribution functions and angular limited triplet correlation functions suggest that the temperature-dependence of the preserved sp{sup 3} hybridization of Si atoms and Peierls-type distorted local structure around Te atoms both play important roles in the structural change of Si{sub 15}Te{sub 85} characterized by thermodynamic anomalies.

  12. Structural and dynamical properties of the Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloy in crystalline, amorphous and liquid state: A molecular dynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia-Balvin, Camilo, E-mail: cavalen@fisica.udea.edu.c [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); ITM Institucion Universitaria, A.A 54959 Medellin (Colombia); Loyola, Claudia [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Osorio-Guillen, Jorge [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Gutierrez, Gonzalo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-12-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal, amorphous and liquid Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloy were carried out on a system with up to 2000 particles, using a pairwise potential of the Rosato-Guillope-Legrand type. All simulations were done in the microcanonical ensemble, for a initial density of 5.76 g/cm{sup 3}, at different temperatures. A detailed analysis has been made by means of the pair-correlation function, coordination number, angle distribution, diffusion coefficient and vibrational density of states. We compared the main peaks of the amorphous phase with experimental data, obtaining a good agreement. The analysis of coordination number for the amorphous phase shows that the main building block of this phase are distorted icosahedron.

  13. Non-linear effects of initial melt temperatures on microstructures and mechanical properties during quenching process of liquid Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yun-Fei [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Liu, Rang-Su, E-mail: liurangsu@sina.com [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Tian, Ze-An; Liang, Yong-Chao [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Zhang, Hai-Tao [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha 410003 (China); Hou, Zhao-Yang [Department of Applied Physics, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064 (China); Liu, Hai-Rong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Ai-long [College of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Zhou, Li-Li [Department of Information Engineering, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Peng, Ping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xie, Zhong [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2015-05-15

    A MD simulation of liquid Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloys has been performed for understanding the effects of initial melt temperatures on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during quenching process. By using several microstructural analyzing methods, it is found that the icosahedral and defective icosahedral clusters play a key role in the microstructure transition. All the final solidification structures obtained at different initial melt temperatures are of amorphous structures, and their structural and mechanical properties are non-linearly related to the initial melt temperatures, and fluctuated in a certain range. Especially, there exists a best initial melt temperature, from which the glass configuration possesses the highest packing density, the optimal elastic constants, and the smaller extent of structural softening under deforming.

  14. An Assessment of the General Applicability of the Relationship Between Nucleation of CO Bubbles and Mass Transfer of Phosphorus in Liquid Iron Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kezhuan; Dogan, Neslihan; Coley, Kenneth S.

    2018-06-01

    The current paper seeks to demonstrate the general applicability of the authors' recently developed treatment of surface renewal during decarburization of Fe-C-S alloys and its effect on the mass transport of phosphorus in the metal phase. The proposed model employs a quantitative model of CO bubble nucleation in the metal to predict the rate of surface renewal, which can then in turn be used to predict the mass-transfer coefficient for phosphorus. A model of mixed transport control in the slag and metal phases was employed to investigate the dephosphorization kinetics between a liquid iron alloy and oxidizing slag. Based on previous studies of the mass-transfer coefficient of FeO in the slag, it was possible to separate the mass transfer coefficient of phosphorus in metal phase, km , from the overall mass-transfer coefficient k_{{o}} . Using this approach, km was investigated under a wide range of conditions and shown to be represented reasonably by the mechanism proposed. The mass-transfer model was tested against results from the literature over a wide range of conditions. The analysis showed that the FeO content in the slag, silicon in the metal and the experimental temperature have strong impact on, km , almost entirely because of their effect on decarburization behavior.

  15. Electric and magnetic properties of Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}R{sub 6} (R=Sm, Gd, Ho) alloys in liquid and amorphous states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, V. [Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Svec, P.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D. [Institute of Physics SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mikhailov, V. [Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Sidorova, E. [Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Son, L. [Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}Sm{sub 6}, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}Gd{sub 6} and Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}Ho{sub 6} alloys are studied in a wide temperature range including amorphous, crystalline and liquid states. The negative value of resistivity temperature coefficient in amorphous ribbons is explained by the structural separation starting much before the beginning of their crystallization. The effective magnetic moments per Gd and Ho atoms are found to be essentially lower than for R{sup 3+} ions. The results are discussed in supposition of directed bonds between rare earth and aluminum atoms. - Highlights: • Electric and magnetic properties of Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}R{sub 6} alloys are studied experimentally. • The negative value of rtc in amorphous ribbons is explained. • The effective magnetic moments per Gd and Ho are found to be lower than for R{sup 3+} ions.

  16. Thermoelectric power measurements in liquid quenched amorphous alloys for FeZr and (FeCo)B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S.M.; Naqvi, S.M.M.R.; Rizvi, S.; Hussain, A.; Rahman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements have been carried out on six samples of LQA alloys from two different series, namely FeZr and Fe(Co)B, at relatively low temperatures. Thermoelectric power shows an overall Gaussian trend. The scattering centers are the major contributors to the residual TEP. Ziman theoretical model was used to estimate TEP. It was found that Ziman theory fails to account for quantitative TEP measurements at relatively low temperatures (77K< T<300K). (author)

  17. Experimental study of the features of the running part liquid metal target on lead-bismuth alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Meluzov, A.G.; Novozhilova, O.O.; Efanov, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the through part of a full-scale liquid metal target of an accelerator-control system, where the working cavity of the target communicates directly with the particle accelerator cavity, are presented. Two design variants were investigated - with vertical and horizontal orientation of the target axis in space and spinning of the flow in front of the nozzle adapter located in front of the entrance of the eutectic into the working cavity of the target. The profiles obtained for the free coolant surface with liquid metal flowing through vertically and horizontally positioned targets are presented. It is confirmed that when the pressure of the free surface of the liquid metal corresponds to the pressure in the accelerator cavity it is possible that liquid metal will not flow into the cavity simulating the connecting piece for inflow of accelerated particles with the piece oriented vertically or horizontally [ru

  18. The Use of Innovative Ceramic-Carbon Bonded Filters Used for Filtration of Liquid Alloys and Evaluation of the Filtration Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwiński A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extremely intense development of civilization requires from foundry casting technologies very high quality and not expensive castings. In the foundries, there are many treatments that allow increasing of the final properties of produced castings such as refining, modification, heat treatment, etc. One of the methods of increasing the quality of the casting by removing inclusions from the liquid alloy is filtration. The use of ceramic-carbon foam filters in filtration process is still analysed phenomenon that allows improving the final properties of castings. A modern method of research, testing and synthesis of innovative chemical compositions allows improving the properties of such filters. In the paper the evaluation of application properties of developed ceramic-carbon bonded foam filters is presented. The quality of the foam filters is evaluated by Computer Tomography and foundry trials in pouring of liquid metal in test molds. Additionally computer simulations were made to visualize the flow characteristics in the foam filter. The analysed filters are the result of the research work of Foundry Research Institute and the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Refractory Materials Department in Gliwice.

  19. Lattice vibrations study of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} quaternary alloys with low (In, As) content grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera-Herandez, J [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores (CIDS), BUAP, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Olvera-Cervantes, J [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores (CIDS), BUAP, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Rojas-Lopez, M [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada (CIBA), IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. 72160 (Mexico); Navarro-Contreras, H [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), UASLP, 78100, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico); Vidal, M A [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), UASLP, 78100, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico); Anda, F de [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), UASLP, 78100, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2006-01-01

    Raman scattering spectroscopy was used to measure and analyze the lattice vibrations in some quaternary Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} alloys with low (In, As) contents (0.03 liquid phase epitaxy on (001) GaSb substrates at 540{sup 0}C. High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction results showed profiles associated with a quaternary layer lattice matched to the GaSb substrate as obtained from the (004) reflection. The experimental diffractograms were simulated to estimate alloy composition, thickness and lattice mismatch of the layer. Raman scattering results show phonon frequencies associated to the TO and LO GaAs-like modes as well as GaSb + InAs-like mode, which are characteristic of this quaternary alloy. The As content dependence of the phonon frequency measured in this alloy for low (In, As) contents agree well with the modified Random-Element Isodisplacement (REI) model and also with other available experimental reports. This method can also be used to estimate alloy compositions for this kind of quaternary alloys.

  20. Measurement of solid-liquid interfacial energy in the In-Bi eutectic alloy at low melting temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasli, N; Akbulut, S; Ocak, Y; Keslioglu, K; Boeyuek, U; Kaya, H; Cadirli, E

    2007-01-01

    The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and solid-liquid interfacial energy of the solid In solution in equilibrium with In Bi eutectic liquid have been determined to be (1.46 ± 0.07) x 10 -7 K m and (40.4 ± 4.0) x 10 -3 J m -2 by observing the equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes. The grain boundary energy of the solid In solution phase has been calculated to be (79.0 ± 8.7) x 10 -3 J m -2 by considering force balance at the grain boundary grooves. The thermal conductivities of the In-12.4 at.% Bi eutectic liquid phase and the solid In solution phase and their ratio at the eutectic melting temperature (72 deg. C) have also been measured with radial heat flow apparatus and Bridgman-type growth apparatus

  1. Characterization of surface liquid segregation in SSM-HPDC aluminium alloys 7075, 2024, 6082 and A201

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Semi-solid metal (SSM) processing is a unique manufacturing method to produce near-net shape products for various industrial applications. The nature of the SSM slurry (with solid spherical grains suspended in a liquid), makes it susceptible...

  2. Ultrasonic-electrodeposition of PtPd alloy nanoparticles on ionic liquid-functionalized graphene paper: towards a flexible and versatile nanohybrid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yimin; Zheng, Huaming; Wang, Chenxu; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Aijun; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Here we fabricate a new type of flexible and versatile nanohybrid paper electrode by ultrasonic-electrodeposition of PtPd alloy nanoparticles on freestanding ionic liquid (IL)-functionalized graphene paper, and explore its multifunctional applications in electrochemical catalysis and sensing systems. The graphene-based paper materials demonstrate intrinsic flexibility, exceptional mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity, and therefore can serve as an ideal freestanding flexible electrode for electrochemical devices. Furthermore, the functionalization of graphene with IL (i.e., 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) not only increases the electroactive surface area of a graphene-based nanohybrid paper electrode, but also improves the adhesion and dispersion of metal nanoparticles on the paper surface. These unique attributes, combined with the merits of an ultrasonic-electrodeposition method, lead to the formation of PtPd alloy nanoparticles on IL-graphene paper with high loading, uniform distribution, controlled morphology and favourable size. Consequently, the resultant nanohybrid paper electrode exhibits remarkable catalytic activity as well as excellent cycle stability and improved anti-poisoning ability towards electrooxidation of fuel molecules such as methanol and ethanol. Furthermore, for nonenzymatic electrochemical sensing of some specific biomarkers such as glucose and reactive oxygen species, the nanohybrid paper electrode shows high selectivity, sensitivity and biocompatibility in these bio-catalytic processes, and can be used for real-time tracking hydrogen peroxide secretion by living human cells. All these features demonstrate its promising application as a versatile nanohybrid electrode material in flexible and lightweight electrochemical energy conversion and biosensing systems such as bendable on-chip power sources, wearable/implantable detectors and in vivo micro-biosensors.Here we fabricate a new type of flexible and

  3. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of liquid argon equal to the volume of tungsten slugs.

  4. Controlling liquid pool depth in VAR of a 21.6 cm diameter ingot of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joseph; Williamson, Rodney; Taleff, Eric; Watt, Trevor

    It is believed that the final microstructure in vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingots is strongly influenced by the molten metal pool profile. Thus, if the pool profile was properly controlled during the melt then defect-free microstructures would be obtained. The recent development of a reduced-order model of VAR solidification allowed the design of a pool depth controller to accomplish this task. The controller used a linear quadratic regulator and a Kalman filter to stabilize the melt pool solidification front under the effect of uncertain process dynamics and noisy measurements. Basic Axisymmetric Remelting (BAR), a high-fidelity VAR ingot model, was used in real time to provide pool depth measurements that were incorporated in the control loop. The controller was tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory in a 21.6 diameter Alloy 718 ingot. Details of the controller design will be presented, along with comparisons to experimentally-measured pool depths.

  5. Structure of the glass-forming metallic liquids by ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics, a case study: Quenching the Cu{sub 60}Ti{sub 20}Zr{sub 20} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amokrane, S.; Ayadim, A.; Levrel, L. [Groupe “Physique des Liquides et Milieux Complexes,” Faculté des Sciences et Technologie, Université Paris-Est (Créteil), 61 av. du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France)

    2015-11-21

    We consider the question of the amorphization of metallic alloys by melt quenching, as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations with semi-empirical potentials. The parametrization of the potentials is discussed on the example of the ternary Cu-Ti-Zr transition metals alloy, using the ab-initio simulation as a reference. The pair structure in the amorphous state is computed from a potential of the Stillinger-Weber form. The transferability of the parameters during the quench is investigated using two parametrizations: from solid state data, as usual and from a new parametrization on the liquid structure. When the adjustment is made on the pair structure of the liquid, a satisfactory transferability is found between the pure components and their alloys. The liquid structure predicted in this way agrees well with experiment, in contrast with the one obtained using the adjustment on the solid. The final structure, after quenches down to the amorphous state, determined with the new set of parameters is shown to be very close to the ab-initio one, the latter being in excellent agreement with recent X-rays diffraction experiments. The corresponding critical temperature of the glass transition is estimated from the behavior of the heat capacity. Discussion on the consistency between the structures predicted using semi-empirical potentials and ab-initio simulation, and comparison of different experimental data underlines the question of the dependence of the final structure on the thermodynamic path followed to reach the amorphous state.

  6. Wettability of hot-pressed samples of boron-containing aluminium compounds by liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, A.I.; Nizhenko, V.I.; Kirillova, N.V.; Floka, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    Highly dispersed powders of aluminium borides and borocarbides were sintered by hot pressing method. Temperature dependence of wettability of hot-pressed boride samples (α-AlB 12 and AlB 18 ) and aluminium borocarbides (Al 3 B 48 C 2 , Al 8 B 4 C 2 and AlB 24 C) by liquid aluminium, copper, germanium, silicon and melts Al + 25 wt.%Si and Cu + (3-6) wt.%Ti was studied. Dependence of a compound wettability on the ratio of components in it was analyzed [ru

  7. Electrodeposition of diamond-like carbon films on titanium alloy using organic liquids: Corrosion and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcade, Tiago; Shmitzhaus, Tobias Eduardo; Gomes dos Reis, Otávio; Vargas, André Luis Marin; Hübler, Roberto; Müller, Iduvirges Lourdes; Fraga Malfatti, Célia de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electrodeposition may be conducted at room temperature. ► The DLC films have good resistance to corrosion in saline environments. ► The films have lower coefficient of friction than the uncoated substrate. ► The abrasive wear protection is evident in coated systems. - Abstract: Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been studied as coatings for corrosion protection and wear resistance because they have excellent chemical inertness in traditional corrosive environments, besides presenting a significant reduction in coefficient of friction. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films obtained by electrochemical deposition techniques have attracted a lot of interest, regarding their potential in relation to the vapor phase deposition techniques. The electrochemical deposition techniques are carried out at room temperature and do not need vacuum system, making easier this way the technological transfer. At high electric fields, the organic molecules polarize and react on the electrode surface, forming carbon films. The aim of this work was to obtain DLC films onto Ti6Al4V substrate using as electrolyte: acetonitrile (ACN) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and wear tests. The results show that these films can improve, significantly, the corrosion resistance of titanium and its alloys and their wear resistance.

  8. Effect of the roughness of crucible on viscosity of liquid Pb38.1Sn61.9 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuqin; Bian Xiufang; Mao Tan; Li Xuelian; Li Taibao; Wang Caidong

    2007-01-01

    The viscosity of the eutectic Pb 38.1 Sn 61.9 alloy has been measured by a torsional oscillation viscometer using three different crucibles which are made of the materials of highly sintered alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), and graphite (C) respectively. The roughness of crucibles has effect on the viscosity. The viscosity data obtained for SiO 2 and C crucibles were concentrated in the narrow range of about 0.5% and showed almost the same activation energy. However, the viscosity obtained using Al 2 O 3 crucible with the maximal roughness is higher than that using the other two crucibles. The discrepancy of viscosity obtained using those crucibles increases with the viscosity. In addition, the viscosity obtained using three kinds of crucibles in our work has a breakpoint at 488 K, which is approximate with the results of electrical conductivity and thermopower measurements reported by Plevachuk et al., which indicates the microstructure in melt changes before solidification

  9. Behavior of steels in flowing liquid PbBi eutectic alloy at 420-600 deg. C after 4000-7200 h

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.; Heinzel, A.; Konys, J.; Schumacher, G.; Weisenburger, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Engelko, V.; Rusanov, A.; Markov, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of steel exposure up to 7200 h in flowing LBE at elevated temperatures and is a follow-up paper of that with results of an exposure of up to 2000 h. The examined AISI 316 L, 1.4970 austenitic and MANET 10Cr martensitic steels are suitable as a structural material in LBE (liquid eutectic Pb 45 Bi 55 ) up to 550 deg. C, if 10 -6 wt% of oxygen is dissolved in the LBE. The martensitic steel develops a thick magnetite and spinel layer while the austenites have thin spinel surface layers at 420 deg. C and thick oxide scales like the martensitic steel at 550 deg. C. The oxide scales protect the steels from dissolution attack by LBE during the whole test period of 7200 h. Oxide scales that spall off are replaced by new protective ones. At 600 deg. C severe attack occurs already after 2000 and 4000 h of exposure. Steels with 8-15 wt% Al alloyed into the surface suffer no corrosion attack at all experimental temperatures and exposure times

  10. Electrodeposition of gold-platinum alloy nanoparticles on ionic liquid-chitosan composite film and its application in fabricating an amperometric cholesterol biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Farjami, Fatemeh

    2011-01-15

    An electrodeposition method was applied to form gold-platinum (AuPt) alloy nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) and chitosan (Ch) (AuPt-Ch-IL/GCE). AuPt nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical methods. AuPt-Ch-IL/GCE electrocatalyzed the reduction of H(2)O(2) and thus was suitable for the preparation of biosensors. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was then, immobilized on the surface of the electrode by cross-linking ChOx and chitosan through addition of glutaraldehyde (ChOx/AuPt-Ch-IL/GCE). The fabricated biosensor exhibited two wide linear ranges of responses to cholesterol in the concentration ranges of 0.05-6.2 mM and 6.2-11.2 mM. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 90.7 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and the limit of detection was 10 μM of cholesterol. The response time was less than 7 s. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) was found as 0.24 mM. The effect of the addition of 1 mM ascorbic acid and glucose was tested on the amperometric response of 0.5 mM cholesterol and no change in response current of cholesterol was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative imaging of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG in selected histological tissue areas by a novel bioluminescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Fabienne Voelxen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPatients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis with average survival of less than one year. Whereas in other tumor entities the characteristics of tumor metabolism are successfully used for therapeutic approaches, such developments are very rare in brain tumors, notably in gliomas. One metabolic feature characteristic of gliomas, in particular diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors, is the variable content of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG, a metabolite, which was discovered first in this tumor entity. D2HG is generated in large amounts due to various gain-of–function mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH-1 and IDH-2. Meanwhile, D2HG has been detected in several other tumor entities including intrahepatic bile-duct cancer, chondrosarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. D2HG is barely detectable in healthy tissue (< 0.1 mM, but its concentration increases up to 35 mM in malignant tumor tissues. Consequently, the oncometabolite D2HG has gained increasing interest in the field of tumor metabolism. To facilitate its quantitative measurement without loss of spatial resolution at a microscopical level, we have developed a novel bioluminescence assay for determining D2HG in sections of snap-frozen tissue. The assay was verified independently by photometric tests and liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The novel technique allows the microscopically resolved determination of D2HG in a concentration range of 0 – 10 µmol/g tissue (wet weight. In combination with the already established bioluminescence imaging techniques for ATP, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate, the novel D2HG assay enables a comparative characterization of the metabolic profile of individual tumors in a further dimension.

