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Sample records for hg-free precursor film

  1. High-quality CdTe films from nanoparticle precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, D.L.; Pehnt, M.; Urgiles, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    In this paper the authors demonstrate that nanoparticulate precursors coupled with spray deposition offers an attractive route into electronic materials with improved smoothness, density, and lower processing temperatures. Employing a metathesis approach, cadmium iodide was reacted with sodium telluride in methanol solvent, resulting in the formation of soluble NaI and insoluble CdTe nanoparticles. After appropriate chemical workup, methanol-capped CdTe colloids were isolated. CdTe thin film formation was achieved by spray depositing the nanoparticle colloids (25-75 {Angstrom} diameter) onto substrates at elevated temperatures (T = 280-440{degrees}C) with no further thermal treatment. These films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cubic CdTe phase formation was observed by XRD, with a contaminant oxide phase also detected. XPS analysis showed that CdTe films produced by this one-step method contained no Na or C and substantial O. AFM gave CdTe grain sizes of {approx}0.1-0.3 {mu}m for film sprayed at 400{degrees}C. A layer-by-layer film growth mechanism proposed for the one-step spray deposition of nanoparticle precursors will be discussed.

  2. CVD of pure copper films from amidinate precursor

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Copper(I) amidinate [Cu(i-Pr-Me-AMD)]2 was investigated to produce copper films in conventional low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using hydrogen as reducing gas-reagent. Copper films were deposited on steel, silicon, and SiO2/Si substrates in the temperature range 200–350°C at a total pressure of 1333 Pa. The growth rate on steel follows the surface reaction between atomic hydrogen and the entire precursor molecule up to 240°C. A significant increase of the growth rate at tempera...

  3. Ceramic Films via Organometallic Complex as Single Source Precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyu Shin-Guang; Wu Juan-Seng; Wu Chi-Chin; Chi Kal-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Fe2(CO)6(μ-S2) was used as a single source precursor in attempt to produce FeS film via MOCVD. Pyrolysis of Fe2(CO)6(μ-S2) at temperature below 500℃ produced Fe1-xS or Fe7S8 powder as indicated by its powder X-ray spectra. At 750 ℃, polycrystalline FeS powder was obtained. In film deposition, polycrystalline Fe1-xS or Fe7Ss films were obtained on Si(100) and Ag/Si(100) substrates below 500 ℃. SEM micrographs showed the film on Si(100) substrate containing whisker like grains. However, pillar like grains were obtained on Ag/Si(100) substrate.Deposition rates are also different for different substrates as evaluated by the thickness of the films, which were obtained by SEM micrographs of the cross section of the films. At 750℃, similar polycrystalline Fe1-xS or Fe7S8 film was obtained.

  4. The influence of precursor films on CIGS films prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Fan, Ping; Liang, Guangxing; Zheng, Zhuanghao; Zhang, Dongping; Chen, Chaoming

    2013-12-01

    The CuInGa(CIG) precursor films were grown by ion beam sputtering continuously CuGa/CuIn and CuIn/CuGa, and then selenized CIG to fabricate CIGS absorber films on molybdenum substrates . They were annealed in the same vacuum chamber and under the same temperature (500°C). The CIGS thin films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to study the microstructures, composition, surface morphology, electrical properties, respectively. The results showed that the CIGS thin films appeared smooth and compact with a sequence of Mo/CuGa/CuIn/Se, which were mainly of chalcopyrite structure. The CIGS thin films got the strongest diffraction peak intensity and were with good crystalline quality.

  5. Vaporization of a mixed precursors in chemical vapor deposition for YBCO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Meng, Guangyao; Schneider, Roger L.; Sarma, Bimal K.; Levy, Moises

    1995-01-01

    Single phase YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films with T(c) values around 90 K are readily obtained by using a single source chemical vapor deposition technique with a normal precursor mass transport. The quality of the films is controlled by adjusting the carrier gas flow rate and the precursor feed rate.

  6. Effect of Soft-annealing on the Properties of CIGSe Thin Films Prepared from Solution Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Shijoon; Park, Misun; Kim, Daehwan; Kang, Jinkyu [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Solution-based deposition of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin films is well known non-vacuum process for the fabrication of CIGSe solar cells. However, due to the usage of organic chemicals in the preparation of CIG precursor solutions, the crystallization of the polycrystalline CIGSe and the performance of CIGSe thin film solar cells were significantly affected by the carbon residues from the organic chemicals. In this work, we have tried to eliminate the carbon residues in the CIG precursor thin films efficiently by using soft-annealing process. By adjusting soft-annealing temperature, it is possible to control the amount of carbon residues in CIG precursor thin films. The reduction of the carbon residues in CIG precursors by high temperature soft-annealing improves the grain size and morphology of polycrystalline CIGSe thin films, which are also closely related with the electrical properties of CIGSe thin film solar cells.

  7. Liquid precursor films spreading on chemically patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checco, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    We study the spreading of nonvolatile liquid squalane on chemically patterned nanostripes by using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (NC-AFM). The substrates are octadecylthrichlorosilane(OTS)-coated silicon wafers chemically patterned on multiple length-scales using a combination of UV and AFM oxidative lithographies. This process allows us to locally convert the terminal methyl groups of the OTS surface (non-wettable) into carboxylic acid groups (wettable) without affecting considerably the substrate roughness (squalane spreads across this ``microfluidic network'' starting from the large lines eventually reaching the nanolines (50 to 500 nm-wide). NC-AFM is used to image the morphology of the liquid as it spreads across the nanolines. We find that the liquid thickness on the nanolines grows with time (up to ˜10 nm) according to a power-law with exponent ˜1. These preliminary results suggest that the spreading dynamics of laterally-confined liquids slightly differs, as expected, from the one of laterally homogeneous precursor films. We compare our findings to recent theoretical predictions of confined liquid flow and also discuss its relevance to nanofluidics.

  8. Preparation of cuxinygazsen precursor films and powders by electroless deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Batchelor, Wendi Kay; Wiesner, Holm; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1999-01-01

    A method for electroless deposition of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) precursor films and powders onto a metallic substrate comprising: preparing an aqueous bath solution of compounds selected from the group consisting of: I) a copper compound, a selenium compound, an indium compound and gallium compound; II) a copper compound, a selenium compound and an indium compound; III) a selenium compound, and indium compound and a gallium compound; IV) a selenium compound and a indium compound; and V) a copper compound and selenium compound; each compound being present in sufficient quantity to react with each other to produce Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3); adjusting the pH of the aqueous bath solution to an acidic value by the addition of a dilute acid; and initiating an electroless reaction with an oxidizing counterelectrode for a sufficient time to cause a deposit of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) from the aqueous bath solution onto a metallic substrate.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of metal sulfide thin films using non-halogenated precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Alex B. F.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2015-05-26

    A method for preparing a metal sulfide thin film using ALD and structures incorporating the metal sulfide thin film. The method includes providing an ALD reactor, a substrate, a first precursor comprising a metal and a second precursor comprising a sulfur compound. The first and the second precursors are reacted in the ALD precursor to form a metal sulfide thin film on the substrate. In a particular embodiment, the metal compound comprises Bis(N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinato)dicopper(I) and the sulfur compound comprises hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2S) to prepare a Cu.sub.2S film. The resulting metal sulfide thin film may be used in among other devices, photovoltaic devices, including interdigitated photovoltaic devices that may use relatively abundant materials for electrical energy production.

  10. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Leisch, Jennifer (Denver, CO); Taylor, Matthew (West Simsbury, CT); Stanbery, Billy J. (Austin, TX)

    2011-09-20

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  11. Selenization of co-sputtered CuInAl precursor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Daniel; Efstathiadis, Haralabos; Haldar, Pradeep [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Repins, Ingrid [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    CuInAl precursor films with varying Al/(In+Al) ratios were co-sputtered onto Mo coated soda-lime glass substrates. Metal precursor films were then selenized under vacuum conditions using thermally evaporated elemental selenium. Both precursor films and selenized samples were characterized for composition, crystalline phases, morphology, and compositional depth uniformity. Selenized films show low Al incorporation and phase separation when selenized at both 500 and 525 C. Films selenized with a Se deposition rate of 12 Aa/s showed poor adhesion compared with samples selenized at 4 Aa/s. The segregation of aluminum towards the back contact as well as oxygen incorporation appears to cause adhesive loss in extreme cases, and poor interface electrical characteristics in others. The maximum device efficiency measured was 5.2% under AM1.5 for a device with {proportional_to}2 at% aluminum. (author)

  12. WS{sub 2} nanotube formation by sulphurization: Effect of precursor tungsten film thickness and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Sheung Mei; Wong, Hon Fai; Wong, Wang Cheung; Tan, Choon Kiat; Choi, Sin Yuk; Mak, Chee Leung; Li, Gui Jun [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Dong, Qing Chen [MOE Key Laboratory for Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials and Research Center of Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, 79 Yingze West Street, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Leung, Chi Wah, E-mail: dennis.leung@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2016-09-15

    Transition metal dichalcogenides can exhibit as 2-dimensional layers, 1-dimensional nanotubes or 0-dimensional quantum dot structures. In general, dichalcogenide nanotubes are grown under stringent conditions, using high growth temperatures with tedious processes. Here, we report the controlled formation of tungsten disulphide (WS{sub 2}) nanostructures by manipulating the precursor film thickness, followed by a direct sulphurization process. WS{sub 2} nanotubes were formed by ultra-thin tungsten precursor films, while particle-like WS{sub 2} were obtained from thicker tungsten films under identical sulphurization conditions. To elucidate the origin of WS{sub 2} nanostructure formation, micron-sized tungsten film tracks were prepared, and such patterned films were found to suppress the growth of WS{sub 2} nanotubes. We attribute the suppression of nanotube formation to the relieving of film stress in patterned precursor films. - Highlights: • WS{sub 2} were obtained by sulphurization of sputtered tungsten films on Si substrates. • Resultant WS{sub 2} nanostructure morphology was dependent on precursor film thickness. • Patterning into micro-size W tracks suppressed the formation of nanotubes. • Stress relaxation was attributed as controlling factor for WS{sub 2} structure formation.

  13. RF plasma enhanced MOCVD of yttria stabilized zirconia thin films using octanedionate precursors and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopade, S.S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nayak, C.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Jha, S.N.; Tokas, R.B.; Sahoo, N.K. [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Deo, M.N. [High Pressure & Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Biswas, A. [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Rai, Sanjay [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India); Thulasi Raman, K.H.; Rao, G.M. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kumar, Niranjan [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Patil, D.S., E-mail: dspatil@iitb.ac.in [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • YSZ films are deposited by RF plasma MOCVD using Zr(tod){sub 4} and Y(tod){sub 3} precursors. • Films are deposited under the influence of RF self-bias on the substrates. • Films are characterized by different techniques. • Films properties are dependent on yttria content and film structure. - Abstract: Yttria stabilized zirconia thin films have been deposited by RF plasma enhanced MOCVD technique on silicon substrates at substrate temperature of 400 °C. Plasma of precursor vapors of (2,7,7-trimethyl-3,5-octanedionate) yttrium (known as Y(tod){sub 3}), (2,7,7-trimethyl-3,5-octanedionate) zirconium (known as Zr(tod){sub 4}), oxygen and argon gases is used for deposition. To the best of our knowledge, plasma assisted MOCVD of YSZ films using octanediaonate precursors have not been reported in the literature so far. The deposited films have been characterized by GIXRD, FTIR, XPS, FESEM, AFM, XANES, EXAFS, EDAX and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thickness of the films has been measured by stylus profilometer while tribological property measurement has been done to study mechanical behavior of the coatings. Characterization by different techniques indicates that properties of the films are dependent on the yttria content as well as on the structure of the films.

  14. Influence of zinc precursor concentration on properties zinc sulphide thin films using spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, E.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2017-07-01

    Stoichiometric high transparent n-zinc sulphide thin films were prepared using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The concentration of the cationic precursor played a major role to obtain stoichiometry, regardless of various deposition parameters. Zinc sulphide films deposited at 450˚C for the ratio 0.33:1 (Zn:S) resulted in well oriented, stoichiometric polycrystalline cubic structure. The variation in crystallite size associated with the cationic precursor concentration provides significant control over the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films. The optical band gap and activation energy of stoichiometric ZnS films were found to be 3.54 ± 0.02eV and 0.82 ± 0.05eV, respectively. The absorption coefficient of the films was found to be 102 cm-1.

  15. Rapid Deposition of Titanium Oxide and Zinc Oxide Films by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yasutaka

    In order to develop a high rate atmospheric film deposition process for functional films, as a basic study, deposition of titanium oxide film and zinc oxide film by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) was conducted in open air. Consequently, in the case of titanium oxide film deposition, anantase film and amorphous film as well as rutile film could be deposited by varying the deposition distance. In the case of anatase dominant film, photo-catalytic properties of the films could be confirmed by wettability test. In addition, the dye sensitized sollar cell (DSC) using the TiO2 film deposited by this SPPS technique as photo voltaic device generates 49mV in OCV. On the other hand, in the case of zinc oxide film deposition, it was proved that well crystallized ZnO films with photo catalytic properties could be deposited. From these results, this process was found to have high potential for high rate functional film deposition process conducted in the air.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of Pd/Cu alloy films from a new single source precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisyuk, Vladislav V.; Shubin, Yuriy V.; Senocq, François; Turgambaeva, Asiya E.; Duguet, Thomas; Igumenov, Igor K.; Vahlas, Constantin

    2015-03-01

    Cu/Pd alloys were deposited onto Si(100) and SiO2 (fused silica) substrates by MOCVD from PdL2×CuL2, (L=2-methoxy-2,6,6-trimethylheptane-3,5-dionate), a new single source bimetallic precursor. Deposition was performed at 10 Torr in a temperature range between 200 °C and 350 °C and was assisted by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation of the precursor vapor from an excimer Xe-lamp. It was shown that the elemental and phase composition of the films can be controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by stimulating by VUV the precursor decomposition. The bulk compositional properties of the obtained films confirmed the feasibility of proposed approach and precursor to prepare Pd alloy membrane materials by the CVD method.

  17. Thin Film CuInS2 Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis with Single-Source Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Michael H.; Banger, Kulinder K.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both horizontal hot-wall and vertical cold-wall atmospheric chemical spray pyrolysis processes deposited near single-phase stoichiometric CuInS2 thin films. Single-source precursors developed for ternary chalcopyrite materials were used for this study, and a new liquid phase single-source precursor was tested with a vertical cold-wall reactor. The depositions were carried out under an argon atmosphere, and the substrate temperature was kept at 400 C. Columnar grain structure was obtained with vapor deposition, and the granular structure was obtained with (liquid) droplet deposition. Conductive films were deposited with planar electrical resistivities ranging from 1 to 30 Omega x cm.

  18. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  19. Deposition of YBCO Thin Film by Aerosol Assisted Spray Pyrolysis Method using Nitrate Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeong Joo; Hong, Seok Kwan; Lee, Jong Beom; Lee, Hee Gyoun; Hong, Gye Won [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Geun [ISEM, University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Y123 films have been deposited on (100) single-crystal and IBAD substrates by spray pyrolysis method using nitrate precursors. Ultrasonic atomization was adopted to decrease the droplet size, spraying angle and its moving velocity toward substrate for introducing the preheating tube furnace in appropriate location. A small preheating tube furnace was installed between spraying nozzle and substrate for fast drying and enhanced decomposition of precursors. C-axis oriented films were obtained on both LAO and IBAD substrates at deposition temperature of around and working pressures of 10-15 torr. Thick c-axis epitaxial film with the thickness of was obtained on LAO single-crystal by 10 min deposition. But the XRD results of the film deposited on IBAD template at same deposition condition showed that the buffer layers of the IBAD metal substrate was affected by long residence of metal substrate at high temperature for YBCO deposition.

  20. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Rahim; Sheikh, Arif D; Abdelsamie, Maged; Hu, Hanlin; Yu, Liyang; Zhao, Kui; Kim, Taesoo; Tall, Omar El; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  1. Growth behavior of titanium dioxide thin films at different precursor temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Sang-Hun; Cho, Sang-Jin; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-01-01

    The hydrophilic TiO2 films were successfully deposited on slide glass substrates using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a single precursor without carriers or bubbling gases by a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. The TiO2 films were employed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, UV-Visible [UV-Vis] spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy. The temperature of the substrate was 500°C, and the temperatu...

  2. Characterization of electrochemically deposited films from aqueous and ionic liquid cobalt precursors toward hydrogen evolution reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dushatinski, Thomas; Huff, Clay; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M., E-mail: fattah@cnu.edu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Co films deposition via aqueous and ionic liquid Precursors. • Hydrogen evolution produced from reactive surfaces. • Co deposited films characterized by SEM, AFM, EDX and XRD techniques. - Abstract: Electrodepositions of cobalt films were achieved using an aqueous or an ethylene glycol based non-aqueous solution containing choline chloride (vitamin B4) with cobalt chloride hexahydrate precursor toward hydrogen evolution reactions from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as solid hydrogen feedstock (SHF). The resulting cobalt films had reflectivity at 550 nm of 2.2% for aqueously deposited films (ACoF) and 1.3% for non-aqueously deposited films (NCoF). Surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between particle size and thickness. The film thicknesses were tunable between >100 μm and <300 μm for each film. The roughness (Ra) value measurements by Dektak surface profiling showed that the NCoF (Ra = 165 nm) was smoother than the ACoF (Ra = 418 nm). The NCoFs and ACoFs contained only α phase (FCC) crystallites. The NCoFs were crystalline while the ACoFs were largely amorphous from X-ray diffraction analysis. The NCoF had an average Vickers hardness value of 84 MPa as compared to 176 MPa for ACoF. The aqueous precursor has a single absorption maximum at 510 nm and the non-aqueous precursor had three absorption maxima at 630, 670, and 695 nm. The hydrogen evolution reactions over a 1 cm{sup 2} catalytic surface with aqueous NaBH{sub 4} solutions generated rate constants (K) = equal to 4.9 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}, 4.6 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}, and 3.3 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1} for ACoF, NCoF, and copper substrate respectively.

  3. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim

    2016-11-07

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  4. Preparation of GdBCO Thin Film by Ex-situ Process using Nitrate Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeong Joo; Le, Chul Sun; Lee, Jong Beom; Lee, Hee Gyoun; Hong, Gye Won [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hun; Moon, Sung Hyun [SuNAM Co., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Many research groups have been manufacturing coated conductor by various processes such as PLD, MOD, and MOCVD, but the methods with production cost suitable for wide and massive application of coated conductor did not develop yet. Spray pyrolysis method adopting ultrasonic atomization was tried as one of the possible option. GdBCO precursor films have been deposited on IBAD substrate by spray pyrolysis method at low temperature and converted to GdBCO by post heat treatment. Ultrasonic atomization was used to generate fine droplets from precursor solution of Gd, Ba, and Cu nitrate dissolved in water. Primary GdBCO films were deposited at 500 degree C and oxygen partial pressure of 1 torr. After that, the films were converted at various temperatures and low oxygen partial pressures. C-Axis oriented films were obtained IBAD substrates at conversion temperature of around 870 degree C and oxygen partial pressures of 500 mtorr - 1 torr in a vacuum. Thick c-axis epitaxial film with the thickness of 0.4 - 0.5 {mu}m was obtained on IBAD substrate. C-axis epitaxial GdBCO films were successfully prepared by ex-situ methods using nitrate precursors on IBAD metal substrate. Converted GdBCO films have very dense microstructures with good grain connectivity. EDS composition analysis of the film showed a number of Cu-rich phase in surface. The precursor solution having high copper concent with the composition of Gd : Ba : Cu = 1 : 2 : 4 showed the better grain connectivity and electrical conductivity.

  5. Low temperature thin films formed from nanocrystal precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Goldstein, Avery N.

    1993-01-01

    Nanocrystals of semiconductor compounds are produced. When they are applied as a contiguous layer onto a substrate and heated they fuse into a continuous layer at temperatures as much as 250, 500, 750 or even 1000.degree. K below their bulk melting point. This allows continuous semiconductor films in the 0.25 to 25 nm thickness range to be formed with minimal thermal exposure.

  6. Properties of NiO thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis using different precursor solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, L. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France); Reguig, B.A.; Khelil, A. [Universite d' Oran Es-Senia, LPCM2E (Algeria); Morsli, M. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France); Benchouk, K. [Universite d' Oran Es-Senia, LPCM2E (Algeria); Bernede, J.C. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France)], E-mail: Jean-Christian.Bernede@univ-nantes.fr

    2008-07-15

    NiO thin films have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis using a perfume atomizer to grow the aerosol. The influence of the precursor, nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), nickel nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), nickel hydroxide hexahydrate (Ni(OH){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), nickel sulfate tetrahydrate (NiSO{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O), on the thin films properties has been studied. In the experimental conditions used (substrate temperature 350 deg. C, precursor concentration 0.2-0.3 M, etc.), pure NiO thin films crystallized in the cubic phase can be achieved only with NiCl{sub 2} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} precursors. These films have been post-annealed at 425 deg. C for 3 h either in room atmosphere or under vacuum. If all the films are p-type, it is shown that the NiO films conductivity and optical transmittance depend on annealing process. The properties of the NiO thin films annealed under room atmosphere are not significantly modified, which is attributed to the fact that the temperature and the environment of this annealing is not very different from the experimental conditions during spray deposition. The annealing under vacuum is more efficient. This annealing being proceeded in a vacuum no better than 10{sup -2} Pa, it is supposed that the modifications of the NiO thin film properties, mainly the conductivity and optical transmission, are related to some interaction between residual oxygen and the films.

  7. Deposition of calcium carbonate films by a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Laurie B.; Odom, Damian J.

    2000-03-01

    A polypeptide additive has been used to transform the solution crystallization of calcium carbonate to a solidification process of a liquid-phase mineral precursor. In situ observations reveal that polyaspartate induces liquid-liquid phase separation of droplets of a mineral precursor. The droplets deposit on the substrate and coalesce to form a coating, which then solidifies into calcitic tablets and films. Transition bars form during the amorphous to crystalline transition, leading to sectorization of calcite tablets, and the defect textures and crystal morphologies are atypical of solution grown crystals. The formation of nonequilibrium crystal morphologies using an acidic polypeptide may have implications in the field of biomineralization, and the environmentally friendly aspects of this polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process may offer new techniques for aqueous-based processing of ceramic films, coatings, and particulates.

  8. Ballistic laser-assisted solid transfer (BLAST) from a thin film precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, David P; Grivas, Christos; Zergioti, Ioanna; Eason, Robert W

    2008-03-03

    A novel technique for the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of material in solid phase from a thin film precursor is presented. Multiple, sub-threshold energy femtosecond pulses are used to lessen the adhesion of a donor film to a support substrate to facilitate forward transfer of solid 'pellets' of donor material to a receiver. A relatively higher intensity outer ring is added to the transfer laser pulses, by means of the near-field diffraction pattern of a circular aperture, to define the area for transfer in the donor film and allow for more reproducible pellet shapes. This technique has been termed Ballistic Laser-Assisted Solid Transfer (BLAST).

  9. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  10. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tummala, Raghavender [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Guduru, Ramesh K., E-mail: rkguduru@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Mohanty, Pravansu S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale nanostructured coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CdS coatings developed have good electrical conductivity and optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coatings possess large amount of particulate boundaries and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are used in solar cells, sensors and microelectronics. A variety of techniques, such as vapor based techniques, wet chemical methods and spray pyrolysis are frequently employed to develop adherent CdS films. In the present study, rapid deposition of CdS thin films via plasma spray route using a solution precursor was investigated, for the first time. Solution precursor comprising cadmium chloride, thiourea and distilled water was fed into a DC plasma jet via an axial atomizer to create ultrafine droplets for instantaneous and accelerated thermal decomposition in the plasma plume. The resulting molten/semi-molten ultrafine/nanoparticles of CdS eventually propel toward the substrate to form continuous CdS films. The chemistry of the solution precursor was found to be critical in plasma pyrolysis to control the stoichiometry and composition of the films. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed hexagonal {alpha}-CdS structure. Surface morphology and microstructures were investigated to compare with other synthesis techniques in terms of process mechanism and structural features. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed nanostructures in the atomized particulates. Optical measurements indicated a decreasing transmittance in the visible light with increasing the film thickness and band gap was calculated to be {approx}2.5 eV. The electrical resistivity of the films (0.243 {+-} 0.188 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm) was comparable with the literature

  11. Characterization of Thin Films Deposited with Precursor Ferrocene by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Kailun; ZHENG Jianwan; LIU Zuli; JIA Lihui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the characterization of thin films,deposited with the precursor ferrocene(FcH)by the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition(PECVD)technique,was investigated.The films were measured by Scanning Electronic Microscopy(SEM),Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM),Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis(ESCA),and superconducting Quantum Interference Device(SQUID).It was observed that the film's layer is homogeneous in thickness and has a dense morphology without cracks.The surface roughness is about 36 nm.From the results of ESCA,it can be inferred that the film mainly contains the compound FeOOH,and carbon is combined with oxygen in different forms under different supply-powers.The hysteresis loops indicate that the film is of soft magnetism.

  12. Preparation and properties of CuInS{sub 2} thin film prepared from electroplated precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuma, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Kenji; Ichikawa, Sumihiro; Suzuki, Yasunari; Fukasawa, Ryo; Matono, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakazawa, Masao; Takei, Koji [Core Technology Research Laboratory, Shinko Electric Industries Co., Ltd., 80 Oshimada, Nagano 381-2287 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    Thin CuInS{sub 2} films were prepared by sulfurization of Cu/In bi-layers. First, the precursor layer was electroplated onto the treated surface of Mo-coated glass. Observation of the cross-section prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) etching revealed that the void-free film was initially formed on the top surface of the precursor layer and continued to grow until the advancing front of the film reached the Mo layer. The nucleation of voids near the bottom of the CuInS{sub 2} film followed. To determine whether the condition of the Cu/In alloy influences the CuInS{sub 2} quality we investigated the Cu/In alloy state using FIB. We found that the annealed precursor of low Cu/In ratio (1.2) has several voids in the mid position in the layer compared with Cu-rich precursor (1.6). The cross-sectional view of the Cu-rich absorber layer is uniform compared with the low copper absorber layer. Thin film solar cells were fabricated using the CuInS{sub 2} film (Cu/In ratio: 1.2) as an optical absorber layer. It was found that the optimization of a sulfurization period is important in order to improve the cell efficiency. We have not yet obtained good results with high Cu-rich absorber because of a blister problem. This blister was found before sulfurization. So, we are going to solve this blister problem before sulfurization.

  13. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition of germanium thin films using organogermanium carboxylates as precursors and formation of germania films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alpa Y Shah; Amey Wadawale; Vijaykumar S Sagoria; Vimal K Jain; C A Betty; S Bhattacharya

    2012-06-01

    Diethyl germanium bis-picolinate, [Et2Ge(O2CC5H4N)2], and trimethyl germanium quinaldate, [Me3Ge(O2CC9H6N)], have been used as precursors for deposition of thin films of germanium by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). The thermogravimetric analysis revealed complete volatilization of complexes under nitrogen atmosphere. Germanium thin films were deposited on silicon wafers at 700°C employing AACVD method. These films on oxidation under an oxygen atmosphere at 600°C yield GeO2. Both Ge and GeO2 films were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS measurements. Their electrical properties were assessed by current–voltage (–) characterization.

  14. ARTICLES: Metal Precursor Influence on Performance of Culn1-xGaxSe2 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Zhang, Zhong-wei; Jiang, Guo-shun; Zhu, Chang-fei

    2010-06-01

    CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) films were prepared by a two-stage method, in which Cu-In-Ga metallic precursors were firstly deposited on unheated Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates by direct current sputtering CuGa (20%Ga) and radio frequency sputtering In targets in an Ar atmosphere, followed by selenization at 520 °C for 40 min in Se vapor. By adjusting the sputtering thickness ratio of surface CuGa (20%Ga) and bottom CuGa (20%Ga) alloy layers in metal precursor, different CIGS thin films were fabricated. Through X-ray diffraction spectra, Raman spectra, local energy dispersive spectrometer, planar- and cross-sectional views of scanning electron microscopy measurements, it revealed that the CIGS thin films from selenization of metal precursor with CuGa:In:CuGa thickness ratio of 7:20:3 (sample-2-se) was of chalcopyrite structure with the preferred (112) orientation, and the grains sizes ranged from 0.5 μm to 2 μm, and sample-2-se had no binary compound phase of In-Se and order defect compound phase. Consequently, the results of illuminated current-voltage curve and quantum efficiency measurements showed that the CIGS film device made from sample-2-se had relative higher photo-electric conversion efficiency (3.59%) and good spectrum response.

  15. Efficiency Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells by Pumping Away the Solvent of Precursor Film Before Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing-Yang; Yuan, Da-Xing; Mu, Hao-Ran; Igbari, Femi; Bao, Qiaoliang; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    A new approach to improve the quality of MAPbI3 - x Cl x perovskite film was demonstrated. It involves annealing the precursor film after pumping away the solvent, which can decrease the influence of solvent evaporation rate for the growth of the MAPbI3 - x Cl x perovskite film. The resulting film showed improved morphology, stronger absorption, fewer crystal defects, and smaller charge transfer resistance. The corresponding device demonstrated enhanced performance when compared with a reference device. The averaged value of power conversion efficiency increased from 10.61 to 12.56 %, and a champion efficiency of 14.0 % was achieved. This work paves a new way to improve the efficiency of perovskite solar cells.

  16. Dy3+ activated LaVO4 films synthesized by precursors with different solution concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dandan; MA Yongqing; ZHANG Xian; QIAN Shibing; ZHENG Ganhong; WU Mingzai; LI Guang; SUN Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Using different-solution-concentration precursors with citric acid as chelating agent and polyvinyl alcohol as dispersing media,Dy3+ activated LaVO4 films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates.The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) showed that the compact and crack-free LaVO4:Dy3+ film could be obtained at a suitable solution concentration.The deposited films could absorb the ultraviolet light below 400 nm and were transparent in the visible and infrared region as evidenced by the transmission spectra,and the photoluminescence spectra exhibited the characteristic emissions of Dy3+ peaking at 484 (blue) and 576 (yellow) nm due to the transitions of 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4Fg/2→6H13/2,respectively.The potential application of LaVO4:Dy3+ film in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was also discussed.

  17. Effects of ITO precursor thickness on transparent conductive Al doped ZnO film for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Won; Kuk, Seung-Hee; Han, Min-Koo [School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Kwang-Sun; Lee, Heon-Min [LG Electronics, 16 Woomyeon-Dong Seocho-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) film was continuously deposited on ITO precursor on glass substrate by d.c. magnetron sputtering. The thickness of ITO was varied from 30 to 120 nm in order to investigate the effect of ITO thickness on crystallinity of AZO film. X-ray diffraction measurement shows that AZO film grown on ITO has an enhanced (0 0 2) preferred orientation as the ITO thickness was increased. The crystalline structure improvement of AZO film with an increase of ITO precursor thickness is due to the near-epitaxial growth of AZO on ITO precursor. As the ITO thickness was increased, mobility of AZO film by the Hall measurement was significantly increased from 5.4 cm{sup 2}/V s (no ITO) to 23.6 cm{sup 2}/V s (ITO 120 nm), and resistivity was about 81.7% improved from 1.99 x 10{sup -3} to 3.63 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm. The AZO films with ITO revealed excellent average transmission of visible (90.0%) and NIR (89.6%) regions, whereas those of AZO film without ITO were 82.1% and 88.1%, respectively. The haze values of AZO film with ITO of 90 and 120 nm are similar or higher than those of AZO film without ITO. The surface textured AZO film with ITO precursor is promising for optoelectronic applications such as the front TCO of thin film solar cells. (author)

  18. CuInSe2 thin film solar cells synthesised from electrodeposited binary selenide precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The box must contain a summary in a maximum of 1,700 characters, spaces included. The fabrication of a CuInSe2 thin film solar cell from an electrodeposited precursor stack consisting of indium selenide and copper selenide layers is demonstrated. A best conversion efficiency of 5.5% was achieved, a higher efficiency than previously reported in literature. The thesis focuses on three main parts: (i) electrochemistry of indium selenide: The incorporation of indium in the deposit require...

  19. Effect of Precursor Concentration on Structural Optical and Electrical Properties of NiO Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Barir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Undoped nickel oxide (NiO thin films were deposited on 500°C heated glass substrates using spray pyrolysis method at (0.015–0.1 M range of precursor. The latter was obtained by decomposition of nickel nitrate hexahydrate in double distilled water. Effect of precursor concentration on structural, optical, and electrical properties of NiO thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD shows the formation of NiO under cubic structure with single diffraction peak along (111 plane at 2θ=37.24°. When precursor concentration reaches 0.1 M, an increment in NiO crystallite size over 37.04 nm was obtained indicating the product nano structure. SEM images reveal that beyond 0.04 M as precursor concentration the substrate becomes completely covered with NiO and thin films exhibit formation of nano agglomerations at the top of the sample surface. Ni-O bonds vibrations modes in the product of films were confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Transparency of the films ranged from 57 to 88% and band gap energy of the films decreases from 3.68 to 3.60 eV with increasing precursor concentration. Electrical properties of the elaborated NiO thin films were correlated to the precursor concentration.

  20. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Cabello, G. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Chillán (Chile); Flores, M.; Fernández, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  1. Development of molecular precursors for deposition of indium sulphide thin film electrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Peiris, T A Nirmal; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad; Lo, K M; McKee, Vickie

    2013-08-14

    Symmetrical and unsymmetrical dithiocarbamato pyridine solvated and non-solvated complexes of indium(III) with the general formula [In(S2CNRR')3]·n(py) [where py = pyridine; R,R' = Cy, n = 2 (1); R,R' = (i)Pr, n = 1.5 (2); NRR' = Pip, n = 0.5 (3) and R = Bz, R' = Me, n = 0 (4)] have been synthesized. The compositions, structures and properties of these complexes have been studied by means of microanalysis, IR and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal and thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses. The applicability of these complexes as single source precursors (SSPs) for the deposition of β-In2S3 thin films on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) at temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C is studied. All films have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) for the detection of phase and stoichiometry of the deposit. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that precursors (1)-(4), irrespective of different metal ligand design, generate comparable morphologies of β-In2S3 thin films at different temperatures. Direct band gap energies of 2.2 eV have been estimated from the UV-vis spectroscopy for the β-In2S3 films fabricated from precursors (1) and (4). The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of β-In2S3 were confirmed by recording the current-voltage plots under light and dark conditions. The plots showed anodic photocurrent densities of 1.25 and 0.65 mA cm(-2) at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl for the β-In2S3 films made at 400 and 350 °C from the precursors (1) and (4), respectively. The photoelectrochemical performance indicates that the newly synthesised precursors are highly useful in fabricating β-In2S3 electrodes for solar energy harvesting and optoelectronic application.

  2. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by sulfurizing different multilayer metal precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; SHAO LeXi

    2009-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (OZTS) thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates by sulfurizing Ou-Sn-Zn multilayer precursors, which were deposited by ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering, respectively. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the prepared films under various proc-essing conditions were investigated in detail. Results showed that the as-deposited OZTS thin films with the precursors by both ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering have a composition near stoichiometric. The crystallization of the samples, however, has a strong dependence on the atomic percent of constituents of the prepared CZTS films. A single phase stannite-type structure OZTS with a large absorption coefficient of 104/cm in the visible range could be obtained after sulfurization at 520℃for 2 h. The samples relative to the RF magnetron sputtering showed a low resistivity of 0.073 Ωcm and band gap energy of about 1.53 eV. The samples relative to the ion beam sputtering exhibited a resistiv-ity of 0.36 Ωcm and the band gap energy is about 1.51 eV.

  3. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by sulfurizing different multilayer metal precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates by sulfurizing Cu-Sn-Zn multilayer precursors, which were deposited by ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering, respectively. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the prepared films under various processing conditions were investigated in detail. Results showed that the as-deposited CZTS thin films with the precursors by both ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering have a composition near stoichiometric. The crystallization of the samples, however, has a strong dependence on the atomic percent of constituents of the prepared CZTS films. A single phase stannite-type structure CZTS with a large absorption coefficient of 104/cm in the visible range could be obtained after sulfurization at 520℃ for 2 h. The samples relative to the RF magnetron sputtering showed a low resistivity of 0.073 ?cm and band gap energy of about 1.53 eV. The samples relative to the ion beam sputtering exhibited a resistivity of 0.36 Ωcm and the band gap energy is about 1.51 eV.

  4. Preparation of ferroelectric bi-layered thin films using the modified polymeric precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Zanetti

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The modified polymeric precursor method was used to synthesize ferroelectric bismuth-layered compounds such as, SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT and SrBi2Nb2O9 (SBN. This method allows for the use of precursor reagents such as oxide, carbonate or nitrate as cation sources, with the additional advantage of not requiring special equipment for the synthesis. The films were deposited by spin coating on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100 and SrTiO3(100 (STO substrates and crystallized at temperatures between 700 and 800 °C in the case of SBT films and 650 °C to 750 °C in that of SBN films. The crystallographic and microstructural characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The ferroelectric and dielectric properties of the films indicate their applicability in ferroelectric memories and optical devices.

  5. MOCVD of hexagonal boron nitride thin films on Si(100) using new single source precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Boo, J H; Yu, K S; Kim, Y S; Kim, Y S; Park, J T

    1999-01-01

    We have been carried out the growth of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) thin films on Si(100) substrates by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LPMOCVD) method using triethylborane tert-butylamine complex (TEBTBA), Et sub 3 BNH sub 2 ( sup t Bu), and triethylborane isopropylamine complex (TEBIPA), Et sub 3 BNH sub 2 ( sup t Pr) as a new single molecular precursors in the temperature range of 850 approx 1000 .deg. C. polycrystalline, crack-free h-BN film was successfully grown on Si(100) substrate at 850 .deg. C using TEBTBA. This growth temperature is very lower than those in previous reports. Carbon-rich polycrystalline BN was also obtained at 900 .deg. C from TEBIPA. With increasing substrate temperature to 1000 .deg. C, however, BC sub 4 N-like species are strongly formed along with h-BN and the BN films obtained from both TEBTBA and TEBIPA but almost polycrystalline. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of the growth of h-BN films formed with the new single source precursors of ...

  6. Preparation of iron oxides using ammonium iron citrate precursor: Thin films and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangmoon

    2009-09-01

    Ammonium iron citrate (C 6H 8O 7·nFe ·nH 3N) was used as a precursor for preparing both iron-oxide thin films and nanoparticles. Thin films of iron oxides were fabricated on silicon (111) substrate using a successive-ionic-layer-adsorption-and-reaction (SILAR) method and subsequent hydrothermal or furnace annealing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the iron-oxide films obtained under various annealing conditions show the changes of the micro-scale surface structures and the magnetic properties. Homogenous Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles around 4 nm in diameter were synthesized by hydrothermal reduction method at low temperature and investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  7. Deposition of rod-shaped antimony sulfide thin films from single-source antimony thiosemicarbazone precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Sawant, Narayan V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India); Garje, Shivram S., E-mail: ssgarje@chem.mu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India)

    2010-04-02

    Antimony sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition technique using single source precursors, namely, antimony(III) thiosemicarbazones, SbCl{sub 3}(L) (L = thiosemicarbazones of thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde (1) and cinnamaldehyde (2)). The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy in order to identify their phases, morphologies, compositions and optical properties respectively. These characterizations revealed that the films were comprised of rod-shaped particles of orthorhombic stibnite (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) with a Sb:S stoichiometry of {approx} 1:1.3. The calculated optical band gap from UV-vis absorption spectrum is found to be 3.48 eV.

  8. ZnO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY SPRAY-PYROLYSIS TECHNIQUE FROM ORGANO-METALLIC PRECURSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mikulics

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Presented experiments utilize methanolic solution of zinc acetyl-acetonate as a precursor and sapphire (001 as a substrate for deposition of thin films of ZnO. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed polycrystalline character of prepared films with preferential growth orientation along c-axis. The roughness of prepared films was assessed by AFM microscopy and represented by roughness root mean square (RMS value in range of 1.8 - 433 nm. The surface morphology was mapped by scanning electron microscopy showing periodical structure with several local defects. The optical transmittance spectrum of ZnO films was measured in wavelength range of 200-1000 nm. Prepared films are transparent in visible range with sharp ultra-violet cut-off at approximately 370 nm. Raman spectroscopy confirmed wurtzite structure and the presence of compressive stress within its structure as well as the occurrence of oxygen vacancies. The four-point Van der Pauw method was used to study the transport prosperities. The resistivity of presented ZnO films was found 8 × 10–2 Ω cm with carrier density of 1.3 × 1018 cm–3 and electron mobility of 40 cm2 V–1 s–1.

  9. The single molecular precursor approach to metal telluride thin films: imino-bis(diisopropylphosphine tellurides) as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritch, Jamie S; Chivers, Tristram; Afzaal, Mohammad; O'Brien, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Interest in metal telluride thin films as components in electronic devices has grown recently. This tutorial review describes the use of single-source precursors for the preparation of metal telluride materials by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) and acquaints the reader with the basic techniques of materials characterization. The challenges in the design and synthesis of suitable precursors are discussed, focusing on metal complexes of the recently-developed imino-bis(diisopropylphosphine telluride) ligand. The generation of thin films and nanoplates of CdTe, Sb(2)Te(3) and In(2)Te(3) from these precursors are used as illustrative examples.

  10. Synthesis of alkyl indium selenolate precursors and characterization of InSe films from MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, S.L.; Barron, A.R. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Of the 13-16 semi-conductors, InSe is of particular interest for potential passivation of InP in an analogous manner found for the passivation of GaAs by GaS. In addition to developing a low temperature route using a single source precursor. it is of interest to identify the factors that govern the phase and morphology of films crown by chemical vapor deposition. A series of [(R){sub 2}InSe(R)]{sub 2} dimers and [(R)InSe]{sub 4} cubanes (R={sup t}Bu, {sup t}Amyl) have been synthesized and characterized for use as precursors. Thin films of InSe were grown by atmospheric CVD on a variety of substrates. Composition was determined by EDX and RBS, and phase identification was based on electron and X-ray diffraction. Discussion will include the importance of the core molecular species to the resultant phase as well as the thermal effects on film growth.

  11. Obtenção de filmes finos de TiO2 nanoestruturado pelo método dos precursores poliméricos Nanostructured TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grando Stroppa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses in optimizing setup for obtaining TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor route due to its advantages on stoichiometric and morphological control. Precursor stoichiometry, synthesis pH, solids concentration and rotation speed at deposition were optimized evaluating thin films morphology and thickness. Thermogravimetry and RMN were applied for precursor's characterization and AFM, XRD and ellipsometry for thin films evaluation. Results showed successful attainment of homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with outstanding control over morphological characteristics, mean grain size of 17 nm, packing densities between 57 and 75%, estimated surface areas of 90 m²/g and monolayers thickness within 20 and 128 nm.

  12. Processing and Microstructure of LaCrO3 Thin Film Derived from Chelating Precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    LaCrO3 thin films were successfully prepared at lower temperatures by the sol-gel process based on organic chelating precursors. The formation and transition of the gel derived from the chelate solution were analyzed by means of IR, DTA-TG, XRD and TEM. In addition, the formation and microstructure of thin films were investigated by SEM and XRD. The results show that the gel formed by the condensation reaction is decomposed at about 195 ℃, transformed into a great quantity of LaCrO3 by heat-treating at 200 ℃ for 1 h, and the complexing ways in the gel have an important influence upon the formation of LaCrO3. The formation process of thin film includes the nucleation and growth on the substrate, the formation of polycrystalline islands and the continuous film by repeating the dip-coating process. Higher heat-treatment temperature gives rise to larger granules in the thin film.

  13. Characterization of electrochemically deposited films from aqueous and ionic liquid cobalt precursors toward hydrogen evolution reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushatinski, Thomas; Huff, Clay; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2016-11-01

    Electrodepositions of cobalt films were achieved using an aqueous or an ethylene glycol based non-aqueous solution containing choline chloride (vitamin B4) with cobalt chloride hexahydrate precursor toward hydrogen evolution reactions from sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as solid hydrogen feedstock (SHF). The resulting cobalt films had reflectivity at 550 nm of 2.2% for aqueously deposited films (ACoF) and 1.3% for non-aqueously deposited films (NCoF). Surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between particle size and thickness. The film thicknesses were tunable between >100 μm and reactions over a 1 cm2 catalytic surface with aqueous NaBH4 solutions generated rate constants (K) = equal to 4.9 × 10-3 min-1, 4.6 × 10-3 min-1, and 3.3 × 10-3 min-1 for ACoF, NCoF, and copper substrate respectively.

  14. A Comparison between AlN Films Grown by MOCVD Using Dimethylethylamine Alane and Trimethylaluminium as the Aluminium Precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei-Guo; PAN Yi; LIU Xiang-Lin; ZHANG Pan-Feng; ZHAO Feng-Ai; JIAO Chun-Mei; WEI Hong-Yuan; ZHANG Ri-Qing; WU Jie-Jun; CONG Guang-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) films grown with dimethylethylamine alane (DMEAA) are compared with the ones grown with trimethylaluminium (TMA). In the high-resolution x-ray diffraction Ω scans, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (0002) AlN films grown with DMEAA is about 0.70 deg, while the FWHM of (0002)AlN films grown with TMA is only 0.11 deg. The surface morphologies of the films are different, and the rms roughnesses of the surface are approximately identical. The rms roughness of AlN films grown with DMEAA is 47.4 nm, and grown with TMA is 69.4 nm. Although using DMEAA as the aluminium precursor cannot improve the AlN crystal quality, AlN growth can be reached at low temperature of 673 K. Thus, DMEAA is an alternative aluminium precursor to deposit AlN film at low growth temperatures.

  15. Precursor polymer approach towards functional conjugated polymer networks and ultrathin film electro-optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranekar, Prasad

    Conjugated polymers are organic semiconductors which are of interest to a wide variety of optical, electronic, opto-electronic, and sensory applications; including light emitting diodes, thin film transistors, photovoltaic cells, and chemical sensors. While conducting polymers have some similarities to conventional polymeric materials, it is clearly the extensive main chain pi-conjugated structure and its implicit electro-optical properties that make it distinct. The same structure, however, gives it "chain stiffness" that affects its physical behavior. As a direct consequence of this, virtually all unsubstituted conducting polymers are found to be intractable and insoluble. This dissertation details the issue of tailoring the electro-optical properties and processability of conjugated polymers via a novel "precursor polymer approach". In this approach, electroactive side group units of either similar or different kind are tethered to a polymeric backbone. This combination determines the eventual electro-optical and electrochemical properties of these polymers including their ability to form ultrathin films. Thus, the desired macroscopic property is transformed by designing new precursor polymer structures, manipulating polymer-based compositions and blends, and the exploration and exploitation of their electrochemical processing conditions. In Chapters 2, 3, and 4, we have used single or binary electroactive compositions of species such as pyrrole, thiophene, carbazole and terthiophene are tethered to a linear polymeric backbone. Besides, the linear approach, in Chapters 5 and 6, we have also explored the use of generational dendrimers as backbone with carbazole units attached as peripheral electroactive groups. These precursor polymers were then subjected to electrochemical cross-linking to generate high optical quality ultrathin films on a conducting substrate such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Au surfaces. The reaction of such electroactive species inimically

  16. Indium oxide thin film prepared by low temperature atomic layer deposition using liquid precursors and ozone oxidant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeng, W.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Choi, Dong-Won [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-719 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jozeph, E-mail: jozeph.park@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Seong, E-mail: jsparklime@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-719 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Transparent conducting Indium oxide (InO{sub x}) thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition at low deposition temperatures below 100 °C. For the comparative study with liquid precursors in low temperature thermal ALD, diethyl[1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)silanaminato]-Indium, [3-(dimethylamino-kN)propyl-kC]dimethyl-Indium, and triethyl indium (TEIn) were used as the In precursors. Ozone was used as the oxidant for all precursors. InO{sub x} films grown using the three precursors all exhibit relatively low electrical resistivity below 10{sup −3} Ω cm at temperatures above 150 °C. Below 100 °C, the lowest resistivity (2 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm) was observed in the films grown with TEIn. The electrical, structural and optical properties were systematically investigated as functions of the deposition temperature and precursors. - Highlights: • InO{sub x} thin films were deposited by ALD at extremely low deposition temperatures below 100 °C. • InO{sub x} films exhibit relatively low electrical resistivity below 10{sup −3} Ω cm at temperatures above 150 °C. • Ozone stimulate the chemical reactions to yield dense indium oxide films at low temperatures.

  17. Precursor film in dynamic wetting, electrowetting, and electro-elasto-capillarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quanzi; Zhao, Ya-Pu

    2010-06-18

    Dynamic wetting and electrowetting are explored using molecular dynamics simulations. The propagation of the precursor film (PF) is fast and obeys the power law with respect to time. Against the former studies, we find the PF is no slip and solidlike. As an important application of the PF, the electro-elasto-capillarity, which is a good candidate for drug delivery at the micro- or nanoscale, is simulated and realized for the first time. Our findings may be one of the answers to the Huh-Scriven paradox and expand our knowledge of dynamic wetting and electrowetting.

  18. Effect of different nickel precursors on capacitive behavior of electrodeposited NiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, R. M.; Ghadge, T. S.; Ambare, R. C.; Lokhande, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the effect of nickel precursors containing different anions like nitrate, chloride and sulphate on the morphology and pseudocapacitance behavior of NiO is investigated. The NiO samples were prepared by using a potentiondynamic electrodeposition technique in the three electrode cell. Cyclic voltammetry technique was exploited for potentiodynamic deposition of the films. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), etc. The XRD reveals the cubic crystal structure for all samples. The SEM micrograph shows nanoflakelike, up grown nanoflakes and honeycomb like nanostructured morphologies for nitrate, chloride and sulphate precursors respectively. The capacitive behavior of these samples was recorded using cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 1 M KOH electrolyte. The specific capacitance values of NiO samples obtained using CV for nitrate, chloride and sulphate precursors were 136, 214 and 893 Fg-1 respectively, at the scan rate of 5 mVs-1. The charge discharge study shows high specific energy for the sample obtained from sulphate (23.98 Whkg-1) as compared to chloride (9.67 Whkg-1) and nitrate (4.9 Whkg-1), whereas samples of cholride (13.9 kWkg-1 and nitrate (10.5 kWkg-1) shows comparatively more specific power than samples obtained from sulphate (7.6 kWkg-1). The equivalent series resistance of NiO samples observed from EIS study are 1.34, 1.29 and 1.27 Ω respectively for nitrate, chloride and sulphate precursors. These results emphasizes that the samples obtained from sulphate precursors provides very low impedance through honeycomb like nanostructured morphology which supports good capacitive behavior of NiO.

  19. Solution-processed crack-free oxide films formed using SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and organoalkoxysiloxane precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Moonkyong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Power Semiconductor Research Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Shi-Woo, E-mail: srhee@postech.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • Oxide films were formed using organoalkoxysiloxanes and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using a sol–gel technique. • Crack-free and uniform oxide films were deposited by spin coating. • The thickness of films could be controlled in the range 20 nm to 1 μm without cracking. • The film shrinkage of films formed using phenyl-containing precursors was less than 1%. • The leakage current of the film density just prior to dielectric breakdown was in the range 10–9 to 10–8 A/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: Crack-free uniform oxide films were deposited by spin-on-glass method using a mixture solution of organoalkoxysiloxane network former and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. In the range of molar ratio of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles to oragnoalkoxysiloxanes between 0.6:1 and 1:1, stable sols were formed and smooth and uniform oxide films could be obtained. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical properties of the films, and we found that Si−O−Si structures were effectively formed via condensation reactions during curing at 150 °C. The effect of three different organic side groups in the organoalkoxsiloxane on the film properties was investigated. Precursors containing methyl groups effectively formed Si−O−Si network with SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, which was confirmed by the increased intensity of the Si−O asymmetric stretching mode at 1080 cm{sup −1} in the FT-IR spectra. Smooth and continuous films were obtained using precursors containing methyl and phenyl groups, with root-mean-square surface roughness of 1.05 nm (methyl precursor) and 1.16 nm (phenyl precursor). The shrinkage of the oxide film formed with phenyl groups was less than 1%. The dielectric properties of the oxide films were characterized, and we observed leakage currents in the range of 10{sup −9} to 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2} just prior to the dielectric breakdown with the films formed using precursors containing methyl and phenyl groups.

  20. High-efficiency perovskite solar cells prepared by using a sandwich structure MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuhui; Ye, Jiajiu; Zhu, Liangzheng; Zheng, Haiying; Liu, Guozhen; Liu, Xuepeng; Duan, Bin; Pan, Xu; Dai, Songyuan

    2017-01-11

    Two-step deposition has been widely used in the perovskite layer preparation for perovskite solar cells due to its attractive morphology controllability. However, the limited diffusivity of CH3NH3I (MAI) might cause some PbI2 to remain in the perovskite film. The residual PbI2 in the perovskite film would lead to inferior performance of devices, such as, low power conversion efficiency (PCE), poor reproducibility and weak air stability. In this work, we developed a sandwich structure MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film to prepare a PbI2-free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film. In comparison to the two-step approach, the MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film with a typical sandwich structure formed a uniform and pinhole-free perovskite film without any PbI2 residue, which could significantly improve the performance of the devices. Moreover, the bottom MAI layer of the MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film could improve the interfacial contact of the porous TiO2 layer, leading to the promotion of the charge transfer and reduction of the recombination rate. Therefore, the devices fabricated from the sandwich structure MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor films showed dramatic improvements of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and PCE. As a result, a promising PCE of 17.8% with good long-term air stability was achieved for the MAI-PbI2-MAI precursor film based PSC, which is better than that prepared by a two-step approach.

  1. Low-temperature SiON films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition method using activated silicon precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sungin; Kim, Jun-Rae; Kim, Seongkyung; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Kim, Hyeong Joon, E-mail: thinfilm@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering with Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center (ISRC), Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung Wook, E-mail: tazryu78@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-2311 (United States); Cho, Seongjae [Department of Electronic Engineering and New Technology Component & Material Research Center (NCMRC), Gachon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    It has not been an easy task to deposit SiN at low temperature by conventional plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) since Si organic precursors generally have high activation energy for adsorption of the Si atoms on the Si-N networks. In this work, in order to achieve successful deposition of SiN film at low temperature, the plasma processing steps in the PE-ALD have been modified for easier activation of Si precursors. In this modification, the efficiency of chemisorption of Si precursor has been improved by additional plasma steps after purging of the Si precursor. As the result, the SiN films prepared by the modified PE-ALD processes demonstrated higher purity of Si and N atoms with unwanted impurities such as C and O having below 10 at. % and Si-rich films could be formed consequently. Also, a very high step coverage ratio of 97% was obtained. Furthermore, the process-optimized SiN film showed a permissible charge-trapping capability with a wide memory window of 3.1 V when a capacitor structure was fabricated and measured with an insertion of the SiN film as the charge-trap layer. The modified PE-ALD process using the activated Si precursor would be one of the most practical and promising solutions for SiN deposition with lower thermal budget and higher cost-effectiveness.

  2. Electro/electroless deposition and characterization of CuIn precursors for CIS (CuInSe 2) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Estela; Sebastian, P. J.; Fernandez, Arturo

    1996-11-01

    CuIn (CI) precursors for growing CuInSe 2 (CIS) thin films were deposited and characterized. CI precursors were formed by using electrodeposition and electroless methods. In electrodeposition, CI precursors were formed by sequential deposition of {Cu}/{In} and {In}/{Cu}. In electroless deposition, the CI precursor was formed by co-deposition. The CI precursors were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Initial results on the selenization of the precursors indicated that CuIn (electroless), {Cu}/{In} and {In}/{Cu} configurations are suitable for forming device quality CIS films. The major phases in the precursors were found to be Cu 11In 9 and elemental In, which may lead to the formation of the In-rich CIS phase (CuIn 2Se 3.5, JCPDS 35-1349) during sintering in argon at lower temperatures. It was found that the stoichiometric CIS phase (CuInSe 2, JCPDS 40-1487) is formed by selenization of the precursors at temperatures higher than 500°C.

