WorldWideScience

Sample records for hg mining wastes

  1. New technique for quantification of elemental Hg in mine wastes and its implications for mercury evasion into the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, Adam D; Kim, Christopher S; Rytuba, James J; Gustin, Mae S; Brown, Gordon E

    2011-01-15

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234 K) results in its transformation to crystalline α-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77 K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range.

  2. New technique for quantification of elemental hg in mine wastes and its implications for mercury evasion into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, A.D.; Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234 K) results in its transformation to crystalline ??-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77 K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Comprehensive waste characterization and organic pollution co-occurrence in a Hg and As mining and metallurgy brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R., E-mail: jgallego@uniovi.es [Environmental Technology, Biotechnology and Geochemistry Group, C/Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós s/n, 33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain); Esquinas, N.; Rodríguez-Valdés, E.; Menéndez-Aguado, J.M. [Environmental Technology, Biotechnology and Geochemistry Group, C/Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós s/n, 33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain); Sierra, C. [Environmental Technology, Biotechnology and Geochemistry Group, C/Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós s/n, 33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain); Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, Guayaquil (Ecuador)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Complex legacy of contamination afflicts As–Hg brownfields. • As- and Hg-rich waste analyzed in a paradigmatic study site. • Co-ocurrence of a complex speciation of As and Hg, and organic pollution (PAHs). • Arsenolite was determined to be the main source of risk at the site. • Unexpected Hg organo-compounds found. - Abstract: The abandonment of Hg–As mining and metallurgy sites, together with long-term weathering, can dramatically degrade the environment. In this work it is exemplified the complex legacy of contamination that afflicts Hg–As brownfields through the detailed study of a paradigmatic site. Firstly, an in-depth study of the former industrial process was performed to identify sources of different types of waste. Subsequently, the composition and reactivity of As- and Hg-rich wastes (calcines, As-rich soot, stupp, and flue dust) was analyzed by means of multielemental analysis, mineralogical characterization (X-ray diffraction, electronic, and optical microscopy, microbrobe), chemical speciation, and sequential extractions. As-rich soot in the form of arsenolite, a relatively mobile by-product of the pyrometallurgical process, and stupp, a residue originated in the former condensing system, were determined to be the main risk at the site. In addition, the screening of organic pollution was also aimed, as shown by the outcome of benzo(a) pyrene and other PAHs, and by the identification of unexpected Hg organo-compounds (phenylmercury propionate). The approach followed unravels evidence from waste from the mining and metallurgy industry that may be present in other similar sites, and identifies unexpected contaminants overlooked by conventional analyses.

  4. Comprehensive waste characterization and organic pollution co-occurrence in a Hg and As mining and metallurgy brownfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, J R; Esquinas, N; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Sierra, C

    2015-12-30

    The abandonment of Hg-As mining and metallurgy sites, together with long-term weathering, can dramatically degrade the environment. In this work it is exemplified the complex legacy of contamination that afflicts Hg-As brownfields through the detailed study of a paradigmatic site. Firstly, an in-depth study of the former industrial process was performed to identify sources of different types of waste. Subsequently, the composition and reactivity of As- and Hg-rich wastes (calcines, As-rich soot, stupp, and flue dust) was analyzed by means of multielemental analysis, mineralogical characterization (X-ray diffraction, electronic, and optical microscopy, microbrobe), chemical speciation, and sequential extractions. As-rich soot in the form of arsenolite, a relatively mobile by-product of the pyrometallurgical process, and stupp, a residue originated in the former condensing system, were determined to be the main risk at the site. In addition, the screening of organic pollution was also aimed, as shown by the outcome of benzo(a) pyrene and other PAHs, and by the identification of unexpected Hg organo-compounds (phenylmercury propionate). The approach followed unravels evidence from waste from the mining and metallurgy industry that may be present in other similar sites, and identifies unexpected contaminants overlooked by conventional analyses.

  5. Hg SOIL GAS AND Hg SOIL DISTRIBUTION AROUND FORMER „ZRINSKI“ MINE ON MT. MEDVEDNICA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jug

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the field and laboratory researches, statistical analyses and graphical displays of the results of Hg soil gas and Hg soil distribution in the area around former mining site „Zrinski“ on Mt. Medvednica. The values of overall Hg concentrations in the soil gas show lognormal distribution, and their spatial distribution outlines the connection with the present Pb-Ag-Zn mineralization and confirms anthropogenic origin of uneven landscape relief (waste rock clusters. Regression analysis of the dependence between Hg contents in the soil gas and the distance from the mine entrance (correlation coefficient r also points to the considerable spatial dependence. Hg soil contents show as well distribution similar to lognormal, and there is a slight correlation when compared with Hg soil gas content. Concentrations are mostly within background values, except in the immediate vicinity of the mine entrance where the values are significantly higher due to the mineralization influence concentrated in the waste-rock clusters. Soil pollution caused by mercury is of local character with the spreading tendency to the south-west because of the dominant relief influence. Mercury found in the soil of the research location derives from the present mineral body and former mining activities, while possible anthropogenic atmospheric inputs from remote sources can not be proven on the basic of conducted research studies (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Assessing anthropogenic sources of mercury in soil in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhihui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jingfu; Jiang, Taiming; Xiao, Houjun; Li, Yu; Wang, Xun; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-11-01

    Long-term mining and smelting activities brought a series of environmental issues into soils in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China. Several studies have been published on the concentrations of Hg in local soils, but a comprehensive assessment of the mass of Hg in soil induced by anthropogenic activities, as presented in this paper, has not been previously conducted. Three districts of WMMA were chosen as the study areas. We summarized previous published data and sampled 14 typical soil profiles to analyze the spatial and vertical distributions of Hg in soil in the study areas. The regional geologic background, direct and indirect Hg deposition, and Hg-polluted irrigation water were considered as the main sources of Hg contaminations in local soils. Furthermore, the enrichment factor (EF) method was applied to assess the extent of anthropogenic input of Hg to soil. Titanium (Ti) was chosen to be the reference element to calculate the EF. Generally, the elevated values of EF were observed in the upper soil layers and close to mine wastes. The total budget of Hg in soil contributed from anthropogenic sources was estimated to be 1,227 t in arable soil and 75 t in natural soil. Our data showed that arable soil was the major sink of anthropogenic Hg in the study area.

  7. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  8. Fractionation, distribution and transport of total mercury and Methylmercury in rivers and tributaries around Wanshan Hg mining district, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X.; Zhang, H.; Larssen, T.; Vogt, R.; Rothenberg, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area in Guizhou, China, was one of the world's largest Hg producing regions. Numerous tailings containing mine quarry or calcines still remain, leaching Hg to local rivers and streams and potentially impacting the local population. This study focuses on the regional distribution and temporal variation of aqueous Hg fractions in the 5 main watercourses draining the Wanshan Hg mining and smelting area, covering more than 700 square kilometers. Highly elevated concentrations of total Hg in water samples were found slightly downstream from the Hg mine and smelter tailings, while concentrations decreased sharply to a level well below 50 ng L-1 (US EPA Hg concentration standard for protection of fresh water), within 6-8 km. Total Hg concentrations ranged from extremely high (up to 12 492 ng L-1) just below the calcine tailings, to near the detection level (1.9 ng L-1) in tributary streams. Total Hg levels were correlated with particulate Hg (R2 = 0.996-0.999, Pmethylmercury (MeHg) were inversely related to distance from Hg mine tailings (mine waste calcines), suggesting that mine waste calcines were an important source of both inorganic and MeHg to the downstream environment.

  9. In vitro studies evaluating leaching of mercury from mine waste calcine using simulated human body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Higueras, Pablo L.; Crock, James G.; Lowers, Heather A.; Witten, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) studies were carried out on samples of mercury (Hg) mine-waste calcine (roasted Hg ore) by leaching with simulated human body fluids. The objective was to estimate potential human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne calcine particulates and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing calcines. Mine waste calcines collected from Hg mines at Almadén, Spain, and Terlingua, Texas, contain Hg sulfide, elemental Hg, and soluble Hg compounds, which constitute primary ore or compounds formed during Hg retorting. Elevated leachate Hg concentrations were found during calcine leaching using a simulated gastric fluid (as much as 6200 μg of Hg leached/g sample). Elevated Hg concentrations were also found in calcine leachates using a simulated lung fluid (as much as 9200 μg of Hg leached/g), serum-based fluid (as much as 1600 μg of Hg leached/g), and water of pH 5 (as much as 880 μg of Hg leached/g). The leaching capacity of Hg is controlled by calcine mineralogy; thus, calcines containing soluble Hg compounds contain higher leachate Hg concentrations. Results indicate that ingestion or inhalation of Hg mine-waste calcine may lead to increased Hg concentrations in the human body, especially through the ingestion pathway.

  10. 36 CFR 6.7 - Mining wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.7 Mining wastes. (a) Solid waste from mining includes but is not limited to mining overburden, mining byproducts, solid waste from the extraction... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining wastes. 6.7 Section 6...

  11. Isotopic variability of mercury in ore, mine-waste calcine, and leachates of mine-waste calcine from areas mined for mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Sarah J; Gray, John E; Wanty, Richard B; Macalady, Donald L

    2009-10-01

    The isotopic composition of mercury (Hg) was determined in cinnabar ore, mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), and leachates obtained from water leaching experiments of calcine from two large Hg mining districts in the U.S. This study is the first to report significant mass-dependent Hg isotopic fractionation between cinnabar ore and resultant calcine. Data indicate that delta202Hg values relative to NIST 3133 of calcine (up to 1.52 per thousand) in the Terlingua district, Texas, are as much as 3.24 per thousand heavier than cinnabar (-1.72 per thousand) prior to retorting. In addition, delta202Hg values obtained from leachates of Terlingua district calcines are isotopically similar to, or as much as 1.17 per thousand heavier than associated calcines, most likely due to leaching of soluble, byproduct Hg compounds formed during ore retorting that are a minor component in the calcines. As a result of the large fractionation found between cinnabar and calcine, and because calcine is the dominant source of Hg contamination from the mines studied, delta202Hg values of calcine may be more environmentally important in these mined areas than the primary cinnabar ore. Measurement of the Hg isotopic composition of calcine is necessary when using Hg isotopes for tracing Hg sources from areas mined for Hg, especially mine water runoff.

  12. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  13. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Agency for Mineral Resources (NAMR) manages, on behalf of the state, the mineral resources. Waste management framework Nowadays, Romania, is trying to align its regulation concerning mining activity to the European legislation taking into consideration waste management and their impact on the environment. Therefore the European Waste Catalog (Commission Decision 2001/118/EC) has been updated and published in the form of HG 856/2002 Waste management inventory and approved wastes list, including dangerous wastes. The HG 349/2005 establishes the legal framework for waste storage activity as well as for the monitoring of the closing and post-closing existing deposits, taking into account the environment protection and the health of the general population. Based on Directive 2000/60/EC the Ministry of Waters Administration, Forests and Environment Protection from Romania issued the GO No 756/1997 (amended by GO 532/2002 and GO 1144/2002),"Regulations for environment pollution assessment" that contains alarm and intervention rates for soil pollution for contaminants such as metals, metalloids (Sb, Ag, As, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, TI, V, Zn) and cyanides. Also GO No 756/1997 was amended and updated by Law No 310/2004 and 112/2006 in witch technical instructions concerning general framework for the use of water sources in the human activities including mining industry, are approved. Chemical compounds contained in industrial waters are fully regulated by H. G. 352/2005 concerning the contents of waste water discharged. Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC is transposed into the national law of the Romanian Government under Decision No 856/2008. The 856/2008 Decision on the management of waste from extractive industries establishes "the legal framework concerning the guidelines, measures and procedures to prevent or reduce as far

  14. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage.

  15. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

  16. Mercury and methylmercury contents in mine-waste calcine, water, and sediment collected from the Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.E.; Greaves, I.A.; Bustos, D.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    The Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines, produced about 2,900 t of mercury during mining of cinnabar ore from 1953 to 1976. More than 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining, much of which were used to construct a jetty in nearby Honda Bay. Since 1995, high Hg contents have been found in several people living near the mine, and 21 of these people were treated for mercury poisoning. Samples of mine-waste calcine contain high total Hg concentrations ranging from 43-660 ??g/g, whereas total Hg concentrations in sediment samples collected from a mine pit lake and local stream vary from 3.7-400 ??g/g. Mine water flowing through the calcines is acidic, pH 3.1-4.3, and total Hg concentrations ranging from 18-31 ??g/l in this water significantly exceed the 1.0-??g/l drinking water standard for Hg recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total Hg contents are generally lower in water samples collected from surrounding domestic wells, the mine pit lake, Honda Bay, and the nearby stream, varying from 0.008-1.4 ??g/l. Methylmercury concentrations in water draining mine calcines range from <0.02-1.4 ng/l, but methylmercury is highest in the pit lake water, ranging from 1.7-3.1 ng/l. Mercury methylation at the Palawan mine is similar to or higher than that found in other mercury mines worldwide. Much of the methylmercury generated in Palawan mine-waste calcines and those in Honda Bay is transferred to water, and then to marine fish and seafood. A food source pathway of Hg to humans is most likely in this coastal, high fish-consuming population.

  17. Acid Mine Drainage and Heavy Metal Pollution from Solid Waste in the Tongling Mines, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaochun; XIE Qiaoqin; CHEN Fang; WANG Jun; WU Wentao

    2008-01-01

    Based on investigation of the characteristics of solid waste of two different mines, the Fenghuangshan copper mine and the Xinqiao pyrite mine in Tongling, Anhui province in central-east China, the possibility and the differences of acid mine drainage (AMD) of the tailings and the waste rocks are discussed, and the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the mine solid waste are also studied. The Fenghuangshan copper mine hardly produces AMD, whereas the Xinqiao pyrite mine does and there are also differences in the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the tailings. For the former, toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg exist mostly in the slag mode, as compared to the latter, where the dcoxidization mode has a much higher content, indicating that large amounts minerals in the waste rocks have begun to oxidize at the earth surface. AMD is proved to promote the migration and spread of the heavy metals in mining waste rocks and lead to environmental pollution of the surroundings of the mine area.

  18. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-10

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices.

  19. Environmental planning in mine waste management: The Huckleberry Mines experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. C. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Letient, H. F. [Compania Minera Antamina (Peru)

    2004-02-01

    A mine waste management plan, designed to prevent the onset of acid rock drainage and facilitate reclamation of the mine site is discussed. The waste management plan takes into account the requirement for permanently flooding the potentially acid-generating rock and tailings. To avoid long-term acid rock drainage, the plan calls for floating the pyrite out of the tailings towards the end of the life of the mine, thus generating a a non-acid generating tailings stream which will be used to cap the deposited mine waste. When the mine is closed, a permanent water cover will be maintained over the mine waste, leaving only the potentially non-acid generating tailings exposed. Retaining structures will be constructed so as to maximize the use of overburden and minimize the need for additional till and rockfill to be imported from outside the mine site. Dam slopes will be reclaimed with topsoil and overburden stripped during mine development and stockpiled until needed for reclamation. By disposing of the acid-generating mine waste and tailings by permanent flooding, acid generation from these wastes will be prevented, overall environmental liabilities will be minimized, and long-term water quality of the surrounding streams will be safeguarded. 9 figs.

  20. Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (Sb (Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 μg/L for As and 5.6 μg/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052–0.56 μg/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 μg/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 μg/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 μg/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

  1. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Fey, David L.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8–11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03–0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9–14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05–3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1–9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63–9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the ground surface.

  2. Hg and As Minerals in Fluid Inclusions from the Williams Mine, Hemlo, and Their Genetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU HUANZHANG(卢焕章); JAYANTA. GUHA; DON. C. HARRIS

    2002-01-01

    The Hemlo mineralization is enigmatic compared to general Archean lode gold deposits based on the fact that it is characterized by an exotic mineralogy containing elements such as As, Hg, Sb, Ba, V and Mo. The genetic concepts range from syngenetic to epigenetic types of mineralization. This reconnaissance study was designed to examine the relationship of Hg-As minerals with respect to fluid inclusions in the Williams mine (formerly known as the Page Williams mine) covering the A and C ore zones.