  12. New technique for quantification of elemental hg in mine wastes and its implications for mercury evasion into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, A.D.; Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234 K) results in its transformation to crystalline ??-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77 K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Bond-equilibrium theory of liquid Se-Te alloys. II. Effect of singly attached ring molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Melvin; Bez, Wolfgang G.

    1981-06-01

    A statistical-mechanical theory for bond equilibrium of chain polymers containing threefold (3F) and onefold (1F) bond defects is extended to include the effects of free ring molecules and ring molecules attached to chains by a single 3F atom. Positively charged singly attached rings are shown to play a key role in bond equilibrium in liquid Sex Te1-x by permitting the formation of ion pairs in which both constituents are effectively chain terminators, thus decreasing the average polymer size. The theory is applied to explain the behavior of the paramagnetic susceptibility, χp, and electronic transport as affected by the Fermi energy EF. It is found that the increase in χp with the concentration of Te is primarily the result of the smaller energy for breaking Te bonds. In addition, attached rings play an important role in determining the effect of temperature on χp. At x<~0.5, the concentrations of both free and attached rings becomes small at high T because of the high concentration of bond defects.

  14. Interaction between Nd-rich phase particles and liquid-solid interface in as-cast Ti-5Al-4Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.25Si-1Nd titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.P.; Li, D.; Liu, Y.Y.; Hu, Z.Q.

    1995-01-01

    The composition (wt%) of ingot fir this investigation is 86.75%Ti, 5%Al, 4%Sn, 2%Zr, 1%Mo, 0.25%Si, 1%Nd. The alloy was prepared by vacuum arc melting in the form of buttons of mass 500 kg, which was remelted three times repeatedly to obtain homogeneous composition. The Nd-rich phase particles in the as-cast Ti-55 alloy are about 1.2∼11.07 microm and uniformly distribute in the matrix. The shapes of the particles are mainly ellipsoids together with short needle-like and blocky morphologies. The calculated diameter of the Nd-rich phase particles is ∼ 10 microm, which is within the 1.2∼11.07 microm range of the particle diameter experimentally measured in the as-cast Ti-55 alloy. The practical interface velocity is three orders of magnitude greater than V c, and the Nd-rich phase particles in the as-cast Ti-55 alloy are trapped by the liquid-solid interface

  15. Tracing aquatic bioavailable Hg in three different regions of China using fish Hg isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Bin; Hua, Xiu-Bing; Liu, Hong-Wei; Yu, Ben; Mao, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Ding-Yong; Yin, Yong-Guang; Hu, Li-Gang; Shi, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2018-04-15

    To trace the most concerned bioavailable mercury (Hg) in aquatic environment, fish samples were collected from three typical regions in China, including 3 rivers and 1 lake in the Tibetan Plateau (TP, a high altitude background region with strong solar radiation), the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, the largest artificial freshwater reservoir in China), and the Chinese Bohai Sea (CBS, a heavily human-impacted semi-enclosed sea). The Hg isotopic compositions in fish muscles were analyzed. The results showed that anthropogenic emissions were the main sources of Hg in fish from TGR and CBS because of the observed negative δ 202 Hg and positive Δ 199 Hg in these two regions (TGR, δ 202 Hg: - 0.72 to - 0.29‰, Δ 199 Hg: 0.15 - 0.52‰; CBS, δ 202 Hg: - 2.09 to - 0.86‰, Δ 199 Hg: 0.07 - 0.52‰). The relatively higher δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg (δ 202 Hg: - 0.37 - 0.08‰, Δ 199 Hg: 0.50 - 1.89‰) in fish from TP suggested the insignificant disturbance from local anthropogenic activities. The larger slopes of Δ 199 Hg/Δ 201 Hg in fish from TGR (1.29 ± 0.14, 1SD) and TP (1.25 ± 0.06, 1SD) indicated methylmercury (MeHg) was produced and photo-reduced in the water column before incorporation into the fish. In contrast, the photoreduction of Hg 2+ was the main process in CBS (slope of Δ 199 Hg/Δ 201 Hg: 1.06 ± 0.06, 1SD). According to the fingerprint data of Hg isotopes, the most important source for aquatic bioavailable Hg in TP should be the long-range transported Hg, contrasting to the anthropogenic originated MeHg from surface sediments and runoffs in TGR and inorganic Hg from continental inputs in CBS. Therefore, the isotopic signatures of Hg in fish can provide novel clues in tracing sources and behaviors of bioavailable Hg in aquatic systems, which are critical for further understanding the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of the knight shift in liquid alloys of silver with lanthanides by stroboscopic observation of perturbed angular correlations according to the reaction 109Ag(p,n)109Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundelfinger, F.

    1975-01-01

    In liquid alloys of the composition Agsub(1-x)Rsub(x) (0 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd* induced by 10 MeV protons. In first appoximation, the values found for the relative change of knight shift prove to be proportional to the negative z-component of the 4f-shell spin of the respective lanthanide metals. The major part of the knight shift is produced by the spin polarization of the conduction electrons due to coupling to the spins of the lanthanide ions. The possible coupling mechanisms are discussed. (orig./GSC) [de

  17. Evaporation of Cu, Sn, and S from Fe-C-Cu-Sn-S Liquid Alloys in the Temperature Range from 1513 K to 1873 K (1240 °C to 1600 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafwidli, Fahmi; Choi, Moo-Eob; Yi, Sang-Ho; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2018-06-01

    Evaporation of Cu or Sn from liquid iron alloys containing C and S was experimentally investigated. The initial C concentration, [pct C]0, in the liquid alloy was varied from zero to C saturation, and the evaporation temperature was varied from 1513 K to 1773 K (1240 °C to 1500 °C). Along with the report by one of the present authors, the evaporation mechanism of Cu and Sn from liquid Fe-C-S alloy is proposed, after a modification from the previous mechanism. It was proposed that Cu and Sn evaporate as Cu(g) and Sn(g) and also evaporate as CuS(g) and SnS(g), which are more volatile species. Therefore, availability of S in the alloy affects the overall evaporation rate of Cu and Sn. At the same time, C in the alloy also forms volatile carbosulfides CS(g) and CS2(g), thereby competing with Cu and Sn. Moreover, C increases the activity coefficients of Cu, Sn, and S. This increases the thermodynamic driving force for the formation of CuS(g) and SnS(g). Therefore, increasing [pct C] partly accelerates the evaporation rate of Cu and Sn by increasing the activity coefficient but partly decelerates the evaporation rate by lowering the available S content. S partly accelerates the evaporation rate by increasing the available S for the sulfide gas species but partly decelerates the evaporation rate due to the surface poisoning effect. Increasing the reaction temperature increases the overall evaporation rate. All these facts were taken into account in order to develop an evaporation rate model. This model was extended from the present authors' previous one by taking into account (1) CS(g), S(g), and CS2(g) (therefore, the following species were considered as dominant evaporating species: Cu(g), CuS(g), Sn(g), SnS(g), S(g), CS(g), and CS2(g)); (2) the effect of C and temperature on the activity coefficients of Cu, Sn, and S; (3) the effect of C and temperature on the density of the liquid alloy; and (4) the effect of temperature on the S adsorption coefficient. This revised

  18. Evaporation of Cu, Sn, and S from Fe-C-Cu-Sn-S Liquid Alloys in the Temperature Range from 1513 K to 1873 K (1240 °C to 1600 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafwidli, Fahmi; Choi, Moo-Eob; Yi, Sang-Ho; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2018-02-01

    Evaporation of Cu or Sn from liquid iron alloys containing C and S was experimentally investigated. The initial C concentration, [pct C]0, in the liquid alloy was varied from zero to C saturation, and the evaporation temperature was varied from 1513 K to 1773 K (1240 °C to 1500 °C). Along with the report by one of the present authors, the evaporation mechanism of Cu and Sn from liquid Fe-C-S alloy is proposed, after a modification from the previous mechanism. It was proposed that Cu and Sn evaporate as Cu(g) and Sn(g) and also evaporate as CuS(g) and SnS(g), which are more volatile species. Therefore, availability of S in the alloy affects the overall evaporation rate of Cu and Sn. At the same time, C in the alloy also forms volatile carbosulfides CS(g) and CS2(g), thereby competing with Cu and Sn. Moreover, C increases the activity coefficients of Cu, Sn, and S. This increases the thermodynamic driving force for the formation of CuS(g) and SnS(g). Therefore, increasing [pct C] partly accelerates the evaporation rate of Cu and Sn by increasing the activity coefficient but partly decelerates the evaporation rate by lowering the available S content. S partly accelerates the evaporation rate by increasing the available S for the sulfide gas species but partly decelerates the evaporation rate due to the surface poisoning effect. Increasing the reaction temperature increases the overall evaporation rate. All these facts were taken into account in order to develop an evaporation rate model. This model was extended from the present authors' previous one by taking into account (1) CS(g), S(g), and CS2(g) (therefore, the following species were considered as dominant evaporating species: Cu(g), CuS(g), Sn(g), SnS(g), S(g), CS(g), and CS2(g)); (2) the effect of C and temperature on the activity coefficients of Cu, Sn, and S; (3) the effect of C and temperature on the density of the liquid alloy; and (4) the effect of temperature on the S adsorption coefficient. This revised

  19. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  20. Lattice vibrations study of Ga1-xInxAsySb1-y quaternary alloys with low (In, As) content grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera-Herandez, J; Olvera-Cervantes, J; Rojas-Lopez, M; Navarro-Contreras, H; Vidal, M A; Anda, F de

    2006-01-01

    Raman scattering spectroscopy was used to measure and analyze the lattice vibrations in some quaternary Ga 1-x In x As y Sb 1-y alloys with low (In, As) contents (0.03 0 C. High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction results showed profiles associated with a quaternary layer lattice matched to the GaSb substrate as obtained from the (004) reflection. The experimental diffractograms were simulated to estimate alloy composition, thickness and lattice mismatch of the layer. Raman scattering results show phonon frequencies associated to the TO and LO GaAs-like modes as well as GaSb + InAs-like mode, which are characteristic of this quaternary alloy. The As content dependence of the phonon frequency measured in this alloy for low (In, As) contents agree well with the modified Random-Element Isodisplacement (REI) model and also with other available experimental reports. This method can also be used to estimate alloy compositions for this kind of quaternary alloys

  1. Interfacial properties of immiscible Co-Cu alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egry, I.; Ratke, L.; Kolbe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Using electromagnetic levitation under microgravity conditions, the interfacial properties of an Cu75Co25 alloy have been investigated in the liquid phase. This alloy exhibits a metastable liquid miscibility gap and can be prepared and levitated in a configuration consisting of a liquid cobalt-ri...

  2. Reference Data for the Density, Viscosity, and Surface Tension of Liquid Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Alexandra; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    The data for the physicochemical properties viscosity, density, and surface tension obtained by different experimental techniques have been analyzed for liquid Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn eutectic alloys. All experimental data sets have been categorized and described by the year of publication, the technique used to obtain the data, the purity of the samples and their compositions, the quoted uncertainty, the number of data in the data set, the form of data, and the temperature range. The proposed standard deviations of liquid eutectic Al-Zn, Ag-Sn, Bi-Sn, Cu-Sn, and Sn-Zn alloys are 0.8%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1% for the density, 8.7%, 4.1%, 3.6%, 5.1%, and 4.0% for viscosity, and 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.3%, N/A, and 0.4% for surface tension, respectively, at a confidence level of 95%.

  3. Silumins alloy crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research, by ATD method, of hypo-, near- and hyperutectic silumins crystallization containing the following alloying additives: Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo, W, V. It has been shown that, depending on their concentration may crystallize pre-eutectic or eutectic multicomponent phases containing these alloy additives. It has been revealed that any subsequent crystallizable phase nucleate and grows near the liquid/former crystallized phase interface. In multiphases compound also falls the silicon, resulting in a reduction in its quantity and the fragmentation in the eutectic mixture. As a result, it gets a high hardness of silumins in terms of 110-220HB.

  4. Study of thermodynamic properties of binary and ternary liquid alloys of aluminium with the elements iron, cobalt, nickel and oxygen; Etude des proprietes thermodynamiques des alliages liquides binaires et ternaires de l'aluminium avec les elements fer, cobalt, nickel et l'oxygene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachet, F [CEA Vallee du Rhone, 26-Pierrelatte (France)

    1966-07-01

    The present work deals with the thermodynamic study of aluminium liquid alloys with the metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The experiments carried out lead to the activity, at 1600 deg C, of aluminium in the (Al, Fe), (Al, Co), (Al, Ni) liquid alloys. The experimental method used consists in studying the partition of aluminium between the liquid immiscible phases made up with the pairs of metals (Fe, Ag), (Co, Ag), (Ni, Ag). The informations so obtained are used for drawing the isothermal equilibrium phases diagrams sections of (Al, Fe, Ag), (Al, Co, Ag), (Al, Ni, Ag) systems. The study of the partition of silver between lead and aluminium joined with the determinations of several authors allows us to determine the aluminium activity, analytically presented, in the metal M (iron cobalt and nickel). The Wagner's interaction parameters of aluminium in metal M are determined. The results obtained as the equilibrium phases diagrams of (Al, M) systems allow to compare the thermodynamic properties of the Al Fe system in liquid and solid states and to estimate the enthalpies of melting of the AlCo and AlNi intermetallic compounds. The activity, at 1600 deg C, of aluminium in (Al, Fe, Co), (Al, Fe, Ni), (Al, Co, Ni) liquid alloys is estimated through thermodynamic properties of binary components systems by application of several methods leading to results in good agreement. The study of aluminium-oxygen interactions in the liquid metallic solvants M allows us to propose an explanation for the shape of the deoxidation equilibrium line of iron, cobalt and nickel by aluminium and to compare the de-oxidizing power of aluminium toward iron, cobalt and nickel oxides. (author) [French] Le travail presente se rapporte a l'etude thermodynamique des alliages liquides de l'aluminium avec les metaux fer, cobalt et nickel. Les experiences effectuees ont pour but de determiner l'activite, a 1600 C, de l'aluminium dans les alliages liquides (Al, Fe), (Al, Co), (Al, Ni). La methode

  5. Direct determination of Cd, Hg in liver and kidney by prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu tan; Tran Tuan Anh; Nguyen Canh Hai; Le Van Lieu

    2000-01-01

    The development of a method for in-vivo measurement of some elemental concentration in organs making use of prompt gamma activation analysis with the filtered neutron beam at the Dalat reactor is being carried out. In this paper we present primary results in research and development of an IVPGNAA facility at the Dalat reactor. Beside the description of experimental set-up, it consists of determination of thermal neutron flux distribution in phantom, and the evaluation of the detection limit and analytical sensitivity for Cd and Hg in the kidney and the liver. Discussions are given to improve the IVPGNAA facility in the future. (author)

  6. Welding of refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessmann, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This review primarily summarizes welding evaluations supported by NASA-Lewis Research Center in the 1960s. A literature search run in preparation for this review indicates that more recent work is modest by comparison. Hence, this review restates these accomplishments briefly and addresses opportunities which have evolved in welding technology (such as lasers) in the intervening decade. Emphasis in this review is given to tantalum- and niobium-base alloys. Considerable work was also done to assure that a consistent comparison was made with tungsten. A wide variety of candidate alloys derived primarily from developments directed at aircraft propulsion applications were available. Early efforts by NASA were directed at screening studies to select promising structural alloys for the space power application. This objective required fine tuning of welding procedures, e.g., the demonstration of stringent standards for control of welding atmosphere to assure good corrosion resistance in liquid alkali metals. 16 figures, 6 tables

  7. Identification of Potential Sources of Mercury (Hg) in Farmland Soil Using a Decision Tree Method in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Taiyang; Chen, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiuying

    2016-11-09

    Identification of the sources of soil mercury (Hg) on the provincial scale is helpful for enacting effective policies to prevent further contamination and take reclamation measurements. The natural and anthropogenic sources and their contributions of Hg in Chinese farmland soil were identified based on a decision tree method. The results showed that the concentrations of Hg in parent materials were most strongly associated with the general spatial distribution pattern of Hg concentration on a provincial scale. The decision tree analysis gained an 89.70% total accuracy in simulating the influence of human activities on the additions of Hg in farmland soil. Human activities-for example, the production of coke, application of fertilizers, discharge of wastewater, discharge of solid waste, and the production of non-ferrous metals-were the main external sources of a large amount of Hg in the farmland soil.

  8. Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) : A Liquid Metal Alloy for the Formation of Stable Structures in Microchannels at Room Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey, Michael D.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Larsen, Ryan J.; Weiss, Emily A.; Weitz, David A.; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the rheological behavior of the liquid metal eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) as it is injected into microfluidic channels to form stable microstructures of liquid metal. EGaIn is well-suited for this application because of its rheological properties at room temperature: it

  9. Printing graphene-carbon nanotube-ionic liquid gel on graphene paper: Towards flexible electrodes with efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenshan; Sun, Yimin; Xi, Jiangbo; Abdurhman, Abduraouf Alamer Mohamed; Ren, Jinghua; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-01-15

    The increasing demands for portable, wearable, and implantable sensing devices have stimulated growing interest in innovative electrode materials. In this work, we have demonstrated that printing a conductive ink formulated by blending three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene-carbon nanotube (CNT) assembly with ionic liquid (IL) on two-dimensional (2D) graphene paper (GP), leads to a freestanding GP supported graphene-CNT-IL nanocomposite (graphene-CNT-IL/GP). The incorporation of highly conductive CNTs into graphene assembly effectively increases its surface area and improves its electrical and mechanical properties. The graphene-CNT-IL/GP, as freestanding and flexible substrates, allows for efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles by means of ultrasonic-electrochemical deposition. Owing to the synergistic effect of PtAu alloy nanoparticles, 3D porous graphene-CNT scaffold, IL binder and 2D flexible GP substrate, the resultant lightweight nanohybrid paper electrode exhibits excellent sensing performances in nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Segregation and convection in dendritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Microsegregation in dentritic alloys is discussed, including solidification with and without thermal gradient, the convection of interdendritic liquid. The conservation of momentum, energy, and solute is considered. Directional solidification and thermosolutal convection are discussed.

  11. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  12. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  13. Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator For Flight Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes use of shape-memory-alloy actuators, instead of hydraulic actuators, for aerodynamic flight-control surfaces. Actuator made of shape-memory alloy converts thermal energy into mechanical work by changing shape as it makes transitions between martensitic and austenitic crystalline phase states of alloy. Because both hot exhaust gases and cryogenic propellant liquids available aboard launch rockets, shape-memory-alloy actuators exceptionally suited for use aboard such rockets.

  14. Enthalpies of a binary alloy during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Nandapurkar, P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present a method of calculating the enthalpy of a dendritic alloy during solidification. The enthalpies of the dendritic solid and interdendritic liquid of alloys of the Pb-Sn system are evaluated, but the method could be applied to other binaries, as well. The enthalpies are consistent with a recent evaluation of the thermodynamics of Pb-Sn alloys and with the redistribution of solute in the same during dendritic solidification. Because of the heat of mixing in Pb-Sn alloys, the interdendritic liquid of hypoeutectic alloys (Pb-rich) of less than 50 wt pct Sn has enthalpies that increase as temperature decreases during solidification.

  15. Influence of liquid surface segregation on the pitting corrosion behavior of semi-solid metal high pressure die cast alloy F357

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cl aqueous solution. It is shown that pitting attack occurs preferentially in the eutectic regions at the interface between silicon particles and the alpha phase in the eutectic. Since the surface liquid segregation layer consists of mainly eutectic...