  3. Chemical vapour deposition of tungsten oxide thin films from single-source precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Warren Bradley

    This thesis describes the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of tungsten oxide thin films on glass from a wide range of single-source precursors. Chapter 1 describes previous work that has motivated this research. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis of conventional style candidates for single-source precursors. Reactions of WOCl4 with 3-methyl salicylic acid (MesaliH2) and 3,5-di-iso-propyl salicylic acid (di-i-PrsaliH2) yielded the ditungsten complexes [WO(Mesali)(MesaliH)2(mu-O)], 1, and [WO(di-i-Prsali)(di-i-PrsaliH)2(mu-O)], 2, and the monotungsten complex [WO(di-i-Pr sali)(di-i-PrsaliH)Cl], 3. Tungsten(VI) dioxo complexes were prepared by ligand exchange reactions of [WO2(acac)2], 4, yielding [WO2(catH)2], 5, and [WO2(malt)2], 6, (catH2 = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-catechol; maltH = maltol). Chapter 3 describes thermal analyses of the complexes 1 - 6 and tungsten hexaphenoxide, and consequently their suitability for CVD. The use of [W(OPh)6] and 2 - 6 in aerosol assisted CVD is reported in Chapter 4. Brown tungsten oxide was deposited from 2 and 3 at 600 °C; blue partially-reduced WO3-x thin films were deposited from [W(OPh)6] from 300 to 500 °C, from 4 at 600 °C and 6 at 620 °C. Sintering all of the coatings in air at 550 °C afforded yellow films of stoichiometric WO3. Raman spectroscopy and glancing angle XRD showed that coatings deposited from [W(OPh)6] at 300 °C were amorphous, whereas all the other films were the monoclinic phase gamma-tungsten oxide. Taking full advantage of the aerosol vaporisation technique led to the CVD of tungsten oxide films from polyoxometalate single-source precursors, as described in Chapter 5. The isopolyanion [nBu4N]2[W6O19], 7, afforded WO3 at 410 °C; the heteropolyanions [nBu4N]4H3[PW11O39], 8, and [nBu4N]4[PNbW11O40], 9, were used to deposit doped WO3 thin films in a highly-controlled manner at 480 °C. Thus, the unprecedented use of large, charged clusters for CVD was demonstrated. Chapter 6 describes investigations of the

  4. CuIn(S,Se){sub 2}thin film solar cells from nanocrystal inks: Effect of nanocrystal precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Grayson M.; Guo Qijie [School of Chemical Engineering and The Energy Center, Purdue University, 480 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Agrawal, Rakesh, E-mail: agrawalr@purdue.edu [School of Chemical Engineering and The Energy Center, Purdue University, 480 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Hillhouse, Hugh W., E-mail: h2@uw.edu [School of Chemical Engineering and The Energy Center, Purdue University, 480 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98105 (United States)

    2011-10-31

    CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} thin film solar cells are fabricated by selenizing CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized using a variety of copper and indium precursors. Specifically, copper and indium acetates, acetylacetonates, iodides, chlorides and nitrates are investigated to determine the effect of precursors on electronic properties and device performance. Nanocrystal synthesis with each of these precursors can be optimized to yield similar nanocrystal composition, size and structure. In addition, dense chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} thin films with micron sized grains at the surface are formed upon selenization regardless of precursor type. Surprisingly, solar cells fabricated from each nanocrystal ink have roughly the same carrier concentrations of 10{sup 16} to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} in the absorber layer and achieve active area efficiencies of approximately 5%.

  5. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  6. Formation of single-crystalline aragonite tablets/films via an amorphous precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Fairland F; Sharbaugh, Denise M; Talham, Daniel R; Gower, Laurie B; Fricke, Marc; Volkmer, Dirk

    2007-02-13

    Thin tablets and films of calcium carbonate have been grown at the air-water interface via an amorphous precursor route using soluble process-directing agents and a Langmuir monolayer based on resorcarene. By using appropriate concentrations of poly(acrylic acid-sodium salt) in combination with Mg2+ ion, an initially amorphous film is deposited on the monolayer template, which subsequently crystallizes into a mosaic film composed of a mixture of single-crystalline and spherulitic patches of calcite and aragonite. Of particular importance is the synthesis of single-crystalline "tablets" of aragonite (approximately 600 nm thick), because this phase generally forms needle-like polycrystalline aggregates when grown in vitro. To our knowledge, a tabular single-crystalline morphology of aragonite has only been observed in the nacreous layer of mollusk shells. Therefore, this in vitro system may serve as a useful model for examining mechanistic issues pertinent to biomineralization, such as the influence of organic templates on nucleation from an amorphous phase.

  7. Precursor- route ZnO films from mixed casting solvent for high performance aqueous electrolyte- gated transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Grell, M.; Althagafi, T.M.; Algarni, S.A.; Al Naim, A.; Mazher, J.

    2015-01-01

    We significantly improved the properties of semiconducting zinc oxide (ZnO) films resulting from the thermal conversion of a soluble precursor, zinc acetate (ZnAc), by using a mixed casting solvent for the precursor. ZnAc dissolves more readily in a 1:1 mix of ethanol (EtOH) and acetone than in either pure EtOH, pure acetone, or pure isopropanol, and ZnO films converted from mixed solvent cast ZnAc are more homogeneous. When gated with a biocompatible electrolyte, phosphate buffered saline (P...

  8. Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Source Precursors for Chalcopyrite I-III-VI2 Thin-Film Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Harris, Jerry D.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Dickman, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provide an attractive approach to fabricating solar arrays with high mass-specific power. A polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer is among the new generation of photovoltaic device technologies for thin film solar cells. At NASA Glenn Research Center we have focused on the development of new single-source precursors (SSPs) for deposition of semiconducting chalcopyrite materials onto lightweight, flexible substrates. We describe the syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering. Copper indium disulfide and related thin-film materials were deposited via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition using SSPs. Processing and post-processing parameters were varied in order to modify morphology, stoichiometry, crystallography, electrical properties, and optical properties to optimize device quality. Growth at atmospheric pressure in a horizontal hotwall reactor at 395 C yielded the best device films. Placing the susceptor closer to the evaporation zone and flowing a more precursor-rich carrier gas through the reactor yielded shinier-, smoother-, and denser-looking films. Growth of (112)-oriented films yielded more Cu-rich films with fewer secondary phases than growth of (204)/(220)-oriented films. Post-deposition sulfur-vapor annealing enhanced stoichiometry and crystallinity of the films. Photoluminescence studies revealed four major emission bands and a broad band associated with deep defects. The highest device efficiency for an aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposited cell was one percent.

  9. Structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis: Effect of precursor concentration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Zahedi; R S Dariani; S M Rozati

    2014-05-01

    ZnO thin films have been prepared using zinc acetate precursor by spray pyrolytic decomposition of zinc acetate on glass substrates at 450 °C. Effect of precursor concentration on structural and optical properties has been investigated. ZnO films are polycrystalline with (002) plane as preferential orientation. The optical transmission spectrum shows that transmission increases with decrease in the concentration and the maximum transmission in visible region is about 95% for ZnO films prepared with 0.1 M. The direct band-gap value decreases from 3.37 to 3.19 eV, when the precursor concentration increases from 0.1 to 0.4 M. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature show an ultraviolet (UV) emission at 3.26 eV and two visible emissions at 2.82 and 2.38 eV. Lowest resistivity is obtained at 2.09 cm for 0.3 M. The current–voltage characteristic of the ZnO thin films were measured in dark and under UV illumination. The values of photocurrent and photoresponsivity at 5 V are increased with increase in precursor concentration and reaches to maximum value of 1148 A and 0.287 A/W, respectively which is correlated to structural properties of ZnO thin films.

  10. Bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates: Facile single source precursors for the preparation of bismuth sulfide nanorods and bismuth phosphate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jasmine B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Garje, Shivram S., E-mail: ssgarje@chem.mu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Nuwad, Jitendra; Pillai, C.G.S. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Two different phase pure materials (Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) have been prepared under different conditions using the same single source precursors. Solvothermal decomposition of the complexes, Bi(S{sub 2}P(OR){sub 2}){sub 3} [where, R=Methyl (Me) (1), Ethyl (Et) (2), n-Propyl (Pr{sup n}) (3) and iso-Propyl (Pr{sup i}) (4)] in ethylene glycol gave orthorhombic bismuth sulfide nanorods, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) of the same precursors deposited monoclinic bismuth tetraphosphate (Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) thin films on glass substrates. Surface study of the thin films using SEM illustrated the formation of variety of nanoscale morphologies (spherical-, wire-, pendent-, doughnut- and flower-like) at different temperatures. AFM studies were carried out to evaluate quality of the films in terms of uniformity and roughness. Thin films of average roughness as low as 1.4 nm were deposited using these precursors. Photoluminescence studies of Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films were also carried out. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal decomposition of bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates in ethylene glycol gave Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition of these single source precursors deposited Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Preparation of phase pure orthorhombic Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and monoclinic Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. • Use of single source precursors for deposition of bismuth phosphate thin films. • Use of solvothermal decomposition and AACVD methods. • Morphology controlled synthesis of Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. • Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films using same single source precursors.

  11. Evolution of microstructure in mixed niobia-hybrid silica thin films from sol-gel precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besselink, Rogier; Stawski, Tomasz M; Castricum, Hessel L; ten Elshof, Johan E

    2013-08-15

    The evolution of structure in sol-gel derived mixed bridged silsesquioxane-niobium alkoxide sols and drying thin films was monitored in situ by small-angle X-ray scattering. Since sol-gel condensation of metal alkoxides proceeds much faster than that of silicon alkoxides, the incorporation of d-block metal dopants into silica typically leads to formation of densely packed nano-sized metal oxide clusters that we refer as metal oxide building blocks in a silica-based matrix. SAXS was used to study the process of niobia building block formation while drying the sol as a thin film at 40-80°C. The SAXS curves of mixed niobia-hybrid silica sols were dominated by the electron density contrast between sol particles and surrounding solvent. As the solvent evaporated and the sol particles approached each other, a correlation peak emerged. Since TEM microscopy revealed the absence of mesopores, the correlation peak was caused by a heterogeneous system of electron-rich regions and electron poor regions. The regions were assigned to small clusters that are rich in niobium and which are dispersed in a matrix that mainly consisted of hybrid silica. The correlation peak was associated with the typical distances between the electron dense clusters and corresponded with distances in real space of 1-3 nm. A relationship between the prehydrolysis time of the silica precursor and the size of the niobia building blocks was observed. When 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane was first hydrolyzed for 30 min before adding niobium penta-ethoxide, the niobia building blocks reached a radius of 0.4 nm. Simultaneous hydrolysis of the two precursors resulted in somewhat larger average building block radii of 0.5-0.6 nm. This study shows that acid-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of mixed hybrid silica niobium alkoxides can be rationalized and optimized by monitoring the structural evolution using time-resolved SAXS.

  12. Thermal aging effect of vanadyl acetylacetonate precursor for deposition of VO{sub 2} thin films with thermochromic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung-Hoon [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang-Hun [Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donguk; Kim, Minha [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyeon Jin; Ro, Yu Hyeon [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Yong Tae [YOUNG DO Glass Industry Co., Ltd., Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Boo, Jin-Hyo, E-mail: jhboo@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • 7 day aged VO(acac){sub 2} sol shows enhanced adhesivity on the SiO{sub 2} compared with non-aged sol. • The aging process has significantly affected the morphologies of VO{sub 2} films. • From the FT-IR spectra, thermal aging process provides the deformation of precursor. • The metal insulator transition (MIT) efficiency (ΔT{sub at2000} {sub nm}) reached a maximum value of 51% at 7 day aging. • Thermal aging process could shorten the aging time of sol solution. - Abstract: Thermochromic properties of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) have been studied extensively due to their IR reflection applications in energy smart windows. In this paper, we studied the optical switching property of VO{sub 2} thin film, depending on the thermal aging time of the vanadyl acetylacetonate (VO(acac){sub 2}) precursor. We found the alteration of the IR spectra of the precursor by tuning the aging time as well as heat treatments of the precursor. An aging effect of vanadium precursor directly affects the morphologies, optical switching property and crystallinity of VO{sub 2} films. The optimum condition was achieved at the 7 day aging time with metal insulator transition (MIT) efficiency of 50%.

  13. Nanocystalline ZnO films prepared via polymeric precursor method (Pechini)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, C.; Doria, J.; Paucar, C.; Hernandez, M. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Mosquera, A.; Rodriguez, J.E. [Grupo CYTEMAC, Universidad del Cauca, Calle 5 No 4-70, Popayan (Colombia); Gomez, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Baca, E. [Grupo de Ingenieria de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.c [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia)

    2010-09-01

    The polymeric precursor method (Pechini) was employed to prepare high-quality nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films. Briefly, the process started off with the preparation of a coating solution by the Pechini process followed by a coating of the glass substrates by a dip-coating technique and subsequent heat-treatment of the as-deposited films up to 550 {sup o}C for 30 min. The Rietveld profile analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed the wuerzite structure as expected for ZnO with a P6{sub 3}mc symmetry. No additional peaks were observed that would correspond to any secondary crystalline phase. The average crystallites size was 20 nm as calculated by Sherrer's equation. UV-vis spectroscopy showed sharp ultraviolet absorption edges at {approx}380 nm. The absorption edge analysis yielded optical band gap energy of 3.24 eV with electronic transition of the direct transition type. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed asymmetric and symmetric stretching modes of the carboxyl group (C=O). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed a crack-free surface morphology indicating that coating of the amorphous glass substrates was homogeneous on large surface areas. The temperature dependent conductivity featured a typical semiconducting-like behavior with resistivity approaching 3x10{sup -1} {Omega} cm at 220 K.

  14. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Zhenghua; Yan Chang; Sun Kaiwen; Han Zili [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Jin [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lai Yanqing, E-mail: laiyanqingcsu@163.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li Jie; Liu Yexiang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Earth-abundant Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  15. Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenghua; Yan, Chang; Sun, Kaiwen; Han, Zili; Liu, Fangyang; Liu, Jin; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2012-07-01

    Earth-abundant Cu2ZnSnS4 is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu2ZnSnS4 and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 1018 cm-3 and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  16. An iron(II) diketonate–diamine complex as precursor for thin film fabrication by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratvold, Jon E., E-mail: j.e.bratvold@kjemi.uio.no [Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN)/Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Carraro, Giorgio [Department of Chemistry, University of Padova and INSTM, via F. Marzolo 1, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Barreca, Davide [CNR-IENI and INSTM, Department of Chemistry, University of Padova, via F. Marzolo 1, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nilsen, Ola [Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN)/Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • First report of Fe(hfa){sub 2}TMEDA as precursor in ALD and MLD. • Hybrid organic–inorganic films with oxalic acid as co-reactant between 125 and 350 °C. • Surface saturation evidenced by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) analysis. • XPS confirms complete preservation of Fe(II) from precursor to film. • Deposition of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} when using ozone as co-reactant. - Abstract: A new divalent Fe precursor has been explored for deposition of iron-containing thin films by atomic layer deposition and molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD). The Fe(II) β-diketonate-diamine complex, Fe(hfa){sub 2}TMEDA, (hfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionate, TMEDA = N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine) can be handled in air, and sublimation at 60 °C ensures a satisfactory vaporization rate. The reactivity of the precursor does not allow for direct reaction with water as co-reactant. Nevertheless, it reacts with carboxylic acids, resulting in organic–inorganic hybrid materials, and with ozone, yielding α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The divalent oxidation state of iron was maintained during deposition when oxalic acid was used as co-reactant, demonstrating the first preservation of Fe(II) from precursor to film during an MLD process. A self-saturating growth mode was proven by in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, and the films were further characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  17. Effects of Precursor Concentration on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Grown on Muscovite Mica Substrates by Sol-Gel Spin-Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younggyu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2016-05-01

    The structural and optical properties of the ZnO thin films grown on mica substrates for different precursor concentrations were investigated. The surface morphologies of all the samples indicated that they consisted of granular structures with spherical nano-sized crystallites. The thickness of the ZnO thin films increased significantly and the optical band gap exhibited a blue shift with an increase in the precursor concentration. It is remarkable that the highest I(NBE)/I(DLE) ratio was observed for the ZnO thin film with 0.8 M precursor concentration, even though cracks formed on the surface of this film.

  18. Effect of Bi content in precursor solutions on microstructure and ferroelectric properties of bismuth cerium titanate thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sol-gel derived bismuth cerium titanate (BCT) thin films with different Bi contents in precursor solu- tions were deposited on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. The effect of Bi content in the precursor solutions on the microstructure and ferroelectric properties of the films was investigated. It is found that with Bi content increasing from 90% to 110% of the nominal value in the precursor solutions, the dissipation factor and leakage current density of the BCT films obtained decrease, while the grain sizes, dielectric constant and remanent polarizations (2Pr) increase, and concurrently, a Bi-deficient phase of Bi2Ti2O7 gradually disappears. The film prepared from solution with 110% of the nominal Bi content exhibits pure Bi-layered Aurivillius polycrystalline phase, and the 2Pr value and coercive field value are 67.1 μC/cm2 and 299.7 kV/cm, respectively. Their dielectric constant and the dissipation factor are about 172 and 0.033 at 1 kHz, respectively. Moreover, this film shows no polarization fatigue after 4.46×109 switching cycles.

  19. Cobalt(I) Olefin Complexes: Precursors for Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Purity Cobalt Metal Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jeff A; Pugh, Thomas; Johnson, Andrew L; Kingsley, Andrew J; Richards, Stephen P

    2016-07-18

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a family of organometallic cobalt(I) metal precursors based around cyclopentadienyl and diene ligands. The molecular structures of the complexes cyclopentadienyl-cobalt(I) diolefin complexes are described, as determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis and thermal stability studies of the complexes highlighted the isoprene, dimethyl butadiene, and cyclohexadiene derivatives [(C5H5)Co(η(4)-CH2CHC(Me)CH2)] (1), [(C5H5)Co(η(4)-CH2C(Me)C(Me)CH2)] (2), and [(C5H5)Co(η(4)-C6H8)] (4) as possible cobalt metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) precursors. Atmospheric pressure MOCVD was employed using precursor 1, to synthesize thin films of metallic cobalt on silicon substrates under an atmosphere (760 torr) of hydrogen (H2). Analysis of the thin films deposited at substrate temperatures of 325, 350, 375, and 400 °C, respectively, by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal temperature-dependent growth features. Films grown at these temperatures are continuous, pinhole-free, and can be seen to be composed of hexagonal particles clearly visible in the electron micrograph. Powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy all show the films to be highly crystalline, high-purity metallic cobalt. Raman spectroscopy was unable to detect the presence of cobalt silicides at the substrate/thin film interface.

  20. Effect of Sn Content in a CuSnZn Metal Precursor on Formation of MoSe2 Film during Selenization in Se+SnSe Vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe thin films by the selenization of an electrodeposited copper–tin–zinc (CuSnZn precursor with various Sn contents in low-pressure Se+SnSex vapor was studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS measurements revealed that the Sn content of the precursor that is used in selenization in a low-pressure Se+SnSex vapor atmosphere only slightly affects the elemental composition of the formed CZTSe films. However, the Sn content of the precursor significantly affects the grain size and surface morphology of CZTSe films. A metal precursor with a very Sn-poor composition produces CZTSe films with large grains and a rough surface, while a metal precursor with a very Sn-rich composition procures CZTSe films with small grains and a compact surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD and SEM revealed that the metal precursor with a Sn-rich composition can grow a thicker MoSe2 thin film at CZTSe/Mo interface than one with a Sn-poor composition, possibly because excess Sn in the precursor may catalyze the formation of MoSe2 thin film. A CZTSe solar cell with an efficiency of 7.94%was realized by using an electrodeposited metal precursor with a Sn/Cu ratio of 0.5 in selenization in a low-pressure Se+SnSex vapor.

  1. Nanomechanical properties of SiC films grown from C{sub 60} precursors using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Balooch, M.; Hamza, A.V.; Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The mechanical properties of SiC films grown via C{sub 60} precursors were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Conventional silicon nitride and modified diamond cantilever AFM tips were employed to determine the film hardness, friction coefficient, and elastic modulus. The hardness is found to be between 26 and 40 GPa by nanoindentation of the film with the diamond tip. The friction coefficient for the silicon nitride tip on the SiC film is about one third that for silicon nitride sliding on a silicon substrate. By combining nanoindentation and AFM measurements an elastic modulus of {approximately}300 GPa is estimated for these SiC films. In order to better understand the atomic scale mechanisms that determine the hardness and friction of SiC, we simulated the molecular dynamics of a diamond indenting a crystalline SiC substrate.

  2. Chemical fabrication of p-type Cu{sub 2}O transparent thin film using molecular precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Hiroki [Research Institute of Science and Technology, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Suzuki, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Hara, Hiroki; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Takano, Ichiro; Honda, Tohru [Research Institute of Science and Technology, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Sato, Mitsunobu, E-mail: lccsato@cc.kogakuin.ac.jp [Research Institute of Science and Technology, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    A transparent p-type Cu{sub 2}O thin film of 50 nm thickness was successfully fabricated by means of a solution-based process involving the thermal reaction of molecular precursor films spin-coated on a Na-free glass substrate. The precursor solution was prepared by the reaction of an isolated Cu{sup 2+} complex of ethylenediamine-N, N, N Prime , N Prime -tetraacetic acid with dibutylamine in ethanol. The Cu{sub 2}O thin films resulting from heat treatment of the precursor film at 450 Degree-Sign C for 10 min in Ar gas at a flow rate of 1.0 L min{sup -1} were characterized by X-ray diffraction which indicated a precise cubic lattice cell parameter of a = 0.4265(2) nm, with a crystallite size of 8(2) nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peaks, attributable to the O 1s and Cu 2p{sub 3/2} level of the Cu{sub 2}O film were found at 532.6 eV and 932.4 eV, respectively. An average grain size of the deposited Cu{sub 2}O particles of ca. 200 nm was observed via field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The optical band edge evaluated from the absorption spectrum of the Cu{sub 2}O transparent thin film was 2.3 eV, assuming a direct-transition semiconductor. Hall Effect measurements of the thin film indicated that the single-phase Cu{sub 2}O thin film is a typical p-type semiconductor, with a hole concentration of 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} and hole mobility of 4.8 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} at ambient temperature. The activation energy from the valence band to the acceptor level determined from an Arrhenius plot was 0.34 eV. The adhesion strength of the thin film on the Na-free glass substrate was also determined as a critical load (Lc1) of 2.0 N by means of a scratch test. The method described is the first example of fabrication and characterization of a p-type Cu{sub 2}O transparent thin film by a wet process. -- Graphical abstract: The p-type Cu{sub 2}O transparent thin film was facilely fabricated on a Na-free grass substrate by a solution based

  3. Metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of lithium manganese oxide thin films via single solid source precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedotun K.O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium manganese oxide thin films were deposited on sodalime glass substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD technique. The films were prepared by pyrolysis of lithium manganese acetylacetonate precursor at a temperature of 420 °C with a flow rate of 2.5 dm3/min for two-hour deposition period. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM and van der Pauw four point probe method were used for characterizations of the film samples. RBS studies of the films revealed fair thickness of 1112.311 (1015 atoms/cm2 and effective stoichiometric relationship of Li0.47Mn0.27O0.26. The films exhibited relatively high transmission (50 % T in the visible and NIR range, with the bandgap energy of 2.55 eV. Broad and diffused X-ray diffraction patterns obtained showed that the film was amorphous in nature, while microstructural studies indicated dense and uniformly distributed layer across the substrate. Resistivity value of 4.9 Ω·cm was obtained for the thin film. Compared with Mn0.2O0.8 thin film, a significant lattice absorption edge shift was observed in the Li0.47Mn0.27O0.26 film.

  4. CZTS absorber layer for thin film solar cells from electrodeposited metallic stacked precursors (Zn/Cu-Sn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. I.; Atici, O.; Lucotti, A.; Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A.; Magagnin, L.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, Kesterite-Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were successfully synthesized from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn) through electrodeposition-annealing route. Adherent and homogeneous Cu-poor, Zn-rich stacked metal Cu-Zn-Sn precursors with different compositions were sequentially electrodeposited, in the order of Zn/Cu-Sn onto Mo foil substrates. Subsequently, stacked layers were soft annealed at 350 °C for 20 min in flowing N2 atmosphere in order to improve intermixing of the elements. Then, sulfurization was completed at 585 °C for 15 min in elemental sulfur environment in a quartz tube furnace with N2 atmosphere. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the films were investigated using SEM, EDS and XRD methods. Raman spectroscopy with two different excitation lines (514.5 and 785 nm), has been carried out on the sulfurized films in order to fully characterize the CZTS phase. Higher excitation wavelength showed more secondary phases, but with low intensities. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) has also been performed on films showing well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness as compositions of the elements do not change along the thickness. In order to investigate the electronic structure of the CZTS, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out on the films, whose results matched up with the literatures.

  5. Optical and electrical characteristics of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition boron carbonitride thin films derived from N-trimethylborazine precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulyaeva, Veronica S., E-mail: veronica@niic.nsc.ru [Department of Functional Materials Chemistry, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kosinova, Marina L.; Rumyantsev, Yurii M.; Kuznetsov, Fedor A. [Department of Functional Materials Chemistry, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, Valerii G. [Laboratory of Physical Principles for Integrated Microelectronics, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kirienko, Viktor V. [Laboratory of Nonequilibrium Semiconductors Systems, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-02

    Thin BC{sub x}N{sub y} films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using N-trimethylborazine as a precursor. The films were deposited on Si(100) and fused silica substrates. The grown films were characterized by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. The deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature (373–973 K) and gas phase composition were varied. Low temperature BC{sub x}N{sub y} films were found to be high optical transparent layers in the range of 300–2000 nm, the transmittance as high as 93% has been achieved. BC{sub x}N{sub y} layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9 depending on the synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • Thin BC{sub x}N{sub y} films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • N-trimethylborazine was used as a precursor. • Low temperature BC{sub x}N{sub y} films were found to be high optical transparent layers (93%). • BC{sub x}N{sub y} layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9.

  6. CZTS absorber layer for thin film solar cells from electrodeposited metallic stacked precursors (Zn/Cu-Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M.I., E-mail: mdibrahim.khalil@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Atici, O. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Lucotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A. [Department of Materials Science and Solar Energy Research Centre (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano- Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Magagnin, L., E-mail: luca.magagnin@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • CZTS absorber layer was fabricated by electrodeposition—annealing route from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn). • Different characterization techniques have ensured the well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness also. • Two different excitation wavelengths of laser lines (514.5 and 785 nm) have been used for the Raman characterization of the films. • No significant Sn loss is observed in CZTS films after the sulfurization of the stacked bilayer precursors. • Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals the PL peak of CZTS at 1.15 eV at low temperature (15 K). - Abstract: In the present work, Kesterite-Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were successfully synthesized from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn) through electrodeposition-annealing route. Adherent and homogeneous Cu-poor, Zn-rich stacked metal Cu-Zn-Sn precursors with different compositions were sequentially electrodeposited, in the order of Zn/Cu-Sn onto Mo foil substrates. Subsequently, stacked layers were soft annealed at 350 °C for 20 min in flowing N{sub 2} atmosphere in order to improve intermixing of the elements. Then, sulfurization was completed at 585 °C for 15 min in elemental sulfur environment in a quartz tube furnace with N{sub 2} atmosphere. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the films were investigated using SEM, EDS and XRD methods. Raman spectroscopy with two different excitation lines (514.5 and 785 nm), has been carried out on the sulfurized films in order to fully characterize the CZTS phase. Higher excitation wavelength showed more secondary phases, but with low intensities. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) has also been performed on films showing well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness as compositions of the elements do not change along the thickness. In order to investigate the electronic structure of the CZTS, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out on the films, whose

  7. Coordination compounds as precursors for laser deposition of nickel-based conducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, M.; Dupuis, O.; Janosi, A.; Soumillion, J. P.

    1994-09-01

    Coordination compounds of nickel(II) are used as precursors for the formation of nickel and nickel oxide deposits on alumina substrates by direct laser writing using an argon ion laser. The starting resins are made of aqueous, methanolic or N,N-dimethylformamide (dmf) solutions of nickel(II) acetate, formate or acetylacetonate in the presence of a polymeric cellulose-based additive which controls the spin-coating step of the substrate. Infrared, UV-visible and NMR spectroscopic studies are carried out on the acetate solutions and resins to understand the interactions occurring between the various components. Arguments supporting the replacement of water molecules in tetrahydrated nickel(II) acetate by the organic solvent are described. The nature of the obtained deposits is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Whereas resins based on acetate or acetylacetonate compounds in dmf and methanol are shown to generate nickel oxide films, aqueous resins based on nickel(II) formate are found to be very promising in view of obtaining conductive deposits of nickel metal. The role of the cellulosic additive is clearly restricted to the viscosity modulation.

  8. Effects of template and precursor chemistry on structure and properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Shari; Fryxell, Glen E; Birnbaum, Jerome C; Wang, Chongmin

    2004-10-12

    Mesoporous TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel processing using an aqueous-based, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly precursor and cationic surfactants as templates under mild reaction conditions. The films were prepared by spin-coating on glass substrates followed by calcination to remove the surfactant. N2 sorption, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the porosity, pore size, and pore structure before and after calcination. Films were found to have wormlike pore structures after calcination and surface areas on the order of 200 m2/g. These results show that the mesostructure and porosity of the thin films can be controlled by the surfactant template chemistry such as surfactant/Ti ratio, pH, and rate of solvent evaporation.

  9. Enhanced UV-sensitivity of vis-responsive anatase thin films fabricated by using precursor solutions involving Ti complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Hara, Hiroki; Sato, Mitsunobu [Coordination Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji City, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Takano, Ichiro [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji City, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    Fabrication of vis-responsive anatase thin films with enhanced UV-sensitivity was attained on an ITO pre-coated glass substrate by applying two precursor solutions involving Ti complexes of oxalic acid and EDTA. The transparent and crack-free thin films were characterized by XRD, XPS, UV-vis and FE-SEM observation. The highest sensitivity to UV light of the vis-responsive film, whose photocatalytic activity was measured by the decomposition rate of methylene blue, was four times as compared with that formed by a sol-gel method under the same conditions. The vis-responsive films showed a characteristic absorption band at around 480 nm. (author)

  10. CdS thin films obtained by thermal treatment of cadmium(II) complex precursor deposited by MAPLE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, Andrei [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Mietlarek-Kropidlowska, Anna [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoreanu, Nicu; Dumitru, Marius [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Strankowski, Michal [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Rotaru, Petre [University of Craiova, Faculty of Physics, 13 A.I. Cuza St., Craiova RO-200585, Dolj (Romania); Ion, Valentin [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Vasiliu, Cristina [INOE 2000 - National Institute for Optoelectronics, 1 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Becker, Barbara [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemistry Faculty, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., PL-90-233 Gdansk (Poland); Dinescu, Maria [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PPAM - Lasers Department, 409 Atomistilor Bvd., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    Thin films of [Cd{l_brace}SSi(O-Bu{sup t}){sub 3}{r_brace}(S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2})]{sub 2}, precursor for semiconducting CdS layers, were deposited on silicon substrates by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Structural analysis of the obtained films by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the viability of the procedure. After the deposition of the coordination complex, the layers are manufactured by appropriate thermal treatment of the system (thin film and substrate), according to the thermal analysis of the compound. Surface morphology of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE) measurements.

  11. Characterization of CuInS2 thin films prepared by sulfurization of Cu-In precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN You-hua; LIU Ying-chun; FANG Ling; ZHU Jing-sen; ZHAO Hai-hua; LI De-ren; LU Zhi-chao; ZHOU Shao-xiong

    2008-01-01

    CuInS2 thin films were prepared by sulfurization of Cu-In precursors. The influences of the deposition sequence of Cu and In layers, such as Cu/In, Cu/In/In, and In/Cu/In, on structure, topography, and optical properties of CuInS2 thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that the deposition sequence of Cu and In layers affects the crystalline quality of CuInS2 films. Atomic force microstructure images reveal that the grain size and surface roughness are related to the deposition sequence used. When the deposition sequence of precursor is In/Cu/In, the CuInS2 thin films show a single-phase chalcopyrite structure with (112) preferred orientation. The surface morphology of CIS films is uniform and compacted. The absorption coefficient is larger than 104cm-1 with optical band gap Eg close to 1.4 eV.

  12. Preparation and characterization of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films from electrodeposited precursors for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisch, Jennifer E.; Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Teeter, Glenn; Turner, John A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401-3393 (United States)

    2004-02-06

    Semiconducting Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films were made from electrodeposited Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} precursors, followed by physical vapor deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Ga, and Se. The bandgaps of these materials were found to be between 1.6 and 2.0eV, which spans the optimal bandgap necessary for application for the top junction in photovoltaic multijunction devices and for unassisted water photolysis. These films were characterized by electron-probe microanalysis, scanning Auger spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photocurrent spectroscopy.

  13. Activation of Metal-Organic Precursors by Electron Bombardment in the Gas Phase for Enhanced Deposition of Solid Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaxing; Qin, Xiangdong; Zaera, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The incorporation of gas-phase electron-impact ionization and activation of metal-organic compounds into atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is reported as a way to enhance film growth with stable precursors. Specifically, it is shown here that gas-phase activation of methylcyclopentadienylmanganese tricarbonyl, MeCpMn(CO)3, which was accomplished by using a typical nude ion gauge employed in many ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) studies, enhances its dissociative adsorption on silicon surfaces, affording the design of ALD cycles with more extensive Mn deposition and at lower temperatures. Significantly higher Mn uptakes were demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on both silicon dioxide films and on Si(100) wafers Ar(+)-sputtered to remove their native oxide layer. The effectiveness of this electron-impact activation approach in ALD is explained in terms of the cracking patterns seen in mass spectrometry for the metal-organic precursor used.

  14. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of Ti-O-C-N thin films using TBOT as a promising precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, O.A., E-mail: oafouad@yahoo.com [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87, Helwan 11421, Helwan (Egypt); Geioushy, R.A.; El-Sheikh, S.M. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87, Helwan 11421, Helwan (Egypt); Khedr, M.H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Ibrahim, I.A. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87, Helwan 11421, Helwan (Egypt)

    2011-05-19

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Novel precursor (TBOT) has been used for synthesis of from Ti(O,C,N) thin films via APCVD process. > TiO{sub 2} and TiC compounds deposition were thermodynamically favored as products of metalorganic precursor decomposition in presence of H{sub 2} gas at temperature >500 deg. C. > TiO{sub 2} deposited in the form of spherical-like shape particles, TiC deposited in the form of fiber-like shape structures. > High hardness value was obtained for Ti-O-C-N films at 750 deg. C ({approx}425 HV{sub 50}) due to the formation of stoichiometric TiN phase. - Abstract: Ti-O, Ti-O-C and Ti-O-C-N thin films have been synthesized successfully via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. Tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT) is used as a precursor in presence of Ar, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} as process gases. By controlling deposition temperature and type of process gases, it was possible to control the composition of the deposited films. The deposited films are composed mainly of Ti and O when H{sub 2} is used as a process gas in the temperature range 350-500 deg. C. As the temperature increased up to 600 deg. C, thin films containing anatase (TiO{sub 2}) and titanium carbide (TiC) phases are deposited and confirmed by XRD and EDX analyses. As the temperature increased to 750 deg. C, a transformation from anatase to rutile phase (TiO{sub 2}) is started and clearly observed from XRD patterns. Titanium nitride (Ti{sub 2}N and TiN) phase in addition to TiO{sub 2} and TiC phases are formed at 600-1000 deg. C in presence of nitrogen as a process gas. SEM images for all investigated film samples showed that the films are deposited mainly in the form of spherical particles ranged from few nano- to micrometer in size with some additional special features regardless the type of the process gas. Films containing carbon and nitrogen show higher hardness than that containing only oxygen. The obtained results may help in better

  15. Atomic layer deposition of VO2 films with Tetrakis-dimethyl-amino vanadium (IV) as vanadium precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinrui; Cao, Yunzhen; Yan, Lu; Li, Ying; Song, Lixin

    2017-02-01

    VO2 thin films have been grown on Si(100) (VO2/Si) and fused silica substrates (VO2/SiO2) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis-dimethyl-amino vanadium (IV) (TDMAV) as a novel vanadium precursor and water as reactant gas. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement was performed to study the ALD process of VO2 thin film deposition, and a constant growth rate of about 0.95 Å/cycle was obtained at the temperature range of 150-200 °C. XRD measurement was performed to study the influence of deposition temperature and post-annealing condition on the crystallization of VO2 films, which indicated that the films deposited between 150 and 200 °C showed well crystallinity after annealing at 475 °C for 100 min in Ar atmosphere. XPS measurement verified that the vanadium oxidation state was 4+ for both as-deposited film and post-annealed VO2/Si film. AFM was applied to study the surface morphology of VO2/Si films, which showed a dense polycrystalline film with roughness of about 1 nm. The resistance of VO2/Si films deposited between 150 °C and 200 °C as a function of temperature showed similar semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) characters with the transition temperature for heating branch (Tc,h) of about 72 °C, a hysteresis width of about 10 °C and the resistance change of two orders of magnitude. The increase of Tc,h compared with the bulk VO2 (68 °C) may be attributed to the tensile stress along the c-axis in the film. Transmittance measurement of VO2/SiO2 films showed typical thermochromic property with a NIR switching efficiency of above 50% at 2 μm across the transition.

  16. An iron(II) diketonate-diamine complex as precursor for thin film fabrication by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratvold, Jon E.; Carraro, Giorgio; Barreca, Davide; Nilsen, Ola

    2015-08-01

    A new divalent Fe precursor has been explored for deposition of iron-containing thin films by atomic layer deposition and molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD). The Fe(II) β-diketonate-diamine complex, Fe(hfa)2TMEDA, (hfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionate, TMEDA = N,N,N‧,N‧-tetramethylethylenediamine) can be handled in air, and sublimation at 60 °C ensures a satisfactory vaporization rate. The reactivity of the precursor does not allow for direct reaction with water as co-reactant. Nevertheless, it reacts with carboxylic acids, resulting in organic-inorganic hybrid materials, and with ozone, yielding α-Fe2O3. The divalent oxidation state of iron was maintained during deposition when oxalic acid was used as co-reactant, demonstrating the first preservation of Fe(II) from precursor to film during an MLD process. A self-saturating growth mode was proven by in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, and the films were further characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  17. Intermolecular interaction between rare earth and manganese precursors in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of perovskite manganite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshihiro [Department of Engineering Science, Osaka Electro-Communication University, 18-8 Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8530 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The gas-phase reaction mechanism was investigated in liquid delivery metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of praseodymium and lanthanum manganite films. We studied the gas-phase behavior of praseodymium, lanthanum, and manganese precursors under actual CVD conditions by in situ infrared absorption spectroscopy. The rate of the decrease of the infrared absorbance due to Pr(DPM){sub 3} was almost constant even if Mn(DPM){sub 3} was added, indicating that the intermolecular interaction between Pr and Mn precursors in the gas phase is relatively weak in MOCVD of praseodymium manganite films. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of the infrared absorption indicates that the thermal decomposition of La(DPM){sub 3} was promoted in the presence of Mn(DPM){sub 3}. The significant intermolecular interaction occurs between La and Mn precursors in the gas phase in MOCVD of lanthanum manganite films. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. MOCVD of Cobalt Oxide Using Co-Actylacetonate As Precursor: Thin Film Deposition and Study of Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Jogade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD is the deposition method of choice for achieving conformal uniform (composition and thickness continuous thin films over the micron geometry topology necessary for implementing advanced devices. Thin films of cobalt oxide were prepared by MOCVD technique on alumina substrate using a cobalt acetylacetonate as precursor. The thin films of cobalt oxide were deposited on alumina substrate by MOCVD at four different temperatures viz 490 °C, 515 °C, 535 °C, 565 °C. The as deposited samples are uniform and well adherent to the substrate. Thickness of the cobalt oxide film is maximum at temperature 535 °C. The crystalline and phase composition of films were examined by X-ray diffraction. The XRD reveals the crystalline nature with cubic in structure for all the samples. The surface morphology of the films were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The SEM image shows well defined closely packed grains for all the samples. The hexagonal shape of grains are observed for sample at temperature 515 °C. Raman spectroscopy shows Fm3m, 225 space groups for cobalt oxide thin films deposited on alumina substrate.

  19. Effect of the Milling Time of the Precursors on the Physical Properties of Sprayed Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Al) Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramireddy, Thrinath Reddy; Venugopal, Velmurugan; Bellam, Jagadeesh Babu; Maldonado, Arturo; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Velumani, Subramaniam; Olvera, María De La Luz

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique. The atomization of the solution was carried out by ultrasonic excitation. Six different starting solutions from both unmilled and milled Zn and Al precursors, dissolved in a mix of methanol and acetic acid, were prepared. The milling process was carried out using a planetary ball mill at a speed of 300 rpm, and different milling times, namely, 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min. Molar concentration, [Al]/[Zn] atomic ratio, deposition temperature and time, were kept at constant values; 0.2 M, 3 at.%, 475 °C, and 10 min, respectively. Results show that, under the same deposition conditions, electrical resistivities of ZnO:Al thin films deposited from milled precursors are lower than those obtained for films deposited from unmilled precursors. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films display a polycrystalline structure, fitting well with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Changes in surface morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well, since films deposited from unmilled precursors show triangular shaped grains, in contrast to films deposited from 15 and 35 min milled precursors that display thin slices with hexagonal shapes. The use of milled precursors to prepare starting solutions for depositing ZnO:Al thin films by ultrasonic pyrolysis influences their physical properties.

  20. Effect of the Milling Time of the Precursors on the Physical Properties of Sprayed Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Al Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María De La Luz Olvera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique. The atomization of the solution was carried out by ultrasonic excitation. Six different starting solutions from both unmilled and milled Zn and Al precursors, dissolved in a mix of methanol and acetic acid, were prepared. The milling process was carried out using a planetary ball mill at a speed of 300 rpm, and different milling times, namely, 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min. Molar concentration, [Al]/[Zn] atomic ratio, deposition temperature and time, were kept at constant values; 0.2 M, 3 at.%, 475 °C, and 10 min, respectively. Results show that, under the same deposition conditions, electrical resistivities of ZnO:Al thin films deposited from milled precursors are lower than those obtained for films deposited from unmilled precursors. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films display a polycrystalline structure, fitting well with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Changes in surface morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM as well, since films deposited from unmilled precursors show triangular shaped grains, in contrast to films deposited from 15 and 35 min milled precursors that display thin slices with hexagonal shapes. The use of milled precursors to prepare starting solutions for depositing ZnO:Al thin films by ultrasonic pyrolysis influences their physical properties.

  1. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al3+ ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al3+ films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni3+/Ni2+ also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni3+ making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film.

  2. Dialkyldiselenophosphinato-metal complexes - a new class of single source precursors for deposition of metal selenide thin films and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sajid N.; Akhtar, Masood; Revaprasadu, Neerish; Qadeer Malik, Abdul; Azad Malik, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    We report here a new synthetic approach for convenient and high yield synthesis of dialkyldiselenophosphinato-metal complexes. A number of diphenyldiselenophosphinato-metal as well as diisopropyldiselenophosphinato-metal complexes have been synthesized and used as precursors for deposition of semiconductor thin films and nanoparticles. Cubic Cu2-xSe and tetragonal CuInSe2 thin films have been deposited by AACVD at 400, 450 and 500 °C whereas cubic PbSe and tetragonal CZTSe thin films have been deposited through doctor blade method followed by annealing. SEM investigations revealed significant differences in morphology of the films deposited at different temperatures. Preparation of Cu2-xSe and In2Se3 nanoparticles using diisopropyldiselenophosphinato-metal precursors has been carried out by colloidal method in HDA/TOP system. Cu2-xSe nanoparticles (grown at 250 °C) and In2Se3 nanoparticles (grown at 270 °C) have a mean diameter of 5.0 ± 1.2 nm and 13 ± 2.5 nm, respectively.

  3. TiO2:(Fe, S Thin Films Prepared from Complex Precursors by CVD, Physical Chemical Properties, and Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bessergenev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TiO2 thin films were prepared using Ti(dpm2(OPri2 and Ti(OPri4 (dpm = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dione, Pri = isopropyl as the precursors. The volatile compounds Fe[(C2H52NCS2]3 and [(CH3C]2S2 were used to prepare doped TiO2 films. The synthesis was done in vacuum or in the presence of Ar and O2. The pressure in the CVD chamber was varied between 1.2×10−4 mbar and 0.1 mbar, with the system working either in the molecular beam or gas flow regime. Physical, chemical, and photocatalytic properties of the (Fe, S-doped TiO2 films were studied. Those TiO2:(Fe, S films prepared from the Ti(OPri4 precursor show increased photocatalytic activities, very close to those of Degussa P25 powder in UV region.

  4. Effect of precursor concentration on physical properties of nebulized spray deposited In2S3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raj Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of precursor concentration (mc on the structural, optical, morphological and electrical conductivity properties of In2S3 thin films grown on amorphous glass substrates by nebulized spray pyrolysis (NSP technique. The mixed phase of cubic and tetragonal structure of In2S3 thin films at higher concentration has been observed by X-ray diffraction pattern. The reduced strain by increasing the precursor concentration increased the average crystallite from 17.8 to 28.9 nm. The energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX studies confirmed the presence of In and S. The transmittance, optical direct band gap energy, Urbach energy and skin depth of In2S3 films have been analyzed by optical absorption spectra. The better conductivity and mobility noticed at mc = 0.15 M are explained by carrier concentration and crystallite. Better optical and electrical conductivity behaviour of In2S3 thin film sample proposes for effective solar cell fabrication.

  5. TMOS based water repellent silica thin films by co-precursor method using TMES as a hydrophobic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latthe, Sanjay S.; Nadargi, Digambar Y. [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Venkateswara Rao, A. [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: raouniv@yahoo.com

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the room temperature synthesis of dip coated water repellent silica coatings on glass substrates using trimethylethoxysilane (TMES) as a co-precursor. Silica sol was prepared by keeping the molar ratio of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) precursor, methanol (MeOH) solvent, water (H{sub 2}O) constant at 1:29.27:2.09 respectively, with 0.5 M NH{sub 4}OH throughout the experiments and the TMES/TMOS molar ratio (M) was varied from 0 to 3.8. It was found that with an increase in M value, the roughness and hydrophobicity of the films increased, however the optical transmission decreased from 93% to 57% in the visible range. The hydrophobic silica films retained their hydrophobicity up to a temperature of 250 deg. C and above this temperature the films became hydrophilic. The hydrophobic silica thin films were characterized by taking into consideration the surface roughness studies, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, percentage of optical transmission, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements.

  6. Fabrication of pyrite FeS{sub 2} thin films by sulfurizing oxide precursor films deposited via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kaiwen; Su, Zhenghua; Yang, Jia; Han, Zili [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Engineering Research Center of High Performance Battery Materials and Devices, Research Institute of Central South University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Liu, Yexiang [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2013-09-02

    Iron pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is a naturally abundant and nontoxic semiconductor that can potentially be used in photovoltaic devices. In this report, pure pyrite FeS{sub 2} thin films with homogeneous morphology and ideal composition are fabricated by sulfurizing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} precursor thin films deposited via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The formation mechanism of FeS{sub 2} is identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical and electrical (including photoelectrochemical) measurements show that the prepared pyrite FeS{sub 2} thin films have high absorption coefficient, suitable band gap, p-type conductivity and good photo-electrical conversion ability. - Highlights: • FeS{sub 2} films were prepared based on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. • XPS analysis revealed the formation mechanism of FeS{sub 2} films. • The FeS{sub 2} thin films are of pure pyrite structure and p-type conductivity. • The FeS{sub 2} thin films have suitable optical and electrical properties for solar cells.

  7. SnO{sub 2} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition using a novel Sn precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min-Jung [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Cheol Jin [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Chon; Pyeon, Jung Joon [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo-Suk; Han, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Chang Gyoun; Chung, Taek-Mo [Division of Advanced Materials, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Joo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Beomjin [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Doo Seok; Baek, Seung-Hyub [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chong-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sang [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Keun, E-mail: s.k.kim@kist.re.kr [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • We developed a new ALD process for SnO{sub 2} films using dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-propoxy-tin(II) as a novel Sn precursor. • The SnO{sub 2} films grown from Sn(dmamp){sub 2} has negligible impurity contents. • Sn ions in the films had a single binding state corresponding to Sn{sup 4+} in SnO{sub 2}. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2} thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-propoxy-tin(II) (Sn(dmamp){sub 2}) and O{sub 3} in a temperature range of 100–230 °C. The ALD window was found to be in the range of 100–200 °C. The growth per cycle of the films in the ALD window increased with temperature in the range from 0.018 to 0.042 nm/cycle. Above 230 °C, the self-limiting behavior which is a unique characteristic of ALD, was not observed in the growth because of the thermal decomposition of the Sn(dmamp){sub 2} precursor. The SnO{sub 2} films were amorphous in the ALD window and exhibited quite a smooth surface. Sn ions in all films had a single binding state corresponding to Sn{sup 4+} in SnO{sub 2}. The concentration of carbon and nitrogen in the all SnO{sub 2} films was below the detection limit of the auger electron spectroscopy technique and a very small amount of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen was detected by secondary ions mass spectroscopy only. The impurity contents decreased with increasing the growth temperature. This is consistent with the increase in the density of the SnO{sub 2} films with respect to the growth temperature. The ALD process with Sn(dmamp){sub 2} and O{sub 3} shows excellent conformality on a hole structure with an aspect ratio of ∼9. This demonstrates that the ALD process with Sn(dmamp){sub 2} and O{sub 3} is promising for growth of robust and highly pure SnO{sub 2} films.

  8. Structural and optical properties of tin (II) sulfide thin films deposited using organophosphorus precursor (Ph3PS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, Kawther; Alouani, Khaled; Vilanova, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates using triphenylphosphine sulfide (Ph3PS) as a sulfur precursor in a chemical vapor deposition reactor in a temperature range of 250 °C-400 °C. The influence of the sulphidisation temperature in the crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and optical properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analysis of x-rays, and Raman spectroscopy showed that pure SnS thin films have been successfully obtained at 250 °C. All the deposited films were polycrystalline and showed orthorhombic structure, with a preferential orientation according to the direction . The optical measurements showed that the films deposited exhibited a direct allowed transition and have a relatively high absorption coefficient. The presence of mixed tin sulfide phases granted by the variation of the sulphidisation temperature has affected the optical properties of the deposited films. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k), has low values compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The grown films can be considered as a good light absorbing material and a promising candidate for application in optoelectronic devices.

  9. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun, E-mail: lujun@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al{sup 3+} ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al{sup 3+} films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni{sup 3+} making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film. - Graphical abstract: The ratio of Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range, fast switching speed and excellent durability. Display Omitted.

  10. The role of cationic precursors in structural, morphological and optical properties of PbS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, K. C.; Murali, K. V.; Ragina, A. J.; Deepa, K.; Dhanya, A. C.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2013-05-01

    Thin films of Lead sulphide (PbS) were grown on soda lime glass substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method using lead acetate, lead chloride, lead nitrate, and lead sulphate as cationic precursors and thioacetamide as sulphur source. The experiments were carried out at room temperature under normal pressure utilizing aqueous conditions. The structural and morphological aspects of the as prepared samples were investigated by means of XRD and SEM results. The prepared samples were polycrystalline with nanometer-sized grains and identified as galena type cubic structure (FCC). The values of average crystallite size were found to be in the range 22 to 30 nm. The SEM micrographs show variations in morphology. Optical studies revealed that the absorption edges of the films indicated strong blue shifts with respect to bulk sample. In this work, we establish that the cationic precursor sources and in turn the size of the crystallites affects the structural, morphological and optical properties of PbS thin films.

  11. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberto Gómez-Pozos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C3H8, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 104, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C3H8 gas.

  12. Modulation of aqueous precursor solution temperature for the fabrication of high-performance metal oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Ho; Park, Jee Ho; Yoo, Young Bum; Han, Sun Woong; Jong Lee, Se; Baik, Hong Koo

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present a simple process for the fabrication of aqueous-solution-processed metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) via the manipulation of precursor solution temperature. Indium oxide TFTs fabricated from a solution of indium nitrate at 4 °C exhibited the highest mobility of 2.73 cm2/(V·s) at an annealing temperature of 200 °C. When the temperature of the metal oxide precursor solution is 4 °C, metal cations within the solution can be fully surrounded by H2O molecules owing to the high dielectric constant of H2O at low temperatures. These metal complexes are advantageous for the conversion of metal oxides via thermally driven hydrolysis and condensation processes due to their high potential energies. The same techniques have been applied successfully with high-order metal oxides including indium zinc oxide, indium gallium oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide.

  13. Characterization of r.f. sputtered thin Mo, W and Si films as precursors to multilayer X-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Joseph, D.; Poswal, A. K.

    2006-08-01

    Single layers of Mo, W and Si thin films have been deposited by r.f. sputtering on float glass and c-Si substrates kept at room temperature. The films have been characterised by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry (GIXR), X-ray transmission (XRT), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) studies. The thickness values obtained from the GIXR measurements have been used to calibrate the in situ thickness monitors. The surface roughness of the thin layers have also been determined from the GIXR measurements. The atomic mass density in the films have been obtained from the RBS measurements while X-ray absorption has been estimated from the XRT measurements. The surface morphology of the films has been investigated by the AFM micrographs. The Si thin films have also been characterized by the SE technique. The characterization of the samples by these complementary techniques have been very useful in optimizing the process parameters to obtain good quality layers as precursors to the fabrication of the multilayer X-ray mirrors based on Mo/Si and W/Si structures.

  14. Hafnium carbamates and ureates: new class of precursors for low-temperature growth of HfO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Milanov, Andrian P; Barreca, Davide; Gasparotto, Alberto; Becker, Hans-Werner; Winter, Manuela; Fischer, Roland A; Devi, Anjana

    2009-04-21

    Novel volatile compounds of hafnium, namely tetrakis-N,O-dialkylcarbamato hafnium(iv) [Hf((i)PrNC(O)O(i)Pr)(4)] () and tetrakis-N,N,N'-trialkylureato hafnium(iv) [Hf((i)PrNC(O)N-(Me)Et)(4)] (), have been synthesized through the simple insertion reaction of isopropyl isocyanate into hafnium isopropoxide and hafnium ethylmethylamide, respectively; based on the promising thermal properties, compound has been evaluated as a precursor for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of HfO(2) thin films, which resulted in the growth of stoichiometric and crystalline layers with a uniform morphology at temperature as low as 250 degrees C.

  15. Precursors' order effect on the properties of sulfurized Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Salomé, P. M. P.; da Cunha, A. F.

    2009-10-01

    A dc magnetron sputtering-based method to grow high-quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films, to be used as an absorber layer in solar cells, is being developed. This method combines dc sputtering of metallic precursors with sulfurization in S vapour and with post-growth KCN treatment for removal of possible undesired Cu2-xS phases. In this work, we report the results of a study of the effects of changing the precursors' deposition order on the final CZTS films' morphological and structural properties. The effect of KCN treatment on the optical properties was also analysed through diffuse reflectance measurements. Morphological, compositional and structural analyses of the various stages of the growth have been performed using stylus profilometry, SEM/EDS analysis, XRD and Raman Spectroscopy. Diffuse reflectance studies have been done in order to estimate the band gap energy of the CZTS films. We tested two different deposition orders for the copper precursor, namely Mo/Zn/Cu/Sn and Mo/Zn/Sn/Cu. The stylus profilometry analysis shows high average surface roughness in the ranges 300-550 nm and 230-250 nm before and after KCN treatment, respectively. All XRD spectra show preferential growth orientation along (1 1 2) at 28.45°. Raman spectroscopy shows main peaks at 338 cm-1 and 287 cm-1 which are attributed to Cu2ZnSnS4. These measurements also confirm the effectiveness of KCN treatment in removing Cu2-xS phases. From the analysis of the diffuse reflectance measurements the band gap energy for both precursors' sequences is estimated to be close to 1.43 eV. The KCN-treated films show a better defined absorption edge; however, the band gap values are not significantly affected. Hot point probe measurements confirmed that CZTS had p-type semiconductor behaviour and C-V analysis was used to estimate the majority carrier density giving a value of 3.3 × 1018 cm-3.

  16. Shadowgraphic investigations into the laser-induced forward transfer of different SnO{sub 2} precursor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattle, Thomas [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Shaw-Stewart, James [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Hintennach, Andreas [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Daimler AG (Mercedes-Benz Cars), Electrochemical Layers, HPC H152, 70176 Stuttgart (Germany); Schneider, Christof W. [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Lippert, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.lippert@psi.ch [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Wokaun, Alexander [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-08-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer of different SnO{sub 2} precursor films for sensor applications were investigated using time resolved imaging, from 0 to 2 μs after the onset of the ablation process. Transfers of SnCl{sub 2}(acac){sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} nano-particles, both with and without a triazene polymer dynamic release layer (DRL), were investigated and compared to transfers of aluminum films with a triazene polymer DRL. Shockwave speed and flyer speeds at high laser fluences of Φ = 650 mJ/cm{sup 2} and at the lower fluences, suitable for the transfer of functional and well defined pixels were analyzed. No influence of the use of a triazene polymer DRL on shockwave and flyer speed was observed. Material ejected under transfer condition showed a velocity of around 200 m/s with a weak shockwave.

  17. Synthesis and Nanostructures of Metal Selenide Precursors for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ji-Hyun; Noh, Se Jin; Jung, Duk-Young

    2015-07-20

    A nanoink solution-based process was developed as a low-costing method for the fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin-film photovoltaic cells. The sonochemical synthesis of CIGSe nanocrystals of the nanoink through step-by-step mixing of the reactants was investigated. To achieve the ideal stoichiometry of Cu(In0.7 Ga0.3 )Se2 to tune the bandgap and to fabricate high-efficiency photovoltaic cells, the synthetic parameters, the concentration of hydrazine, and the amount used of the gallium precursor were investigated. As the hydrazine concentration increased, gallium loss was observed in the CIGSe product. The gallium content in the reactant mixture strongly affected the metal stoichiometry of the prepared CIGSe nanocrystals. The nanoink solution based fabrication of thin-film photovoltaic cells was also explored, and the resulting device showed a conversion efficiency of 5.17 %.