  3. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  4. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  5. Size fractionation in mercury-bearing airborne particles (HgPM 10) at Almadén, Spain: Implications for inhalation hazards around old mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Higueras, Pablo; Jones, Tim; McDonald, Iain; Gibbons, Wes

    Almadén has a >2000y mining history and an unprecedented legacy of mercury contamination. Resuspended airborne particles were extracted from mine waste (Las Cuevas), retort site soil (Almadenejos), and urban car park dust (Almadén), separated into fine (PM 10) and coarse (PM >10 μm ) fractions, analysed for mercury using ICP-MS, and individual HgPM characterised using SEM. Cold extractable mercury concentrations in PM 10 range from 100 to 150 μg g -1 (car parks), to nearly 6000 μg g -1 (mine waste), reaching a world record of 95,000 μg g -1 above the abandoned retort at Almadenejos where ultrafine HgPM have pervaded the brickwork and soil and entered the food chain: edible wild asparagus stem material from here contains 35-65 μg g -1 Hg, and pig hair from animals living, inhaling and ingesting HgPM 10 at the site yielded 8-10 μg g -1. The PM 10 fraction (dusts easily wind transported and deeply inhaled) contains much more mercury than the coarser fraction. The contribution of HgPM 10 to ecosystem contamination and potential human health effects around old mercury mines has been underestimated.

  6. Electricity solidifies slime mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    Electrokinetic densification, a simple, inexpensive and rapid technique, has been used successfully to convert slimes from meta mining into solid fill material. The US Bureau of Mines is now investigating the possible application of the technique to coal slimes. Tests show promise and a demonstration plant is planned.

  7. Mercury methylation in paddy soil: source and distribution of mercury species at a Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy plantation is the dominant agricultural land use throughout Asia. Rice paddy fields have been identified as important sites for methylmercury (MeHg) production in the terrestrial ecosystem and a primary pathway of MeHg exposure to humans in mercury (Hg) mining areas. We compared the source and distribution of Hg species in different compartments of the rice paddy during a complete rice-growing season at two different typical Hg-contaminated mining sites in Guizhou province, China: an abandoned site with a high Hg concentration in soil but a low concentration in the atmosphere and a current-day artisanal site with a low concentration in soil but a high concentration in the atmosphere. Our results showed that the flux of new Hg to the ecosystem from irrigation and atmospheric deposition was insignificant relative to the pool of old Hg in soil; the dominant source of MeHg to paddy soil is in situ methylation of inorganic Hg (IHg). Elevated MeHg concentrations and the high proportion of Hg as MeHg in paddy water and the surface soil layer at the artisanal site demonstrated active Hg methylation at this site only. We propose that the in situ production of MeHg in paddy water and surface soil is dependent on elevated Hg in the atmosphere and the consequential deposition of new Hg into a low-pH anoxic geochemical system. The absence of depth-dependent variability in the MeHg concentration in soil cores collected from the abandoned Hg mining site, consistent with the low concentration of Hg in the atmosphere and high pH of the paddy water and irrigation water, suggested that net production of MeHg at this site was limited. We propose that the concentration of Hg in ambient air is an indicator for the risk of MeHg accumulation in paddy rice.

  8. Arsenic partitioning among particle-size fractions of mine wastes and stream sediments from cinnabar mining districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Veronica; Loredo, Jorge; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Larios, Raquel; Ordóñez, Almudena; Gómez, Belén; Rucandio, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Tailings from abandoned mercury mines represent an important pollution source by metals and metalloids. Mercury mining in Asturias (north-western Spain) has been carried out since Roman times until the 1970s. Specific and non-specific arsenic minerals are present in the paragenesis of the Hg ore deposit. As a result of intensive mining operations, waste materials contain high concentrations of As, which can be geochemically dispersed throughout surrounding areas. Arsenic accumulation, mobility and availability in soils and sediments are strongly affected by the association of As with solid phases and granular size composition. The objective of this study was to examine phase associations of As in the fine grain size subsamples of mine wastes (La Soterraña mine site) and stream sediments heavily affected by acid mine drainage (Los Rueldos mine site). An arsenic-selective sequential procedure, which categorizes As content into seven phase associations, was applied. In spite of a higher As accumulation in the finest particle-size subsamples, As fractionation did not seem to depend on grain size since similar distribution profiles were obtained for the studied granulometric fractions. The presence of As was relatively low in the most mobile forms in both sites. As was predominantly linked to short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides, coprecipitated with Fe and partially with Al oxyhydroxides and associated with structural material in mine waste samples. As incorporated into short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides was the predominant fraction at sediment samples, representing more than 80% of total As.

  9. Screening of native plant species for phytoremediation potential at a Hg-contaminated mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2016-01-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury (Hg), and therefore, one of the major sources of Hg pollution in the environment. This study was conducted in the Alacrán gold-mining site, one of the most important ASGM sites in Colombia, to identify native plant species growing in Hg-contaminated soils used for agricultural purposes, and to assess their potential as phytoremediation systems. Twenty-four native plant species were identified and analysed for total Hg (THg) in different tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) and in underlying soils. Accumulation factors (AF) in the shoots, translocation (TF) from roots to shoots, and bioconcentration (BCF) from soil-to-roots were determined. Different tissues from all plant species were classified in the order of decreasing accumulation of Hg as follows: roots > leaves > stems. THg concentrations in soil ranged from 230 to 6320 ng g(-1). TF values varied from 0.33 to 1.73, with high values in the lower Hg-contaminated soils. No correlation was found between soils with low concentrations of Hg and plant leaves, indicating that TF is not a very accurate indicator, since most of the Hg input to leaves at ASGM sites comes from the atmosphere. On the other hand, the BCF ranged from 0.28 to 0.99, with Jatropha curcas showing the highest value. Despite their low biomass production, several herbs and sub-shrubs are suitable for phytoremediation application in the field, due to their fast growth and high AF values in large and easily harvestable plant parts. Among these species, herbs such as Piper marginathum and Stecherus bifidus, and the sub-shrubs J. curcas and Capsicum annuum are promising native plants with the potential to be used in the phytoremediation of soils in tropical areas that are impacted by mining.

  10. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  11. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  12. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  13. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  14. Mine Waste Characterization, Management and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson-Edwards

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining is a vital part of the Global economy, but the extraction of metals, metalloids, and other mineral products generates vast quantities of liquid and solid waste. Currently the volume is estimated at several thousand million tons per annum, but is increasing exponentially as demand and exploitation of lower-grade deposits increases. The high concentrations of potentially toxic elements in these wastes can pose risks to ecosystems and humans, but these risks can be mitigated by implementing appropriate management or remediation schemes. Although there are a large number of such schemes available, there is still a need to research the processes, products, and effectiveness of implementation, as well as the nature of the mine wastes themselves. This Special Issue is aimed at bringing together studies in the areas of mine waste characterization, management, and remediation, to review the current state of knowledge and to develop improvements in current schemes. Fourteen manuscripts are published for this Special Issue, and these are summarized below.[...

  15. Pilot Unit for Mining Waste Reduction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Karu, Veiko; Rahe, Tiit; Närep, Erki; Väizene, Vivika; da Costa, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Oil shale mining is a crucially important industry for the Estonian economy. More than 85 percent of electricity in Estonia is produced from oil shale. The oil shale deposit is located in North-East Estonia. The oil shale bed descends three meters per kilometer to the south. The oil shale seam contains interlayered limestone. Some limestone will be used as low class aggregate, but the rest of it is the waste rock of oil shale and is stored in waste rock heaps. Crushing, separating and samplin...

  16. High removal efficacy of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) ions from aqueous solution by organoalkoxysilane-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Norasikin; Johari, Khairiraihanna; Song, Shiow-Tien; Kong, Helen; Cheu, Siew-Chin; Mat, Hanapi

    2017-03-01

    An effective organoalkoxysilanes-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass (OS-LWB) adsorbent aiming for high removal towards inorganic and organic mercury (Hg(II) and MeHg(II)) ions was prepared. Organoalkoxysilanes (OS) namely mercaptoproyltriethoxylsilane (MPTES), aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTES), aminoethylaminopropyltriethoxylsilane (AEPTES), bis(triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide (BTESPT), methacrylopropyltrimethoxylsilane (MPS) and ureidopropyltriethoxylsilane (URS) were grafted onto the LWB using the same conditions. The MPTES grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass (MPTES-LWB) showed the highest adsorption capacity towards both mercury ions. The adsorption behavior of inorganic and organic mercury ions (Hg(II) and MeHg(II)) in batch adsorption studies shows that it was independent with pH of the solutions and dependent on initial concentration, temperature and contact time. The maximum adsorption capacity of Hg(II) was greater than MeHg(II) which respectively followed the Temkin and Langmuir models. The kinetic data analysis showed that the adsorptions of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) onto MPTES-LWB were respectively controlled by the physical process of film diffusion and the chemical process of physisorption interactions. The overall mechanism of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) adsorption was a combination of diffusion and chemical interaction mechanisms. Regeneration results were very encouraging especially for the Hg(II); this therefore further demonstrated the potential application of organosilane-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass as low-cost adsorbents for mercury removal process.

  17. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  18. [Absorption of Hg in typical farmland soils in the Linglong gold mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Ming; Tang, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Lei

    2011-09-01

    This study focused on the adsorption properties of Hg in 2 typical farmland soils in the Linglong gold mining area in Yantai area of China. The adsorption-desorption of Hg(II) research result showed higher adsorption of Hg in neutral soil with the value of 201.38 microg/g than that in acid soil with the value of 156.9 microg/g. The desorption of Hg in both soils was low with neutral soil showing a higher desorption ratio (13%) than acid soil (12%). Hg(II) adsorption isotherms were well fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich equation in the acid soil, with the correlation coefficient r value of 0.995 6 and 0.982 6, respectively. Langmuir equation can best describe Hg(II) adsorption isotherm in the neutral soil and acid soil, with the r value of 0.995 6 and 0.955 9, respectively. The adsorption was a bi-phasic process which started with a fast-adsorption phase and a slow-adsorption phase. The adsorption amount and rate of Hg in the fast reaction phase were much larger than that in the slow one. The adsorption kinetic can be better fitted by Elovich equation with correlation coefficient of 0.971 4 and 0.967 2, respectively. At pH 3.0 - 5.5, the equilibrium adsorption amount of Hg(II) increased with higher pH, and then decreased when the pH reached 6.5.

  19. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-approved solid waste disposal area. Disposal sites in the permit area shall be designed and constructed to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section 816.89 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-approved solid waste disposal area. Disposal sites in the permit area shall be designed and constructed to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section 817.89 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. Mercury and methylmercury contamination related to artisanal gold mining, Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Labson, Victor F.; Weaver, Jean N.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2002-12-01

    Elemental Hg-Au amalgamation mining practices are used widely in many developing countries resulting in significant Hg contamination of surrounding ecosystems. We have measured total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in sediment and water collected from artisanal Au mines and these are the first Hg speciation data from such mines in Suriname. Total Hg and methyl-Hg contents in mine-waste sediment and water are elevated over local uncontaminated baselines. Total Hg (10-930 ng/L) and methyl-Hg (0.02-3.8 ng/L) are highly elevated in mine waters. Increasing total Hg contents in discharged mine waters correlate with increasing water turbidity indicating that most Hg transport is on suspended particulates. Our Hg results are similar to those found in artisanal Au mines in the Amazon basin, where Hg contamination has led to adverse effects on tropical ecosystems.

  2. Extraction procedure testing of solid wastes generated at selected metal ore mines and mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, David M.; Terlecky, P. Michael

    1986-09-01

    Solid waste samples from a reconnaissance study conducted at ore mining and milling sites were subjected to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency extraction procedure (EP) leaching test Sites visited included mines and mills extracting ores of antimony (Sb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), tungsten (W), and nickel (Ni). Samples analyzed included mine wastes, treatment pond solids, tailings, low grade ore, and other solid wastes generated at these facilities Analysis of the leachate from these tests indicates that none of the samples generated leachate in which the concentration of any toxic metal parameter exceeded EPA criteria levels for those metals. By volume, tailings generally constitute the largest amount of solid wastes generated, but these data indicate that with proper management and monitoring, current EPA criteria can be met for tailings and for most solid wastes associated with mining and milling of these metal ores. Long-term studies are needed to determine if leachate characteristics change with time and to assist in development of closure plans and post closure monitoring programs.

  3. Reuse and Securing of Mining Waste : Need of the hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neha; Dino, Giovanna; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; De Luca, Domenico Antonio

    2016-04-01

    With recent advancements in technology and rising standards of living the demand for minerals has increased drastically. Increased reliance on mining industry has led to unmanageable challenges of Mining waste generated out of Mining and Quarrying activities. According to Statistics from EuroStat Mining and Quarrying generated 734 million Tons in Europe in 2012 which accounted for 29.19 % of the total waste, becoming second most important sector in terms of waste generation after Construction Industry. Mining waste can be voluminous and/ or chemically active and can cause environmental threats like groundwater pollution due to leaching of pollutants, surface water pollution due to runoffs during rainy season, river and ocean pollution due to intentional dumping of tailings by mining companies. Most of the big mining companies have not adopted policies against dumping of tailings in rivers and oceans. Deep Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) is creating havoc in remote and pristine environment of deep-sea beds e.g. Bismarck Sea. Furthermore, mining waste is contaminating soil in nearby areas by disturbing soil microbial activity and other physio-chemical and biological properties of soil (e.g. Barruecopardo village - Spain). Mining waste stored in heaps and dams has led to many accidents and on an average, worldwide, there is one major accident in a year involving tailings dams (e.g. Myanmar, Brazil, 2015). Pollution due to tailings is causing local residents to relocate and become 'ecological migrants'. The above issues linked to mining waste makes reuse and securing of mining waste one of the urgent challenge to deal with. The studies done previously on mining show that most of the researches linked with mining waste reuse and securing are very site specific. For instance, the type of recovery method should not only provide environmental clean-up but also economic benefits to promise sustainability of the method. Environmental risk assessment of using mining waste as

  4. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  5. Sustainable waste management in the Indian mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, V P; Shekdar, A V

    2005-08-01

    One of the important sectors that contribute to the national economy is the mining sector. During the mining of minerals and ores, waste materials in the form of overburden are generated. As these are not useful to the mine owners, they may be inappropriately disposed of into the environment, posing serious threat to the environment in the form of land degradation, water and air pollution. The present paper discusses the existing status of waste generation, its characteristics and the disposal methods being adopted in India. Impacts associated with waste disposal practices together with preventive measures for waste disposal are also discussed. Finally, strategies for improvements in existing waste management and for incorporating the same in the overall development plan for the mines are suggested.

  6. Microbial diversity in uranium mine waste heaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, A; Hallmann, R; Wentzien, S; Sand, W

    1995-08-01

    Two different uranium mine waste heaps near Ronneburg, Thuringia, Germany, which contain the remains of the activity of the former uranium-mining Soviet-East German company Wismut AG, were analyzed for the occurrence of lithotrophic and chemoorganotropic leach bacteria. A total of 162 ore samples were taken up to a depth of 5 m. Cell counts of ferrous iron-, sulfur-, sulfur compound-, ammonia-, and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were determined quantitatively by the most-probable-number technique. Sulfate-, nitrate-, ferric iron-, and manganese-reducing bacteria were also detected. In addition, the metabolic activity of sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria was measured by microcalorimetry. Generally, all microorganisms mentioned above were detectable in the heaps. Aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms thrived up to a depth of 1.5 to 2 m. Up to 99% of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans cells, the dominant leaching bacteria, occurred to this depth. Their numbers correlated with the microbial activity measurements. Samples below 1.5 to 2 m exhibited reduced oxygen concentrations and reduced cell counts for all microorganisms.

  7. The challenges of reusing mining and mineral-processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengfu; Miao, Xiexing; Lei, Shaogang; Chen, Shen-en; Wang, Wenfeng; Struthers, Sue

    2012-08-10

    Mining and mineral-processing wastes are one of the world's largest chronic waste concerns. Their reuse should be included in future sustainable development plans, but the potential impacts on a number of environmental processes are highly variable and must be thoroughly assessed. The chemical composition and geotechnical properties of the source rock determine which uses are most appropriate and whether reuse is economically feasible. If properly evaluated, mining waste can be reused to reextract minerals, provide additional fuel for power plants, supply construction materials, and repair surface and subsurface land structures altered by mining activities themselves.

  8. STORAGE AND RECOVERY OF SECONDARY WASTE COMING FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS IN UNDERGROUND MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Korzeniowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding current and planned development of municipal waste incineration plants in Poland there is an important problem of the generated secondary waste management. The experience of West European countries in mining shows that waste can be stored successfully in the underground mines, but especially in salt mines. In Poland there is a possibility to set up the underground storage facility in the Salt Mine “Kłodawa”. The mine today is capable to locate over 3 million cubic meters and in the future it can increase significantly. Two techniques are proposed: 1 – storage of packaged waste, 2 – waste recovery as selfsolidifying paste with mining technology for rooms backfilling. Assuming the processing capacity of the storage facility as 100 000 Mg of waste per year, “Kłodawa” mine will be able to accept around 25 % of currently generated waste coming from the municipal waste incineration plants and the current volume of the storage space is sufficient for more than 20 years. Underground storage and waste recovery in mining techniques are beneficial for the economy and environment.