  16. High-temperature oxidation of silicide-aluminide layer on the TiAl6V4 alloy prepared by liquid-phase siliconizing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2016), s. 257-261 ISSN 1580-2949 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : TiAl6V4 * silicides * high-temperature oxidation * liquid-phase silicon izing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016

  17. Nonswelling alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  18. Nonswelling alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses

  19. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Makino, Akihiro; Mizushima, Takao

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  20. Effect of Cooling Rate on Phase Transformations in a High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Studied from the Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Thomas; Stanford, Nicole; Taylor, Adam; Hodgson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phase transformation and precipitation in a high-strength low-alloy steel have been studied over a large range of cooling rates, and a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram has been produced. These experiments are unique because the measurements were made from samples cooled directly from the melt, rather than in homogenized and re-heated billets. The purpose of this experimental design was to examine conditions pertinent to direct strip casting. At the highest cooling rates which simulate strip casting, the microstructure was fully bainitic with small regions of pearlite. At lower cooling rates, the fraction of polygonal ferrite increased and the pearlite regions became larger. The CCT diagram and the microstructural analysis showed that the precipitation of NbC is suppressed at high cooling rates, and is likely to be incomplete at intermediate cooling rates.

  1. Consecutive Renal Scanning with {sup 131}I And {sup 203}Hg in Obstructive Uropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poshyachinda, V. [Chulalongkorn Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1969-05-15

    Two patients with obstructive uropathy were scanned after injections of {sup 131}I sodium orthoiodohippurate (OlH) and {sup 203}Hg chlormerodrin. The {sup 131}I OIH scan was performed 30 min after the injection with the patient in the prone position. The {sup 203}Hg chlormerodrin was injected as soon as a negligible amount of {sup 131}I OIH was detected over the kidney, and the patient was scanned again 30 min later. A third patient and a normal subject were scanned 20 min after the simultaneous injection of {sup 131}I OIH and {sup 203}Hg chlormerodrin. Three scans with different analyser settings were done in sequence. The first scan was done with a window setting for {sup 131}I, and the second scan included both {sup 131}I and {sup 203}Hg; in the third scan, the analyser was set for {sup 203}Hg only. Evidence of hydronephroses, hydroureter and the residual functioning renal tissue were demonstrated by this scanning technique. The intravenous pyelograms in all three cases had failed to give satisfactory results. The simultaneous injection technique was found advantageous over the separate injection technique. (author)

  2. Solubility of iron in liquid lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Khan, I.

    1981-01-01

    The use of liquid lead in high temperature chemical and metallurgical processes is well known. The structural materials applied for the containment of these processes are either iron base alloys or possess iron as an alloying element. Besides that, lead itself is alloyed in some steels to achieve some very useful properties. For understanding the effect of liquid lead in such structural materials, it is important to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead which would also be indicative of the stability of these alloys. At the institute of reactor materials of KFA Juelich, investigations have been conducted to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead up to a temperature of about 1000 0 C. In this presentation the data concerning the solubility of iron in liquid lead are brought up to date and discussed including the results of our previous investigations. (orig.)

  3. TlHgInS 3 : An Indirect-Band-Gap Semiconductor with X-ray Photoconductivity Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Malliakas, Christos D.; Han, Fei; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-08-11

    The quaternary compound TlHgInS3 crystallizes in a new structure type of space group, C2/c, with cell parameters a = 13.916(3) angstrom, b = 3.9132(8) angstrom, c = 21.403(4) angstrom, beta = 104.16(3)degrees, V = 1130.1(8) angstrom(3), and rho = 7.241 g/cm(3). The structure is a unique three-dimensional framework with parallel tunnels, which is formed by (1)(infinity)[InS33-] infinite chains bridged by linearly coordinated Hg2+ ions. TlHgInS3 is a semiconductor with a band gap of 1.74 eV and a resistivity of similar to 4.32 G Omega cm. TlHgInS3 single crystals exhibit photocurrent response when exposed to Ag X-rays. The mobility-lifetime product (mu tau) of the electrons and holes estimated from the photocurrent measurements are (mu tau)(e) approximate to 3.6 x 10(-4) cm(2)/V and (mu tau)(h) approximate to 2.0 x 10(-4) cm(2)/V. Electronic structure calculations at the density functional theory level indicate an indirect band gap and a relatively small effective mass for both electrons and holes. Based on the photoconductivity data, TlHgInS3 is a potential material for radiation detection applications.

  4. Fully relativistic coupled cluster and DFT study of electric field gradients at Hg in 199Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the magnitude and interplay of relativistic and electron correlation effects on the electric field gradient (EFG) at the position of Hg in linear and bent HgL2 (L=CH3, Cl, Br, I) and trigonal planar [HgCl3]- complexes using four-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) and non...

  5. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  6. Phase formation in multicomponent monotectic aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Alloys with a miscibility gap in the liquid state are potential materials for advanced bearings in automotive and other applications. While binary alloys, such as Al-Pb or Al-Bi, are well known, the information available for ternary monotectic Al-alloys is scarce. However, the phase formation in multicomponent alloys is not only more challenging from a scientific aspect, it is also a prerequisite for a focused development of advanced alloys. This motivated our detailed study of monotectic Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys including both experimental and computational thermodynamic methods. Based on the initially established systematic classification of monotectic ternary Al-alloys, the first promising monotectic reaction was observed in the ternary Al-Bi-Zn system. Further ternary systems Al-Cu-Sn, Al-Bi-Sn, Al-Bi-Cu and Bi-Cu-Sn were investigated as basis for quaternary Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys. Experimental investigations of phase equilibria, enthalpies and solidification microstructures were combined with thermodynamic modeling. The results demonstrate that the developed precise thermodynamic description is vital to reveal the distinct multicomponent monotectic features of pertinent phase diagrams. The solidification paths of ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, were also studied using thermodynamic calculations, revealing specific details of phase formation during solidification of selected alloys.

  7. Biochemical impacts of Hg in Mytilus galloprovincialis under present and predicted warming scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Francesca; Almeida, Ângela; Henriques, Bruno; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Pereira, Eduarda; Freitas, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    The interest in the consequences of climate change on the physiological and biochemical functioning of marine organisms is increasing, but the indirect and interactive effects resulting from warming on bioconcentration and responsiveness to pollutants are still poorly explored, particularly in terms of cellular responses. The present study investigated the impacts of Hg in Mytilus galloprovincialis under control (17°C) and warming (21°C) conditions, assessing mussels Hg bioconcentration capacity, metabolic and oxidative status after 14 and 28days of exposure. Results obtained showed greater impacts in mussels exposed for 28days in comparison to 14days of exposure. Furthermore, our findings revealed that the increase in temperature from 17 to 21°C reduced the bioconcentration of Hg by M. galloprovincialis, which may explain higher mortality rates at 17°C in comparison to 21°C. Lower Hg concentration at 21°C in mussels tissue may result from valves closure for longer periods, identified by reduced energy reserves consumption at higher temperature, which in turn might also contributed to higher oxidative stress in organisms exposed to this condition. The highest LPO levels observed in mussels exposed to higher temperatures alone indicate that warming conditions will greatly affect M. galloprovincialis. Furthermore, the present study showed that the impacts induced by the combination of Hg and warming were similar to the ones caused by increased temperature acting alone, mainly due to increased antioxidant defenses in organisms under combined effects of Hg and warming, suggesting that warming was the factor that mostly contributed to oxidative stress in mussels. Although higher mortality was observed in individuals exposed to 17°C and Hg compared to organisms exposed to Hg at 21°C, the oxidative stress induced at higher temperature may generate negative consequences on mussels reproductive and feeding capacity, growth and, consequently, on population

  8. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  9. Poor glass-forming ability of Fe-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.J.; Hu, L.N.; Zhao, X.

    2017-01-01

    processes. By using the concept of fluid cluster and supercooled liquid fragility in metallic liquids, it has been found that this dynamic transition makes the Fe-based supercooled liquids become more unstable, which leads to the poor GFA of Fe-based alloys. Further, it has been found that the degree...

  10. Comparing different commercial zero valent iron nanoparticles to immobilize As and Hg in brownfield soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Díaz, M; Alonso, J; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Gallego, J R; Lobo, M C

    2017-04-15

    Nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) particles obtained by different methods differ in their structure, which lead to different reactivity, and therefore a likely difference in the remediation efficiency. The present study compares the effectiveness of three commercial ZVI nanoparticles to immobilize As and Hg in two soils (A and B) collected from a brownfield highly contaminated by mining and metallurgy activities. Scarce data are available on the effectiveness of nZVI for Hg immobilization in soil. Two commercial nZVI slurries from Toda (RNIP and RNIP-D) and one from Nano Iron (25S) were used at different doses (1, 5 and 10%). The metal(loid) availability and mobility was evaluated with the TCLP test and Tessier extraction procedure. The influence of nZVI application on As and Hg speciation was also evaluated as well as its impact on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soil phytotoxicity to vetch germination. The three commercial nZVI particles significantly reduced As and Hg availability in the two soils studied, which led to a decrease in soil phytotoxicity. At the dose of 5% of nZVI a decrease of exchangeable-As higher than 70% was observed for both soils, whereas in the case of Hg, a higher dose of nZVI (10%) was necessary to achieve reductions of exchangeable-Hg between 63 and 90% depending on the type of nZVI and soil. No impact on soil pH and electrical conductivity was observed. The effectiveness of metal(loid) immobilization depended on type of nZVI, soil properties and metal(loid) characteristics. Nanoparticles from Nano Iron showed better results for As immobilization whereas RNIP nanoparticles were more effective for Hg. Overall, 25S at the dose of 5% resulted more effective than RNIP nanoparticles for the reduction of exchangeable-As (in the range of 6-14%), whereas RNIP and RNIP-D were 10 and 13% more effective, respectively, for the reduction of exchangeable-Hg at the dose of 10% in soil B. Thus, nZVI can be used for the remediation of highly As and

  11. Delayed neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to MeHg in the cerebellum of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimfarth, Luana; Delgado, Jeferson; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Pureur, Regina Pessoa; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2018-03-01

    Human fetuses and neonates are particularly vulnerable to methylmercury (MeHg)-induced brain damage and are sensitive even to low exposure levels. Previous work of our group evidence that prenatal exposure to MeHg causes cognitive and behavioral alterations and disrupt hippocampus signaling. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of gestational exposure of rats to MeHg at low doses (1 or 2 mg/kg) on parameters of redox imbalance and key signaling pathways in the cerebellum of their offspring. Pregnant females received MeHg (treated group) or 0.9% saline water (control group) by gavage in alternated days from gestational day 5 (GD5) until parturition and analyzes were proceed in the cerebellum of 30-day-old pups. We found increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels as well as decreased SH content in pups prenatally exposed to 2 mg/kg MeHg. In addition, misregulated SOD/catalase activities supported imbalanced redox equilibrium. We found decreased GSK3β(Ser9) phosphorylation, suggesting activation of this enzyme and dephosphorylation/inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK pathways. Increased PKAα catalytic subunit could be upstream of hyperphosphorylated c-Raf(Ser259) and downregulated MAPK pathway. In addition, we found raised levels of the Ca 2+ -dependent protein phosphatase 2 B (PP2B). We also found preserved immunohistochemical staining for both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NeuN in MeHg-exposed pups. Western blot analysis showed unaltered levels of BAX/BCL-XL, BAD/BCL-2 and active caspase 3. Together, these findings support absence of reactive astrocytes, neuronal damage and apoptotic cell death in the cerebellum of MeHg treated pups. The present study provides evidence that prenatal exposure to MeHg leads to later redox imbalance and disrupted signaling mechanisms in the cerebellum of 30-day-old pups potentially predisposing them to long-lasting neurological impairments in CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg in the Yellow Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Ci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Yellow Sea, surrounded by East China and the Korea Peninsula, is a potentially important receptor for anthropogenic mercury (Hg emissions from East Asia. However, there is little documentation about the distribution and cycle of Hg in this marine system. During the cruise covering the Yellow Sea in July 2010, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0 in the atmosphere, total Hg (THg, reactive Hg (RHg and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, largely Hg(0 in the waters were measured aboard the R/V Kexue III. The mean (±SD concentration of GEM over the entire cruise was 2.61 ± 0.50 ng m−3 (range: 1.68 to 4.34 ng m−3, which were generally higher than other open oceans. The spatial distribution of GEM generally reflected a clear gradient with high levels near the coast of East China and low levels in open waters, suggesting the significant atmospheric Hg outflow from East China. The mean concentration of THg in the surface waters was 1.69 ± 0.35 ng l−1 and the RHg accounted for a considerable fraction of THg (RHg: 1.08 ± 0.28 ng l−1, %RHg/THg = 63.9%. The mean concentration of DGM in the surface waters was 63.9 ± 13.7 pg l−1 and always suggested the supersaturation of Hg(0 in the surface waters with respect to Hg(0 in the atmosphere (the degree of saturation: 7.8 ± 2.3 with a range of 3.6–14.0. The mean Hg(0 flux at the air-sea interface was estimated to be 18.3 ± 11.8 ng m−2 h−1 based on a two-layer exchange model. The high wind speed and DGM levels induced the extremely high Hg(0 emission rates. Measurements at three stations showed no clear vertical patterns of DGM, RHg and THg in the water column. Overall, the elevated Hg levels in the Yellow Sea compared with other open oceans suggested that the human activity has influenced the oceanic Hg cycle downwind of East Asia.

  13. Low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzenburg, W. van.

    1991-01-01

    The properties and general characteristics of vanadium-base alloys are reviewed in terms of the materials requirements for fusion reactor first wall and blanket structures. In this review attention is focussed on radiation response including induced radioactivity, mechanical properties, compatibility with potential coolants, physical and thermal properties, fabricability and resources. Where possible, properties are compared to those of other leading candidate structural materials, e.g. austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels. Vanadium alloys appear to offer advantages in the areas of long-term activation, mechanical properties at temperatures above 600 deg C, radiation resistance and thermo-hydraulic design, due to superior physical and thermal properties. They also have a potential for higher temperature operation in liquid lithium systems. Disadvantages are associated with their ability to retain high concentrations of hydrogen isotopes, higher cost, more difficult fabrication and welding. A particular concern regarding use of vanadium alloys relates their reactivity with non-metallic elements, such as oxygen and nitrogen. (author). 33 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  15. Evaluation on the stability of Hg in ABS disk CRM during measurements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Masaki; Kidokoro, Toshihiro; Hioki, Akiharu

    2012-01-01

    The stability of Hg in an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene disk certified reference material (ABS disk CRM, NMIJ CRM 8116-a) during measurements by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis was evaluated in this study. The XRF intensities of Hg (L(α)) and Pb (L(α)) as well as the XRF intensity ratios of Hg (L(α))/Pb (L(α)) observed under different X-ray tube current conditions as well as their irradiation time were examined to evaluate the stability of Hg in the ABS disk CRM. The observed XRF intensities and the XRF intensity ratios for up to 32 h of measurements under 80 mA of X-ray tube current condition were constant, even though the surface of the ABS disk CRM was charred by the X-ray irradiation with high current for a long time. Moreover, the measurements on Hg and Pb in the charred disks by an energy dispersive XRF (ED-XRF) spectrometer showed constant XRF intensity ratios of Hg (L(α))/Pb (L(α)). From these results, Hg in the ABS disk CRM was evaluated to be sufficiently stable for XRF analysis.

  16. Examination of the anisotropy of the wetting behaviour of liquid Al-Cu alloys on single crystalline oriented Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-substrates; Untersuchung der Anisotropie im Benetzungsverhalten fluessiger Al-Cu Legierungen auf einkristallinen orientierten Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Julianna

    2011-02-04

    The wetting behaviour of liquid Al-Cu alloys and pure metals on oriented single crystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-substrates was examined, utilising the sessile drop technique. Measurements were performed at moderate temperatures of 1100 C, where the alloys are liquid. Different Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-surfaces were studied, which are terminated by the crystallographic planes (0001), (11 anti 20), and (1 anti 102), also called C-, A-, and R-surfaces. After deposition, pure Cu-droplets show an exponential increase of the wetting angle to a value of about 115 for all investigated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-surfaces. The timescale of this increase is of the order of 100 s. The effect of surface- and interfacial energies on the wetting angle is discussed considering Young's equation. The most probable reason for its time-dependence seems to be an increase of the interfacial energy due to deoxidation of the droplet. Therefore it is reasonable to regard the isotropic contact angle value as the intrinsic one of the Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. In contrast, the wetting angle of pure Al metal with the different Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-substrates shows a qualitatively different behaviour. In this system, it rises from about 90 to 115 roughly for C-substrates, twice as fast as in the Cu case but to a comparable value. On the other substrates a wetting angle of about 90 establishes immediately, and no pronounced time dependence is obvious. In order to study changes in the wetting behaviour of Al-Cu-alloys, which is isotropic for Cu and anisotropic for Al-rich alloys, contact angles of Al{sub 50}Cu{sub 50}, Al{sub 30}Cu{sub 70} und Al{sub 17}Cu{sub 83} on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were determined. For each alloy composition the wetting angle is about 120 after 300 s. The initial values on distinct surfaces hardly differ and become non-wetting with increasing Cu-content. Hence, anisotropy decreases. To determine the work of adhesion of the solid-liquid interface, the temperature- and composition

  17. Superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to superconductors having high critical currents. The superconductor described comprises an alloy consisting of a matrix of a Type II superconductor which is a homogeneous mixture of 50 to 95 at.% Pb and 5 to 40 at.%Bi and/or 10 to 50 at.%In. Dispersed in the matrix is a material to provide pinning centres comprising from 0.01% to 20% by volume of the alloy; this material is a stable discontinuous phase of discrete crystalline particles of Cu, Mn, Te, Se, Ni, Ca, Cr, Ce, Ge or La, either in the form of the element or a compound with a component of the matrix. These particles should have an average diameter of not more than 2μ. A method for making this alloy is described. (U.K.)

  18. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  19. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  20. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    measured during the first cruise ranges from about 110 to 1500 ng · m-2day-1. This range is 1-2 order of magnitude higher than most of marine environments (Pacific Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Artic Ocean) and some important polluted marine areas, such as the Tokyo Bay (19-259 ng · m-2day-1)b and the Yellow Sea (156-722 ng · m-2day-1)c. Further estimates on Hg atmospheric deposition flux (wet and dry) and biomonitoring are required for finally assessing a mass balance of Hg in Augusta basin. aLindberg et al., 2007. A Journal of the Human Environment, 3, 19-33. bNarukawa et al., 2006. Journal of Oceanography, 62, 249-257. cCi et al., 2011. Atmosphere Chemistry and Physics, 11, 2881-2892.

  1. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  2. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  3. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for ionic liquid hydrogen compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arjomand Kermani, Nasrin; Petrushina, Irina; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of various commercially available stainless steels and nickel-based alloys as possible construction materials for components which are in direct contact with one of five different ionic liquids was evaluated. The ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate, 1...... liquid hydrogen compressor. An electrochemical cell was specially designed, and steady-state cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the corrosion resistance of the alloys in the ionic liquids at 23 °C, under atmospheric pressure. The results showed a very high corrosion resistance and high stability...... for all the alloys tested. The two stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 347 showed higher corrosion resistance compared to AISI 321 in all the ionic liquids tested. It was observed that small addition of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium to the alloys increased the corrosion stability in the ionic liquids...

  4. Liquid metals: fundamentals and applications in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeneke, T; Khoshmanesh, K; Mahmood, N; de Castro, I A; Esrafilzadeh, D; Barrow, S J; Dickey, M D; Kalantar-Zadeh, K

    2018-04-03

    Post-transition elements, together with zinc-group metals and their alloys belong to an emerging class of materials with fascinating characteristics originating from their simultaneous metallic and liquid natures. These metals and alloys are characterised by having low melting points (i.e. between room temperature and 300 °C), making their liquid state accessible to practical applications in various fields of physical chemistry and synthesis. These materials can offer extraordinary capabilities in the synthesis of new materials, catalysis and can also enable novel applications including microfluidics, flexible electronics and drug delivery. However, surprisingly liquid metals have been somewhat neglected by the wider research community. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals underlying liquid metal research, including liquid metal synthesis, surface functionalisation and liquid metal enabled chemistry. Furthermore, we discuss phenomena that warrant further investigations in relevant fields and outline how liquid metals can contribute to exciting future applications.