  18. Trimethyl(phenylsilane — a precursor for gas phase processes of SiCx:H film deposition: Synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya N. Ermakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of synthesis and purification of trimethyl(phenylsilane PhSiMe3, allowing to obtain the product with high yield. Individuality of the product was confirmed by elemental analysis for C, H, Si was developed. IR, UV and 1H NMR-spectroscopic studies were used to define its spectral characteristics. Complex thermal analysis and thermogravimetry defined thermoanalytical behavior of PhSiMe3 in an inert atmosphere. Tensimetric studies have shown that the compound has sufficient volatility and thermal stability for use as a precursor in the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD. The composition and temperature limits of the possible crystalline phase complexes in equilibrium with the gas phase of different composition has been determined by method of thermodynamic modeling. Calculated CVD diagrams allow us to select the optimal conditions of film deposition. The possibility of using trimethyl(phenylsilane in CVD processes for producing dielectric films of hydrogenated silicon carbide has been demonstrated.

  19. Sulfide precursor concentration and lead source effect on PbS thin films properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddek, L.; Messaoudi, M.; Attaf, N. [Laboratoire Couche Minces et Interfaces, Université frères Mentouri Constantine, 25000, Constantine (Algeria); Aida, M.S., E-mail: aida_salah2@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Couche Minces et Interfaces, Université frères Mentouri Constantine, 25000, Constantine (Algeria); Bougdira, J. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198, Vandoeuvre 54506 (France)

    2016-05-05

    Lead sulfide (PbS) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD). Bath solutions are formed of various concentrations of thiourea, sulfide source, ranged from 0.6 to 1.2 M and two different salts as Pb source (lead acetate and lead nitrate). From the growth mechanism, we inferred that PbS is formed through the ion by ion process when using acetate lead source, while, using nitrate source yields to films growth through the complex-decomposition process. Due to the difference in the involved growth process, lead acetate produces films with larger crystallite size (from 4 to 16 nm), smooth and dense films. However, lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size (from 1 to 4 nm). Increasing the thiourea concentration results in crystallinity improvement when using lead acetate and, oppositely, in crystallinity degradation when using lead nitrate. Due to the quantum effect caused by the small crystallite sizes, the films optical gap is varied from 0.5 to 0.9 eV. - Highlights: • PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. • Ion by ion is the growth process when using the acetate lead source. • Deposition process is by complex-decomposition when using nitrate source. • Lead acetate yields to dense films with larger crystallite size. • Lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size.

  20. Hybrid polymer/TiO{sub 2} films by in situ hydrolysis condensation of titanium alkoxide precursors for photovoltaic transparent windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenas, Joel; Barlier, Vincent; Legare, Veronique-Bounor [Polymer Engineering, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5223, 43 Bd du 11 novembre, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Canut, Bruno [Lyon Institute of Nanotechnology, INSA de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5270, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Rybak, Andrzej [Polymer Engineering, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5223, 43 Bd du 11 novembre, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Department of Molecular Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Slazak, Agnieszka; Jung, Jaroslaw [Department of Molecular Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    Poly(vinylcarbazole)/TiO{sub 2} hybrid thin films have been produced by the hydrolysis condensation of titanium alkoxide precursors dispersed in a polymer layer deposited on ITO substrates. Common alkoxide precursors like titanium isopropoxide [Ti({sup i}OPr){sub 4}] show a fast hydrolysis beginning during film deposition, which leads to early phase separation. A new TiO{sub 2} precursor precursor bearing carbazole groups: titanium tetrakis 9H-carbazole-9-yl-ethyl-oxy [Ti(OeCarb){sub 4}] has been used to slow down the reactivity of the precursor by a steric hindrance effect. Improved precursor dispersion in the polymer solution is obtained for this new precursor leading to an homogeneous dispersion of the TiO{sub 2} phase at the nanoscale in the hybrid film. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has shown that the hydrolysis condensation was effective with the production of carbazol alcohol remaining trapped in the bulk of the film. This residual alcohol leads to an increase of the UV optical absorption of the PVK/TiO{sub 2} hybrid films. Improvement of the balance between the two types of photogenerated charges has been shown by surface potential decay experiments upon the formation of a TiO{sub 2} conduction network for the transport of electrons. The film is almost transparent above 350 nm opening a new route for the elaboration of semi-transparent photovoltaic glasses, which can find application on the growing market of energy efficient buildings. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Reaction kinetics of CuGaSe 2 formation from a GaSe/CuSe bilayer precursor film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. K.; Payzant, E. A.; Kim, S.; Speakman, S. A.; Crisalle, O. D.; Anderson, T. J.

    2008-06-01

    The reaction pathway and kinetics of CuGaSe 2 formation were investigated by monitoring the phase evolution of temperature ramp annealed or isothermally soaked bilayer glass/GaSe/CuSe precursor film using time-resolved, in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Bilayer GaSe/CuSe precursor films were deposited on alkali-free thin glass substrates in a migration-enhanced epitaxial deposition system. The initial CuSe phase begins to transform to β-Cu 2-xSe at around 230 °C, followed by CuGaSe 2 formation accompanied by a decrease in the β-Cu 2-xSe peak intensity at around 260 °C. Both the parabolic and Avrami diffusion-controlled reaction models represented the experimental data very well over the entire temperature range (280-370 °C) of the set of isothermal experiments with estimated activation energies of 115(±16) and 124(±19) kJ/mol, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (TEM-EDS) analysis suggests that CuGaSe 2 forms at the interface of the initial GaSe and CuSe layers.

  2. Growth and Characterization of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Molarity of Precursor Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mishra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Variation of structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties with molarity of the precursor solution is investigated in detail. XRD studies have shown that the films are polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal wurtzite structure with strong c-axis orientation which increases with increase in molarity of the precursor solution. Also the grain size increases from ~ 13.3 nm to 14.4 nm. SEM shows bead like structure scattered throughout the surface. The transmission study reveals a decrease in transmittance with an increase in molarity and the optical band gap lies in the range of ~ 3.25 eV to 3.27 eV for all the samples. The resistivity is found to be of the order of ~10-2 Ωcm, carrier concentration is ~ 1016/ cm3 and hall mobility is ~ 4 cm2/Vs using Vander Pauw method. Sheet resistance is estimated to be ~ 102 Ω/Sq for the samples under investigation.

  3. Non-vacuum processed Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films: Influence of copper precursor on structural, optical and morphological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Ferhat, E-mail: ferhataslan@harran.edu.tr; Tumbul, Ahmet

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • Non-vacuum sol–gel prepared CZTS thin films. • CZTS has been prepared with different copper precursors. • The remarkable effect of copper precursor on the CZTS films was identified. • The CZTS films exhibited kesterite phase with a (1 1 2) plane preferred orientation. - Abstract: In this study, thin film of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) has been successfully deposited by sol–gel dip-coating method on glass substrates. In the sol–gel process, glacial acetic acid, ethanol and triethanolamine were used as solvent and stabilizer. Three different copper precursors of copper (III) nitrate hemipentahydrate, copper (II) 2-ethylhexanoate and copper (II) acetate in the solution were used to obtain CZTS thin films. Effect of copper precursor on the structural, morphological and optical properties was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy studies showed that CZTS thin films exhibited kesterite structure with a (1 1 2) plane preferred orientation and Raman shift of 336 cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  4. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300 °C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M = Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200 °C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18 nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  5. MOCVD and ALD of rare earth containing multifunctional materials. From precursor chemistry to thin film deposition and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanov, Andrian Petrov

    2010-03-26

    The present thesis deals with the development of metal-organic complexes of rare elements. They should be used as novel precursors for the production of rare earth thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Within the work two precursor classes were examined, the tris-Malonato-complexes as well as the tris-Guanidinato-complexes of a series of rare earth metals. The latter showed excellent properties regarding to their volatility, their thermal stability, the defined decomposition and high reactivity towards water. They have been successfully used as precursors for the MOCVD of rare earth oxide layers. By using of a gadolinium guanidinate it could also be shown that the rare earth guanidinates are promising precursors for ALD of rare earth oxide and MOCVD of rare earth nitride layers. [German] Die vorliegende Dissertation beschaeftigt sich mit der Entwicklung von metallorganischen Komplexen der Seltenerd-Elemente. Diese sollten als neuartigen Precursoren fuer die Erzeugung von seltenerdhaltigen Duennschichten mittels Metallorganischer Chemischer Dampfabscheidung (MOCVD) und Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) eingesetzt werden. Innerhalb der Arbeit wurden zwei Precursorklassen untersucht, die Tris-Malonato-Komplexe sowie die Tris-Gunanidinato-Komplexe einer Reihe von Seltenerdmetallen. Letztere zeigten hervorragende Eigenschaften bezueglich ihrer Fluechtigkeit, ihrer thermischen Stabilitaet, der definierten Zersetzung und der hohen Reaktivitaet gegenueber Wasser. Sie wurden erfolgreich als Precursoren fuer die MOCVD von Seltenerd-Oxid-Schichten eingesetzt. Unter Verwendung eines Gadolinium Guanidinats konnte ausserdem gezeigt werden, dass die Seltenerd-Guanidinate vielversprechende Precursoren fuer die ALD von Seltenerd-Oxid-Schichten sowie die MOCVD von Seltenerd-Nitrid-Schichten darstellen.

  6. Alignment of muscle precursor cells on the vertical edges of thick carbon nanotube films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Ian; Gestmann, Ingo; Wright, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    The development of scaffolds and templates is an essential aspect of tissue engineering. We show that thick (>0.5 mm) vertically aligned carbon nanotube films, made by chemical vapour deposition, can be used as biocompatible substrates for the directional alignment of mouse muscle cells where the cells grow on the exposed sides of the films. Ultra high resolution scanning electron microscopy reveals that the films themselves consist mostly of small diameter (10 nm) multi-wall carbon nanotubes of wavy morphology with some single wall carbon nanotubes. Our findings show that for this alignment to occur the nanotubes must be in pristine condition. Mechanical wiping of the films to create directional alignment is detrimental to directional bioactivity. Larger areas for study have been formed from a composite of multiply stacked narrow strips of nanotubes wipe-transferred onto elastomer supports. These composite substrates appear to show a useful degree of alignment of the cells.

  7. Orientation of Zn3P2 films via phosphidation of Zn precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsube, Ryoji; Nose, Yoshitaro

    2017-02-01

    Orientation of solar absorber is an important factor to achieve high efficiency of thin film solar cells. In the case of Zn3P2 which is a promising absorber of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells, (110)/(001) orientation was only reported in previous studies. We have successfully prepared (101)-oriented Zn3P2 films by phosphidation of (0001)-oriented Zn films at 350 °C. The phosphidation mechanism of Zn is discussed through STEM observations on the partially-reacted sample and the consideration of the relationship between the crystal structures of Zn and Zn3P2 . We revealed that (0001)-oriented Zn led to nucleation of (101)-oriented Zn3P2 due to the similarity in atomic arrangement between Zn and Zn3P2 . The electrical resistivity of the (101)-oriented Zn3P2 film was lower than those of (110)/(001)-oriented films, which is an advantage of the phosphidation technique to the growth processes in previous works. The results in this study demonstrated that well-conductive Zn3P2 films could be obtained by controlling orientations of crystal grains, and provide a guiding principle for microstructure control in absorber materials.

  8. Impact of nanoscale surface heterogeneity on precursor film growth and macroscopic spreading of [Rmim][NTf2] ionic liquids on mica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhantao; Priest, Craig

    2013-09-10

    The connection between the interfacial properties of ionic liquids and their wetting behavior has been studied very little to date and not at all on heterogeneous surfaces. Therefore, we have investigated the static and dynamic wetting for a family of ionic liquids, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [Rmim][NTf2], on mica, where R represents an ethyl, butyl, or hexyl alkyl chain on the imidazolium ring. Spreading is impacted greatly by a precursor film that forms on both homogeneous and heterogeneous mica surfaces. Macroscopically, the initial viscous spreading of the ionic liquid droplet on bare mica occurs within seconds but is then followed by a very slow relaxation that can be closely correlated with the typical time-scales of the precursor film growth. The contact angle for [emim][NTf2] and [bmim][NTf2] relaxes from about 40° to 23° over 30 and 90 min, respectively. For [hmim][NTf2], the process takes approximately 24 h and approaches complete wetting. The thickness of the precursor films for [emim][NTf2], [bmim][NTf2], and [hmim][NTf2] were 0.53, 0.65, and 1.0 nm, respectively, according to atomic force microscopy (AFM). These values are consistent with a monolayer of ionic liquid cations on mica, rather than ion pairs. A monolayer of octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA) on mica prevents both the formation of a precursor film and the relaxation of the contact angle. However, only a partial surface coverage of ~60% OPA is required to have the same effect. Quenching of precursor film formation (and associated contact angle relaxation) is due to an increasingly connected network of OPA regions that closes the nanoscale paths of bare mica on which the precursor film can develop via surface diffusion.

  9. Variation in the structure and optical properties of polymorphous silicon thin films using dichlorosilane as silicon precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remolina, A.; Hamui, L.; Monroy, B.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.F.; Santana, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, C. P. 04510, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Ponce, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo 140, C. P. 25290, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Picquart, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, AP 55-534, Av. Sn Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-03-15

    Polymorphous silicon thin films were obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using dichlorosilane as silicon precursor. The RF power and the dichlorosilane to hydrogen flow rate ratio were varied to obtain different crystalline fractions and average sizes of silicon nanocrystals embedded in the amorphous silicon matrix. Microscopy images confirmed the existence of nanocrystallites with averages sizes between 2 and 6 nm. Broader size distributions were obtained with increasing RF power. Raman results confirmed that different nanocrystalline fractions (from 12% to 54%) can be achieved in these films by regulating the selected growth parameters. The optical band gap calculated by the Tauc model from UV-visible transmittance measurements varies between 1.8 to 2.3 eV. The relationship between the optical properties is discussed in terms of the different nanostructures of the samples. Depending on their absorption properties and effective band gap, these materials can be suitable for application in thin film solar cell devices (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Hydrophobic films by atmospheric plasma curing of spun-on liquid precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barankin, Michael D; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Habib, Sara B; Gao, Li; Guschl, Peter C; Hicks, Robert F

    2009-02-17

    Hydrophobic coatings have been produced on glass and acrylic samples by using a low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma to polymerize liquid fluoroalkylsilane precursors. The fluoroalkylsilane precursor was dissolved in isooctane and spun onto the substrate at 550 rpm. The sample was then exposed to the reactive species generated from a nitrogen plasma. The plasma was operated with 2.3 vol % N2 in helium at 7.4 W/cm2 at a radio frequency of 27.12 MHz. The total and polar component of the coating's surface energy was found to equal 11.0 and 1.2 dyn/cm, respectively. Average water contact angles of 110 degrees and 106 degrees were measured on the coated glass and acrylic surfaces, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that, after treatment, the fluoroalkyl ligands remained intact on the Si atoms, with a F/C atomic ratio of 2.23.

  11. Structured ZnO films: Effect of copper nitrate addition to precursor solution on topography, band gap energy and photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Kaleva, A.; Hyvärinen, L.; Levänen, E.

    2017-02-01

    ZnO is a widely studied semiconductor material with interesting properties such as photocatalytic activity leading to wide range of applications, for example in the field of opto-electronics and self-cleaning and antimicrobial applications. Doping of photocatalytic semiconductor materials has been shown to introduce variation in the band gap energy of the material. In this work, ZnO rods were grown on a stainless steel substrates using hydrothermal method introducing copper nitrate into the precursor solution. Zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine were used as precursor materials and the growth was conducted at 90 °C for 2 h in order to achieve a well-aligned evenly distributed rod structure. Copper was introduced as copper nitrate that was added in the precursor solution in the beginning of the growth. The as-prepared films were then heat-treated at 350 °C and band gap measurements were performed for prepared films. It was found that increase in the copper concentration in the precursor solution decreased the band gap of the ZnO film. Methylene blue discolouration tests were then performed in order to study the effect of the copper nitrate addition to precursor solution on photocatalytic activity of the structured ZnO films.

  12. New Chemical Precursors for the Growth of Ferroelectric and Mid-Valent Metal Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-20

    P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Precursor Synthesis, Inorganic Chemistry , Chemical Vapor Deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition...Bioinorganic Chemistry (05 2012) TOTAL: 1 Books Number of Manuscripts: Patents Submitted Patents Awarded Awards Graduate Students Editorial Advisory...Board, Organometallics , 2012-2014 Conference Chair, 2015 AVS International ALD Meeting Names of Post Doctorates Names of Faculty Supported Names of

  13. Effect of Sn Content in a CuSnZn Metal Precursor on Formation of MoSe2 Film during Selenization in Se+SnSe Vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Liyong Yao; Jianping Ao; Ming-Jer Jeng; Jinlian Bi; Shoushuai Gao; Guozhong Sun; Qing He; Zhiqiang Zhou; Yun Sun; Liann-Be Chang

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films by the selenization of an electrodeposited copper–tin–zinc (CuSnZn) precursor with various Sn contents in low-pressure Se+SnSex vapor was studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements revealed that the Sn content of the precursor that is used in selenization in a low-pressure Se+SnSex vapor atmosphere only slightly affects the elemental composition of the formed CZTSe films. However, the Sn co...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of chemically deposited CdS thin films without toxic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, A.; Sandoval-Paz, M. G.

    2016-05-01

    Al doped and undoped CdS thin films (CdS:Al) were deposited on glass, copper and bronze substrates by chemical bath deposition technique in an ammonia-free cadmium-sodium citrate system. The structural and optical properties of the CdS films were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and simultaneous transmission- reflection spectroscopy. It was found that the properties of the films depend on the amount of Al in the growth solutions and deposition time. The increase in Al content in the reaction solution led to a smaller crystallite size and higher energy band gap that varies in the range 2.42 eV - 2.59 eV depending on the Al content.

  15. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O.'

    2015-06-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness.

  16. Microstructure and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} films prepared by solid state reaction of multilayer precursors of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, B. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr, 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Aalen University, Beethovenstr, 1, D-73430 Aalen (Germany); Stahl, C.; Treiber, S. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr, 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Soltan, S. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr, 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University,11792-Cairo (Egypt); Haug, S.; Schuetz, G. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr, 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Albrecht, J., E-mail: ja@mf.mpg.de [Aalen University, Beethovenstr, 1, D-73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2012-09-30

    Surface morphology and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} superconducting thin films prepared by ex-situ annealing of multilayer Mg/B precursors in Mg vapor are studied. Depending on the precursor structure different physical and microstructural properties of the superconductor evolve. Structure and composition of the films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. It is found that certain precursor structures can lead to high quality superconducting films, however, in specific precursor structures mechanical stress leads to the formation of wrinkles strongly affecting the superconducting homogeneity of the films. A correlation between microstructure and superconducting properties, such as pinning or critical current density, can be provided via magneto-optical Faraday microscopy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation of microstructure and properties of MgB2 films Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron and ion based analysis of microstructure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superconducting properties by magneto-optical imaging Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced magnetic field stability by a particular microstructure.

  17. Investigation of Sb-Containing Precursors for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Thin Films Through Design of Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Lorelle M.; To, Bobby; Reedy, Robert C.; Young, Matthew R.; Bowers, Karen; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2016-11-21

    The Design of Experiments (DoE) module in JMP statistical software was used to determine the best parameters for Sb-containing CIGS precursors with a fixed selenization step. Solar cells were fabricated and measured for all completed films. The most important factor influencing the current-voltage device parameters was identified as the temperature and antimony flux interaction. The DoE prediction profiler and predictive contour plots provided guidance to further improve the device parameters. In one follow-up run, we increased device efficiency from 14.9% to 15.5% Additional gains in efficiency to 16.9% were realized by introducing an intentional Ga gradient and an antireflective coating.

  18. Surface morphological and photoelectrochemical studies of ZnS thin films developed from single source precursors by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Peiris, T.A. Nirmal; Wijayantha, K.G. Upul [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Khaledi, Hamid [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ming, Huang Nay [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Misran, Misni; Arifin, Zainudin [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films have been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated conducting glass substrates at 375, 425 and 475 °C temperatures from single source adduct precursors [Zn(S{sub 2}CNCy{sub 2}){sub 2}(py)] (1) [where, Cy = cyclohexyl, py = pyridine] and [Zn{S_2CN(CH_2Ph)(Me)}{sub 2}(py)] (2) [where, Ph = Phenyl, Me = Methyl] using aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). The precursor complexes have been characterized by microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal analysis showed that both precursors (1) and (2) undergo thermal decomposition at 375 °C to produce ZnS residues. The deposited ZnS films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic studies indicated that the surface morphology of ZnS films strongly depends on the nature of the precursor and the deposition temperature, regardless of marginal variation in thermal stability of the precursors. Direct band gap energies of 3.36 and 3.40 eV have been estimated from the ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy for the ZnS films fabricated from precursors (1) and (2), respectively. The current–voltage characteristics recorded under air mass 1.5 illumination confirmed that the deposited ZnS thin films are photoactive under anodic bias conditions. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) results indicate that these synthesised single source precursors are suitable for obtaining ZnS thin films by AACVD method. The ZnS thin film electrode prepared in this study are very promising for solar energy conversion and optoelectronic applications. The PEC properties of ZnS electrodes prepared from (2) are superior to that of the ZnS electrode prepared from precursor (1). - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of zinc dithiocarbamate pyridine adducts. • ZnS photo electrodes have been fabricated using aerosol

  19. Influence of concentration and volume of precursor on the electrochemical properties of vanadium oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingole, R. S.; Fugare, B. Y.; Lokhande, B. J., E-mail: bjlokhande@yahoo.com [School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India)

    2016-04-13

    Vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis using different concentrations and volumes of precursor solution via aqueous route at 673K deposition temperature. The influences of concentration and volume on the structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of the deposited samples are studied well. X - ray diffraction study shows orthorhombic crystal structure with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase, confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy shows granular, homogeneous and dense surface morphology. Cyclic voltammetery of all samples carried at all scan rates. Samples prepared using 0.05M, 40 ml of precursor solution shows highest specific capacitance 428.25 F/gm at 5 mV/s, Charge discharge behavior exhibits specific energy 18.73 Wh/kg, specific power 36.00 kW/kg, columbic efficiency 87.50 %. Impedance spectroscopy study was carried in the frequency range 1mHz – 1MHz, reveals pseudocapacitive behavior of the electrode exhibiting internal resistance 1.34 ohm.

  20. Detection of TATP precursor acetone at trace levels using rf sputtered SnO2 thin film-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhuri, Arijit; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Emerging threats of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and homemade explosives (HMEs) have created a demand for reliable and unambiguous recognition of constituent analytes. Triacetone triperoxide (TATP), a cyclic peroxide based explosive has become a weapon of choice [1] in the hands of resourceful urban insurgents mainly because of ease of manufacture with readily available precursor constituents (acetone and concentrated hydrogen peroxide). Failure of conventional EDDs due to absence of nitrogen compounds coupled with the fact that TATP exhibits no significant absorption in UV region and does not demonstrate fluorescence has confined its detection to IR and Raman spectroscopy besides some enzyme-based tests and mass spectrometry [2]. Hence there is an urgent need for highly sensitive technique with a fast response speed that can detect presence of TATP at extremely low vapour pressure and purposely camouflaged physically or under cross-contamination with interfering compounds. In the present work trace level (20 ppm) acetone (precursor of TATP) sensing characteristics of rf sputtered semiconducting SnO2 thin films having embedded Pt interdigital electrodes have been investigated. Specifically a fast response speed of 08 seconds is noted and sensing characteristics of bare SnO2 and catalyst-SnO2 hetero-structures are compared. Innovative catalyst dispersal technique is shown to enhance sensor response as also reduce response times. Novel sensing hetero-structures with reversible acetone detection capabilities are shown to provide a feasible alternative for real-field operation along with remote detection with limited sample size.

  1. Improved microstructure and performance of PbS thin films via in-situ thermal decomposition of lead xanthate precursors using self-assembling monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingni; Yao, Kai; Jia, Zhenrong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Fan

    2016-09-01

    Microstructure control is critical to achieve thin film-based devices with high performance. The surface properties of the substrates on which thin films grow are expected to greatly influence the morphology and the resulting performance. Generally, homogeneous, dense and highly crystalline films are required. However, "island" like structures are usually obtained mainly due to the non-uniform nucleation. In this article, the self-assembling monolayer (SAM) strategy was applied to efficiently realize the uniform nucleation and modulate the microstructure of lead sulfide (PbS) thin films, which were fabricated on the modified ZnO-coated substrates with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) SAM via in-situ thermal decomposition of lead xanthate precursors. The results showed that PbS thin films with reduced pin-holes and uniform crystalline grains were fabricated with the incorporation of MPA SAM. More importantly, PbS thin films modulated by MPA showed better photoelectric response.

  2. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  3. Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition of tungsten oxide films and nanorods from oxo tungsten(VI) fluoroalkoxide precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hankook; Bonsu, Richard O; O'Donohue, Christopher; Korotkov, Roman Y; McElwee-White, Lisa; Anderson, Timothy J

    2015-02-04

    Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) of WOx was demonstrated using the oxo tungsten(VI) fluoroalkoxide single-source precursors, WO[OCCH3(CF3)2]4 and WO[OC(CH3)2CF3]4. Substoichiometric amorphous tungsten oxide thin films were grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates in nitrogen at low deposition temperature (100-250 °C). At growth temperatures above 300 °C, the W18O49 monoclinic crystalline phase was observed. The surface morphology and roughness, visible light transmittance, electrical conductivity, and work function of the tungsten oxide materials are reported. The solvent and carrier gas minimally affected surface morphology and composition at low deposition temperature; however, material crystallinity varied with solvent choice at higher temperatures. The work function of the tungsten oxide thin films grown between 150 and 250 °C was determined to be in the range 5.0 to 5.7 eV, according to ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS).

  4. Precursors for use in vapour and solution phase thermolysis routes to II-VI thin films and nanodispersed oxide materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chunggaze, M

    1999-01-01

    Monothiocarbamates M(OSCNEt sub 2) sub 2 M = Cd (1) Zn (2) analogous to the dithiocarbamates (Et sub 2 NCS sub 2) sub 2 M which have been extensively studied for metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), have been prepared as alternative single-source precursors for depositing II-VI semiconducting materials. Structural analysis of (1) revealed a new, O-binucleating, bonding mode for the monothiocarbamato ligand resulting in polymeric chains which are co-aligned to give a distorted close-packed hexagonal array. The mixed alkyl zinc derivative [Et sub 4 Zn sub 4 (OSCNEt sub 2) sub 2 (NEt sub 2) sub 2] is formed as the only isolable product from the reaction of EtZnNEt sub 2 with carbonyl sulfide and also exhibits a second new bonding mode for the monothiocarbamato ligand in which both the oxygen and sulfur atoms are binucleating. Uniform adherent films of CdS films with various morphologies were grown on GaAs(100) and glass at substrate temperatures between 350-450 deg C. No oxygen incorporation within ...

  5. Fabrication of a Cu(InGaSe2 Thin Film Photovoltaic Absorber by Rapid Thermal Annealing of CuGa/In Precursors Coated with a Se Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yao Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu(InGaSe2 (CIGS thin film absorbers are prepared using sputtering and selenization processes. The CuGa/In precursors are selenized during rapid thermal annealing (RTA, by the deposition of a Se layer on them. This work investigates the effect of the Cu content in precursors on the structural and electrical properties of the absorber. Using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurement, it is found that the CIGS thin films produced exhibit facetted grains and a single chalcopyrite phase with a preferred orientation along the (1 1 2 plane. A Cu-poor precursor with a Cu/( ratio of 0.75 demonstrates a higher resistance, due to an increase in the grain boundary scattering and a reduced carrier lifetime. A Cu-rich precursor with a Cu/( ratio of 1.15 exhibits an inappropriate second phase ( in the absorber. However, the precursor with a Cu/( ratio of 0.95 exhibits larger grains and lower resistance, which is suitable for its application to solar cells. The deposition of this precursor on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrate and further RTA causes the formation of a MoSe2 layer at the interface of the Mo and CIGS.

  6. Influence of hydrophobic characteristic of organo-modified precursor on wettability of silica film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Violeta Purcar; Otilia Cinteza; Marius Ghiurea; Adriana Balan; Simona Caprarescu; Dan Donescu

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to design new hybrid silica materials as templates with hydrophobic properties, prepared at room temperature by a base catalyzed sol–gel process. As silica sources, organoalkoxysilanes functionalized with short hydrophobic chains were used: tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES), octyltriethoxysilane (OTES) and isobutyltriethoxysilane (iTES). It was shown that hydrophobicity of the functionalized silica nanoparticles increased as a function of length of the aliphatic chains (MTES < iTES < OTES) or when, instead of a hydrophobic alkyl chains (substituting group of silica precursors), a monounsaturated group was used (VTES). It was observed that the samples responded in a specific way to each type (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) of the dropped liquid. Even though the experiments were limited to short hydrocarbon chains, they showed that there is a threshold to reach high hydrophobicity of the hybrid surface.

  7. The formation of CuInSe{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cell absorbers from alternative low-cost precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, S.

    2008-01-18

    This work deals with real-time investigations concerning the crystallisation process of CuInSe{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cell absorbers while annealing differently produced and composed ''low-cost'' precursors. Various types of precursors have been investigated concerning their crystallisation behaviour. Three groups of experiments have been performed: (i) Investigations concerning the crystallisation process of the quaternary chalcopyrite Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} and Cu(In,Al)S{sub 2}, (ii) investigations concerning the formation process of the compound semiconductor CuInSe{sub 2} from electroplated precursors, and (iii) investigations concerning the crystallisation of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} using precursors with thermally evaporated indium. A specific sample surrounding has been constructed, which enables to perform time-resolved angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction experiments during the annealing process of precursor samples. A thorough analysis of subsequently recorded diffraction patterns using the Rietveld method provides a detailed knowledge about the semiconductor crystallisation process while annealing. Based on these fundamental investigations, conclusions have been drawn concerning an adaptation of the precursor deposition process in order to optimise the final solar cell results. The investigations have shown, that one class of electroplated precursors shows a crystallisation behaviour identical to the one known for vacuum-deposited precursors. The investigations concerning the crystallisation process of the quaternary chalcopyrite Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} revealed, that the chalcopyrite forms from the ternary selenide (Al,In){sub 2}Se{sub 3} and Cu{sub 2}Se at elevated process temperatures. This result is used to explain the separation of the absorber layer into an aluminum-rich and an indium-rich chalcopyrite phase, which has been observed at processed Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} absorbers from several research groups. In addition, differences

  8. Single Molecular Precursor Solution for CuIn(S,Se)2 Thin Films Photovoltaic Cells: Structure and Device Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Devendra; Koehler, Tristan; Lin, Xianzhong; Sarua, Andrei; Harniman, Robert; Wang, Lan; Klenk, Reiner; Fermin, David J

    2017-01-25

    A single molecular precursor solution is described for the deposition of CuIn(S,Se)2 (CIS) film onto Mo-coated glass substrates by spin coating, followed by annealing in Se atmosphere. Characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrates the formation of a highly homogeneous and compact 1.1 μm thick CIS layer, with a MoSe2 under-layer. Atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of spherical grains between 400 and 450 nm, featuring surface corrugation in the range of 30 nm. Film composition is found to be in close agreement with that of the precursor solution. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy shows a direct band gap (Eg) of 1.36 eV. Intensity and temperature dependence photoluminescence spectra show characteristic features associated with a donor-acceptor pair recombination mechanism, featuring activation energy of 34 meV. Over 85 solar cell devices with the configuration Mo/CIS/CdS/i-ZnO/Al:ZnO/Ni-Al and an total area of 0.5 cm(2) were fabricated and tested. The champion cell shows a power efficiency of 3.4% with an open circuit voltage of 521 mV and short circuit current of 14 mA/cm(2) under AM 1.5 illumination and an external quantum efficiency above 60%. Overall variation in each of solar cell parameters remains below 10% of the average value, demonstrating the remarkable homogeneity of this solution processing method. To understand the limitation of devices, the dependence of the open-circuit voltage and impedance spectra upon temperature were analyzed. The data reveal that the CuIn(S,Se)2/CdS interface is the main recombination pathway with an activation energy of 0.79 eV as well as the presence of two "bulk" defect states with activation energies of 37 and 122 meV. We also estimated that the MoSe2 under-layer generates back contact barrier of 195 meV.

  9. Relationships among growth mechanism, structure and morphology of PEALD TiO2 films: the influence of O2 plasma power, precursor chemistry and plasma exposure mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappim, W.; Testoni, G. E.; Doria, A. C. O. C.; Pessoa, R. S.; Fraga, M. A.; Galvão, N. K. A. M.; Grigorov, K. G.; Vieira, L.; Maciel, H. S.

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films have generated considerable interest over recent years, because they are functional materials suitable for a wide range of applications. The efficient use of the outstanding functional properties of these films relies strongly on their basic characteristics, such as structure and morphology, which are affected by deposition parameters. Here, we report on the influence of plasma power and precursor chemistry on the growth kinetics, structure and morphology of TiO2 thin films grown on Si(100) by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). For this, remote capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz oxygen plasma was used to act as a co-reactant during the ALD process using two different metal precursors: titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). Furthermore, we investigate the effect of direct plasma exposure during the co-reactant pulse on the aforementioned material properties. The extensive characterization of TiO2 films using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, ellipsometry, x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have revealed how the investigated process parameters affect their growth per cycle (GPC), crystallization and morphology. The GPC tends to increase with plasma power for both precursors, however, for the TTIP precursor, it starts decreasing when the plasma power is greater than 100 W. From XRD analysis, we found a good correlation between film crystallinity and GPC behavior, mainly for the TTIP process. The AFM images indicated the formation of films with grain size higher than film thickness (grain size/film thickness ratio ≈20) for both precursors, and plasma power analysis allows us to infer that this phenomenon can be directly related to the increase of the flux of energetic oxygen species on the substrate/growing film surface. Finally, the effect of direct plasma exposure on film structure and morphology was evidenced

  10. Effect of surfactants on the morphology of FeSe films fabricated from a single source precursor by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raja Azadar Hussain; Amin Badshah; Naghma Haider; Malik Dilshad Khan; Bhajan Lal

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the fabrication of FeSe thin films from a single source precursor namely (1-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenyl-3-methylphenyl)selenourea (MeP2F)) by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). All the films were prepared via similar experimental conditions (temperature, flow rate, concentration, solvent system and reactor type) except the use of three different concentrations of two different surfactants i.e., triton and span. Seven thin films were characterized with PXRD, SEM, AFM, EDS and EDS mapping. The mechanism of the interaction of surfactant with MeP2F was determined with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  11. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Man, E-mail: cmchou@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 1650, Sec. 4, Taiwan Boulevard, Seatwen District, Taichung City 40705, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Beitou District, Taipei City 11221, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cjchung@seed.net.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Biomaterials modified by nanoparticle-containing plasma polymerized films. • A superhydrophoic film was obtained, and the properties of the coating were examined. • In vitro blood compatibility tests revealed neither platelet adhesion nor fibrinogen adsorption. • Surface modification technology of medical devices: non-cytotoxic and no blood clot formation. - Abstract: This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (f{sub H}) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiO{sub x} nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The −CF functional group, −CF{sub 2} bonding, and SiO{sub x} were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply

  12. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Chia-Man; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF4 (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF4 (fH) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiOx nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The sbnd CF functional group, sbnd CF2 bonding, and SiOx were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply that the pp-HC coating can potentially prevent the formation of thrombi and provide an alternative means of modifying the surfaces of blood-contacting biomaterials.

  13. p-n Heterojunction of doped graphene films obtained by pyrolysis of biomass precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Sánchez, Marcos; Primo, Ana; Atienzar, Pedro; Forneli, Amparo; García, Hermenegildo

    2015-02-25

    Nitrogen-doped graphene [(N)G] obtained by pyrolysis at 900 °C of nanometric chitosan films exhibits a Hall effect characteristic of n-type semiconductors. In contrast, boron-doped graphene [(B)G] obtained by pyrolysis of borate ester of alginate behaves as a p-type semiconductor based also on the Hall effect. A p-n heterojunction of (B)G-(N)G films is built by stepwise coating of a quartz plate using a mask. The heterojunction is created by the partial overlapping of the (B)G-(N)G films. Upon irradiation with a xenon lamp of aqueous solutions of H(2) PtCl(6) and MnCl(2) in contact with the heterojunction, preferential electron migration from (B)G to (N)G with preferential location of positive holes on (B)G is established by observation in scanning electron microscopy of the formation of Pt nanoparticles (NP) on (N)G and MnO(2) NP on (B)G. The benefits of the heterojunction with respect to the devices having one individual component as a consequence of the electron migration through the p-n heterojunction are illustrated by measuring the photocurrent in the (B)G-(N)G heterojunction (180% current enhancement with respect to the dark current) and compared it to the photocurrent of the individual (B)G (15% enhancement) and (N)G (55% enhancement) components. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Surface characterization of III-V MOCVD films from heterocyclic single-source precursors; Oberflaechencharakterisierung von III-V MOCVD-Filmen aus heterozyklischen Single Source Precursoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemayer, Andreas

    2009-07-13

    In the present thesis the sublimation and evaporation properties of heterocyclic gallium and antimony containing single-source precursors as well as the chemical composition and morphology of the films fabricated from this were studied. The single-source precursors available by a new synthesis route were characterized concerning their evaporation properties and the obtained films studied surface-physically. By this way the process parameters were optimized and the applicability of the single-source precursors in HV-MOCVD processes studied. By evaporation experiments in the UHV it could be shown that thereby lighter ligands like ethyl- and methyl-groups lead to a lower contamination of the reaction space with carbon containing molecules. Furthermore it was expected that the 6-rings synthetized with short ligands exhibit a high stability. This however could not be confirmed. By unwanted parasitary reactions in the gaseous phase respectively dissociative sublimation in the gaseous phase a deposition of GaSb with these precursors was not possible. The 4-ring stabilized with tertiary-butyl and ethyl-groups caused in the evaporation the largest contamination of the gaseous phase, becauselonger-chain hydrocarbons exhibil only a bad pump cross section. By parasitary reactions originating elementary antimony is detectable in the gaseous phase. The films were studied concerning their chemical composition and their transport- respectively storage-conditioned surface contamination. Furthermore it has become clear that not only a purely synthetized precursor substance but also the reactor design is deciding for a successful deposition and a high film quality. First by successive optimization of the evaporation geometry it was possible to reduce the roughness of the produced GaSb films down to about 10 nm-30 nm.

  15. Plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of hard chromium nitride thin film coatings using chromium(III) acetylacetonate as the precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Arup; Kuppusami, P.; Lawrence, Falix; Raghunathan, V.S.; Antony Premkumar, P.; Nagaraja, K.S

    2004-06-15

    A new technique has been developed for depositing hard nanocrystalline chromium nitride (CrN) thin films on metallic and ceramic substrates using plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PAMOCVD) technique. In this low temperature and environment-friendly process, a volatile mixture of chromium(III) acetylacetonate and either ammonium iodide or ammonium bifluoride were used as precursors. Nitrogen and hydrogen have been used as the gas precursors. By optimizing the processing conditions, a maximum deposition rate of {approx}0.9 {mu}m/h was obtained. A comprehensive characterization of the CrN films was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness, and microscopy. The microstructure of the CrN films deposited on well-polished stainless steel (SS) showed globular particles, while a relatively smooth surface morphology was observed for coatings deposited on polished yittria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)

  16. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by sulfurization of ion beam sputtered precursor and their electrical and optical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; SHAO Lexi; FU Yujun; XIE Erqing

    2006-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were successfully prepared by sulfurization of ion bean sputtered precursors on soda-lime glass substrate. The single phase of stannite-type structure CZTS films were obtained as revealed in EDS and XRD analysis when the ratios of the constituents of CZTS thin films are close to stoichiometric by optimizing the conditions of precursor preparation and sulfurization. A low sheet resistivity as about 0.156 Ω·cm and a high absorption coefficient as 1×104 cm-1 were achieved in this method by Hall effect measurements and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The optical band-gap energy of the CZTS sample is about 1.51 eV, which is very close to the optimum value for a solar-cell absorber.

  17. Synthesis of CuInSe2 thin films from electrodeposited Cu11In9 precursors by two-step annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TSUNG-WEI CHANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, copper indium selenide (CIS films were synthesized from electrodeposited Cu-In-Se precursors by two-step annealing. The agglomeration phenomenon of the electrodeposited In layer usually occurred on the Cu surface. A thermal process was adopted to turn Cu-In precursors into uniform Cu11In9 binary compounds. After deposition of the Se layer, annealing was employed to form chalcopyrite CIS. However, synthesis of CIS from Cu11In9 requires sufficient thermal energy. Annealing temperature and time were investigated to grow high quality CIS film. Various electrodeposition conditions were investigated to achieve the proper atomic ratio of CIS. The properties of the CIS films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and Raman spectra.

  18. Impact of reduced graphene oxide on MoS{sub 2} grown by sulfurization of sputtered MoO{sub 3} and Mo precursor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacley, Shanee, E-mail: shanee.pacley@us.af.mil; Brausch, Jacob; Beck-Millerton, Emory [U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)/Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Wright Patterson, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States); Hu, Jianjun; Jespersen, Michael [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Hilton, Al [Wyle Laboratories, 4200 Colonel Glenn Hwy, Beavercreek, Ohio 45431 (United States); Waite, Adam [University Technology Corporation, 1270 N Fairfield Rd., Beavercreek, Ohio 45432 (United States); Voevodin, Andrey A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}), a two dimensional semiconducting dichalcogenide material with a bandgap of 1.8–1.9 eV, has demonstrated promise for future use in field effect transistors and optoelectronics. Various approaches have been used for MoS{sub 2} processing, the most common being chemical vapor deposition. During chemical vapor deposition, precursors such as Mo, MoO{sub 3}, and MoCl{sub 5} have been used to form a vapor reaction with sulfur, resulting in thin films of MoS{sub 2}. Currently, MoO{sub 3} ribbons and powder, and MoCl{sub 5} powder have been used. However, the use of ribbons and powder makes it difficult to grow large area-continuous films. Sputtering of Mo is an approach that has demonstrated continuous MoS{sub 2} film growth. In this paper, the authors compare the structural properties of MoS{sub 2} grown by sulfurization of pulse vapor deposited MoO{sub 3} and Mo precursor films. In addition, they have studied the effects that reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has on MoS{sub 2} structure. Reports show that rGO increases MoS{sub 2} grain growth during powder vaporization. Herein, the authors report a grain size increase for MoS{sub 2} when rGO was used during sulfurization of both sputtered Mo and MoO{sub 3} precursors. In addition, our transmission electron microscopy results show a more uniform and continuous film growth for the MoS{sub 2} films produced from Mo when compared to the films produced from MoO{sub 3}. Atomic force microscopy images further confirm this uniform and continuous film growth when Mo precursor was used. Finally, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the MoS{sub 2} films produced using both precursors were stoichiometric and had about 7–8 layers in thickness, and that there was a slight improvement in stoichiometry when rGO was used.

  19. Effects of HCl and Methanol in the Precursor on Physical Properties of Spray-Deposited Nanostructured CuO Thin Films for Solar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Hassan Zare; Rozati, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    The influence of the presence of HCl and methanol in the precursor on CuO absorber layers deposited by spray pyrolysis has been investigated. The films were deposited on glass substrate at fixed substrate temperature of 450°C using 0.05 molar CuCl2·2H2O in deionized water containing a specific amount of HCl and methanol. The structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of the resulting thin films were studied to evaluate their suitability for solar applications. Presence of HCl increased the concentration of Cu2+ ions in the precursor, leading to a rise in the Cu concentration in the resulting film, which improved the crystallinity with increased mean grain size, surface roughness, and carrier mobility at the cost of decreased carrier concentration. However, film deposited with excess HCl suffered from corrosion and huge cracks, making it unfavorable for solar applications. On the other hand, although presence of methanol improved the crystallinity of the resulting film, the surface was smooth due to lower deposition rate. Kubelka-Munk theory was used to estimate the optical bandgap of the deposited thin films, revealing values fairly close to optimum for solar cell applications.

  20. Effect of precursor solvent on the opto-electrical properties of spin coated transparent conducting ZnO: Ga thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar, E-mail: akrsri@gmail.com; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-07-15

    ZnO: Ga thin films have been prepared by spin coating on glass substrate using solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate and gallium nitrate hydrate precursors in methanol, ethanol and 2-methoxyethanol with mono-ethanolamine as complexing agent to examine the effect of solvent on their opto-electrical characteristics. The selection of the solvent involves factors like toxicity, sol stability and the film properties. Accordingly, ethanol is shown to be suitable for yielding a stable sol to produce low cost 1 at% Ga−ZnO thin films useful for photovoltaic applications. These films exhibit hexagonal structure with (0001) preferred orientation, optical transmittance of ∼75−96% in wavelength range 400−900 nm, electrical resistivity of ∼ 3 × 10{sup −2} Ω-cm and electron mobility of ∼24 cm{sup 2}/ V. s. - Highlights: • c-axis preferred orientation of spin coated Ga-doped ZnO thin films. • Selection of solvents for preparation of precursor solutions. • Alternative transparent conducting oxide thin films. • Low cost method.

  1. Enhanced mobility of solution-processed polycrystalline zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors via direct incorporation of water into precursor solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Genmao; Duan, Lian; Zhao, Yunlong; Dong, Guifang; Zhang, Deqiang; Qiu, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Phase transition and the consequent variation in crystalline orientation of metal oxides have profound impact on their transport properties. In this work, we report a simple method to enhance field-effect mobility of solution-processed zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) via direct incorporation of water into precursor solution. It is confirmed H2O molecules could effectively facilitate the conversion and alloying processes during ZTO film formation, characterized by the enhancement of spinel Zn2SnO4 phase and the reduction of cassiterite SnO2 phase. The preferred orientation of metal oxide crystallites varies according to the amount of water added into precursor solutions. Smooth and densely packed polycrystalline ZTO films with only a few organic residuals and moderate oxygen defects are fabricated from water-containing precursor solutions. With the incorporation of 1.67 M H2O, the extracted field-effect mobility of TFT devices could be improved by a factor of 2.3, from 0.92 to 2.11 cm2 V-1 s-1. This work offers a facile and cost-effective route towards high-mobility TFTs based on solution-processed polycrystalline metal oxide thin films.

  2. Use of diethylselenide for the preparation of CuInGaSe{sub 2} films by selenization of metal precursors premixed with Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Mutsumi; Kinoshita, Atsuki; Fukaya, Masahiro; Nakanishi, Hisayuki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Dejene, Francis B. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba (South Africa); Alberts, Vivian [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Chichibu, Shigefusa F. [Institute of Applied Physics and Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    The use of a less-hazardous organometallic Se source, diethylselenide [(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}Se: DESe], enabled to grow single-phase CuInGaSe{sub 2} solid solutions for high-efficiency solar cell application by the selenization of metal precursors without additional thermal annealing. Distinct from the case using Se vapor or H{sub 2}Se gas, uniform CuInGaSe{sub 2} films were obtained from Cu-In-Ga metal precursors premixed with Se. In contrast, the films formed from Se-free precursors separated into two phases with different compositions. Photoluminescence spectra of approximately 2.0-{mu}m-thick films at 77 K were dominated by the defect-related donor-acceptor pair and free electron-to-acceptor recombination emissions particular to the CuInGaSe{sub 2} films that are used for high conversion efficiency solar cells. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Impact of Precursor Compositions on the Structural and Photovoltaic Properties of Spray-Deposited Cu2 ZnSnS4 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Fujikawa, Shotaro; Harada, Takashi; Chantana, Jakapan; Minemoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Shuji; Ikeda, Shigeru

    2016-09-08

    Pure sulfide Cu2 ZnSnS4 thin films were fabricated on Mo-coated glass substrates by facile spray deposition of aqueous precursor solutions containing Cu(NO3 )2 , Zn(NO3 )2 , Sn(CH3 SO3 )2 , and thiourea followed by annealing at 600 °C. When a precursor solution containing a stoichiometric composition of Cu, Zn, and Sn was used, the resulting Cu2 ZnSnS4 thin film contained a Cu2-x S impurity phase owing to the evaporation of Sn components during the annealing process. The Cu2-x S impurity in the Cu2 ZnSnS4 thin film was removed by reducing the concentration of Cu in the precursor solution. This resulted in an improvement of the structural features (i.e., grain sizes and compactness) as well as the electric properties such as acceptor densities, the nature of the acceptor defects, and carrier lifetimes. A solar cell based on the Cu2 ZnSnS4 film with an empirically optimal composition showed conversion efficiency of 8.1 %. The value achieved was one of the best efficiencies of Cu2 ZnSnS4 -based cells derived from a non-vacuum process. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films from In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and Cu{sub 2}Se precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Gyung Jae; Kwon, Se Han; Ahn, Byung Tae [Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Daeduk-Danji (Korea, Republic of). Korea Nuclear Safety Center

    1995-12-01

    CuInSe{sub 2} this films as a light absorber layer were fabricated by vacuum evaporation using In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and Cu{sub 2}Se precursors and their properties were analyzed. Indium selenide films of 0.5{mu}m thickness were first deposited by vacuum evaporation of In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} on a Corn ing 7059 glass substrate. The films deposited at susceptor temperature of 400 degree showed a flat surface morphology with densely packed grain structure. CuInSe{sub 2} films directly formed by evaporating Cu{sub 2}Se in the pre-deposited In{sub 2}Se{sub 2} films also showed a very flat surface when the susceptor temperature was 700 degree. Cu{sub 2}Se, a second phase in the CuInSe{sub 2} film, was removed by evaporating additional In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} on the CuInSe{sub 2} film at 700 degree. The grain size of 1.2{mu}m thick CuInSe{sub 2} film was about 2{mu}m and the film had a (112) preferred orientation. As the amount of deposited In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} increased, the electrical resistivity of CuInSe{sub 2} films increased because of the decrease of hole concentration. But the optical band gap was almost constant at the value of 1.04 eV. The CuInSe{sub 2} film grown in a Mo/glass substrate had a similar smooth microstructure compared to that on a glass substrate. A solar cell with ZnO/CdS/CuInSe{sub 2}/Mo structure may be realized based on the above CuInSe{sub 2} films. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Pulsed-laser deposition of vicinal and c-axis oriented high temperature superconducting thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, R

    2000-01-01

    respect to the temperature, oxygen pressure and laser fluence. (Re,Hg)Ba sub 2 Ca sub ( n-1)Cu sub n O sub x films are synthesized on (001) and vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates in a two step process employing pulsed-laser deposition of Hg-free precursor films and Hg-vapour annealing in a sealed quartz tube. The sealed quartz tube technique is described in detail and the thermodynamics and the phase formation are discussed. The influence of the Hg-vapour pressure and the annealing temperature on the film properties are investigated. The influence of Hg-vapour annealing on Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x films is described. YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x films with thicknesses 20 to 480 nm are deposited on vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates (10 degrees tilt angle). Variation of the resistivities and changes in the film morphology depending on film thickness are described. The influence of post-annealing treatments on the film properties is discussed. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of high temperature superconducting ...

  6. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhesheng, E-mail: zheshengchen@gmail.com [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Han Lei; Wan Lei [Research center for Photovoltaic System Engineering Ministry of Education, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhang Chunhui; Niu Haihong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xu Jinzhang, E-mail: xujz@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Research center for Photovoltaic System Engineering Ministry of Education, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2011-08-01

    A novel technique for growth of high quality Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin films is reported in our work. The CZTSe thin films were fabricated onto Mo layers by co-electroplating Cu-Zn-Sn precursors followed by annealing in the selenium vapors at the substrate temperature of 550 deg. C. The morphology and structure of CZTSe thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering spectrum, respectively. The results revealed that the single phase was in the CZTSe thin films, and the other impurities such as ZnSe and Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} were not existed though they were difficult to distinguish both from EDS and XRD.

  7. Cu 2ZnSnSe 4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhesheng; Han, Lei; Wan, Lei; Zhang, Chunhui; Niu, Haihong; Xu, Jinzhang

    2011-08-01

    A novel technique for growth of high quality Cu 2ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe) thin films is reported in our work. The CZTSe thin films were fabricated onto Mo layers by co-electroplating Cu-Zn-Sn precursors followed by annealing in the selenium vapors at the substrate temperature of 550 °C. The morphology and structure of CZTSe thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering spectrum, respectively. The results revealed that the single phase was in the CZTSe thin films, and the other impurities such as ZnSe and Cu 2SnSe 3 were not existed though they were difficult to distinguish both from EDS and XRD.

  8. Positioning of the Precursor Gas Inlet in an Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Reactor, and its Effect on the Quality of Deposited TiOx Thin Film Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Píchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film technology has become pervasive in many applications in recent years, but it remains difficult to select the best deposition technique. A further consideration is that, due to ecological demands, we are forced to search for environmentally benign methods. One such method might be the application of cold plasmas, and there has already been a rapid growth in studies of cold plasma techniques. Plasma technologies operating at atmospheric pressure have been attracting increasing attention. The easiest way to obtain low temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure seems to be through atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (ADBD. We used the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD method applying atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (ADBD plasmafor TiOx thin films deposition, employing titanium isopropoxide (TTIP and oxygen as reactants, and argon as a working gas. ADBD was operated in filamentary mode. The films were deposited on glass. We studied the quality of the deposited TiOx thin film surface for various precursor gas inlet positions in the ADBD reactor. The best thin films quality was achieved when the precursor gases were brought close to the substrate surface directly through the inlet placed in one of the electrodes.High hydrophilicity of the samples was proved by contact angle tests (CA. The film morphology was tested by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The thickness of the thin films varied in the range of (80 ÷ 210 nm in dependence on the composition of the reactor atmosphere. XPS analyses indicate that composition of the films is more like the composition of TiOxCy.

  9. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films prepared by selenization of one-step electrochemically deposited Cu–Zn–Sn–Se precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Mingming; Wan, Lei; Zou, Peng; Miao, Shiding [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology (HFUT), Hefei 230009 (China); Xu, Jinzhang, E-mail: xujz@hfut.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology (HFUT), Hefei 230009 (China)

    2013-05-15

    In this research a non-vacuum strategy was reported in facile preparation of kesterite-type Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin films via selenization of one-step electrochemically prepared Cu–Zn–Sn–Se precursors. The Cu–Zn–Sn–Se precursor films were prepared by electrochemical deposition from electrolytes containing CuSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4}, SnCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}, and the substrate is a Mo coated soda-lime glass. The CZTSe thin films were obtained by annealing the electrochemically deposited films in the selenium vapors at the temperature of 550 °C. The crystal phases, micro-structures, chemical compositions and optical properties of CZTSe films have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), Raman scattering spectrum, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopic means. The results revealed that the electrolytes with Cu:Zn:Sn:Se molar ratio of 3:70:20:3 yields nearly pure phase of kesterite, and a band gap of 0.94 eV was determined by spectroscopic measurements.

  10. Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of one-step electrochemically deposited Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mingming; Wan, Lei; Zou, Peng; Miao, Shiding; Xu, Jinzhang

    2013-05-01

    In this research a non-vacuum strategy was reported in facile preparation of kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films via selenization of one-step electrochemically prepared Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursors. The Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursor films were prepared by electrochemical deposition from electrolytes containing CuSO4, ZnSO4, SnCl4 and H2SeO3, and the substrate is a Mo coated soda-lime glass. The CZTSe thin films were obtained by annealing the electrochemically deposited films in the selenium vapors at the temperature of 550 °C. The crystal phases, micro-structures, chemical compositions and optical properties of CZTSe films have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), Raman scattering spectrum, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic means. The results revealed that the electrolytes with Cu:Zn:Sn:Se molar ratio of 3:70:20:3 yields nearly pure phase of kesterite, and a band gap of 0.94 eV was determined by spectroscopic measurements.

  11. Effect of variation of precursor concentration on structural, microstructural, optical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalchand A Patil; Dinesh N Suryawanshi; Idris G Pathan; Dhanashri G Patil

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of variation of precursor concentration (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 M) on the structural, microstructural, optical and gas sensing properties of TiO2 thin films. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were prepared from aqueous solution of titanium chloride (TiCl3.6H2O, 99.9%pure, Merckmade, Germany) onto the glass substrates heated at a temperature of 350 °C by the spray pyrolysis technique. Bandgap energy of the films vary from 3.28 to 3.29 eV. X-ray diffraction shows that films to be nanocrystalline with anatase phase having tetragonal crystal structure. The values calculated from electron diffraction patterns (TEM) were observed to be matching with values calculated from XRD. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveled that grain sizes were observed to increase (10–29 nm) with an increase in the concentration of precursor solution. The gas sensing performance of the films was tested.

  12. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E and two-electrode (2E systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system.