  9. Hg and As Minerals in Fluid Inclusions from the Williams Mine,Hemlo,and Their Genetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢焕章; ANDDON.C.HARRIS

    2002-01-01

    The Hemlo mineralization is enigmatic compared to general Archean lode gold deposits based on the fact that is characterized by an exotic mineralogy containing elements such as As,Hg,Sb,Ba,V and Mo.The genetic concepts range from syngenetc to epigenetic types of mineralization.This reconnaissance study was designed to examine the relationshp of Hg-As minerals with respect of fluid inclusions in the Williams mine(formerly known as the Page Williams mine)covering the A and C ore zones.

  10. Feasibility study on the use of soil washing to remediate the As-Hg contamination at an ancient mining and metallurgy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, C; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Carrero, M; Gallego, J R

    2011-11-30

    Soils in abandoned mining sites generally present high concentrations of trace elements, such as As and Hg. Here we assessed the feasibility of washing procedures to physically separate these toxic elements from soils affected by a considerable amount of mining and metallurgical waste ("La Soterraña", Asturias, NW Spain). After exhaustive soil sampling and subsequent particle-size separation via wet sieving, chemical and mineralogical analysis revealed that the finer fractions held very high concentrations of As (up to 32,500 ppm) and Hg (up to 1600 ppm). These elements were both associated mainly with Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxides. Textural and geochemical data were correlated with the geological substrate by means of a multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, the Hg liberation size (below 200 μm) was determined to be main factor conditioning the selection of suitable soil washing strategies. These studies were finally complemented with a specific-gravity study performed with a C800 Mozley separator together with a grindability test, both novel approaches in soil washing feasibility studies. The results highlighted the difficulties in treating "La Soterraña" soils. These difficulties are attributed to the presence of contaminants embedded in the soil and spoil heap aggregates, caused by the meteorization of gangue and ore minerals. As a result of these two characteristics, high concentrations of the contaminants accumulate in all grain-size fractions. Therefore, the soil washing approach proposed here includes the grinding of particles above 125 μm.

  11. Green mine research and evaluation based on using solid wastes in urbanization for mine filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Futong; Ren, Zaixiang

    2017-05-01

    Derived from the disposal problems of construction wastes generated by urbanization and combined with the current situations of mine gob filling, this paper, in accordance with the actual requirements of green mines, probed into the methods of using construction wastes for gob filling, whose technical and economic feasibility was also analyzed. An evaluation system of green-mine filling was established and the goals of green-mine filling were dissected as well. Simultaneously, as a new view and the ultimate evaluation index, environmental protection degree, whose abbreviation is H, was proposed. As for the outcomes of green-mine filling, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was utilized, whose results can more systematically and factually reflect the environmental protection degree of construction wastes for green-mine filling and thus have high application value.

  12. Pollution reality of gold mining waste on the Witwatersrand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available system still remain. The pollution reality of gold mining waste is illustrated by a case study in the West Rand area, where decant from gold mines started in 2002. Potential receptors of the pollution in the cast study area include neighbouring property...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Concrete using Marble Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, Sudarshan Dattatraya; Vyas, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    A huge amount waste (approximately 60%) is generated during mining and processing in marble industries. Such waste can be best utilized in infrastructure development works. Coarse aggregate 75% by weight was replaced by aggregate obtained from marble mining waste. The impact of marble waste as a partial replacement for conventional coarse aggregate on the properties of concrete mixes such as workability, compressive strength, permeability, abrasion, etc. was evaluated. The test results revealed that the compressive strength was comparable to that of control concrete. Other properties such as workability of concrete increased, water absorption reduced by 17%, and resistance to abrasion was marginally increased by 2% as compared to that of control concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity and FTIR results show improvement in quality of concrete with crushed marble waste. From the TGA analysis it was confirmed that, aggregate produced from marble waste shows better performance under elevated temperature than that of conventional aggregates.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Concrete using Marble Mining Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kore Sudarshan Dattatraya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A huge amount waste (approximately 60% is generated during mining and processing in marble industries. Such waste can be best utilized in infrastructure development works. Coarse aggregate 75% by weight was replaced by aggregate obtained from marble mining waste. The impact of marble waste as a partial replacement for conventional coarse aggregate on the properties of concrete mixes such as workability, compressive strength, permeability, abrasion, etc. was evaluated. The test results revealed that the compressive strength was comparable to that of control concrete. Other properties such as workability of concrete increased, water absorption reduced by 17%, and resistance to abrasion was marginally increased by 2% as compared to that of control concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity and FTIR results show improvement in quality of concrete with crushed marble waste. From the TGA analysis it was confirmed that, aggregate produced from marble waste shows better performance under elevated temperature than that of conventional aggregates.

  15. Toxic metal dispersion in mining areas: from point source to diffusion pollution. The case of the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district (Southern Tuscany - Italy): new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colica, Antonella; Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario; Rinaldi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Rivers draining mining areas may contribute to the diffusion of contaminants through their dispersion and accumulation into different morphological river units. The Paglia River's catchment (southern Tuscany) hosts the SE portion of the Mt. Amiata mercury district, the third most important worldwide (exploited from 1880 to 1980 with a total production of 100,000 tonnes Hg) before becoming a tributary of the Tiber River, which directly flows into Mediterranean Sea. The goals of this study are: 1) to recognize and distinguish different morphological units along the Paglia River watercourse, 2) to determine spatial/temporal distribution and concentration of Hg (and other toxic elements, particularly As) in different units. The analysis of morphological units was made by mapping their evolution from the beginning of mining activity (1883) to present day along 43 km of the Paglia watercourse defining eleven morphological sections across this river, and one across one of its tributaries, the Siele Creek, which drains various Hg mines located upstream. Four fundamental morphological/sedimentary unit types have been distinguished: stream sediments, bar, floodplain, and terraces. The latter occur in various orders and age: Pleistocenic, pre-mining (i.e., dating before 1880), and coeval to the mining activity. A total of 100 samples were taken from the various units in the selected transects, georeferenced and then analyzed for their Hg and As contents by ICP-OES. Arsenic contents generally never exceed 10 mg/kg. The observed ranges are: stream sediments 4.1÷8.2 mg/kg; bars 4.1÷6.6 mg/kg; floodplains 3.8÷6.6 mg/kg; terrace coeval with mining activity 3.2÷10.1 mg/kg. Hg contents in present-day stream sediments and bars are extremely variable (0.2÷27.5 and 1.4÷22.4 mg/kg respectively), and show a sharp increase at the confluence with Siele Creek. Floodplain sediments may reach up to 98 mg/kg. Terraces coeval with mining activity also show variable Hg contents (0.1÷66

  16. Using imaging spectroscopy to map acidic mine waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, G.A.; Smith, K.S.; Clark, R.N.; Sutley, S.J.; Pearson, R.M.; Vance, J.S.; Hageman, P.L.; Briggs, P.H.; Meier, A.L.; Singleton, M.J.; Roth, S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone.

  17. Recent Developments in Microbiological Approaches for Securing Mine Wastes and for Recovering Metals from Mine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barrie Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining of metals and coals generates solid and liquid wastes that are potentially hazardous to the environment. Traditional methods to reduce the production of pollutants from mining and to treat impacted water courses are mostly physico-chemical in nature, though passive remediation of mine waters utilizes reactions that are catalysed by microorganisms. This paper reviews recent advances in biotechnologies that have been proposed both to secure reactive mine tailings and to remediate mine waters. Empirical management of tailings ponds to promote the growth of micro-algae that sustain populations of bacteria that essentially reverse the processes involved in the formation of acid mine drainage has been proposed. Elsewhere, targeted biomineralization has been demonstrated to produce solid products that allow metals present in mine waters to be recovered and recycled, rather than to be disposed of in landfill.

  18. Thermal Treatment of Mercury Mine Wastes Using a Rotary Solar Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal desorption, by a rotary kiln of mercury contaminated soil and mine wastes, has been used in order to volatilize mercury from the contaminated medium. Solar thermal desorption is an innovative treatment that uses solar energy to increase the volatility of contaminants, which are removed from a solid matrix by a controlled air flow system. Samples of soils and mine wastes used in the experiments were collected in the abandoned Valle del Azogue mine (SE, Spain, where a complex ore, composed mainly of cinnabar, arsenic minerals (realgar and orpiment and stibnite, was mined. The results showed that thermal treatment at temperatures >400 °C successfully lowered the Hg content (2070–116 ppm to <15 mg kg−1. The lowest values of mercury in treated samples were obtained at a higher temperature and exposition time. The samples that showed a high removal efficiency (>99% were associated with the presence of significant contents of cinnabar and an equivalent diameter above 0.8 mm.

  19. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  20. Concentration, distribution, and translocation of mercury and methylmercury in mine-waste, sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near the Abbadia San Salvatore mercury mine, Monte Amiata district, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Gray, John E; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and translocation of mercury (Hg) was studied in the Paglia River ecosystem, located downstream from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM). The ASSM is part of the Monte Amiata Hg district, Southern Tuscany, Italy, which was one of the world's largest Hg districts. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg were determined in mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), sediment, water, soil, and freshwater fish collected from the ASSM and the downstream Paglia River. Concentrations of Hg in calcine samples ranged from 25 to 1500 μg/g, all of which exceeded the industrial soil contamination level for Hg of 5 μg/g used in Italy. Stream and lake sediment samples collected downstream from the ASSM ranged in Hg concentration from 0.26 to 15 μg/g, of which more than 50% exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 μg/g, the concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Stream and lake sediment methyl-Hg concentrations showed a significant correlation with TOC indicating considerable methylation and potential bioavailability of Hg. Stream water contained Hg as high as 1400 ng/L, but only one water sample exceeded the 1000 ng/L drinking water Hg standard used in Italy. Concentrations of Hg were elevated in freshwater fish muscle samples and ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 μg/g (wet weight), averaged 0.84 μg/g, and 96% of these exceeded the 0.3 μg/g (methyl-Hg, wet weight) USEPA fish muscle standard recommended to protect human health. Analysis of fish muscle for methyl-Hg confirmed that >90% of the Hg in these fish is methyl-Hg. Such highly elevated Hg concentrations in fish indicated active methylation, significant bioavailability, and uptake of Hg by fish in the Paglia River ecosystem. Methyl-Hg is highly toxic and the high Hg concentrations in these fish represent a potential pathway of Hg to the human food chain.

  1. Concentration, distribution, and translocation of mercury and methylmercury in mine-waste, sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near the Abbadia San Salvatore mercury mine, Monte Amiata district, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Gray, J.E.; Costagliola, P.; Vaselli, O.; Lattanzi, P.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and translocation of mercury (Hg) was studied in the Paglia River ecosystem, located downstream from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM). The ASSM is part of the Monte Amiata Hg district, Southern Tuscany, Italy, which was one of the world’s largest Hg districts. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg were determined in mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), sediment, water, soil, and freshwater fish collected from the ASSM and the downstream Paglia River. Concentrations of Hg in calcine samples ranged from 25 to 1500 μg/g, all of which exceeded the industrial soil contamination level for Hg of 5 μg/g used in Italy. Stream and lake sediment samples collected downstream from the ASSM ranged in Hg concentration from 0.26 to 15 μg/g, of which more than 50% exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 μg/g, the concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Stream and lake sediment methyl-Hg concentrations showed a significant correlation with TOC indicating considerable methylation and potential bioavailability of Hg. Stream water contained Hg as high as 1400 ng/L, but only one water sample exceeded the 1000 ng/L drinking water Hg standard used in Italy. Concentrations of Hg were elevated in freshwater fish muscle samples and ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 μg/g (wet weight), averaged 0.84 μg/g, and 96% of these exceeded the 0.3 μg/g (methyl-Hg, wet weight) USEPA fish muscle standard recommended to protect human health. Analysis of fish muscle for methyl-Hg confirmed that > 90% of the Hg in these fish is methyl-Hg. Such highly elevated Hg concentrations in fish indicated active methylation, significant bioavailability, and uptake of Hg by fish in the Paglia River ecosystem. Methyl-Hg is highly toxic and the high Hg concentrations in these fish represent a potential pathway of Hg to the human food chain.

  2. Sustainable gold mining management waste policy in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Elena; Filipciuc, Constantina

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable mining practices and consistent implementation of the mining for the closure planning approach, within an improved legislative framework, create conditions for the development of creative, profitable, environmentally-sound and socially-responsible management and reuse of mine lands. According to the World Commission on Environment and Development definition, sustainable development is the type of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Romania has the largest gold reserves in Europe (760 million tons of gold-silver ores, of which 40 million tons in 68 gold deposits in the Apuseni Mountains. New mining projects draw particular attention regarding the environmental risks they cause. Rehabilitation is an ongoing consideration throughout the mine's lifecycle, both from a technical and a financial standpoint. The costs of land rehabilitation are classified as the mine's operating costs. According to Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability, the prevention and remedying of environmental damage should be implemented by applying the "polluter pays" principle, in line with the principle of sustainable development. Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive obliges operators to provide (and periodically adjust in size) a financial guarantee for waste facility maintenance and post-closure site restoration, including land rehabilitation. According to the Romanian Mining Law, the license holder has the following obligations related to land use and protection: to provide environmental agreements as one of the prerequisites for a building permit; to regularly update the mine closure plan; to set up and maintain the financial guarantee for environmental rehabilitation; and to execute and finalize the environmental rehabilitation of affected land in the mining site, according to the mine closure plan, including the post

  3. Remote mining for in-situ waste containment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, D.; Banta, L.; Peng, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    This document presents the findings of a study conducted at West Virginia University to determine the feasibility of using a combination of longwall mining and standard landfill lining technologies to mitigate contamination of groundwater supplies by leachates from hazardous waste sites.

  4. Tridimensional modelling and resource estimation of the mining waste piles of São Domingos mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre; Matos, João; Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) northern sector, near the Portuguese/Spanish border, the outcropping São Domingos deposit was mined since Roman time. Between 1854 and 1966 the Mason & Barry Company developed open pit excavation until 120 m depth and underground mining until 420 m depth. The São Domingos subvertical deposit is associated with felsic volcanics and black shales of the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex and is represented by massive sulphide and stockwork ore (py, cpy, sph, ga, tt, aspy) and related supergene enrichment ore (hematite gossan and covellite/chalcocite). Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan (W1), felsic volcanic and shales (W2), shales (W3) and mining waste landfill (W4). Using the LNEG (Portuguese Geological Survey) CONASA database (company historical mining waste characterization based on 162 shafts and 160 reverse circulation boreholes), a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering some constraints to waste removal, such as the Mina de São Domingos village proximity of the wastes, the industrial and archaeological patrimony (e.g., mining infrastructures, roman galleries), different resource scenarios were considered: unconditioned resources (total estimates) and conditioned resources (only the volumes without removal constraints considered). Using block modelling (SURPAC software) a mineral inferred resource of 2.38 Mt @ 0.77 g/t Au and 8.26 g/t Ag is estimated in unconditioned volumes of waste. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4.0 Mt @ 0.64 g/t Au and 7.30 g/t Ag is presented, corresponding to a total metal content of 82,878 oz t Au and 955,753 oz t Ag. Keywords. São Domingos mine, mining waste resources, mining waste pile modelling, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

  5. Demonstration of NFS DeHg Process for Stabilizing Mercury (<260 ppm) Contaminated Mixed Waste. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2229

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Based on efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of wastes contaminated with < 260 ppm mercury and with radionuclides stored at various DOE sites is estimated to be approximately 6,000 m3 (Conley, Morris, Osborne-Lee, and Hulet 1998). At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. Extraction methods are required to remove mercury from waste containing >260 ppm levels, but below 260 ppm Hg contamination levels, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not require removal of mercury from the waste. Steps must still be taken, however, to ensure that the final waste form does not leach mercury in excess of the limit for mercury prescribed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At this time, the limit is 0.20mg/L. However, in the year 2000, the more stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) of 0.025 mg/L will be used as the target endpoint. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards and to be feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. To date, no standard method of stabilization has been developed and proven for such varying waste types as those within the DOE complex.