  5. Free energy change of off-eutectic binary alloys on solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Lin, J.-C.; Perepezko, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    A formula for the free energy difference between the undercooled liquid phase and the stable solid phase is derived for off-eutectic binary alloys in which the equilibrium solid/liquid transition takes place over a certain temperature range. The free energy change is then evaluated numerically for a Bi-25 at. pct Cd alloy modeled as a sub-subregular solution.

  6. Levels determination of heavy elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg) in sword fish caught from the bay of Ghazaouet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabi, A.; Malek, M.; Ghomari, M.; Benamar, M.A.; Tchantchane, A.; Azbouche, A.; Toumert, I.; Benouali, N.; Tobbeche, S. , Algiers; Algeria)

    1993-04-01

    The nuclear technics 'PIXE' and 'XRF', were used for heavy metals analysis (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), in sword fish (xiphias Gladius) caught in Ghazaouet bay. Muscles, liver and gonads were analysed. The methods gave similar results. A bioaccumulation phenomenon was observed except for Hg. The high amount of concentrations found liver, especially in the case of confirms that liver is a storage organ. The high levels of Zn seem to be due to the industrial wastes from the electrolyte plant in the region. All values were lower than the admissible norms

  7. The Effect of Rotation Stirring on Macrosegregation in Bi-Sn Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Zulaida Yeni Muriani; Afrizal Riyan; Suryana Suryana

    2017-01-01

    Macrosegregation is a defect that difficult to avoid in a metal alloy made by casting method. Macrosegregation can cause decreasing in mechanical properties of casting products. It will reduce their performance in industrial application. Macrosegregation is convinced occur during solidification time in liquid alloy. In the early solidified, The solids move upward/downward in liquid alloy during solidification are considered to contribute on macrosegregation formation. This movement occur due ...

  8. Corrosion and compatibility in liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The literature dealing with liquid alkali metal corrosion of vanadium and its alloys is reviewed in the following subsections. Attention is given to both lithium and sodium data. Preceding this review, a brief outline of the current state of understanding of liquid metal corrosion mechanisms is provided

  9. Order-of-magnitude increase of Hg in Norwegian peat profiles since the outset of industrial activity in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, Eiliv; Sjobakk, Torill Eidhammer

    2005-01-01

    Peat cores from six ombrotrophic bogs at different latitudes in Norway (58 deg N-69 deg N) were analysed for Hg by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. In all cases a smooth decrease of Hg with depth was observed down to 15-20 cm. At greater depths Hg showed a relatively constant level of the order of 10% of that in the peat surface layer. In the surface peat Hg concentrations exhibit moderate variation with latitude. The pre-industrial levels of Hg in the peat correspond to a net annual Hg accumulation of 0.3-0.9 μg m -2 . The Hg accumulation over the last 100 years is about 15 times higher on average than the pre-industrial level. The present work supports the view that a major part of the present atmospheric Hg in the Northern Hemisphere is of anthropogenic origin. It is speculated that the comparatively high Hg contemporary accumulation rates observed at the Andoya bog on 69 deg N may be related to the Arctic springtime depletion of Hg. - Results from analyses of ombrotrophic peat cores support the view that the present level of Hg 0 in the atmosphere is mainly of anthropogenic origin

  10. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on Co-Cr-Mo alloy in two media simulating physiological liquid. Caractérisation par spectroscopie d'impédance électrochimique d'un alliage de Co-Cr-Mo dans différents milieux simulant le liquide physiologique.

    OpenAIRE

    Geringer , Jean; Normand , Bernard; Diemiaszonek , Robert; Alémany-Dumont , Catherine; Mary , Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    National audience; Co-Cr-Mo is an alloy which allows manufacturing orthopedic implants, especially hip total joint prostheses. This alloy has good tribological and biocompatibility properties. This work aims at studying electrochemical behavior of this alloy. Moreover, measurements reproductibility has been improved: polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Measurements have been carried out with phosphate buffered solution and this one containing albumin, 1 g.L-1. Three diffe...

  11. Amorphous bimetallic alloys prepared by steam condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, V.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous alloys of MnSn are prepared by steam condensation, in a substratum with a temperature near of the liquid helium. The magnetic and paramagnetic hyperfine spectrum and the ordination temperature by Moessbauer effect 119Sn are measured. A diagram of magnetic phase is proposed, basing on the measures of Moessbauer effect. (C.G.C.) [pt

  12. Solidification paths of multicomponent monotectic aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-10-15

    Solidification paths of three ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, are studied using thermodynamic calculations, both for the pertinent phase diagrams and also for specific details concerning the solidification of selected alloy compositions. The coupled composition variation in two different liquids is quantitatively given. Various ternary monotectic four-phase reactions are encountered during solidification, as opposed to the simple binary monotectic, L' {yields} L'' + solid. These intricacies are reflected in the solidification microstructures, as demonstrated for these three aluminum alloy systems, selected in view of their distinctive features. This examination of solidification paths and microstructure formation may be relevant for advanced solidification processing of multicomponent monotectic alloys.

  13. Vertical solidification of dendritic binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, J. C.; Felicelli, S.; Poirier, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    Three numerical techniques are employed to analyze the influence of thermosolutal convection on defect formation in directionally solidified (DS) alloys. The finite-element models are based on the Boussinesq approximation and include the plane-front model and two plane-front models incorporating special dendritic regions. In the second model the dendritic region has a time-independent volume fraction of liquid, and in the last model the dendritic region evolves as local conditions dictate. The finite-element models permit the description of nonlinear thermosolutal convection by treating the dendritic regions as porous media with variable porosities. The models are applied to lead-tin alloys including DS alloys, and severe segregation phenomena such as freckles and channels are found to develop in the DS alloys. The present calculations and the permeability functions selected are shown to predict behavior in the dendritic regions that qualitatively matches that observed experimentally.

  14. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-12-16

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors.

  15. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors

  16. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing for Low-Cost, High-Performance Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicided niobium alloy (C103) combustion chambers have been used extensively in both NASA and DoD liquid rocket propulsion systems. Niobium alloys offer a good...

  17. Structure of eutectic alloys of Au with Si and Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-mail: takeda@rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fujii, H. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Tahara, S.; Nakashima, S. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S.; Itou, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Koto Sayo-cho, Sayo Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2008-03-06

    Au-Si and Au-Ge alloy systems have a deep eutectic point in the Au-rich concentration region where the melting point falls down to 633 K. In order to investigate the liquid structure in relation to the glass-forming tendency of these alloys, high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements have been carried out at the eutectic composition and at compositions with excess amounts of Au or IVb element. The nearest neighbor correlations in the eutectic liquids are intense and sharp in the pair distribution function and exhibit a rather small temperature dependence in comparison with those alloys of other than the eutectic composition. Structural models for these liquid alloys are proposed with the aid of reverse Monte Carlo simulation. The reproduced atomic arrangements around the eutectic region exhibit a substitutional-type structure where the dense random packing of Au atoms is preserved and Si or Ge atoms occupy the Au-sites at random.

  18. Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Hongjun [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

  19. Magnetostriction of Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandia, Rishi; Cooley, Jason C.; Imhoff, Seth D.

    The study of magnetic field-driven microstructural effects is in its infancy, but results have been promising. Previous work showed that these effects are easily observable in some systems, suggesting that magnetic fields could be used to control and engineer various micro-structural properties. The energy scales for crystallite rotation in the liquid and on the viscosity of the melt are known. However, the fundamental energy scale of the magnetic field interaction with the liquid and solid near the melting point is not. In this talk, we present magnetostriction data on liquid elements and alloys that will help us understand the energy scale of these processes and develop a theoretical understanding of solidification in magnetic fields.

  20. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  1. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  2. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Heats of transformation of eutectic alloys were measured for many binary and ternary systems by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis. Only the relatively cheap and plentiful elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Cu, Zn were considered. A method for measuring volume change during transformation was developed using x-ray absorption in a confined sample. Thermal expansion coefficients of both solid and liquid states of aluminum and of its eutectics with copper and with silicon also were determined. Preliminary evaluation of containment materials lead to the selection of silicon carbide as the initial material for study. Possible applications of alloy PCMs for heat storage in conventional and solar central power stations, small solar receivers and industrial furnace operations are under consideration.

  3. Probabilistic meta-analysis of risk from the exposure to Hg in artisanal gold mining communities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Clavijo, Diana; Ortega, Marcelo F; Gómez, Amaia

    2014-08-01

    Colombia is one of the largest per capita mercury polluters in the world as a consequence of its artisanal gold mining activities. The severity of this problem in terms of potential health effects was evaluated by means of a probabilistic risk assessment carried out in the twelve departments (or provinces) in Colombia with the largest gold production. The two exposure pathways included in the risk assessment were inhalation of elemental Hg vapors and ingestion of fish contaminated with methyl mercury. Exposure parameters for the adult population (especially rates of fish consumption) were obtained from nation-wide surveys and concentrations of Hg in air and of methyl-mercury in fish were gathered from previous scientific studies. Fish consumption varied between departments and ranged from 0 to 0.3 kg d(-1). Average concentrations of total mercury in fish (70 data) ranged from 0.026 to 3.3 μg g(-1). A total of 550 individual measurements of Hg in workshop air (ranging from risk. All but two of the distributions of Hazard Quotients (HQ) associated with ingestion of Hg-contaminated fish for the twelve regions evaluated presented median values higher than the threshold value of 1 and the 95th percentiles ranged from 4 to 90. In the case of exposure to Hg vapors, minimum values of HQ for the general population exceeded 1 in all the towns included in this study, and the HQs for miner-smelters burning the amalgam is two orders of magnitude higher, reaching values of 200 for the 95th percentile. Even acknowledging the conservative assumptions included in the risk assessment and the uncertainties associated with it, its results clearly reveal the exorbitant levels of risk endured not only by miner-smelters but also by the general population of artisanal gold mining communities in Colombia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment.

  5. New alloys for structural application. Kikai kozoyo shin kinzoku zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-01-15

    As recent advance on the scientific technologies is amazing, the materials having new function or excellent performance have been developed. Speaking on some recent examples, they can be divided roughly to one group belonging to invention of materials themselves such as oxide superconductors and compounds semi-conductors, and the other belonging to the products as invention of epoc-making material manufacturing methods such as noncrystalline alloys and particle dispersion reinforced alloys (ODS). In this report, first, some new metallic materials introduced relatively recently and converting many technical innovations in wide range of machinery field, such as titanium alloys, refractory alloys having nickel group, aluminium-lithium alloys, HSLA steels composed of reduced weight of alloy elements and having higher strengths than those of carbon-steels and various properties, intermetallic materials such as Ni3Al and others are described, and next, mechanical alloying and its particle dispersion reinforced alloys, liquid phase rapid cooling process and its noncrystalline alloy-rapid cooling cohesion powder sintering alloys, and others are summarized under the paths from their birth to present status. 31 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  7. The Relation Between Alloy Chemistry and Hot-Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Talia, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    Hot cracking is a problem in welding 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. Weld wire additives seem to reduce the problem. This study proposes a model intended to clarify the way alloying elements affect hot-cracking. The brittle temperature range of an alloy extends wherever the tensile stress required to move the meniscus of the liquid film at the grain/dendrite boundaries is less than the bulks flow stress Sigma(sub B) of the grains: 2gamma/delta alloys outgas.) If the above condition is not met, the grains deform under stress and the liquid film remains in place. Curves of 2gamma/delta and sigma(sub B) vs. temperature in the range just below the melting temperature determine the hot cracking susceptibility of an alloy. Both are zero at onset of solidification. sigma(sub B) rises as the thermal activation of the slip mechanism is reduced. 2gamma/delta rises as the film thickness delta which can be estimated from the Scheil equation, drops. But, given an embrittled alloy, whether the alloy actually cracks is determined by the strain imposed upon it in the embrittled condition. A critical strain is estimated, Epsilon(sub C) on the order of Epsilon(sub C) is approximately delta/l where L = grain size and where the the volume increment due to the strain, concentrated at the liquid film, is on the order of the liquid film volume. In the early 80's an empirical critical strain cracking envelope Epsilon(sub C)(T) was incorporated into a damage criterion to estimate the effect of welding parameters on the formation of microfissures in a superalloy with good results. These concepts, liquid film decoherence vs. grain bulk deformation and critical strain, form the key elements of a quantitative theory of hot-cracking applicable for assessing the effect of alloying elements on hot-cracking during welding.

  8. Transport électronique dans l'alliage liquide binaire Or–Argent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic transport in liquid binary alloys Gold-Silver. The electrical resistivity of the liquid alloy Gold-Silver was measured on the totality of the diagram of phase since the melting point until 1150°C. Our measurements, made in a quartz cell equipped with tungsten electrodes, were compared with those obtained by Roll and ...

  9. Nuclear fuel element containing strips of an alloyed Zr, Ti, and Ni getter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Packard, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of strips and preferably the strips are positioned inside a helical member in the plenum. The position of the alloy strips permits gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact and react with the alloy strips. (U.S.)

  10. Measurement and Analysis of Density of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; XIAO Feng; TAO Zainan; MuKai Kusuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The density of molten Ni-W alloys was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It is found that the density of the molten Ni- W alloys decreases with temperature rising, but increases with the increase of tungsten concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of molten Ni- W binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and tungsten concentration. The partial molar volume of tungsten in liquid Ni- W binary alloy has been calculated approximately as ( - 1.59+ 5.64 × 10-3 T) × 10-6m3 ·mol-1.

  11. Thermophysical Property Measurements of Silicon-Transition Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, R. Michael; Erwin, William R.; Sansoucie, Michael P.; Lee, Jonghyun; Gave, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Metals and metallic alloys often have high melting temperatures and highly reactive liquids. Processing reactive liquids in containers can result in significant contamination and limited undercooling. This is particularly true for molten silicon and it alloys. Silicon is commonly termed "the universal solvent". The viscosity, surface tension, and density of several silicon-transition metal alloys were determined using the Electrostatic Levitator system at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The temperature dependence of the viscosity followed an Arrhenius dependence, and the surface tension followed a linear temperature dependence. The density of the melts, including the undercooled region, showed a linear behavior as well. Viscosity and surface tension values were obtain for several of the alloys in the undercooled region.

  12. Metastability and thermophysical properties of metallic bulk glass forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, R.K.; Fecht, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The absence of crystallization over a wide time/temperature window can be used to produce bulk metallic glass by relatively slow cooling of the melt. For a number of alloys, including several multicomponent Zr-based alloys, the relevant thermodynamic and thermomechanical properties of the metastable glassy and undercooled liquid states have been measured below and above the glass transition temperature. These measurements include specific heat, viscosity, volume, and elastic properties as a function of temperature. As a result, it becomes obvious that the maximum undercooling for these alloys is given by an isentropic condition before an enthalpic or isochoric instability is reached. Alternatively, these glasses can also be produced by mechanical alloying, thus replacing the thermal disorder by static disorder and resulting in the same thermodynamic glass state. During heating through the undercooled liquid, a nanoscale phase separation occurs for most glasses as a precursor of crystallization

  13. Ductile tungsten-nickel alloy and method for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jr., William B.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a ductile, high-density tungsten-nickel alloy which possesses a tensile strength in the range of 100,000 to 140,000 psi and a tensile elongation of 3.1 to 16.5 percent in 1 inch at 25.degree.C. This alloy is prepared by the steps of liquid phase sintering a mixture of tungsten-0.5 to 10.0 weight percent nickel, heat treating the alloy at a temperature above the ordering temperature of approximately 970.degree.C. to stabilize the matrix phase, and thereafter rapidly quenching the alloy in a suitable liquid to maintain the matrix phase in a metastable, face-centered cubic, solid- solution of tungsten in nickel.

  14. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  15. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  16. Refining U-Zr-Nb alloys by remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, B.M.; Kniess, C.T.; Riella, H.G.; Ferraz, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    The high density U-Zr-Nb and U-Nb uranium-based alloys can be employed as nuclear fuel in a PWR reactor due to their high density and nuclear properties. These alloys can stabilize the gamma phase, however, according to TTT diagrams, at the working temperature of a PWR reactor, all gamma phase transforms to α'' phase in a few hours. To avoid this kind of transformation during the nuclear reactor operation, the U-Zr-Nb alloy and U-Nn are used in α'' phase. The stability of α'' phase depends on the alloy composition and cooling rate. The alloy homogenization has to be very effective to eliminate precipitates rich in Zr and Nb to avoid changes in the alloying elements contents in the matrix. The homogenization was obtained by remelting the alloy and keeping it in the liquid state for enough time to promote floating of the precipitates (usually carbides, less dense) and leaving the matrix free of precipitates. However, this floating by density difference may result in segregation between the alloying elements (Nb and Zr, at the top) and uranium (at the bottom). The homogenized alloys were characterized in terms of metallographic techniques, optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, EDS and X-ray diffraction. In this paper, it is shown that the contents of Zr and Nb at the bottom and at the top of the matrix are constant. (author)

  17. Refining U-Zr-Nb alloys by remelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, B.M.; Kniess, C.T.; Riella, H.G., E-mail: bmaguiar@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferraz, W.B. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The high density U-Zr-Nb and U-Nb uranium-based alloys can be employed as nuclear fuel in a PWR reactor due to their high density and nuclear properties. These alloys can stabilize the gamma phase, however, according to TTT diagrams, at the working temperature of a PWR reactor, all gamma phase transforms to {alpha}'' phase in a few hours. To avoid this kind of transformation during the nuclear reactor operation, the U-Zr-Nb alloy and U-Nn are used in {alpha}'' phase. The stability of {alpha}'' phase depends on the alloy composition and cooling rate. The alloy homogenization has to be very effective to eliminate precipitates rich in Zr and Nb to avoid changes in the alloying elements contents in the matrix. The homogenization was obtained by remelting the alloy and keeping it in the liquid state for enough time to promote floating of the precipitates (usually carbides, less dense) and leaving the matrix free of precipitates. However, this floating by density difference may result in segregation between the alloying elements (Nb and Zr, at the top) and uranium (at the bottom). The homogenized alloys were characterized in terms of metallographic techniques, optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, EDS and X-ray diffraction. In this paper, it is shown that the contents of Zr and Nb at the bottom and at the top of the matrix are constant. (author)

  18. Electronic structure of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenreich, H.; Schwartz, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The description of electronic properties of binary substitutional alloys within the single particle approximation is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on a didactic exposition of the equilibrium properties of the transport and magnetic properties of such alloys. Topics covered include: multiple scattering theory; the single band alloy; formal extensions of the theory; the alloy potential; realistic model state densities; the s-d model; and the muffin tin model. 43 figures, 3 tables, 151 references

  19. Prediction of Phase Separation of Immiscible Ga-Tl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunkyum; Kim, Han Gyeol; Kang, Youn-Bae; Kaptay, George; Lee, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    Phase separation temperature of Ga-Tl liquid alloys was investigated using the constrained drop method. With this method, density and surface tension were investigated together. Despite strong repulsive interactions, molar volume showed ideal mixing behavior, whereas surface tension of the alloy was close to that of pure Tl due to preferential adsorption of Tl. Phase separation temperatures and surface tension values obtained with this method were close to the theoretically calculated values using three different thermodynamic models.

  20. Solidification microstructures of aluminium-uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Vieira, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The solidification of microstrutures of aluminium-uranium alloys in the range of 4 to 20% uranium is investigated. The solidification was obtained both in ingot molds and under controlled directional solidification. The conditions for the presence of primary crystals and eutectic are discussed and an analysis of the influence of variables (growth rate and thermal gradient in the liquid) on the alloy structure is made. The effect of cooling rate on the alloy structures has been determined. It is found that the resulting structure can be derived from the kinectics concept, as required by the coupled-zone theory. Suggestions on the qualitative intervals of composition and temperatures with eutectic growth are presented [pt

  1. Characterization of titanium alloys for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reytier, M.; Kircher, F.; Levesy, B.