  13. Investigation of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on TiN substrates using CupraSelect as precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    Copper films were deposited on oxidized Si substrates covered with TiN using a novel chemical vapor deposition reactor in which reactions were assisted by a heated tungsten filament (hot-wire CVD, HWCVD). Liquid at room temperature hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) was directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a direct-liquid injection (DLI) system using N2 as carrier gas. The deposition rates of HWCVD Cu films obtained on TiN covered substrates were found to increase with filament temperature (65 and 170 degrees C were tested). The resistivities of HWCVD Cu films were found to be higher than for thermally grown films due to the possible presence of impurities into the Cu films from the incomplete dissociation of the precursor and W impurities caused by the presence of the filament. For HWCVD films grown at a filament temperature of 170 degrees C, smaller grains are formed than at 65 degrees C as shown from the taken SEM micrographs. XRD diffractograms taken on Cu films deposited on TiN could not reveal the presence of W compounds originating from the filament because the relative peak was masked by the TiN [112] peak.

  14. Electrochromic response of WO3 and WO3-TiO2 thin films prepared from water-soluble precursors and a block copolymer template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuroki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic tungsten trioxide (WO3 thin films are attracting renewed attention as transmittance-controllable windows for use in automobile, aircraft, and building applications. In order to achieve high electrochromic performance, high cycle stability, and high reliability, the microstructure and compositional homogeneity of WO3 thin films have to be optimized. In this study, non-doped WO3 and TiO2-doped WO3 thin films were fabricated from water-soluble precursors of tungsten and titanium, and their electrochromic response was investigated. Amorphous WO3 and TiO2-doped WO3 thin films were fabricated by calcining the spin-coated films at 573 K. The use of a PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer as a porogen facilitated the redox reactions occurring on the thin film/electrolyte interface. Although the effect of TiO2-doping on the cycle stability of WO3 thin films has not been fully elucidated, this study demonstrated that TiO2 doping up to 15 mol% effectively enhanced the cycle stability.

  15. A general water-based precursor solution approach to deposit earth abundant Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanchun; Kang, Xiaojiao; Huang, Lijian; Wei, Song; Pan, Daocheng

    2016-05-01

    Earth abundant Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) has been considered as one of the most promising thin film solar cell absorber candidates. Here, we develop a facile water-based precursor solution approach for depositing high-efficiency Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin film solar cells. In this environmentally friendly approach, inexpensive elemental Cu, Zn, Sn and S powders are used as the starting materials and are dissolved in the aqueous solution of thioglycolic acid and methylamine, forming a homogeneous precursor solution for depositing Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal thin film. As-deposited CZTS nanocrystal thin films are selenized to form the large-grain CZTSSe absorber layers. It was found that Na doping plays an important role in the formation of the extremely dense and flat CZTSSe absorber layer, and fill factor can be significantly improved for Na-doped CZTSSe solar cells, which lead to a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.96% with an open-circuit voltage of 378 mV, a short current density of 28.17 mA cm-2, and a fill factor of 65.4%.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films using the Zn alkoxide precursor methylzinc isopropoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ki-Seok; Cho, Wontae; Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Sun Sook; Kim, Chang Gyoun

    2008-09-01

    Undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using the Zn precursor methylzinc isopropoxide [MZI, (CH3)Zn(OCH(CH3)2)] with water (H2O). Dimethylaluminum isopropoxide (DMAI) was used as an Al precursor. The self-limiting ALD process via alternate surface reactions of MZI and H2O was confirmed by thickness measurements of the ZnO films with varying MZI supply time and numbers of MZI-H2O ALD cycles. Under optimal reaction conditions, the growth rate of the ZnO films was 1.9 to approximately 2.0 A/cycle in the substrate temperature range of 160 to approximately 200 degrees C and the maximum growth rate reached about 2.58 A/cycle at 240 degrees C. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed a strong free excitonic peak at 3.27 eV with almost negligible deep level emission. Resistivities of ZnO films were measured to be 5 x 10(-3) to approximately 3.2 x 10(-3) omega cm depending on the substrate temperature. By Al-doping, the resistivity was minimized to approximately 1.35 x 10(-4) cm.

  17. An investigation into effect of cationic precursor solutions on formation of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jingxia; Jin, Zhengguo; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chengjie; Shi, Yong [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-06-15

    SILAR deposition of CuInSe{sub 2} films was performed by using Cu{sup 2+}-TEAH{sub 3} (cupric chloride and triethanolamine) and In{sup 3+}-CitNa (indium chloride and sodium citrate) chelating solutions with weak basic pH as well as Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} solution at 70 C. A separate mode and a mixed one of cationic precursor solutions were adopted to investigate effects of the immersion programs on crystallization, composition and morphology of the deposited CuInSe{sub 2} films. Chelating chemistry in two solution modes was deducted based on IR measurement. The XRD, XPS and SEM results showed that well-crystallized, smoothly and distinctly particular CuInSe{sub 2} films could be obtained after annealing in Ar at 400 C for 1 h by using the mixed cationic solution mode. (author)

  18. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurizing sol-gel deposited precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Moritake, Noriko; Uchiki, Hisao [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were prepared by sulfurizing precursors deposited by the sol-gel method. Copper (II) acetate monohydrate, zinc (II) acetate dihydrate and tin (II) chloride dihydrate were used as the starting materials of the sol-gel method, and 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine were used as the solvent and the stabilizer, respectively. The solution was spin coated on soda lime glass substrates and dried at 300 C. The coated glasses were sulfurized by annealing at 500 C in a hydrogen sulfide-containing atmosphere. The annealed thin films showed X-ray diffraction peaks attributed to the single phase CZTS. The chemical composition of the films was almost stoichiometric and the band gap energy was 1.49eV at room temperature. (author)

  19. On the reliability of heteronuclear precursors-ligand effects in the Li-MOCVD synthesis of SrTiO3 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Gohil, Suresh; Kessler, Vadim G; Andrieux, Michel; Legros, Corinne; Ribot, Patrick; Brunet, Magali

    2011-09-01

    Strontium titanate SrTiO3 thin films are highly perspective as gate dielectric material. Difference in volatility of the common homometallic precursors-strontium beta-diketonates and titanium alkoxides remains major hinder for preparation of high quality coatings based on this phase. An attractive alternative in its synthesis by MOCVD is provided by application of heterometallic mixed-ligand complexes, Sr2Ti2(beta-diket)4(OR)8(ROH)x. Mass-spectrometric study reveals, however, that none of these species can be considered a true single-source precursor. The relative stability of the molecules in solution and the congruence of in-situ release of homometallic species on evaporation are, on the other hand, crucial for the quality of the produced films and are strongly influenced by the nature of alkoxide ligands, OR. The historically first discovered representative of this heterometallic family, a sec-alkoxide derivative Sr2Ti2(thd)4(O(i)Pr)8, is in fact unexpectedly unstable, transforming in solution into Sr2Ti(thd)4(O(i)Pr)4((i)PrOH), which explains difficulties in keeping the correct stoichiometry using isopropoxide precursor. The primary alkoxide complexes, Sr2Ti2(thd)4(OR)8(ROH)2, R = Et, (n)Pr are also unstable yielding Sr4Ti2(thd)4(OR)8(ROH)2 on decomposition. The best solution stability and most uniform evaporation was observed for the iso-derivative, Sr2Ti2(thd)4(O(i)Bu)8, permitting to apply it in long term experiments under industrial process conditions. Present contribution provides detailed experimental comparison between and sec-and iso-alkoxide derivatives and sheds light on the influence of the ligand on molecular stability of a precursor and how it influences the quality of the derived oxide film, especially in relation to its electrophysical properties.

  20. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films using chromium hexacarbonyl (Cr(CO){sub 6}) precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinwen [Center for Materials for Information Technology and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)], E-mail: wang006@bama.ua.edu; Gupta, Arunava; Klein, Tonya M. [Center for Materials for Information Technology and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on c-cut sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and oxidized silicon substrates at temperatures between 250 and 400 deg. C using the precursor chromium hexacarbonyl (Cr(CO){sub 6}). The film growth rate ranges between 5 and 14 A/min, with the growth rate going through a maximum at 300 deg. C before decreasing at higher temperature, suggesting the presence of competing deposition and desorption reaction channels. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that the density of grains and film crystallinity increases with increasing substrate temperatures, while atomic force microscopy shows an overall decrease in film roughness with increasing temperature. Normal {theta} - 2{theta} Bragg X-ray diffraction results show that films deposited on SiO{sub 2} are polycrystalline, while those on sapphire have a preferred (0 0 0 l) orientation. The epitaxial nature of the film growth on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been confirmed from the symmetry of off-axis X-ray scans.

  1. Physical characterization of Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} thin films from annealing of Cu-Zn-Ge precursor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffière, M., E-mail: buffiere@imec.be [Imec—Partner in Solliance, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), KU Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium); ElAnzeery, H. [Imec—Partner in Solliance, Leuven (Belgium); KACST-Intel Consortium Center of Excellence in Nano-manufacturing Applications (CENA), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Microelectronics System Design department, Nile University, Cairo (Egypt); Oueslati, S.; Ben Messaoud, K. [Imec—Partner in Solliance, Leuven (Belgium); KACST-Intel Consortium Center of Excellence in Nano-manufacturing Applications (CENA), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, El Manar (Tunisia); Brammertz, G.; Meuris, M. [Imec Division IMOMEC — Partner in Solliance, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Institute for Material Research (IMO) Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Imec—Partner in Solliance, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), KU Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} (CZGeSe) can be considered as a potential alternative for wide band gap thin film devices. In this work, CZGeSe thin films were deposited on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates by sequential deposition of sputtered Cu, Zn and e-beam evaporated Ge layers from elemental targets followed by annealing at high temperature using H{sub 2}Se gas. We report on the effect of the precursor stack order and composition and the impact of the annealing temperature on the physical properties of CZGeSe thin films. The optimal layer morphology was obtained when using a Mo/Cu/Zn/Ge precursor stack annealed at 460 °C. We have observed that the formation of secondary phases such as ZnSe can be prevented by tuning the initial composition of the stack, the stack order and the annealing conditions. This synthesis process allows synthesizing CZGeSe absorber with an optical band gap of 1.5 eV. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} (CZGeSe) thin films were deposited using a two-step process. • CZGeSe dense layers were obtained using a Mo/Cu/Zn/Ge precursor annealed at 460 °C. • Formation of ZnSe can be avoided by tuning the composition and order of the initial stack. • P-type CZGeSe absorber with an optical band gap of 1.5 eV was obtained.

  2. Formation of CuInGaSe2 thin film photovoltaic absorber by using rapid thermal sintering of binary nanoparticle precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung Ping; Chang, Ming Wei; Chuang, Chuan Lung

    2013-12-01

    It was known that properties of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) thin films were evidently affected by precursor nanoparticle-ink and sintering technology. The nanoparticles were fabricated by using a rotary ball-milling (RBM) technique. After RBM, the particle size of the agglomerated CIGS powder was smaller than 100 nm. The nanoparticle ink was printed onto a Mo/soda lime glass substrate and baked at a low temperature to remove solvents and to form a dry precursor. Crystallographic, morphological, and stoichiometric properties of films were then obtained by using the precursor CIGS samples sintered at various heating rates in a non-vacuum environment without selenization. Analytical results revealed that the 2-theta data of the sample sintered at a heating rate of 15 °C/s were the closest to the data on the JCPDS card for Cu(Ga0.3In0.7)Se2.0 because their angles were 26.8°, 44.5°, and 52.7°, respectively. In addition, analytical results indicated that the CIGS absorption layer prepared at a heating rate of 15 °C/s had a chalcopyrite structure and favorable compositions. For this sample, the mole ratio of Cu:In:Ga:Se was equal to 0.98:0.81:0.28:1.93, and related ratios of Ga/(In+Ga) and Cu/(In+Ga) were 0.26 and 0.90, respectively.

  3. Preparation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells by Selenization of Metallic Precursors in an Ar Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chuan-Ming; SUN Yun; ZHOU Lin; LI Feng-Yan; ZHANG Li; XUE Yu-Ming; ZHOU Zhi-Qiang; HE Qing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films are deposited on Mo-coated glass substrates by Se vapour selenization of sputtered metallic precursors in the atmosphere of Ar gas flow under a pressure of about 10 Pa. The in situ heat treatment of as-grown precursor leads to the formation of a better alloy. During selenization, the growth of CuInSe2 phase preferably proceeds through Se-poor phases as CuSe and InSe at relatively low substrate temperature of 250℃,due to the absence of In2Se3 at intermediate stage at low reactor pressure. Subsequently, the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 phase is produced by the reactive diffusion of CuInSe2 with a Se-poor GaSe phase at high temperature of up to 560 ℃. The final film exhibits smooth surface and large grain size. The absorber is used to fabricate a glass/Mo/Cu(In, Ga)Se2/CdS/ZnO cell with the total-area efficiency of about 7%. The low open-circuit voltage value of the cell fabricated should result from the nonuniform distribution of In and Ga in the absorber, due to the diffusion-controlled reaction during the phase formation. The films, as well as devices, are characterized.

  4. Preparation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells by Selenization of Metallic Precursors in an Ar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuan-Ming; Sun, Yun; Zhou, Lin; Li, Feng-Yan; Zhang, Li; Xue, Yu-Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; He, Qing

    2006-08-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films are deposited on Mo-coated glass substrates by Se vapour selenization of sputtered metallic precursors in the atmosphere of Ar gas flow under a pressure of about 10 Pa. The in situ heat treatment of as-grown precursor leads to the formation of a better alloy. During selenization, the growth of CuInSe2 phase preferably proceeds through Se-poor phases as CuSe and InSe at relatively low substrate temperature of 250°C, due to the absence of In2Se3 at intermediate stage at low reactor pressure. Subsequently, the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 phase is produced by the reactive diffusion of CuInSe2 with a Se-poor GaSe phase at high temperature of up to 560°C. The final film exhibits smooth surface and large grain size. The absorber is used to fabricate a glass/Mo/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS/ZnO cell with the total-area efficiency of about 7%. The low open-circuit voltage value of the cell fabricated should result from the nonuniform distribution of In and Ga in the absorber, due to the diffusion-controlled reaction during the phase formation. The films, as well as devices, are characterized.

  5. Preparation of thin films, with base to precursor materials of type Cu-In-Se elaborated by electrodeposition for the solar cells elaboration; Preparacion de peliculas delgadas, con base a materiales precursores del tipo Cu-In-Se, elaboradas por electrodeposito para la elaboracion de celdas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.M. [Centro de Investigaciones en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Av. Xochicalco s/n. 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-11-01

    Thin films of chalcogenide compounds are promising because they have excellent optoelectronic characteristics to be applied in solar cells. In particular, CuInSe{sub 2} and Cd Te thin films have shown high solar to electrical conversion efficiency. However, this efficiency is limited by the method of preparation, in this case, physical vapor deposition techniques are used. In order to increase the area of deposition t is necessary to use chemical methods, for example, electrodeposition technique. In this paper, the preparation of Cu-In-Se precursors thin films by electrochemical method is reported. These precursors were used to build solar cells with 7.9 % of efficiency. (Author)

  6. Facile synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layer for thin film solar cells using a highly stable precursor solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, M.; Bhat, S. Venkataprasad

    2017-10-01

    In search of simpler, environment friendly, scalable method to make device quality Cu2ZnSnS4 semiconductor thinfilms for solar cell applications, we have developed a solution based technique based on a highly stable precursor solution. A clear transparent precursor solution, stable for more than a year was prepared using a novel combination of the sulfur source and the solvent. The absorber film on Mo coated glass substrate was formed by dip-coating and drying in open air, followed by annealing in inert atmosphere. Further, we have fabricated and demonstrated a simple solar cell, combining this method with vacuum-free laminated conductive tape as the top electrode, having the device structure of glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS/Al.

  7. Preparation and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films by sulfurization of Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongshin; Choi, In-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    We fabricated Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin films by sulfurization of co-evaporated Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursor layers under a mixed atmosphere of Ar and H2S. The concentration of H2S in the sulfurization chamber was adjusted to control the replacement of Se by S in CZTSSe thin films. The effect of applying different sulfurization atmospheres was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering, and secondary electron imaging. XRD patterns and Raman spectra confirmed the formation of polycrystalline CZTSSe thin films. The anion compositions of CZTSSe samples, which depended on the concentration of H2S, were estimated by using the peak heights of A modes in Raman spectra. To further analyze Raman scattering of CZTSSe thin film, we used a diamond anvil cell to apply a high pressure environment of up to 5.13 GPa on the CZTSSe sample. The effect of H2S concentration on the crystallinity of the CZTSSe thin films is also discussed.

  8. Preparation of CuGaSe{sub 2} absorber layers for thin film solar cells by annealing of efficiently electrodeposited Cu-Ga precursor layers from ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steichen, M., E-mail: marc.steichen@uni.lu; Larsen, J.; Guetay, L.; Siebentritt, S.; Dale, P.J.

    2011-08-31

    CuGaSe{sub 2} absorber layers were prepared on molybdenum substrates by electrochemical codeposition of copper and gallium and subsequential annealing in selenium vapour. The electrodeposition was made from a deep eutectic based ionic liquid consisting of choline chloride/urea (Reline) with a plating efficiency of over 85%. The precursor film composition is controlled by the ratio of the copper to gallium fluxes under hydrodynamic conditions and by the applied deposition potential. X-ray diffraction reveals CuGa{sub 2} alloying during the electrodeposition and CuGaSe{sub 2} formation after annealing. Photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent spectroscopy revealed the good opto-electronic properties of the CuGaSe{sub 2} absorber films. The absorber layers have been converted to full devices with the best device achieving 4.0 % solar conversion efficiency.

  9. Nanostructured PdO Thin Film from Langmuir-Blodgett Precursor for Room-Temperature H2 Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sipra; Betty, C A; Bhattacharyya, Kaustava; Saxena, Vibha; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticulate thin films of PdO were prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique by thermal decomposition of a multilayer film of octadecylamine (ODA)-chloropalladate complex. The stable complex formation of ODA with chloropalladate ions (present in subphase) at the air-water interface was confirmed by the surface pressure-area isotherm and Brewster angle microscopy. The formation of nanocrystalline PdO thin film after thermal decomposition of as-deposited LB film was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Nanocrystalline PdO thin films were further characterized by using UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurements. The XPS study revealed the presence of prominent Pd(2+) with a small quantity (18%) of reduced PdO (Pd(0)) in nanocrystalline PdO thin film. From the absorption spectroscopic measurement, the band gap energy of PdO was estimated to be 2 eV, which was very close to that obtained from specular reflectance measurements. Surface morphology studies of these films using atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated formation of nanoparticles of size 20-30 nm. These PdO film when employed as a chemiresistive sensor showed H2 sensitivity in the range of 30-4000 ppm at room temperature. In addition, PdO films showed photosensitivity with increase in current upon shining of visible light.

  10. CuIn{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}S{sub 2} thin films prepared by sulfurization of metallic precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olejnicek, J., E-mail: olejn@fzu.cz [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska at Kearney, 905 W. 25th St., Kearney, NE 68849-1150 (United States); Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Flannery, L.E.; Darveau, S.A.; Exstrom, C.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska at Kearney, 905 W. 25th St., Kearney, NE 68849-1150 (United States); Kment, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 209 N WSEC, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States); Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Ianno, N.J.; Soukup, R.J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 209 N WSEC, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > CuIn{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}S{sub 2} thin films prepared by sulfurization of metallic precursors in sulfur vapors. > XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. > CuIn{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}S{sub 2} thin films does not follow Vegard's law. > A{sub 1} phonon frequency is nonlinear function of Al concentration. - Abstract: CuIn{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}S{sub 2} thin films (x = 0, 0.09, 0.27, 0.46, 0.64, 0.82 and 1) with thicknesses of approximately 1 {mu}m were formed by the sulfurization of DC sputtered Cu-In-Al precursors. All samples were sulfurized in a graphite container for 90 min at 650 deg. C in a 150 kPa Ar + S atmosphere. Final films were studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that all samples were polycrystalline in nature and their lattice parameters varied slightly nonlinearly from {l_brace}a = 5.49 A, c = 11.02 A{r_brace} for CuInS{sub 2} to {l_brace}a = 5.30 A, c = 10.36 A{r_brace} for CuAlS{sub 2}. No unwanted phases such as Cu{sub 2-x}S or others were observed. Raman were recorded at a room temperature and the most intensive and dominant A{sub 1} phonon frequency varied nonlinearly from 294 cm{sup -1} (CuInS{sub 2}) to 314 cm{sup -1} (CuAlS{sub 2}).

  11. Numerical Investigation on the Effects of a Precursor Wetting Film on the Displacement of Two Immiscible Phases Along a Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2015-10-08

    A set of numerical experiments has been conducted to study the effect of a precursor fluid layer on the motion of two phase system in a channel. This system is characterized by coupled Cahn-Hillard and Navier-Stokes system together with slip boundary conditions. The solution of the governing equation involves first the solution of Cahn-Hillard equation with semi-implicit and Mixed finite element discritization with a convex splitting scheme. The Navier-Stokes equations are then solved with a P2-P0 mixed finite element method. Three cases have been investigated; in the first the effect of different wettability scenarios with no precursor layer has been investigated. In the second scenario, the effect of the precursor layer for different wettability conditions is investigated. In the third case, the effect of the thickness of the precursor layer is investigated. It is found that, wettability conditions have considerable effect on the flow of the considered two-phase system. Furthermore the existence of the precursor layer has additional influence on the breakthrough of the phases.

  12. Cu(In,Ga)S2, Thin-Film Solar Cells Prepared by H2S Sulfurization of CuGa-In Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kulkarni, Shashank R.; Chavan, Sanjay S.; Ghongadi, Shantinath R.

    2005-01-01

    Thin-film CuInS2 solar cell is the leading candidate for space power because of bandgap near the optimum value for AM0 solar radiation outside the earth's atmosphere, excellent radiation hardness, and freedom from intrinsic degradation mechanisms unlike a-Si:H cells. Ultra-lightweight thin-film solar cells deposited on flexible polyimide plastic substrates such as Kapton(trademark), Upilex(trademark), and Apical(trademark) have a potential for achieving specific power of 1000 W/kg, while the state-of-art specific power of the present day solar cells is 66 W/kg. This paper describes the preparation of Cu-rich CuIn(sub 1-x)Ga(sub x)S(sub 2) (CIGS2) thin films and solar cells by a process of sulfurization of CuGa-In precursor similar to that being used for preparation of large-compact-grain CuIn(sub 1-x)Ga(sub x)Se2 thin films and efficient solar cells at FSEC PV Materials Lab.

  13. Physisorbed-precursor-assisted atomic layer deposition of reliable ultrathin dielectric films on inert graphene surfaces for low-power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hyo Won; Heo, Jinseong; Lee, Min-Hyun; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, JiYeon; Lee, Yunseong; Cho, Yeonchoo; Jeon, Woojin; Suh, Hwansoo; Hwang, Sungwoo; Park, Seongjun

    2016-09-01

    Among the most fundamental challenges encountered in the successful incorporation of graphene in silicon-based electronics is the conformal growth of ultrathin dielectric films, especially those with thicknesses lower than 5 nm, on chemically inert graphene surfaces. Here, we present physisorbed-precursor-assisted atomic layer deposition (pALD) as an extremely robust method for fabricating such films. Using atomic-scale characterisation, it is confirmed that conformal and intact ultrathin Al2O3 films can be synthesised on graphene by pALD. The mechanism underlying the pALD process is identified through first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Further, this novel deposition technique is used to fabricate two types of wafer-scale devices. It is found that the incorporation of a 5 nm-thick pALD Al2O3 gate dielectric film improves the performance of metal-oxide-graphene field-effect transistors to a greater extent than does the incorporation of a conventional ALD Al2O3 film. We also employ a 5 nm-thick pALD HfO2 film as a highly scalable dielectric layer with a capacitance equivalent oxide thickness of 1 nm in graphene-based tunnelling field-effect transistors fabricated on a glass wafer and achieve a subthreshold swing of 30 mV/dec. This significant improvement in switching allows for the low-voltage operation of an inverter within 0.5 V of both the drain and the gate voltages, thus paving the way for low-power electronics.

  14. How the Starting Precursor Influences the Properties of Polycrystalline CuInGaSe2 Thin Films Prepared by Sputtering and Selenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS/CdS thin-film solar cells have reached, at laboratory scale, an efficiency higher than 22.3%, which is one of the highest efficiencies ever obtained for thin-film solar cells. The research focus has now shifted onto fabrication processes, which have to be easily scalable at an industrial level. For this reason, a process is highlighted here which uses only the sputtering technique for both the absorber preparation and the deposition of all the other materials that make up the cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the comparison between different precursors obtained with either In2Se3 and Ga2Se3 or InSe and GaSe as starting materials. In both cases, the precursor does not require any heat treatment, and it is immediately ready to be selenized. The selenization is performed in a pure-selenium atmosphere and only lasts a few minutes at a temperature of about 803 K. Energy conversion efficiencies in the range of 15%–16% are reproducibly obtained on soda-lime glass (SLG substrates. Similar results are achieved if commercial ceramic tiles are used as a substrate instead of glass. This result is especially useful for the so-called building integrated photovoltaic. Cu(In,GaSe2-based solar cells grown directly on ceramic tiles are ideal for the fabrication of ventilated façades in low impact buildings.

  15. Deposition of cobalt and nickel sulfide thin films from thio- and alkylthio-urea complexes as precursors via the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mgabi, L.P.; Dladla, B.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private bag X1001 KwaDlangezwa, 3880 (South Africa); Malik, M.A. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Garje, Shivram S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Akhtar, J. [Nanoscience and Materials Synthesis Lab, Department of Physics, COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Chak shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan); Revaprasadu, N., E-mail: RevaprasaduN@unizulu.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private bag X1001 KwaDlangezwa, 3880 (South Africa)

    2014-08-01

    We report the synthesis of Co(II) and Ni(II) thiourea and alkylthiourea complexes by reacting the metal salts (CoCl{sub 2} and NiCl{sub 2}) with the thiourea, phenylthiourea and dicyclohexylthiourea ligands in a 1:2 ratio. The complexes, [CoCl{sub 2}(CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (I), [CoCl{sub 2}(CSNHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}NH{sub 2}){sub 2} (II) and [CoCI{sub 2}(SC(NHC{sub 6}H{sub 11}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (III), [NiCl{sub 2}(CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (IV), [NiCl{sub 2}(CSNHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}] (V) and [NiCl{sub 2}(SC(NHC{sub 6}H{sub 11}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (VI) were characterized by C, H, N analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that all complexes undergo a two step decomposition process except for [NiCl{sub 2}(CSNHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}] (V) which decomposes in a single step. The complexes were used as single-source precursors for the deposition of cobalt sulfide and nickel sulfide thin films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition at temperatures between 350 an 500 °C. The crystallinity of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and their morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of the cobalt sulfide thin films varies from randomly oriented platelets, to granulated spheres and cubes as the precursor and deposition conditions are changed. For nickel sulfide, the [NiCl{sub 2}(CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (IV) complex gave rods whereas the [NiCl{sub 2}(CSNHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}] (V) produced spherical particles. - Highlights: • We report the synthesis of Co(II) and Ni(II) thiourea and alkylthiourea complexes. • C, H, N analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterization • NiS and CoS thin films deposited by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition • X-ray diffraction characterization of the phase of the filmsFilm morphology determined by scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Preparation of Li4Ti5O12 electrode thin films by a mist CVD process with aqueous precursor solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoharu Tadanaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinel Li4Ti5O12 thin films were prepared by a mist CVD process, using an aqueous solution of lithium nitrate and a water-soluble titanium lactate complex as the source of Li and Ti, respectively. In this process, mist particles ultrasonically atomized from a source aqueous solution were transferred by nitrogen gas to a heating substrate to prepare thin films. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 500 nm were obtained. In the X-ray diffraction analysis, formation of Li4Ti5O12 spinel phase was confirmed in the obtained thin film sintered at 700 °C for 4 h. The cell with the thin films as an electrode exhibited a capacity of about 110 mAh g−1, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  17. A study on composition, structure and optical properties of copper-poor CIGS thin film deposited by sequential sputtering of CuGa/In and In/(CuGa+In) precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Un; Sharma, Rahul; Ashok, K.; Kang, San; Sim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2012-11-01

    Copper-poor CIGS thin films were fabricated by using two precursor of CuGa/In and In/(CuGa+In) onto the Mo coated soda-lime glass (SLG) by the sequential sputtering of CuGa and In targets. The CIG precursors were converted into CIGS absorption thin film by selenization process. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of CIGS absorber from CuGa/In precursor exhibits strong (112) preferred orientation that is more stable than (220)/(204) as compared to In/(CuGa+In) precursor. The elemental composition uniformity onto the surface and along depth were extensively analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). For as-fabricated CIGS thin films from In/(CuGa+In) and CuGa/In precursors, the atomic (at%) composition values of [Cu]//[In+Ga]/=1.14, 1.08 and [Ga]/[In+Ga]=0.33, 0.20 were observed, respectively that is well matched for highest efficient CIGS-based solar cell so far. SIMS confirmed that the Ga profile is not through the depth of CIGS thin film attributed a consistent band gap of 1.04 and 1.08 eV. Further, PL spectrum of CIGS absorber formed by CuGa/In precursor exhibits relatively narrow emission peak as compared to In/(CuGa+In) precursor. It is attributed to decrease defect density with uniform composition in the CIGS absorber. The carrier concentration (Np) found to increase from 1020 to 1021 cm-3 orders with the increase of Cu/(In+Ga) at.% from 0.93 to 1.02, which is related to the increasing carrier concentration for stoichiometric CIGS films.

  18. Structural properties of In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} precursor layers deposited by spray pyrolysis and physical vapor deposition for CuInSe{sub 2} thin-film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Figueroa, P. [Department of Electrical Engineering (SEES), Cinvestav-Zacatenco, 2508 Av. IPN, 07360 Mexico City (Mexico); IMN, UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Painchaud, T.; Lepetit, T.; Harel, S.; Arzel, L. [IMN, UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@skku.ac.kr [School of Information and Communication Engineering, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Barreau, N. [IMN, UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Velumani, S., E-mail: velu@cinvestav.mx [Department of Electrical Engineering (SEES), Cinvestav-Zacatenco, 2508 Av. IPN, 07360 Mexico City (Mexico); School of Information and Communication Engineering, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    The structural properties of In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} precursor thin films grown by chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods were compared. This is to investigate the feasibility to substitute PVD process of CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) films by CSP films as precursor layer, thus decreasing the production cost by increasing material-utilization efficiency. Both films of 1 μm thickness were deposited at the same substrate temperature of 380 °C. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra confirm the formation of γ-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystalline phase for both films. The PVD and CSP films exhibited (110) and (006) preferred orientations, respectively. The PVD films showed a smaller full width at half maximum value (0.09°) compared with CSP layers (0.1°). Films with the same crystalline phase but with different orientations are normally used in the preparation of high quality CISe films by 3-stage process. Scanning electron microscope cross-section images showed an important difference in grain size with well-defined larger grains of size 1–2 μm in the PVD films as compared to CSP layers (600 nm). Another important characteristic that differentiates the two precursor films is the oxygen contamination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of oxygen in CSP films. The oxygen atoms could be bonded to indium by replacing Se vacancies, which are formed during CSP deposition. Taking account of the obtained results, such CSP films can be used as precursor layer in a PVD process in order to produce CISe absorber films. - Highlights: • To find the intricacies involved in spray pyrolysis (CSP) and physical vapor (PVD) deposition. • Comparison of CSP and PVD film formations — especially in structural properties. • Feasibility to substitute CSP (cheaper) films for PVD in the manufacturing process. • Decreasing the global production cost of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} devices in the 3-stage process.

  19. Effects of the oxygen precursor on the electrical and structural properties of HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition on Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, S.; Wiemer, C.; Tallarida, G.; Scarel, G.; Ferrari, S.; Seguini, G.; Fanciulli, M.

    2005-09-01

    We report on the growth by atomic layer deposition of HfO2 films on HF-last treated Ge(001) substrates using HfCl4 as a Hf source and either O3 or H2O as oxygen sources. The choice of the oxygen precursor strongly influences the structural, chemical, and electrical properties of the HfO2 films: Those grown using H2O exhibit local epitaxial growth, a large amount of contaminants such as chlorine and carbon, and a large frequency dispersion of the capacitance-voltage (C -V) characteristics. Films grown using O3 are good insulators and exhibit well-shaped C -V curves with a minimum frequency dispersion of the accumulation capacitance. Moreover, they are smoother, less crystallized, and with a lower contaminant content than those grown using H2O. However, the use of O3 leads to the formation of a 2nm thick layer, possibly GeOx, at the HfO2/Ge interface.

  20. Growth and characterization of germanium epitaxial film on silicon (001 with germane precursor in metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Hong Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of germanium (Ge epitaxial film grown directly on a silicon (Si (001 substrate with 6° off-cut using conventional germane precursor in a metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD system is studied. The growth sequence consists of several steps at low temperature (LT at 400 °C, intermediate temperature ramp (LT-HT of ∼10 °C/min and high temperature (HT at 600 °C. This is followed by post-growth annealing in hydrogen at temperature ranging from 650 to 825 °C. The Ge epitaxial film of thickness ∼ 1 μm experiences thermally induced tensile strain of 0.11 % with a treading dislocation density (TDD of ∼107/cm2 and the root-mean-square (RMS roughness of ∼ 0.75 nm. The benefit of growing Ge epitaxial film using MOCVD is that the subsequent III-V materials can be grown in-situ without the need of breaking the vacuum hence it is manufacturing worthy.

  1. Role of precursors on morphology and optical properties of ZnS thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46071 - Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: mhernan@fis.upv.es; Lopez, M.C. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dptos Fisica Aplicada and Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Unversidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Donderis, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46071 - Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, M.; Mari, B. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46071 - Valencia (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dptos Fisica Aplicada and Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Unversidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    This study investigates the effect of different growth parameters on the structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films, prepared using spray pyrolysis. The films were prepared using different Zn:S ratios (between 1:1 and 1:6) and in different growth solutions: (A), zinc chloride and thiourea and (B) dehydrated zinc acetate and thiourea, both in distilled water. By varying the Zn:S ratio in the films, the optical properties (absorption and photoluminescence) show that different species are created during film growth. This was deduced from the wide emission band appearing in the green region of the photoluminescence spectra, and from the change in band gap, which varies between 3.2 and 3.5 eV. Films formed from solution (A) with a Zn:S ratio of 1:3 or 1:4 show the best morphology and transmission. ZnS has a wider band gap than other conventional II-VI semiconductors utilized in various electronic and optical devices and can be expected to provide a useful window layer of solar cells which leads to an improvement in overall efficiency by decreasing absorption loss.

  2. Obtainment of Hg-free Mn/Zn solutions from spent alkaline batteries; Obtencion de soluciones de Mn/Zn libres de Hg provenientes de pilas alcalinas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nicolas, L.; Espinosa-Ramirez, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lepeni@hotmail.com; Aguilar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Palacios-Beas, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    As in many other countries, the excessive consumption of alkaline batteries in Mexico has generated highly contaminating wastes, with heavy metal contents such as Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu and Ni, among others. This has caused a large degree of environmental degradation with repercussions for the health of living beings. Because there are no regulations regarding the disposal of spent batteries, they are thrown out with the rest of the domestic wastes or directly into nature, ending up in open-air landfills or containers where they are incinerated, thereby contaminating the planet's environment, soil and springs. The present work studies the obtainment of solutions of Hg-free Mn and Zn (Mn/Zn {>=} 1) from spent alkaline batteries for use in synthesis of (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by a wet method. The effect is analyzed of the dissolution medium (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HCl and HCl/NO{sub 3}) temperature and time on the percentage of dissolution of the metals present in the electrode material, characterized by atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the investigation indicate that the best dissolution conditions are MD=H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, T=50 degrees Celsius and t =30 min, where 94.1 and 90.7 % (w/w) of Mn and Zn are obtained, respectively, with Mn/Zn = 1.51. The mercury content was determined to be 3.91%, higher than that stated by the battery specifications, which is recovered by dissolving with HCl/HNO{sub 3} in the residual solid. [Spanish] En Mexico como en muchos otros paises, el consumo excesivo de pilas alcalinas ha generado desechos altamente contaminantes, con contenidos de metales pesados como Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu y Ni entre otros, que han provocado un gran deterioro en el medio ambiente repercutiendo en la salud de los seres vivos. Dado que no se tiene una regulacion en cuanto a la disposicion de pilas gastadas, estas se desechan con el resto de las residuos domesticos o directamente

  3. Synthesis of In2S3 thin films by spray pyrolysis from precursors with different [S]/[In] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Thierno; Nafidi, A.; Marí Soucase, Bernabé; Mollar, Miguel; Hartitti, Bouchaib; Fahoume, Mounir

    2014-06-01

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique from solutions with different [S]/[In] ratios on glass substrates at a constant temperature of 250 °C. Thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy and optical transmittance spectroscopy. All samples exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a preferential orientation along (0, 0, 12). A good stoichiometry was attained for all samples. The morphology of thin film surfaces, as seen by SEM, was dense and no cracks or pinholes were observed. Raman spectroscopy analysis shows active modes belonging to β-ln2S3 phase. The optical transmittance in the visible range is higher than 60% and the band gap energy slightly increases with the sulfur to indium ratio, attaining a value of 2.63 eV for [S]/[In] = 4.5.

  4. Influence from Thermal Elimination Temperature of Precursor Polymer and Film-forming Methods on the Photophysics of the Poly(2,5-didodecyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)%Influence from Thermal Elimination Temperature of Precursor Polymer and Film-forming Methods on the Photophysics of the Poly(2,5-didodecyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尚丽; 赵伟; 许晓前; 程丝; 范丽娟

    2011-01-01

    A series of poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s (PPVs) with good solubility were synthesized from thermal elimination of precursor poly(2,5-didodecyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene) at different temperature via Wessling method. The polymer photophysics were influenced by the thermal elimination condition, which was consistent with NMR and IR characterizations. The additional absorption peak at longer wavelength and the red-shifted emission maximum both in solution and in film, for PPVs obtained at high elimination temperature, indicated the existence of longer conjugated blocks in these systems. The emission maximum for drop-cast film (436 nm) for PPV obtained under 200 ℃ (PPV200) was 16 nm blue shifted to the spin-coated films (452 nm) or 29 nm to the solution (465 nm). The SEM study showed drop-cast film had the morphology of isolated conjugated particles in the matrix while blurry linear structure was found for spin-coated film, which was consistent with the photophysics. The discussion about this difference was carried out based on the consideration of the flexibility of the polymer chains and different conjugated length of PPV in different states.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and thermal properties of homoleptic rare-earth guanidinates: promising precursors for MOCVD and ALD of rare-earth oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, Andrian P; Fischer, Roland A; Devi, Anjana

    2008-12-01

    Eight novel homoleptic tris-guanidinato complexes M[(N(i)Pr)(2)CNR(2)](3) [M = Y (a), Gd (b), Dy (c) and R = Me (1), Et (2), (i)Pr (3)] have been synthesized and characterized by NMR, CHN-analysis, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. Single crystal structure analysis revealed that all the compounds are monomers with the rare-earth metal center coordinated to six nitrogen atoms of the three chelating guanidinato ligands in a distorted trigonal prism geometry. With the use of TGA/DTA and isothermal TGA analysis, the thermal characteristics of all the complexes were studied in detail to evaluate their suitability as precursors for thin film deposition by MOCVD and ALD. The (i)Pr-Me(2)N-guanidinates of Y, Gd and Dy (1a-c) showed excellent thermal characteristics in terms of thermal stability and volatility. Additionally, the thermal stability of the (i)Pr-Me(2)N-guanidinates of Y and Dy (1a, c) in solution was investigated by carrying out NMR decomposition experiments and both the compounds were found to be remarkably stable. All these studies indicate that (i)Pr-Me(2)N-guanidinates of Y, Gd and Dy (1a-c) have the prerequisites for MOCVD and ALD applications which were confirmed by the successful deposition of Gd(2)O(3) and Dy(2)O(3) thin films on Si(100) substrates. The MOCVD grown films of Gd(2)O(3) and Dy(2)O(3) were highly oriented in the cubic phase, while the ALD grown films were amorphous.

  6. Intermediate Phase Study on YBCO Films Coated by Precursor Solutions With F/Ba Atomic Ratio of 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, W.; Feng, F.; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    infrared studies. The intermediate phase evolution prior to the end of the sintering stage is also investigated by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Liquid-like structures are observed, which are proposed to be responsible for the film densification in the early stage of YBCO formation...

  7. Crystallization of a perovskite film for higher performance solar cells by controlling water concentration in methyl ammonium iodide precursor solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Nirmal; Dubey, Ashish; Gaml, Eman A; Vaagensmith, Bjorn; Reza, Khan Mamun; Mabrouk, Sally Adel Abdelsalam; Gu, Shaopeng; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-02-07

    An optimal small amount of water added into methyl ammonium iodide (MAI) solution in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) helps perovskite crystallization and leads to larger grain size from sequential deposition of perovskite films. The concentration of water was varied from 1% to 7% (vol% of IPA) in MAI solution and optical absorption, crystallization, morphology of perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance were studied in perovskite solar cells. 5% by volume was found to lead to preferential crystallization in the (110) plane with grain size about three times that of perovskite films prepared without adding water into the MAI solution. The optimal water concentration of 5% by volume in the MAI solution led to average perovskite grain size of ∼600 nm and solar cell efficiency of 12.42% at forward scan with a rate of 0.5 V s(-1). Device performance decreases after increasing water concentration beyond 5% in the MAI solution due to formation of the PbI2 phase. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements show the shortest charge transport time at 0.99 μs and the longest charge carrier life time at 13.6 μs for perovskite films prepared from 5% water in MAI solution, which improved perovskite solar cell efficiency from 9.04% to 12.42%.

  8. Growth of Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}O{sub y} films by atomic layer deposition using successive supply of metal precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroval, Tõnis, E-mail: tonis.arroval@ut.ee; Aarik, Lauri; Rammula, Raul; Aarik, Jaan

    2015-09-30

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of thin ternary films from TiCl{sub 4}, trimethylaluminum (TMA), AlCl{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O was investigated at different successions of precursor pulses with the aim to explore passivation effect of TiCl{sub 4} to the chemisorption of TMA and AlCl{sub 3}. Concentrations of Ti and Al in the films grown on silicon substrates at 100–500 °C in different ALD precursor sequences were studied. In order to obtain additional information about the deposition mechanisms, the behavior of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) signal during ALD cycles was characterized and analyzed at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. Post-deposition analysis revealed up to 2 times lower Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition rate in the TiCl{sub 4}-TMA-H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}-AlCl{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O processes than that in the TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O-TMA-H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O-AlCl{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O processes, respectively. Despite of the markedly reduced growth rate of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the TiCl{sub 4}-TMA-H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}-AlCl{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O processes, films with Al/(Al + Ti) ratios exceeding 0.5 were obtained. Consequently, the surface intermediate species, which stopped further adsorption of TiCl{sub 4}, limited the adsorption of AlCl{sub 3} and TMA only partially. Enhanced growth rate of TiO{sub 2} was observed in films grown in the TiCl{sub 4}-TMA-H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O-TMA-H{sub 2}O processes. QCM revealed more efficient chlorine release and thereby reduced effect of steric hindrance in those processes. In addition, marked increase of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition rate was observed in the TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O-TMA-H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}-TMA-H{sub 2}O processes with the increase of deposition temperature from 300 °C to higher temperatures. As no increase of this kind was recorded in the TMA-H{sub 2}O process, the effect was related to the influence of Ti-containing surface layer on the adsorption of TMA. - Highlights:

  9. Weakening of thickness dependence of J{sub C} in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} films using a titanium-added MOD precursor solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.L., E-mail: zhanghuiliang@mail.iee.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China); Ding, F.Z., E-mail: dingfazhu@mail.iee.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gu, H.W., E-mail: guhw@mail.iee.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Z.B. [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qu, F.; Zhang, H.; Shang, H.J. [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The thickness dependence of J{sub C} in YBCO film was weakened by introducing BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles into YBCO matrix. • The high I{sub C} value of 430 MA/cm-width was obtained in the BaTiO{sub 3}-doped YBCO film prepared by the MOD method. • The YBCO composite thick film prepared by using the precursor solution with polyethyleneglycol shows a compact and smooth surface. - Abstract: BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO)-doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (YBCO) films were prepared by the metal-organic deposition method using a precursor solution with titanium ion. These YBCO films were deposited on (00l)-oriented LaAlO{sub 3} single-crystal substrates using an automated dip coater. The thickness dependence of critical current density (J{sub C}) in the BTO-doped YBCO films was investigated. The J{sub C} value of the YBCO composite film was reduced from 6.3 to 4.6 MA/cm{sup 2} with increasing film thickness from 450 to 930 nm in self-filed at 77 K, which arose mainly from degradation of texture and roughening of the film. However, relative to undoped YBCO thick films, J{sub C} values of the YBCO composite thick films were greatly improved, and more importantly, the reduction in J{sub C} with increasing film thickness was hindered, especially in a high magnetic field. This result indicated that the introduction of BTO nanoparticles as pinning centers into YBCO matrix weakened the thickness dependence of J{sub C}.

  10. Room temperature atomic layerlike deposition of ZnS on organic thin films: Role of substrate functional groups and precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhiwei; Walker, Amy V., E-mail: amy.walker@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, RL10, 800 W. Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The room temperature atomic layerlike deposition (ALLD) of ZnS on functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was investigated, using diethyl zinc (DEZ) and in situ generated H{sub 2}S as reactants. Depositions on SAMs with three different terminal groups, –CH{sub 3,} –OH, and –COOH, were studied. It was found that the reaction of DEZ with the SAM terminal group is critical in determining the film growth rate. Little or no deposition is observed on –CH{sub 3} terminated SAMs because DEZ does not react with the methyl terminal group. ZnS does deposit on both –OH and –COOH terminated SAMs, but the grow rate on –COOH terminated SAMs is ∼10% lower per cycle than on –OH terminated SAMs. DEZ reacts with the hydroxyl group on –OH terminated SAMs, while on –COOH terminated SAMs it reacts with both the hydroxyl and carbonyl bonds of the terminal groups. The carbonyl reaction is found to lead to the formation of ketones rather than deposition of ZnS, lowering the growth rate on –COOH terminated SAMs. SIMS spectra show that both –OH and –COOH terminated SAMs are covered by the deposited ZnS layer after five ALLD cycles. In contrast to ZnO ALLD where the composition of the film differs for the first few layers on –COOH and –OH terminated SAMs, the deposited film composition is the same for both –COOH and –OH terminated SAMs. The deposited film is found to be Zn-rich, suggesting that the reaction of H{sub 2}S with the Zn-surface adduct may be incomplete.

  11. Self-assembled SnO2 micro- and nanosphere-based gas sensor thick films from an alkoxide-derived high purity aqueous colloid precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelp, G.; Tätte, T.; Pikker, S.; Mändar, H.; Rozhin, A. G.; Rauwel, P.; Vanetsev, A. S.; Gerst, A.; Merisalu, M.; Mäeorg, U.; Natali, M.; Persson, I.; Kessler, V. G.

    2016-03-01

    Tin oxide is considered to be one of the most promising semiconductor oxide materials for use as a gas sensor. However, a simple route for the controllable build-up of nanostructured, sufficiently pure and hierarchical SnO2 structures for gas sensor applications is still a challenge. In the current work, an aqueous SnO2 nanoparticulate precursor sol, which is free of organic contaminants and sorbed ions and is fully stable over time, was prepared in a highly reproducible manner from an alkoxide Sn(OR)4 just by mixing it with a large excess of pure neutral water. The precursor is formed as a separate liquid phase. The structure and purity of the precursor is revealed using XRD, SAXS, EXAFS, HRTEM imaging, FTIR, and XRF analysis. An unconventional approach for the estimation of the particle size based on the quantification of the Sn-Sn contacts in the structure was developed using EXAFS spectroscopy and verified using HRTEM. To construct sensors with a hierarchical 3D structure, we employed an unusual emulsification technique not involving any additives or surfactants, using simply the extraction of the liquid phase, water, with the help of dry butanol under ambient conditions. The originally generated crystalline but yet highly reactive nanoparticles form relatively uniform spheres through self-assembly and solidify instantly. The spheres floating in butanol were left to deposit on the surface of quartz plates bearing sputtered gold electrodes, producing ready-for-use gas sensors in the form of ca. 50 μm thick sphere-based-films. The films were dried for 24 h and calcined at 300 °C in air before use. The gas sensitivity of the structures was tested in the temperature range of 150-400 °C. The materials showed a very quickly emerging and reversible (20-30 times) increase in electrical conductivity as a response to exposure to air containing 100 ppm of H2 or CO and short (10 s) recovery times when the gas flow was stopped.Tin oxide is considered to be one of the

  12. Atomic layer deposition of ZrO{sub 2} thin film on Si(100) using {η"5:η"1-Cp(CH_2)_3NMe}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}/O{sub 3} as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae-Sun, E-mail: jungjes@sbsial.com [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Soulbrain Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ltd. 34-12, Gongju-si, Chungcheoungnam-do, 314-240 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Chang-Sung; Shin, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jong-Moon [Soulbrain Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ltd. 34-12, Gongju-si, Chungcheoungnam-do, 314-240 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun-Gill, E-mail: jgkang@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZrO{sub 2} thin films was investigated using a linked cyclopentadienyl-amido compound of zirconium, {η"5:η"1-Cp(CH_2)_3NMe}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} with ozone. The ALD-window was established as 300–380 °C with a growth rate of about 0.95 Å/cycle. A good film conformality of 0.95 for 5.7–6.1 nm-thick film was obtained for bottom and sidewall step coverages of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. The ALD at 330 °C yielded a ZrO{sub 2} having good crystallinity. The film showed low impurity levels and a strong tendency to form the tetragonal/cubic phases despite a low film thickness of 8.58 nm (root-mean-square roughness = 0.49 nm). Better ALD performance was obtained with this linked precursor than with the commonly used CpZr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} precursor. Furthermore, theoretical calculations for the ALD processes on hydroxylated Si wafer surfaces were performed by using density function theory. Initial growth mechanism of ZrO{sub 2} from CpZr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and {η"5:η"1-Cp(CH_2)_3NMe}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} were proposed on atomic-scale structure. - Highlights: • Linked and non-linked cyclopentadienyl-related Zr(IV) precursors were synthesized. • ZrO{sub 2} thin films were fabricated on Si wafer via atomic layer deposition (ALD). • The linked precursor resulted in excellent thin film, compared with the non-linked one. • Quantum mechanical calculations were performed for initial ALD growth mechanism.

  13. Lanthanide amidinates and guanidinates: from laboratory curiosities to efficient homogeneous catalysts and precursors for rare-earth oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Frank T

    2009-08-01

    For decades, the organometallic chemistry of the rare earth elements was largely dominated by the cyclopentadienyl ligand and its ring-substituted derivatives. A hot topic in current organolanthanide chemistry is the search for alternative ligand sets which are able to satisfy the coordination requirements of the large lanthanide cations. Among the most successful approaches in this field is the use of amidinate ligands of the general type [RC(NR')(2)](-) (R = H, alkyl, aryl; R' = alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, SiMe(3)) which can be regarded as steric cyclopentadienyl equivalents. Closely related are the guanidinate anions of the general type [R(2)NC(NR')(2)](-) (R = alkyl, SiMe(3); R' = alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, SiMe(3)). Two amidinate or guanidinate ligands can coordinate to a lanthanide ion to form a metallocene-like coordination environment which allows the isolation and characterization of stable though very reactive amide, alkyl, and hydride species. Mono- and trisubstituted lanthanide amidinate and guanidinate complexes are also readily available. Various rare earth amidinates and guanidinates have turned out to be very efficient homogeneous catalysts e.g. for ring-opening polymerization reactions. Moreover, certain alkyl-substituted lanthanide tris(amidinates) and tris(guanidinates) were found to be highly volatile and could thus be promising precursors for ALD (= Atomic Layer Deposition) and MOCVD (= Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) processes in materials science and nanotechnology. This tutorial review covers the success story of lanthanide amidinates and guanidinates and their transition from mere laboratory curiosities to efficient homogeneous catalysts as well as ALD and MOCVD precursors.

  14. Oxidation precursor dependence of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films in a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 surface passivation stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhou, Chunlan; Jia, Endong; Wang, Wenjing

    2015-03-01

    In order to obtain a good passivation of a silicon surface, more and more stack passivation schemes have been used in high-efficiency silicon solar cell fabrication. In this work, we prepared a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks on KOH solution-polished n-type solar grade mono-silicon(100) wafers. For the Al2O3 film deposition, both thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) were used. Interface trap density spectra were obtained for Si passivation with a-Si films and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks by a non-contact corona C-V technique. After the fabrication of a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks, the minimum interface trap density was reduced from original 3 × 1012 to 1 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1, the surface total charge density increased by nearly one order of magnitude for PE-ALD samples and about 0.4 × 1012 cm-2 for a T-ALD sample, and the carrier lifetimes increased by a factor of three (from about 10 μs to about 30 μs). Combining these results with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we discussed the influence of an oxidation precursor for ALD Al2O3 deposition on Al2O3 single layers and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stack surface passivation from field-effect passivation and chemical passivation perspectives. In addition, the influence of the stack fabrication process on the a-Si film structure was also discussed in this study.

  15. A photochemical proposal for the preparation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films from β-diketonate complex precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, G., E-mail: gerardocabelloguzman@hotmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán (Chile); Lillo, L.; Caro, C.; Seguel, M.; Sandoval, C. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán (Chile); Buono-Core, G.E. [Instituto de Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso (Chile); Chornik, B.; Flores, M. [Deparamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8370415 (Chile)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by photo-chemical method. • The Zn(II), Mg(II) and Al(III) β-diketonate complexes were used as precursors. • The photochemical reaction was monitored by UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. • The results reveal spinel oxide formation and the generation of intermediate products. - Abstract: ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were grown on Si(100) and quartz plate substrates using a photochemical method in the solid phase with thin films of β-diketonate complexes as the precursors. The films were deposited by spin-coating and subsequently photolyzed at room temperature using 254 nm UV light. The photolysis of these films results in the deposition of metal oxide thin films and fragmentation of the ligands from the coordination sphere of the complexes. The obtained samples were post-annealed at different temperatures (350–1100 °C) for 2 h and characterized by FT-Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force miscroscopy (AFM), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The results indicate the formation of spinel-type structures and other phases. These characteristics determined the quality of the films, which were obtained from the photodeposition of ternary metal oxides.

  16. Polyimide/metal composite films via in situ decomposition of inorganic additives - Soluble polyimide versus polyimide precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Porta, G. M.; Moyer, E. S.; Madeleine, D. G.; Taylor, L. T.

    1988-01-01

    Polyimide-metal oxide (Co3O4 or CuO) composite films have been prepared via in situ thermal decomposition of cobalt (II) chloride or bis(trifluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II). A soluble polyimide (XU-218) and its corresponding prepolymer (polyamide acid) were individually employed as the reaction matrix. The resulting composites exhibited a greater metal oxide concentration at the air interface with polyamide acid as the reaction matrix. The water of imidization that is released during the concurrent polyamide acid cure and additive decomposition is believed to promote metal migration and oxide formation. In contrast, XU-218 doped with either HAuCl4.3H2O or AgNO3 yields surface gold or silver when thermolyzed (300 C).