  6. Biomonitoring of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in the Baluarte River basin associated to a mining area (NW Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Green-Ruiz, C; Zavala-Nevárez, M; Soto-Jiménez, M

    2011-08-15

    With the purpose of knowing seasonal variations of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in a river basin with past and present mining activities, elemental concentrations were measured in six fish species and four crustacean species in Baluarte River, from some of the mining sites to the mouth of the river in the Pacific Ocean between May 2005 and March 2006. In fish, highest levels of Cd (0.06 μg g ⁻¹ dry weight) and Cr (0.01 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Gobiesox fluviatilis and Agonostomus monticola, respectively; the highest levels of Hg (0.56 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Guavina guavina and Mugil curema. In relation to Pb, the highest level (1.65 μg g⁻¹) was detected in A. monticola during the dry season. In crustaceans, highest levels of Cd (0.05 μg g⁻¹) occurred in Macrobrachium occidentale during both seasons; highest concentration of Cr (0.09 μg g⁻¹) was also detected in M. occidentale during the dry season. With respect to Hg, highest level (0.20 μg g⁻¹) was detected during the rainy season in Macrobrachium americanum; for Pb, the highest concentration (2.4 μg g⁻¹) corresponded to Macrobrachium digueti collected in the dry season. Considering average concentrations of trace metals in surficial sediments from all sites, Cd (pseason. Biota sediment accumulation factors above unity were detected mostly in the case of Hg in fish during both seasons. On the basis of the metal levels in fish and crustacean and the provisional tolerable weekly intake of studied elements, people can eat up to 13.99, 0.79 and 2.34 kg of fish in relation to Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively; regarding crustaceans, maximum amounts were 11.33, 2.49 and 2.68 kg of prawns relative to levels of Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Raquel; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Álvarez, Rodrigo; Rucandio, Isabel

    2012-08-01

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of León. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300-67,000 mg·kg(-1) were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the mercury emissions from burning mining waste dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Białecka

    2016-04-01

    occur and to which the environment and local inhabitants can be exposed, it is important to define the size of the emission of mercury compounds from these objects. Despite the potential threats so far no measurements of mercury concentration which would a llow quantifying this phenomenon have been done. The analyses presented in this article fill this gap. Additionally, initial calculation of annual mercury emissions from burning coal mining waste dumps in Poland is presented.

  9. Molybdenum and zinc stable isotope variation in mining waste rock drainage and waste rock at the Antamina mine, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skierszkan, E.K., E-mail: eskiersz@eos.ubc.ca [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020-2207 Main Mall, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Mayer, K.U. [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020-2207 Main Mall, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Weis, D. [Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR), Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020-2207 Main Mall, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Beckie, R.D. [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020-2207 Main Mall, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    The stable isotope composition of molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) in mine wastes at the Antamina Copper–Zn–Mo mine, Peru, was characterized to investigate whether isotopic variation of these elements indicated metal attenuation processes in mine drainage. Waste rock and ore minerals were analyzed to identify the isotopic composition of Mo and Zn sources, namely molybdenites (MoS{sub 2}) and sphalerites (ZnS). Molybdenum and Zn stable isotope ratios are reported relative to the NIST-SRM-3134 and PCIGR-1 Zn standards, respectively. δ{sup 98}Mo among molybdenites ranged from − 0.6 to + 0.6‰ (n = 9) while sphalerites showed no δ{sup 66}Zn variations (0.11 ± 0.01‰, 2 SD, n = 5). Mine drainage samples from field waste rock weathering experiments were also analyzed to examine the extent of isotopic variability in the dissolved phase. Variations spanned 2.2‰ in δ{sup 98}Mo (− 0.1 to + 2.1‰) and 0.7‰ in δ{sup 66}Zn (− 0.4 to + 0.3‰) in mine drainage over a wide pH range (pH 2.2–8.6). Lighter δ{sup 66}Zn signatures were observed in alkaline pH conditions, which was consistent with Zn adsorption and/or hydrozincite (Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 6}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}) formation. However, in acidic mine drainage Zn isotopic compositions reflected the value of sphalerites. In addition, molybdenum isotope compositions in mine drainage were shifted towards heavier values (0.89 ± 1.25‰, 2 SD, n = 16), with some overlap, in comparison to molybdenites and waste rock (0.13 ± 0.82‰, 2 SD, n = 9). The cause of heavy Mo isotopic signatures in mine drainage was more difficult to resolve due to isotopic heterogeneity among ore minerals and a variety of possible overlapping processes including dissolution, adsorption and secondary mineral precipitation. This study shows that variation in metal isotope ratios are promising indicators of metal attenuation. Future characterization of isotopic fractionation associated to key environmental reactions will improve the power

  10. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios, Raquel; Fernandez-Martinez, Rodolfo [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Rodrigo [Dpto. de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, ETS de Ingenieros de Minas, C/Independencia, 13, E-33004 Oviedo (Spain); Rucandio, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.rucandio@ciemat.es [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of Leon. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300-67,000 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1} were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  11. Plant growth in amended molybdenum mine waste rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Owen T; Redente, Edward F; Lambert, Charles E

    2017-04-01

    This greenhouse study examined the use of organic and inorganic soil amendments in waste rock material from the former Questa Molybdenum Mine in northern New Mexico to promote beneficial soil properties. Waste rock material was amended with 11 soil amendment treatments that included municipal composted biosolids, Biosol®, inorganic fertilizer, and two controls (pure waste rock and sand). Elymus trachycaulus and Robinia neomexicana growth performance and plant chemistry were assessed across all treatments over a period of 99 and 141 days, respectively. Even though waste rock material had more than 200 times the molybdenum concentration of native soils, adverse effects were not observed for either species. The two main limiting factors in this study were soil nutritional status and soil water retention. The biosolid amendment was found to provide the greatest buffer against these limiting factors due to significant increases in both nutrition and soil water retention. As a result, both species responded with the highest levels of biomass production and the least amount of required water demands. Use of organic amendments such as biosolids, even though short lived in the soil, may provide plants the necessary growth stimulus to become more resilient to the harsh conditions found on many mine reclamation sites.

  12. Tannery and coal mining waste disposal on soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kray, C.H.; Tedesco, M.J.; Bissani, C.A.; Gianello, C.; da Silva, K.J. [CEFET BG, Goncalves (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Tannery residues and coal mine waste are heavily polluting sources in Brazil, mainly in the Southern States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. In order to study the effects of residues of chrome leather tanning (sludge and leather shavings) and coal waste on soybean and maize crops, a field experiment is in progress since 1996, at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Experimental Station, county of Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The residues were applied twice (growing seasons 1996/97 and 1999/00). The amounts of tannery residues were applied according to their neutralizing value, at rates of up to 86.8 t ha{sup -1}, supplying from 671 to 1.342 kg ha{sup -1} Cr(III); coal waste was applied at a total rate of 164 t ha{sup -1}. Crop yield and dry matter production were evaluated, as well as the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn) and Cr contents. Crop yields with tannery sludge application were similar to those obtained with N and lime supplied with mineral amendments. Plant Cr absorption did not increase significantly with the residue application. Tannery sludge can be used also to neutralize the high acidity developed in the soil by coal mine waste.

  13. Probabilistic meta-analysis of risk from the exposure to Hg in artisanal gold mining communities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Clavijo, Diana; Ortega, Marcelo F; Gómez, Amaia

    2014-08-01

    Colombia is one of the largest per capita mercury polluters in the world as a consequence of its artisanal gold mining activities. The severity of this problem in terms of potential health effects was evaluated by means of a probabilistic risk assessment carried out in the twelve departments (or provinces) in Colombia with the largest gold production. The two exposure pathways included in the risk assessment were inhalation of elemental Hg vapors and ingestion of fish contaminated with methyl mercury. Exposure parameters for the adult population (especially rates of fish consumption) were obtained from nation-wide surveys and concentrations of Hg in air and of methyl-mercury in fish were gathered from previous scientific studies. Fish consumption varied between departments and ranged from 0 to 0.3 kg d(-1). Average concentrations of total mercury in fish (70 data) ranged from 0.026 to 3.3 μg g(-1). A total of 550 individual measurements of Hg in workshop air (ranging from Colombia.

  14. Automated Mineral Analysis to Characterize Metalliferous Mine Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Ana-Sophie; Lottermoser, Bernd G.; Vossen, Peter; Langenberg, Lukas C.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of automated QEMSCAN® mineral analysis combined with bulk geochemical analysis to evaluate the environmental risk of non-acid producing mine waste present at the historic Albertsgrube Pb-Zn mine site, Hastenrath, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Geochemical analyses revealed elevated average abundances of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn and near neutral to slightly alkaline paste pH values. Mineralogical analyses using the QEMSCAN® revealed diverse mono- and polymineralic particles across all samples, with grain sizes ranging from a few μm up to 2000 μm. Calcite and dolomite (up to 78 %), smithsonite (up to 24 %) and Ca sulphate (up to 11.5 %) are present mainly as coarse-grained particles. By contrast, significant amounts of quartz, muscovite/illite, sphalerite (up to 10.8 %), galena (up to 1 %), pyrite (up to 3.4 %) and cerussite/anglesite (up to 4.3 %) are present as fine-grained (<500 μm) particles. QEMSCAN® analysis also identified disseminated sauconite, coronadite/chalcophanite, chalcopyrite, jarosite, apatite, rutile, K-feldspar, biotite, Fe (hydr) oxides/CO3 and unknown Zn Pb(Fe) and Zn Pb Ca (Fe Ti) phases. Many of the metal-bearing sulphide grains occur as separate particles with exposed surface areas and thus, may be matter of environmental concern because such mineralogical hosts will continue to release metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Sb, Zn) at near neutral pH into ground and surface waters. QEMSCAN® mineral analysis allows acquisition of fully quantitative data on the mineralogical composition, textural characteristics and grain size estimation of mine waste material and permits the recognition of mine waste as “high-risk” material that would have otherwise been classified by traditional geochemical tests as benign.

  15. Assessment of Hg contamination and exposure to miners and schoolchildren at a small-scale gold mining and recovery operation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbangtalad, S; Parkpian, P; Visvanathan, C; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-12-01

    Gold extracted by Hg-amalgamation process, which can cause both health and environmental problems, is widespread in South East Asia including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Small-scale gold mining operations have been carried out since the year 2000 in Phanom Pha District, Phichit Province, Thailand. Since no data is available for evaluating Hg exposure, an investigation of mercury (Hg) contamination and exposure assessment was carried out at this mine site. Environmental monitoring illustrated the total Hg in water was as high as 4 microg/l while Hg in sediment ranged between 102 to 325 microg/kg dry weight. Both Hg deposition from the air (1.28 microg/100 cm(2)/day) and concentration in surface soil (20,960 microg/kg dry weight) were elevated in the area of amalgamation. The potential of Hg exposure to miners as well as to schoolchildren was assessed. The concentrations of Hg in urine of 79 miners who were directly (group I) or indirectly (group II) involved in the gold recovery operation were 32.02 and 20.04 microg/g creatinine, respectively, which did not exceed regulatory limits (35 microg/g creatinine). Hair Hg levels in both groups (group I and group II) also were not significantly higher than the non-exposed group. In terms of risk factors, gender and nature of food preparation and consumption were the two significant variables influencing the concentration of Hg in urine of miners (P < 0.05). A hazard quotient (HQ) was estimated based on the inorganic Hg exposure of individual miners. The HQ values of group I were in a range 16 to 218 times higher than the safety level set as 1. By comparison the group II HQ index was very low (0.03-0.39). The miners in group I who worked and ate food from this area experienced potentially high exposure to Hg associated with the mining process. In a second Hg exposure assessment, a group of 59 schoolchildren who attended an elementary school near the gold mine site was evaluated for Hg exposure. A slightly higher

  16. Urban mining : Recycling gypsum waste in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamley, J.A. [New West Gypsum Recycling Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Wallboard manufacturing, construction and deconstruction activities in North America, Europe and Japan result in large amounts of gypsum scrap, which creates an environmental problem. Disposing of this gypsum scrap in landfills often leads to hydrogen sulfide emissions and metallic sulfide groundwater leachates. Europe has dealt with the problem by enacting legislation that will come into effect in July 2005. The legislation is designed to strongly encourage gypsum recycling throughout entire jurisdictions. It is estimated that approximately 10 to 17 per cent of all gypsum used in the wallboard industry ends up as gypsum scrap. In North America, it represents almost one per cent of total waste. Each year in the United States, between 2.5 and 4.5 million tonnes of gypsum scrap are generated, with numbers very similar to Europe (the higher use of brick and concrete in Europe reduces the percentage of total tonnage). Gypsum has been banned from the landfills of British Columbia's Greater Vancouver region, forcing the recycling of all gypsum scrap. Large quantities of gypsum scrap are processed by New West Recycling, a Canadian firm using proprietary technology. This process leads to the re-incorporation of scrap gypsum into new wallboard, with the percentages sometimes reaching as high as 25 per cent. A case study of New West Recycling Inc., located in Langley, British Columbia was presented and recommendations were made concerning how other urban regions can implement gypsum scrap recycling programs modeled after this one. 6 refs.

  17. Mineral Carbonation Employing Ultramafic Mine Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, G.; McCutcheon, J.; Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate minerals are an important, stable carbon sink being investigated as a strategy to sequester CO2 produced by human activity. A natural playa (Atlin, BC, CAN) that has demonstrated the ability to microbially-accelerate hydromagnesite formation was used as an experimental model. Growth of microbial mats from Atlin, in a 10 m long flow-through bioreactor catalysed hydromagnesite precipitation under 'natural' conditions. To enhance mineral carbonation, chrysotile from the Clinton Creek Asbestos Mine (YT, CAN) was used as a target substrate for sulphuric acid leaching, releasing as much as 94% of the magnesium into solution via chemical weathering. This magnesium-rich 'feedstock' was used to examine the ability of the microbialites to enhance carbonate mineral precipitation using only atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source. The phototrophic consortium catalysed the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] accompanied by magnesite [MgCO3], aragonite [CaCO3], and minor dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O]. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy indicated that cell exteriors and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) served as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. In many cases, entire cyanobacteria filaments were entombed in magnesium carbonate coatings, which appeared to contain a framework of EPS. Cell coatings were composed of small crystals, which intuitively resulted from rapid crystal nucleation. Excess nutrient addition generated eutrophic conditions in the bioreactor, resulting in the growth of a pellicle that sealed the bioreactor contents from the atmosphere. The resulting anaerobic conditions induced fermentation and subsequent acid generation, which in turn caused a drop in pH to circumneutral values and a reduction in carbonate precipitation. Monitoring of the water chemistry conditions indicated that a high pH (> 9.4), and relatively high concentrations of magnesium (> 3000 ppm), compared with the natural

  18. Preliminary screening of bacterial isolates from mining wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino S.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing innovative biotechnology for obtaining new resources of high tech critical metals is strongly influenced by the need to reduce the potential risk of shortages, to support the development of industry at European level. To set up these new technologies is essential to isolate strains with high potential in bioleaching of ore, tailings and mine wastes and bioaccumulation of high tech critical metals. Microorganisms are capable of mediating metal and mineral bioprecipitation. In this paper are presented preliminary studies performed for the isolation of strains existing in mining residues containing high tech critical metals. Were used samples collected from various depths in an area of mining wastes containing high tech critical metals. The samples were fine grounded and the powder was washed with sterile saline water. Exact quantities of samples were dispersed in sterile saline water, shaken for a period of 60 minutes, diluted and plated in triplicate on selective agar. After several steps were isolated 3 strains of gram negative bacteria.

  19. Simultaneous Removal of Hg(II and Phenol Using Functionalized Activated Carbon Derived from Areca Nut Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalhmunsiama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut waste was utilized to obtain high surface area activated carbon (AC, and it was further functionalized with succinic anhydride under microwave irradiation. The surface morphology and surface functional groups of the materials were discussed with the help of scanning electron microscope(SEM images and fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR analysis. The specific surface area of the AC and functionalized-AC was obtained by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method, and found to be 367.303 and 308.032 m2/g, respectively. Batch experiments showed that higher pH favoured the removal of Hg(II, whereas the phenol removal was slightly affected by the changes in the solution pH. The kinetic data followed pseudo-first order kinetic model, and intra-particle diffusion played a significant role in the removal of both pollutants. The maximum sorption capacity of Hg(II and phenol were evaluated using Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and found to be 11.23 and 5.37 mg/g, respectively. The removal of Hg(II was significantly suppressed in the presence of chloride ions due to the formation of a HgCl2 species. The phenol was specifically adsorbed, forming the donor–acceptor complexes or π–π electron interactions at the surface of the solid. Further, a fixed-bed column study was conducted for both Hg(II and phenol. The loading capacity of the column was estimated using the nonlinear Thomas equation, and found to be 2.49 and 2.70 mg/g, respectively. Therefore, the study showed that functionalized AC obtained from areca nut waste could be employed as a sustainable adsorbent for the simultaneous removal of Hg(II and phenol from polluted water.