    2002-01-01

    Titanium alloys are employed in the design of superconducting magnet support systems for their high mechanical strength associated with their low thermal conductivity. But their use requires a careful attention to their crack tolerance at cryogenic temperature. Measurements have been performed on two extra low interstitial materials (Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI and Ti-6Al-4V ELI) with different thickness and manufacturing process. The investigation includes the tensile properties at room and liquid helium temperatures using smooth and notched samples. Moreover, the fracture toughness has been determined at 4.2 K using Compact Tension specimens. The microstructure of the different alloys and the various fracture surfaces have also been studied. After a detailed description of the experimental procedures, practical engineering characteristics are given and a comparison of the different titanium alloys is proposed for cryogenic applications

  2. Physical and welding metallurgy of Gd-enriched austenitic alloys for spent nuclear fuel applications. Part II, nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Michael, Joseph Richard; Williams, David Brian; Dupont, John Neuman; Robino, Charles Victor

    2004-01-01

    The physical and welding a metallurgy of gadolinium- (Gd-) enriched Ni-based alloys has been examined using a combination of differential thermal analysis, hot ductility testing. Varestraint testing, and various microstructural characterization techniques. Three different matrix compositions were chosen that were similar to commercial Ni-Cr-Mo base alloys (UNS N06455, N06022, and N06059). A ternary Ni-Cr-Gd alloy was also examined. The Gd level of each alloy was ∼2 wt-%. All the alloys initiated solidification by formation of primary austenite and terminated solidification by a Liquid γ + Ni 5 Gd eutectic-type reaction at ∼1270 C. The solidification temperature ranges of the alloys varied from ∼100 to 130 C (depending on alloy composition). This is a substantial reduction compared to the solidification temperature range to Gd-enriched stainless steels (360 to 400 C) that terminate solidification by a peritectic reaction at ∼1060 C. The higher-temperature eutectic reaction that occurs in the Ni-based alloys is accompanied by significant improvements in hot ductility and solidification cracking resistance. The results of this research demonstrate that Gd-enriched Ni-based alloys are excellent candidate materials for nuclear criticality control in spent nuclear fuel storage applications that require production and fabrication of large amounts of material through conventional ingot metallurgy and fusion welding techniques

  3. Preliminary investigation of liquid phase sintering in ferrous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1975-04-01

    Liquid phase sintering was utilized to achieve, by a simple compaction and sintering procedure involving short times and moderate temperatures, a virtually full dense high carbon Fe:C alloy and high boron Fe:B alloy. Parameters such as powder characteristics and mixing, compacting pressure, heating program and the liquid phase fraction were found to influence the sintered density. The response of the Fe:C alloy to a heat treatment is reported along with preliminary experiments in the iron base ternary system Fe:W:C. Residual porosities observed in microstructures of certain liquid phase sintered compacts were accounted for by a proposed capillary flow of the liquid phase and a local densification competing against an overall densification. Some general recommendations are made for liquid phase sintering of powder aggregates. 15 fig., 7 tables

  4. Containerless Measurement of Thermophysical Properties of Ti-Zr-Ni Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert; Bradshaw, Richard C.; Rogers, Jan C.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Lee, Geun W.; Gangopadhyay, Anup K.; Kelton, Kenneth F.

    2004-01-01

    The surface tension, viscosity, density, and thermal expansion of Ti-Zr-Ni alloys were measured for a number of compositions by electrostatic levitation methods. Containerless methods greatly reduce heterogeneous nucleation, increasing access to the undercooled liquid regime at finite cooling rates. The density and thermal expansion are measured optically, while the surface tension and viscosity are measured by the oscillating drop method. The measured alloys include compositions which form a metastable quasicrystal phase from the undercooled liquid, and alloys close to the composition of several multi-component bulk metallic glass-forming alloys. Measurements of surface tension show behavior typical of transition metals at high temperature, but a sudden decrease in the deeply undercooled liquid for alloys near the quasicrystal-forming composition range, but not for compositions which form the solid-solution phase first.

  5. Strain aging in tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowding, R.J.; Tauer, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on tungsten heavy alloys which are two-phase mixtures of body center cubic (BCC) tungsten surrounded by a face center cubic (FCC) matrix. The matrix is most often composed of nickel and iron in a ratio of 70:30 but, occasionally, the matrix may also contain cobalt or copper. Nickel, however, is always the primary matrix component. The tungsten heavy alloy is fabricated through powder metallurgy techniques. Elemental powders are blended, pressed to shape, and sintered. Depending upon the tungsten content, the sintering temperatures are usually in the range of 1450 degrees C to 1525 degrees C. These temperatures are high enough that, as a result, the matrix is at the liquid phase and the process is known as liquid phase sintering. At the liquid phase temperature, the matrix becomes saturated with tungsten, but this does not change the FCC character of the matrix. The sintering is usually done in a hydrogen atmosphere furnace in order to reduce the oxides on the tungsten powder surfaces and create clean, active surfaces which will enhance the adherence between the tungsten and the matrix. The hydrogen atmosphere also creates the presence of excess dissolved hydrogen in the alloy. It has been shown that the hydrogen degrades the toughness and ductility of the heavy alloy. A post-sintering vacuum heat treatment is generally required to insure that there is no residual hydrogen present. The as-sintered tensile strength of a 90% tungsten, 7% nickel, 3% iron alloy (90W) is in the range of 800 to 940 MPa and can be increased significantly by cold working, usually rolling or swaging. Swaging to reductions in area of 20% can result in tensile strengths of 1250 MPa or more. As the strength increases, the elongation, which may have been 30% or more, decreases to less than 5%

  6. Synthesis and crytallization of amorphous In-Te alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengrenovich, R.D.; Lopatnyuk, I.A.; Mikhal'chenko, V.P.; Kasiyan, I.M.; Geshko, E.I.

    1988-01-01

    Tendency of Te-In alloys with indium content from 5 to 40 % to amorphization is investigated. It is marked that in this interval of concentrations the alloys have the tendency to subcooling even at cooling velocities equalling only 0.2-0.3 K/s. Maximal subcooling ΔT=70 deg takes place for the eutectic composition. Tendency of Te-In alloys to vitrification is explained by the character to interatomic interactions in a liquid, the interactions promote the formation of molecular clusters in it in cooling, that leads to fast increase of viscosity and to increase of T g amorphization temperature

  7. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  8. Mg-Ca Alloys Produced by Reduction of CaO: Understanding of ECO-Mg Alloy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Shae K.

    2017-04-01

    There have been long debates about the environment conscious (ECO) Mg technology which utilizes CaO to produce Ca-containing Mg alloys. Two key process technologies of the ECO-Mg process are the chemical reduction of CaO by liquid Mg and the maintenance of melt cleanliness during the alloying of Ca. Thermodynamic calculations using FactSage software were performed to explain these two key issues. In addition, an experimental study was performed to compare the melt cleanliness of the Ca-containing Mg alloys produced by the conventional route with metallic Ca and the ECO-Mg route with CaO.

  9. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  10. Mercury (Hg) in meteorites: Variations in abundance, thermal release profile, mass-dependent and mass-independent isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Cloquet, Christophe; Marty, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the concentration, isotopic composition and thermal release profiles of Mercury (Hg) in a suite of meteorites, including both chondrites and achondrites. We find large variations in Hg concentration between different meteorites (ca. 10 ppb to 14,000 ppb), with the highest concentration orders of magnitude above the expected bulk solar system silicates value. From the presence of several different Hg carrier phases in thermal release profiles (150-650 °C), we argue that these variations are unlikely to be mainly due to terrestrial contamination. The Hg abundance of meteorites shows no correlation with petrographic type, or mass-dependent fractionation of Hg isotopes. Most carbonaceous chondrites show mass-independent enrichments in the odd-numbered isotopes 199Hg and 201Hg. We show that the enrichments are not nucleosynthetic, as we do not find corresponding nucleosynthetic deficits of 196Hg. Instead, they can partially be explained by Hg evaporation and redeposition during heating of asteroids from primordial radionuclides and late-stage impact heating. Non-carbonaceous chondrites, most achondrites and the Earth do not show these enrichments in vapor-phase Hg. All meteorites studied here have however isotopically light Hg (δ202Hg = ∼-7 to -1) relative to the Earth's average crustal values, which could suggest that the Earth has lost a significant fraction of its primordial Hg. However, the late accretion of carbonaceous chondritic material on the order of ∼2%, which has been suggested to account for the water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gas inventories of the Earth, can also contribute most or all of the Earth's current Hg budget. In this case, the isotopically heavy Hg of the Earth's crust would have to be the result of isotopic fractionation between surface and deep-Earth reservoirs.

  11. The influence of Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5 on the absorption and excretion of methylmercury (MeHg) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Takuya; Yasutake, Akira; Kumamoto, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Isao; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Ando, Yotaro

    2010-02-01

    Chlorella (Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5), previously identified as Chlorella vulgaris CK-5, is a unicellular green algae that has for many years been used as a nutritional supplement. In order to investigate the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) detoxification by Chlorella, we examined the absorption and excretion of MeHg in mice. Female C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into three groups of five, and were housed in metabolism cages. Mice were orally administered MeHg chloride at doses of 5 mg (4 mg Hg)/kg body weight with or without 100 mg/mouse of P. beyerinckii powder (BP), and were assigned to either a MeHg group or MeHg + BP group, accordingly. Twenty-four hr after oral administration, feces and urine were collected, and blood, liver, and kidney samples were obtained. Total mercury contents in the samples obtained were determined using an atomic absorption method. The amounts of Hg excreted in feces and urine of the MeHg + BP group were increased nearly 1.9 and 2.2-fold compared with those of the MeHg group. On the other hand, blood and organ Hg levels were not significantly different between two groups. These results suggest that the intake of BP may induce the excretion of Hg both in feces and urine, although it does not affect MeHg absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of BP on the tissue mercury accumulation may become evident in a long-term experiment.

  12. Chemical substitution of Cd ions by Hg in CdSe nanorods and nanodots: Spectroscopic and structural examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikau, Anatol; Artemyev, Mikhail; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor; Baranov, Alexandr V.; Cherevkov, Sergey A.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied cadmium-by-mercury chemical substitution in CdSe nanocrystals. ► Zinc blende CdSe quantum dots can be easily converted to isostructural Cd x Hg 1−x Se. ► Wurtzite CdSe QDs require longer time to convert to a zinc blende Cd x Hg 1−x Se. ► Wurtzite CdSe nanorods transform to nanoheterogeneous luminescent Cd x Hg 1−x Se rods. - Abstract: The chemical substitution of cadmium by mercury in colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanorods has been examined by absorption, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline structure of original CdSe QDs used for Cd/Hg substitution (zinc blende versus wurtzite) shows a strong impact on the optical and structural properties of resultant Cd x Hg 1−x Se nanocrystals. Substitution of Cd by Hg in isostructural zinc blende CdSe QDs converts them to ternary Cd x Hg 1−x Se zinc blende nanocrystals with significant NIR emission. Whereas, the wurtzite CdSe QDs transformed first to ternary nanocrystals with almost no emission followed by slow structural reorganization to a NIR-emitting zinc blende Cd x Hg 1−x Se QDs. CdSe nanorods with intrinsic wurtzite structure show unexpectedly intense NIR emission even at early Cd/Hg substitution stage with PL active zinc blende Cd x Hg 1−x Se regions.

  13. Distinct toxicological characteristics and mechanisms of Hg2+ and MeHg in Tetrahymena under low concentration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Bin; Qu, Guang-Bo; Cao, Meng-Xi; Liang, Yong; Hu, Li-Gang; Shi, Jian-Bo; Cai, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2017-12-01

    Inorganic divalent mercury complexes (Hg 2+ ) and monomethylmercury complexes (MeHg) are the main mercury species in aquatic systems and their toxicity to aquatic organisms is of great concern. Tetrahymena is a type of unicellular eukaryotic protozoa located at the bottom of food chain that plays a fundamental role in the biomagnification of mercury. In this work, the dynamic accumulation properties, toxicological characteristics and mechanisms of Hg 2+ and MeHg in five Tetrahymena species were evaluated in detail. The results showed that both Hg 2+ and MeHg were ingested and exhibited inhibitory effects on the proliferation or survival of Tetrahymena species. However, the ingestion rate of MeHg was significantly higher than that of Hg 2+ . The mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of MeHg and Hg 2+ were different, although both chemicals altered mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). MeHg disrupted the integrity of membranes while Hg 2+ had detrimental effects on Tetrahymena as a result of the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the five Tetrahymena species showed different capacities in accumulating Hg 2+ and MeHg, with T. corlissi exhibiting the highest accumulations. The study also found significant growth-promoting effect on T. corlissi under low concentration exposure (0.003 and 0.01μg Hg/mL (15 and 50nM)), suggesting different effect and mechanism that should be more closely examined when assessing the bioaccumulation and toxicity of mercury in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metal resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria and their potential to remove Hg in the presence of other metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Patricia; Cabral, Lucélia; Costa, Alexandre Pereira; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Gianello, Clesio; Bento, Fátima Menezes

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of the environment by heavy metals has been increasing in recent years due to industrial activities. Thus research involving microorganisms capable of surviving in multi-contaminated environments is extremely important. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the removal of mercury alone and in the presence of cadmium, nickel and lead by four mercury-resistant microorganisms; estimate the removal of Cd, Ni and Pb; understand the mechanisms involved (reduction, siderophores, biofilms, biosorption and bioaccumulation) in the metal resistance of the isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50D; and determine the capacity of Pseudomonas sp. B50D in removing Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb from an industrial effluent. It was shown that the four isolates evaluated were capable of removing from 62% to 95% of mercury from a culture medium with no addition of other metals. The isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50D showed the best performance in the removal of mercury when evaluated concomitantly with other metals. This isolate was capable of removing 75% of Hg in the presence of Cd and 91% in the presence of Ni and Pb. With respect to the other metals it removed 60%, 15% and 85% of Cd, Ni and Pb, respectively. In tests with effluent, the isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50D removed 85% of Hg but did not remove the other metals. This isolate presented reduction, biosorption, biofilm production and siderophore production as its metal resistance mechanisms. Pseudomonas sp. B50D was thus a candidate with potential for application in the bioremediation of effluents with complex metal contaminations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction of hydrogen with Pb83Li17 eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Taxak, Manju; Krishnamurthy, N.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid Metal blankets are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. Lead-lithium alloy appears to be promising for the use in self cooled breeding blanket, which has inherent simplicity with candidate material liquid lithium serving as both breeder and coolant. The crucial issues in case of lead lithium are the permeation loss of tritium (T) to the coolant and surroundings and the formation of new phase LiH/LiT, which eventually change the physical properties. Present investigation is based on the interaction process of hydrogen with the alloy and the relevant changes in physical properties. (author)

  16. 21 CFR 872.3070 - Dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3070 Dental amalgam, mercury... elemental mercury, supplied as a liquid in bulk, sachet, or predosed capsule form, and amalgam alloy...

  17. Compatibility of Anti-Wear Additives with Non-Ferrous Engine Bearing Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Investigate the compatibility of engine lubricant antiwear (AW) additives, specifically conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and newly developed ionic liquids (ILs), with selected non-ferrous engine bearing alloys, specifically aluminum and bronze alloys that are commonly used in connecting rod end journal bearings and bushings, to gain fundamental understanding to guide future development of engine lubricants

  18. On the resistivity of metal-tellurium alloys for low concentrations of tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, J.

    1982-04-01

    The resistivity and thermoelectric power of metal-tellurium liquid alloys have been discussed for the case of small tellurium concentration. Nearly free electron model of conduction band has been used. The rapid increase of resistivity in transition metal-tellurium alloys has been predicted. (author)

  19. The effect of major alloying elements on the size of the secondary dendrite arm spacing in the as-cast Al-Si-Cu alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Djurdjevič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of melt quality is of paramount importance for the control and prediction of actual casting characteristics. Among many phenomenons that occur during the solidification of castings, there are four that control structure and consequently mechanical properties: chemical composition, liquid metal treatment, cooling rate and temperature gradient. The cooling rate and alloy composition are among them most important. This paper investigates the effect of some major alloying elements (silicon and copper of Al-Si-Cu alloys on the size of the secondary dendrite arm spacing. It has been shown that both alloying elements have reasonable influence on the refinement of this solidification parameter.

  20. Densities of Pb-Sn alloys during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Data for the densities and expansion coefficients of solid and liquid alloys of the Pb-Sn system are consolidated in this paper. More importantly, the data are analyzed with the purpose of expressing either the density of the solid or of the liquid as a function of its composition and temperature. In particular, the densities of the solid and of the liquid during dendritic solidification are derived. Finally, the solutal and thermal coefficients of volume expansion for the liquid are given as functions of temperature and composition.

  1. Technical assessment of vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Harrod, D.L.; Ammon, R.L.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Svedberg, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A large data base has been compiled on vanadium-base alloys but the data base on any one alloy is quite limited. Great flexibility exists in the composition-microstructure-property relationship and this facilitates alloy optimization to meet diverse property requirements. Tensile properties and creep properties of existing alloys exceed likely requirements. Fatigue strength, including crack growth rate, is probably the most critical material property but no data exists for vanadium alloys. Swelling and irradiated ductility behavior look promising but require further evaluation. Vanadium alloy-liquid metal compatibility, particularly interstitial mass transfer, may be equally as critical as fatigue behavior; viability cannot be established with the existing data base. Fabricability must be given early consideration in alloys selection to guard against potentially serious problems in subsequent scale-up and production

  2. Safety considerations of lithium lead alloy as a fusion reactor breeding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Test results and conclusions are presented for lithium lead alloy interactions with various gas atmospheres, concrete and potential reactor coolants. The reactions are characterized to evaluate the potential of volatilizing and transporting radioactive species associated with the liquid breeder under postulated fusion reactor accident conditions. The safety concerns identified for lithium lead alloy reactions with the above materials are compared to those previously identified for a reference fusion breeder material, liquid lithium. Conclusions made from this comparison are also included

  3. Sufficient condition for generation of multiple solidification front in one-dimensional solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobula, E.; Kalicka, Z.

    1981-10-01

    In the paper we consider the one-dimensional solidification of binary alloys in the finite system. The authors present the sufficient condition for solidification in the liquid in front of the moving solid-liquid interface. The effect may produce a fluctuating concentration distributin in the solid. The convection in the liquid and supercooling required for homogeneous nucleation are omitted. A local-equilibrium approximation at the liquid-solid interface is supposed. (author)

  4. The liquid metastable miscibility gap in Cu-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curiotto, S.; Greco, R.; Pryds, Nini

    2007-01-01

    Some Cu-based alloys, like Cu–Co, Cu–Fe and Cu–Co–Fe, display a liquid metastable miscibility gap. When the melt is undercooled below a certain temperature depending on the alloy composition, they present a separation in two liquid phases, followed by coagulation before dendritic solidification....... In order to predict the phase equilibria and the mechanisms of microstructure formation, a determination of the metastable monotectics in the phase diagrams is essential. This paper focuses on the up-to-date findings on the Cu–Co, Cu–Fe and Cu–Co–Fe metastable miscibility gap in the liquid phase...

  5. Low activation ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  6. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  7. Advances in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagle, S.R.; Wood, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    As described above, new developments in the aerospace market are focusing on higher temperature alloys for jet engine components and higher strength/toughness alloys for airframe applications. Conventional alloys for engines have reached their maximum useful temperature of about 1000 F (540 C) because of oxidation resistance requirements. IMI 834 and Ti-1100 advanced alloys show some improvement, however, the major improvement appears to be in gamma titanium aluminides which could extend the maximum usage temperature to about 1500 F (815 C). This puts titanium alloys in a competitive position to replace nickel-base superalloys. Advanced airframe alloys such as Ti-6-22-22S, Beta C TM , Ti-15-333 and Ti-10-2-3 with higher strength than conventional Ti-6-4 are being utilized in significantly greater quantities, both in military and commercial applications. These alloys offer improved strength with little or no sacrifice in toughness and improved formability, in some cases. Advanced industrial alloys are being developed for improved corrosion resistance in more reducing and higher temperature environments such as those encountered in sour gas wells. Efforts are focused on small precious metal additions to optimize corrosion performance for specific applications at a modest increase in cost. As these applications develop, the usage of titanium alloys for industrial markets should steadily increase to approach that for aerospace applications. (orig.)