  17. Patterning at the 10 nanometer length scale using a strongly segregating block copolymer thin film and vapor phase infiltration of inorganic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonathan W.; Li, Zhaodong; Black, Charles T.; Sweat, Daniel P.; Wang, Xudong; Gopalan, Padma

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of self-assembled thin films of the cylinder-forming block copolymer poly(4-tert-butylstyrene-block-2-vinylpyridine) to pattern high density features at the 10 nm length scale. This material's large interaction parameter facilitates pattern formation in single-digit nanometer dimensions. This block copolymer's accessible order-disorder transition temperature allows thermal annealing to drive the assembly of ordered 2-vinylpyridine cylinders that can be selectively complexed with the organometallic precursor trimethylaluminum. This unique chemistry converts organic 2-vinylpyridine cylinders into alumina nanowires with diameters ranging from 8 to 11 nm, depending on the copolymer molecular weight. Graphoepitaxy of this block copolymer aligns and registers sub-12 nm diameter nanowires to larger-scale rectangular, curved, and circular features patterned by optical lithography. The alumina nanowires function as a robust hard mask to withstand the conditions required for patterning the underlying silicon by plasma etching. We conclude with a discussion of some of the challenges that arise with using block copolymers for patterning at sub-10 nm feature sizes.In this work, we demonstrate the use of self-assembled thin films of the cylinder-forming block copolymer poly(4-tert-butylstyrene-block-2-vinylpyridine) to pattern high density features at the 10 nm length scale. This material's large interaction parameter facilitates pattern formation in single-digit nanometer dimensions. This block copolymer's accessible order-disorder transition temperature allows thermal annealing to drive the assembly of ordered 2-vinylpyridine cylinders that can be selectively complexed with the organometallic precursor trimethylaluminum. This unique chemistry converts organic 2-vinylpyridine cylinders into alumina nanowires with diameters ranging from 8 to 11 nm, depending on the copolymer molecular weight. Graphoepitaxy of this block copolymer aligns and

  18. Catalytic and photoelectrochemical performances of Cu-Zn-Sn-Se thin films prepared using selenization of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn metal precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Pin-Wen; Li, Chun-Ting; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Cheng, Kong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    In this study, Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) films are deposited onto the fluorine-doped-tin-oxide-coated glass substrate via the selenization of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn metal precursors in an acidic solution with the applied potential of -0.9 V vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the samples are the quaternary tetragonal CZTSe phase. The thicknesses and direct band gaps of the samples are in the ranges of 2.3 to 2.7 μm and 0.95 to 1.02 eV, respectively. All samples are p-type semiconductors with carrier density, mobility and flat-band potential in the ranges of 3.88 × 1017 to 1.37 × 1018 cm-3, 10.31 to 12.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and -0.01 V to -0.08 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode, respectively. The sample with [Cu]/[Zn + Sn] and [Zn]/[Sn] molar ratios of 0.87 and 0.66, respectively, has a maximum photo-enhanced current density of 0.41 mA cm-2 at an applied bias of -0.5 V vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution under illumination. The best photo-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using CZTSe with [Cu]/[Zn + Sn] and [Zn]/[Sn] molar ratios of 0.87 and 0.66, respectively, as the counter electrode was 7.98%. The results show the high quality CZTSe films have potentials in applications of photoelectrochemical water splitting and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Monomeric malonate precursors for the MOCVD of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Milanov, Andrian; Parala, Harish; Winter, Manuela; Fischer, Roland A; Devi, Anjana

    2009-01-28

    New Hf and Zr malonate complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of metal amides with different malonate ligands (L = dimethyl malonate (Hdmml), diethyl malonate (Hdeml), di-tert-butyl malonate (Hdbml) and bis(trimethylsilyl) malonate (Hbsml)). Homoleptic eight-coordinated monomeric compounds of the type ML4 were obtained for Hf with all the malonate ligands employed. In contrast, for Zr only Hdmml and Hdeml yielded the eight-coordinated monomeric compounds of the type ML4, while using the bulky Hdbml and Hbsml ligands resulted into mixed alkoxo-malonato six-coordinated compounds of the type [ML2(OR)2]. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of all the compounds are presented and discussed, and they are found to be monomeric. The complexes are solids and in solution, they retain their monomeric nature as evidenced by NMR measurements. Compared to the classical beta-diketonate complexes, [M(acac)4] and [M(thd)4] (M = Hf, Zr; acac: acetylacetonate; thd: tetramethylheptadione), the new malonate compounds are more volatile, decompose at lower temperatures and have lower melting points. In particular, the homoleptic diethyl malonate complexes of Hf and Zr melt at temperatures as low as 62 degrees C. In addition, the compounds are very stable in air and can be sublimed quantitatively. The promising thermal properties makes these compounds interesting for metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This was demonstrated by depositing HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films successfully with two representative Hf and Zr complexes.

  20. Electron-gun Evaporation of Cu and In thin films as Precursors for CuInSe{sub 2} Formation; Evaporacion mediante Canon de Electrones de Laminas Delgadas de Cu e In como Precursores para la Obtencion de CuInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, R.; Guillen, C.

    2001-07-01

    In the present investigation CuInSe{sub 2} is obtained in two stages: sequential evaporation of Cu and In using an electron gun evaporator on substrates up to 30 x 30 cm''2, and a posterior selenization of the deposited films. The study is mainly focused on the first stage, in where the control of the different evaporation parameters of the metal precursors is essential. Electrical measurements are carried out, and also the topography and the thickness are determined with the object of studying the properties and homogeneity of the thin films. (Author) 19 refs.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of high-quality Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films from hydrogen-free precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarik, Lauri, E-mail: lauri.aarik@ut.ee [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Arroval, Tõnis; Rammula, Raul; Mändar, Hugo [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Sammelselg, Väino [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); University of Tartu, Institute of Chemistry, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Hudec, Boris; Hušeková, Kristína; Fröhlich, Karol [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Aarik, Jaan [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-08-28

    Possibilities for atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films from chloride and ozone were studied in order to avoid application of precursors that could leave hydrogen impurities in the films. Growth of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was obtained at substrate temperatures of 300–450 °C. At these temperatures, the growth rate was close to the values reported for corresponding H{sub 2}O-based processes. Studies of thin-film composition revealed that reactivity of O{sub 3} was sufficient to ensure deposition of films with chlorine concentration below 0.05 at.% at 350–450 °C. Application of the AlCl{sub 3}–O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition process for in situ Al-doping of TiO{sub 2} thin films demonstrated that the amount of Al incorporated into the films during a single deposition cycle depended on the doping level. A reason for this effect was the influence of Al-doping on the phase composition of the film material. Al-doping of the TiO{sub 2} films significantly reduced the surface roughness allowing deposition of high-density films with very flat surfaces. In capacitor structures with capacitance equivalent oxide thicknesses below 0.4 nm, the Al-doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited from TiCl{sub 4}, AlCl{sub 3} and O{sub 3} demonstrated markedly lower leakage current densities than the films with similar capacitance densities grown from TiCl{sub 4}, Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O and from TiCl{sub 4}, Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and O{sub 3} did. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition of thin films from AlCl{sub 3} and O{sub 3} was investigated. • Growth of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was obtained at temperatures 300–450 °C. • Growth rates up to 0.069 nm per cycle were observed. • Deposition of Al-doped TiO{sub 2} films from TiCl{sub 4}, AlCl{sub 3} and O{sub 3} was studied. • Films with superior dielectric properties were grown in the hydrogen-free process.

  2. Synthesis, structure, vapour pressure and deposition of ZnO thin film by plasma assisted MOCVD technique using a novel precursor bis[(pentylnitrilomethylidine) (pentylnitrilomethylidine-μ-phenalato)]dizinc(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakala, C.; Sravanthi, P.; Raj Bharath, S.; Arockiasamy, S.; George Johnson, M.; Nagaraja, K. S.; Jeyaraj, B.

    2017-02-01

    A novel binuclear zinc schiff's base complex bis[(pentylnitrilomethylidine)(pentylnitrilomethylidine-μ-phenalato)]dizinc(II) (hereafter referred as ZSP) was prepared and used as a precursor for the deposition of ZnO thin film by MOCVD. The dynamic TG run of ZSP showed sufficient volatility and good thermal stability. The temperature dependence of vapour pressure measured by transpiration technique yielded a value of 55.8 ± 2.3 kJ mol-1 for the enthalpy of sublimation (ΔH°sub) in the temperature range of 423-503 K. The crystal structure of ZSP was solved by single crystal XRD which exhibits triclinic crystal system with the space group of Pī. The molecular mass of ZSP was determined by mass spectrometry which yielded the m/z value of 891 and 445 Da corresponding to its dimeric as well as monomeric form. The complex ZSP was further characterized by FT-IR and NMR. The demonstration of ZnO thin film deposition was carried out by using plasma assisted MOCVD. The thin film XRD confirmed the highly oriented (002) ZnO thin films on Si(100) substrate. The uniformity and composition of the thin film were analyzed by SEM/EDX. The band gap of ZnO thin film measurement indicated the blue shift with the value of 3.79 eV.

  3. Effect of a Ti capping layer on thermal stability of NiSi formed from Ni thin films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using a Ni(iPr-DAD)2 precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Jang, Woochool; Kang, Chunho; Yuh, Junhan; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2015-02-01

    Ni films were deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using a novel Ni precursor, bis(1,4-di-isopropyl-1,3-diazabutadienyl)nickel [Ni(iPr-DAD)2], and NH3 gas. To optimize process conditions, the deposition temperature and reactant partial pressure were varied from 200 to 350 °C and from 0.2 to 0.99 Torr, respectively. Ni films deposited at 300 °C with a reactant pressure of 0.8 Torr exhibited excellent quality, and had a low carbon impurity concentration of around 4%. In addition, a sacrificial Ti capping layer was deposited by an in situ e-beam evaporator on top of the Ni films to enhance the thermal stability of the subsequently formed NiSi films. Both the Ti-capped and uncapped Ni films were annealed by a two-step method, with a first annealing conducted at 500 °C, followed by wet etching and then a second annealing carried out from 500 to 900 °C. The Ti capping layer did not affect the silicidation kinetic process, but by acting as an oxygen scavenger, it did enhance the morphological stability of the NiSi films and thus improve their electrical properties.

  4. Highly conducting, transparent, and flexible indium oxide thin film prepared by atomic layer deposition using a new liquid precursor Et2InN(SiMe3)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Wan Joo; Choi, Dong-Won; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Koh, Wonyong; Kim, Gi-Yeop; Choi, Si-Young; Park, Jin-Seong

    2014-10-22

    Highly conductive indium oxide films, electrically more conductive than commercial sputtered indium tin oxide films films, were deposited using a new liquid precursor Et2InN(SiMe3)2 and H2O by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 225-250 °C. Film resistivity can be as low as 2.3 × 10(-4)-5.16 × 10(-5) Ω·cm (when deposited at 225-250 °C). Optical transparency of >80% at wavelengths of 400-700 nm was obtained for all the deposited films. A self-limiting ALD growth mode was found 0.7 Å/cycle at 175-250 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profile analysis showed pure indium oxide thin film without carbon or any other impurity. The physical and chemical properties were systematically analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical spectrometer, and hall measurement; it was found that the enhanced electrical conductivity is attributed to the oxygen deficient InOx phases.

  5. Zn incorporation and (CuIn)1-xZn2xSe2 thin film formation during the selenization of evaporated Cu and In precursors on Al:ZnO coated glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, C.; Herrero, J.

    2011-11-01

    CuInSe2 thin films with typical 1.0 eV gap energy and tetragonal chalcopyrite structure have been obtained on soda-lime glass substrates by the reaction of sequentially evaporated Cu and In layers with elemental selenium vapor, at 500 °C in flowing Ar. When analogous deposition and reaction processes were performed on Al:ZnO coated glasses, some increment in the band gap energy and diminution in the crystalline interplanar spacings have been detected for the resulting films with an extent that depends on the Cu/In atomic ratio of the evaporated precursor layers. This fact has been related to Zn incorporation into the selenized film, with quaternary (CuIn)1-xZn2xSe2 compound formation that is influenced by the presence of copper selenide phases during the reaction process. Such deductions are supported by the optical, structural and compositional characterizations that have been performed comparatively on samples prepared by selenization of evaporated metallic precursors with two different Cu/In ratios (0.9 and 1.1) on bare and Al:ZnO coated glass substrates.

  6. Growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films by selenization of sputtered single-layered Cu-Zn-Sn metallic precursors from a Cu-Zn-Sn alloy target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoo-Ho; Amal, Ikhlasul

    2011-09-01

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films were prepared by the simple process of selenization of single-layered metallic Cu-Zn-Sn precursors. These metallic precursors were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a ternary Cu-Zn-Sn alloy target. Successive selenization was performed at various temperatures between 250°C and 500°C for 30 min. X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis showed that a single phase of the CZTSe compound can be obtained by selenization at 400°C, while increasing the selenization temperature to 500°C improves the grain size and crystal quality. The direct optical band gap of CZTSe films was calculated to be 1.06 eV to 1.09 eV with a high absorption coefficient on the order of 104 cm-1 for samples selenized at 400°C to 500°C. The obtained films are p-type semiconductors with bulk carrier concentrations of 2.41 to 7.96 × 1018 cm3, mobilities of 1.30 cm2 V-1 s-1 to 9.27 cm2 V-1 s-1, and resistivities of 0.20 Ωcm to 1.95 Ωcm.

  7. Growth of ferroelectric Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} epitaxial films by ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation of chemical solution derived precursor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queraltó, A.; Pérez del Pino, A., E-mail: aperez@icmab.es; Mata, M. de la; Tristany, M.; Gómez, A.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Arbiol, J. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-06-29

    Highly crystalline epitaxial Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin-films are grown on (001)-oriented LaNiO{sub 3}-buffered LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser irradiation of solution derived barium-zirconium-titanium precursor layers using a UV Nd:YAG laser source at atmospheric conditions. The structural analyses of the obtained films, studied by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy, demonstrate that laser processing allows the growth of tens of nm-thick BST epitaxial films with crystalline structure similar to that of films obtained through conventional thermal annealing methods. However, the fast pulsed nature of the laser employed leads to crystallization kinetic evolution orders of magnitude faster than in thermal treatments. The combination of specific photothermal and photochemical mechanisms is the main responsible for the ultrafast epitaxial laser-induced crystallization. Piezoresponse microscopy measurements demonstrate equivalent ferroelectric behavior in laser and thermally annealed films, being the piezoelectric constant ∼25 pm V{sup −1}.

  8. Liquid precursor for deposition of copper selenide and method of preparing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Franciscus Antonius Maria Van Hest, Marinus; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-08

    Liquid precursors containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and methods of depositing a precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  9. Morphological, Structural, and Optical Properties of Single-Phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films from the Selenization of Thermally Evaporated InSe/Cu/GaSe Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Francis B. Dejene

    2014-01-01

    The relatively small band gap values (~1 eV) of CuInSe2 thin films limit the conversion efficiencies of completed CuInSe2/CdS/ZnO solar cell devices. In the case of traditional two-stage growth techniques, limited success has been achieved to homogeneously increase the band gap by substituting indium with gallium. In this study, thermal evaporation of InSe/Cu/Gase precursors was exposed to an elemental Se vapour under defined conditions. This technique produced large-grained, single-phase Cu(...

  10. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong,Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O’

    2015-01-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thi...

  11. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  12. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  13. Photocatalytic Activity of Vis-Responsive Ag-Nanoparticles/TiO2 Composite Thin Films Fabricated by Molecular Precursor Method (MPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunobu Sato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NP/TiO2 composite thin films with various amounts of Ag (10 mol% ≤ n ≤ 80 mol% were examined as a potential photocatalyst by decoloration reaction of methylene blue (MB in an aqueous solution. These composite thin films of ca. 100 nm thickness were fabricated by the MPM at 600 °C in air. The decoloration rates monitored by the absorption intensity of the MB solution indicated that the composite thin films of Ag with an amount less than 40 mol% are not effective under vis-irradiation, though they can work as a photocatalyst under UV-irradiation. Further, the UV-sensitivity of the composite thin films gradually decreased to almost half the level of that of the TiO2 thin film fabricated under the identical conditions when the Ag amount increased from 10 to 40 mol%. Contrarily, the composite thin films of Ag content larger than 50 mol% showed the vis-responsive activity, whose level was slightly lower than the decreased UV-sensitivity. Diffuse reflectance spectra suggested that the vis-responsive activity of the composite thin films is due to the conductivity, localized surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon resonance of Ag-NP. It was also elucidated that the vis-responsive level of the composite thin films corresponds to their electrical conductivity that depends on the Ag content.

  14. Influence of the stacking order on structural features of the Cu-In-Ga-Se precursors for formation of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films prepared by thermal reaction of InSe/Cu/GaSe alloys to elemental Se vapor and diethylselenide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejene, F.B. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba (South Africa); Sugiyama, M.; Nakanishi, H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Alberts, V. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Chichibu, S.F. [Institute of Applied Physics and Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    A novel partway for the fabrication of copper-indium (gallium) diselenide has been developed. This two-stage process consists of the formation of Cu-In-(Ga)-Se precursors and subsequent selenization to form CuIn(Ga)Se{sub 2}. In this work, we have investigated and compared the possible interactions in Cu-In-Ga-Se systems, using sequentially stacked precursors premixed with Se, in order to get a better understanding of the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film formation. Comparison of these SEM micrographs clearly revealed that the surface morphologies and hence surface roughness of the resulting Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber films were significantly influenced by the structure of the precursor films prior to selenization. XRD analyses revealed the presence of a graded CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se structure, irrespective of the stacking order during the precursor formation step for samples selenized using elemental Se vapor. It was established that distinct from the case of using Se vapor, a single-phase Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} films were obtained by diethylselenide (DESe) selenization from Cu-In-Ga metal precursors premixed Se irrespective of the stacking order during the precursor formation step. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Influence of the stacking order on structural features of the Cu-In-Ga-Se precursors for formation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films prepared by thermal reaction of InSe/Cu/GaSe alloys to elemental Se vapor and diethylselenide gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejene, F. B.; Sugiyama, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Alberts, V.; Chichibu, S. F.

    2006-09-01

    A novel partway for the fabrication of copper-indium (gallium) diselenide has been developed. This two-stage process consists of the formation of Cu-In-(Ga)-Se precursors and subsequent selenization to form CuIn(Ga)Se2. In this work, we have investigated and compared the possible interactions in Cu-In-Ga-Se systems, using sequentially stacked precursors premixed with Se, in order to get a better understanding of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film formation. Comparison of these SEM micrographs clearly revealed that the surface morphologies and hence surface roughness of the resulting Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber films were significantly influenced by the structure of the precursor films prior to selenization. XRD analyses revealed the presence of a graded CuIn1-xGaxSe structure, irrespective of the stacking order during the precursor formation step for samples selenized using elemental Se vapor. It was established that distinct from the case of using Se vapor, a single-phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films were obtained by diethylselenide (DESe) selenization from Cu-In-Ga metal precursors premixed Se irrespective of the stacking order during the precursor formation step.

  16. Fabrication of Transparent Conductive Zinc Oxide Co-Doped with Fluorine and Zirconium Thin Solid Films by Ultrasonic Chemical Pyrolysis: Effects of Precursor Solution Aging and Substrate Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly transparent, conducting zinc oxide [ZnO] thin films co-doped with fluorine and zirconium have been deposited on glass substrates by the ultrasonic chemical spraying technique. The effects of aging of the starting solution and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, and electrical properties of the ZnO:F:Zr films have been studied. The resistivity of the films decreases with the aging time of the starting solution until the seventeenth day reaching a minimum of about 1.2×10−2 Ω cm and then increases. Though all the samples are of polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite type and grow preferentially with (002 plane parallel to the substrate, their morphology depends strongly on the aging time of the reaction solution. The optical transmittance of all the films remained around 80% in the visible spectral range. These highly transparent, low resistive thin films are expected to be highly useful as transparent electrodes in the fabrication of thin film solar cells.

  17. Effect of Modulating Spin-Coating Rate of TiO2 Precursor for Mesoporous Layer on J-V Hysteresis of Solar Cells with Polar CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the crystalline Si solar cells, the J-V characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells are different under forward and reverse scan, and the CH3NH3PbI3 film exhibits some polarization properties. To explore those performances of the mesoporous TiO2 layer based perovskite solar cells, we focus on the effect of modulating the spin-coating rate of the TiO2 precursor for mesoporous layer on J-V hysteresis of solar cells with the polar film by J-V curves, atomic force microscopy topographic images, and piezoresponse force microscopy phase images. Firstly, the AFM images illustrate that the polarization behaviors exist and the deformation scale is large at the corresponding position when the DC bias voltage increases. Secondly, it is suggested that the polar films which applied the positive DC biases voltage show a tendency to 0° phase angle, while the polar films which applied the negative DC biases voltage show a tendency to −180° phase angle. Thirdly, a weak polar hysteresis loop relation for CH3NH3PbI3 film was observed. Finally, the hysteresis index for the 1500 rpm mesostructured solar cell shows relatively low J-V hysteresis compared with the 3000 rpm mesostructured and the planar-structured solar cell. Our experimental results bring novel routes for reducing the hysteresis and investigating the polar nature for CH3NH3PbI3 material.

  18. Morphological, Structural, and Optical Properties of Single-Phase Cu(In,GaSe2 Thin Films from the Selenization of Thermally Evaporated InSe/Cu/GaSe Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis B. Dejene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively small band gap values (~1 eV of CuInSe2 thin films limit the conversion efficiencies of completed CuInSe2/CdS/ZnO solar cell devices. In the case of traditional two-stage growth techniques, limited success has been achieved to homogeneously increase the band gap by substituting indium with gallium. In this study, thermal evaporation of InSe/Cu/Gase precursors was exposed to an elemental Se vapour under defined conditions. This technique produced large-grained, single-phase Cu(In,GaSe2 thin films with a high degree of in-depth compositional uniformity. The selenization temperature, ramp time, reaction period, and the effusion cell temperature with respect to the Cu(In,GaSe2 films were optimized in this study. The homogeneous incorporation of Ga into CuInSe2 led to a systematic shift in the lattice spacing parameters and band gap of the absorber films. Under optimized conditions, gallium in cooperation resulted only in a marginal decrease in the grain size, X-ray diffraction studies confirmed single-phase Cu(In,GaSe2 material, and X-ray photoluminescence spectroscopy in-depth profiling revealed a uniform distribution of the elements through the entire depth of the alloy. From these studies optimum selenization conditions were determined for the deposition of homogeneous Cu(In,GaSe2 thin films with optimum band gap values between 1.01 and 1.21 eV.

  19. Characterization of Microstructure and Performance of YBa2Cu3O7−x Films Synthesized Through Sol–Gel Aqueous Precursors with DEA/TEA Addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Xiao; He, Dong; Zhao, Yichun

    2013-01-01

    YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) superconducting thin films are synthesized through non-fluorine sol–gel aqueous processes. Diethanolamine (DEA) and triethonalamine (TEA), which have similar molecular structures but different complexation abilities and molecular weights, are separately used as chelating agents...

  20. Role of the intermediate phases InSe and Cu9(In1- x Ga x )4 in fabricating Cu(In1- x Ga x )Se2 films by selenization of Cu-In-Ga precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongliang; Han, Anjun; Wang, Xian; Liu, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhengxin; Meng, Fanying

    2017-01-01

    A cosputtered Cu-In-Ga metal precursor was first selenized in H2Se atmosphere, and then subsequently annealed in N2 atmosphere. The microstructural evolution of Cu(In1- x Ga x )Se2 (CIGS) films during thermal treatment was investigated, and it was found that the morphology and Ga distribution of the CIGS absorber were governed by selenization and annealing. The intermediate phases InSe and Cu9(In1- x Ga x )4 formed in the selenization step are beneficial to Ga diffusion and grain growth during annealing. Therefore, the open-circuit voltage and fill factor of a CIGS solar cell were enhanced by the combination of a sufficient amount of intermediate phases and 580 °C annealing, attributed mainly to the higher Ga content near the front surface and better crystallinity of the CIGS absorber. The conversion efficiency of CIGS solar cell was increased 1.24-fold with optimized selenization and annealing conditions.

  1. Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition approaches for the growth of hafnium-based thin films from dialkylamide precursors for advanced CMOS gate stack applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Steven P.

    To continue the rapid progress of the semiconductor industry as described by Moore's Law, the feasibility of new material systems for front end of the line (FEOL) process technologies needs to be investigated, since the currently employed polysilicon/SiO2-based transistor system is reaching its fundamental scaling limits. Revolutionary breakthroughs in complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology were recently announced by Intel Corporation and International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), with both organizations revealing significant progress in the implementation of hafnium-based high-k dielectrics along with metal gates. This announcement was heralded by Gordon Moore as "...the biggest change in transistor technology since the introduction of polysilicon gate MOS transistors in the late 1960s." Accordingly, the study described herein focuses on the growth of Hf-based dielectrics and Hf-based metal gates using chemical vapor-based deposition methods, specifically metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). A family of Hf source complexes that has received much attention recently due to their desirable properties for implementation in wafer scale manufacturing is the Hf dialkylamide precursors. These precursors are room temperature liquids and possess sufficient volatility and desirable decomposition characteristics for both MOCVD and ALD processing. Another benefit of using these sources is the existence of chemically compatible Si dialkylamide sources as co-precursors for use in Hf silicate growth. The first part of this study investigates properties of MOCVD-deposited HfO2 and HfSixOy using dimethylamido Hf and Si precursor sources using a customized MOCVD reactor. The second part of this study involves a study of wet and dry surface pre-treatments for ALD growth of HfO2 using tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)hafnium in a wafer scale manufacturing environment. The third part of this study is an investigation of

  2. Fabrication of CoTiO3-TiO2 composite films from a heterobimetallic single source precursor for electrochemical sensing of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Naeem, Rabia; Khaledi, Hamid; Sohail, Manzar; Hakeem Saeed, Abbas; Mazhar, Muhammad

    2016-06-21

    Cobalt titanate-titania composite oxide films have been grown on FTO-coated glass substrates using a single-source heterometallic complex [Co2Ti4(μ-O)6(TFA)8(THF)6]·THF () which was obtained in quantitative yield from the reaction of diacetatocobalt(ii) tetrahydrate, tetraisopropoxytitanium(iv), and trifluoroacetic acid from a tetrahydrofuran solution. Physicochemical investigations of complex have been carried out by melting point, FT-IR, thermogravimetric and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. CoTiO3-TiO2 films composed of spherical objects of various sizes have been grown from by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition at different temperatures of 500, 550 and 600 °C. Thin films characterized by XRD, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis have been explored for electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA). The cyclic voltammetry with the CoTiO3-TiO2 electrode showed a DA oxidation peak at +0.215 V while linear sweep voltammetry displayed a detection limit (LoD) of 0.083 μM and a linear concentration range of 20-300 μM for DA. Thus, the CoTiO3-TiO2 electrode is a potential candidate for the sensitive and selective detection of DA.

  3. Hybrid perovskite solar cells: In situ investigation of solution-processed PbI2 reveals metastable precursors and a pathway to producing porous thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barrit, Dounya

    2017-04-17

    The successful and widely used two-step process of producing the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3, consists of converting a solution deposited PbI2 film by reacting it with CH3NH3I. Here, we investigate the solidification of PbI2 films from a DMF solution by performing in situ grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements. The measurements reveal an elaborate sol–gel process involving three PbI2⋅DMF solvate complexes—including disordered and ordered ones—prior to PbI2 formation. The ordered solvates appear to be metastable as they transform into the PbI2 phase in air within minutes without annealing. Morphological analysis of air-dried and annealed films reveals that the air-dried PbI2 is substantially more porous when the coating process produces one of the intermediate solvates, making this more suitable for subsequent conversion into the perovskite phase. The observation of metastable solvates on the pathway to PbI2 formation open up new opportunities for influencing the two-step conversion of metal halides into efficient light harvesting or emitting perovskite semiconductors.

  4. Comparative angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of CaRuO3 and SrRuO3 thin films: Pronounced spectral weight transfer and possible precursor of lower Hubbard band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Fan, C. C.; Liu, Z. T.; Yao, Q.; Li, M. Y.; Liu, J. S.; Jiang, M. H.; Shen, D. W.

    2016-09-01

    In the prototypical 4 d system (Sr ,Ca ) RuO3 , the degree and origin of electron correlations, and how they correlate with physical properties, still remain elusive, though extensive studies have been performed. In this work we present a comparative electronic structure study of high-quality epitaxial CaRuO3 and SrRuO3 thin films, by means of reactive molecular beam epitaxy and in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We found that while SrRuO3 possesses sharp features signaling the Fermi liquid state, the isostructural CaRuO3 exhibits broad features and its spectral weight is markedly transferred from the Fermi level to -1.2 eV forming a "hump" structure which resembles the Mott-Hubbard system (Sr ,Ca ) VO3 . We suggest that this hump is the precursor of the lower Hubbard band, and the U /W (U and W represent the on-site Coulomb interactions and bandwidth, respectively) of our CaRuO3 thin film is much larger than that of SrRuO3. In addition, we discuss the origin of electron correlations as well as the ferromagnetism in SrRuO3 which is absent in CaRuO3. Our findings put constraints on future studies, and also show that perovskite ruthenates are indeed an experimentally tunable system for the study of electron correlations.

  5. 2-Pyridyl selenolates of antimony and bismuth: Synthesis, characterization, structures and their use as single source molecular precursor for the preparation of metal selenide nanostructures and thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh K; Kedarnath, G; Jain, Vimal K; Wadawale, Amey; Nalliath, Manoj; Pillai, C G S; Vishwanadh, B

    2010-10-07

    Reactions of SbCl(3) and BiCl(3) with M'Se-C(5)H(3)(R-3)N (M' = Li or Na; R = H or Me) gave homoleptic selenolate complexes of the general formula [M{Se-C(5)H(3)(R-3)N}(3)] (M = Sb or Bi). The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis and NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (77)Se) spectroscopy. The single crystal X-ray analysis of [M{Se-C(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}(3)].nH(2)O (M/n = Sb/1.5 and Bi/0.5) revealed that the antimony complex adopts a trigonal pyramidal configuration with monodentate selenolate ligands while the bismuth analogue acquires a distorted square pyramidal configuration defined by two chelating and one monodentate selenolate groups. Pyrolysis of [M{Se-C(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}(3)] either in a furnace or in hexadecylamine (HDA) at different temperatures gave a variety of M(2)Se(3) nanostructures. Thin films of metal selenides have also been deposited on glass substrate by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). Both nanostructures and thin films of metal selenides were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition from Dissolved Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanlin; Döhler, Dirk; Barr, Maïssa; Oks, Elina; Wolf, Marc; Santinacci, Lionel; Bachmann, Julien

    2015-10-14

    We establish a novel thin film deposition technique by transferring the principles of atomic layer deposition (ALD) known with gaseous precursors toward precursors dissolved in a liquid. An established ALD reaction behaves similarly when performed from solutions. "Solution ALD" (sALD) can coat deep pores in a conformal manner. sALD offers novel opportunities by overcoming the need for volatile and thermally robust precursors. We establish a MgO sALD procedure based on the hydrolysis of a Grignard reagent.

  7. Manufacture of GdBa2Cu3O7−x Superconducting Thin Films Using High-Thermal-Stability Precursors Playing the Role of Intermediate-Phase Grain-Growth Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Xiao; He, Dong; Yue, Zhao;

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a fluorine-free metal–organic decomposition method using acrylic acid as the solvent for the synthesis of GdBCO superconducting thin films. Commonly used propionic acid was also used to make a comparison with acrylic acid. Acrylic acid was found to be polymerized during drying......, resulting in high thermal stability of the precursor solution. Due to the elevated decomposition temperature of the organic compounds in the acrylic-acid-based precursor, the formation of intermediate phases such as CuO was found delayed; therefore, the grain growth and phase segregation were suppressed....... The superior quality of pyrolyzed films induced by the use of polymerizable acrylic acid is reflected in the Jcof the GdBCO films, which achieved 1.2MA/cm2....

  8. Investigation of selenization process of electrodeposited Cu–Zn–Sn precursor for Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrotas, R., E-mail: rokas.kondrotas@ftmc.lt [State Research Institute Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, Chemistry Institute, Savanoriu ave. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Juškėnas, R.; Naujokaitis, A.; Niaura, G.; Mockus, Z.; Kanapeckaitė, S. [State Research Institute Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, Chemistry Institute, Savanoriu ave. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Čechavičius, B. [State Research Institute Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, Savanoriu ave. 231, Vilnius Lithuania (Lithuania); Juškevičius, K. [State Research Institute Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, Physics Institute, Savanoriu ave. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Saucedo, E.; Sánchez, Y. [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les dones de negre 1, Sant Adrià de Besòs, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-31

    In this study we present the investigation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) absorber layers formed using electrochemical co-deposition in the stirred citrate solution. Two different Mo back contacts were tested to evaluate the formation of MoSe{sub 2} during selenization of electrodeposited Cu–Zn–Sn (CZT) precursor. Cleaved and focused ion beam made cross-sections of CZT/Mo and CZTSe/MoSe{sub 2}/Mo layers and surface morphology of CZTSe were studied by scanning microscopy. The chemical composition was determined by x-ray energy dispersive and fluorescence spectroscopy, whereas phase composition was examined by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The formation of MoSe{sub 2} strongly depended on the microstructure of Mo and annealing conditions. Possible reasons for different selenization of Mo back contacts used were discussed. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that characteristics of CZTSe main PL peak were compositional dependent. The highest CZTSe solar cell efficiency obtained was 2.64%. - Highlights: • The thickness of MoSe{sub 2} of home-made Mo substrate was constant. • Center of photoluminescence peak was dependent on Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} composition. • Poor quality of Mo/Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} interface resulted in low shunt resistance.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of growth of iron oxide films by MOCVD using tris(-butyl-3-oxo-butanoato)iron(III) as precursor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukanya Dhar; K Shalini; S A Shivashankar

    2008-10-01

    Thermodynamic calculations, using the criterion of minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system, have been carried out for the metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) process involving the -ketoesterate complex of iron [tris(-butyl-3-oxo-butanoato)iron(III) or Fe(tbob)3] and molecular oxygen. The calculations predict, under different CVD conditions such as temperature and pressure, the deposition of carbon-free pure Fe3O4, mixtures of different proportions of Fe3O4 and Fe2O3, and pure Fe2O3. The regimes of these thermodynamic CVD parameters required for the deposition of these pure and mixed phases have been depicted in a `CVD phase stability diagram’. In attempts at verification of the thermodynamic calculations, it has been found by XRD and SEM analysis that, under different conditions, MOCVD results in the deposition of films comprising pure and mixed phases of iron oxide, with no carbonaceous impurities. This is consistent with the calculations.

  10. Dynamics of Precursor Films: Experiment and Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, M.J.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that moving droplets are very common, a moving contact line is a longstanding fundamental challenge in the field of fluid mechanics. This fundamental challenge is the main topic of this thesis in the context of ASML immersion lithography equipment. In Chapter 2 an overview of existi

  11. Liquid precursor for deposition of indium selenide and method of preparing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-22

    Liquid precursors containing indium and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and method of depositing a liquid precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of TaN ALD Precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delong Zhang; Tracy Yund; Cynthia A.Hoover

    2004-01-01

    High purity organic-tantalum precursors for thin film ALD TaN were synthesized and characterized.Vapor pressure and thermal stability of these precursors were studied.From the vapor pressure analysis,it was found that TBTEMT has a higher vapor pressure than any other published liquid TaN precursor,including TBTDET,TAITMATA,and IPTDET.Thermal stability of the alkyl groups on the precursors was investigated using a 1H NMR technique.The results indicated that the tertbutylimino group is the most stable group on TBTDET and TBTEMT as compared to the dialkylamido groups.Thermal stability of TaN precursors decreased in the following order:TBTDET > PDMAT > TBTEMT.In conclusion,precursor vapor pressure and thermal stability were tuned by making slight variations in the ligand sphere around the metal center.

  13. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  14. Identification of Desirable Precursor Properties for Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoto, Chigozie K.; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice; Aindow, Mark

    2011-06-01

    In solution precursor plasma spray chemical precursor solutions are injected into a standard plasma torch and the final material is formed and deposited in a single step. This process has several attractive features, including the ability to rapidly explore new compositions and to form amorphous and metastable phases from molecularly mixed precursors. Challenges include: (a) moderate deposition rates due to the need to evaporate the precursor solvent, (b) dealing on a case by case basis with precursor characteristics that influence the spray process (viscosity, endothermic and exothermic reactions, the sequence of physical states through which the precursor passes before attaining the final state, etc.). Desirable precursor properties were identified by comparing an effective precursor for yttria-stabilized zirconia with four less effective candidate precursors for MgO:Y2O3. The critical parameters identified were a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and highly dense resultant particles.

  15. Behavior of Electrochemically Prepared CuInSe{sub 2} as Photovoltaic Absorber in thin Film Solar Cells; Comportamiento del CuInSe{sub 2} Basado en Precursores Electrodepositados como Absorbente Fotovoltaico en Celulas Solares de Lamina Delgada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, C.; Martinez, M. A.; Dona, J. M.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M. T. [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Two different objective have been pursued in the present investigation: (1) optimization of the CuInSe{sub 2} preparation parameters from electrodeposited precursors, and (2) evaluation of their photovoltaic behavior by preparing and enhancing Mo/CuInSe{sub 2}/CdS/TCO devices. When Cu-In-Se precursors are directly electrodeposited, the applied potential fit is essential to improve the photovoltaic performance. Suitable absorbers have been also obtained by evaporing an In layer onto electrodeposited Cu-Se precursors. In this case, the substrate temperature during evaporation determines the CuInSe{sub 2} quality. Similar results have been reached by substituting typical Mo-Coated glass substrates by flexible Mo foils. Different TCO tested (ZnO and ITO) have been found equivalent as front electrical contact in the devices. Solar cell performance can be improved by annealing in air at 200 degree centigree. (Author) 46 refs.

  16. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed...... functional nanoporous polymers based on nanoporous 1,2- polybuatdiene 1,2-PB, which is derived from a 1,2-PB-b-PDMS diblock copolymer precursor. As a result, nanoporous 1,2-PB with pores decorated of polyacrylates, sulfonated polymers and poly(ethylene glycol) are created. A method of vapor phase deposition...... has also been generated to obtain nanoporous polymers with functional coatings on pore walls. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole is performed to incorporate an ultra thin film of polypyrrole into nanoporous 1,2-PB. The preliminary test shows that nanoporous 1,2-PB gains conductivity. Generally...

  17. Methods of forming CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Lorelle; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2017-09-19

    Methods for forming CIGS films are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, a method of forming a CIGS film includes a precursor step, which includes simultaneously evaporating Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Sb onto a substrate. The Se is incident on the substrate at a rate of at least 20 .ANG./s. The method also includes a selenization step, which includes evaporating Se over the substrate after the precursor step.

  18. Effect of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} powder addition in the precursor solution on the properties of cathode films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Caio Luis Santos; Rangel, Maria do Carmo, E-mail: clssilva@ufba.br, E-mail: mcarmov@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudo em Cinetica e Catalise; Gama, Leonardo Marques; Paes Junior, Herval Ramos, E-mail: leonardo.m.gama@gmail.com, E-mail: herval@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados; Santos, Jacqueline Amanda Figueiredo dos; Domingues, Rosana Zacarias, E-mail: jac.amanda28@gmail.com, E-mail: rosanazd@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais e Pilhas a Combustivel

    2017-01-15

    Films of lanthanum strontium manganite, LSM (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3}) were deposited on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates by different methods aiming to establish the most suitable route to prepare cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Samples were obtained by using a solution of lanthanum, strontium and manganese nitrates or a dispersion of the LSM powder in this solution. Both commercial and synthesized LSM powders were used, the last one obtained by amorphous citrate method. The films were deposited by spray pyrolysis on YSZ substrates prepared by uniaxial and isostatic pressing. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and two-probe conductivity measurements. The area specific resistance and relaxation to cathodic activation were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The substrate obtained by uniaxial pressing and the commercial LSM produced films with the highest amount of surface cracks. The film obtained from the suspension showed area specific resistance and activation energy lower than the other produced from the solution. For both samples, the cathodic activation process resulted in an initial reduction of the total resistance of around 20%, the sample produced from the suspension being more resistant to relaxation. Therefore, the LSM suspension is more suitable than the salts solution for preparing films by spray pyrolysis on YSZ substrates to obtain efficient cathodes for SOFC. (author)

  19. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  20. Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Harold; Solovyov, Vyacheslav

    2008-04-22

    This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

  1. Spray Deposited Nanocrystalline ZnO Transparent Electrodes: Role of Precursor Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mahajan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films were deposited by intermittent spray pyrolysis using different alcoholic and aqua-alcoholic precursor solvents. The XRD analysis reveals the polycrystallinity of hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO films with preferred c-axis orientation along [002] direction. The polycrystallinity increased due to use of aqua-alcoholic precursor solvent. The crystallite size was found to vary from 41.7 nm to 59.4 nm and blue shift in band-gap energy (3.225 eV to 3.255 eV was observed due to aqua-alcoholic to alcoholic precursor solvent transition. The films deposited using alcoholic precursor solvent exhibited high transmittance (> 92 % with low dark resistivity (10 – 3 Ω·cm as compared to aqua-alcoholic precursor solvent. The effect of precursor solvent on resistivity, carrier concentration (η – /cm3, carrier mobility (μ – cm2V – 1s – 1, sheet resistance (Ω/ and figure of merit (ΦTC is also reported. We recommend ethanol or methanol as a superior precursor solvent over aqua-alcoholic precursor solvent for deposition of device quality ZnO thin films.

  2. Preparation and characterization of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films grown from ZnSe and Cu2SnS3 precursors in a two stage process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Leguizamon, A.; Hurtado, M.; Guzmán, F.; Gordillo, G.

    2014-04-01

    Compound of the kesterite familie has been considered as an alternative absorber layer in the manufacture of thin film solar cells due to its earth abundant and environmental friendly constituents and high absorption coefficient. In this work we propose a new route to grow single phase Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films with tetragonal-kesterite type structure; this consist in sequential evaporation of thin films of CuSe, SnSe and ZnSe in a two stage process. Measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the formation of the Cu2ZnSnSe4 compound, grown with tetragonal Kësterite type structure. Optical characterization performed through spectral transmittance measurements established that this compound has high absorption (absorption coefficient > 104 cm-1) and a forbidden energy gap of 1.46 eV; these results indicate that the CZTSe thin films we have prepared has properties suitable for later use as absorber layer in solar cells. Results regarding electrical transport properties determined from temperature dependent conductivity measurements are also reported.

  3. Precursors of extreme increments

    CERN Document Server

    Hallerberg, S; Holstein, D; Kantz, H; Hallerberg, Sarah; Altmann, Eduardo G.; Holstein, Detlef; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    We investigate precursors and predictability of extreme events in time series, which consist in large increments within successive time steps. In order to understand the predictability of this class of extreme events, we study analytically the prediction of extreme increments in AR(1)-processes. The resulting strategies are then applied to predict sudden increases in wind speed recordings. In both cases we evaluate the success of predictions via creating receiver operator characteristics (ROC-plots). Surprisingly, we obtain better ROC-plots for completely uncorrelated Gaussian random numbers than for AR(1)-correlated data. Furthermore, we observe an increase of predictability with increasing event size. Both effects can be understood by using the likelihood ratio as a summary index for smooth ROC-curves.

  4. Precursor flares in OJ 287

    OpenAIRE

    Pihajoki, P.; Valtonen, M.; Zola, S.; Liakos, A.; Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Provencal, J.; Nilsson, K.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpää, A.; Takalo, L.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black...

  5. Generation of nonlinear vortex precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex har- monics are generated in the transmitted field due to ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provide a straightforward way of measuring precursors. By the virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical informa- tion and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity and high speed communication are required.

  6. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  7. 连续离子层吸附反应沉积后硫化法制备柔性铜锌锡硫薄膜太阳电池%Fabrication of flexible Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells by sulfurizing precursor films deposited via successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯文; 苏正华; 韩自力; 刘芳洋; 赖延清; 李劼; 刘业翔

    2014-01-01

    在柔性钼箔衬底上采用连续离子层吸附反应法(successive ionic layer absorption and reaction)制备ZnS/Cu2 SnSx叠层结构的预制层薄膜,预制层薄膜在蒸发硫气氛、550◦C 温度条件下进行退火得到Cu2 ZnSnS4吸收层.分别采用EDS, XRD, Raman, SEM 表征吸收层薄膜的成分、物相和表面形貌.结果表明,退火后薄膜结晶质量良好,表面形貌致密.用在普通钠钙玻璃上采用相同工艺制备的CZTS薄膜表征薄膜的光学和电学性能,表明退火后薄膜带隙宽度为1.49 eV,在可见光区光吸收系数大于104 cm-1,载流子浓度与电阻率均满足薄膜太阳电池器件对吸收层的要求.用上述柔性衬底上的吸收层制备Mo foil/CZTS/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al/Ag结构的薄膜太阳电池得到2.42%的效率,是目前报道柔性CZTS太阳电池最高效率.%Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) precursor thin films were prepared on a flexible Mo foil substrate via ZnS/Cu2SnSx stacked structure using successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method; the precursor thin films were annealed at 550 ◦C in sulfur atmosphere to obtain CZTS absorber layers. The chemical composition,crystallinity and surface morphology were characterized by EDS, XRD, Raman and SEM, respectively, indicating that the annealed films are highly crystallin and have compact morphology. In order to analyse the optical and electrical properties of the films, same processes were implemented on the soda glasses. Results reveal that the band gaps of the annealed films are 1.49 eV, the absorption coefficients are higher than 104 cm-1, and the carrier concentration as well as the electrical resistivity is suitable for fabrication of thin film solar cells. Flexible solar cells with a structure of Mo foil/CZTS/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al/Ag were fabricated by the above CZTS absorber layers, which demonstrated an efficiency of, 2.42%, the record efficiency of flexible CZTS solar cells as far as we know.

  8. PRECURSOR FLARES IN OJ 287

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihajoki, P.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Takalo, L. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Valtonen, M.; Nilsson, K. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Zola, S.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, PL-30-244 Krakow (Poland); Liakos, A. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, University of Athens, GR 157 84 Zografos, Athens, Hellas (Greece); Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W. [Mount Suhora Observatory, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, PL-30-084 Krakow (Poland); Provencal, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Santangelo, M. M. M. [O.A.C. Osservatorio Astronomico di Capannori, Via di Valle, I-55060 Vorno, Capannori (Italy); Salo, H. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Chandra, S.; Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S., E-mail: popiha@utu.fi [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); and others

    2013-02-10

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black hole descending toward the accretion disk of the primary black hole from the observed side, with a mean z-component of approximately z{sub c} = 4000 AU. We use this model of precursor flares to predict that precursor flare of similar nature should happen around 2020.96 before the next major outburst in 2022.

  9. Highly conformal atomic layer deposition of tantalum oxide using alkylamide precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Dennis M.; Rouffignac, Philippe de; Smith, Amethyst; Gordon, Roy; Monsma, Douwe

    2003-10-22

    Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal films of tantalum oxide were studied using tantalum alkylamide precursors and water as the oxygen source. These films also exhibited a very high degree of conformality: 100% step coverage on vias with aspect ratios greater than 35. As deposited, the films were free of detectable impurities with the expected (2.5-1) oxygen to metal ratio and were smooth and amorphous. The films were completely uniform in thickness and composition over the length of the reactor used for depositions. Films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 50 to 350 deg. C from precursors that were vaporized at temperatures from 50 to 120 deg. C. As deposited, the films showed a dielectric constant of 28 and breakdown field consistently greater than 4.5 MV/cm.

  10. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  11. Formation of Ultrafine Metal Particles and Metal Oxide Precursor on Anodized Al by Electrolysis Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nickel was deposited by ac electrolysis deposition in the pores of the porous oxide film of Al produced by anodizing in phosphoric acid. Ultrafine rod-shaped Ni particles were formed in the pores. At the same time a film of Ni oxide precursor was developed on the surface of the porous oxide film. The Ni particles and the Ni oxide precursor were examined by SEM, TEM and X-ray diffraction. The thickness of the barrier layer of the porous oxide film was thin and it attributed to the formation of the metal particles, while the formation of the oxide precursor was associated with the surface pits which were developed in the pretreatment of Al.

  12. Brillouin precursors in Debye media

    CERN Document Server

    Macke, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the formation of Brillouin precursors in Debye media. We point out that the precursors are only visible at propagation distances such that the impulse response of the medium is essentially determined by the frequency-dependence of its absorption and is practically Gaussian. By simple convolution, we then obtain explicit analytical expressions of the transmitted waves generated by reference incident waves, distinguishing precursor and main signal by physical arguments. These expressions are in good agreement with the signals obtained in numerical or real experiments performed on water and explain some features of these signals that remained mysterious or unnoticed. In addition, we show quite generally that the shape of the Brillouin precursor appearing alone at large enough propagation distance and the law giving its amplitude as a function of this distance do not depend on the precise form of the incident wave but only on its integral properties. The incidence of a static conductivity o...

  13. Advanced Precursor Reaction Processing for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafarman, William N. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-10-12

    This project “Advanced Precursor Reaction Processing for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Solar Cells”, completed by the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) at the University of Delaware in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Florida, developed the fundamental understanding and technology to increase module efficiency and improve the manufacturability of Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 films using the precursor reaction approach currently being developed by a number of companies. Key results included: (1) development of a three-step H2Se/Ar/H2S reaction process to control Ga distribution through the film and minimizes back contact MoSe2 formation; (2) Ag-alloying to improve precursor homogeneity by avoiding In phase agglomeration, faster reaction and improved adhesion to allow wider reaction process window; (3) addition of Sb, Bi, and Te interlayers at the Mo/precursor junction to produce more uniform precursor morphology and improve adhesion with reduced void formation in reacted films; (4) a precursor structure containing Se and a reaction process to reduce processing time to 5 minutes and eliminate H2Se usage, thereby increasing throughput and reducing costs. All these results were supported by detailed characterization of the film growth, reaction pathways, thermodynamic assessment and device behavior.

  14. On possible resolutions of the micro-edge problem for a contact line moving on a solid in a pure-vapor atmosphere with no slip and without extended precursor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre

    2011-11-01

    At the previous APS/DFD meeting, we reported on the possibility of a singularity-free description of a moving contact line totally in the framework of classical physics (no disjoining pressure, no slip) thanks to the phase change whose intensity is regulated by Kelvin effect. Pushing this idea further, there remains a related more practical issue: the Kelvin effect, even though classical, becomes apparent at such small scales that the disjoining pressure (DP) may nonetheless play a significant role. Here we show, for a class of DP isotherms remaining finite at zero film thicknesses, that the same kind of natural singularity-resolution mechanism still holds. As before, we consider, in the framework of the lubrication theory and a classical one-sided model, a contact line moving at a constant velocity (advancing or receding) and starting abruptly at a (formally) bare solid surface, the micro-contact angle being either equal to zero or finite. Also touched upon is a possible resolution of the remaining integrable singularities within the paradigm of de Gennes and coworkers, considered here in another talk by the present authors, by means of regularizing the DP isotherm at very small thicknesses. Supported by ESA & BELSPO, by the EU, and by FRS-FNRS.

  15. Molecular precursor routes to transition metal sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnage, Christopher Walker

    This thesis is primarily concerned with the synthesis of homoleptic early transition meta thiolates and the subsequent preparation of bulk and thin-film metal disulfides from these compounds. Chapter 1 gives an introduction into the properties, preparation procedures and uses of bulk and thin-film transition metal disulfides as well as giving an overview of early transition metal thiolates synthesied so far in the literature (for titanium, zirconium, tantalum and niobium). Chapter 2 is concerned with the synthesis of a number of ionic and neutral transition metal thiolates. The main synthetic methodologies discussed in this chapter include substitution reactions of transition metal amides and alkyls with thiols, salt metathesis reactions of transition metal chlorides with alkali metal thiolates or with a base / thiol and the use of Grignard reagents. Chapter 3 discusses the preparation of bulk transition metal disulfides using the thiolates prepared in the previous chapter via a thio "sol-gel" route. The preparation of a range of bulk metal and mixed-metal disulfides using transition metal chlorides and hexamethyldisilathiane is also discussed in this chapter. Finally, chapter 4 is concerned with the attempted preparation of thin-films of some transition metal disulfides. Decomposition studies of some of the thiolates prepared in chapter 2 are discussed using thermal gravimetric analysis. Vapour-phase deposition studies are also explored in order to test the potential of the transition metal thiolates as precursors to the disulfides. Experiments using low-pressure chemical vapour deposition and aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition are also described.

  16. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.

    2010-08-18

    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  17. Copper zinc tin sulfide layers prepared from solution processable metal dithiocarbamate precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, Michael [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Rath, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.rath@tugraz.at [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Schenk, Alexander [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Fischereder, Achim [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Haas, Wernfried [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Edler, Matthias [Chair of Chemistry of Polymeric Materials, University of Leoben, Otto Gloeckel-Strasse 2, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Chernev, Boril [Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kunert, Birgit [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Hofer, Ferdinand [Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); and others

    2012-10-15

    In this contribution we present a solution based route toward copper zinc tin sulfide - CZTS - layers using metal dithiocarbamate precursors. We focus on the synthesis of the precursor materials as well as on the fabrication of thin CZTS layers at low temperatures of 350 Degree-Sign C and their characterization. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements show that a precursor solution containing an excess of the zinc precursor, compared to the Cu and Sn precursors, has to be used to obtain CZTS films without secondary phases. Thus, the prepared films are Zn-rich, which is beneficial for solar cell applications. Raman as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the formation of CTZS. No clear evidence for free ZnS has been found. Electron microscopy shows agglomerates of 10 nm-sized crystallites forming spherical particles with a diameter between 50 nm and 400 nm. The prepared films possess high optical absorption (>1.10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}) and an optical band gap of approximately 1.6 eV. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CZTS layers are prepared from metal dithiocarbamate precursor solu-tions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No additional sulfur sources or capping agents are necessary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prepared CZTS layers are zinc rich. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CZTS layers show a high absorption coefficient and a band gap of 1.6 eV.

  18. Trending analysis of precursor events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) identifies and categorizes operational events at nuclear power plants in terms of the potential for core damage. The ASP analysis has been performed on yearly basis and the results have been published in the annual reports. This paper describes the trends in initiating events and dominant sequences for 459 precursors identified in the ASP Program during the 1969-94 period and also discusses a comparison with dominant sequences predicted in the past Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies. These trends were examined for three time periods, 1969-81, 1984-87 and 1988-94. Although the different models had been used in the ASP analyses for these three periods, the distribution of precursors by dominant sequences show similar trends to each other. For example, the sequences involving loss of both main and auxiliary feedwater were identified in many PWR events and those involving loss of both high and low coolant injection were found in many BWR events. Also, it was found that these dominant sequences were comparable to those determined to be dominant in the predictions by the past PRAs. As well, a list of the 459 precursors identified are provided in Appendix, indicating initiating event types, unavailable systems, dominant sequences, conditional core damage probabilities, and so on. (author)

  19. PAGOSA Sample Problem. Elastic Precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weseloh, Wayne N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clancy, Sean Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    A PAGOSA simulation of a flyer plate impact which produces an elastic precursor wave is examined. The simulation is compared to an analytic theory for the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state and an elastic-perfectly-plastic strength model.

  20. Manganite perovskite ceramics, their precursors and methods for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David Alan; Clothier, Brent Allen

    2015-03-10

    Disclosed are a variety of ceramics having the formula Ln.sub.1-xM.sub.xMnO.sub.3, where 0.Itoreq.x.Itoreq.1 and where Ln is La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu or Y; M is Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, or Pb; manganite precursors for preparing the ceramics; a method for preparing the precursors; and a method for transforming the precursors into uniform, defect-free ceramics having magnetoresistance properties. The manganite precursors contain a sol and are derived from the metal alkoxides: Ln(OR).sub.3, M(OR).sub.2 and Mn(OR).sub.2, where R is C.sub.2 to C.sub.6 alkyl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 alkoxyalkyl, or C.sub.6 to C.sub.9 aryl. The preferred ceramics are films prepared by a spin coating method and are particularly suited for incorporation into a device such as an integrated circuit device.

  1. Photochemical CVD of Ru on functionalized self-assembled monolayers from organometallic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelsea R.; Arevalo Rodriguez, Paul; Brewer, Christopher R.; Brannaka, Joseph A.; Shi, Zhiwei; Yang, Jing; Salazar, Bryan; McElwee-White, Lisa; Walker, Amy V.

    2017-02-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an attractive technique for the metallization of organic thin films because it is selective and the thickness of the deposited film can easily be controlled. However, thermal CVD processes often require high temperatures which are generally incompatible with organic films. In this paper, we perform proof-of-concept studies of photochemical CVD to metallize organic thin films. In this method, a precursor undergoes photolytic decomposition to generate thermally labile intermediates prior to adsorption on the sample. Three readily available Ru precursors, CpRu(CO)2Me, (η3-allyl)Ru(CO)3Br, and (COT)Ru(CO)3, were employed to investigate the role of precursor quantum yield, ligand chemistry, and the Ru oxidation state on the deposition. To investigate the role of the substrate chemistry on deposition, carboxylic acid-, hydroxyl-, and methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers were used. The data indicate that moderate quantum yields for ligand loss (φ ≥ 0.4) are required for ruthenium deposition, and the deposition is wavelength dependent. Second, anionic polyhapto ligands such as cyclopentadienyl and allyl are more difficult to remove than carbonyls, halides, and alkyls. Third, in contrast to the atomic layer deposition, acid-base reactions between the precursor and the substrate are more effective for deposition than nucleophilic reactions. Finally, the data suggest that selective deposition can be achieved on organic thin films by judicious choice of precursor and functional groups present on the substrate. These studies thus provide guidelines for the rational design of new precursors specifically for selective photochemical CVD on organic substrates.

  2. Polyethylene terephthalate thin films; a luminescence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Téllez, S.; Alarcón-Flores, G.; Meza-Rocha, A.; Zaleta-Alejandre, E.; Aguilar-Futis, M.; Murrieta S, H.; Falcony, C.

    2015-04-01

    Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) films doped with Rare Earths (RE3+) have been deposited on glass by spray pyrolysis technique at 240 °C, using recycled PET and (RE3+) chlorides as precursors. Cerium, terbium, dysprosium and europium were used as dopants materials, these dopants normally produce luminescent emissions at 450, 545, 573 and 612 nm respectively; the doped films also have light emissions at blue, green, yellow and red respectively. All RE3+ characteristic emissions were observed at naked eyes. Every deposited films show a high transmission in the visible range (close 80% T), films surfaces are pretty soft and homogeneous. Films thickness is around 3 μm.