  20. Leaching characteristics, ecotoxicity, and risk assessment based management of mine wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.; Hong, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Mine wastes generated during mining activities in metal mines generally contain high concentrations of metals that may impose toxic effects to surrounding environment. Thus, it is necessary to properly assess the mining-impacted landscapes for management. The study investigated leaching characteristics, potential environmental effects, and human health risk of mine wastes from three different metal mines in South Korea (molybdenum mine, lead-zinc mine, and magnetite mine). The heavy metal concentrations in the leachates obtained by using the Korean Standard Test Method for Solid Wastes (STM), Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) met the Korea Waste Control Act and the USEPA region 3 regulatory levels accordingly, even though the mine wastes contained high concentrations of metals. Assuming that the leachates may get into nearby water sources, the leachate toxicity was tested using Daphnia Magna. The toxic unit (TU) values after 24 h and 48 h exposure of all the mine wastes tested met the Korea Allowable Effluent Water Quality Standards (TUmine waste may have long-term toxic effects (TU>1 for the eluent at L/S of 30) implying that the long-term effect of mine wastes left in mining areas need to be assessed. Considering reuse of mine wastes as a way of managing mine wastes, the human health risk assessment of reusing the lead-zinc mine waste in industrial areas was carried out using the bioavailable fraction of the heavy metals contained in the mine wastes, which was determined by using the Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium method. There may be potential carcinogenic risk (9.7E-05) and non-carcinogenic risk (HI, Hazard Index of 1.0E+00) as CR≧1.0E-05 has carcinogenic risk and HI≧1.0E+00 has non-carcinogenic risk. Overall, this study shows that not only the concentration-based assessment but ecological toxic effect and human health risk based assessments can be utilized for mining

  1. Contribution of mine wastes to atmospheric metal deposition in the surrounding area of an abandoned heavily polluted mining district (Rio Tinto mines, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; Gonzalez, Isabel; Romero, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of abandoned mine wastes on the levels and chemical profile of total atmospheric deposition in one of the oldest and largest mining districts in Europe (Rio Tinto mines, Iberian Pyrite Belt), on the basis of a complete geochemical characterization of particulate matter samples periodically collected in five sampling stations located around the mining district between March 2009 and February 2011. The annual levels of total bulk deposition (soluble and insoluble fractions) registered in the Rio Tinto Mining District ranged between 18 and 43 g/m(2) depending on the distance from the sampling station with regard to the mine waste deposits. As a general pattern in the area, high mass levels of Zn and Cu were deposited in a range of 9-62 mg/m(2) not only in the insoluble but also in the soluble fraction. Other potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn and Bi showed greater deposition fluxes in the locations closest to the mine waste deposits. A principal component analysis with a Multilinear Regression Analysis certifies the presence of two common sources in the mining area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals (Al, Ca, Sr, Ti, Li, Mg, Mn, K, Na and Fe), mixed with other anthropogenic species (NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-)) within the village closest to the mine; and 2) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg, SO4(2-) and Sr. In addition, a mine waste factor made up of toxic elements (Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn, Cd and Bi) has been recognized in the sampling sites exposed to dust-bearing winds downwind of the mining area, suggesting that mine wastes are a relevant source of heavy-mineral particles with potentially adverse environmental effects to surrounding soils, plants and humans.

  2. Valorization of mining waste from Ouenza iron ore mine (eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Idres

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article is devoted to the development of a hematite-poor ore mine in Ouenza, which does not meet the steelmaker's requirements. Significant volumes are stored at the pithead of the mine, and the reserves are estimated at over 100 million tones. This enormous quantity of mining waste occupies an important space and poses a real threat to the environment as well as for the mining city of Ouenza. In order to solve these socio-economic and environmental problems, a sustainable development and a better quality of life for inhabitants of this region is needed. For this, representative samples were taken at the level of the dumps. Taking into account the natural characteristics of the stock namely; mineralogical composition, iron content, particle size of the rock mass, as well as the release mesh of iron minerals from the gangue. Firstly, tests are conducted on the recovery by radiometric separation of iron-rich pieces and graded. Then the rest of the ore was subjected to mechanical preparation followed by enrichment, which will be the subject of another study. The research is conducted on samples to determine the optimal parameters of the g-rays absorption tested by radiometry; these parameters were the velocity of the conveyor belt and the time of exposure to g-rays. The obtained results by this valorization process are very significant: iron content 53.5% and 8.3% recovery.

  3. Mining the waste: prospecting valuable residues optimising processes with modern technology sustainably remediating legacy sites

    OpenAIRE

    Lemière, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Prospecting valuable residuesAbandoned waste from closed mines or past operations may contain profitably recoverable commodities:-when the market price of the commodity increased significantly since mine closure,-when processing technology improved significantly since mine closure,-when another commodity present in the ore was not recovered and thus sent to waste, because it was not of commercial value at the time. This is especially relevant for some high-tech element...

  4. Effects of oral exposure to mining waste on in vivo dopamine release from rat striatum.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Several single components of mining waste (arsenic, manganese, lead, cadmium) to which humans are exposed at the mining area of Villa de la Paz, Mexico, are known to provoke alterations of striatal dopaminergic parameters. In this study we used an animal model to examine neurochemical changes resulting from exposure to a metal mixture. We used microdialysis to compare in vivo dopamine release from adult rats subchronically exposed to a mining waste by oral route with those from a control grou...

  5. Possibilities of Utilization of Aggregates and Extractive Waste from Hard Coal Mining at Janina Mine in the Process of Reclamation of Open-pit Mines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beata Klojzy-Karczmarczyk; Janusz Mazurek; Krzysztof Paw

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the economic importance of gangue mined during coal production has changed and it is currently treated more and more often not as waste but as a source of mineral resources for economic use...

  6. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  7. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never

  8. Waste Management Using a Multilevel Distributed System and Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DANILESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration is conducted through the control of events and management of problems in the territory. Economical growth and nowadays technologies lead to difficult problems related to environmental protection against pollution and to people safety against various direct threats from air soil, food. In this respect, an increasing importance get the collection of information and its processing and interpretation just to understand and discover threats and potential disturbance of the environment and health. The paper proposes a multilevel system for the administrative bodies involved in environment matters at local regional and national levels, which may collect and scrutiny data on waste generation, spread and reuse/elimination, and provide sound instruments to assist decision makers of the corresponding levels, using Data Mining and Business Intelligence.

  9. Application of fuel cell for pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.

    2015-12-01

    Once pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste reacts with water and air it produces acid mine drainage (AMD) and leads to the other environmental problems such as contamination of surrounding soils. Pyrite is the major source of AMD and it can be controlled using a biological-electrochemical dissolution method. By enhancing the dissolution of pyrite using fuel cell technology, not only mining waste be beneficially utilized but also be treated at the same time by. As pyrite-containing mining waste is oxidized in the anode of the fuel cell, electrons and protons are generated, and electrons moves through an external load to cathode reducing oxygen to water while protons migrate to cathode through a proton exchange membrane. Iron-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which can utilize Fe as an electron donor promotes pyrite dissolution and hence enhances electrochemical dissolution of pyrite from mining waste. In this study mining waste from a zinc mine in Korea containing 17 wt% pyrite and 9% As was utilized as a fuel for the fuel cell inoculated with A. ferrooxidans. Electrochemically dissolved As content and chemically dissolved As content was compared. With the initial pH of 3.5 at 23℃, the dissolved As concentration increased (from 4.0 to 13 mg/L after 20 d) in the fuel cell, while it kept decreased in the chemical reactor (from 12 to 0.43 mg/L after 20 d). The fuel cell produced 0.09 V of open circuit voltage with the maximum power density of 0.84 mW/m2. Dissolution of As from mining waste was enhanced through electrochemical reaction. Application of fuel cell technology is a novel treatment method for pyrite and heavy metals containing mining waste, and this method is beneficial for mining environment as well as local community of mining areas.

  10. Geochemical characterization of slags, other mines wastes, and their leachates from the Elizabeth and Ely mines (Vermont), the Ducktown mining district (Tennessee), and the Clayton smelter site (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul H.

    2003-01-01

    Waste-rock material produced at historic metal mines contains elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Two types of mine waste were examined in this study: sintered waste rock and slag. The samples were collected from the Elizabeth and Ely mines in the Vermont copper belt (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), from the Copper Basin mining district near Ducktown, Tennessee (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), and from the Clayton silver mine in the Bayhorse mining district, Idaho (polymetallic vein and replacement deposits). The data in this report are presented as a compilation with minimal interpretation or discussion. A detailed discussion and interpretation of the slag data are presented in a companion paper. Data collected from sintered waste rock and slag include: (1) bulk rock chemistry, (2) mineralogy, (3) and the distribution of trace elements among phases for the slag samples. In addition, the reactivity of the waste material under surficial conditions was assessed by examining secondary minerals formed on slag and by laboratory leaching tests using deionized water and a synthetic solution approximating precipitation in the eastern United States.

  11. The As removal from arsenopyrite-bearing mine waste by microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Myung, Eun Ji; Hack Lim, Dae; Kim, Bong Ju; Park, Cheon Young

    2016-04-01

    Penalties incurred by miners for arsenic in concentrates have increased significantly because the removal and disposal of arsenic is difficult and costly for smelters and because the environmental challenges are increasing worldwide. Typically miners incur penalties on arsenic in concentrates above 0.2% As with smelter rejection limits of 0.5%. Therefore, finding an effective solution for removing As during primary mining activities is necessary to avoid penalty. The aim of this study was to investigate the As removal from mine waste using microwave process. The mine waste samples were characterized by chemical and XRD analysis. To determine of As removal from the microwave experiments, aqua regia digestion was performed according to Korean environmental standard method(KESM) and the As removal effect were evaluated using the standard EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure(TCLP, EPA 1311 method). The result of mineralogical character for mine waste using XRD was detected arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and quartz. The chemical analysis of As, Pb, Zn contents in the mine waste measured 13,896.0, 896.1 and 1,054.6 mg/kg, respectively. The As removal of experiments was conducted to examine the effects of microwave exposure time(1~15min). The results showed that the As removal in mine waste (exposure time = 10min) was 92.90%, and the temperature of mine waste by microwave heating was 886℃. The TCLP leaching of treated mine waste by microwave measured values were below the EPA's current regulatory threshold(As, Pb, Zn : 5 mg/L). The optimum condition of microwave exposure for As removal from arsenopyrite-bearing mine waste was obtained at 800W, 2450MHz, 10min. Acknowledgment : This work was supported by the Energy and Resources Engineering Program Grant funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Korea

  12. Vegetation establishment on a deposit of zinc mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, J; Steen, E

    1989-01-01

    Field trials concerning the establishment of plant cover on a deposit of wastes from the Ammeberg zinc mine in central Sweden were carried out during 1976-1985. Different soil conditioners and manures were applied and plant species cultivars were evaluated with regard to plant biomass, vigour, durability and content of zinc, lead and cadmium. Sewage sludge and topsoil led to better establishment of grasses than did municipal waste, straw and hydraulic seeding. After 2 years, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis dominated the swards. Other species (Dactylis glomerata, Bromus inermis, Lolium perenne, Phleum nodosum, Festuca pratensis and F. arundinacea) constituted only a minor part of the stand. After 10 years, F. rubra was the most dominant species, while native Agrostis tenuis had invaded 20-50% of the area within the plots. Merlin was the clearly dominant red fescue cultivar. The concentration of zinc in shoots (616 mg kg(-1) dw) was about 10% of that in the soil. Zinc concentration decreased with increasing biomass above ground. It increased with age in Scots pine needles and was very high in birch leaves. Grasses survived longer than legumes in the zinc sand waste. Among the surviving grasses was a group with high (3800 mg kg(-1) dw) and a group with low (320 mg kg(-1) dw) zinc concentrations. The low group included Merlin red fescue and Sobel creeping bent. The cultivar Merlin contained a much lower zinc concentration than the other cultivars of red fescue (375 and 624 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively). A large amount of root biomass was present in plots with dominating Merlin red fescue (1715 g m(-2)), 97% of which was concentrated in the top 10 cm of the soil. The concentration of zinc in the roots was very high (13 000-25 000 mg kg(-1) dw). Nitrate fertilizer, especially ammonium nitrate, and acidic water (pH 4.3) increased zinc leaching.

  13. Geochemical Characteristics of TP3 Mine Wastes at the Elizabeth Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.; Muzik, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Remediation of the Elizabeth mine Superfund site in the Vermont copper belt poses challenges for balancing environmental restoration goals with issues of historic preservation while adopting cost-effective strategies for site cleanup and long-term maintenance. The waste-rock pile known as TP3, at the headwaters of Copperas Brook, is especially noteworthy in this regard because it is the worst source of surface- and ground-water contamination identified to date, while also being the area of greatest historical significance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of the historic mine-waste piles known as TP3 at the Elizabeth mine Superfund site near South Strafford, Orange County, VT. TP3 is a 12.3-acre (49,780 m2) subarea of the Elizabeth mine site. It is a focus area for historic preservation because it encompasses an early 19th century copperas works as well as waste from late 19th- and 20th century copper mining (Kierstead, 2001). Surface runoff and seeps from TP3 form the headwaters of Copperas Brook. The stream flows down a valley onto flotation tailings from 20th century copper mining operations and enters the West Branch of the Ompompanoosuc River approximately 1 kilometer downstream from the mine site. Shallow drinking water wells down gradient from TP3 exceed drinking water standards for copper and cadmium (Hathaway and others, 2001). The Elizabeth mine was listed as a Superfund site in 2001, mainly because of impacts of acid-mine drainage on the Ompompanoosuc River.

  14. A hydrostratigraphical approach to support environmentally safe siting of a mining waste facility at Rautuvaara, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howett, Peter J.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Hyttinen, Outi

    2015-01-01

    A hydrostratigraphical approach to support environmentally safe siting of a mining waste facility at Rautuvaara, Finland Based on the construction of a detailed sedimentological model, hydrostratigraphy and local groundwater/surface water flows, this paper analyses the Niesajoki river valley...

  15. Geochemical sampling scheme optimization on mine wastes based on hyperspectral data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhao, T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available annealing uses the Weighted Means Shortest Distance (WMSD) criterion between sampling points. The scaled weight function intensively samples areas where an abundance of weathering mine waste occurs. A threshold is defined to constrain the sampling points...

  16. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  17. COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY USING AHP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kubicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of tailing ponds sites for storing all types of waste materials creates multiple problems concerning waste disposal and the environmental impact of the waste. Tailing ponds waste may comprise e.g. flotation tailings from ore enrichment plants. Despite the fact that companies / corporations use state-of-the-art methods of extraction and processing of copper ore, and introduce modern systems of organization and production management, the area located closest to the reservoir is exposed to its negative effects. Many types of waste material are a valuable source of secondary raw materials which are suitable for use by various industries. Examples of such materials are mining waste (flotation tailings, usually neutral to the environment, whose quantities produced in the process of exploitation of minerals is sizeable. The article compares different technological methods of mining waste disposal using AHP method and their environmental impact.

  18. Charging for the waste dumping of open-pit metal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbing Hou; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Haifeng Duan; Liming Xue

    2006-01-01

    Based on the externality theory and the environmental value theory, the hypothesis of charging for waste dumping of open-pit metal mines was put forth. The charging methods were designed according to the characteristics of waste dumping of openpit metal mines, including charging based on the dumping amount of the total waste, multi-charging factors, exceeding standard punishment charging, and so on. The main charging parameter is based on the dumping area rather than the total amount of waste dumping.The charging model of waste dumping of open-pit mines was formulated, and the charging rate was divided into two parts, i.e., the standard charging rate and the differential charging rate. The standard charging rate was derived using the equilibrium dynamic model,whereas the differential one was obtained by establishing the fuzzy synthesized evaluation model.

  19. The impact of disposal and treatment of coal mining wastes on environment and farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengfu; Dong, Jihong; Lei, Shaogang; Leng, Hailong; Mu, Shouguo; Wang, Hui

    2009-08-01

    In China, coal mining wastes have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air, soil and water environments and landscapes through dust generation, leachate production, self-ignition and as a consequence of an absence of vegetation cover. Since 1980s, the disposal technique for coal mining wastes has been changing and in many instances the wastes are now transported directly to subsided land as a fill to enable the reuse of that land. Thus, today, both coal mining waste dumps from the past and filled subsided lands are in existence. However, the comparative impacts of these different disposal techniques on the environment and farmland productivity have not been studied in detail. Using Dongtan (DT), Nantun (NT) and Xinglongzhuang (XLZ) coal mines as examples, the components of coal mining wastes and their potential pollution contribution to soil, surface water and ground water are tested in-situ. The results show that contaminants are released after self-ignition and weathering of coal mining wastes, but they are not above the allowable environmental standards. However, despite these findings, more and closer attention needs to be paid to the mobility, transportation and accumulation of these contaminants in the environment over time.