  8. Welding Metallurgy of Alloy HR-160

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, J.N.; Michael, J.R.; Newbury, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    The solidification behavior and resultant solidification cracking susceptibility of autogenous gas tungsten arc fusion welds in alloy HR-160 was investigated by Varestraint testing, differential thermal analysis, and various microstructural characterization techniques. The alloy exhibited a liquidus temperature of 1387 degC and initiated solidification by a primary L - γ reaction in which Ni, Si, and Ti segregated to the interdendritic liquid and Co segregated to the γ dendrite cores. Chromium exhibited no preference for segregation to the solid or liquid phase during solidification. Solidification terminated at ∼ 1162 degC by a eutectic-type L - [γ+ (Ni,Co) 16 (Ti,Cr) 6 Si 7 ] reaction. The (Ni,Co) 16 (Ti,Cr) 6 Si 7 phase is found to be analogous to the G phase which forms in the Ni-Ti-Si and Co-Ti-Si ternary systems, and similarities are found to exist between the solidification behavior of this commercial multicomponent alloy and the simple Ni-Si and Ni-Ti binary systems. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent of the [γ +(Ni,Co) l6 (Ti,Cr) 6 Si 7 ] eutectic-typr constituent with the Scheil equation using experimentally determined k values for Si and Ti from electron microprobe data. The alloy exhibited a very high susceptibility to solidification cracking in the Varestraint test. This is attributed to a large solidification temperature range of 225 degC and the presence of 2 to 5 vol% solute rich interdendritic liquid which preferentially wets the grain boundaries and interdendritic regions

  9. Immersion studies on candidate container alloys for the Tuff Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, J.A.; Durr, C.L.

    1991-05-01

    Cortest Columbus Technologies (CC Technologies) is investigating the long-term performance of container materials used for high-level radioactive waste packages. This information is being developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to aid in their assessment of the Department of Energy's application to construct a geologic repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the results of exposure studies performed on two copper-base and two Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in simulated Tuff Repository conditions. Testing was performed at 90 degrees C in three environments; simulated J-13 well water, and two environments that simulated the chemical effects resulting from boiling and irradiation of the groundwater. Creviced specimens and U-bends were exposed to liquid, to vapor above the condensed phase, and to alternate immersion. A rod specimen was used to monitor corrosion at the vapor-liquid interface. The specimens were evaluated by electrochemical, gravimetric, and metallographic techniques following approximately 2000 hours of exposure. Results of the exposure tests indicated that all four alloys exhibited acceptable general corrosion rates in simulated J-13 well water. These rates decreased with time. Incipient pitting was observed under deposits on Alloy 825 and pitting was observed on both Alloy CDA 102 and Alloy CDA 715 in the simulated J-13 well water. No SCC was observed in U-bend specimens of any of the alloys in simulated J-13 well water. 33 refs., 48 figs., 23 tabs

  10. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  11. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  12. Low temperature irradiation effects on iron boron based amorphous metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouard, A.

    1982-09-01

    Three Fe-B amorphous alloys (Fe 80 B 20 , Fe 27 Mo 2 B 20 and Fe 75 B 25 ) and the crystallized Fe 3 B alloy have been irradiated at the temperature of liquid hydrogen. Electron irradiation and irradiation by 10 B fission fragments induce point defects in amorphous alloys. These defects are characterized by an intrinsic resistivity and a formation volume. The threshold energy for the displacement of iron atoms has also been calculated. Irradiation by 235 U fission fragments induces some important structural modifications in the amorphous alloys [fr

  13. A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys: Part I: Statistical Calculation of Excess Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  14. Physical and chemical grounds of electrolytic fabrication of aluminium-strontium alloying composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    It was revealed via study of literature sources that usage of alloying composition of strontium (not of sodium) is more expedient in modification of silumin-type alloys. In this case modification effect is keeping during long holdings and in repeated meltings. Electrolytic decomposition of strontium chloride with usage of liquid aluminium cathode is the most simple and cheap method for fabrication of alloying composition. The operation scheme for production of Al-Sr alloy was proposed in this work on the base of thermodynamic analysis

  15. Tensile Strength of the Al-9%Si Alloy Modified with Na, F and Cl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the Al-9%Si alloy with the use of a complex modifier containing Na, F and Cl was investigated in the study. The modifier was composed of NaCl, Na3AlF6 and NaF compounds. The modifier and the liquid Al-Si alloy were kept in the crucible for 15 minutes. The modifier's effect relative to the weight of the processed alloy on its tensile strength was presented in graphic form. The results of the study indicate that the complex modifier altered the investigated properties of the eutectic Al-9%Si alloy.

  16. Liquid phase surface melting of AA8011 aluminum alloy by addition of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-composite powders synthesized by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohi, M. Heydarzadeh [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hojjatzadeh, S.M.H., E-mail: Hojatzadeh@yahoo.com [Department of Welding, Science and Research Branch, Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moosavifar, Sh. S.; Heshmati-Manesh, S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Aluminum matrix composite layers reinforced with alumina particles were fabricated. • Non milled powders caused porosity in the microstructures because of poor wettability. • The ball milling of powders was significantly improved the wettability of nano ceramic particles. • The micro hardness of the layers was approximately 3 times greater than that of the base metal. - Abstract: Poor wettability of particles is an obstacle in formation of sound composite layer via surface melting. Pre-coating of particles with metallic material by different techniques, such as ball milling may enhance the wettability of the particles with molten metal. In this study, composite surface layers containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were fabricated on the surface of AA8011 aluminum substrates by tungsten inert gas (TIG) surface melting using preplaced layers of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder mixtures in two different forms: (1) a mixture of 40 wt% Al and 60 wt% of 50 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders and (2) a mixture obtained by mechanical alloying of 40 wt% Al and 60 wt% of 60 μm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. Morphology evolution of powders during ball milling and the microstructure of the fabricated composite layers were studied through conventional characterization techniques, such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microhardness measurements were also performed across the alloyed zone. The results indicated that the layer fabricated by the second route showed a defect free structure with a more uniform distribution of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in comparison with the layer obtained by the first route. It was also noticed that the uniform dispersion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in the fabricated layer increased the hardness to 133 HV which was over 3 times of that of the base metal.

  17. Cryogenic system for liquid hydrogen polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, T.; Chiba, M.; Hirabayashi, H.; Ishii, T.; Kato, S.

    1979-01-01

    A cryogenic system has been constructed for a liquid hydrogen polarimeter in order to measure polarization of high energy proton at the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron of Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. The system principally consists of a cryogenerator with a cryogenic transfer line, a liquid hydrogen cryostat, and a 14.5 l target container of thin aluminum alloy where liquid hydrogen is served for the experiment. The refrigeration capacity is about 54 W at 20.4 K without a target container. (author)

  18. Short-range disorder in pseudobinary ionic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Cicco, Andrea; Principi, Emiliano; Filipponi, Adriano

    2002-01-01

    The short-range distribution functions of the RbBr 1-x I x solid and molten ionic alloys have been accurately measured using multiple-edge refinement of the K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra (EXAFS). The local structure is characterized by two well-defined first-neighbor peaks associated with the Rb-I and Rb-Br distributions, both for solid and liquid alloys. The distribution of distances in solid alloys gives experimental evidence to available theoretical models. In the liquid, the two distance distributions are found to be practically independent of the concentration x. The effect of different effective charge screening of the ions is observed in the molten systems for limiting concentrations

  19. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  20. Liquid metal actuation by electrical control of interfacial tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Dickey, Michael D., E-mail: michael-dickey@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    By combining metallic electrical conductivity with low viscosity, liquid metals and liquid metal alloys offer new and exciting opportunities to serve as reconfigurable components of electronic, microfluidic, and electromagnetic devices. Here, we review the physics and applications of techniques that utilize voltage to manipulate the interfacial tension of liquid metals; such techniques include electrocapillarity, continuous electrowetting, electrowetting-on-dielectric, and electrochemistry. These techniques lower the interfacial tension between liquid metals and a surrounding electrolyte by driving charged species (or in the case of electrochemistry, chemical species) to the interface. The techniques are useful for manipulating and actuating liquid metals at sub-mm length scales where interfacial forces dominate. We focus on metals and alloys that are liquid near or below room temperature (mercury, gallium, and gallium-based alloys). The review includes discussion of mercury—despite its toxicity—because it has been utilized in numerous applications and it offers a way of introducing several phenomena without the complications associated with the oxide layer that forms on gallium and its alloys. The review focuses on the advantages, applications, opportunities, challenges, and limitations of utilizing voltage to control interfacial tension as a method to manipulate liquid metals.

  1. Role of alloying additions on the properties of Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Rupa, E-mail: rupadasgupta@ampri.res.in; Jain, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Pravir; Hussain, Shahadat; Pandey, Abhishek

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • Cu based SMAs with high transition temperature could be made using LM route. • The properties depend on alloying composition. • Property characterisation establishes feasibility of making SMAs. - Abstract: The effect of alloying seven different elements [Zn, Si, Fe, Ni, Mg, Cr and Ti] on the microstructure, hardness, phase precipitation and transformation temperature in a Cu–12.5Al–5Mn alloy with a view to possible improvements as a result of these additions is the focus of the reported study. The base alloy has been chosen keeping in mind its ability to exhibit shape memory properties and improved ductility over other Cu-based SMAs. The objective was to ascertain changes or improvements attained due to the individual tertiary additions. The samples were prepared through liquid metallurgy route using pure copper, aluminum, manganese and the respective quaternary alloying elements in right quantities to weigh 1000 g of the alloy in total and were melted together. Samples from the cast alloys were subject to homogenisation treatment at 200 °C for 2 h in a muffle furnace and furnace cooled. Samples from the homogenised alloys were heated and held for 2 h at 920 °C followed by ice quenching to obtain the desired martensitic structure for shape memory behaviour. The alloys in the cast, homogenised and quenched conditions were metallographically polished to observe the martensitic phase formation mainly in quenched samples which is a pre requisite for exhibiting shape memory properties in these alloys. X-ray Diffraction studies were carried out on the cast and quenched samples using Cu Kα target; and the phases identified indicate martensitic phase precipitation; however in some cases the precipitation is incomplete. Differential Scanning Calorimetric [DSC] studies were carried out on quenched samples from room temperature to 600 °C maintaining a constant rate of 10 °C/min. Results indicate clear transformation peaks in all the samples which

  2. Role of alloying additions on the properties of Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Rupa; Jain, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Pravir; Hussain, Shahadat; Pandey, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu based SMAs with high transition temperature could be made using LM route. • The properties depend on alloying composition. • Property characterisation establishes feasibility of making SMAs. - Abstract: The effect of alloying seven different elements [Zn, Si, Fe, Ni, Mg, Cr and Ti] on the microstructure, hardness, phase precipitation and transformation temperature in a Cu–12.5Al–5Mn alloy with a view to possible improvements as a result of these additions is the focus of the reported study. The base alloy has been chosen keeping in mind its ability to exhibit shape memory properties and improved ductility over other Cu-based SMAs. The objective was to ascertain changes or improvements attained due to the individual tertiary additions. The samples were prepared through liquid metallurgy route using pure copper, aluminum, manganese and the respective quaternary alloying elements in right quantities to weigh 1000 g of the alloy in total and were melted together. Samples from the cast alloys were subject to homogenisation treatment at 200 °C for 2 h in a muffle furnace and furnace cooled. Samples from the homogenised alloys were heated and held for 2 h at 920 °C followed by ice quenching to obtain the desired martensitic structure for shape memory behaviour. The alloys in the cast, homogenised and quenched conditions were metallographically polished to observe the martensitic phase formation mainly in quenched samples which is a pre requisite for exhibiting shape memory properties in these alloys. X-ray Diffraction studies were carried out on the cast and quenched samples using Cu Kα target; and the phases identified indicate martensitic phase precipitation; however in some cases the precipitation is incomplete. Differential Scanning Calorimetric [DSC] studies were carried out on quenched samples from room temperature to 600 °C maintaining a constant rate of 10 °C/min. Results indicate clear transformation peaks in all the samples which

  3. Non-equilibrium synthesis of alloys using lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, J.; Choi, J.; Ribaudo, C.; Wang, A.; Kar, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses microstructure and properties of alloys, produced by laser alloying and cladding technique, for various applications. These include Fe-Cr-W-C alloys for wear resistance, Ni-Cr-Al-Hf alloys for high temperature oxidation resistance and Mg-Al alloys for corrosion resistance. Also a mathematical model will be presented for the prediction of the composition of the metastable phases produced by laser synthesis. Microstructure was characterized using various electron optical techniques such as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). Wear properties were characterized by a line contact Block on Cylinder method. High temperature oxidation properties were characterized by using Perkin-Elmer Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) where dynamic weight change were monitored at 1,200 C. Corrosion properties were evaluated by a potentio-dynamic method using a computer controlled Potentiostat manufactured by EG ampersand G. A non-equilibrium M 6 C type carbide was found to be responsible for the improved wear resistance. Increased solid-solubility of Hf was found to be a major factor in improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of the Ni-Cr-Al-Hf alloys. Micro-Crystalline phases were observed in Mg-Al alloys. The rapid solidification was modeled using heat transfer in the liquid pool and the solid substrate and mass transfer in the liquid pool. Non-equilibrium partition coefficient was introduced through the boundary condition at the liquid-solid interface. A good correlation was observed between the prediction and the experimental data. 54 refs

  4. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    the breakdown of trading fees between liquidity demanders and suppliers matters. Posted quotes adjust after the change in fee composition, but the transaction costs for liquidity demanders remain unaffected once fees are taken into account. However, as posted bid-ask spreads decline, traders (particularly......Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why...... retail) use aggressive orders more frequently, and adverse selection costs decrease....

  5. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  6. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  7. Thermofluency in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco M, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented about the theoretical and experimental results obtained at present in thermofluency under radiation in zirconium alloys. The phenomenon of thermofluency is presented in a general form, underlining the thermofluency at high temperature because this phenomenon is similar to the thermofluency under radiation, which ocurrs in zirconium alloys into the operating reactor. (author)

  8. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  9. Visualization of direct contact heat transfer between water and molten alloy by neutron radiography. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Izumi; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1997-01-01

    Design of an innovative Steam Generator (SG) for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) using liquid-liquid direct contact heat transfer has been developing. In this concept, the SG shell is filled with a molten alloy, which is heated by primary sodium. Water is fed into the high-temperature, molten alloy, and evaporates by direct contact heating. In order to obtain the fundamental information needed to discuss the heat transfer mechanisms of direct contact between the water and molten alloy, this phenomenon was observed by neutron radiography. JRR-3M thermal neutron radiography at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. This paper deals with the results of visualization of direct contact heat exchange in the molten alloy. (author)

  10. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi

    2014-01-01

    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)

  11. Design of Refractory High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M. C.; Carney, C. S.; Doğan, Ö. N.; Jablonksi, P. D.; Hawk, J. A.; Alman, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    This report presents a design methodology for refractory high-entropy alloys with a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure using select empirical parameters (i.e., enthalpy of mixing, atomic size difference, Ω-parameter, and electronegativity difference) and CALPHAD approach. Sixteen alloys in equimolar compositions ranging from quinary to ennead systems were designed with experimental verification studies performed on two alloys using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Two bcc phases were identified in the as-cast HfMoNbTaTiVZr, whereas multiple phases formed in the as-cast HfMoNbTaTiVWZr. Observed elemental segregation in the alloys qualitatively agrees with CALPHAD prediction. Comparisons of the thermodynamic mixing properties for liquid and bcc phases using the Miedema model and CALPHAD are presented. This study demonstrates that CALPHAD is more effective in predicting HEA formation than empirical parameters, and new single bcc HEAs are suggested: HfMoNbTiZr, HfMoTaTiZr, NbTaTiVZr, HfMoNbTaTiZr, HfMoTaTiVZr, and MoNbTaTiVZr.

  12. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  13. Neutron-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoi, K.I.; Arabei, L.B.; Gryaznov, G.M.; Levi, L.I.; Lunin, G.L.; Kozhukhov, V.M.; Markov, J.M.; Fedotov, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the production of an alloy consiting of 1 to 20% In, 0.5 to 15% Sm, and from 3 to 18% Hf, the balance being Ni. Such alloys show a good absorption capacity for thermal and intermediate neutrons, good neutron capture efficiency, and good corrosion resistance, and find application in nuclear reactor automatic control and safety systems. The Hf provides for the maintenance of a reasonably high order of neutron capture efficiency throughout the lifetime of a reactor. The alloys are formed in a vacuum furnace operating with an inert gas atmosphere at 280 to 300 mm.Hg. They have a corrosion resistance from 3 to 3.5 times that of the Ag-based alloys commonly employed, and a neutron capture efficiency about twice that of the Ag alloys. Castability and structural strength are good. (U.K.)

  14. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  15. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  16. Physical metallurgy of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Researches in electric, magnetic, thermophysical properties of titanium alloys in the wide range of temperatures (from helium upto elevated one), as well as stability of phases in alloys of different types are generalized. Fundamental description of physical properties of binary model alloys is given. Acoustic emission, shape memory and Bauschinger effects, pseudoelasticity, aging and other aspects of physical metallurgy of titanium alloys are considered

  17. Continuous monitoring of the composition of liquid Pb-17Li eutectic using electrical resistivity methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubberstey, P.; Sample, T.; Barker, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of liquid Pb-17Li alloys has been continously determined, using an electrical resistivity monitor, during their interaction with nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and water vapour. The operation of the monitor depends on the fact that the resistivity of liquid Pb-Li alloys is dependent on their composition. Accurate resistivity-composition isotherms have been derived from resistivity-temperature data for 15 Pb-Li alloys (0 Li -8 Ω m (mol% Li) -1 at 725 K) is such that a change of 0.05 mol% Li in the alloy composition can be measured. The addition of oxygen and water vapour resulted in a decrease in the resistivity of the liquid alloy. Neither nitrogen nor hydrogen had any effect. The observed changes were shown to be consistent with Li 2 O formation. (orig.)

  18. Formation of the minor phase shell on the surface of hypermonotectic alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.Z.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure evolution in an atomized hypermonotectic alloy drop is calculated. The results indicate that the formation of the minor phase shell on the surface of the powder is due to the heterogeneous nucleation of the minor phase droplets on the atomized drop surface and the resultant diffusional transfer of solute during the liquid-liquid phase transformation

  19. Coupling pervaporation to AAS for inorganic and organic mercury determination. A new approach to speciation of Hg in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rivas, C; Muñoz-Olivas, R; Camara, C

    2001-12-01

    The design and development of a new approach for Hg speciation in environmental samples is described in detail. This method, consisting of the coupling of pervaporation and atomic absorption spectrometry, is based on a membrane phenomenon that combines the evaporation of volatile analytes and their diffusion through a polymeric membrane. It is proposed here as an alternative to gas chromatography for speciation of inorganic and organic Hg compounds, as the latter compounds are volatile and can be separated by applying the principles mentioned above. The interest of this method lies in its easy handling, low cost, and rapidity for the analysis of liquid and solid samples. This method has been applied to Hg speciation in a compost sample provided by a waste water treatment plant.

  20. Study of the thermal and kinetic parameters during directional solidification of zinc-aluminum eutectic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueijman, Sergio Fabian; Ares, Alicia Esther; Schvezov, Carlos Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Much work has been done recently on investigating zinc-based binary alloys, with different aluminum content, and modified or not with small amounts of other alloying elements. Some of these alloys have interesting properties, such as, the ZA alloys that have properties similar to some bronzes that are used in applications that require pieces with enough resistance to mechanical stresses. The longitudinal thermal gradients, the minimal gradients, the velocities of the liquid interphases, the velocities of the solid interphases and the accelerations of both interphases as a function of time and position were determined for each diluted alloy of the eutectic concentration considered (Zn-5%Al, % in weight), solidified horizontally with caloric extraction from both ends of the test pieces. The values obtained from the horizontal solidification with two directions of predominant caloric extraction are compared to previous values obtained for the same vertically solidified alloy system with a predominantly caloric extraction direction

  1. Low temperature irradiation effects on iron-boron based amorphous metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouard, Alain.