  3. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  4. Film Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  5. Soluble Precursor Route to Polyanilines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    condensation were not successful, but further work produced polymer under the following conditions: Synthesis Diketone I (2.40 g, 10.0 mmol) in 10 mL...goal of producing a processible form of the conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI), the Phase I program concentrated on development of the synthesis of...extension of the original research to a Phase II effort. Diketone - Diamine Polycondensation Towards a Soluble PAni Precursor To achieve the

  6. Selenisation of sequentially electrodeposited Cu–Zn and Sn precursor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iljina, J., E-mail: jullenok@gmail.com; Volobujeva, O.; Raadik, T.; Revathi, N.; Raudoja, J.; Loorits, M.; Traksmaa, R.; Mellikov, E.

    2013-05-01

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin films were produced through the selenisation of sequentially electrodeposited Cu–Zn and Sn stacked films. The micro-structural and compositional properties of the precursor stacked and selenised films were characterised using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The electrodeposited Cu–Zn layers had a high concentration of zinc to compensate for the loss of zinc that occurred during the following deposition of the tin layer. It was observed that a Cu/Zn ratio equal to 1.1 in the electrodeposited Cu–Zn layers is optimal and provides the desired ratio of all the metallic components in selenised CZTSe films. Selenisation for 60 min resulted in highly crystalline CZTSe films with a grain size of 1.5–4 μm. In addition, the influence of the Cu–Zn ratio in the electrodeposited stacked layers on the morphology and the elemental and phase compositions of the CZTSe films was investigated. - Highlights: ► Electrodeposition-annealing route is used to form Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) absorber films ► Two series of precursors with different Cu–Zn ratio are prepared and selenised. ► CZTSe absorber layer containing large grains (1.5–4 μm) is formed after annealing. ► Morphological and compositional properties of formed CZTSe films are studied.

  7. PKP precursors : Implications for global scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waszek, Lauren; Thomas, Christine; Deuss, Arwen

    2015-01-01

    Precursors to the core phase PKP are generated by scattering of seismic energy from heterogeneities in the mantle. Here we examine a large global data set of PKP precursors in individual seismograms and array data, to better understand scattering locations. The precursor amplitudes from individual s

  8. Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Using Ultrashort Precursor Injection Pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method is developed and applied for the deposition of high-quality aluminum oxide (AlOx) films. The PECVD method combines a continuous plasma with ultrashort precursor injection pulses. We demonstrate that the modulation of the precurs

  9. Gallium(III) and indium(III) dithiolate complexes: Versatile precursors for metal sulfides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamik Ghoshal; Vimal K Jain

    2007-11-01

    The chemistry of classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium with dithiolate ligands, i.e., dithiocarboxylates, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, dithiophophinates and dithioarsenates, has been reviewed. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural aspects of these complexes are described. Their emerging role as single source molecular precursors for the preparation of metal sulfide thin films and nano-particles has been discussed.

  10. Atomic layer deposition by reaction of molecular oxygen with tetrakisdimethylamido-metal precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provine, J, E-mail: jprovine@stanford.edu; Schindler, Peter; Torgersen, Jan; Kim, Hyo Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Karnthaler, Hans-Peter [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Tetrakisdimethylamido (TDMA) based precursors are commonly used to deposit metal oxides such as TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and HfO{sub 2} by means of chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Both thermal and plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) have been demonstrated with TDMA-metal precursors. While the reactions of TDMA-type precursors with water and oxygen plasma have been studied in the past, their reactivity with pure O{sub 2} has been overlooked. This paper reports on experimental evaluation of the reaction of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) and several metal organic precursors based on TDMA ligands. The effect of O{sub 2} exposure duration and substrate temperature on deposition and film morphology is evaluated and compared to thermal reactions with H{sub 2}O and PEALD with O{sub 2} plasma.

  11. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism Study of a Novel Iridium Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ir(TFA3 (TFA=1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedionate metal complexes with high purity was successfully synthesized. The metal complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The volatility of metal complexes was studied by thermogravimetry analysis. And a possible decomposition mechanism was studied by mass spectroscopic analysis method. The novel iridium complexes can be severed as precursor in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of iridium films. iridium films were deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method, and the Ir(TFA3 complex was used as precursor. The iridium thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy in order to determine crystallinity and surface morphology.

  12. Directed deposition of silicon nanowires using neopentasilane as precursor and gold as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Kämpken

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the applicability of neopentasilane (Si(SiH34 as a precursor for the formation of silicon nanowires by using gold nanoparticles as a catalyst has been explored. The growth proceeds via the formation of liquid gold/silicon alloy droplets, which excrete the silicon nanowires upon continued decomposition of the precursor. This mechanism determines the diameter of the Si nanowires. Different sources for the gold nanoparticles have been tested: the spontaneous dewetting of gold films, thermally annealed gold films, deposition of preformed gold nanoparticles, and the use of “liquid bright gold”, a material historically used for the gilding of porcelain and glass. The latter does not only form gold nanoparticles when deposited as a thin film and thermally annealed, but can also be patterned by using UV irradiation, providing access to laterally structured layers of silicon nanowires.

  13. Same Precursor, Two Different Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Suzannah R.; Woods, Keenan N.; Plassmeyer, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    with temperature, forming mixtures of Ga-substituted In2O3 and In-substituted β-Ga2O3 with different degrees of substitution. X-ray total scattering and PDF analysis indicate that the majority phase for both the powders and films is an amorphous/nanocrystalline β-Ga2O3 phase, with a minor constituent of In2O3...

  14. Laser-induced metal reduction from liquid electrolyte precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsoo; Choi, Choljin

    2013-11-01

    A special sort of laser methods such as direct writing of metal and thin film deposition from liquid precursors was developed for the surface processing and the localized metallization of different kinds of materials. Laser radiation initiates the chemical reaction resulted in the reduction of the metal complexes to the metals in the liquid electrolyte, followed by the metal deposition on the substrate with a high degree of the adhesion. In this study, continuous wave of Ar+ laser generated in multiwave regime with laser power from 5 to 500 mW was chosen for the Copper reduction and deposition on SiO2 substrate. In order to investigate the effect of salt precursors on the properties of the deposited structures, two kinds of electrolyte solution were prepared on the base of CuSO4 and CuCl2. It was shown that metal deposition can be initiated at the laser power of 50 mW. The width of the deposits was found to be substantially dependent on the applied laser power. Deposits were revealed as conductive layers and the resistance of the layers depends strongly on the solution temperature and the salt precursor.

  15. Film/NotFilm

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    Although Samuel Beckett (1906-1989) showed a genuine interest in audio-visual media in his fascinating and innovative radio plays and television works, and in 1936 even wrote a letter to Sergei Eisenstein to be accepted to the famous Soviet film school VGIK, the 22-minute Film (1965) was his only venture into cinema. Beckett conceived the film, wrote the screenplay, supervised the production and, as one of the film’s crew members recalled and as the director Alan Schneider himself acknowledge...

  16. Zinc oxide films prepared by sol-gel spin coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin, Sharul Ashikin; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Yow, Ho-Kwang [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainizan Sahdan, Mohd; Saim, Hashim [Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Knipp, Dietmar [Jacobs University Bremen, School of Engineering and Science, Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films and micro- and nanostructures are very promising candidates for novel applications in emerging thin-film transistors, solar cells, sensors and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, a low-cost sol-gel spin coating technique was used to fabricate ZnO films on glass substrates. The sol-gel fabrication process of the ZnO films is described. The influence of precursor concentration on the material properties of the ZnO films was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometry were employed to examine the structural properties of the ZnO films. The optical properties of the ZnO films were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The experimental results reveal that the precursor concentration in the sol-gel spin coating process exerts a strong influence on the properties of the ZnO films. The effects of the precursor concentration are discussed. (orig.)

  17. High Refractive Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Films Prepared by Low Water Sol-Gel and UV-Irradiation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yuan Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid sols (Ti–O–Si precursor were first synthesized by the sol-gel method at low addition of water, and were then employed to prepare a highly refractive hybrid optical film. This film was obtained by blending the Ti–O–Si precursor with 2-phenylphenoxyethyl acrylate (OPPEA to perform photo-polymerization by ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Results show that the film transparency of poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA film is higher than that of a pure poly(Ti–O–Si precursor film, and that this poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA hybrid film exhibits a high transparency of ~93.7% coupled with a high refractive index (n of 1.83 corresponding to a thickness of 2.59 μm.

  18. Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmouss

    2003-01-01

    the optical absorption are consistent with the film color changes. Finally, the optical and electrochromic properties of the films prepared by this method are compared with those of our sputtered films already studied and with other works.

  19. Chemical precursor impact on the properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} absorber layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashistha, Indu B., E-mail: indu-139@yahoo.com; Sharma, S. K. [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Sharma, Mahesh C. [National Institute of Solar Energy, Gurgaon 122003 (India)

    2016-04-13

    In present work impact of different chemical precursor on the deposition of solar absorber layer Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) were studied by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method without using expensive vacuum facilities and followed by annealing. As compared to the other deposition methods, CBD method is interesting one because it is simple, reproducible, non-hazardous, cost effective and well suited for producing large-area thin films at low temperatures, although effect of precursors and concentration plays a vital role in the deposition. So, the central theme of this work is optimizing and controlling of chemical reactions for different chemical precursors. Further Effect of different chemical precursors i.e. sulphate and chloride is analyzed by structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) of annealed CZTS thin film revealed that films were polycrystalline in nature with kestarite tetragonal crystal structure. The Atomic Force micrographs (AFM) images indicated total coverage compact film and as well as growth of crystals. The band gap of annealed CZTS films was found in the range of optimal band gap by absorption spectroscopy.

  20. Rapid synthesis of macrocycles from diol precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Magnus; Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    A method for the formation of synthetic macrocycles with different ring sizes from diols is presented. Reacting a simple diol precursor with electrophilic reagents leads to a cyclic carbonate, sulfite or phosphate in a single step in 25-60% yield. Converting the cyclization precursor to a bis-ele...

  1. The Interrelationships of Mathematical Precursors in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrelations among cognitive precursors across quantitative, linguistic, and spatial attention domains that have been implicated for math achievement in young children. The dimensionality of the quantity precursors was evaluated in 286 kindergarteners via latent variable techniques, and the contribution of precursors…

  2. Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Hexamethyldisiloxane Films Prepared by Arc Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazauskas, A.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Grigaliunas, V.; Jucius, D; Guobiene, A.; Prosycevas, I.; Narmontas, P.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we present a simple method for fabricating plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane films (pp-HMDSO) possessing superhydrophobic characteristics via arc discharge. The pp-HMDSO films were deposited on a soda–lime–silica float glass using HMDSO monomer vapor as a precursor. A detailed surface

  3. Effects of Modified Precursor Solution on Microstructure of (Y,Yb)MnO3/HfO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2007-10-01

    Ferroelectric/insulator/silicon structures were prepared using (Y,Yb)MnO3 films as ferroelectrics and HfO2 thin films as insulators through alkoxy-derived precursor solutions. The HfO2 solution was chemically modified in order to decrease the number of heating cycles required. The HfO2 films prepared using a partially hydrolyzed alkoxide solution had a uniform structure. From the results of measurements of the roughness level and refractive index of the HfO2 films, the partial hydrolysis of the HfO2 solution was found to be effective for the formation of a uniform microstructure in a thin insulator film. (Y,Yb)MnO3/HfO2/Si structures were constructed using the resultant HfO2 thin films prepared using the modified solutions.

  4. From liquid to thin film: colloidal suspensions for tungsten oxide as an electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Using a colloidal suspension, tungsten oxide thin films (150 nm) have been prepared via ultrasonic spray deposition using two different current collectors, namely TiN and Pt. First, the precursor chemistry was studied, revealing that the tungsten present is reduced due to the formation of chlorine gas. Due to a dehydrogenation 1,1-diethoxyethane (DEE) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) evolve from the precursor, reducing the chloride content of the precursor. The thin films were annealed at 400 and ...

  5. Preparation of precursor for stainless steel foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiang-yang; LI Shan-ni; LI Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of polyurethane sponge pretreatment and slurry compositions on the slurry loading in precursor were discussed, and the,performances of stainless steel foams prepared from precursors with different slurry loadings and different particle sizes of the stainless steel powder were also investigated. The experimental results show that the pretreatment of sponge with alkaline solution is effective to reduce the jam of cells in precursor and ensure the slurry to uniformly distribute in sponge, and it is also an effective method for increasing the slurry loading in precursor; the mass fraction of additive A and solid content in slurry greatly affect the slurry loading in precursor, when they are kept in 9%-13% and 52%-75%, respectively, the stainless steel foam may hold excellent 3D open-cell network structure and uniform muscles; the particle size of the stainless steel powder and the slurry loading in precursor have great effects on the bending strength, apparent density and open porosity of stainless steel foam; when the stainless steel powder with particle size of 44 tan and slurry loading of 0.5 g/cm3 in precursor are used, a stainless steel foam can be obtained, which has open porosity of 81.2%, bending strength of about 51.76 MPa and apparent density of about 1.0 g/cm3.

  6. Single-step ambient-air synthesis of graphene from renewable precursors as electrochemical genosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Han; Pineda, Shafique; Fang, Jinghua; Gozukara, Yesim; Yick, Samuel; Bendavid, Avi; Lam, Simon Kwai Hung; Murdock, Adrian T.; Murphy, Anthony B.; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2017-01-01

    Thermal chemical vapour deposition techniques for graphene fabrication, while promising, are thus far limited by resource-consuming and energy-intensive principles. In particular, purified gases and extensive vacuum processing are necessary for creating a highly controlled environment, isolated from ambient air, to enable the growth of graphene films. Here we exploit the ambient-air environment to enable the growth of graphene films, without the need for compressed gases. A renewable natural precursor, soybean oil, is transformed into continuous graphene films, composed of single-to-few layers, in a single step. The enabling parameters for controlled synthesis and tailored properties of the graphene film are discussed, and a mechanism for the ambient-air growth is proposed. Furthermore, the functionality of the graphene is demonstrated through direct utilization as an electrode to realize an effective electrochemical genosensor. Our method is applicable to other types of renewable precursors and may open a new avenue for low-cost synthesis of graphene films. PMID:28134336

  7. Single-step ambient-air synthesis of graphene from renewable precursors as electrochemical genosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Han; Pineda, Shafique; Fang, Jinghua; Gozukara, Yesim; Yick, Samuel; Bendavid, Avi; Lam, Simon Kwai Hung; Murdock, Adrian T.; Murphy, Anthony B.; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2017-01-01

    Thermal chemical vapour deposition techniques for graphene fabrication, while promising, are thus far limited by resource-consuming and energy-intensive principles. In particular, purified gases and extensive vacuum processing are necessary for creating a highly controlled environment, isolated from ambient air, to enable the growth of graphene films. Here we exploit the ambient-air environment to enable the growth of graphene films, without the need for compressed gases. A renewable natural precursor, soybean oil, is transformed into continuous graphene films, composed of single-to-few layers, in a single step. The enabling parameters for controlled synthesis and tailored properties of the graphene film are discussed, and a mechanism for the ambient-air growth is proposed. Furthermore, the functionality of the graphene is demonstrated through direct utilization as an electrode to realize an effective electrochemical genosensor. Our method is applicable to other types of renewable precursors and may open a new avenue for low-cost synthesis of graphene films.

  8. Synthesis and structures of metal chalcogenide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj, Stan A.; Eckles, William E.; Andras, Maria T.

    1990-01-01

    The reactivity of early transition metal sandwich complexes with sulfur-rich molecules such as dithiocarboxylic acids was studied. Researchers recently initiated work on precursors to CuInSe2 and related chalcopyrite semiconductors. Th every high radiation tolerance and the high absorption coefficient of CuInSe2 makes this material extremely attractive for lightweight space solar cells. Their general approach in early transition metal chemistry, the reaction of low-valent metal complexes or metal powders with sulfur and selenium rich compounds, was extended to the synthesis of chalcopyrite precursors. Here, the researchers describe synthesis, structures, and and routes to single molecule precursors to metal chalcogenides.

  9. Rapid thermal processing for printed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} solar cells: Comparison of precursor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klugius, Ines, E-mail: ines.klugius@zsw-bw.de [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Industriestr. 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Miller, Rebekah [EMD Millipore, 300 2nd Avenue, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Quintilla, Aina; Friedlmeier, Theresa M.; Blázquez-Sánchez, David; Ahlswede, Erik; Powalla, Michael [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Industriestr. 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    We investigate three different precursor types for selenisation using a rapid thermal process. Two of the precursor sample types are deposited via non-vacuum methods using particle based precursor inks, and the third precursor type investigated are films that are sputtered from a single ternary Cu–In–Ga target. The rapid thermal process is suitable for high throughput with a short optimum selenisation duration of 5 min or less and employs elemental selenium vapour. In order to investigate the phase development in the film, the selenisation process was interrupted at different stages and the samples were monitored via X-ray diffraction and surface-sensitive Raman measurements. We find different growth mechanisms for the investigated precursor types with fast CuInSe{sub 2} formation for the highly reactive elemental Cu and In particles and a slower formation of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} for Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} particle based precursors without the formation of additional phases. For selenisation of the sputtered precursor layers, we find the formation of InSe and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} during the selenisation temperature ramp up. Using the rapid thermal selenisation process, conversion efficiencies of about 2.9% and 4.0% for the printed and 6.0% for the sputtered precursor layers could be demonstrated. - Highlights: ► Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber formation via rapid thermal annealing ► Growth mechanism for printed and sputtered precursor layers is investigated. ► Conversion efficiencies of about 4.0% for printed and 6.0% for sputtered layers.

  10. Dip-coated hydrotungstite thin films as humidity sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Kunte; Ujwala Ail; S A Shivashankar; A M Umarji

    2005-06-01

    Thin films of a hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, viz. hydrotungstite, have been prepared on glass substrates by dip-coating method using ammonium tungstate precursor solution. X-ray diffraction shows the films to have a strong -axis orientation. The resistance of the films is observed to be sensitive to the humidity content of the ambient, indicating possible applications of these films for humidity sensing. A homemade apparatus designed to measure the d.c. electrical resistance in response to exposure to controlled pulses of a sensing gas has been employed to evaluate the sensitivity of the hydrotungstite films towards humidity.

  11. Piezoelectric polymer and ceramic ultrafine fibers for piezocomposite films

    OpenAIRE

    Yördem, Sinan Onur; Yordem, Sinan Onur; Papila, Melih; Menceloğlu, Yusuf Z.; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z.; Öğüt, Erdem; Ogut, Erdem; Gülleroğlu, Mert; Gulleroglu, Mert

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the process development and characterization of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films and fiber mats and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) fibers as ingredients of a future piezo-composite film. The polymer system PVDF is electroactive and processed here by solution casting and annealing to form active films. Electrospinning of PVDF and Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Zincacetate precursor solutions were also under investigation to produce randomly oriented polymer and ceramic fiber mats, respective...

  12. Two kinds of composite films: Graphene oxide/carbon nanotube film and graphene oxide/activated carbon film via a self-assemble preparation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-feng; Ma, Nan; Sun, Mei; Ji, Tian-hao

    2014-11-01

    Two kinds of free-standing composite films, including graphene oxide and activated carbon film as well as graphene oxide and carbon nanotube film, were fabricated through a simple suspension mixing and then natural deposition process. The films were characterized by various measurement techniques in detail. The results show that the composite films without any treatment almost still remain the original properties of the corresponding precursors, and exhibit loose structure, which can be easily broken in water; whereas after treated at 200 °C in air, the films become relatively more dense, and even if immersed into concentrated strong alkali or acid for five days, they still keep the film-morphologies, but regretfully, they show obvious brittleness and slight hydrophilicity. As soon as the treated films are performed in high concentrated strong alkali for about one day, their brittleness and wettability can be improved and became good flexibility and complete hydrophilicity.

  13. Efficient perovskite solar cells fabricated using an aqueous lead nitrate precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Wu, Kuan-Lin; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2015-09-04

    A novel, aqueous precursor system (Pb(NO3)2 + water) is developed to replace conventional (PbI2 + DMF) for fabricating methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite solar cells (PSCs). When the morphology and surface coverage of the Pb(NO3)2 film was controlled during coating, a power conversion efficiency of 12.58% under standard conditions (AM1.5, 100 mW cm(-2)) was achieved for the PSC.

  14. Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystal In2O3 Films by Thermal Oxidation of In2S3 Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. (O)zta; M. Bedir; Z. (O)ztürk; D. Korkmaz; S. Sur

    2006-01-01

    In2S3 nanocrystalline films are prepared on glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique using indium chloride and thiourea as precursors. The deposition is carried out at 350°C on glass substrates. The films are then annealed for two hour at 200, 400, 600, and 800°C in O2 flow. This process allows the transformation of nanocrystal In2O3 films from InzSz films and the reaction completes at 600°C. These results indicate that the In2O3 film prepared by this simple thermal oxidation method is a promising candidate for electro-optical and photovoltaic devices.

  15. Electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy from ZnO/CuO precursors in deep eutectic solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xueliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zou, Xingli, E-mail: xinglizou@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Xionggang, E-mail: luxg@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Changyuan; Cheng, Hongwei; Xu, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhou, Zhongfu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: Micro/nanostructured Zn and Cu–Zn alloy films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO/CuO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES, the typical nucleation-growth mechanism and the micro/nanostructures-formation process are determined. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Micro/nanostructured Zn films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO precursor in deep eutectic solvent (DES). • The morphology of the Zn electrodeposits depends on the cathodic potential and temperature. • The electrodeposited Zn films exhibit homogeneous morphologies with controllable particle sizes and improved corrosion resistance. • Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from their metal oxides precursors in DES. - Abstract: The electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy has been investigated in choline chloride (ChCl)/urea (1:2 molar ratio) based deep eutectic solvent (DES). Cyclic voltammetry study demonstrates that the reduction of Zn(II) to Zn is a diffusion-controlled quasi-reversible, one-step, two electrons transfer process. Chronoamperometric investigation indicates that the electrodeposition of Zn on a Cu electrode typically involves three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth process. Micro/nanostructured Zn films can be obtained by controlling the electrodeposition potential and temperature. The electrodeposited Zn crystals preferentially orient parallel to the (101) plane. The Zn films electrodeposited under more positive potentials and low temperatures exhibit improved corrosion resistance in 3 wt% NaCl solution. In addition, Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from CuO–ZnO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase composition of the electrodeposited Cu–Zn alloy depends on the electrodeposition potential.

  16. Progress in molecular precursors for electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhro, W.E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Molecular-precursor chemistry provides an essential underpinning to all electronic-materials technologies, including photovoltaics and related areas of direct interest to the DOE. Materials synthesis and processing is a rapidly developing field in which advances in molecular precursors are playing a major role. This article surveys selected recent research examples that define the exciting current directions in molecular-precursor science. These directions include growth of increasingly complex structures and stoichiometries, surface-selective growth, kinetic growth of metastable materials, growth of size-controlled quantum dots and quantum-dot arrays, and growth at progressively lower temperatures. Continued progress in molecular-precursor chemistry will afford precise control over the crystal structures, nanostructures, and microstructures of electronic materials.

  17. Satellite Observations of Ionospheric Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimal'Skij, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. N.; Lizunov, G. V.

    The authors review satellite observations of seismogenic phenomena in the ionosphere. Based on literature data, hypothetical patterns of seismogenic phenomena were reconstructed. The authors discuss the reasons which allow the ionospheric "anomalies" to be correlated with eartquake precursors.

  18. Rational design of precursors for oxide ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, A.W.; Georgieva, G. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The use of molecular species as precursors for inorganic materials has received considerable attention in recent years. As a result, metal-organic precursors are becoming increasingly sophisticated as particular decomposition mechanisms and specific stoichiometry are integrated into their design. The authors have pursued both of these design aspects for the development of low-temperature precursors for mono- and bi-metallic oxide materials. Thus, a great variety of metal complexes with 2- and 3-oximinocarboxylic acids, acyloin oximes, 2,4-diols, and diacetone alcohol have been prepared and their thermal behavior investigated. The results of this investigation and their application to the preparation of a variety of metal, oxide ceramics, will be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to precursors for alumina, titania, zirconia, perovskite-phase ferroelectric materials, and ferrites.

  19. Precursor Parameter Identification for IGBT Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precursor parameters have been identified to enable development of a prognostic approach for insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The IGBT were subjected to...

  20. Caracterización de recubrimientos sintetizados por el método de los precursores poliméricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernando Bautista Ruiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic films were formed SiO2-TiO2 system synthesized by the polymeric precursor method from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS and Titanium tetrabutoxide (TBT, a hydroxycarboxylic acid (citric acid and polyhydric alcohol (ethylene glycol. The films were deposited monolayer on substrates of AISI 304 steel using the immersion technique (dip-coating. Concentrations were used as precursors Si (silicon 10% Ti (Titanium 90%, Si 30% Ti 70% and Si 50% Ti 50% in the system. The influence of coatings on corrosion behavior of the substrate in a solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl, using the technique of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. Additionally, the topography was evaluated by scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM and adhesion of coatings to the substrate. It was found that the values of these parameters change substantially depending on the concentrations of the precursors used in synthesis.

  1. Influence of initial pH on the microstructure of YBa2Cu3O7−x superconducting thin films derived from DEA-aqueous sol–gel method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Tang; Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    as indicators of the quality of the precursors. When pH=6.5, the precursor solution had the lowest resistance, implying a good ionization of the starting metal elements. By using the optimal precursor, the film was found to have very small sized particles after pyrolysis. Consequently, the annealed YBCO films...

  2. Spray Deposition of High Quality CuInSe2 and CdTe Films: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Leisch, J.; Hersh, P.; Nekuda, J.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    A number of different ink and deposition approaches have been used for the deposition of CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), and CdTe films. For CIS and CIGS, soluble precursors containing Cu, In, and Ga have been developed and used in two ways to produce CIS films. In the first, In-containing precursor films were sprayed on Mo-coated glass substrates and converted by rapid thermal processing (RTP) to In2Se3. Then a Cu-containing film was sprayed down on top of the In2Se3 and the stacked films were again thermally processed to give CIS. In the second approach, the Cu-, In-, and Ga-containing inks were combined in the proper ratio to produce a mixed Cu-In-Ga ink that was sprayed on substrates and thermally processed to give CIGS films directly. For CdTe deposition, ink consisting of CdTe nanoparticles dispersed in methanol was prepared and used to spray precursor films. Annealing these precursor films in the presence of CdCl2 produced large-grained CdTe films. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optimized spray and processing conditions are crucial to obtain dense, crystalline films.

  3. Surface chemistry of group 11 atomic layer deposition precursors on silica using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Peter J.; Barry, Seán T.

    2017-02-01

    The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) as thin film deposition techniques has had a major impact on a number of fields. The deposition of pure, uniform, conformal thin films requires very specific vapour-solid reactivity that is largely unknown for the majority of ALD and CVD precursors. This work examines the initial chemisorption of several thin film vapour deposition precursors on high surface area silica (HSAS) using 13C, 31P, and quantitative 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Two copper metal precursors, 1,3-diisopropyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene copper (I) hexamethyldisilazide (1) and 1,3-diethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene copper(I) hexamethyldisilazide (2), and one gold metal precursor, trimethylphosphine gold(III) trimethyl (3), are examined. Compounds 1 and 2 were found to chemisorb at the hydroxyl surface-reactive sites to form a ||-O-Cu-NHC surface species and fully methylated silicon (||-SiMe3, due to reactivity of the hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) ligand on the precursor) at 150 °C and 250 °C. From quantitative 29Si solid-state NMR (SS-NMR) spectroscopy measurements, it was found that HMDS preferentially reacts at geminal disilanol surface sites while the copper surface species preferentially chemisorbed to lone silanol surface species. Additionally, the overall coverage was strongly dependent on temperature, with higher overall coverage of 1 at higher temperature but lower overall coverage of 2 at higher temperature. The chemisorption of 3 was found to produce a number of interesting surface species on HSAS. Gold(III) trimethylphosphine, reduced gold phosphine, methylated phosphoxides, and graphitic carbon were all observed as surface species. The overall coverage of 3 on HSAS was only about 10% at 100 °C and, like the copper compounds, had a preference for lone silanol surface reactive sites. The overall coverage and chemisorbed surface species have implications to the overall growth rate and purity of

  4. Growth of ultra thin PbS films by SILAR technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puiso, J.; Lindroos, S.; Tamulevicius, S.; Leskelae, M.; Snitka, V

    2003-03-20

    The successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique involves growth of thin films from solution, ionic layer by ionic layer at room temperature and normal pressure. The aim of this work is to characterize SILAR grown PbS thin films (15-100 nm) on silicon substrates using different lead-precursor solutions. The X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations have been performed to compare the properties of the films grown with different lead precursor solutions. The PbS ultra thin films were polycrystalline and cubic. The films were stoichiometric and contained some oxygen. The film roughness and crystallite size could be controlled by choosing the lead precursors.

  5. Photovoltaic lithium-ion battery fabricated by molecular precursor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    A novel thin-film lithium-ion battery (LIB) which can be charged by the light irradiation was fabricated by molecular precursor method. The unprecedented, translucent thin-film LIB, fabricated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide pre-coated glass substrate, was attained by using the active materials, titania for anode and LiCoO2 for cathode, respectively. The averaged potential at 2.04V was observed by applying a constant current of 0.2mA. Then, that at 1.82V was detected after 60s during the sequential self-discharge process. The charging voltage of the assembled battery was 1.38V with irradiation of 1-sun, the self-discharge voltage was 1.37V. Based on the calibration curve of the charging voltages over constant currents ranging from 0-1.0mA, the detected value can be theoretically reduced to the charging operation by applying a constant current of approximately 60μA. The charge and discharge of this device was stable voltage at least 30 cycles. The two-in-one device can simultaneously generate and store electricity from solar light, the renewable energy source, and may be applied in smart windows for distributed power system according to on-site demand.

  6. Optimization of (002)-Oriented ZnO Film Synthesis in Sol-Gel Process and Film Photoluminescence Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun-Feng; ZHAO Li-Li; ZHANG Zhi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    By orthogonal design theory, technological parameters of the (002)-oriented ZnO film prepared in sol-gel process are optimized. A set of technological parameters for growing highly (002)-oriented ZnO film is obtained. As a result, it is proven that the Zn2+ concentration is the most important factor to grow a highly (O02)-oriented ZnO film. We take an appropriate Zn2+ concentration 0.35 mol/L for the aimed film, of which photoluminescence property is better than those of the films derived from other Zn2+ concentrations precursor solution. The Zn2+ concentration either larger or smaller than 0.35 mol/L leads to the (002)-oriented degree decrease of films. By employing an atom force microscope, a hexagonal atom arrangement, which indicates that the film site detected is a ZnO single crystal, is observed in the surface of the highly (002)-oriented film.

  7. Deposição e caracterização físico-química de filmes finos nanoestruturados (nanocompósitos) contendo Ti, C, N e O, Obtidos a partir de um precursor líquido (Ti(OC2H5)4)

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Gabriel Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Os tratamentos de superfície a plasma são amplamente usados em diversas áreas de tecnologia, tais como: indústria metalmecânica, microeletrônica, plástico e medicina, para o crescimento de filmes finos, camadas protetoras em instrumentos e ferramentas de corte, funcionalização de superfícies plásticas, tecidos sintéticos, esterilização de instrumentos cirúrgicos e plasma reativo em semicondutores. Há alguns anos, uma nova família de filmes duros e protetores com baixo atrito compostos por nan...

  8. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouznit, Y., E-mail: Bouznit80@gmail.com [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Beggah, Y. [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Ynineb, F. [Laboratory of Thin Films and Interface, University Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria)

    2012-01-15

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  9. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouznit, Y.; Beggah, Y.; Ynineb, F.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  10. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride Using a Novel Silylamine Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Jang, Se Jin; Yusup, Luchana L; Lee, Won-Jun; Lee, Sang-Ick

    2016-08-17

    We report the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of silicon nitride thin film using a silylamine compound as the silicon precursor. A series of silylamine compounds were designed by replacing SiH3 groups in trisilylamine by dimethylaminomethylsilyl or trimethylsilyl groups to obtain sufficient thermal stability. The silylamine compounds were synthesized through redistribution, amino-substitution, lithiation, and silylation reactions. Among them, bis(dimethylaminomethylsilyl)trimethylsilyl amine (C9H29N3Si3, DTDN2-H2) was selected as the silicon precursor because of the lowest bond dissociation energy and sufficient vapor pressures. The energies for adsorption and reaction of DTDN2-H2 with the silicon nitride surface were also calculated by density functional theory. PEALD silicon nitride thin films were prepared using DTDN2-H2 and N2 plasma. The PEALD process window was between 250 and 400 °C with a growth rate of 0.36 Å/cycle. The best film quality was obtained at 400 °C with a RF power of 100 W. The PEALD film prepared showed good bottom and sidewall coverages of ∼80% and ∼73%, respectively, on a trench-patterned wafer with an aspect ratio of 5.5.

  11. Hybrid halide perovskite solar cell precursors: colloidal chemistry and coordination engineering behind device processing for high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Keyou; Long, Mingzhu; Zhang, Tiankai; Wei, Zhanhua; Chen, Haining; Yang, Shihe; Xu, Jianbin

    2015-04-01

    The precursor of solution-processed perovskite thin films is one of the most central components for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. We first present the crucial colloidal chemistry visualization of the perovskite precursor solution based on analytical spectra and reveal that perovskite precursor solutions for solar cells are generally colloidal dispersions in a mother solution, with a colloidal size up to the mesoscale, rather than real solutions. The colloid is made of a soft coordination complex in the form of a lead polyhalide framework between organic and inorganic components and can be structurally tuned by the coordination degree, thereby primarily determining the basic film coverage and morphology of deposited thin films. By utilizing coordination engineering, particularly through employing additional methylammonium halide over the stoichiometric ratio for tuning the coordination degree and mode in the initial colloidal solution, along with a thermal leaching for the selective release of excess methylammonium halides, we achieved full and even coverage, the preferential orientation, and high purity of planar perovskite thin films. We have also identified that excess organic component can reduce the colloidal size of and tune the morphology of the coordination framework in relation to final perovskite grains and partial chlorine substitution can accelerate the crystalline nucleation process of perovskite. This work demonstrates the important fundamental chemistry of perovskite precursors and provides genuine guidelines for accurately controlling the high quality of hybrid perovskite thin films without any impurity, thereby delivering efficient planar perovskite solar cells with a power conversion efficiency as high as 17% without distinct hysteresis owing to the high quality of perovskite thin films.

  12. Tailoring precursors for deposition: synthesis, structure, and thermal studies of cyclopentadienylcopper(i) isocyanide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, A M; Pugh, T; Cosham, S D; Hamilton, J; Sung, S L; Heil, T; Chalker, P R; Williams, P A; Kociok-Köhn, G; Johnson, A L

    2015-05-18

    We report here the synthesis and characterization of a family of copper(I) metal precursors based around cyclopentadienyl and isocyanide ligands. The molecular structures of several cyclopentadienylcopper(I) isocyanide complexes have been unambiguously determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes highlighted the isopropyl isocyanide complex [(η(5)-C5H5)Cu(CN(i)Pr)] (2a) and the tert-butyl isocyanide complex [(η(5)-C5H5)Cu(CN(t)Bu)] (2b) as possible copper metal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) precursors. Further modification of the precursors with variation of the substituents on the cyclopentadienyl ligand system (varying between H, Me, Et, and (i)Pr) has allowed the affect that these changes would have on features such as stability, volatility, and decomposition to be investigated. As part of this study, the vapor pressures of the complexes 2b, [(η(5)-MeC5H4)Cu(CN(t)Bu)] (3b), [(η(5)-EtC5H4)Cu(CN(t)Bu)] (4b), and [(η(5)-(i)PrC5H4)Cu(CN(t)Bu)] (5b) over a 40-65 °C temperature range have been determined. Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LP-CVD) was employed using precursors 2a and 2b to synthesize thin films of metallic copper on silicon, gold, and platinum substrates under a H2 atmosphere. Analysis of the thin films deposited onto both silicon and gold substrates at substrate temperatures of 180 and 300 °C by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveals temperature-dependent growth features: Films grown at 300 °C are continuous and pinhole-free, whereas films grown at 180 °C consist of highly crystalline nanoparticles. In contrast, deposition onto platinum substrates at 180 °C shows a high degree of surface coverage with the formation of high-density, continuous, and pinhole-free thin films. Powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) both show the films to be high-purity metallic copper.

  13. On the discovery of precursor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Donald F

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the biosynthesis of insulin in a human insulinoma beginning in 1965 provided the first evidence for a precursor of insulin, the first such prohormone to be identified. Further studies with isolated rat islets then confirmed that the precursor became labeled more rapidly than insulin and later was converted to insulin by a proteolytic processing system located mainly within the secretory granules of the beta cell and was then stored or secreted. The precursor was designated "proinsulin" in 1967 and was isolated and sequenced from beef and pork sources. These structural studies confirmed that the precursor was a single polypeptide chain which began with the B chain of insulin, continued through a connecting segment of 30-35 amino acids and terminated with the A chain. Paired basic residues were identified at the sites of excision of the C-peptide. Human proinsulin and C-peptide were then similarly obtained and sequenced. The human C-peptide assay was developed and provided a useful tool for measuring insulin levels indirectly in diabetics treated with insulin. The discovery of other precursor proteins for a variety of peptide hormones, neuropeptides, or plasma proteins then followed, with all having mainly dibasic cleavage sites for processing. The subsequent discovery of a similar biosynthetic pathway in yeast led to the identification of eukaryotic families of specialized processing subtilisin-like endopeptidases coupled with carboxypeptidase B-like exopeptidases. Most neuroendocrine peptides are processed by two specialized members of this family - PC2 and/or PC1/3 - followed by carboxypeptidase E (CPE). This brief report concentrates mainly on the role of insulin biosynthesis in providing a useful early paradigm of precursor processing in the secretory pathway.

  14. Sonic Hedgehod y comportamiento de precursores neuroepiteliales

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Recio Moreno, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    En los estadios tempranos del desarrollo embrionario, el cerebro tiene dos componentes fundamentales: fluido cerebroespinal embrionario (E-CSF) y precursores neuroepiteliales. En esta investigación nos centraremos en explicar la influencia de un factor de transcripción, sonic hedgehog (SHH), presente en el E-CSF, sobre el comportamiento de los precursores neuroepiteliares. Empleamos técnicas de Wester-Blot para demostrar la presencia de SHH en el E-CSF y técnicas de cultivo organotípico de...

  15. Thermal and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of SiO{sub 2} using commercial silicon precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putkonen, Matti, E-mail: matti.putkonen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, Espoo (Finland); Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076, Espoo (Finland); Bosund, Markus [Beneq Oy, Ensimmäinen savu, FI-01510, Vantaa (Finland); Ylivaara, Oili M.E.; Puurunen, Riikka L.; Kilpi, Lauri; Ronkainen, Helena [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, Espoo (Finland); Sintonen, Sakari; Ali, Saima; Lipsanen, Harri [Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland); Liu, Xuwen; Haimi, Eero; Hannula, Simo-Pekka [Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Buchanan, Iain; Karwacki, Eugene [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA 18195 (United States); Vähä-Nissi, Mika [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-05-02

    In this paper, we report ALD deposition of silicon dioxide using either thermal or plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Several aminosilanes with differing structures and reactivity were used as silicon precursors in R and D single wafer ALD tools. One of the precursors was also tested on pilot scale batch ALD using O{sub 3} as oxidant and with substrates measuring 150 × 400 mm. The SiO{sub 2} film deposition rate was greatly dependent on the precursors used, highest values being 1.5–2.0 Å/cycle at 30–200 °C for one precursor with an O{sub 2} plasma. According to time-of-flight-elastic recoil detection analysis measurements carbon and nitrogen impurities were relatively low, but hydrogen content increased at low deposition temperatures. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2} thin film is deposited by thermal and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). • We report low-temperature deposition of SiO{sub 2} even at 30 °C by PEALD. • Scaling up of the atomic layer deposition processes to industrial batch is reported. • Deposited films had low low compressive residual stress and good conformality.

  16. Aqueous Wetting Films on Fused Quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoco; Wayner

    1999-06-15

    Using an image analyzing interferometer, IAI, the interfacial characteristics of an isothermal constrained vapor bubble, CVB, in a quartz cuvette were studied as a precursor to heat transfer research. The effects of pH and electrolyte concentration on the meniscus properties (curvature and adsorbed film thickness) and the stability of the aqueous wetting films were evaluated. The surface potential in the electric double layer was a function of the cleaning and hydroxylation of the quartz surface. The disjoining pressure isotherm for pure water was very close to that predicted by the Langmuir equation. For aqueous solutions of moderate electrolyte concentration, the Gouy-Chapman theory provided a good representation of the electrostatic effects in the film. The effect of temperature on the film properties of aqueous solutions and pure water was also evaluated: The meniscus curvature decreased with increasing temperature, while Marangoni effects, intermolecular forces, and local evaporation and condensation enhanced waves on the adsorbed film layer. Pure water wetting films were mechanically metastable, breaking into droplets and very thin films (less than 10 nm) after a few hours. Aqueous wetting films with pH 12.4 proved to be stable during a test of several months, even when subjected to temperature and mechanical perturbations. The mechanical stability of wetting films can explain the reported differences between the critical heat fluxes of pure water and aqueous solutions. The IAI-CVB technique is a simple and versatile experimental technique for studying the characteristics of interfacial systems. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Carbon fibers: precursor systems, processing, structure, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erik; Steudle, Lisa M; Ingildeev, Denis; Spörl, Johanna M; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2014-05-19

    This Review gives an overview of precursor systems, their processing, and the final precursor-dependent structure of carbon fibers (CFs) including new developments in precursor systems for low-cost CFs. The following CF precursor systems are discussed: poly(acrylonitrile)-based copolymers, pitch, cellulose, lignin, poly(ethylene), and new synthetic polymeric precursors for high-end CFs. In addition, structure-property relationships and the different models for describing both the structure and morphology of CFs will be presented.

  18. Growth and Raman scattering characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, P. A.; Salomé, P M P; Cunha, A. F. da

    2009-01-01

    In the present work we report the results of the growth, morphological and structural characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared by sulfurization of DC magnetron sputtered Cu/Zn/Sn precursor layers. The adjustment of the thicknesses and the properties of the precursors were used to control the final composition of the films. Its properties were studied by SEM/EDS, XRD and Raman scattering. The influence of the sulfurization temperature on the morphology, composition ...

  19. Composition change and capacitance properties of ruthenium oxide thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泓; 甘卫平; 刘仲武; 郑峰

    2015-01-01

    RuO2·nH2O film was deposited on tantalum foils by electrodeposition and heat treatment using RuCl3·3H2O as precursor. Surface morphology, composition change and cyclic voltammetry from precursor to amorphous and crystalline RuO2·nH2O films were studied by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer, differential thermal analyzer, scanning electron microscope and electrochemical analyzer, respectively. The results show that the precursor was transformed gradually from amorphous to crystalline phase with temperature. When heat treated at 300 °C for 2 h, RuO2·nH2O electrode surface gains mass of 2.5 mg/cm2 with specific capacitance of 782 F/g. Besides, it is found that the specific capacitance of the film decreased by roughly 20%with voltage scan rate increasing from 5 to 250 mV/s.

  20. Vapor Phase Deposition and Growth of Polyimide Films on Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-10

    than by spin coating procedures opens the possibility of simplified or alternate manufacturing steps in the microelectronic industry. It is necessary...the sub- strate by spin coating . The initial spin-coated layer consists of a solution of the polyimide precursor polyamic acid (PAA) dissolved in a...polyimide inter- face is spin coating the polymer precursor (PAA) onto a supported metal film, prior to curing and the formation of polyimide. Bulk

  1. Manganese oxide nanowires, films, and membranes and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven Lawrence [Storrs, CT; Yuan, Jikang [Storrs, CT

    2011-02-15

    Nanowires, films, and membranes comprising ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves and methods of making the same are disclosed. A method for forming nanowires includes hydrothermally treating a chemical precursor composition in a hydrothermal treating solvent to form the nanowires, wherein the chemical precursor composition comprises a source of manganese cations and a source of counter cations, and wherein the nanowires comprise ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves.

  2. Dip-coated hydrotungstite thin films as humidity sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Thin films of a hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, viz. hydrotungstite,have been prepared on glass substrates by dip-coating method using ammonium tungstate precursor solution. X-ray diffraction shows the films to have a strong b-axis orientation. The resistance of the films is observed to be sensitive to the humidity content of the ambient,indicating possible applications of these films for humidity sensing. Ahome made apparatus designed to measure the d.c. electrical resistance in response t...

  3. Sol-gel precursors and products thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Scott C.; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Weisner, Ulrich B.

    2017-02-14

    The present invention provides a generalizable single-source sol-gel precursor capable of introducing a wide range of functionalities to metal oxides such as silica. The sol-gel precursor facilitates a one-molecule, one-step approach to the synthesis of metal-silica hybrids with combinations of biological, catalytic, magnetic, and optical functionalities. The single-source precursor also provides a flexible route for simultaneously incorporating functional species of many different types. The ligands employed for functionalizing the metal oxides are derived from a library of amino acids, hydroxy acids, or peptides and a silicon alkoxide, allowing many biological functionalities to be built into silica hybrids. The ligands can coordinate with a wide range of metals via a carboxylic acid, thereby allowing direct incorporation of inorganic functionalities from across the periodic table. Using the single-source precursor a wide range of functionalized nanostructures such as monolith structures, mesostructures, multiple metal gradient mesostructures and Stober-type nanoparticles can be synthesized. ##STR00001##

  4. Sol-gel precursors and products thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Scott C.; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Weisner, Ulrich B.

    2017-02-14

    The present invention provides a generalizable single-source sol-gel precursor capable of introducing a wide range of functionalities to metal oxides such as silica. The sol-gel precursor facilitates a one-molecule, one-step approach to the synthesis of metal-silica hybrids with combinations of biological, catalytic, magnetic, and optical functionalities. The single-source precursor also provides a flexible route for simultaneously incorporating functional species of many different types. The ligands employed for functionalizing the metal oxides are derived from a library of amino acids, hydroxy acids, or peptides and a silicon alkoxide, allowing many biological functionalities to be built into silica hybrids. The ligands can coordinate with a wide range of metals via a carboxylic acid, thereby allowing direct incorporation of inorganic functionalities from across the periodic table. Using the single-source precursor a wide range of functionalized nanostructures such as monolith structures, mesostructures, multiple metal gradient mesostructures and Stober-type nanoparticles can be synthesized. ##STR00001##

  5. Milk proteins as precursors of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dziuba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk proteins, a source of bioactive peptides, are the subject of numerous research studies aiming to, among others, evaluate their properties as precursors of biologically active peptides. Physiologically active peptides released from their precursors may interact with selected receptors and affect the overall condition and health of humans. By relying on the BIOPEP database of proteins and bioactive peptides, developed by the Department of Food Biochemistry at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (www.uwm.edu.pl/biochemia, the profiles of potential activity of milk proteins were determined and the function of those proteins as bioactive peptide precursors was evaluated based on a quantitative criterion, i.e. the occurrence frequency of bioactive fragments (A. The study revealed that milk proteins are mainly a source of peptides with the following types of activity: antihypertensive (Amax = 0.225, immunomodulating (0.024, smooth muscle contracting (0.011, antioxidative (0.029, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors (0.148, opioid (0.073, opioid antagonistic (0.053, bonding and transporting metals and metal ions (0.024, antibacterial and antiviral (0.024, and antithrombotic (0.029. The enzymes capable of releasing bioactive peptides from precursor proteins were determined for every type of activity. The results of the experiment indicate that milk proteins such as lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, β-casein and κ-casein hydrolysed by trypsin can be a relatively abundant source of biologically active peptides.

  6. Sedimentary porphyrins: Correlations with biological precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callot, H.J.; Ocampo, R.; Albrecht, P. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France))

    Over the past 6 years several sedimentary porphyrins (petroporphyrins, geoporphyrins) were correlated for the first time with biological precursors specific for classes of organisms (algae, photosynthetic bacteria (Chlorobiaceae)). This article discusses the various examples of correlations and the methods that led to these conclusions (isolation of pure porphyrins, structure determination using spectroscopic techniques, total synthesis, isotope measurements).

  7. School Violence: Prevalence, Precursors, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaanna

    2002-01-01

    Reviews types of school violence students confront, including a frequent precursor thereto: bullying. Discusses positive and negative aspects of current approach to school violence prevention such as surveillance, zero-tolerance policies, anti-bullying programs. Describes components of model school violence-prevention program. (Contains 38…

  8. Janus microgels produced from functional precursor polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Sebastian; Romanowsky, Mark B; Weitz, David A

    2010-09-21

    Micrometer-sized Janus particles of many kinds can be formed using droplet microfluidics, but in existing methods, the microfluidic templating is strongly coupled to the material synthesis, since droplet solidification occurs through rapid polymerization right after droplet formation. This circumstance limits independent control of the material properties and the morphology of the resultant particles. In this paper, we demonstrate a microfluidic technique to produce functional Janus microgels from prefabricated, cross-linkable precursor polymers. This approach separates the polymer synthesis from the particle gelation, thus allowing the microfluidic droplet templating and the functionalization of the matrix polymer to be performed and controlled in two independent steps. We use microfluidic devices to emulsify semidilute solutions of cross-linkable, chemically modified or unmodified poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) precursors and solidify the drops via polymer-analogous gelation. The resultant microgel particles exhibit two distinguishable halves which contain most of the modified precursors, and the unmodified matrix polymer separates these materials. The spatial distribution of the modified precursors across the particles can be controlled by the flow rates during the microfluidic experiments. We also form hollow microcapsules with two different sides (Janus shells) using double emulsion droplets as templates, and we produce Janus microgels that are loaded with a ferromagnetic additive which allows remote actuation of the microgels.

  9. Detection of Chemical Precursors of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Certain selected chemicals associated with terrorist activities are too unstable to be prepared in final form. These chemicals are often prepared as precursor components, to be combined at a time immediately preceding the detonation. One example is a liquid explosive, which usually requires an oxidizer, an energy source, and a chemical or physical mechanism to combine the other components. Detection of the oxidizer (e.g. H2O2) or the energy source (e.g., nitromethane) is often possible, but must be performed in a short time interval (e.g., 5 15 seconds) and in an environment with a very small concentration (e.g.,1 100 ppm), because the target chemical(s) is carried in a sealed container. These needs are met by this invention, which provides a system and associated method for detecting one or more chemical precursors (components) of a multi-component explosive compound. Different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are loaded (by doping, impregnation, coating, or other functionalization process) for detecting of different chemical substances that are the chemical precursors, respectively, if these precursors are present in a gas to which the CNTs are exposed. After exposure to the gas, a measured electrical parameter (e.g. voltage or current that correlate to impedance, conductivity, capacitance, inductance, etc.) changes with time and concentration in a predictable manner if a selected chemical precursor is present, and will approach an asymptotic value promptly after exposure to the precursor. The measured voltage or current are compared with one or more sequences of their reference values for one or more known target precursor molecules, and a most probable concentration value is estimated for each one, two, or more target molecules. An error value is computed, based on differences of voltage or current for the measured and reference values, using the most probable concentration values. Where the error value is less than a threshold, the system concludes that the target

  10. Theoretical study on the initial reaction mechanisms of ansa-metallocene zirconium precursor on hydroxylated Si(1 0 0) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangfen; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Shaowen

    2016-05-01

    The initial reaction mechanisms for depositing ZrO2 thin films using ansa-metallocene zirconium (Cp2CMe2)ZrMe2 precursor were studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The (Cp2CMe2)ZrMe2 precursor could be absorbed on the hydroxylated Si(1 0 0) surface via physisorption. Possible reaction pathways of (Cp2CMe2)ZrMe2 were proposed. For each reaction, the activation energies and reaction energies were compared, and stationary points along the reaction pathways were shown. In addition, the influence of dispersion effects on the reactions was evaluated by non-local dispersion corrected DFT calculations.

  11. Organic - Inorganic Hybrids made from Polymerizable Precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uricanu, V.I.; Donescu, D.; Banu, A.G.; Serban, S.; Olteanu, M.; Dudau, M.

    2004-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid films were prepared based on a recipe using organoalkoxysilanes’ ability to create an inorganic network combined with polymer network formation via radical polymerization of the organic groups. The starting mixtures included different triethoxysilanes (RTES), where the

  12. Layer-by-layer assembly of nanocomposite films with thickness up to hundreds of nanometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ling-de; YAN Yu-hua; YU Hai-hu; GU Er-dan; JIANG De-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte/polyelectrolyte, organic molecule/colloidal CdS and polyelectrolyte/MWCNT films were fabricated via the layer-by-layer assembling technique. The assembled films were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometry,nano profilometer and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the layer-by-layer assembling technique can be used to make the nanoscaled films from polyelectrolytes and thicker composite films from suitable precursor materials. Both organic molecule/colloidal CdS films and PEI/MWCNT films with thickness of hundreds of nanometers were obtained. For the organic molecule/colloidal CdS films, a reasonable explanation for the result is that both the organic molecules and the CdS particles aggregate in the films. For the PEI/MWCNT films, obviously, it is the MWCNT that makes the great contribution to the film thickness.

  13. Solvent-Assisted Gel Printing for Micropatterning Thin Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Beomjin; Hwang, Ihn; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Eui Hyuk; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Jinseong; Kang, Han Sol; Cho, Suk Man; Choi, Hyunyong; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-27

    While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties. A variety of micropatterns of a perovskite film are fabricated by either microimprinting or transfer-printing a thin spin-coated precursor film in soft-gel state with a topographically prepatterned elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by thermal treatment for complete conversion of the precursor film to a perovskite one. The key materials development of our solvent-assisted gel printing is to prepare a thin precursor film with a high-boiling temperature solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide. The residual solvent in the precursor gel film makes the film moldable upon microprinting with a patterned PDMS mold, leading to various perovskite micropatterns in resolution of a few micrometers over a large area. Our nondestructive micropatterning process does not harm the intrinsic photoelectric properties of a perovskite film, which allows for realizing arrays of parallel-type photodetectors containing micropatterns of a perovskite film with reliable photoconduction performance. The facile transfer of a micropatterned soft-gel precursor film on other substrates including mechanically flexible plastics can further broaden its applications to flexible photoelectric systems.

  14. Deposition and consolidation of porous ceramic films for membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Johannessen, Tue

    The deposition of porous ceramic films for membrane separation can be done by several processes such as thermophoresis [1], dip-coating [2] and spray pyrolysis [3]. Here we present a high-speed method, in which ceramic nano-particles form a porous film by filtration on top of a porous ceramic...... substrate [4]. Ceramic nano-particles are generated in a flame, using either a premixed (gas) flame, in which a metal-oxide precursor is evaporated in an N2 stream, which is combusted with methane and air, or using a flame spray pyrolysis, in which a liquid metal-oxide precursor is sprayed through a nozzle...

  15. Effects of elasticity and surface tension on the spreading dynamics of a thin film under the influence of intermolecular forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yuan-Nan; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    The spreading dynamics of a thin layer of viscous Newtonian fluid between an elastic sheet and a wetting solid substrate is examined using the lubrication theory. On the wetting substrate an ultra thin film (precursor film) develops as a result of the intermolecular force between the fluid and the wetting solid substrate. Such a precursor film prevents the stress singularity associated with a moving contact line. Following the methodology by, the effects of elasticity on the macroscopic contact line structure in the quasistatic limit are elucidated by an ordinary differential equation derived from an analysis of the energy and its dissipation. Similar to the case of a regular fluid interface with surface tension (capillary spreading), the elasto-capillary thin film profile also consists of a core at the center, an ultra thin film in the far field, and a contact line region where the core film profile connects smoothly to the precursor film. For capillary spreading, the precursor film transitions monotonically to the core film. Due to the interfacial elasticity, a spatial oscillation of film height in the contact line region is found. In addition, it is found that elasticity causes the sliding motion of the thin film: the contact angle close to zero as

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of organohalide perovskite precursors: solvent effects in the formation of perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sevillano, Juan José; Ahmad, Shahzada; Calero, Sofía; Anta, Juan A

    2015-09-21

    The stability and desirable crystal formation of organohalide perovskite semiconductors is of utmost relevance to ensure the success of perovskites in photovoltaic technology. Herein we have simulated the dynamics of ionic precursors toward the formation of embryonic organohalide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 units in the presence of solvent molecules using Molecular Dynamics. The calculations involved, a variable amount of Pb(2+), I(-), and CH3NH3(+) ionic precursors in water, pentane and a mixture of these two solvents. Suitable force fields for solvents and precursors have been tested and used to carry out the simulations. Radial distribution functions and mean square displacements confirm the formation of basic perovskite crystalline units in pure pentane - taken as a simple and archetypal organic solvent. In contrast, simulations in water confirm the stability of the solvated ionic precursors, which prevents their aggregation to form the perovskite compound. We have found that in the case of a water/pentane binary solvent, a relatively small amount of water did not hinder the perovskite formation. Thus, our findings suggest that the cause of the poor stability of perovskite films in the presence of moisture is a chemical reaction, rather than the polar nature of the solvents. Based on the results, a set of force-field parameters to study from first principles perovskite formation and stability, also in the solid phase, is proposed.

  17. Mitigation of plasma-induced damage in porous low-k dielectrics by cryogenic precursor condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; de Marneffe, Jean-François; Leroy, Floriane; Lefaucheux, Philippe; Tillocher, Thomas; Dussart, Remi; Maekawa, Kaoru; Yatsuda, Koichi; Dussarrat, Christian; Goodyear, Andy; Cooke, Mike; De Gendt, Stefan; Baklanov, Mikhail R.