  20. Measurements and predictions of surface gas fluxes and actual evaporation on mine waste rock dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabwe, L.K.; Wilson, G.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Long-term closure issues with respect to the mining industry and acid rock drainage (ARD) management require accurate measurements, predictions and monitoring of surface gas fluxes and actual evaporation on mine waste-rock dumps. This study uses a technique, called the dynamic closed chamber system (DCC) that measures the oxygen flux into mine waste dumps. The technique was used with an oxygen gas analyzer to directly measure the change in the oxygen concentration in the headspace of the chamber installed at the surface of the waste dumps. A SoilCover model was also used to predict evaporation fluxes on a waste-rock pile after heavy rainfall events. Measurement of actual evaporation across the surfaces of waste dumps is important in the design of soil covers. The paper discussed the site locations including the Key Lake uranium mine located at the southern rim of the Athabasca Basin in north central Saskatchewan as well as the Syncrude Canada Ltd. mine, located 30 km north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Materials and methods used in the study as well as results and subsequent discussion were also presented. The effect of relative humidity and the effect of soil cover system on oxygen diffusion was reviewed. It was concluded that the SoilCover numerical model can be a useful tool for prediction of actual evaporation on mine waste dumps. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Bioaccessible lead in soils, slag, and mine wastes from an abandoned mining district in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Sérgio T; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2008-06-01

    We determined the amount of bioaccessible lead in samples of contaminated soils and in mining and refining wastes collected in the surroundings of a former smelter in a rural area in southeastern Brazil. Previous studies showed that some resident children and adults had blood Pb levels above recommended limits, but the contamination route was not established. The incidental ingestion of contaminated soils and dusts is considered to be a major route of lead uptake by humans. Bioavailability of heavy metals like Pb depends on solubility during digestion. We used in vitro tests that simulate human gastrointestinal (GI) media to measure the amount of soluble Pb under such conditions. Pb in soil and solid waste samples ranged from 0.03 to 4.1% and 1.2 to 15%, respectively. On average, 70% of the lead content was soluble in three different simulated gastric solutions (pH 1.5 and 1.7). For the same samples, lead solubility decreased to 2-22% when the pH was raised to pH 7 to approximate conditions found in the small intestine. These results indicate that if soils and dusts of the area are ingested, most of the lead will dissolve in the stomach, and part of it will remain soluble in the duodenum, i.e., would be potentially available for absorption. These findings may explain the high blood Pb levels previously reported.

  2. Effects of oral exposure to mining waste on in vivo dopamine release from rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, V M; Dufour, L; Carrizales, L; Díaz-Barriga, F; Jiménez-Capdeville, M E

    1998-01-01

    Several single components of mining waste (arsenic, manganese, lead, cadmium) to which humans are exposed at the mining area of Villa de la Paz, Mexico, are known to provoke alterations of striatal dopaminergic parameters. In this study we used an animal model to examine neurochemical changes resulting from exposure to a metal mixture. We used microdialysis to compare in vivo dopamine release from adult rats subchronically exposed to a mining waste by oral route with those from a control group and from a sodium arsenite group (25 mg/kg/day). We found that arsenic and manganese do accumulate in rat brain after 2 weeks of oral exposure. The mining waste group showed significantly decreased basal levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC; 66.7 +/- 7.53 pg/ microl) when compared to a control group (113.7 +/- 14.3 pg/ microl). Although basal dopamine release rates were comparable among groups, when the system was challenged with a long-standing depolarization through high-potassium perfusion, animals exposed to mining waste were not able to sustain an increased dopamine release in response to depolarization (mining waste group 5.5 +/- 0.5 pg/ microl versus control group 21.7 +/- 5.8 pg/ microl). Also, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were significantly lower in exposed animals than in controls during stimulation with high potassium. The arsenite group showed a similar tendency to that from the mining waste group. In vivo microdialysis provides relevant data about the effects of a chemical mixture. Our results indicate that this mining waste may represent a health risk for the exposed population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9681976

  3. Fibre-optic bacterial biosensors and their application for the analysis of bioavailable Hg and As in soils and sediments from Aznalcollar mining area in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivask, Angela; Green, Tal; Polyak, Boris; Mor, Amit; Kahru, Anne; Virta, Marko; Marks, Robert

    2007-02-15

    Fibre-optic biosensors for Hg and As were developed by attaching alginate-immobilised recombinant luminescent Hg- and As-sensor bacteria onto optical fibres. The optimised biosensors (consisting of seven layers of fibre-attached bacteria pre-grown till mid-logarithmic growth phase) enabled quantification of environmentally relevant concentrations of the target analytes: 2.6 microg l-1 of Hg(II) and 141 microg l-1 of As(V) or 18 microg l-1 of As(III). The highest viability and sensitivity for target analyte was obtained when fibre tips were stored in CaCl2 solution at -80 degrees C. Applicability of the fibre-optic biosensors in parallel to the respective non-immobilised sensors was assessed on 10 natural soil and sediment samples from Aznalcollar mining area (Spain). On the average 0.2% of the total Hg and 0.87% of the total As proved bioavailable to fibre-attached bacteria. Interestingly, about 20-fold more Hg and 4-fold more As was available to non-immobilised sensor bacteria indicating the importance of direct cell contact (possible only for non-immobilised cells) for enhanced bioavailability of these metals in solid samples.

  4. Disposal and improvement of contaminated by waste extraction of copper mining in chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Blanco Fernández, David; Díaz González, Marcos; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Decinti Weiss, Alejandra; Tapia Alvarez, Carolina; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    This project originated from the need of a mining company, which mines and processes copper ore. High purity copper is produced with an annual production of 1,113,928 tons of concentrate to a law of 32%. This mining company has generated several illegal landfills and has been forced by the government to make a management center Industrial Solid Waste (ISW). The forecast volume of waste generated is 20,000 tons / year. Chemical analysis established that the studied soil has a high copper content, caused by nature or from the spread of contaminants from mining activities. Moreover, in some sectors, soil contamination by mercury, hydrocarbons and oils and fats were detected, likely associated with the accumulation of waste. The waters are also impacted by mining industrial tasks, specifically copper ores, molybdenum, manganese, sulfates and have an acidic pH. The ISW management center dispels the pollution of soil and water and concentrating all activities in a technically suitable place. In this center the necessary guidelines for the treatment and disposal of soil contamination caused by uncontrolled landfills are given, also generating a leachate collection system and a network of fluid monitoring physicochemical water quality and soil environment. Keywords: Industrial solid waste, soil contamination, Mining waste

  5. Heavy metal levels (Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) in the adult general population near an urban solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubero, Miren Begoña; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Arenaza, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Carlos; Sáenz, José Ramón

    2010-09-15

    In 2005 an urban solid waste incinerator (SWI) was commissioned in Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain). Serum and urine samples were collected from 95 and 107 volunteers in 2006 and 2008 respectively, of which 62 were repeats from the same individuals. Blood lead levels (BPb) were determined, as were the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) in urine (UCd, UCr and UHg). The town of Alonsotegi and a borough of Bilbao (Altamira, Rekalde) were considered to be close, less than 2 km from the plant, and correspond to an urban environment with high traffic density. The areas of reference were a borough of Bilbao (Santutxu-Zurbaran), 5 km from the plant, also in an urban area with high traffic density, and a small town with little industrial activity and low traffic density (Balmaseda) 20 km from the plant; neither of these is downwind from the site with respect to prevailing winds. There was a significant correlation for BPb, r=0.63 (p0.05). Multiple linear regression models did not show increases over time of the levels of BPb, UCd, UCr and UHg in the areas close to the SWI compared to those of areas located further away, after adjusting for confounding variables. These results reinforce the hypothesis that populations near modern plants for solid waste incineration do not manifest increased levels of heavy metals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the properties of mine waste in the midwestern coal fields. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-04

    In an effort to assist the coal industry in complying with the applicable regulations, to design safe and environmentally acceptable disposal systems, and to encourage secondary use of coal mine waste, the US Department of Energy has initiated research programs to develop coal mine waste disposal and use technology. This study of the properties of mine wastes in the Midwestern coal fields has been limited to the waste materials obtained from underground coal mines and preparation plants attached to both underground and surface mines. The program has been divided into two phases. In Phase I, the 20 most important properties relevant to safe disposal, reclamation, underground disposal, and secondary uses have been identified. An inventory of the significant waste disposal sites in the Midwestern coal fields has been prepared. The site locations have been plotted on USGS maps. Estimates of coal production and coal mine waste production during the next 2 decades have been prepared and are presented in this report. Also, all available information obtained from a search of existing literature on physical and chemical properties, including analysis results of the general runoff from the refuse disposal areas, has been collected and is presented. In order to fill the gaps in information, 20 sites have been identified for drilling and sampling to determine the various physical and chemical properties. They have been selected on the basis of the distribution and quantity of waste at the existing locations (both abandoned and active), the future trends in production and likely locations of waste disposal areas, their geographical and geological distribution, and ease of accessibility for drilling and sampling.

  7. Biotesting as a Method of Evaluating Waste Hazard in Metallic Mineral Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovaya, Y. R.; Orlova, K. N.; Litovkin, S. V.; Malchik, A. G.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    As the result of identifying content of each chemical element it has been revealed that metallic mineral wastes have a considerable amount of valuable useful metals. Thus, large-tonnage inorganic wastes are considered to be an additional raw source of metal production. This paper highlights the necessity of supplementary biotesting metallic mineral wastes in order to bring into correlation with corresponding hazard classes and facilitate efficient recycling of these wastes in future. It has been found out that determined in this way waste class can be dumped or used after recycling. It has been also indicated that mill tailings are to be stored according to contained metals without messing up dissimilar metal-containing wastes. After winning metals these wastes are similar to the group of inorganic non-metallic wastes and can be used in building material production, for filling mined-out spaces, in road construction etc.

  8. Gaseous Elemental Mercury and Total and Leached Mercury in Building Materials from the Former Hg-Mining Area of Abbadia San Salvatore (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Rappuoli, Daniele; Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco

    2017-04-15

    Mercury has a strong environmental impact since both its organic and inorganic forms are toxic, and it represents a pollutant of global concern. Liquid Hg is highly volatile and can be released during natural and anthropogenic processes in the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. In this study, the distribution of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) and the total and leached mercury concentrations on paint, plaster, roof tiles, concrete, metals, dust and wood structures were determined in the main buildings and structures of the former Hg-mining area of Abbadia San Salvatore (Siena, Central Italy). The mining complex (divided into seven units) covers a surface of about 65 ha and contains mining structures and managers' and workers' buildings. Nine surveys of GEM measurements were carried out from July 2011 to August 2015 for the buildings and structures located in Units 2, 3 and 6, the latter being the area where liquid mercury was produced. Measurements were also performed in February, April, July, September and December 2016 in the edifices and mining structures of Unit 6. GEM concentrations showed a strong variability in time and space mostly depending on ambient temperature and the operational activities that were carried out in each building. The Unit 2 surveys carried out in the hotter period (from June to September) showed GEM concentrations up to 27,500 ng·m(-3), while in Unit 6, they were on average much higher, and occasionally, they saturated the GEM measurement device (>50,000 ng·m(-3)). Concentrations of total (in mg·kg(-1)) and leached (in μg·L(-1)) mercury measured in different building materials (up to 46,580 mg·kg(-1) and 4470 mg·L(-1), respectively) were highly variable, being related to the edifice or mining structure from which they were collected. The results obtained in this study are of relevant interest for operational cleanings to be carried out during reclamation activities.

  9. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of particle-facilitated mercury transport from New Idria and Sulphur Bank mercury mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, G.V.; Shaw, S.; Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) release from inoperative Hg mines in the California Coast Range has been documented, but little is known about the release and transport mechanisms. In this study, tailings from Hg mines located in different geologic settings-New Idria (NI), a Si-carbonate Hg deposit, and Sulphur Bank (SB), a hot-spring Hg deposit-were characterized, and particle release from these wastes was studied in column experiments to (1) investigate the mechanisms of Hg release from NI and SB mine wastes, (2) determine the speciation of particle-bound Hg released from the mine wastes, and (3) determine the effect of calcinations on Hg release processes. The physical and chemical properties of tailings and the colloids released from them were determined using chemical analyses, selective chemical extractions, XRD, SEM, TEM, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. The total Hg concentration in tailings increased with decreasing particle size in NI and SB calcines (roasted ore), but reached a maximum at an intermediate particle size in the SB waste rock (unroasted ore). Hg in the tailings exists predominantly as low-solubility HgS (cinnabar and metacinnabar), with NI calcines having >50% HgS, SB calcines having >89% HgS, and SB waste rock having ???100% HgS. Leaching experiments with a high-ionic-strength solution (0.1 M NaCl) resulted in a rapid but brief release of soluble and particulate Hg. Lowering the ionic strength of the leach solution (0.005 M NaCl) resulted in the release of colloidal Hg from two of the three mine wastes studied (NI calcines and SB waste rock). Colloid-associated Hg accounts for as much as 95% of the Hg released during episodic particle release. Colloids generated from the NI calcines are produced by a breakup and release mechanism and consist of hematite, jarosite/alunite, and Al-Si gel with particle sizes of 10-200 nm. ATEM and XAFS analyses indicate that the majority (???78%) of the mercury is present in the form of HgS. SB calcines also

  10. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance 66 (class VI

  11. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (P<0.05) in Allium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mineralogy of mine waste at the Vermont Asbestos Group mine, Belvidere Mountain, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, D.M.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Gunter, M.E.; Seal, R.R.; Chou, I.-Ming; Piatak, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Samples from the surfaces of waste piles at the Vermont Asbestos Group mine in northern Vermont were studied to determine their mineralogy, particularly the presence and morphology of amphiboles. Analyses included powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and Raman spectroscopy. Minerals identified by XRD were serpentine-group minerals, magnetite, chlorite, quartz, olivine, pyroxene, and brucite; locally, mica and carbonates were also present. Raman spectroscopy distinguished antigorite and chrysotile, which could not be differentiated using XRD. Long-count, short-range XRD scans of the (110) amphibole peak showed trace amounts of amphibole in most samples. Examination of amphiboles in tailings by optical microscopy, SEM, and EPMA revealed non-fibrous amphiboles compositionally classified as edenite, magnesiohornblende, magnesiokatophorite, and pargasite. No fibrous amphibole was found in the tailings, although fibrous tremolite was identified in a sample of host rock. Knowledge of the mineralogy at the site may lead to better understanding of potential implications for human health and aid in designing a remediation plan.

  13. Exploring the techno-economic feasibility of mine rock waste utilisation in road works: The case of a mining deposit in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Stephen; Ampadu, Samuel I K

    2016-02-01

    Mine rock waste, which is the rock material removed in order to access and mine ore, is free from gold processing chemical contaminants but presents a significant environmental challenge owing to the large volumes involved. One way of mitigating the environmental and safety challenges posed by the large volume of mine rock waste stockpiled in mining communities is to find uses of this material as a substitute for rock aggregates in construction. This article reports on a study conducted to evaluate the engineering properties of such a mine deposit to determine its suitability for use as road pavement material. Samples of mine rock waste, derived from the granitic and granodioritic intrusive units overlying the gold-bearing metavolcanic rock and volcano-clastic sediments of a gold mining area in Ghana, were obtained from three mine rock waste disposal facilities and subjected to a battery of laboratory tests to determine their physical, mechanical, geotechnical, geometrical and durability properties. The overall conclusion was that the mine rock waste met all the requirements of the Ghana Ministry of Transportation specification for use as aggregates for crushed rock subbase, base and surface dressing chippings for road pavements. The recommendation is to process it into the required sizes for the various applications.

  14. Mercury accumulation and attenuation at a rapidly forming delta with a point source of mining waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Bryce E., E-mail: bjohnson@ce.berkeley.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Chemical Sciences Division, 7000 East Avenue, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Whyte, Dyan C.; Ganguli, Priya M.; Austin, Carrie M. [California Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay St., Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Hunt, James R. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The Walker Creek intertidal delta of Tomales Bay, California is impacted by a former mercury mine within the watershed. Eleven short sediment cores (10 cm length) collected from the delta found monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 11.4 ng/g (dry wt.), with lower concentrations occurring at the vegetated marsh and upstream channel locations. Algal mats common to the delta's sediment surface had MMHg concentrations ranging from 7.5 to 31.5 ng/g, and the top 1 cm of sediment directly under the mats had two times greater MMHg concentrations compared to adjacent locations without algal covering. Spatial trends in resident biota reflect enhanced MMHg uptake at the delta compared to other bay locations. Eighteen sediment cores, 1 to 2 m deep, collected from the 1.2 km{sup 2} delta provide an estimate of a total mercury (Hg) inventory of 2500 {+-} 500 kg. Sediment Hg concentrations ranged from pre-mining background conditions of approximately 0.1 {mu}g/g to a post-mining maximum of 5 {mu}g/g. Sediment accumulation rates were determined from three sediment cores using measured differences of {sup 137}Cs activity. We estimate a pre-mining Hg accumulation of less than 20 kg/yr, and a period of maximum Hg accumulation in the 1970s and 1980s with loading rates greater than 50 kg/yr, corresponding to the failure of a tailings dam at the mine site. At the time of sampling (2003) over 40 kg/yr of Hg was still accumulating at the delta, indicating limited recovery. We attribute observed spatial evolution of elevated Hg levels to ongoing inputs and sediment re-working, and estimate the inventory of the anthropogenic fraction of total Hg to be at least 1500 {+-} 300 kg. We suggest ongoing sediment inputs and methylation at the deltaic surface support enhanced mercury levels for resident biota and transfer to higher trophic levels throughout the Bay.