    1983-01-01

    Three iron-boron amorphous alloys and the crystalline Fe 3 B alloy have been irradiated at liquid hydrogen temperature. 2,4 MeV electron irradiation induces the creation of point defects in the amorphous alloys as well as in the crystalline Fe 3 B alloy. These point defects can be assimilated to iron ''Frenkel pairs''. They have been characterized by determining their intrinsic electrical resistivity and their formation volume. The displacement threshold energy of iron atoms has also been determined. 10 B fission fragments induce, in these amorphous alloys, displacement cascades which lead to stable vacancy rich zones. This irradiation also leads to a structural disorder in relation with the presence of defects. 235 U fission fragments irradiation modifies drastically the structure of the amorphous alloys. The results have been interpreted on the basis of the coexistence of two opposite processes which induce local disorder and crystallisation respectively [fr

  2. Development of vanadium base alloys for fusion first-wall/blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Matsui, H.; Votinov, S.; VanWitzenburg, W.

    1994-01-01

    Vanadium alloys have been identified as a leading candidate material for fusion first-wall/blanket applications. Certain vanadium alloys exhibit favorable safety and environmental characteristics, good fabricability, high temperature and heat load capability, good compatibility with liquid metals and resistance to irradiation damage effects. The current focus is on vanadium alloys with (3-5)% Cr and (3-5)% Ti with a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy as the leading candidate. Preliminary results indicate that the crack-growth rates of certain alloys are not highly sensitive to irradiation. Results from the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) which simulates fusion relevant helium/dpa ratios are similar to results from neutron irradiated material. This paper presents an overview of the recent results on the development of vanadium alloys for fusion first wall/blanket applications

  3. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de......-)centralization. We provide an analytical solution for the 2-branch model and show that a liquidity center can be interpreted as an option on immediate liquidity. Therefore, its value can be interpreted as the price of information, i.e., the price of knowing the exact demand. Furthermore, we derive the threshold...... above which it is advantageous to open a liquidity center and show that it is a function of the volatility and the characteristic of the bank network. Finally, we discuss the n-branch model for real-world banking groups (10-60 branches) and show that it can be solved with high granularity (100 scenarios...

  4. Self-healing liquid/solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Paul J.; Chung, Brice H.V.; Phadke, Satyajit R.; Ning, Xiaohui; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2018-02-27

    A battery system that exchanges energy with an external device is provided. The battery system includes a positive electrode having a first metal or alloy, a negative electrode having a second metal or alloy, and an electrolyte including a salt of the second metal or alloy. The positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the electrolyte are in a liquid phase at an operating temperature during at least one portion of operation. The positive electrode is entirely in a liquid phase in one charged state and includes a solid phase in another charged state. The solid phase of the positive electrode includes a solid intermetallic formed by the first and the second metals or alloys. Methods of storing electrical energy from an external circuit using such a battery system are also provided.

  5. The effect of α-alumina particles on the properties of EN AC-44200 Al alloy based composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    J.W. Kaczmar; A. Kurzawa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The unreinforced EN AC-44200 aluminium alloy is characterized by the medium mechanical properties and the purpose of performed investigations was improvement of mechanical properties of this alloy by introducing stable ceramic α-alumina particles.Design/methodology/approach: The composite materials were manufactured by squeeze casting of porous ceramic preforms characterized by the open porosities of 90%, 80%, 70% and 60% with the liquid EN AC- 44200 aluminum alloy. The composite mat...

  6. Effect of two-stage sintering process on microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS tungsten heavy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Seung I. [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science 1-1, Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Ryu, Ho J. [DUPIC, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shhong@kaist.ac.kr

    2007-06-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) tungsten heavy alloys have been considered as promising candidates for advanced kinetic energy penetrator due to their characteristic fracture mode compared to conventional tungsten heavy alloy. In order to obtain high relative density, the ODS tungsten heavy alloy needs to be sintered at higher temperature for longer time, however, induces growth of tungsten grains. Therefore, it is very difficult to obtain controlled microstructure of ODS tungsten heavy alloy having fine tungsten grains with full densification. In this study, two-stage sintering process, consisted of primary solid-state sintering and followed by secondary liquid phase sintering, was introduced for ODS tungsten heavy alloys. The mechanically alloyed 94W-4.56Ni-1.14Fe-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders are solid-state sintered at 1300-1450 deg. C for 1 h in hydrogen atmosphere, and followed by liquid phase sintering temperature at 1465-1485 deg. C for 0-60 min. The microstructure of ODS tungsten heavy alloys showed high relative density above 97%, with contiguous tungsten grains after primary solid-state sintering. The microstructure of solid-state sintered ODS tungsten heavy alloy was changed into spherical tungsten grains embedded in W-Ni-Fe matrix during secondary liquid phase sintering. The two-stage sintered ODS tungsten heavy alloy from mechanically alloyed powders showed finer microstructure and higher mechanical properties than conventional liquid phase sintered alloy. The mechanical properties of ODS tungsten heavy alloys are dependent on the microstructural parameters such as tungsten grain size, matrix volume fraction and tungsten/tungsten contiguity, which can be controlled through the two-stage sintering process.

  7. The chemistry of the liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A study of liquid alkali metals. It encourages comparison with molecular solvents in chapter covering the nature and reactivity of dissolved species, solvation, solubility and electrical conductivity of solutions. It demonstrates lab techniques unique to liquid alkali metals. It discusses large-scale applications from storage batteries to sodium-cooled reactors and future fusion reactors, and associated technological problems. Contents: Some Basic Physical and Chemical Properties; Manipulation of the Liquids; The Chemistry of Purification Methods; Species Formed by Dissolved Elements; Solubilities and Analytical Methods; Alkali Metal Mixtures; Solvation in Liquid Metal; Reactions Between Liquid Alkali Metals and Water; Reactions of Nitrogen with Lithium and the Group II Metals in Liquid Sodium; The Formation, Dissociation and Stability of Heteronuclear Polyatomic Anions; Reactions of the Liquid Alkali Metals and Their Alloys with Simple Alipatic Hydrocarbons; Reactions of the Liquid Alkali Metals with Some Halogen Compounds; Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon Meters; Surface Chemistry and Wetting; Corrosion of Transition Metals by the Liquid Alkali Metals; Modern Applications of the Liquid Alkali Metals

  8. Fabrication and characterization of Ag-Cd/CdO materials produced by incorporation of CdO particles to liquid Ag-Cd alloys; Fabricacion y caracterizacion de materiales Ag-Cd/CdO producidos mediante incorporacion de particulas de CdO en aleaciones Ag-Cd liquidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Equihua-Guillen, F.; Ruiz-Mondragon, J.; Servin-Castaneda, R.; Orozco-Gonzalez, P.; Zaldivar-Cadena, A.; Martinez-Villafane, F.; Villarreal-Garza, E. J.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work it has been investigated the kinetic behavior of internal oxidation processes of strips of Ag-Cd/CdO materials fabricated by adding CdO particles (size of 5 and 20 {mu}m) in liquid Ag-Cd alloys. It has been established the metallurgical mechanism that controls the formation of the thickness covered with CdO particles produced by internal oxidation of the Ag-Cd/CdO material. It has been developed, successfully, a metallographic preparation technique for characterizing the morphology, size and distribution of CdO particles produced by heat treatment of internal oxidation on the surface of each sample based on the distance from the original surface to the boundary of dispersed CdO particles. The material strips were sequentially roughed on its surface and the roughing thickness was measured in the cross section of each new surface to determine the number of particles per area and average particle size. (Author)

  9. Tracing historical trends of Hg in the Mississippi River using Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions in a lake sediment core, Lake Whittington, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Pribil, Michael J.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of mercury (Hg) in a sediment core collected from Lake Whittington, an oxbow lake on the Lower Mississippi River, were used to evaluate historical sources of Hg in the Mississippi River basin. Sediment Hg concentrations in the Lake Whittington core have a large 10-15 y peak centered on the 1960s, with a maximum enrichment factor relative to Hg in the core of 4.8 in 1966. The Hg concentration profile indicates a different Hg source history than seen in most historical reconstructions of Hg loading. The timing of the peak is consistent with large releases of Hg from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), primarily in the late 1950s and 1960s. Mercury was used in a lithiumisotope separation process by ORNL and an estimated 128Mg (megagrams) of Hgwas discharged to a local stream that flows into the Tennessee River and, eventually, the Mississippi River. Mass balance analyses of Hg concentrations and isotopic compositions in the Lake Whittington core fit a binary mixing model with a Hg-rich upstream source contributing about 70% of the Hg to Lake Whittington at the height of the Hg peak in 1966. This upstream Hg source is isotopically similar to Hg isotope compositions of stream sediment collected downstream near ORNL. It is estimated that about one-half of the Hg released from the ORNL potentially reached the LowerMississippi River basin in the 1960s, suggesting considerable downstream transport of Hg. It is also possible that upstream urban and industrial sources contributed some proportion of Hg to Lake Whittington in the 1960s and 1970s.

  10. Some Issues in Liquid Metals Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Caturla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ten articles [1–10] included in this Special Issue on “Liquid Metals” do not intend to comprehensively cover this extensive field, but, rather, to highlight recent discoveries that have greatly broadened the scope of technological applications of these materials. Improvements in understanding the physics of liquid metals are, to a large extent, due to the powerful theoretical tools in the hands of scientists, either semi-empirical [1,5,6] or ab initio (molecular dynamics, see [7]. Surface tension and wetting at metal/ceramic interfaces is an everlasting field of fundamental research with important technological implications. The review of [2] is broad enough, as the work carried out at Grenoble covers almost all interesting matters in the field. Some issues of interest in geophysics and astrophysics are discussed in [3]. The recently discovered liquid–liquid transition in several metals is dealt with in [4]. The fifth contribution [5] discusses the role of icosahedral superclusters in crystallization. In [6], thermodynamic calculations are carried out to identify the regions of the ternary phase diagram of Al-Cu-Y, where the formation of amorphous alloys is most probable. Experimental data and ab initio calculations are presented in [7] to show that an optimal microstructure is obtained if Mg is added to the Al-Si melt before than the modifier AlP alloy. Shock-induced melting of metals by means of laser driven compression is discussed in [8]. With respect to recent discoveries, one of the most outstanding developments is that of gallium alloys that are liquid at room temperature [9], and that, due to the oxide layer that readily cover their surface, maintain some “stiffness”. This has opened the possibility of 3D printing with liquid metals. The last article in this Special Issue [10] describes nano-liquid metals, a suspension of liquid metal and its alloy containing nanometer-sized particles. A room-temperature nano-liquid metal

  11. First principles study of (Cd, Hg, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Se) modified Pt(111), Pt(100) and Pt(211) electrodes as CO oxidation catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    . The coverage dependence as a function of potential for ten different adatom species (Cd, Hg, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Se) on bare and CO saturated Pt(111), Pt(100) and Pt(211) surfaces has been established by means of Density Functional Theory calculations. Most of the adatoms are very stable under standard......, given by the OH formation potentials from water, is dependent on the oxophilicity of the adatoms, and is found to scale almost inversely with the adatom stability. In electrolyte solutions saturated with CO, the stability reduces to roughly half of that on bare Pt surfaces. Irrespective of the CO...

  12. Spatial heterogeneity in liquid–liquid phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yun-Rui; Li Tao; Wu Wei-Kang; Li Jie; Zhou Xu-Yan; Liu Si-Da; Li Hui

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the liquid–liquid phase transition (LLPT) and the spatial heterogeneity in Al–Pb monotectic alloys. The results reveal that homogeneous liquid Al–Pb alloy undergoes an LLPT, separating into Al-rich and Pb-rich domains, which is quite different from the isocompositional liquid water with a transition between low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL). With spatial heterogeneity becoming large, LLPT takes place correspondingly. The relationship between the cooling rate, relaxation temperature and percentage of Al and the spatial heterogeneity is also reported. This study may throw light on the relationship between the structure heterogeneity and LLPT, which provides novel strategies to control the microstructures in the fabrication of the material with high performance. (paper)

  13. Effect of diluted alloying elements on mechanical properties of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Iron and its alloys have extensive applications. The effect of solute additions on mechanical properties of iron was investigated to check the efficiency of solute atoms on strength and surface e life. Additions in the range of 0.1 wt.% and 0.3 wt.% of alloying elements of Cu,Ni and Si were used. Samples of grains size ranged from 6-40 m which have been prepared by annealing followed by furnace cooling. The recrystallization temperature increases with alloying addition (475 degree C for Fe-0.3 wt. % C alloy compared to 375 degree C for pure iron). Si and Cu additions inhibit grain growth of iron whereas Ni addition enhances it.Addition of Si or Ni to iron induced softening below room temperature whereas addition of Cu caused hardening. The work hardening parameters decreased due to alloying additions. The strength coefficient K was 290 M N/m2 for Fe-03 wt % Ni compared to 340 M N/m2 for pure iron. The work hardening exponent n is 0.12 for fe-0.3 wt. Cu alloy compared to 0.17 for pure iron. All the investigated alloys fulfilled the Hall-Petch relation at liquid Nitrogen and at room temperature. Alloying addition which caused softening addition which caused hardening increased the Half-Petch parameters. Ni addition favors ductility of iron whereas Cu addition reduces it. Alloying additions generally lead to brittle fracture and decrease the crack resistance of iron. 9 tabs., 55 figs., 103 refs

  14. Technetium and technetium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijdo, W.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature survey on technetium and technetium alloys. The literature has been searched through 1993. The survey was focused on technetium and (binary cubic) technetium alloys, but other important information on technetium has not been omitted from this survey. This report has been written with the aim to collect more information about phase systems which could be of importance in the transmutation process by neutrons of technetium. With the information presented in this report, it should be possible to select a suitable technetium alloy for further investigation regarding to the transmutation process. (orig.)

  15. Submersion Quenching of Undercooled Liquid Metals in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has a long history of providing materials research and thermophysical property data. The laboratory has recently added a new capability, a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals and alloys. This is the first submersion quench system inside an electrostatic levitator. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and silicon-cobalt alloys. This rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development, including studies of metastable phases and transient microstructures. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  16. The effects of microstructure on crack initiation in liquid-metal environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement under tensile test conditions is identified by the existence of a characteristic ductility trough. In this study, the effect of molten gallium on the behaviour of two brass alloys with different microstructures...

  17. Elaboration and characterisation of Pd-Cr alloys for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleymane, B.; Fouda-Onana, F.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    Palladium (Pd) alloys have been considered as alternative catalyst cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, particularly in liquid fuel cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ORR on various Pd-Cr alloys. Pd-Cr alloys were deposited on glassy carbon support and the electrocatalytic parameters for the ORR were determined in acid medium. The effect of the Pd-Cr alloy deposition parameters on its composition and electrocatalytic behaviour were determined. The study showed that there is a relationship between the composition of the alloy and the power of the Pd and Cr cathode. The parameters of the ORR were correlated to the alloy chemical and physical properties. EDS and XPS analysis revealed a segregation of Cr in the alloy.The variation of the work function (W) of the alloy with the alloy composition has shown a minimum value of W of 0.287 for a composition of the alloy of 70 per cent of Pd and 30 per cent of Cr. The electrochemically active surface area and the exchange current density of the ORR indicated that the mechanism of the ORR on Pd-Cr is similar to that on platinum. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Positrons in amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Pierre.

    1981-07-01

    Positron annihilation techniques give interesting informations about ''empty spaces'' in amorphous alloys. The results of an extensive research work on the properties of either pre-existing or irradiation induced ''empty spaces'' in four amorphous alloys are presented. The pre-existing empty spaces appear to be small vacancy-like defects. The irradiation induced defects are ''close pairs'' with widely distributed configurations. There is a strong interaction between vacancy like and interstitial like components. A model is proposed, which explains the radiation resistance mechanism of the amorphous alloys. An extensive joint research work to study four amorphous alloys, Fe 80 B 20 ,Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 , Cu 50 Ti 50 , Pd 80 Si 20 , is summarized

  19. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  20. Measuring the Thermophysical and Structural Properties of Glass-Forming and Quasicrystal-Forming Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Bradshaw, Richard C.; Rogers, Jan R.; Gangopadhyay, Anup K.; Kelton, Ken F.

    2006-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of glass-forming and quasicrystal-forming alloys show many interesting features in the undercooled liquid range. Some of the features in the thermophysical property curves are expected to reflect changes in the structure and coordination of the liquid. These measurements require containerless processing such as electrostatic levitation to access the undercooled liquid regime. An overview of the state of the art in measuring the thermophysical properties and structure of undercooled liquid glass-forming and quasicrystal-forming alloys will be presented, along with the status of current measurements.

  1. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  2. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  3. Sedimentary mercury (Hg) in the marginal seas adjacent to Chinese high-Hg emissions: Source-to-sink, mass inventory, and accumulation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Lim, Dhongil; Jung, Dohyun; Kang, Jeongwon; Jung, Hoisoo; Woo, Hanjun; Jeong, Kapsik; Xu, Zhaokai

    2018-03-01

    We comprehensively investigated sedimentary Hg in Yellow and East China Seas (YECSs), which constitute potentially important depocenters for large anthropogenic Hg emissions from mainland China. A large dataset of Al-TOC-Hg concentrations led to an in-depth understanding of sedimentary Hg in the entire YECSs, including distribution and its determinants, source-to-sink, background levels, inventory in flux and budget, and accumulation history. Especially, the net atmospheric Hg flux to the sediments was estimated to be 1.3 × 10 -5  g/m 2 /yr, which corresponded reasonably well to that calculated using a box model. About 21.2 tons of atmospheric Hg (approximately 4% of the total anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emissions from China) were buried annually in the YECS basin. This result implies that most of atmospheric Hg from China is transferred to the surface of the Pacific (including the East/Japan Sea and South China Sea) by the westerlies and, consequently, can play a critical role in open-sea aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  5. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  6. Alloy development for irradiation performance: program strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Wiffen, F.W.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Reuther, T.C.; Gold, R.E.; Holmes, J.J.; Kummer, D.L.; Nolfi, F.V.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance Program is the development of structural materials for use in the first wall and blanket region of fusion reactors. The goal of the program is a material that will survive an exposure of 40 MWyr/m 2 at a temperature which will allow use of a liquid-H 2 O heat transport system. Although the ultimate aim of the program is development of materials for commercial reactors by the end of this century, activities are organized to provide materials data for the relatively low performance interim machines that will precede commercial reactors

  7. Mechanical properties of martensitic alloy AISI 422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Hu, W.L.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1992-09-01

    HT9 is a martensitic stainless steel that has been considered for structural applications in liquid metal reactors (LMRs) as well as in fusion reactors. AISI 422 is a commercially available martensitic stainless steel that closely resembles HT9, and was studied briefly under the auspices of the US LMR program. Previously unpublished tensile, fracture toughness and charpy impact data on AISI 422 were reexamined for potential insights into the consequences of the compositional differences between the two alloys, particularly with respect to current questions concerning the origin of the radiation-induced embrittlement observed in HT9. 8 refs, 8 figs

  8. Tungsten and tungsten alloys by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadjhamida, A.; German, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten has a historical link with powder metallurgy and there is continued progress in expanding the available compositions and processing options. This paper starts with an introduction to the history of tungsten powder metallurgy and use this as a basis for analyzing some of the current trends. The literature base in tungsten processing is expanding and includes new alloys, microstructures, and processing routes. A few examples will be emphasize here to produce a frame work for this program, including description of sintering mechanisms for tungsten, liquid phase sintering advances, hot consolidation fundamentals, and options for complex shaping using powder injection modeling. For this base, subsequent presentations will expand on these fundamental advances

  9. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  10. Electroplating technologies of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Kyu; Hwnag, Sung Sik; Seo, Yong Chil; Kim, Dong Jin; Seo, Moo Hong

    2001-12-01

    In localization of electrosleeving technique, there are some problems like the following articles. Firstly, Patents published by OHT have claimed Ni-P, Ni-B alloy plating and Mo, Mn Cr, W, Co as a pinning agent. Secondly, alloy platings have many restrictions. There are some method to get alloy plating in spite of the various restrictions. If current density increase above limiting current density in one of the metals, both of the metals discharge at the same time. The addition of surface active agent(sufactant) in the plating solution is one of the methods to get alloy plating. Alloy plating using pulse current easily controls chemical composition and structure of deposit. Ni-Fe alloy plating is known to exhibit anomalous type of plating behavior in which deposition of the less noble metal is favoured. Presence of hypophohphite ion can control the iron codeposition by changing the deposition mechanism. Hypophohphite suppresses the deposition of Fe and also promotes Ni. Composite plating will be considered to improve the strength at the high temperature. Addition of particle size of 10δ400μm makes residual stress compressive in plate layer and suppress the grain growth rate at the high temperature. Addition of particle makes suface roughness high and fracture stress low at high temperature. But, selection of the kinds of particle and control of additives amount overcome the problems above

  11. Sample preparation of metal alloys by electric discharge machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G. B., II; Gordon, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electric discharge machining was investigated as a noncontaminating method of comminuting alloys for subsequent chemical analysis. Particulate dispersions in water were produced from bulk alloys at a rate of about 5 mg/min by using a commercially available machining instrument. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by results obtained when acidified dispersions were substituted for true acid solutions in an established spectrochemical method. The analysis results were not significantly different for the two sample forms. Particle size measurements and preliminary results from other spectrochemical methods which require direct aspiration of liquid into flame or plasma sources are reported.