    2016-05-01

    The present work describes the plasma etch properties of porous organo-silicate materials at cryogenic temperature. The mechanism of plasma damage is studied by means of in situ ellipsometry and post-etch material evaluation. Using conventional volatile reactants such as SF6, it is found that low plasma damage can be achieved below  -120 °C through two main channels: pore sidewall passivation by molecular SF6 and partial condensation of non-volatile etch by-products. The protection can be enhanced by means of gas phase precursors with low saturated vapor pressure. Using C4F8, complete pore filling is achieved at  -110 °C and negligible plasma-induced damage is demonstrated on both blanket and patterned low-k films. The characteristics of the precursor condensation process are described and discussed in detail, establishing an optimal process window. It is shown that the condensation temperature can be raised by using precursors with even lower vapor pressure. The reported in situ densification through precursor condensation could enable damage-free plasma processing of mesoporous media.

  18. Theoretical modeling and experimental observations of the atomic layer deposition of SrO using a cyclopentadienyl Sr precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Kurt D.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Slepko, Alex; Ekerdt, John G.; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2016-08-01

    First-principle calculations are used to model the adsorption and hydration of strontium bis(cyclopentadienyl) [Sr(Cp)2] on TiO2-terminated strontium titanate, SrTiO3 (STO), for the deposition of strontium oxide, SrO, by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The Sr(Cp)2 precursor is shown to adsorb on the TiO2-terminated surface, with the Sr atom assuming essentially the bulk position in STO. The C-Sr bonds are weaker than in the free molecule, with a Ti atom at the surface bonding to one of the C atoms in the cyclopentadienyl rings. The surface does not need to be hydrogenated for precursor adsorption. The calculations are compared with experimental observations for a related Sr cyclopentadienyl precursor, strontium bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl) [Sr(iPr3Cp)2], adsorbed on TiO2-terminated STO. High-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy show adsorption of the Sr precursor on the TiO2-terminated STO after a single precursor dose. This study suggests that ALD growth from the strontium precursors featuring cyclopentadienyl ligands, such as Sr(Cp)2, may initiate film growth on non-hydroxylated surfaces.

  19. Sol-gel preparation of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) powders and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, T.J.

    1999-01-12

    A method of preparing a lead magnesium niobium oxide (PMN), Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}, precursor solution by a solvent method wherein a liquid solution of a lead-complex PMN precursor is combined with a liquid solution of a niobium-complex PMN precursor, the combined lead- and niobium-complex liquid solutions are reacted with a magnesium-alkyl solution, forming a PMN precursor solution and a lead-based precipitate, and the precipitate is separated from the reacted liquid PMN precursor solution to form a precipitate-free PMN precursor solution. This precursor solution can be processed to form both ferroelectric powders and thin films. 3 figs.

  20. Fabrication and morphology of (Hg,Re)-1212 thin films on LaAlO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, J.H.; Sastry, P.V.P.S.S.; Schwartz, J

    2003-04-15

    Superconducting (Hg,Re)Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} ((Hg,Re)-1212) thin films have been prepared on single crystal substrates of LaAlO{sub 3} by reacting laser deposited ReBaCaCuO precursor films with CaHgO{sub 2} in sealed quartz tubes. The effects of the deposition parameters such as laser fluence and substrate temperature, on surface morphology and microstructure were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). AFM observations revealed that a granular structure was seen in the precursor films deposited at lower energy (less than 200 mJ) and disappeared at higher energy (250 mJ). SEM investigation on final reacted films showed that the precursor films deposited at 250 deg. C resulted in a well-connected and uniformly dense microstructure, whereas the films deposited at lower or higher temperatures were porous and non-uniform.

  1. Thermodynamic approach to the synthesis of silicon carbide using tetramethylsilane as the precursor at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong-Min; Kim, Kyung-Hun; Yoon, Young Joon; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Seo, Won-Seon

    2012-10-01

    Tetramethylsilane (TMS) is commonly used as a precursor in the production of SiC(β) films at relatively low temperatures. However, because TMS contains much more C than Si, it is difficult to produce solid phase SiC at high temperatures. In an attempt to develop a more efficient TMS-based SiC(α) process, computational thermodynamic simulations were performed under various temperatures, working pressures and TMS/H2 ratios. The findings indicate that each solid phase has a different dependency on the H2 concentration. Consequently, a high H2 concentration results in the formation of a single, solid phase SiC region at high temperatures. Finally, TMS appears to be useful as a precursor for the high temperature production of SiC(α).

  2. Solution synthesis and characterization of indium-zinc formate precursors for transparent conducting oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarelli, Robert M; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Maikel F A M; O'Hayre, Ryan P; Ginley, David S

    2010-06-21

    A series of In-Zn formate mixtures were investigated as potential precursors to amorphous In-Zn-oxide (IZO) for transparent conducting oxide (TCO) applications. These mixtures were prepared by neutralization from formic acid and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) measurements. Thermal analysis revealed that a mixture of In and Zn formates reduced the overall decomposition temperature compared to the individual constituents and that OH-substitution enhanced the effect. In terms of precursor feasibility, it was demonstrated that the decomposition products of In-Zn formate could be directed toward oxidation or reduction by controlling the decomposition atmosphere or with solution acid additives. For TCO applications, amorphous IZO films were prepared by ultrasonic spray deposition from In-Zn formate solutions with annealing at 300-400 degrees C.

  3. [Presentation of the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP) is the host program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's (ESMD) lunar robotic precursor missions to the Moon. The program includes two missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Both missions will provide the required lunar information to support development and operations of those systems required for Human lunar return. LPRP is developing a lunar mapping plan, Called the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, to create the capability to archive and present all data from LRO, LCROSS, historical lunar missions, and international lunar missions for future mission planning and operations. LPRP is also developing its educational and public outreach activities for the Vision for Space Exploration's first missions. LPRP is working closely with the Science Mission Directorate as their lunar activities come into focus.

  4. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [SEEE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, X. G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  5. Electromagnetic Whistler Precursors at Supercritical Interplanetary Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of electromagnetic precursor waves, identified as whistler mode waves, at supercritical interplanetary shocks using the Wind search coil magnetometer. The precursors propagate obliquely with respect to the local magnetic field, shock normal vector, solar wind velocity, and they are not phase standing structures. All are right-hand polarized with respect to the magnetic field (spacecraft frame), and all but one are right-hand polarized with respect to the shock normal vector in the normal incidence frame. Particle distributions show signatures of specularly reflected gyrating ions, which may be a source of free energy for the observed modes. In one event, we simultaneously observe perpendicular ion heating and parallel electron acceleration, consistent with wave heating/acceleration due to these waves.

  6. Elimination of bubbles and improvement of the superconducting properties in MgB2 films annealed using electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhuang; Kong, Xiangdong; Han, Li; Pang, Hua; Wu, Yue; Gao, Zhaoshun; Li, Xiaona

    2017-03-01

    MgB2 superconducting films can be readily obtained using the electron-beam annealing method. However, many bubbles existing in the film severely damage the surface morphology, which is known as the deleterious current-limiting mechanism. Based on morphology images and energy-dispersive spectroscopy spectra, we found that, during the annealing process, solid Mg-rich layers evaporate to form Mg vapour in the precursor film, resulting in bubbles in the film. By reducing the cycle thickness of the precursor film, we obtained MgB2 films with better properties. The root-mean-square surface roughness was 2.7 nm over a 10 × 10 μm area for a 100 nm-thick film, and the critical current density at 20 K was increased to 3.8 × 106 A cm‑2. These MgB2 films are suitable for fabricating MgB2 superconducting devices.

  7. Real-time observation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorber layer formation from nanoparticle precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Roland; Walker, Bryce C; Schmidt, Sebastian S; Zander, Ole; Weber, Alfons; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Humberto; Just, Justus; Klaus, Manuela; Agrawal, Rakesh; Unold, Thomas

    2013-11-07

    The selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanocrystals is a promising route for the fabrication of low-cost thin film solar cells. However, the reaction pathway of this process is not completely understood. Here, the evolution of phase formation, grain size, and elemental distributions is investigated during the selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle precursor thin films by synchrotron-based in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis as well as by ex situ electron microscopy. The precursor films are heated in a closed volume inside a vacuum chamber in the presence of selenium vapor while diffraction and fluorescence signals are recorded. The presented results reveal that during the selenization the cations diffuse to the surface to form large grains on top of the nanoparticle layer and the selenization of the film takes place through two simultaneous reactions: (1) a direct and fast formation of large grained selenides, starting with copper selenide which is subsequently transformed into Cu2ZnSnSe4; and (2) a slower selenization of the remaining nanoparticles. As a consequence of the initial formation of copper selenides at the surface, the subsequent formation of CZTSe starts under Cu-rich conditions despite an overall Cu-poor composition of the film. The implications of this process path for the film quality are discussed. Additionally, the proposed growth model provides an explanation for the previously observed accumulation of carbon from the nanoparticle precursor beneath the large grained layer.

  8. Calculations of precursor propagation in dispersive dielectrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Larry Donald

    2003-08-01

    The present study is a numerical investigation of the propagation of electromagnetic transients in dispersive media. It considers propagation in water using Debye and composite Rocard-Powles-Lorentz models for the complex permittivity. The study addresses this question: For practical transmitted spectra, does precursor propagation provide any features that can be used to advantage over conventional signal propagation in models of dispersive media of interest? A companion experimental study is currently in progress that will attempt to measure the effects studied here.

  9. PRECURSORS OF EARTHQUAKES: VLF SIGNALSIONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ULAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  10. Demens Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2012-01-01

    I forbindelse med opstarten af Demens Film projektet har der været nedsat en ekspertgruppe, som er kommet med en række anbefalinger omkring film til mennesker med demens. Anbefalingerne skal bruges i de næste faser af projektet. Deltagerne i ekspertgruppen var sammensat af en bred gruppe...... fagpersoner inde for forskellige fagområder. Læs mere om gruppens anbefalinger og sammensætning af ekspertgruppen i den kort rapport som er offentlig tilgængelig. Læs Ekspertgruppe anbefalingerne til Demens Film projekt....

  11. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  12. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreer, Ingrid [Breast Center, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany)]. E-mail: ischreer@email.uni-kiel.de; Luettges, Jutta [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  13. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreer, Ingrid; Lüttges, Jutta

    2005-04-01

    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  14. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  15. Disinfection byproduct formation from lignin precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guanghui; Kim, Junsung; Reckhow, David A

    2014-10-15

    Lignin is the most abundant aromatic plant component in terrestrial ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine the contribution of lignin residues in natural water to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. We investigated the formation of different classes of DBPs from lignin model compounds, lignin polymers, and humic substances using two common disinfection techniques, chlorination and chloramination. The contributions of lignin to the overall formation of DBPs from these organic products were determined based on the observed abundances of individual lignin phenols and their DBP yields. Model lignin phenols generally produced higher trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) yields than chloroform and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) during chlorination. Lignin phenols generally produced higher DBP yields but lower percentages of unknown total organic halogen compared to bulk humic substances and lignin polymers. The relative significance of lignin phenols as chlorination DBP precursors generally follows the order of TCAA > DCAA&chloroform. The relative significance of lignin phenols to DBP formation by chloramination follows the order: TCAA > DCAA&DCAN > chloroform. Overall, lignin phenols are more important as TCAA precursors than as chloroform and DCAA precursors.

  16. Comparison of trimethylgallium and triethylgallium as “Ga” source materials for the growth of ultrathin GaN films on Si (100) substrates via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevli, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafaalevli@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Marmara University, Göztepe Kadıköy, 34722 İstanbul (Turkey); Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda; Leghari, Shahid A.; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara, Turkey and National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and triethylgallium (TEG) as gallium precursors are compared. Optimized and saturated TMG/TEG pulse widths were used in order to study the effect of group-III precursors. The films were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Refractive index follows the same trend of crystalline quality, mean grain, and crystallite sizes. GaN layers grown using TMG precursor exhibited improved structural and optical properties when compared to GaN films grown with TEG precursor.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Hexagonal Boron Nitride (h- BN) Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    Synthesis 1. Diborane- ammonia (B2H6-NH3- gases): Early results with these precursors were published in 2012. 5 Briefly, LPCVD growth of h-BN in a hot-wall...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Synthesis and Characterization of Hexagonal Boron Nitride (h- BN) Films. The views, opinions and...1 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Synthesis and Characterization of Hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) Films. Report Title

  18. Achieving Uniform Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Film on Silicon Wafer via Silanization Treatment: A Typical Study on WS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Gan, Lin; Li, Huiqiao; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-02-01

    A silanization reaction is employed to improve the dispersion of precursors on a silicon wafer for a large-size uniform transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) film synthesis and to achieve a highly crystalline monolayer WS2 film up to 1 cm(2) . The novel strategy is also verified for the synthesis of WSe2 and MoS2 uniform films, suggesting universality for TMD film fabrication.

  19. Controllable preparation of nanosized TiO2 thin film and relationship between structure of film and its photocatalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Gang; (魏刚); ZHANG; Yuanjing; (张元晶); XIONG; Rongchun; (熊蓉春)

    2003-01-01

    TiO2 nano-crystalline film and fixed bed photocatalytic reactor were prepared by the sol-gel process using tetrabutylorthotitanate as a precursor and glass tube as the substrate. XRD, AFM, SEM and thickness analysis results indicate that the preparation of nano-crystalline film can be controlled by optimizing experiment process. Under the optimized process, the phase of TiO2 in film is anatase, and the grain size is 3-4 nm. The size of particles, which is about 20-80 nm, can be controlled. The thickness of monolayer film is in nanometer grade. The thickness and particles size in films growing on nanometer film can also be controlled in nanometer grade. As a result, the crack of film can be effectively avoided. Rhodamine B degradation results using UV-Vis spectrophotometer show that the activity of nano-crystalline film in the photocatalytic reactor has a good relation with the diameter of TiO2 particles, that is, the film shows high activity when the size is 20-30 nm and greatly reduced when the size is above 60 nm. The activity of film does not decrease with the increase of film thickness, and this result indicates that nano-crystalline film has no ill influence on the transmissivity of ultraviolet light.

  20. Piezoelectric Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  1. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  2. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  3. Kinetic roughening and pinning of coupled precursor and impregnation fronts in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S. [Grupo ' Mecanica Fractal' , Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico) and Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx; Garcia Paredes, Rafael [Grupo ' Mecanica Fractal' , Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Marquez Gonsalez, Jesus [Universidad de Baja California, Mexicali (Mexico); Susarrey Huerta, Orlando [Grupo ' Mecanica Fractal' , Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Morales Matamoros, Daniel [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castrejon Vacio, Fernando [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-05-22

    In the paper wetting experiments at low evaporation rate, after a short Washburn regime the film flow of filtered water overtakes the main impregnation front. Accordingly, we study the kinetic roughening dynamics and pinning of two strongly coupled fronts moving in different papers. We find that the kinetic roughening dynamics of precursor and main fronts belongs to different universality classes, nevertheless, at the final stage the distance between the fronts decrease until both fronts are pinned in the same configuration z{sub P}(x,y), the scaling properties of which are determined by the long-range correlations in the pore network.

  4. Characterization of protective sol-gel coatings on magnesium based on phenyl-triethoxysilane precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekehtaz, M., E-mail: yekehtaz@ca.tu-darmstadt.d [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Department of Materials Science, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Sittner, F.; Ugas-Carrion, R.; Flege, S.; Broetz, J.; Ensinger, W. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Department of Materials Science, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Sol-gel coatings were deposited from a Phenyl-triethoxysilane precursor for corrosion protection on magnesium samples. Film porosity was measured with potentiodynamic scans and the coating's structure was characterized with secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. At the interface between substrate and coating a magnesium silicate layer was found which was formed by interdiffusion during the deposition process. The coated samples showed a good corrosion resistance and low porosity after heating at comparatively low temperature.

  5. Photoelectron yield spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy evaluations of p-type amorphous silicon carbide films prepared using liquid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Tatsuya, E-mail: mtatsuya@jaist.ac.jp, E-mail: mtakashi@jaist.ac.jp [Center for Nano Materials and Technology, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Masuda, Takashi, E-mail: mtatsuya@jaist.ac.jp, E-mail: mtakashi@jaist.ac.jp; Inoue, Satoshi; Shimoda, Tatsuya [Green Device Research Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Yano, Hiroshi; Iwamuro, Noriyuki [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon carbide films were prepared using a polymeric precursor solution. Unlike conventional polymeric precursors, this polymer requires neither catalysts nor oxidation for its synthesis and cross-linkage, providing semiconducting properties in the films. The valence and conduction states of resultant films were determined directly through the combination of inverse photoemission spectroscopy and photoelectron yield spectroscopy. The incorporated carbon widened energy gap and optical gap comparably in the films with lower carbon concentrations. In contrast, a large deviation between the energy gap and the optical gap was observed at higher carbon contents because of exponential widening of the band tail.

  6. The Effects of Annealing Parameters on the Crystallization and Morphology of Cu(In,GaSe2 Absorber Layers Prepared by Annealing Stacked Metallic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ho Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CIGS films are prepared by single-stage annealing of the solid Se-coated In/Cu-Ga bilayer precursor. The annealing processes were performed using various Ar pressures, heating rates, and soaking times. A higher Ar pressure is needed to fabricate highly crystalline CIGS films, as no extra Se-vapor source is supplied. As the heating rate increases, the surface morphologies of the CIGS films become looser and some cracks are observed. However, the influence of soaking time is insignificant and the selenization process only requires a short time when the precursors are selenized at a higher temperature with a lower heating rate and a higher Ar pressure. In this study, a dense chalcopyrite CIGS film with a thickness of about 1.5-1.6 μm, with large grains (~1.2 μm and no cracking or peeling is obtained after selenizing at a temperature of 550°C, an Ar pressure of 300 Torr, a heating rate of 60°C/min, and a soaking time of 20 min. By adequate design of the stacked precursor and controlling the annealing parameters, single-stage annealing of the solid Se-coated In/Cu-Ga bilayer precursor is simplified for the fabrication of a fully crystallized chalcopyrite CIGS absorber layers with good crystallization and large grains.

  7. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} thin films grown on glass substrates by solid phase crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Shoichiro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki (Japan); Kamisaka, Hideyuki [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki (Japan); Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We investigated the structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} thin films on glass substrates. The NbO{sub 2} films were crystallized from amorphous precursor films grown by pulsed laser deposition at various oxygen partial pressures (P{sub O2}). The electrical and optical properties of the precursor films systematically changed with P{sub O2}, demonstrating that the oxygen content of the precursor films can be finely controlled with P{sub O2}. The precursors were crystallized into polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} films by annealing under vacuum at 600 C. The NbO{sub 2} films possessed extremely flat surfaces with branching patterns. Even optimized films showed a low resistivity (ρ) of 2 x 10{sup 2} Ω cm, which is much lower than the bulk value of 1 x 10{sup 4} Ω cm, probably because of the inferior crystallinity of the films compared with that of a bulk NbO{sub 2} crystal. Both oxygen-rich and -poor NbO{sub 2} films showed lower ρ than that of the stoichiometric film. The NbO{sub 2} film with the highest ρ showed an indirect bandgap of 0.7 eV. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Chemical and Physical Effects of the Carrier Gas on the Atmospheric Pressure PECVD of Fluorinated Precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Hubert, Julie; Mertens, Jérémy; Viville, Pascal; Dufour, Thierry; Barroo, Cédric; de Bocarmé, Thierry Visart; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Reniers, François

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure PECVD deposition and texturization of hydrophobic coatings using liquid fluorinated C6F12 and C6F14 precursors are investigated. The effect of the carrier gas (argon and helium) is discussed in terms of the behavior of the gas phase and of the characteristics of the deposited film. Mass spectrom-etry measurements indicate that the fragmentation is higher with argon while helium reacts very easily with oxygen impurities leading to the formation of CxFyOz compounds. These observations are consistent with the chemical composition of the films determined by XPS and the variation in the deposition rate. Moreover, the streamers present in the argon discharge affect the morphology of the surface by increasing the roughness, which leads to the increase in the hydrophobicity of the coatings.

  9. Thin films of conductive ZnO patterned by micromolding resulting in nearly isolated features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Ole F; Blank, Dave H A; ten Elshof, Johan E

    2010-02-01

    Patterned and continuous thin films of conductive Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) were prepared on different substrates from a polymeric precursor solution. Their electric conductivity and light transmittance (for visible and UV light) was measured at room temperature. By means of a simple device, conductive ZnO:Al films with high fidelity patterns with features of 2-20 microm width could be obtained by simply micromolding the liquid precursor film prior to heat treatment. The individual features were interconnected by a very thin residual ZnO layer.

  10. Fabrication of solution processed 3D nanostructured CuInGaS₂ thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Van Ben; Cho, Jin Woo; Park, Se Jin; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Park, Hoo Keun; Do, Young Rag; Min, Byoung Koun

    2014-03-28

    In this study we demonstrate the fabrication of CuInGaS₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure based on indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorod films and precursor solutions (Cu, In and Ga nitrates in alcohol). To obtain solution processed 3D nanostructured CIGS thin film solar cells, two different precursor solutions were applied to complete gap filling in ITO nanorods and achieve the desirable absorber film thickness. Specifically, a coating of precursor solution without polymer binder material was first applied to fill the gap between ITO nanorods followed by deposition of the second precursor solution in the presence of a binder to generate an absorber film thickness of ∼1.3 μm. A solar cell device with a (Al, Ni)/AZO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/ITO nanorod/glass structure was constructed using the CIGS film, and the highest power conversion efficiency was measured to be ∼6.3% at standard irradiation conditions, which was 22.5% higher than the planar type of CIGS solar cell on ITO substrate fabricated using the same precursor solutions.

  11. Impact of film thickness on the morphology of mesoporous carbon films using organic-organic self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Bryan D; Chavez, Vicki L; Dai, Mingzhi; Arreola, M Regina Croda; Song, Lingyan; Feng, Dan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Perera, Ginusha M; Stein, Gila E

    2011-05-03

    Mesoporous polymer and carbon thin films are prepared by the organic-organic self-assembly of an oligomeric phenolic resin with an amphiphilic triblock copolymer template, Pluronic F127. The ratio of resin to template is selected such that a body-centered cubic (Im3m) mesostructure is formed in the bulk. However, well-ordered mesoporous films are not always obtained for thin films (body-centered cubic symmetry with a preferential orientation of the closest-packed (110) plane parallel to the substrate. Film thickness and initial composition of the carbonizable precursors in the template are critical factors in determining the morphology of mesoporous carbon films. These results provide insight into why difficulties have been reported in producing ultrathin ordered mesoporous carbon films using cooperative organic-organic self-assembly.

  12. Application of atmospheric solution precursor plasma spray to photocatalytic devices for small and medium industries in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindole, Dickson; Ando, Yasutaka

    2017-01-01

    For development of a functional film deposition process with high deposition rate, as a basic study, TiO2 films were deposited by atmospheric solution precursor plasma spray (ASPPS) process. Ethanol-diluted titanium tetraisobutoxide [TTIB: Ti(OC4H9)4] was used as a feedstock. To achieve a high plasma thermal energy at a low discharge power, N2-dominant Ar/N2 as the plasma working gas was used, for film deposition at various deposition distances. Consequently, photocatalytic TiO2 with a rutile/anatase mixture film structure was deposited evenly in this case. By conducting methylene blue decomposition and wettability tests, photocatalytic properties of the film were confirmed. When a TiO2 film was applied to photocatalytic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the cells generated an electromotive force of 0.143V oc, which is close to those of commercial DSSCs. From these results, the ASPPS process was found to have high potential for high rate functional film deposition and was cost effective, making it suitable for developing countries.

  13. Growth inhibition to enhance conformal coverage in thin film chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Daly, Scott R; Girolami, Gregory S; Abelson, John R

    2008-12-31

    We introduce the use of a growth inhibitor to enhance thin film conformality in low temperature chemical vapor deposition. Films of TiB(2) grown from the single source precursor Ti(BH(4))(3)(dme) are much more highly conformal when grown in the presence of one of the film growth byproducts, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (dme). This effect can be explained in terms of two alternative inhibitory mechanisms: one involving blocking of surface reactive sites, which is equivalent to reducing the rate of the forward reaction leading to film growth, the other analogous to Le Chatelier's principle, in which the addition of a reaction product increases the rate of the back reaction. The reduction in growth rate corresponds to a reduction in the sticking probability of the precursor, which enhances conformality by enabling the precursor to diffuse deeper into a recessed feature before it reacts.

  14. Characterization of superconducting magnesium-diboride films on glassy carbon and sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E.; Zavala, E. P. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rocha, M. F. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, IPN, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Jergel, M.; Falcony, C. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-02-15

    IBA methods were applied to measure elemental depth profiles of precursors and superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films deposited on glassy carbon (Good Fellows) and sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates. For each type of substrates we obtained a pair of samples i.e. one amorphous precursor and one superconducting film which were then characterized. A 3{sup H}e{sup +} beam was used to bombard both, precursors and superconducting films in order to obtain the samples elemental composition profiles. The zero resistance T{sub co} and the middle of transition T{sub cm} values were 26.0 K and 29.7 K for the MgB{sub 2} film deposited on glassy carbon substrate. In the case of sapphire substrate the T{sub co} and T{sub cm} values were 25.0 K and 27.9 K, respectively. (Author)

  15. Single step synthesis of (a-Fe2O3) hematite films by hydrothermal electrochemical deposition

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A single step electrodeposition of alpha-Fe2O3 films under hydrothermal conditions without post-annealing requirement is described. Primary attention is paid to understand the effects of synthesis conditions, such as temperature, precursor concentration, pH, and time on the structure and morphology of the films. Moreover, the photoelectrochemical properties of hematite films grown by hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition (HED) are also discussed. It is discovered that HED enables the produc...

  16. The use of second-harmonic generation to study diffusion through films under a liquid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Monique A; De Roeck, Marjan; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; De Vos, Dirk E; Verbiest, Thierry

    2010-03-15

    Knowledge of the diffusion of chemicals through buried films is important for a wide variety of systems--from sensing to drug delivery. Herein, we show that second-harmonic generation (SHG) can be used to follow the diffusion through a thin film buried under a liquid in situ. More specifically, the diffusion of 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide through zeolite precursor films of different thickness is followed. The diffusion coefficients are calculated according to Fick's law.

  17. Single step synthesis of (a-Fe2O3) hematite films by hydrothermal electrochemical deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Ceren; Ünal, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    A single step electrodeposition of alpha-Fe2O3 films under hydrothermal conditions without post-annealing requirement is described. Primary attention is paid to understand the effects of synthesis conditions, such as temperature, precursor concentration, pH, and time on the structure and morphology of the films. Moreover, the photoelectrochemical properties of hematite films grown by hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition (HED) are also discussed. It is discovered that HED enables the produc...

  18. Growth of Cu thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, S.; Ruuskanen, T.; Ritala, M.; Leskelae, M

    2004-07-22

    Copper thin films were grown on reduced indium tin oxide, molybdenum and polymer substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Copper films were grown sequentially in a controlled way using simple copper salt and basic solution of formaldehyde as precursors. The copper films were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation as characterised by X-ray diffraction. On all substrates, the growth was clearly island growth in the beginning but after the whole surface was covered, the growth was more homogeneous.

  19. Deposition and Characterization Of Nanocrystalline Silver Thin Films By Using SILAR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohom, A. B.; Sartale, S. D.

    2011-07-01

    Nanocrystalline silver thin films were deposited on glass substrate by using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reduction (SILAR) method. Silver nitrate and hydrazine hydrate (HyH) were used as precursors. The deposited silver thin films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible-NIR absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Effect of concentration of HyH on properties of SILAR grown silver thin films has been extensively studied.

  20. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jason K.; Bentz, Amy; Eleamos, Krystal; Poole, John; Fahlman, Bradley D.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process routinely used to produce thin films of materials via decomposition of volatile precursor molecules. Unfortunately, the equipment required for a conventional CVD experiment is not practical or affordable for many undergraduate chemistry laboratories, especially at smaller institutions. In an effort to…

  1. PEALD AlN: controlling growth and film crystallinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, Sourish; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kruijs, van de Robbert; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2015-01-01

    We report on the growth kinetics and material properties of aluminium nitride (AlN) films deposited on Si(111), with plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Tri-methyl aluminium (TMA) and NH3-plasma were used as the precursors. The ALD window was identified in terms of the process parameter

  2. Deposition and characterization of CuInS2 thin films deposited over copper thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Simple, cost effective and versatile spray pyrolysis method is effectively combined with vacuum evaporation for the deposition of CuIns2 thin films for photovoltaic applications. In the present study In2s3 was spray deposited over vacuum evaporated Cu thin films and Cu was allowed to diffuse in to the In2S3 layer to form CuInS2. To analyse the dependence of precursor volume on the formation of CuInS2 films structural, electrical and morphological analzes are carried out. Successful deposition of CuInS2thin films with good crystallinity and morphology with considerably low resistivity is reported in this paper.

  3. Flash light sintered copper precursor/nanoparticle pattern with high electrical conductivity and low porosity for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Hyun-Jun [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haendang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: kima@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haendang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated and sintered via flash light irradiation to achieve highly conductive electrode pattern with low porosity. The hybrid copper ink was made of copper nanoparticles and various copper precursors (e.g., copper(II) chloride, copper(II) nitrate trihydrate, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate and copper(II) trifluoroacetylacetonate). The printed hybrid copper inks were sintered at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash light sintering system. The effects of copper precursor weight fraction and the flash light irradiation conditions (light energy and pulse duration) were investigated. Surfaces of the sintered hybrid copper patterns were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Also, spectroscopic characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the crystal phases of the flash light sintered copper precursors. High conductivity hybrid copper patterns (27.3 μΩ cm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩ cm) were obtained through flash light sintering at room temperature and under ambient conditions. - Highlights: • The hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated. • The hybrid copper ink was sintered via flash light irradiation. • The resistivity of sintered hybrid copper ink was 27.3 μΩ cm. • Highly conductive copper film with low porosity could be achieved.

  4. Novel precursors for the deposition of rare earth oxides; Neuartige Precursor zur Abscheidung von Selten-Erd-Oxiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, Mareike

    2010-02-22

    During this work rare earth solvates with nitrate and perchlorate anions have been investigated. All compounds have been structurally characterized and analyzed using thermal gravimetric analysis. The decomposition residues were analyzed using powder diffraction methods. Almost all compounds showed a characteristically intense exothermic decomposition step during the thermal decomposition, most likely caused by an intramolecular redox reaction between the nitrate or perchlorate anion respectively and the organic solvent molecules. The nitrates RE(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(CH(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) were isolated and characterized for the first time as the intermediate of the dehydration reaction with trimethyl orthoformate. The known compound group of dimethoxyethane solvates was then expanded with RE(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(O{sub 2}C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) (RE = La, Sm, Eu). Considering the possible use as precursor material the already described neodymium compound is also discussed. The thermal decomposition of these compounds yields the respective cubic rare earth oxide and shows the typical intense exothermic decomposition reaction. A variety of different precursor system based on nitrate solvates for the deposition of rare earth oxide layers on a silicon surface was developed and investigated in collaboration with the group of Prof. Dr. Al-Shamery (Univ. Oldenburg). Ultra thin films on a H-Si(111) surface were obtained via the deposition of the precursor, which was dissolved in organic solvents. An oxide layer was detected after the heating of the sample. The film thickness was measured as < 10 nm, whereas the thickness of the film was controlled by the concentration of the precursor solution. Sm(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}(CH(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 3} was isolated and characterized for the first time as the intermediate of the dehydration reaction with trimethyl orthoformate. Eu(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}(CH(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}(MeOH){sub 2} was obtained without

  5. Neutron-powered precursors of kilonovae

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, Brian D; Goriely, Stephane; Kasen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The merger of binary neutron stars (NSs) ejects a small quantity of neutron rich matter, the radioactive decay of which powers a day to week long thermal transient known as a kilonova. Most of the ejecta remains sufficiently dense during its expansion that all neutrons are captured into nuclei during the r-process. However, recent general relativistic merger simulations by Bauswein and collaborators show that a small fraction of the ejected mass (a few per cent, or ~1e-4 Msun) expands sufficiently rapidly for most neutrons to avoid capture. This matter originates from the shocked-heated interface between the merging NSs. Here we show that the beta-decay of these free neutrons in the outermost ejecta powers a `precursor' to the main kilonova emission, which peaks on a timescale of a few hours following merger at U-band magnitude ~22 (for an assumed distance of 200 Mpc). The high luminosity and blue colors of the neutron precursor render it a potentially important counterpart to the gravitational wave source, t...

  6. Precursors of eruptions at Vesuvius (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandone, Roberto; Giacomelli, Lisetta

    2008-04-01

    The historical record of activity of Mount Vesuvius is uncommonly long and may serve as a guide to understand precursors before the outbreak of new activity. Reposes of different lengths have been observed in the past, with long ones preceding violent explosive eruptions. Eruptions occurring during periods of permanent activity have been preceded by possible deformation of the volcanic edifice and by short duration, earthquake swarms. Otherwise they have occurred without any reported precursors. The renewal of activity after long periods, like the current one, has been preceded by unrest lasting years to weeks, as a new eruption would require connection to the surface of a reservoir at depth ranging between 6 and 4 km. Since 1944, episodic seismic swarms, have occurred with a frequency similar to that of the violent strombolian eruptions during the last period of permanent activity; they are interpreted as intrusions and arrest of magma batches into a reservoir at the same depth of that feeding past sub-plinian eruptions.

  7. Study of the functional properties of ITO grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from different indium and tin precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkutnik, P.D., E-mail: pierre.szkutnik@cea.fr [LMGP, Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble cedex (France); Roussel, H. [LMGP, Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble cedex (France); Lahootun, V. [Fine Chemical Synthesis and Surface Science – FC3S, Air Liquide - R and D CRCD, 1 chemin de la porte des loges, 78354 Les-Loges-en-Josas (France); Mescot, X. [IMEP-LAHC Institut de la Microélectronique, Electromagnétisme, Photonique, Hyperfréquences UMR5130 CNRS - Grenoble INP, 3 parvis Louis Néel 38016 Grenoble (France); Weiss, F.; Jiménez, C. [LMGP, Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Study of ITO layers obtained from three indium and two tin precursors by pulsed MOCVD. • Optimized tin doping depends on the tin chemical precursor. • Combination including acetyl acetonate ligand present the same characteristics. • Films elaborated between 350 and 700 °C with InMe2OtBu present a constant resistivity. - Abstract: Functional properties of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) layers grown by MOCVD from different indium and tin precursors are investigated. Selected indium precursors are In(acac){sub 3}, In(tmhd){sub 3} and InMe{sub 2}O{sup t}Bu, and tin precursors are DBTDA and Sn(acac){sub 2}. ITO layers are optically and electrically characterized to determine the better doping conditions. Differences in electrical properties of ITO layers are found when using InMe{sub 2}O{sup t}Bu, as compared to In(acac){sub 3} and to In(tmhd){sub 3}. The best films present a resistivity of 2.5 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and a transmittance higher than 84% for high deposition temperatures (T ⩾ 600 °C). The nature of tin precursors modifies the optimal doping at which these characteristics are achieved. When doped by DBTDA optimal doping is 8 at.%, therefore close to the solubility limit of tin in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix; but when using Sn(acac){sub 2}, or In(acac){sub 3}/DBTDA combination, best functional characteristics are obtained for the maximal doping content obtained, i.e. 2.5 at.%. For optimized conditions, the resistivity decreases when deposition temperature increases except when using the couple InMe{sub 2}O{sup t}Bu/DBTDA without oxygen addition during deposition. For this combination of precursors a resistivity of 1 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm is obtained at a deposition temperature of 350 °C and remains constant up to 600 °C. Only the films obtained from InMe{sub 2}O{sup t}Bu/DBTDA are crystalline state at a deposition temperature of 350 °C.

  8. Precursor Mediated Synthesis of Nanostructured Silicas: From Precursor-Surfactant Ion Pairs to Structured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hesemann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanostructured anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica (AMS recently appeared as a new strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials. This method is based on the use of anionic surfactants together with a co-structure-directing agent (CSDA, mostly a silylated ammonium precursor. The presence of this CSDA is necessary in order to create ionic interactions between template and silica forming phases and to ensure sufficient affinity between the two phases. This synthetic strategy was for the first time applied in view of the synthesis of surface functionalized silica bearing ammonium groups and was then extended on the formation of materials functionalized with anionic carboxylate and bifunctional amine-carboxylate groups. In the field of silica hybrid materials, the “anionic templating” strategy has recently been applied for the synthesis of silica hybrid materials from cationic precursors. Starting from di- or oligosilylated imidazolium and ammonium precursors, only template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions involving complementary anionic surfactants allowed accessing structured ionosilica hybrid materials. The mechanistic particularity of this approach resides in the formation of precursor-surfactant ion pairs in the hydrolysis-polycondensation mixture. This review gives a systematic overview over the various types of materials accessed from this cooperative ionic templating approach and highlights the high potential of this original strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials which appears as a complementary strategy to conventional soft templating approaches.

  9. Effect of precursor on growth and morphology of MoS2 monolayer and multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganorkar, Shraddha; Kim, Jungyoon; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Seong-II

    2015-12-01

    The rise of two-dimensional (2D) material is one of the results of successful efforts of researchers which laid the path to the new era of electronics. One of the most exciting materials is MoS2. Synthesis has been always a major issue as electronic devices need reproducibility along with similar properties for mass productions. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is one of the successful methods for 2D materials including graphene. Furthermore, the choice of starting materials for Mo and S source is crucial. The different source has different effects on the layers and morphology of MoS2 films. In this work, we have extensively studied the CVD technique to grow few layers of MoS2 with two precursors MoO3 and MoCl5, show remarkable changes. The MoO3 source gives a triangular shaped MoS2 monolayer while that of MoCl5 can achieve uniform MoS2 without triangle. The absence of geometric shapes with MoCl5 is poorly understood. We tried to explain with MoCl5 precursor, the formation of continuous monolayer of MoS2 without any triangle on the basis of chemical reaction formalism mostly due to one step reaction process and formation of MoS2 from gas phase to the solid phase. The film synthesized by MoCl5 is more continuous and it would be a good choice for device applications.

  10. Template-assisted mineral formation via an amorphous liquid phase precursor route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Fairland F.

    The search for alternative routes to synthesize inorganic materials has led to the biomimetic route of producing ceramics. In this method, materials are manufactured at ambient temperatures and in aqueous solutions with soluble additives and insoluble matrix, similar to the biological strategy for the formation of minerals by living organisms. Using this approach, an anionic polypeptide additive was used to induce an amorphous liquid-phase precursor to either calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate. This precursor was then templated on either organic or inorganic substrates. Non-equilibrium morphologies, such as two-dimensional calcium carbonate films, one-dimensional calcium carbonate mesostructures and "molten" calcium phosphate spherulites were produced, which are not typical of the traditional (additive-free) solution grown crystals in the laboratory. In the study of calcium carbonate, the amorphous calcium carbonate mineral formed via the liquid-phase precursor, either underwent a dissolution-recrystallization event or a pseudo-solid-state transformation to produce different morphologies and polymorphs of the mineral. Discrete or aggregate calcite crystals were formed via the dissolution of the amorphous phase to allow the reprecipitation of the stable crystal. Non-equilibrium morphologies, e.g., films, mesotubules and mesowires were templated using organic and inorganic substrates and compartments. These structures were generated via an amorphous solid to crystalline solid transformation. Single crystalline tablets and mesowires of aragonite, which are reported to be found only in nature as skeletal structures of marine organisms, such as mollusk nacre and echinoderm teeth, were successfully synthesized. These biomimetic structures were grown via the polymer-induced liquid-phase precursor route in the presence of magnesium. Only low magnesium-bearing calcite was formed in the absence of the polymer. A similar approach of using a polymeric additive was

  11. Autocatalytic growth of Co on pure Co surfaces using Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; Ibarra, M.R. [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); De Teresa, J.M., E-mail: deteresa@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the autocatalytic growth of Co using Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On Si wafers and Co grown by FEBID, no role is played by autocatalytic growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On Co films grown by sputtering, Co grows autocatalytically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implications of the results on Co by FEBID are discussed. - Abstract: The autocatalytic growth of Co on different surfaces using the Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} precursor is investigated. It is observed that Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} molecules dissociate spontaneously on pure Co surfaces grown by sputtering, forming a pure Co film. The microstructure of this film consists of Co nanocrystals with size below 100 nm. However, when the same type of experiment is done on a Co surface grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition there is no autocatalytic growth of Co. On other surfaces such as Si substrates and Al films grown by sputtering, the spontaneous dissociation of the Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} molecules does not occur. The origin and implications of these results are discussed.

  12. PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as gate dielectric for ZnO based thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, M.D. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Quevedo-López, M.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Ramírez-Bon, R., E-mail: rrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we report a low temperature sol–gel deposition process of PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films, with variable dielectric properties depending on the composition of the precursor solution, for applications to gate dielectric layers in field-effect thin film transistors (FE-TFT). The hybrid layers were processed by a modified sol–gel route using as precursors Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and Methyl methacrylate (MMA), and 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) as the coupling agent. Three types of hybrid films were processed with molar ratios of the precursors in the initial solution 1.0: 0.25, 0.50, 0.75: 1.0 for TEOS: TMSPM: MMA, respectively. The hybrid films were deposited by spin coating of the hybrid precursor solutions onto p-type Si (100) substrates and heat-treated at 90 °C for 24 h. The chemical bonding in the hybrid films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to confirm their hybrid nature. The refractive index of the hybrid films as a function of the TMSPM coupling agent concentration, were determined from a simultaneous analysis of optical reflectance and spectroscopic ellipsometry experimental data. The PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films were studied as dielectric films using metal-insulator-metal structures. Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) and current–voltage (I–V) electrical methods were used to extract the dielectric properties of the different hybrid layers. The three types of hybrid films were tested as gate dielectric layers in thin film transistors with structure ZnO/PMMA–SiO{sub 2}/p-Si with a common bottom gate and patterned Al source/drain contacts, with different channel lengths. We analyzed the output electrical responses of the ZnO-based TFTs to determine their performance parameters as a function of channel length and hybrid gate dielectric layer. - Highlights: • PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as dielectric material synthesized by sol–gel process at low temperature. • PMMA–SiO{sub 2

  13. Influence of deposition parameters on the structural and optical properties of CdS thin films obtained by micro-controlled SILAR deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Gowrish; Ashith, V. K.

    2015-02-01

    Polycrystalline CdS films were obtained by a micro-controlled SILAR deposition technique, using aqueous solutions of cadmium acetate and thiourea as precursors. The structural and optical properties of the films were found to be influenced by various deposition parameters such as number of immersion cycles, concentration of the precursors and temperature of the solutions. Contrary to the observations made by some researchers, we found that the thickness of the films increased continuously with number of immersion cycles and also with concentration of the precursor solutions. We also found that the films covered the substrates uniformly, without any voids, unlike the films obtained by others. Effect of deposition parameters on thickness, substrate coverage, grain size, chemical composition, optical band gap and other properties of the films is discussed in detail.

  14. Film Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of easy-to-use digital technology, schools are responding to the interests of their media-savvy students by offering more courses in filmmaking. In this article, the author features different films produced by students. Among other things, she discusses the students' growing interest in filmmaking.

  15. High quality plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotler, T.J.; Chapple-Sokol, J. (IBM General Technology Division, Hopewell Junction, NY (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The qualities of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) silicon nitride films can be improved by increasing the deposition temperature. This report compares PECVD silicon nitride films to low pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD) films. The dependence of the film properties on process parameters, specifically power and temperature, are investigated. The stress is shown to shift from tensile to compressive with increasing temperature and power. The deposition rate, uniformity, wet etch rate, index of refraction, composition, stress, hydrogen content, and conformality are considered to evaluate the film properties. Temperature affects the hydrogen content in the films by causing decreased incorporation of N-H containing species whereas the dependence on power is due to changes in the gas-phase precursors. All PECVD film properties, with the exception of conformality, are comparable to those of LPCVD films.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin Jinhong [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78750 (United States); Waheed, Abdul [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Winkenwerder, Wyatt A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kim, Hyun-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Agapiou, Kyriacos [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Jones, Richard A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hwang, Gyeong S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)]. E-mail: ekerdt@che.utexas.edu

    2007-05-07

    Chemical vapor deposition growth of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus films on SiO{sub 2} containing {approx} 15% phosphorus is reported. cis-Ruthenium(II)dihydridotetrakis-(trimethylphosphine), cis-RuH{sub 2}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 4} (Me = CH{sub 3}) was used at growth temperatures ranging from 525 to 575 K. Both Ru and P are zero-valent. The films are metastable, becoming increasingly more polycrystalline upon annealing to 775 and 975 K. Surface studies illustrate that demethylation is quite efficient near 560 K. Precursor adsorption at 135 K or 210 K and heating reveal the precursor undergoes a complex decomposition process in which the hydride and trimethylphosphine ligands are lost at temperatures as low at 280 K. Phosphorus and its manner of incorporation appear responsible for the amorphous-like character. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented to suggest the local structure in the films and the causes for phosphorus stabilizing the amorphous phase.

  17. Method for fabrication of ceramic dielectric films on copper foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Beihai; Narayanan, Manoj; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2017-06-14

    The present invention provides copper substrate coated with a lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanium (PLZT) ceramic film, which is prepared by a method comprising applying a layer of a sol-gel composition onto a copper foil. The sol-gel composition comprises a precursor of a ceramic material suspended in 2-methoxyethanol. The layer of sol-gel is then dried at a temperature up to about 250.degree. C. The dried layer is then pyrolyzed at a temperature in the range of about 300 to about 450.degree. C. to form a ceramic film from the ceramic precursor. The ceramic film is then crystallized at a temperature in the range of about 600 to about 750.degree. C. The drying, pyrolyzing and crystallizing are performed under a flowing stream of an inert gas.

  18. Platinum-Iridium Alloy Films Prepared by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan; CHEN Li; CAI Hongzhong; ZHENG Xu; YANG Xiya; HU Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-Iridium alloy films were prepared by MOCVD on Mo substrate using metal-acetylacetonate precursors.Effects of deposition conditions on composition,microstructure and mechanical properties were determined.In these experimental conditions,the purities of films are high and more than 99.0%.The films are homogeneous and monophase solid solution of Pt and Ir.Weight percentage of platinum are much higher than iridium in the alloy.Lattice constant of the alloy changes with the platinum composition.Iridium composition showing an up-down-up trend at the precursor temperature of 190~230℃ and the deposition temperature at 400~550℃.The hardness of Pt-Ir alloys prepared by MOCVD is three times more than the alloys prepared by casting.

  19. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  20. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  1. Naphthalene and its precursors in Iomex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, S.D.; Sharma, B.K. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    1995-05-01

    Iomex, an aromatic rich concentrate from kerosene feedstock is a potential source for production of naphthalene which has a variety of industrial applications. Four analytical procedures were standardized for compositional study of iomex according to chemical class. Hydrocarbon group type separation (saturates, mono- and diaromatics) and quantitation was reported using column chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Data generated by these techniques are in good agreement with each other. A diaromatic fraction containing naphthalene and its precursors was studied in detail by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Capillary GC could resolve each and every component of the diaromatic fraction, whereas quantitation and characterization of 27 components were obtained by mass spectrometry. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The intramolecular click reaction using 'carbocontiguous' precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pravin C; Luzzio, Frederick A

    2017-07-20

    The synthesis and utilization of all carbon-chain 'carbocontiguous' azidoalkynyl precursors for an intramolecular click reaction is described. The substrates contain both azidoalkyl and ethynylmethyl groups which are conjoined by a 2-(phenylsulfonylmethyl)-4,5-diphenyloxazole lynchpin and are suitably disposed for ring closure. On promotion by copper salts, a number of cyclic click products having the 1,4-disubstituted endo-fused triazole component and the 4,5-diphenyloxazole component are obtained. In one case, removal of the phenylsulfonylmethyl group from the substrate prior to cyclization gave the 1,5-disubstituted exo-fused triazole. The utilization of CuSO4/sodium ascorbate system appears to be the optimal conditions for closure/cyclization and afforded the cyclized products in yields of 84-95%.

  3. Nanomechanics controls neuronal precursors adhesion and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Elisa; Ban, Jelena; Grenci, Gianluca; Andolfi, Laura; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Torre, Vincent; Lazzarino, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The ability to control the differentiation of stem cells into specific neuronal types has a tremendous potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro neuronal differentiation can be guided by the interplay of biochemical and biophysical cues. Different strategies to increase the differentiation yield have been proposed, focusing everything on substrate topography, or, alternatively on substrate stiffness. Both strategies demonstrated an improvement of the cellular response. However it was often impossible to separate the topographical and the mechanical contributions. Here we investigate the role of the mechanical properties of nanostructured substrates, aiming at understanding the ultimate parameters which govern the stem cell differentiation. To this purpose a set of different substrates with controlled stiffness and with or without nanopatterning are used for stem cell differentiation. Our results show that the neuronal differentiation yield depends mainly on the substrate mechanical properties while the geometry plays a minor role. In particular nanostructured and flat polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with comparable stiffness show the same neuronal yield. The improvement in the differentiation yield obtained through surface nanopatterning in the submicrometer scale could be explained as a consequence of a substrate softening effect. Finally we investigate by single cell force spectroscopy the neuronal precursor adhesion on the substrate immediately after seeding, as a possible critical step governing the neuronal differentiation efficiency. We observed that neuronal precursor adhesion depends on substrate stiffness but not on surface structure, and in particular it is higher on softer substrates. Our results suggest that cell-substrate adhesion forces and mechanical response are the key parameters to be considered for substrate design in neuronal regenerative medicine.

  4. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell under study.

  5. The crustal micro-deformation anomaly and the credible precursor*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁滨; 蒋骏; 钱家栋; 陈京; 和升棋; 张燕; 和平

    2002-01-01

    @@ What is a credible seismic precursor in observation of deformation A real seismic precursor ought to be resulted from the variations in the earth strain and stress. The deformation observation can provide the information during earthquake gestation and occurrence period for us. Usually the seismic precursors can be divided into field and epicentral region precursors. The precursor information is very useful for seismic prediction from epicentral region or near epicentral region. Micro-deformation observation mainly includes tilt, strain and gravity observation. Compared with GPS, geodesy and mobile deformation observation, micro-deformation (tilt, strain) shows the change of deformation which is continual in a limited volume with dominant observed range of 10(6~10(10 m. Because the variation of the crustal nature and cracking can be directly obtained by micro-deformation observation, it is an effective way to find middle-short term and short-term precursor.

  6. Lessons learned on probabilistic methodology for precursor analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babst, Siegfried [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Wielenberg, Andreas; Gaenssmantel, Gerhard [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Based on its experience in precursor assessment of operating experience from German NPP and related international activities in the field, GRS has identified areas for enhancing probabilistic methodology. These are related to improving the completeness of PSA models, to insufficiencies in probabilistic assessment approaches, and to enhancements of precursor assessment methods. Three examples from the recent practice in precursor assessments illustrating relevant methodological insights are provided and discussed in more detail. Our experience reinforces the importance of having full scope, current PSA models up to Level 2 PSA and including hazard scenarios for precursor analysis. Our lessons learned include that PSA models should be regularly updated regarding CCF data and inclusion of newly discovered CCF mechanisms or groups. Moreover, precursor classification schemes should be extended to degradations and unavailabilities of the containment function. Finally, PSA and precursor assessments should put more emphasis on the consideration of passive provisions for safety, e. g. by sensitivity cases.

  7. Morphological Influence of Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films on Electrical Characteristics of Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonju Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the morphological influence of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO semiconductor films on the electrical characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs. Different film morphologies were produced by controlling the spin-coating condition of a precursor solution, and the ZnO films were analyzed using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and Hall measurement. It is shown that ZnO TFTs have a superior performance in terms of the threshold voltage and field-effect mobility, when ZnO crystallites are more densely packed in the film. This is attributed to lower electrical resistivity and higher Hall mobility in a densely packed ZnO film. In the results of consecutive TFT operations, a positive shift in the threshold voltage occurred irrespective of the film morphology, but the morphological influence on the variation in the field-effect mobility was evident. The field-effect mobility in TFTs having a densely packed ZnO film increased continuously during consecutive TFT operations, which is in contrast to the mobility decrease observed in the less packed case. An analysis of the field-effect conductivities ascribes these results to the difference in energetic traps, which originate from structural defects in the ZnO films. Consequently, the morphological influence of solution-processed ZnO films on the TFT performance can be understood through the packing property of ZnO crystallites.

  8. Oriented growth of thin films of samarium oxide by MOCVD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Shalini; S A Shivashankar

    2005-02-01

    Thin films of Sm2O3 have been grown on Si(100) and fused quartz by low-pressure chemical vapour deposition using an adducted -diketonate precursor. The films on quartz are cubic, with no preferred orientation at lower growth temperatures (∼ 550°C), while they grow with a strong (111) orientation as the temperature is raised (to 625°C). On Si(100), highly oriented films of cubic Sm2O3 at 625°C, and a mixture of monoclinic and cubic polymorphs of Sm2O3 at higher temperatures, are formed. Films grown on either substrate are very smooth and fine-grained. Infrared spectroscopic study reveals that films grown above 600°C are free of carbon.

  9. Electrodeposition of chalcopyrite films from ionic liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivagan, D.D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BATH BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.shivagan@bath.ac.uk; Dale, P.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BATH BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Samantilleke, A.P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BATH BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Peter, L.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BATH BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.m.peter@bath.ac.uk

    2007-05-31

    An air and water stable room-temperature ionic liquid based on choline chloride/urea eutectic mixture has been investigated as a system for the electrodeposition of CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films for photovoltaic applications. Deposition potentials and bath compositions were optimized to obtain Cu-In, Cu-In-Se and Cu-In-Ga-Se precursor films, which were selenized in a tube furnace at 500 deg. C for 30 min to form CIS and CI(G)S films. Photo-electrochemical measurements on these selenized films showed p-type photoconductivity with band gaps of 1.0 eV and 1.09 eV, respectively, for CIS and CIGS. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photocurrent spectroscopy and electrolyte electro-reflectance spectroscopy (EER)

  10. DSC Study on the Polyacrylonitrile Precursors for Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangxi ZHANG; Musen LI

    2005-01-01

    Different polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers that displayed various thermal properties were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results showed that some commercial PAN precursor fibers displayed double separated peaks and these fibers were of high quality because of their process stability during their conversion to carbon fibers of high performance. Some fabrication processes, such as spinning, drawing, could not apparently change the DSC features of a PAN precursor fiber. It was concluded that the thermal properties of a PAN precursor fiber was mainly determined from its comonomer content type and compositions.

  11. Thermal chemistry of copper acetamidinate atomic layer deposition precursors on silicon oxide surfaces studied by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yunxi; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The thermal surface chemistry of copper(I)-N,N′-di-sec-butylacetamidinate, [Cu({sup s}Bu-amd)]{sub 2}, a metalorganic complex recently proposed for the chemical-based deposition of copper films, has been characterized on SiO{sub 2} films under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Initial adsorption at cryogenic temperatures results in the oxidation of the copper centers with Cu 2p{sub 3/2} XPS binding energies close to those seen for a +2 oxidation state, an observation that the authors interpret as the result of the additional coordination of oxygen atoms from the surface to the Cu atoms of the molecular acetamidinate dimer. Either heating to 300 K or dosing the precursor directly at that temperature leads to the loss of one of its two ligands, presumably via hydrogenation/protonation with a hydrogen/proton from a silanol group, or following a similar reaction on a defect site. By approximately 500 K the Cu 2p{sub 3/2}, C 1s, and N 1s XPS data suggest that the remaining acetamidinate ligand is displaced from the copper center and bonds to the silicon oxide directly, after which temperatures above 900 K need to be reached to promote further (and only partial) decomposition of those organic moieties. It was also shown that the uptake of the Cu precursor is self-limiting at either 300 or 500 K, although the initial chemistry is somewhat different at the two temperatures, and that the nature of the substrate also defines reactivity, with the thin native silicon oxide layer always present on Si(100) surfaces being less reactive than thicker films grown by evaporation, presumably because of the lower density of surface nucleation sites.

  12. Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Polyimide-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanofoamed Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-He; Yu, Li; Zhao, Li-Hang; Tong, Wang-Shu; Huang, Hai-Tao; Ke, Shan-Ming; Chan, H. L. W.

    2012-08-01

    Polyimide nanofoamed films have been prepared by incorporating poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) into poly(amide acid) (PAA) precursors with subsequent imidization of PAA precursors at high temperature. The porous structure, thermal decomposition temperature, and dielectric property of nanofoamed films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and impedance spectroscopy. Nanopores with sizes around 40 nm to 200 nm were formed in nanofoamed films by pyrolysis of PEO during the imidization progress. The decomposition temperature of nanofoamed films decreased slightly with increasing volume fraction of nanopores and maintained the high decomposition temperature of 499.7 °C when the volume fraction of nanopores was 10.9 %. The dielectric constant of nanofoamed films decreased from 3.4 for pure PI to 2.4 at 103 Hz through the introduction of nanopores with volume fraction of 10.9 %.