  15. Mercury speciation in the Mt. Amiata mining district (Italy): interplay between urban activities and mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Gray, John E.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental step to evaluate the biogeochemical and eco-toxicological significance of Hg dispersion in the environment is to determine speciation of Hg in solid matrices. In this study, several analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), sequential chemical extractions (SCEs), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) were used to identify Hg compounds and Hg speciation in samples collected from the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district, southern Tuscany, Italy. Different geological materials, such as mine waste calcine (retorted ore), soil, stream sediment, and stream water suspended particulate matter were analyzed. Results show that the samples were generally composed of highly insoluble Hg compounds such as sulphides (HgS, cinnabar and metacinnabar), and more soluble Hg halides such as those associated with the mosesite group. Other moderately soluble Hg compounds, HgCl2, HgO and Hg0, were also identified in stream sediments draining the mining area. The presence of these minerals suggests active and continuous runoff of soluble Hg compounds from calcines, where such Hg compounds form during retorting, or later in secondary processes. Specifically, we suggest that, due to the proximity of Hg mines to the urban center of Abbadia San Salvatore, the influence of other anthropogenic activities was a key factor for Hg speciation, resulting in the formation of unusual Hg-minerals such as mosesite.

  16. Environmental effect of radon from waste rock piles at closed uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki; Ito, Kimio; Ishimori, Yuu; Nakajima, Yuuji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-04-01

    The radon concentrations at working area had been measured during uranium exploration by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Although the uranium exploration was closed by 1987, the measurements of environmental radon and the confirmation of public dose under 1 mSv/year out of supervising area has been necessary by the regulation since 1989, the year of the change of Japanese mine safety law. However radon exists in natural environment, it`s quite difficult to distinguish the radon from closed uranium mine from natural`s. Therefore the effective doses were estimated by the calculations using the atmospheric dispersion models, and by the measurements of radon emanation from the waste rock area of closed uranium mines. The radon influence from the waste rock was also investigated by the tracer gas dispersion experiments. Consequently the effective doses from the mining facilities were confirmed under the public limits 1 mSv/year of the regulations by this study. (author)

  17. Valorization of mining waste and tailings through paste backfilling solution, Imiter operation, Morocco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaldoun Abdelhadi; Ouadif Latifa; Baba Khadija; Bahi Lahcen

    2016-01-01

    Mine waste and process tailings storage is one of important challenge for which mining operations are increasingly confronted. Treatment discharges of plants and main part of waste rock development are generally stored on surface areas. The volume and chemical characteristics of these materials generate serious problem for required storage spaces and mainly environmental degradation. Paste backfill (PBF) is one of ingenious solutions to minimize the quantity of tailings to store. PBF is basically defined as a combination of mine processing tailings, binder, and water mixing. The purpose of this paper is to present backfilling components characterization and formula verification for a waste valorization solu-tion through paste backfilling technology in Imiter operation. Obtained results and realized analysis demonstrate PBF conformity and adequacy with assigned underground functions. However the studied recipe can be more ameliorated to obtain an optimal mixture ensuring the required mechanical strength.

  18. Assessment of mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and biota in Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, Colusa County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we performed a study during April–July 2010 to characterize mercury (Hg), monomethyl mercury (MMeHg), and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota at the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, located in neighboring subwatersheds of Sulphur Creek, Colusa County, California. This study was in support of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - Removal Site Investigation. The investigation was in response to an abatement notification from the California Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board to evaluate the release of Hg from the Clyde and Elgin mines. Samples of water, sediment, and biota (aquatic macroinvertebrates) were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the two mine sites to evaluate the level of Hg contamination contributed by each mine to the aquatic ecosystem. Physical parameters, as well as dissolved organic carbon, total Hg (HgT), and MMeHg were analyzed in water and sediment. Other relevant geochemical constituents were analyzed in sediment, filtered water, and unfiltered water. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates from each mine were analyzed for HgT and MMeHg. The presence of low to moderate concentrations of HgT and MMeHg in water, sediment, and biota from the Freshwater Branch of Sulphur Creek, and the lack of significant increases in these concentrations downstream from the Clyde Mine indicated that this mine is not a significant source of Hg to the watershed during low flow conditions. Although concentrations of HgT and MMeHg were generally higher in samples of sediment and water from the Elgin Mine compared to the Clyde Mine, concentrations in comparable biota from the two mine areas were similar. It is likely that highly saline effluent from nearby hot springs contribute more Hg to the West Fork of Sulphur Creek than the mine waste material at the Elgin Mine.

  19. The activities and perspectives of improvement the polluted waste in surrounding rivers in Bucim mine area

    OpenAIRE

    Danevski, Tome; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar; Gocev, Zivko

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of the influence that the tailing dump or waste as well as the flotation hydro-tailing dump over the environment around the region of copper mine Bucim, surrounding rivers, places, villages, appearance of dust, pollution of ambient air and mine tailing pond. Generally speaking, the monitoring will be done for two periods. The first analysis relating to the period from the year 2005, and the second analysis relating to the period from the year 2010/2012. The monitoring ...

  20. Heavy metal levels (Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) in the adult general population near an urban solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubero, Miren Begona, E-mail: txitea@gmail.com [Research Unit, Cruces Hospital, Barakaldo, Bizkaia (Spain); Department of Preventative Medicine and Public Health, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Aurrekoetxea, Juan Jose, E-mail: jaurrekoetxea@ej-gv.es [Public Health Department, Dept. of Health, Basque Government, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Epidemiolgy and Public Health CIBER (CIBERESP) (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus Maria, E-mail: mambien3-san@ej-gv.es [Public Health Department, Dept. of Health, Basque Government, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Epidemiolgy and Public Health CIBER (CIBERESP) (Spain); Arenaza, Maria Jesus, E-mail: osalanrlhba@ej-gv.es [Basque Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, Barakaldo, Bizkaia (Spain); Rodriguez, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rodriguez-andres@ehu.es [Department of Preventative Medicine and Public Health, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Saenz, Jose Ramon, E-mail: jrsaenz@chdo.osakidetza.net [Department of Preventative Medicine and Public Health, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In 2005 an urban solid waste incinerator (SWI) was commissioned in Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain). Serum and urine samples were collected from 95 and 107 volunteers in 2006 and 2008 respectively, of which 62 were repeats from the same individuals. Blood lead levels (BPb) were determined, as were the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) in urine (UCd, UCr and UHg). The town of Alonsotegi and a borough of Bilbao (Altamira, Rekalde) were considered to be close, less than 2 km from the plant, and correspond to an urban environment with high traffic density. The areas of reference were a borough of Bilbao (Santutxu-Zurbaran), 5 km from the plant, also in an urban area with high traffic density, and a small town with little industrial activity and low traffic density (Balmaseda) 20 km from the plant; neither of these is downwind from the site with respect to prevailing winds. There was a significant correlation for BPb, r = 0.63 (p < 0.001), between the two surveys. However, there was no linear correlation for the other three metals (UCd, UCr and UHg), between the two sampling periods (p > 0.05). Multiple linear regression models did not show increases over time of the levels of BPb, UCd, UCr and UHg in the areas close to the SWI compared to those of areas located further away, after adjusting for confounding variables. These results reinforce the hypothesis that populations near modern plants for solid waste incineration do not manifest increased levels of heavy metals.

  1. Technosols Made of Wastes to Improve Physico-Chemical Characteristics of a Copper Mine Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.ASENSIO; F.A.VEGA; M.L.ANDRADE; E.F.COVELO

    2013-01-01

    Mine tailing soils created from the copper extraction in Touro Mine (Northwest Spain) are very degraded both physically and chemically.Three plots in this mine tailing were amended with Technosols in different proportions in each one to know if this mixture improved the physico-chemical characteristics of the mine soil and contaminated it with heavy metals.The Technosols were made of organic wastes,including mussel residues,wood fragments,sewage sludges and paper mill ashes.An unamended area was used as a control soil.Pseudototal and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable contents of Al,Cr,Cu,Fe,Mn,Ni,Pb and Zn were determined in soil samples.The untreated soil had significant limitations for vegetation growth.All the Technosols improved the properties of the mine soil by increasing organic carbon and pH value,but they added Ni,Pb or Zn to the soil.It is advisable to check whether the heavy metal concentrations of the wastes are hazardous or not before adding to soils.It is also necessary to study the effect of these wastes over time and in more areas to conclude if they are actually favourable to restore degraded mine soils.

  2. Effect of coagulants upon turbidity removal of waste water from the Chasnala coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G.; Singh, P.K. [Bira Institute of Technology Sindri, Dhanbad (India)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, attempt has been made to control the extremely high turbidity of mine waste water by using different coagulants and it is observed that ferrous sulphate is the most effective coagulant followed by alum, ferric sulphate and lime. Also combinations of coagulants are used for getting the optimal results. Further steps are also discussed to make this water portable and a scheme of low cost water supply system of mine waste water has been suggested under the Water Management Strategies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Application of the coal-mining waste in building ceramics production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich

    Full Text Available In the process of construction ceramics production a substantial quantity of non-renewable natural resources - clays - are used. One of the ways of science development in building materials production is investigation of the possibility of regular materials production using technogenic waste. Application of coal-mining waste (technogenic raw material in charge composition for production of ceramic products provides rational use of fuel, contributes to implementation of resource saving technologies on construction materials production enterprises. Though science development on revealing new raw material sources should be conducted with account for safety, reliability, technical, ecological and economical sides of the problem, which is especially current. The article deals with the problem of coal-mining waste usage in building ceramics production instead of fresh primary component (clay, fluxes, thinning agents and combustible additives. The interdependence between the density and shrinkage of the ceramic products and the amount and quality of coal-mining waste in its composition was established. The optimal proportion of coal-mining waste and clay in building ceramics production was estimated.

  4. Gaseous Mercury Monitoring at a Complex Source: The Las Cuevas Decommissioned Mining Complex and Current Hg Storage Facility (Almadén District, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, P. L.; Esbri, J. M.; Llanos, W. R.; Oyarzun, R.; Martinez-Coronado, A.; Grupo de Estudios En Minería Y Medioambiente-Gemm

    2010-12-01

    The Las Cuevas decommissioned mining complex was the third in importance in the world’s largest mercury mining district: Almadén (south-central Spain). Mining took place during two well differentiated periods: 1. Roman time; and 2. From 1982 to 2000. In 2004 the mine was transformed into a mercury storage and handling facility, away from urban areas. Furthermore, the area served as a test site for the design and implementation of a mercury safe storage vessel, a study funded by European LIFE-Env programme (Project MERSADE, LIFE06 ENV/ES/PREP/03) (Llanos et al., 2010). On this basis, Las Cuevas site can be regarded as a complex source of atmospheric mercury for the local environmental compartments, including emissions from the plant activity, partly reclamated old mineral dumps, contaminated soils, and other minor sources, such as cavities produced by mine collapse. We studied the emissions with two LUMEX RA-915+ Hg analyzers, one LUMEX RA-915Light device and a complete TEKRAN equipment, including Mercury Speciation Unit (model 1130) and Particulate Mercury Unit (Model 1135). Data has been treated with ISC-AERMOD program, in order to obtain models for contamination plumes derived from Las Cuevas whole area. The results confirm the mercury storage facility as the main local source for mercury, releasing some 3,15 kg Hg y-1, whereas contaminated soils and reclamated dumps represent local minor sources. Over 99,9% of local atmospheric mercury is Gaseous Elemental Mercury, with Reactive Gaseous Mercury representing 0,25 per mil, and particulate bound mercury, 1,8 per mil. Citation: Llanos, W.; Higueras, P.; Oyarzun, R.; Esbrí, J.M.; López-Berdonces, M.A.; García-Noguero, E.M.; Martínez-Coronado, A. (2010) A preliminary environmental assessment at the site of the European prototype installation of a safe deposit for surplus mercury from industry: The Las Cuevas mining complex, Almadén District, Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 408: 4901-4905.

  5. Hazardous Waste Management in South African Mining ; A CGE Analysis of the Economic Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebelt, Manfred

    1999-01-01

    There is no doubt that an improved hazardous waste management in mining and mineral processing will reduce environmental and health risks in South Africa. However, skeptics fear that waste reduction, appropriate treatment and disposal are not affordable within the current economic circumstances, neither from an economic nor from a social point of view. This paper mainly deals with the first aspect and touches upon the second. It investigates the short-run and long-run sectoral impacts of an e...

  6. Determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with collision-reaction interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirian C; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Cadore, Solange

    2011-06-15

    A procedure based on the use of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) for control of spectral overlap interferences was developed for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The injection of H(2) and He (80 and 60 mL min(-1), respectively) into the sampled plasma, colliding and reacting with potentially interfering polyatomic ions, allows interference-free determination of chromium via its isotopes (52)Cr and (53)Cr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(12)C(1)H(+), (36)S(16)O(+) or (1)H(36)S(16)O(+). Cadmium, Hg and Pb were directly determined via their isotopes (110)Cd, (111)Cd, (112)Cd, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg, (202)Hg, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb, without using CRI. The CRI can be quickly activated or deactivated before each analyte measurement. Limits of detection for (52)Cr were 0.04 or 0.14 μg L(-1) with He or H(2) injected in CRI. Cadmium and Pb have LODs between 0.02 and 0.08 μg L(-1) and Hg had 0.93-0.98 μg L(-1), without using CRI. Analyte concentrations for samples varied from 16 to 43, 1 to 11, 4 to 12, and 5 to 13 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  7. Plant and invertebrate assemblages on waste rock at Wangaloa coal mine, Otago, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufaut, C.G.; Hammit, S.; Craw, D.; Clearwater, S.G. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    2006-07-01

    Natural regeneration on waste rock was investigated at the old Wangaloa coal mine, south-east Otago. A 450-m long waste rock stack had been created 40-50 years ago, and has had little anthropogenic intervention since. The stack is made up of a gradient of three main waste rock types, defined as 'silt-rich', 'mixed', and I quartz-rich, which reflect different proportions of loess siltstone and quartz gravel conglomerate. Plant species assemblages were quantified in four 5-m{sup 2} quadrats in each waste rock type. Invertebrates were heat extracted from substrate cores (7 cm diameter; depth 5 cm) collected from quadrats over an eight-week period in spring 2003. Ordination analysis showed statistically distinct plant and invertebrate assemblages had arisen on each waste rock type. Revegetation patterns were dominated by native, woody individuals on all waste rock types, particularly manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides). Plant cover on 'silt-rich' waste rock was four-fold that on 'quartz-rich' waste rock. Total numbers of invertebrates were highest on 'quartz-rich' waste rock, but richness greatest on 'silt-rich' waste rock. Collembola dominated the fauna but their numbers were proportionally greatest in poorly vegetated areas. Further work is required to explain the absence of plants and invertebrates from local areas of waste rock.

  8. Geochemical Characterization of the Waste Rock Dump at the abandoned Geo-pung Mine, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Lee, H.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.; Park, H.

    2008-05-01

    To propose basic data for the establishment of the reclamation plan of the mine waste rock dumps, the geochemical studies including Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) test, water quality analyses of leachate and run-off waters, metal extraction test, and pot test were performed at the abandoned Geo-pung mine, located in the middle part of Korea. The acid generation capacities of the Geo-pung mine waste rocks (samples from ten points at the waste dump) showed high acid forming potential except for one point (G7). The maximum value of NAPP (Net Acid Producing Potential), which calculated by total sulfur (MPA, Maximum Potential Acidity, kg H2SO4/t) and ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity), was 80.94 kg H2 SO4/t. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the leachate from the waste rock dump have high concentration of Al (56 mg/l), Mn (39 mg/l), Cu (26.3 mg/l), Zn (155.3 mg/l), SO42- (1430 mg/l) and low pH (3.19). Run-off waters (surface flow of waste dump when rain) were, although partly different, showed high concentration of Al (1.7 ~ 20.2 mg/l), Cu (1.8 ~ 14.7 mg/l), Zn (2.4 ~ 26.5 mg/l) and low pH (3.08 ~ 4.07). From the metal extraction test, concentration of zinc was showed high level, from 579 mg/kg to 3,934 mg/kg. The upper parts of the Geo-pung mine waste dump have very low nutrient which needed for plant growth. The organic content was 9 g/kg, bioavailable phosphate was 0.1 mg/kg, and the exchangeable cation (K, Na, Mg) content also under the limit value (1 mg/kg) for the plant growth. The result of pot test also showed that this waste dump is unsuitable for media for plant growth due to lack of nutrient components. So when establish the reclamation plan of the Geo- pung mine waste dump, the cover system which have the function of prevention of sulfide oxidation and provision of nutrient with neutralize materials for revegetation must be considered. key words : Abandoned Mine, Waste Rock Dump, Acid-Base Accounting, Cover System

  9. Management of Sulfide-Bearing Waste, a Challenge for the Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Öhlander

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of iron sulfides in waste rock dumps and tailings deposits may result in formation of acid rock drainage (ARD, which often is a challenging problem at mine sites. Therefore, integrating an ARD management plan into the actual mine operations in the early phases of exploration, continuing through the mine life until final closure might be successful and decrease the environmental impact. A thorough characterization of ore and waste should be performed at an early stage. A detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition, chemical composition and physical properties such as grain size, porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the different waste types is necessary for reliable predictions of ARD formation and efficiency of mitigation measures. Different approaches to prevent and mitigate ARD are discussed. Another key element of successfully planning to prevent ARD and to close a mining operation sustainably is to engage the mine stakeholders (regulators, community and government leaders, non-governmental organization (NGOs and lenders in helping develop and implement the ARD management plan.