  12. Control of Surface Attack by Gallium Alloys in Electrical Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-28

    and atmospheric control but does not allow visual observation of the contact brushes. This machine is a small homopolar motor built from mild steel...collectors,gallium, homopolar devices,liquid metals,~- is. ABSTRACT ICNI.. .. w 41N"w -~dv.mp.d Wrllt by Itabata" * Electrical contact between a copp’er...32 5 Test rig with felt metal brushes 32 6 Homopolar test apparatus 33 7 Rewetting of alloy track 33 8 Alloy track after running with finger 34 brushes

  13. Cracking susceptibility of aluminum alloys during laser welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Abbaschian

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of laser parameters in welding aluminum alloys was studied in order to reduce hot cracking. The extension of cracks at the welding surface was used as a cracking susceptibility (CS index. It has been shown that the CS changes with changing welding velocity for binary Al-Cu alloys. In general, the CS index increased until a maximum velocity and then dropped to zero, generating a typical lambda-curve. This curve is due to two different mechanisms: 1 the refinement of porosities with increasing velocity and 2 the changes in the liquid fraction due to decreasing microsegregation with increasing velocities.

  14. Semi-solid rheocasting of grain refined aluminum alloy 7075

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available mm×6 mm. Fig.1 shows the whole casting including the runner and the biscuit. A batch of the 7075 alloy was melted in a 20 kg tilting furnace and degassed with argon. A sample was poured and cooled to analyze the starting chemical composition... of the liquid metal by optical emission spectroscopy (Thermo Quantris OES). Thermodynamic properties of the starting alloy were then calculated (Scheil solidification model) with an aluminum thermodynamic database (ProCast 2009.1) using the OES composition...

  15. Lead activity in Pb-Sb-Bi alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kholkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to the study of lead thermodynamic activity in the Pb-Sb-Bi alloys. The method for EMF measurements of the concentration cell: (–Pb|KCl-PbCl2¦¦KCl-PbCl2|Pb-(Sb-Bi(+ was used. The obtained concentration dependences of the galvanic cell EMF are described by linear equations. The lead activity in the ternary liquid-metal alloy demonstrates insignificant negative deviations from the behavior of ideal solutions.

  16. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: Long-term performance in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a 'shield' mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. The seal was perfect against a pressure of 150 mmHg in a continuous flow of 4.0 L/min for 275 days and against a pressure of 175 mmHg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 217 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against pressure mostly used clinically. The magnetic fluid seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  17. Microstructure and texture evolution in cryorolled Al 7075 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaganthan, R.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Schwebke, Bernd; Panigrahi, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the microstructure and texture evolution of cryorolled Al 7075 alloy using FE-SEM, TEM, and neutron diffraction, respectively. The solution treated bulk Al 7075 alloy is subjected to rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature to produce sheets with different thickness reductions such as 35%, 50%, 70%, and 90%, respectively. It is evident from the microstructural characterisations of cryorolled samples that with the increasing deformation strain induced in the materials, the grains are fragmented and produce high amount of dislocation density due the suppression of dynamic recovery. The texture analysis of the cryorolled Al 7075 alloy has shown that the ideal fibres observed in the starting solution treated alloy has been destroyed during rolling. The Goss/Brass orientation of the cryorolled Al alloy is shifting towards the Brass components with increasing deformation strain induced in the samples. The orientation distribution functions of the cryorolled Al 7075 alloy clearly indicate the progressive weakening of the texture components, during cryorolling, with increasing strain, therefore, fragmentation and reorientation of micron sized grains occurs easily for the formation of subgrains and ultrafine-grained microstructures as evident from EBSD and TEM micrographs.

  18. Design of multi materials combining crystalline and amorphous metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, A.; Ragani, J.; Liu, Y.; Gravier, S.; Suéry, M.; Blandin, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elaboration of multi materials associating metallic glasses and conventional crystalline alloys by co-deformation performed at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of the metallic glasses. ► Elaboration of filamentary metal matrix composites with a core in metallic glass by co extrusion. ► Sandwich structures produced by co-pressing. ► Detection of atomic diffusion from the glass to the crystalline alloys during the processes. ► Good interfaces between the metallic glasses and the crystalline alloys, as confirmed by mechanical characterisation. - Abstract: Multi materials, associating zirconium based bulk metallic glasses and crystalline metallic alloys like magnesium alloys or copper are elaborated by co-deformation processing performed in the supercooled liquid regions (SLR) of the bulk metallic glasses. Two processes are investigated: co-extrusion and co-pressing. In the first case, filamentary composites with various designs can be produced whereas in the second case sandwich structures are obtained. The experimental window (temperature, time) in which processing can be carried out is directly related to the crystallisation resistance of the glass which requires getting information about the crystallisation conditions in the selected metallic glasses. Thermoforming windows are identified for the studied BMGs by thermal analysis and compression tests in their SLR. The mechanical properties of the produced multi materials are investigated thanks to specifically developed mechanical devices and the interfaces between the amorphous and the crystalline alloys are characterised.

  19. Texture in low-alloyed uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariel, J.

    1982-08-01

    The dependence of the preferred orientation of cast and heat-treated polycrystalline adjusted uranium and uranium -0.1 w/o chromium alloys on the production process was studied. The importance of obtaining material free of preferred orientation is explained, and a survey of the regular methods to determine preferred orientation is given. Dilatometry, tensile testing and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the extent of the directionality of these alloys. Data processing showed that these methods are insufficient in a case of a material without any plastic forming, because of unreproducibility of results. Two parameters are defined from the results of Schlz's method diffraction test. These parameters are shown theoretically and experimentally (by extreme-case samples) to give the deviation from isotropy. Application of these parameters to the examined samples showes that cast material has preferred orientation, though it is not systematic. This preferred orientation was reduced by adequate heat treatments

  20. Optimal Liquidation under Stochastic Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Becherer, Dirk; Bilarev, Todor; Frentrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We solve explicitly a two-dimensional singular control problem of finite fuel type for infinite time horizon. The problem stems from the optimal liquidation of an asset position in a financial market with multiplicative and transient price impact. Liquidity is stochastic in that the volume effect process, which determines the inter-temporal resilience of the market in spirit of Predoiu, Shaikhet and Shreve (2011), is taken to be stochastic, being driven by own random noise. The optimal contro...

  1. WC-3015 alloy (high-temperature alloy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    WC-3015 Nb alloy containing 28 to 30 Hf, 1 to 2 Zr, 13 to 16 W, 0 to 4 Ta, 0 to 5 Ti, 0.07 to 0.33 C, less than or equal to 0.02 N, less than or equal to 0.03 O, less than or equal to 0.001 H was developed for use at high temperature in oxidizing environments. Its composition can be tailored to meet specific requirements. When WC-3015 is exposed to O at elevated temperature, Hf and Nb oxidized preferentially and HfO 2 dissolves in Nb 2 O 5 to form 6HfO-Nb 2 O 5 . This complex oxide has a tight cubic lattice which resists the diffusion of O into the substrate. During 24-h exposure to air at 2400 0 F, the alloy oxidizes to a depth of approximately 0.035 in. with a surface recession of 0 to 0.004 in. Oxidation resistance of WC-3015 welds and base material can be further enhanced greatly by applying silicide coatings. WC-3015 alloy can be machined by conventional and electrical-discharge methods. It can be hot worked readily by extrusion, forging or rolling. Cold working can be used at room or elevated temperature. It can be welded by the electron-beam or Tig processes. Physical constants, typical mechanical properties at 75 to 2400 0 F, and effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile and stress-rupture properties of the alloy are tabulated

  2. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  3. Control of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by hot trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Toshiharu; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Akihiro; Muroga, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was controlled by the method of hot trapping. V-Ti alloy and chromium were used as nitrogen gettering materials. Chromium is known to form ternary nitride with lithium. Gettering experiments were conducted at 823 K for 0.8-2.2 Ms. Under high nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium, above 10 -2 mass%, nitrogen gettering effect of chromium was found to be larger than that of V-10at.% Ti alloy. Nitrogen gettering by chromium at 823 K reached a limit at about 6.5x10 -3 mass% of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium. Instability of ternary nitride of chromium and lithium below this nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was considered to be the reason for this limit. The composition of the ternary nitride that was formed in this study was considered to be Li 6 Cr(III) 3 N 5 . In addition, immersion experiments of yttrium with V-10at.% Ti alloy were performed. It was found that nitriding of yttrium in liquid lithium is controlled by nitrogen gettering effect of V-10at.% Ti alloy

  4. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  5. Fundamental study on cavitation erosion in liquid metal. Effect of liquid parameter on cavitation erosion in liquid metals (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Kurachi, Hiroaki; Inoue, Fumitaka; Watashi, Katsumi; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Yada, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Cavitation erosion, which possibly occurs on the surfaces of fluid machineries and components contacting flowing liquid and causes sponge-like damage on the material surface, is important problem, since it may become the cause of performance deduction, life shortening, noise, vibration of mechanical components and moreover failure of machine. Research on cavitation erosion in liquid metal is very important to confirm the safety of fast breeder reactor using sodium coolant and to avoid serious damage of the target vessel of spallation neutron source containing liquid-mercury. But the research on cavitation erosion in liquid metal has been hardly performed because of its specially in comparison with that in water. In this study, a cavitation erosion test apparatus was developed to carry out the erosion tests in low-temperature liquid metals. Cavitation erosion tests were carried out in liquid lead-bismuth alloy and in deionized water. We discuss the effect of liquid parameters and temperature effects on the erosion rate. We reach to the following conclusions. The erosion rate was evaluated in terms of a relative temperature which was defind as the percentage between freezing and boiling points. At 14degC relative temperature, the erosion rate is 10 times in lead-bismuth alloy, and 2 to 5 times in sodium, compared with that in deionized water. At 14degC relative temperature, the erosion rate can be evaluated in terms of the following parameter. 1 / (1/ρ L /C L +1/ρ S C S )√ρ L . Where ρ is the material density and c is the velocity of sound, L and S denote liquid and solid. In the relative temperature between 14 and 30degC, the temperature dependence on the erosion rate is due to the increase in vapor pressure. (author)

  6. Mechanisms of liquid-metal embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of the embrittlement of metals and alloys during deformation in contact with liquid metals are discussed. With 20Kh13 steel in a Pb-Sn melt and polycrystalline Al in the presence of various mercury solutions a.s examples, considered are the three main processes - adsorption, corrosion (dissolution), formation of new phases which cause the disintegration of materials under the action of liquid-metallic media. Presented are data on plastic ductile and strength properties of the above materials in the presence of liquid-metallic media. A model is described that takes into account the effect of the medium upon the plastic deformation and the part the medium plays in liquid-metallic embrittlement

  7. Phase-field simulation of solidification in multicomponent alloys coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruijie; Jing Tao; Jie Wanqi; Liu Baicheng

    2006-01-01

    To simulate quantitatively the microstructural evolution in the solidification process of multicomponent alloys, we extend the phase-field model for binary alloys to multicomponent alloys with consideration of the solute interactions between different species. These interactions have a great influence not only on the phase equilibria but also on the solute diffusion behaviors. In the model, the interface region is assumed to be a mixture of solid and liquid with the same chemical potential, but with different compositions. The simulation presented is coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases, which can accurately predict the phase equilibria and the solute diffusion transportation in the whole system. The phase equilibria in the interface and other thermodynamic quantities are obtained using Thermo-Calc through the TQ interface. As an example, two-dimensional computations for the dendritic growth in Al-Cu-Mg ternary alloy are performed. The quantitative solute distributions and diffusion matrix are obtained in both solid and liquid phases

  8. Liquidity risk and contagion for liquid funds

    OpenAIRE

    Darolles , Serge; Dudek , Jeremy; Le Fol , Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Fund managers face liquidity problems but they have to distinguish the market liquidity risk implied by their assets and the funding liquidity risk. This latter is due to both the liquidity mismatch between assets and liabilities and the redemption risk due to the possible outflows from clients. The main contribution of this paper is the analysis of contagion looking at common market liquidity problems to detect funding liquidity problems. Using the CDS Bond Spread basis as a liquidity indica...

  9. Ice plugging of pipes using liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents a study on the ice plugging of pipe using liquid nitrogen, and is based on a literature review and on discussions with individuals who use the technique. Emphasis is placed on ferritic alloys, primarily carbon steels, in pipe sized up to 60 cm in diameter and on austenitic stainless steels in pipe sizes up to 30 cm in diameter. This technique is frequently used for leak testing in nuclear facilities

  10. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  12. Hidden Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...

  13. Gold catalyzed nickel disilicide formation: a new solid-liquid-solid phase growth mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, K N; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is the predominate growth mechanism for semiconductor nanowires (NWs). We report here a new solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism of a silicide phase in Si NWs using in situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The new SLS mechanism is analogous to the VLS one in relying on a liquid-mediating growth seed, but it is fundamentally different in terms of nucleation and mass transport. In SLS growth of Ni disilicide, the Ni atoms are supplied from remote Ni particles by interstitial diffusion through a Si NW to the pre-existing Au-Si liquid alloy drop at the tip of the NW. Upon supersaturation of both Ni and Si in Au, an octahedral nucleus of Ni disilicide (NiSi2) forms at the center of the Au liquid alloy, which thereafter sweeps through the Si NW and transforms Si into NiSi2. The dissolution of Si by the Au alloy liquid mediating layer proceeds with contact angle oscillation at the triple point where Si, oxide of Si, and the Au alloy meet, whereas NiSi2 is grown from the liquid mediating layer in an atomic stepwise manner. By using in situ quenching experiments, we are able to measure the solubility of Ni and Si in the Au-Ni-Si ternary alloy. The Au-catalyzed mechanism can lower the formation temperature of NiSi2 by 100 °C compared with an all solid state reaction.

  14. Influence of Processing Techniques on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Biodegradable Mg-3Zn-2Ca Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležal, Pavel; Zapletal, Josef; Fintová, Stanislava; Trojanová, Zuzanka; Greger, Miroslav; Roupcová, Pavla; Podrábský, Tomáš

    2016-10-28

    New Mg-3Zn-2Ca magnesium alloy was prepared using different processing techniques: gravity casting as well as squeeze casting in liquid and semisolid states. Materials were further thermally treated; thermal treatment of the gravity cast alloy was additionally combined with the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Alloy processed by the squeeze casting in liquid as well as in semisolid state exhibit improved plasticity; the ECAP processing positively influenced both the tensile and compressive characteristics of the alloy. Applied heat treatment influenced the distribution and chemical composition of present intermetallic phases. Influence of particular processing techniques, heat treatment, and intermetallic phase distribution is thoroughly discussed in relation to mechanical behavior of presented alloys.

  15. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Manenc, Jack

    1973-01-01

    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  16. Compatibility of refractory alloys with space reactor system coolants and working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    The bulk of this report deals with compatibility studies in liquid lithium and boiling potassium. Substantial information is also presented concerning the reactivity of niobium and tantalum alloys with residual gases in high and ultrahigh vacuum atmospheres. The remaining information, which is much less extensive, covers the compatibility behavior of molybdenum and tungsten alloys in alkali metals and a qualitative assessment of the use of refractory metals for containing helium in a closed Brayton cycle. 22 references, 29 figures, 14 tables

  17. Anodic solution of alkali earth alloys in potassium chloride-sodium chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Generalized results of studying the process of anodic dissolution of alkaline-earth metal alloys with zinc, aluminium and copper in the melts of KCl-NaCl equimolar mixture containing alkaline-earth metal chlorides, are presented. It is shown that during dissolution of both pure liquid metals and their alloys there is no electrode polarization in the range of the current densities lower or comparable in their values to corrosion current

  18. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter [Houston, TX; Koh, Shirlaine [Houston, TX; Mani, Prasanna [Houston, TX; Ratndeep, Srivastava [Houston, TX

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  19. Speciation and quantification of Hg in sediments contaminated by artisanal gold mining in the Gualaxo do Norte River, Minas Gerais, SE, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Penha Rhodes, Valdilene; de Lena, Jorge Carvalho; Santolin, Camila Vidal Alves; da Silva Pinto, Thais; Mendes, Louise Aparecida; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2017-12-28

    The Iron Quadrangle in SE Brazil was, in the eighteenth century, one of the most important Au producing regions of Brazil. In this region, gold is produced, even today, by artisanal methods that use Hg to increase the extraction efficiency with no control of Hg release to water systems and the atmosphere. In this context, the Gualaxo do Norte River is of particular interest; its springs are located in the Doce River basin, an important Brazilian basin that supplies water for 3.5 million people. The main goal of this work was to quantify and speciate the Hg in the sediments of the Gualaxo do Norte River using a direct mercury analyzer and gas chromatography-pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence detection system. Statistical analyses consisted of principal component analysis, aiming to assess interactions among elements and species and to group the variables in factors affecting the properties of sediment. The results show that total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (CH 3 Hg + ) concentrations in samples ranged from 209 to 1207 μg kg -1 and from 0.07 to 1.00 μg kg -1 , respectively (methylation percentages from 0.01 to 0.27%). Thermal desorption analysis showed that mercury is mainly present in the oxidized form, and correlation analyses pointed to a relationship between THg and MnO, indicating that manganese can oxidize and/or adsorb Hg. Together, MO and CH 3 Hg + are important parameters in the third principal component, indicating the influence of OM on the methylation process. This first investigation on Hg methylation in this small-scale gold mining area points to the possibility of Hg bioaccumulation and to the need of better understanding the biogeochemical cycle of Hg in this area. Samples were collected in 2012, prior to the 2015 Fundão Dam disaster. The results are also a record of the characteristics of the sediment prior to that event.

  20. Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuying; Liu Xiangfa; Jiang Binggang; Huang Chuanzhen

    2009-01-01

    Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on the Al-12 wt.%Si alloy has been studied by differential scanning calorimeter, torsional oscillation viscometer and liquid X-ray diffraction experiments. It is found that there is a modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, i.e. primary Si can precipitate in the microstructure of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy when Ni and Si added in the form of Ni-38 wt.%Si, but not separately. Ni-38 wt.%Si alloy brings 'genetic materials' into the Al-Si melt, which makes the melt to form more ordering structure, promotes the primary Si precipitated. Moreover, the addition of Ni-38 wt.%Si, which decreases the solidification supercooling degree of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, is identical to the effect of heterogeneous nuclei.