  13. Carbonaceous alumina films deposited by MOCVD from aluminium acetylacetonate: a spectroscopic ellipsometry study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P Singh; G Raghavan; A K Tyagi; S A Shivashankar

    2002-04-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to characterize carbonaceous, crystalline aluminium oxide films grown on Si(100) by low-pressure metal organic chemical vapour deposition, using aluminium acetylacetonate as the precursor. The presence of carbon in the films, attribured to the use of a metalorganic precursor for the deposition of films, was identified and analysed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron sectroscopy, for the elemental distribution and the chemical nature of the carbon in the films, respectively. Ellipsometry measurments over the photon energy range 1.5-5 eV were used to derive the pseudo-dielectric function of the aluminium oxide-containing films. Multi-layer modelling using linear regression techniques and the effective medium approximation were carried out to extract the structural details of the specimens. The excellent fit between the simulated and experimental optical data validates the empirical model for alumina-containing coatings grown by MOCVD.

  14. Optimum Nanoporous TiO2 Film and Its Application to Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴松元; 王孔嘉

    2003-01-01

    Properties of TiO2 nanoporous films, which are one of the crucial technologies in dye-sensitized solar cell, are investigated. The nanocrystalline TiO2 films were prepared with the sol-gel method at different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave for their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The thickness of the TiO2 film is very important to the transfer of photoelectron as well as adsorption of dye, it is also known as one of the source to the dark current. The results show that the TiO2 films, such as different particle sizes of TiO2, different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave, have a strong influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized solar cells. We give the optimum TiO2 film thickness and morphology for the application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. Development of an accident sequence precursor methodology and its application to significant accident precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seung Hyun; Park, Sung Hyun; Jae, Moo Sung [Dept. of of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The systematic management of plant risk is crucial for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants and for designing new nuclear power plants. Accident sequence precursor (ASP) analysis may be able to provide risk significance of operational experience by using probabilistic risk assessment to evaluate an operational event quantitatively in terms of its impact on core damage. In this study, an ASP methodology for two operation mode, full power and low power/shutdown operation, has been developed and applied to significant accident precursors that may occur during the operation of nuclear power plants. Two operational events, loss of feedwater and steam generator tube rupture, are identified as ASPs. Therefore, the ASP methodology developed in this study may contribute to identifying plant risk significance as well as to enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants by applying this methodology systematically.

  16. Fabrication Of YSZ Thin Film By Electrochemical Deposition Method And The Effect Of The Pulsed Electrical Fields For Morphology Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, surface morphology control ions in a precursor solution and patterning the YSZ film has been carried out during deposition of thin film from a precursor solution by applying the electrical field for deposition and the pulsed electrical field. The precursor solution was mixed them of ZrO(NO34, Y(NO33-6H2O into deionized water, and then was controlled nearly pH3 by adding NH3(aq. The thin film was deposited on the glass substrate of the minus electrode side by applying the electrical field of 3.0 V for 20 min. In addition, another pulsed voltage was applied to the electrical field along the perdicular direction to the film deposition direction. After annealing samples at 773 K for 6 h in air, the film was crystallized and obtained YSZ film. In the limited condition, the linear patterns of YSZ films due to the frequency of the applied electrical field were observed. It is expected that ions in a precursor solution are controlled by applying the pulsed voltage and the YSZ film is patterned on the substrate.

  17. Structure-processing-property correlations in thin films of conjugated polymer nanocomposites and blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeram, Arvind

    Conjugated polymers have found several applications in recent years, in energy conversion and storage devices such as organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, batteries, and super capacitors. Thin films of polymers used for these applications need to be mechanically and thermally stable to withstand the harsh operating conditions. Although there is significant information on the optoelectronic properties of many of these polymers, there are only few studies on their mechanical properties. There is little information in the literature on how processing of these films influence mechanical properties. In the first part of this study, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) films were prepared by thermolytic conversion of poly[p -phenylene (tetrahydrothiophenium)ethylene chloride] precursor films, at different temperatures and the kinetics of reaction was investigated using thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the films, studied using nanoindentation, showed a dependence on the extent of conversion and chemical composition of the films. The presence of chemical defects (e.g., carbonyl groups, detected using FTIR spectroscopy), was also found to have a noticeable effect on the modulus and hardness of the films. The storage modulus, E', and plasticity decreased with an increase in conversion, whereas the loss modulus, E", showed the opposite trend. Both the precursor and the fully-converted PPV films were found to have significantly lower E" than E', consistent with the glassy nature of the polymers at room temperature. In the second part of the study, polyacetylene films were synthesized by acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) precursor films. The kinetics of this reaction was monitored by thermogravimetry. The chemical structure of the conjugated polymer films was characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy. Polyacetylene films incorporated with 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid

  18. Eruption precursors: Manifestations and strategies for detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Pritchard, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    The past several decades have seen a rapid increase in volcano monitoring and modeling capabilities. Diverse arrays of instrument networks can detect a variety of pre-, co-, and post-eruptive phenomena, and remote sensing observations are available across a range of spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. A growing class of models, based on the physics of magmatic systems, are making use of these expanding datastreams, providing probabilistic assessments of such parameters as magma supply, volatile content, and eruption duration. To what extent, however, do these developments heighten our ability to identify eruption precursors? The advent of better data and new models provides an opportunity to reexamine our understanding of pre-eruption unrest, as well as our ability to detect and recognize it as such. An idealized model of the buildup to a volcanic eruption might include magma ascent from a deep source region and accumulation in the mid- to upper crust in the preceding months to years. The process might be manifested by surface inflation and deep long-period earthquakes, and accompanied by an increase in CO2 emissions. As magma continues to accumulate, distal volcano-tectonic earthquakes may result as stress builds on nearby faults, H2S emissions may increase as sulfur in a shallow reservoir is hydrolyzed by groundwater, and fumarole and spring temperatures may increase and show changes in chemistry. In the days to hours before an eruption, sudden changes in the rate and style of earthquakes (including repeating earthquakes and tremor) and deformation may occur as the magma reservoir ruptures and magma moves laterally or vertically. Phreatic eruptions might result as ascending magma comes into contact with groundwater, and SO2 emissions might increase as the path between the magma and surface dries out. How often does such a sequence actually occur? Relatively few volcanoes are comprehensively monitored prior to obvious expressions of unrest, so this is not

  19. Investigation on vanadium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margoni, Mudaliar Mahesh; Mathuri, S.; Ramamurthi, K., E-mail: krmurthin@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: ramamurthi.k@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur – 603 203, Kancheepuram Dt., Tamil Nadu (India); Babu, R. Ramesh [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Sethuraman, K. [School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625 021, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-06

    Vanadium oxide thin films were deposited at 400 °C by spray pyrolysis technique using 0.1 M aqueous precursor solution of ammonium meta vanadate (AMV) with two different pH values. X-ray diffraction results showed that the film prepared using aqueous precursor AMV solution (solution A; pH 7) is amorphous in nature and the film prepared by adding HNO{sub 3} in the AMV aqua solution A (solution B; pH 3) is polycrystalline in nature. Vanadium oxide film prepared from the precursor solution B is in the mixed phases of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and V{sub 4}O{sub 7}. Crystallinity is improved for the film prepared using solution B when compared to film prepared from solution A. Crystallite size, strain and dislocation density calculated for the film prepared from solution B is respectively 72.1 nm, 0.4554 × 10{sup −3} lin.{sup −2}m{sup −4} and 1.7263 × 10{sup 14} lin.m{sup −2}. Morphology study revealed that the size of the flakes formed on the surface of the films is influenced by the pH of the precursor solution. Average Visible Transmittance and maximum transmittance of the deposited films exceed 70% and the direct optical band gap value calculated for the films deposited from A and B solution is 1.91 eV and 2.08 eV respectively.

  20. Enhanced Performance of PbS-quantum-dot-sensitized Solar Cells via Optimizing Precursor Solution and Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianjun; Shen, Ting; Liu, Xiaoguang; Fei, Chengbin; Lv, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-03-01

    This work reports a PbS-quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4%. PbS quantum dots (QDs) were grown on mesoporous TiO2 film using a successive ion layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The growth of QDs was found to be profoundly affected by the concentration of the precursor solution. At low concentrations, the rate-limiting factor of the crystal growth was the adsorption of the precursor ions, and the surface growth of the crystal became the limiting factor in the high concentration solution. The optimal concentration of precursor solution with respect to the quantity and size of synthesized QDs was 0.06 M. To further increase the performance of QDSCs, the 30% deionized water of polysulfide electrolyte was replaced with methanol to improve the wettability and permeability of electrolytes in the TiO2 film, which accelerated the redox couple diffusion in the electrolyte solution and improved charge transfer at the interfaces between photoanodes and electrolytes. The stability of PbS QDs in the electrolyte was also improved by methanol to reduce the charge recombination and prolong the electron lifetime. As a result, the PCE of QDSC was increased to 4.01%.

  1. Effect of Precursor Microstructure on Retained Austenite and Mechanical Property of Low Carbon Steels with IQ&P Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Lian-sheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, retained austenite and mechanical property of low-carbon steels with different precursor microstructures were studied by means of intercritical reheating-quenching and partitioning (IQ&P processes. The results show that the structure of IQ&P-Ⅰ multiphase steel with precursor ferrite + pearlite (F+P is blocky ferrite, martensite (M. The blocky retained austenite(RA of IQ&P-Ⅰ multiphase steel exists in the boundary of ferrite and martensite and film-like retained austenite distributes around the lath martensite as the shape of thin slice. The transformation induced plastic effect of IQ&P-Ⅰ multiphase steel with less content of retained austenite is unapparent. The tensile strength of IQ&P-Ⅰ multiphase steel reaches 957 MPa, but the tensile elongation is only 20%, and the production of strength and elongation is 19905.6 MPa·%. The structure of IQ&P-Ⅱ multiphase steel with precursor martensite is needle or lath grey-black ferrite and martensite. The fine needle like martensite is distributed evenly on the ferrite matrix. The film-like retained austenite is only distributed on the ferrite matrix. The content of retained austenite of IQ&P-Ⅱ multiphase steel reaches 13.2% with more obvious TRIP effect and higher stability. The production of strength and elongation of IQ&P-Ⅱ multiphase steel is 21560 MPa·% with good combination of strength and plasticity.

  2. Hybrid thin films derived from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane and monodispersed colloidal silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid thin films containing nano-sized inorganic domains were synthesized from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane (WPU-AC and monodispersed colloidal silica with coupling agent. The coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (MSMA, was bonded onto colloidal silica first, and then mixed with WPU-AC to form a precursor solution. This precursor was spin coated, dried and UV-cured to generate the hybrid films. The silica content in the hybrid thin films was varied from 0 to 30 wt%. Experimental results showed the aggregation of silica particles in the hybrid films. Thus, the silica domain in the hybrid films was varied from 30 to 50 nm by the different ratios of MSMAsilica to WPU-AC. The prepared hybrid films from the crosslinked WPU-AC/MSMA-silica showed much better thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure WPU-AC.

  3. Electrochromic behaviour of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films with different morphologies obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, R.; Martin, F.; Leinen, D.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad asociada al CSIC), Dptos Fisica Aplicada I and Ingeniera Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain); Dalchiele, E.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2009-02-15

    Two different procedures to stabilize the precursor NbCl{sub 5} have been applied to obtain Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films by spray pyrolysis. Depending on the procedure used, determined by the way in which the precursor solution was injected into the air stream of the spray nozzle, niobium oxide thin films with different surface morphologies can be obtained. The structural properties of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films depend on the post-annealing temperature because as-deposited films are amorphous, independently of the synthesis procedure used. The electrochromic behaviour has been estimated for all films, where monochromatic colouration efficiency (at 660 nm) of 25.5 cm{sup 2}/C and a cathodic charge density close to 24 mC/cm{sup 2} were found to give the best results to date for niobium oxide thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis. (author)

  4. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} absorber layers obtained through sulphurization of metallic precursors: Graphite box versus sulphur flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, M.G., E-mail: martasousa@ua.pt [I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cunha, A.F. da [I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salomé, P.M.P. [Angstrom Solar Center, Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory PO Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Fernandes, P.A. [I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, J.P.; Leitão, J.P. [I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-05-01

    In this work we employed a hybrid method, combining RF-magnetron sputtering with evaporation, for the deposition of tailor made metallic precursors, with varying number of Zn/Sn/Cu (ZTC) periods and compared two approaches to sulphurization. Two series of samples with 1 ×, 2 × and 4 × ZTC periods have been prepared. One series of precursors was sulphurized in a tubular furnace directly exposed to a sulphur vapour and N{sub 2} + 5% H{sub 2} flux at a pressure of 5.0 × 10{sup +4} Pa. A second series of identical precursors was sulphurized in the same furnace but inside a graphite box where sulphur pellets have been evaporated again in the presence of N{sub 2} + 5% H{sub 2} and at the same pressure as for the sulphur flux experiments. The morphological and chemical analyses revealed a small grain structure but good average composition for all three films sulphurized in the graphite box. As for the three films sulphurized in sulphur flux grain growth was seen with the increase of the number of ZTC periods whilst, in terms of composition, they were slightly Zn poor. The films' crystal structure showed that Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is the dominant phase. However, in the case of the sulphur flux films SnS{sub 2} was also detected. Photoluminescence spectroscopy studies showed an asymmetric broad band emission which occurs in the range of 1–1.5 eV. Clearly the radiative recombination efficiency is higher in the series of samples sulphurized in sulphur flux. We have found that sulphurization in sulphur flux leads to better film morphology than when the process is carried out in a graphite box in similar thermodynamic conditions. Solar cells have been prepared and characterized showing a correlation between improved film morphology and cell performance. The best cells achieved an efficiency of 2.4%. - Highlights: ► Precursors deposited by a hybrid method with n × zinc tin copper (ZTC) periods ► Achieved good reproducibility in the deposition of metallic

  5. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonash, S.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  6. Dual-Source Precursor Approach for Highly Efficient Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Deying; Zhao, Lichen; Wu, Jiang; Hu, Qin; Zhang, Yifei; Xu, Zhaojian; Liu, Yi; Liu, Tanghao; Chen, Ke; Yang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Rui; Gong, Qihuang

    2017-05-01

    The highest efficiencies reported for perovskite solar cells so far have been obtained mainly with methylammonium and formamidinium mixed cations. Currently, high-quality mixed-cation perovskite thin films are normally made by use of antisolvent protocols. However, the widely used "antisolvent"-assisted fabrication route suffers from challenges such as poor device reproducibility, toxic and hazardous organic solvent, and incompatibility with scalable fabrication process. Here, a simple dual-source precursor approach is developed to fabricate high-quality and mirror-like mixed-cation perovskite thin films without involving additional antisolvent process. By integrating the perovskite films into the planar heterojunction solar cells, a power conversion efficiency of 20.15% is achieved with negligible current density-voltage hysteresis. A stabilized power output approaching 20% is obtained at the maximum power point. These results shed light on fabricating highly efficient perovskite solar cells via a simple process, and pave the way for solar cell fabrication via scalable methods in the near future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nitrogen-doped twisted graphene grown on copper by atmospheric pressure CVD from a decane precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Komissarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present Raman studies of graphene films grown on copper foil by atmospheric pressure CVD with n-decane as a precursor, a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen as the carrier gas, under different hydrogen flow rates. A novel approach for the processing of the Raman spectroscopy data was employed. It was found that in particular cases, the various parameters of the Raman spectra can be assigned to fractions of the films with different thicknesses. In particular, such quantities as the full width at half maximum of the 2D peak and the position of the 2D graphene band were successfully applied for the elaborated approach. Both the G- and 2D-band positions of single layer fractions were blue-shifted, which could be associated with the nitrogen doping of studied films. The XPS study revealed the characteristics of incorporated nitrogen, which was found to have a binding energy around 402 eV. Moreover, based on the statistical analysis of spectral parameters and the observation of a G-resonance, the twisted nature of the double-layer fraction of graphene grown with a lower hydrogen feeding rate was demonstrated. The impact of the varied hydrogen flow rate on the structural properties of graphene and the nitrogen concentration is also discussed.

  8. Crystalline Indium Sulphide thin film by photo accelerated deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, A. C.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    Indium sulfide thin films deserve special attention because of its potential application as buffer layers in CIGS based solar cells. Highly transparent indium sulfide (InS) thin films were prepared using a novel method called photo accelerated chemical deposition (PCD). Ultraviolet source of 150 W was used to irradiate the solution. Compared to all other chemical methods, PCD scores its advantage for its low cost, flexible substrate and capable of large area of deposition. Reports on deposition of high quality InS thin films at room temperature are very rare in literature. The precursor solution was initially heated to 90°C for ten minutes and then deposition was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The appearance of the film changed from lemon yellow to bright yellow as the deposition time increased. The sample was characterized for its structural and optical properties. XRD profile showed the polycrystalline behavior of the film with mixed phases having crystallite size of 17 nm. The surface morphology of the films exhibited uniformly distributed honey comb like structures. The film appeared to be smooth and the value of extinction coefficient was negligible. Optical measurements showed that the film has more than 80% transmission in the visible region. The direct band gap energy was 2.47eV. This method is highly suitable for the synthesis of crystalline and transparent indium sulfide thin films and can be used for various photo voltaic applications.

  9. Pair Fireball Precursors of Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    If at least one neutron star (NS) is magnetized in a binary NS merger, then the orbital motion of the conducting companion through its dipole field during the final inspiral induces a strong voltage and current along the magnetic field lines connecting the two objects. If a modest fraction eta of the electromagnetic power extracted during the inspiral is used to accelerate relativistic particles, the resulting gamma-ray emission in such a compact volume will result in the formation of a thermal electron-positron pair fireball. Applying the steady-state pair wind model of Paczynski (1986), we quantify the luminosities and temperatures of the precursor fireball and its detectability with gamma-ray satellites. Under the assumption that eta ~ 1, the gamma-ray detection horizon of Dmax ~ 20(Bd/1e14 G) is much closer than the Advanced LIGO/Virgo horizon of 200 Mpc, unless the surface magnetic field of the NS is very strong, Bd > 1e15 G. Given the quasi-isotropic nature of the emission, a sub-population of mergers w...

  10. Kaolin Geopolymer as Precursor to Ceramic Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Nur Ain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced the potential application of kaolin geopolymer as ceramic precursor. This is one of the alternatives to produce high strength ceramic at a slightly lower temperature. Upon sintering the conversion of geopolymer to ceramic occur. The kaolin used were characterized using XRF and has plate-like structure upon investigating through microstructural analysis. Geopolymer mixture is produced using 12 M NaOH molarity with the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.24. The sintering temperature used were ranging from 900 °C to 1200 °C. The flexural strength showed the highest value of 88.47 MPa when sintered at 1200 °C. The combination of geopolymerization and sintering has attributed to the strength increment as temperature increased. The density is observed to increase with increasing sintering temperature due to the appearance of the close pores in the structure. Sintering of the geopolymer resulted in the formation of liquid phase, which enables the joining of particles to produce dense microstructure.

  11. Pair fireball precursors of neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Zivancev, Charles

    2016-10-01

    If at least one neutron star (NS) is magnetized in a binary NS merger, then the orbital motion of the conducting companion during the final inspiral induces a strong voltage and current along the magnetic field lines connecting the NSs. If a modest fraction η of the extracted electromagnetic power extracted accelerates relativistic particles, the resulting gamma-ray emission a compact volume will result in the formation of an electron-positron pair fireball. Applying a steady-state pair wind model, we quantify the detectability of the precursor fireball with gamma-ray satellites. For η ˜ 1 the gamma-ray detection horizon of Dmax ≈ 10(Bd/1014 G)3/4 Mpc is much closer than the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo horizon of 200 Mpc, unless the NS surface magnetic field strength is very large, B_d ≲ 10^{15} G. Given the quasi-isotropic nature of the emission, mergers with weaker NS fields could contribute a nearby population of short gamma-ray bursts. Power not dissipated close to the binary is carried to infinity along the open field lines by a large-scale Poynting flux. Reconnection within this outflow, well outside of the pair photosphere, provides a potential site for non-thermal emission, such as a coherent millisecond radio burst.

  12. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  13. Formation of biomolecule precursors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geppert, W D [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, Roslagstullbacken 21, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Vigren, E [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, Roslagstullbacken 21, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Hamberg, M [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, Roslagstullbacken 21, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhaunerchyk, V [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, Roslagstullbacken 21, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Thomas, R D [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, Roslagstullbacken 21, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Kaminska, M [Institute of Physics, Swieetokrzyska Academy, ul. Swieokrzyska 15, PL-25406, Kielce (Poland); Millar, T J [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Semaniak, J [Institute of Physics, Swieetokrzyska Academy, ul. Swieokrzyska 15, PL-25406, Kielce (Poland); Roberts, H [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hellberg, F [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, Roslagstullbacken 21, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Oesterdahl, F [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova, Roslagstullbacken 21, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Ehlerding, A [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, Roslagstullbacken 21, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, M [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, Roslagstullbacken 21, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    Alcohols and nitriles not only play an important role as templates for synthesis of larger molecules in the interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres, but they can also be regarded as precursors for biomolecules. Alcohols can form carbohydrates through reaction with HCO and nitriles can be hydrolysed to amino acids in aqueous solutions, which is the final step of the well-known Strecker synthesis. Therefore the question of the pathways of formation of alcohols and nitriles and the efficiency and the product distribution of their subsequent degradation reactions in the above-mentioned astrophysical environments is of great interest. In both processes dissociative recombination reactions of protonated nitriles and alcohols may play a major role and are included in models of interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres. However, the reaction rate coefficients and product branching ratios for the majority of these processes are so far still unknown, which adversely affects the quality of predictions of model calculations. In this Contribution, we therefore present branching ratios and rate constants of the dissociative recombination of protonated methanol (CH{sub 3}OH{sub 2}), as well as protonated acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CNH{sup +}), acrylonitrile (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}CNH{sup +}) and cyanoacetylene (HC{sup 3}NH{sup +}). The impact of the obtained new data on model calculations of abundances of important interstellar molecules in dark clouds is discussed.

  14. Biodegradable mesoporous delivery system for biomineralization precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-ye; Niu, Li-na; Sun, Jin-long; Huang, Xue-qing; Pei, Dan-dan; Huang, Cui; Tay, Franklin R

    2017-01-01

    Scaffold supplements such as nanoparticles, components of the extracellular matrix, or growth factors have been incorporated in conventional scaffold materials to produce smart scaffolds for tissue engineering of damaged hard tissues. Due to increasing concerns on the clinical side effects of using large doses of recombinant bone-morphogenetic protein-2 in bone surgery, it is desirable to develop an alternative nanoscale scaffold supplement that is not only osteoinductive, but is also multifunctional in that it can perform other significant bone regenerative roles apart from stimulation of osteogenic differentiation. Because both amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and silica are osteoinductive, a biodegradable, nonfunctionalized, expanded-pore mesoporous silica nanoparticle carrier was developed for loading, storage, and sustained release of a novel, biosilicification-inspired, polyamine-stabilized liquid precursor phase of ACP for collagen biomineralization and for release of orthosilicic acid, both of which are conducive to bone growth. Positively charged poly(allylamine)-stabilized ACP (PAH-ACP) could be effectively loaded and released from nonfunctionalized expanded-pore mesoporous silica nanoparticles (pMSN). The PAH-ACP released from loaded pMSN still retained its ability to infiltrate and mineralize collagen fibrils. Complete degradation of pMSN occurred following unloading of their PAH-ACP cargo. Because PAH-ACP loaded pMSN possesses relatively low cytotoxicity to human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, these nanoparticles may be blended with any osteoconductive scaffold with macro- and microporosities as a versatile scaffold supplement to enhance bone regeneration. PMID:28182119

  15. Bone formation on synthetic precursors of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, O; Nakamura, M; Miyasaka, Y; Kagayama, M; Sakurai, M

    1991-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of skeletal tissue to various synthetic calcium phosphate (Ca-P) compounds in vivo. Five synthetic Ca-P compounds were implanted into the subperiosteal area of the calvaria of 7-week-old BALB/c mice for one to 15 weeks. Synthetic compounds were dicalcium phosphate (DCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatile (HA). Implanted DCP, OCP and ACP were found to be converted to apatitic phase by x-ray microdiffraction analysis using undecalcified specimens. Structure of bone was found out on all of Ca-P compounds eventually at late stage under the light microscope, but the rate of bone formation calculated from a number of experiments varied on respective synthetic Ca-P compound. It was high as 80% for DCP, OCP and ACP, but was low as 5.6% for Ca-deficient HA, and no reaction was found for HA at the stage of 3 weeks. Fine filaments and granular materials in the newly formed bone matrix were detected at 7 days around the remnants of OCP particles which already converted to apatitic phase by ultrastructural study of decalcified specimens. These structures were very similar to the components of bone nodules seen in intramembranous osteogenesis. It is postulated that the precursors of HA have an important role in intramembranous osteogenesis.

  16. Robotic Precursor Missions for Mars Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Pirjanian, Paolo; Schenker, Paul S.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Das, Hari; Joshi, Sajay

    2000-07-01

    Infrastructure support for robotic colonies, manned Mars habitat, and/or robotic exploration of planetary surfaces will need to rely on the field deployment of multiple robust robots. This support includes such tasks as the deployment and servicing of power systems and ISRU generators, construction of beaconed roadways, and the site preparation and deployment of manned habitat modules. The current level of autonomy of planetary rovers such as Sojourner will need to be greatly enhanced for these types of operations. In addition, single robotic platforms will not be capable of complicated construction scenarios. Precursor robotic missions to Mars that involve teams of multiple cooperating robots to accomplish some of these tasks is a cost effective solution to the possible long timeline necessary for the deployment of a manned habitat. Ongoing work at JPL under the Mars Outpost Program in the area of robot colonies is investigating many of the technology developments necessary for such an ambitious undertaking. Some of the issues that are being addressed include behavior-based control systems for multiple cooperating robots (CAMPOUT), development of autonomous robotic systems for the rescue/repair of trapped or disabled robots, and the design and development of robotic platforms for construction tasks such as material transport and surface clearing.

  17. Formation of biomolecule precursors in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, W. D.; Vigren, E.; Hamberg, M.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Thomas, R. D.; Kamińska, M.; Millar, T. J.; Semaniak, J.; Roberts, H.; Hellberg, F.; Österdahl, F.; Ehlerding, A.; Larsson, M.

    2007-11-01

    Alcohols and nitriles not only play an important role as templates for synthesis of larger molecules in the interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres, but they can also be regarded as precursors for biomolecules. Alcohols can form carbohydrates through reaction with HCO and nitriles can be hydrolysed to amino acids in aqueous solutions, which is the final step of the well-known Strecker synthesis. Therefore the question of the pathways of formation of alcohols and nitriles and the efficiency and the product distribution of their subsequent degradation reactions in the above-mentioned astrophysical environments is of great interest. In both processes dissociative recombination reactions of protonated nitriles and alcohols may play a major role and are included in models of interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres. However, the reaction rate coefficients and product branching ratios for the majority of these processes are so far still unknown, which adversely affects the quality of predictions of model calculations. In this Contribution, we therefore present branching ratios and rate constants of the dissociative recombination of protonated methanol (CH3OH2), as well as protonated acetonitrile (CH3CNH+), acrylonitrile (C2H3CNH+) and cyanoacetylene (HC3NH+). The impact of the obtained new data on model calculations of abundances of important interstellar molecules in dark clouds is discussed.

  18. Precursors to suicidality and violence on antidepressants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Harms related to suici......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Harms related...... to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. SETTING: Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. PARTICIPANTS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers...... that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. RESULTS: A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any...

  19. Bacterial Cellular Materials as Precursors of Chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Chow, A. T.; Wong, P.

    2011-12-01

    The environmental sources of chloroform and other halocarbons have been intensively investigated because their effects of stratospheric ozone destruction and environmental toxicity. It has been demonstrated that microorganisms could facilitate the biotic generation of chloroform from natural organic matters in soil, but whether the cellular materials itself also serves as an important precursor due to photo-disinfection is poorly known. Herein, seven common pure bacterial cultures (Acinetobacter junii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus sciuri) were chlorinated to evaluate the yields of chloroform, dibromochloromethane, dichlorobromomethane, and bromoform. The effects of bromide on these chemical productions and speciations were also investigated. Results showed that, on average, 5.64-36.42 μg-chloroform /mg-C were generated during the bacterial chlorination, in similar order of magnitude to that generated by humic acid (previously reported as 78 μg-chloroform/mg-C). However, unlike humic acid in water chlorination, chloroform concentration did not simply increase with the total organic carbon in water mixture. In the presence of bromide, the yield of brominated species responded linearly to the bromide concentration. This study provides useful information to understand the contributions of chloroform from photodisinfection processes in coastal environments.

  20. Comparison studies of ozone precursors in Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, C.; Guyton, J.; Lee, C.P. [Arizona Dept. of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Parmar, S. [Atmospheric Analysis and Consulting Co., Ventura, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper will present the comparison of the ozone precursors monitoring program for Phoenix, Arizona during 1992 and 1993. Specific details and methodologies will be presented involving collection of air samples and analysis of speciated measurements for reactive VOC and carbonyl precursors responsible for ozone formation. Quality control and quality assurance techniques will also be discussed.

  1. The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron reson

  2. The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron

  3. Classifying the tropospheric precursor patterns of sudden stratospheric warmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ming; Tan, Xin; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Ceppi, Paulo

    2017-08-01

    Classifying the tropospheric precursor patterns of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) may provide insight into the different physical mechanisms of SSWs. Based on 37 major SSWs during the 1958-2014 winters in the ERA reanalysis data sets, the self-organizing maps method is used to classify the tropospheric precursor patterns of SSWs. The cluster analysis indicates that one of the precursor patterns appears as a mixed pattern consisting of the negative-signed Western Hemisphere circulation pattern and the positive phase of the Pacific-North America pattern. The mixed pattern exhibits higher statistical significance as a precursor pattern of SSWs than other previously identified precursors such as the subpolar North Pacific low, Atlantic blocking, and the western Pacific pattern. Other clusters confirm northern European blocking and Gulf of Alaska blocking as precursors of SSWs. Linear interference with the climatological planetary waves provides a simple interpretation for the precursors. The relationship between the classified precursor patterns of SSWs and ENSO phases as well as the types of SSWs is discussed.

  4. Topographical and Functional Properties of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    A literature search identified 17 articles reporting data on 34 subjects who engaged in precursors to severe problem behavior, which we examined to identify topographical and functional characteristics. Unintelligible vocalization was the most common precursor to aggression (27%) and property destruction (29%), whereas self- or nondirected…

  5. Precursors of Short GRBs Registered by SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, P.; Pozanenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    We have searched for precursors in light curves of short gamma-ray bursts registered by SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL in 2002-2014. The portion of short bursts with precursor activity will be less than 0.4% from all short bursts registered by SPI-ACS.

  6. Effects of rhythmic precursors on perception of stress/syllabicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilp, Christian E.; Kluender, Keith R.

    2005-09-01

    Rhythmic structure is a common property of many environmental sounds including speech. Here, perceptual effects of preceding rhythmic context are assessed in experiments employing edited words for which perceived stress/syllabicity are assessed. A series of edited naturally spoken words varying perceptually from ``polite'' to ``plight,'' was created by deleting initial-vowel glottal pulses from a recording of ``polite.'' Words were identified following nonspeech precursor sequences having either trochaic (strong-weak) or iambic (weak-strong) rhythmic patterns. Precursors consisted of a harmonic spectrum (-6-dB/octave slope) filtered by four sinusoidally modulated single-pole filters. Trochaic (strong-weak) and iambic (weak-strong) rhythmic patterns were created by varying amplitude, pitch, and duration in successive segments (akin to beats) of the precursors. Precursors were comprised of two to six repetitions of these patterns. Following trochaic precursors, listeners were more likely to report hearing ``polite'' (iambic). This pattern of results indicates that perception did not assimilate to precursor pattern, consistent with rhythmic expectancy. Instead, perception shifted in a way that contrasts with precursor temporal pattern. Additional results with precursors that are more and less like speech are being conducted to further understand how auditory perception adjusts for temporal and spectral regularities. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  7. Human embryonic epidermis contains a diverse Langerhans cell precursor pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christopher; Mildner, Michael; Mairhofer, Mario; Bauer, Wolfgang; Fiala, Christian; Prior, Marion; Eppel, Wolfgang; Kolbus, Andrea; Tschachler, Erwin; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2014-02-01

    Despite intense efforts, the exact phenotype of the epidermal Langerhans cell (LC) precursors during human ontogeny has not been determined yet. These elusive precursors are believed to migrate into the embryonic skin and to express primitive surface markers, including CD36, but not typical LC markers such as CD1a, CD1c and CD207. The aim of this study was to further characterize the phenotype of LC precursors in human embryonic epidermis and to compare it with that of LCs in healthy adult skin. We found that epidermal leukocytes in first trimester human skin are negative for CD34 and heterogeneous with regard to the expression of CD1c, CD14 and CD36, thus contrasting the phenotypic uniformity of epidermal LCs in adult skin. These data indicate that LC precursors colonize the developing epidermis in an undifferentiated state, where they acquire the definitive LC marker profile with time. Using a human three-dimensional full-thickness skin model to mimic in vivo LC development, we found that FACS-sorted, CD207(-) cord blood-derived haematopoietic precursor cells resembling foetal LC precursors but not CD14(+)CD16(-) blood monocytes integrate into skin equivalents, and without additional exogenous cytokines give rise to cells that morphologically and phenotypically resemble LCs. Overall, it appears that CD14(-) haematopoietic precursors possess a much higher differentiation potential than CD14(+) precursor cells.

  8. Geometrizing configurations. Heinrich Hertz and his mathematical precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    A comparison between the methods used by Heinrich hertz and his mathematician precursors such as Liouville, Lipschitz and Darboux in order to apply differential geometry in mechanics......A comparison between the methods used by Heinrich hertz and his mathematician precursors such as Liouville, Lipschitz and Darboux in order to apply differential geometry in mechanics...

  9. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  10. Simple asymptotic forms for Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Macke, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    We examine from a physical viewpoint the classical problem of the propagation of a causal optical field in a dense Lorentz-medium when the propagation distance is such that the medium is opaque in a broad spectral region including the frequency of the optical carrier. The transmitted signal is then reduced to the celebrated precursors of Sommerfeld and Brillouin, well separated in time. In these conditions, we obtain explicit analytical expressions of the first (Sommerfeld) precursor, which only depend on the nature and the importance of the initial discontinuity of the incident field, and we show that the second (Brillouin) precursor has a Gaussian or Gaussian-derivative shape, depending whether the time-integral (algebraic area) of the incident field differs or not from zero. We demonstrate that the Brillouin precursor that has been actually observed in a Debye medium at decimetric wavelengths is also Gaussian. We complete these results by establishing a more general expression of the Brillouin precursor in...

  11. Advantageous use of metallic cobalt in the target for pulsed laser deposition of cobalt-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Minju; Blythe, Harry J.; Dizayee, Wala; Heald, Steve M.; Gerriu, Fatma M.; Fox, A. Mark; Gehring, Gillian A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ZnCoO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from targets made containing metallic Co or CoO precursors instead of the usual Co3O4. We find that the films grown from metallic Co precursors in an oxygen rich environment contain negligible amounts of Co metal and have a large magnetization at room temperature. Structural analysis by X-ray diffraction and magneto-optical measurements indicate that the enhanced magnetism is due, in part, from Zn vacancies that partially compensate the naturally occurring n-type defects. We conclude that strongly magnetic films of Zn0.95Co0.05O that do not contain metallic cobalt can be grown by PLD from Co-metal-precursor targets if the films are grown in an oxygen atmosphere.

  12. Fabrication and Magnetic Properties of Highly Oriented ZnO:Eu Films by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A series of Eu-doped ZnO films were prepared by a sol-gel method. Precursor and films were characterized by thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis spectra, as well as the magnetism measurement. The wurtzite structure of obtained films presents an extreme high c-orientation character. The film susceptibility resembles a Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature, and presents an obvious enhancement at low temperature, indicating the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions in the Zn0.9Eu0.1O films.

  13. Growth and microstructure properties of microcrystalline silicon films deposited using jet-ICPCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Zewen; Guan Wentian; Xin Yu; Lü Jin; Wang Junzhuan; Pu Lin; Shi Yi; Zheng Youdou

    2011-01-01

    Microcrystalline silicon films were deposited at a high rate and low temperature using jet-type inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (jet-ICPCVD).An investigation into the deposition rate and microstructure properties of the deposited films showed that a high deposition rate of over 20 nm/s can be achieved while maintaining reasonable material quality.The deposition rate can be controlled by regulating the generation rate and transport of film growth precursors.The film with high crystallinity deposited at low temperature could principally result from hydrogen-induced chemical annealing.

  14. Preparation of self-sustained film by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冰; 朱从善

    1999-01-01

    Large size self-sustained film with considerable thickness ranging from 30 to 500 μm was prepared with sol-gel method by using dimethyldiethoxysilane/tetraethoxysilane composite alkoxide as precursor. The film exhibits good plasticity as well. Various factors that may influence the film properties were investigated. IR and AFM techniques were adopted to study the film structure and surface morphology. Gas chromatogram/mass spectrum technique was also adopted to characterize the network structure of the material through identification of different polymers formed during hydrolysis and condensation course.

  15. Effect of viscosity and temperature on the microstructure of BBT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Gustavo Carneiro da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of BBT were deposited on silicate and Pt/Ti /SiO2 (111 substrates by spin- coating from the polymeric precursor method (Pechini process. The obtained films were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The influence of viscosity on the morphology of BBT thin films as well as the influence of temperature on crystallization, morphology and properties of BBTare discussed. Surface roughness and crystallization of these films are strongly dependent on the annealing conditions.

  16. Growth by atomic layer epitaxy and characterization of thin films of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopalko, K.; Lusakowska, E.; Paszkowicz, W.; Domagala, J.Z.; Szczerbakow, A.; Swiatek, K.; Dybko, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Acad. of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Wojcik, A.; Godlewski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Acad. of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Dep. of Mathem. and Natural Sci. College of Science, Cardinal S. Wyszynski Univ., Warsaw (Poland); Godlewski, M.M. [Dept. of Physiology, Biochem., Pharmacology and Toxicology, Fac. of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agriculture University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2005-02-01

    ABSTRACT Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) was applied to grow thin films of monocrystalline and polycrystalline ZnO. Monocrystalline films were obtained only for GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates, whereas use of sapphire, silicon or soda lime glass resulted in either 3D growth mode or in polycrystalline films showing preferential orientation along the c axis. Successful Mn doping of ZnO films is reported, when using organic Mn precursors. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Amorphous grain boundary layers in the ferromagnetic nanograined ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumal, B.B., E-mail: straumal@mf.mpg.de [National University of Science and Technology ' Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, MISiS' , Leninsky prospect 4, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow district, 142432 (Russian Federation); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mazilkin, A.A.; Protasova, S.G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow district, 142432 (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme (former Institut fuer Metallforschung), Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Myatiev, A.A. [National University of Science and Technology ' Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, MISiS' , Leninsky prospect 4, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Straumal, P.B. [National University of Science and Technology ' Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, MISiS' , Leninsky prospect 4, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Materialphysik, Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Goering, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme (former Institut fuer Metallforschung), Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); and others

    2011-12-01

    Pure ZnO thin films were obtained by the wet chemistry ('liquid ceramics') method from the butanoate precursors. Films consist of dense equiaxial nanograins and reveal ferromagnetic behaviour. The structure of the ZnO films was studied by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The intergranular regions in the nanograined ZnO films obtained by the 'liquid ceramics' method are amorphous. It looks like fine areas of the second amorphous phase which wets (covers) some of the ZnO/ZnO grain boundaries. Most probably these amorphous intergranular regions contain the defects which are responsible for the ferromagnetic behaviour.

  18. Structural and optical modeling of electro deposited CuInSe2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaïs B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ternary semiconductor CuInSe2 is one of the most advantageous materials for the manufacturing of thin film solar cells. In this study, CuInSe2 thin films were prepared at room temperature using the electrodepositing method. The as-prepared films were found to be amorphous. The CuInSe2 films were crystallized in a tubular resistive furnace, and characterized by means of the the X-ray diffraction (XRD and UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy techniques. The parameters to optimize are the temperature and duration of the annealing time, and the Cu/In ratio in the precursors.

  19. GaAs thin films and methods of making and using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Shannon; Ritenour, Andrew; Boucher, Jason; Greenaway, Ann

    2016-06-14

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of methods for making GaAs thin films, such as photovoltaic GaAs thin films. The methods disclosed herein utilize sources, precursors, and reagents that do not produce (or require) toxic gas and that are readily available and relatively low in cost. In some embodiments, the methods are readily scalable for industrial applications and can provide GaAs thin films having properties that are at least comparable to or potentially superior to GaAs films obtained from conventional methods.

  20. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  1. F and Ti doped silicate nanocomposite thin films for antimicrobial and easy clean applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, YongSeong; Son, You-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Jin; Cho, Won-Je; Raj, C Justin; HyunYu, Kook

    2014-12-01

    Titanium isopropoxide (TIPO), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) silane precursor were employed to coat transparent thin film on the glass substrate and these effectively prevents pollution on the glass from microorganisms. The each nanocomposition film was prepared by sol-gel method, the solution of nanocomposite was coated by spin coater with 1200 rpm for 30 sec and cured by thermal at 100 degrees C on glass which surface treated with Piranha solution. The nanocomposite films with highly self cleaning efficacy were fabricated and studied for various molar compositions of TEOS, TIPO and FAS. TEOS/TIPO film in glass substrate shows an optical transparency over 90% up to 30 mol% of TIPO in TEOS/TIPO composite films and also FAS incorporated up to 4 mol% onto TEOS/TIPO films. The anti-microbial efficiency of the nanocomposite film was improved 30% when it was exposed under UV light radiation than that in ambient condition.

  2. Remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of GaP with in situ generation of phosphine precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. W.; Lucovsky, G.; Bachmann, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    Thin homoepitaxial films of gallium phosphide (GaP) have been grown by remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition utilizing in situ-generated phosphine precursors. The GaP forming reaction is kinetically controlled with an activation energy of 0.65 eV. The increase of the growth rate with increasing radio frequency (RF) power between 20 and 100 W is due to the combined effects of increasingly complete excitation and the spatial extension of the glow discharge toward the substrate; however, the saturation of the growth rate at even higher RF power indicates the saturation of the generation rate of phosphine precursors at this condition. Slight interdiffusion of P into Si and Si into GaP is indicated from GaP/Si heterostructures grown under similar conditions as the GaP homojunctions.

  3. Remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of GaP with in situ generation of phosphine precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. W.; Lucovsky, G.; Bachmann, Klaus J.

    1993-01-01

    Thin homoepitaxial films of gallium phosphide (GaP) were grown by remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition utilizing in situ generated phosphine precursors. The GaP forming reaction is kinetically controlled with an activation energy of 0.65 eV. The increase of the growth rate with increasing radio frequency (rf) power between 20 and 100 W is due to the combined effects of increasingly complete excitation and the spatial extension of the glow discharge toward the substrate, however, the saturation of the growth rate at even higher rf power indicates the saturation of the generation rate of phosphine precursors at this condition. Slight interdiffusion of P into Si and Si into GaP is indicated from GaP/Si heterostructures grown under similar conditions as the GaP homojunctions.

  4. A critical review of Electric Earthquake Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vallianatos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The generation of transient electric potential prior to rupture has been demonstrated in a number of laboratory experiments involving both dry and wet rock specimens. Several different electrification effects are responsible for these observations, but how these may scale up co-operatively in large heterogeneous rock volumes, to produce observable macroscopic signals, is still incompletely understood. Accordingly, the nature and properties of possible Electric Earthquake Precursors (EEP are still inadequately understood. For a long time observations have been fragmentary, narrow band and oligo-parametric (for instance, the magnetic field was not routinely measured. In general, the discrimination of purported EEP signals relied on "experience" and ad hoc empirical rules that could be shown unable to guarantee the validity of the data. In consequence, experimental studies have produced a prolific variety of signal shape, complexity and duration but no explanation for the apparently indefinite diversity. A set of inconsistent or conflicting ideas attempted to explain such observations, including different concepts about the EEP source region (near the observer or at the earthquake focus and propagation (frequently assumed to be guided by peculiar geoelectric structure. Statistics was also applied to establish the "beyond chance" association between presumed EEP signals and earthquakes. In the absence of well constrained data, this approach ended up with intense debate and controversy but no useful results. The response of the geophysical community was scepticism and by the mid-90's, the very existence of EEP was debated. At that time, a major re-thinking of EEP research began to take place, with reformulation of its queries and objectives and refocusing on the exploration of fundamental concepts, less on field experiments. The first encouraging results began to appear in the last two years of the 20th century. Observation technologies are mature

  5. Evaluation of niobium dimethylamino-ethoxide for chemical vapour deposition of niobium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabirian, Ali [Laboratory for Photonic Materials and Characterization, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 17, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kuzminykh, Yury, E-mail: yury.kuzminykh@empa.ch [Laboratory for Photonic Materials and Characterization, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 17, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Wagner, Estelle; Benvenuti, Giacomo [3D-Oxides, 70 Rue G. Eiffel Technoparc, 01630 St Genis Pouilly (France); ABCD Technology, 12 route de Champ-Colin, 1260 Nyon (Switzerland); Rushworth, Simon [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Hoffmann, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.hoffmann@empa.ch [Laboratory for Photonic Materials and Characterization, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 17, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2014-11-28

    Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes depend on the availability of suitable precursors. Precursors that deliver a stable vapour pressure are favourable in classical CVD processes, as they ensure process reproducibility. In high vacuum CVD (HV-CVD) process vapour pressure stability of the precursor is of particular importance, since no carrier gas assisted transport can be used. The dimeric Nb{sub 2}(OEt){sub 10} does not fulfil this requirement since it partially dissociates upon heating. Dimethylamino functionalization of an ethoxy ligand of Nb(OEt){sub 5} acts as an octahedral field completing entity and leads to Nb(OEt){sub 4}(dmae). We show that Nb(OEt){sub 4}(dmae) evaporates as monomeric molecule and ensures a stable vapour pressure and, consequently, stable flow. A set of HV-CVD experiments were conducted using this precursor by projecting a graded molecular beam of the precursor onto the substrate at deposition temperatures from 320 °C to 650 °C. Film growth rates ranging from 8 nm·h{sup −1} to values larger than 400 nm·h{sup −1} can be obtained in this system illustrating the high level of control available over the film growth process. Classical CVD limiting conditions along with the recently reported adsorption–reaction limited conditions are observed and the chemical composition, and microstructural and optical properties of the films are related to the corresponding growth regime. Nb(OEt){sub 4}(dmae) provides a large process window of deposition temperatures and precursor fluxes over which carbon-free and polycrystalline niobium oxide films with growth rates proportional to precursor flux are obtained. This feature makes Nb(OEt){sub 4}(dmae) an attractive precursor for combinatorial CVD of niobium containing complex oxide films that are finding an increasing interest in photonics and photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. The adsorption–reaction limited conditions provide extremely small growth rates comparable to an

  6. The reliability of radon as seismic precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2016-04-01

    Our multidisciplinary network (AeroSolSys) located in Vrancea (Curvature Carpathian Mountains) includes radon concentration monitoring in five stations. We focus on lithosphere and near surface low atmosphere phenomena using real-time information about seismicity, + / - ions, clouds, solar radiation, temperature (air, ground), humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, telluric currents, variations of the local magnetic field, infrasound, variations of the atmospheric electrostatic field, variations in the earth crust with inclinometers, electromagnetic activity, CO2 concentration, ULF radio wave propagation, seismo-acoustic emission, animal behavior. The main purpose is to inform the authorities about risk situation and update hazard scenarios. The radon concentration monitoring is continuously with 1 hour or 3 hours sample rate in locations near to faults in an active seismic zone characterized by intermediate depth earthquakes. Trigger algorithms include standard deviation, mean and derivative methods. We correlate radon concentration measurements with humidity, temperature and atmospheric pressure from the same equipment. In few stations we have meteorological information, too. Sometime the radon concentration has very high variations (maxim 4535 Bq/m3 from 106 Bq/m3) in short time (1 - 2 days) without being accompanied by an important earthquake. Generally the cause is the high humidity that could be generated by tectonic stress. Correlation with seismicity needs information from minimum 6 month in our case. For 10605 hours, 618 earthquakes with maxim magnitude 4.9 R, we have got radon average 38 Bq/m3 and exposure 408111 Bqh/m3 in one station. In two cases we have correlation between seismicity and radon concentration. In other one we recorded high variation because the location was in an area with multiple faults and a river. Radon can be a seismic precursor but only in a multidisciplinary network. The anomalies for short or long period of

  7. Precursor Science for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, P. R. (Editor); Unwin, S. C. (Editor); Beichman, C. A. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This document outlines a path for the development of the field of extrasolar planet research, with a particular emphasis on the goals of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). Over the past decade, a new field of research has developed, the study of extrasolar planetary systems, driven by the discovery of massive planets around nearby stars. The planet count now stands at over 130. Are there Earth-like planets around nearby stars? Might any of those planets be conducive to the formation and maintenance of life? These arc the questions that TPF seeks to answer. TPF will be implemented as a suite of two space observatories, a 6-m class optical coronagraph, to be launched around 20 14, and a formation flying mid-infrared interferometer, to be launched sometime prior to 2020. These facilities will survey up to 165 or more nearby stars and detect planets like Earth should they be present in the 'habitable zone' around each star. With observations over a broad wavelength range, TPF will provide a robust determination of the atmospheric composition of planets to assess habitability and the presence of life. At this early stage of TPF's development, precursor observational and theoretical programs are essential to help define the mission, to aid our understanding of the planets that TPF could discover, and to characterize the stars that TPF will eventually study. This document is necessarily broad in scope because the significance of individual discoveries is greatly enhanced when viewed in thc context of the field as a whole. This document has the ambitious goal of taking us from our limited knowledge today, in 2004, to the era of TPF observations in the middle of the next decade. We must use the intervening years wisely. This document will be reviewed annually and updated as needed. The most recent edition is available online at http://tpf.jpl.nasa.gov/ or by email request to lawson@hucy.jpl.nasa.gov

  8. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  9. Superconducting YBCO thin film on multicrystalline Ag film evaporated on MgO substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Jacob; Verdyan, Armen; Lapsker, Igor

    Superconducting YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ films were grown by resistive evaporation on multicrystalline silver film which was evaporated on MgO substrate. A simple inexpensive vacuum system equipped with resistively heated boat was used for the whole process. Silver film was first evaporated on MgO substrate kept at 400°C during the evaporation after which with no further annealing a precursor mixture of yttrium small grains and Cu and BaF2 in powder form weighed in the atomic proportion to yield stoichiometric YBa 2Cu 3O 7 was evaporated. The films thus obtained were annealed at 740°C under low oxygen partial pressure of about 1Pa for 30 minutes to form the superconducting phase. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used for texture and surface analysis. Electrical properties were determined using a standard dc four-probe for electrical measurements. The physical and electrical properties of the YBCO films are discussed in light of the fact that X-ray diffraction measurements done on the silver film have revealed a multicrystalline structure

  10. Solution-deposited CIGS thin films for ultra-low-cost photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Hersh, Peter; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2010-09-01

    We describe the production of photovoltaic modules with high-quality large-grain copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin films obtained with the unique combination of low-cost ink-based precursors and a reactive transfer printing method. The proprietary metal-organic inks contain a variety of soluble Cu-, In- and Ga- multinary selenide materials; they are called metal-organic decomposition (MOD) precursors, as they are designed to decompose into the desired precursors. Reactive transfer is a two-stage process that produces CIGS through the chemical reaction between two separate precursor films, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage, these precursors are rapidly reacted together under pressure in the presence of heat. The use of two independent thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. In a few minutes, the process produces high quality CIGS films, with large grains on the order of several microns, and preferred crystallographic orientation, as confirmed by compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 14% and module efficiencies of 12% were achieved using this method. The atmospheric deposition processes include slot die extrusion coating, ultrasonic atomization spraying, pneumatic atomization spraying, inkjet printing, direct writing, and screen printing, and provide low capital equipment cost, low thermal budget, and high throughput.

  11. Investigation of electronic quality of electrodeposited cadmium sulphide layers from thiourea precursor for use in large area electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, A.A., E-mail: chartell2006@yahoo.com; Dharmadasa, I.M.

    2016-09-01

    CdS layers used in thin film solar cells and other electronic devices are usually grown by wet chemical methods using CdCl{sub 2} as the Cadmium source and either Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} or NH{sub 2}CSNH{sub 2} as Sulphur sources. Obviously, one of the sulphur precursors should produce more suitable CdS layers required to give the highest performing devices. This can only be achieved by comprehensive experimental work on growth and characterisation of CdS layers from the above mentioned sulphur sources. This paper presents the results observed on CdS layers grown by electrodepositing using two electrode configuration and thiourea as the sulphur precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell methods have been used to characterise the material properties. In order to test and study the electronic device quality of the layers, ohmic and rectifying contacts were fabricated on the electroplated layers. Schottky barriers, formed on the layers were also compared with previously reported work on Chemical Bath Deposited CBD-CdS layers and bulk single crystals of CdS. Comparatively, Schottky diodes fabricated on electroplated CdS layers using two-electrode system and thiourea precursor exhibit excellent electronic properties suitable for electronic devices such as thin film solar panels and large area display devices. - Highlights: • Precipitate-free electrodeposition of CdS is achievable using Thiourea precursor. • Electrodeposition of CdS using 2-electrode configuration. • The electrodeposited CdS shows excellent electronic properties. • Exploration of the effect of heat treatment temperature and heat treatment duration.

  12. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films solar cells: material and device characterization

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) quaternary compound has attracted much attention in the last years as new abundant, low cost and non-toxic material, with desirable properties for thin film photovoltaic (PV) applications. In this work, CZTS thin films were grown using two different processes, based on vacuum deposition of precursors, followed by a heat treatment in sulphur atmosphere. The precursors were deposited using two different approaches: (i) electron-beam evaporation of multiple stacks made of ZnS, S...

  13. Photospheric radius expansion in superburst precursors from neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear runaway burning of carbon is in rare cases observed from accreting neutron stars as day-long X-ray flares called superbursts. In the few cases where the onset is observed, superbursts exhibit a short precursor burst at the start. In each instance, however, the data was of insufficient quality for spectral analysis of the precursor. Using data from the propane anti-coincidence detector of the PCA instrument on RXTE, we perform the first detailed time resolved spectroscopy of precursors. For a superburst from 4U 1820-30 we demonstrate the presence of photospheric radius expansion. We find the precursor to be 1.4-2 times more energetic than other short bursts from this source, indicating that the burning of accreted helium is insufficient to explain the full precursor. Shock heating would be able to account for the lacking energy. We argue that this precursor is a strong indication that the superburst starts as a detonation, and that a shock induces the precursor. Furthermore, we employ our techniq...

  14. Doublecortin in Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Jenna J.; Messier, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Key Points Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, a microtubule-associated protein.Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, but at a lower level of expression than in neuronal precursor.Doublecortin is not associated with a potential immature neuronal phenotype in Oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during embryogenesis and early stages of post-natal life. OPCs continue to divide throughout adulthood and some eventually differentiate into oligodendrocytes in response to demyelinating lesions. There is growing evidence that OPCs are also involved in activity-driven de novo myelination of previously unmyelinated axons and myelin remodeling in adulthood. Considering these roles in the adult brain, OPCs are likely mobile cells that can migrate on some distances before they differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. A number of studies have noted that OPCs express doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein expressed in neural precursor cells and in migrating immature neurons. Here we describe the distribution of DCX in OPCs. We found that almost all OPCs express DCX, but the level of expression appears to be much lower than what is found in neural precursor. We found that DCX is downregulated when OPCs start expressing mature oligodendrocyte markers and is absent in myelinating oligodendrocytes. DCX does not appear to signal an immature neuronal phenotype in OPCs in the adult mouse brain. Rather, it could be involved either in cell migration, or as a marker of an immature oligodendroglial cell phenotype.

  15. Clustering chlorine reactivity of haloacetic acid precursors in inland lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Arnold, William A

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents the major pool of organic precursors for harmful disinfection byproducts, such as haloacetic acids (HAAs), formed during drinking water chlorination, but much of it remains molecularly uncharacterized. Knowledge of model precursors is thus a prerequisite for understanding the more complex whole water DOM. The utility of HAA formation potential data from model DOM precursors, however, is limited due to the lack of comparability to water samples. In this study, the formation kinetics of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), the two predominant HAA species, were delineated upon chlorination of seventeen model DOM precursors and sixty-eight inland lake water samples collected from the Upper Midwest region of the United States. Of particular interest was the finding that the DCAA and TCAA formation rate constants could be grouped into four statistically distinct clusters reflecting the core structural features of model DOM precursors (i.e., non-β-diketone aliphatics, β-diketone aliphatics, non-β-diketone phenolics, and β-diketone phenolics). A comparative approach built upon hierarchical cluster analysis was developed to gain further insight in