  10. MINERALOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC, IRON, AND LEAD IN A MINE WASTE-DERIVED FERTILIZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solid-state speciation of arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) was studied in the mine waste-derived fertilizer Ironite using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and aging studies. Arsenic was primarily associated with ferrihydrite (60-70%) with the rema...

  11. Abandoned Pb−Zn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida, E-mail: mgutierrez@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Mickus, Kevin, E-mail: kevinmickus@missouristate.edu [Department of Geography, Geology and Planning, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Camacho, Lucy Mar, E-mail: lucy.camacho@tamuk.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas & M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (Pb−Zn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned Pb−Zn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4–5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000 mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd > Zn > Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. - Highlights: • Abandoned Pb−Zn mine wastes represent a hazard to the environment. • Cd is a toxic metal closely associated to Zn and

  12. Effects of Weathering at Waste Rock Dump on Water Quality Inside the Mine Wastes; A Case Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, G.; Cheong, Y.; Park, H.; Ji, S.; Lee, H.

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the route of acid rock drainage production and some of the important factors at the abandoned Geo-pung copper mine in Okcheon, Korea. In this research area, planting and remediation have been carried out to prevent environmental pollution, but these effects turned out to be a failure and that acid rock drainage is observed around waste rock dump and planted vegetation is dying. Currently, the slope of mine waste rock dump in the study site is about 40°. It is composed of particles with a variety of shapes, with the surface exposure to atmosphere being transformed to oxide minerals due to weathering. Since groundwater level underneath the mine wastes is directly related to rainfall, a comparative evaluation of weather records and groundwater level data obtained using on-site measuring device (CTD diver) would allow estimation of locational media-specific pattern of rainfall effect in term of infiltration flux and time of threshold impact on groundwater. Sampling and analysis of there borehole water were conducted in July and September, 2007. It was found that all of the borehole water had highly variable levels of Fe (0.4-588 mg/l), Al (8.2-41.9 mg/l), Cu (6.0-32.2 mg/l), Zn (22.2-226.7 mg/l) and other elements. Also, in general, pH of the borehole waters decreased while electric conducivity measured. Such a high variance in the water quality among different borehole water suggests that geochemical environment inside the mine wastes is largely dependent on the local variation in rainfall infiltration of waste rock dump and underneath groundwater level. Vadose zone which has vertical variation of 2-4 m is directly impacted by amount of rainfall and maintains oxidizing condition due to diffusion of oxygen carred by rainfall. Therefore, sulfide minerals within in the zone continued to be oxidized, producing acid rock drainage. To prevent production of acid rock drainage of mine waste, it is necessary to control infiltration of

  13. Performance of bioreactor landfill with waste mined from a dumpsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Swati, M; Nagendran, R; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-12-01

    Emissions from landfills via leachate and gas are influenced by state and stability of the organic matter in the solid waste and the environmental conditions within the landfill. This paper describes a modified, ecologically sound waste treatment technique, where municipal solid waste is anaerobically treated in a lysimeter-scale landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation to enhance organic degradation. The results demonstrate a substantial decrease in organic matter (BOD 99%, COD 88% and TOC 81%) and a clear decrease in nutrient concentrations especially ammonia (85%) over a period of 1 year with leachate recirculation.

  14. Elemental analysis of mining wastes by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, O. [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: ogonzalez@ija.csic.es; Queralt, I. [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Carvalho, M.L. [Centro de Fisica Atomica, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 21649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Garcia, G. [Area Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Departmento de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agraria, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 48, 30203 Cartagena (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    An energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) tri-axial geometry experimental spectrometer has been employed to determine the concentrations of 13 different elements (K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb) in mine wastes from different depths of two mine tailings from the Cartagena-La Union (Spain) mining district. The elements were determined and quantified using the fundamental parameters method. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were compared to the values from the European and Spanish legislation to evaluate the environmental risk and to classify the wastes as inert wastes or as wastes that have to be control land-filled. The results obtained demonstrate that these wastes can be considered as inert for the considered elements, apart from the concentration levels of Zn and Pb. Whilst Zn slightly overpasses the regulatory levels, Pb mean value exceeds three to six times the value to be considered as Class I potential land-filling material.

  15. Trace-metal sources and their release from mine wastes: examples from humidity cell tests of hardrock mine waste and from Warrior Basin coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Desborough, G.A.; White, W.W.; Lapakko, K.A.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Fey, David L.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the potential impact of metal and acid contamination from mine-waste piles, it is important to identify the mineralogic source of trace metals and their mode of occurrence. Microscopic analysis of mine-waste samples from both hard-rock and coalmine waste samples demonstrate a microstructural control, as well as mineralogic control, on the source and release of trace metals into local water systems. The samples discussed herein show multiple periods of sulfide mineralization with varying concentrations of trace metals. In the first case study, two proprietary hard-rock mine-waste samples exposed to a series of humidity cell tests (which simulate intense chemical weathering conditions) generated acid and released trace metals. Some trace elements of interest were: arsenic (45-120 ppm), copper (60-320 ppm), and zinc (30-2,500 ppm). Untested and humidity cell-exposed samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX), and electron microprobe analysis. Studies of one sample set revealed arsenic-bearing pyrite in early iron- and magnesium-rich carbonate-filled microveins, and iron-, copper-, arsenic-, antimony-bearing sulfides in later crosscutting silica-filled microveins. Post humidity cell tests indicated that the carbonate minerals were removed by leaching in the humidity cells, exposing pyrite to oxidative conditions. However, sulfides in the silica-filled veins were more protected. Therefore, the trace metals contained in the sulfides within the silica-filled microveins may be released to the surface and (or) ground water system more slowly over a greater time period. In the second case study, trace metal-rich pyrite-bearing coals from the Warrior Basin, Alabama were analyzed. Arsenic-bearing pyrite was observed in a late-stage pyrite phase in microfaults and microveins that crosscut earlier arsenic.

  16. The potential risk of environmental contamination by mercury contained in Polish coal mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Antoszczyszyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains reference literature analysis concerning mercury content in Polish bituminous coal and post-mining waste as well as the impact of mercury content on the environment. The aim of the paper was to determine the occurrence of the risk of contamination of the environment with mercury compounds found in demolition bituminous coal landfills. Mercury, due to its toxic properties has been classified among the most dangerous substances to human health. There are three groups of sources of mercury release into the environment: natural, anthropogenic and remission. Coal mining, its processing and use in the energy sector has the greatest relevance regarding the pollution of the environment with mercury compounds in Poland. A review of reference literature shows that the average content of mercury in Polish bituminous coal varies within a wide range of 41–399 ppb, which is conditional on the origin, age and type of coal. The production of coal has led to a number of facilities in the form of structurally and age-varied landfills, heaps and mining waste dumps. The content of mercury in post-mining waste is in the range from approximately 55 to 380 ppb. The problem of environmental contamination with mercury has attracted considerable interest due to the effects that its concentration have in the biosphere. On the basis of the existing data it has been found that the content of mercury in soils in areas degraded by mining and processing of coal is even 10–16 times higher, compared to the geochemical background. It is necessary to conduct research in this area due to the limited results of research on mercury content in deposited waste from the preparation and flotation of Polish bituminous coals and the potential harmful effect of mercury on the environment. The paper is dedicated to the mercury content in waste from the extraction and processing of bituminous coal.

  17. Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Aaron

    Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

  18. Effects of acid-mine wastes on aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John David Parsons

    1976-01-01

    The Cedar Creek Basin (39th N parallel 92nd W meridian) was studied for the period June 1952 through August 1954 to observe the effects of both continuous and periodic acid effluent flows on aquatic communities. The acid strip-mine effluent contained ferric and ferrous iron, copper, lead, zinc, aluminum, magnesium, titratable acid, and elevated hydrogen ion...

  19. Mining waste contaminated lands: an uphill battle for improving crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining drastically alters the physico-chemical and biological environment of the landscape. Low organic matter content, unfavourable pH, low water holding capacity, salinity, coarse texture, compaction, siltation of water bodies due to wash off of mineral overburden dumps, inadequate supply of plant nutrients, accelerated erosion, acid generating materials, and mobilization of contaminated sediments into the aquatic environment are the principal constraints experienced in mining contaminated sites. A variety of approaches have been considered for reclaiming mine wastes including direct revegetation of amended waste materials, top soiling, and the use of capillary barriers. The simplest technology to improve crop productivity is the addition of organic amendments. Biosolids and animal manure can support revegetation, but its rapid decomposition especially in the wet tropics, necessitates repeated applications. Recalcitrant materials such as “biochars”, which improve soil properties on a long term basis as well as promote soil carbon sequestration, hold enormous promise. An eco-friendly and cost-effective Microbe Assisted Phytoremediation system has been proposed to increase biological productivity and fertility of mine spoil dumps. Agroforestry practices may enhance the nutrient status of degraded mine spoil lands (facilitation. N-fixing trees are important in this respect. Metal tolerant ecotypes of grasses and calcium-loving plants help restore lead, zinc, and copper mine tailings and gypsum mine spoils, respectively. Overall, an integrated strategy of introduction of metal tolerant plants, genetic engineering for enhanced synthesis and exudation of natural chelators into the rhizosphere, improvement of rhizosphere, and integrated management including agroforestry will be appropriate for reclaiming mining contaminated lands.

  20. Mining waste contaminated lands: an uphill battle for improving crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining drastically alters the physico-chemical and biological environment of the landscape. Low organic matter content, unfavourable pH, low water holding capacity, salinity, coarse texture, compaction, siltation of water bodies due to wash off of mineral overburden dumps, inadequate supply of plant nutrients, accelerated erosion, acid generating materials, and mobilization of contaminated sediments into the aquatic environment are the principal constraints experienced in mining contaminated sites. A variety of approaches have been considered for reclaiming mine wastes including direct revegetation of amended waste materials, top soiling, and the use of capillary barriers. The simplest technology to improve crop productivity is the addition of organic amendments. Biosolids and animal manure can support revegetation, but its rapid decomposition especially in the wet tropics, necessitates repeated applications. Recalcitrant materials such as “biochars”, which improve soil properties on a long term basis as well as promote soil carbon sequestration, hold enormous promise. An eco-friendly and cost-effective Microbe Assisted Phytoremediation system has been proposed to increase biological productivity and fertility of mine spoil dumps. Agroforestry practices may enhance the nutrient status of degraded mine spoil lands (facilitation. N-fixing trees are important in this respect. Metal tolerant ecotypes of grasses and calcium-loving plants help restore lead, zinc, and copper mine tailings and gypsum mine spoils, respectively. Overall, an integrated strategy of introduction of metal tolerant plants, genetic engineering for enhanced synthesis and exudation of natural chelators into the rhizosphere, improvement of rhizosphere, and integrated management including agroforestry will be appropriate for reclaiming mining contaminated lands.

  1. Effect of loess for preventing contamination of acid mine drainage from coal waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bao-guo; WANG Hui-yong; GAO Ran; LI Shu-li

    2012-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) that releases highly acidic,sulfate and metals-rich drainage is a serious environmental problem in coal mining areas in China.In order to study the effect of using loess for preventing AMD and controlling heavy metals contamination from coal waste,the column leaching tests were conducted.The results come from experiment data analyses show that the loess can effectively immobilize cadmium,copper,iron,lead and zinc in AMD from coal waste,increase pH value,and decrease Eh,EC,and SO42-concentrations of AMD from coal waste.The oxidation of sulfide in coal waste is prevented by addition of the loess,which favors the generation and adsorption of the alkalinity,the decrease of the population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans,the heavy metals immobilization by precipitation of sulfide and carbonate through biological sulfate reduction inside the column,and the halt of the oxidation process of sulfide through iron coating on the surface of sulfide in coal waste.The loess can effectively prevent AMD and heavy metals contamination from coal waste in in-situ treatment systems.

  2. Arsenic and antimony geochemistry of mine wastes, associated waters and sediments at the Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Skya E.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in water and sediments are legacy residues found downstream from gold-mining activities at the Giant Mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. To track the transport and fate of As and Sb, samples of mine-waste from the mill, and surface water, sediment, pore-water, and vegetation downstream of the mine were collected. Mine waste, pore-water, and sediment samples were analyzed for bulk chemistry, and aqueous and solid-state speciation. Sediment and vegetation chemistry were evaluated using scanning electron microscope imaging, synchrotron-based element mapping and electron microprobe analysis. The distributions of As and Sb in sediments were similar, yet their distributions in the corresponding pore-waters were mostly dissimilar, and the mobility of As was greater than that of Sb. Competition for sorption sites is the most likely cause of elevated Sb concentrations in relatively oxidized pore-water and surface water. The aqueous and solid-state speciation of As and Sb also differed. In pore-water, As(V) dominated in oxidizing environments and As(III) in reducing environments. In contrast, the Sb(V) species dominated in all but one pore-water sample, even under reducing conditions. Antimony(III) appears to preferentially precipitate or adsorb onto sulfides as evidenced by the prevalence of an Sb(III)-S secondary solid-phase and the lack of Sb(III)(aq) in the deeper zones. The As(V)–O solid phase became depleted with depth below the sediment–water interface, and the Sb(V)–O phase persisted under relatively reducing conditions. In the surficial zone at a site populated by Equisetum fluviatile (common horsetail), As and Sb were associated with organic material and appeared mobile in the root zone. In the zone below active plant growth, As and Sb were associated primarily with inorganic phases suggesting a release and reprecipitation of these elements upon plant death. The co-existence of reduced

  3. Geotechnical aspects for the optimization of dump design at Chinh Bac Mine waste dump in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsschwanz, M.; Ziegler, M. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Ahmad, S.; Fernandez, J.B.P.; Martens, P.N. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering; Deissmann, G. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Vietnam's Quang Ninh province is one of the country's most important coal producing regions. Several open pit mines are being operated in the area by Nui Beo Coal Company (NBCC). The construction of large waste dumps for overburden removed by blasting have led to environmental problems at the mining sites, including dust emissions from mining and dumping operations; ground and surface water contamination by acid mine drainage; and slope stability problems caused by heavy rainfall and dump movements. This paper discussed investigations regarding the influence of the dump layout on slope stability and erosion. The paper described the project site and ongoing activities for the development of optimized stabilization and rehabilitation concepts with a particular focus on geotechnical aspects. The site was described in terms of coal and waste rock production; Chinh Bac waste rock dump; crack mapping; material properties of dumped material; density; and settlements. Ongoing activities focus on the effect of benches on slope stability; influence of benches on erosion; and layered dumping. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

  5. Integrated waste and water management in mining and metallurgical industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K.C.CHAN; S.BOUZALAKOS; A.W.L.DUDENEY

    2008-01-01

    Extractive operations usually co-produce large quantities of unmarketable materials (mineral wastes),most of which are conventionally discarded to dumps (coarse material) and tailings ponds (fines).Escalating cost and regulation worldwide highlight an increasing need for reduction and re-use of such wastes.The present paper introduces a new integrated waste management scheme for solids and water.The scheme was exemplified by novel treatment of synthetic waste and process water linked to the biohydrometallurgical processing of metal sulphide flotation concentrates.Bioleaching of sulphide concentrate leads to two types of solid waste:a ferrihydrite/gypsum precipitate from neutralisation of the bioleach liquor and un-leached gangue.The paper indicates that,depending upon the minor components involved,the solid phases in admixture might be usefully distributed among three types of product:conventional underground backfill,cemented civil engineering backfill (particularly controlled low strength material or CLSM) and manufactured soil.It emphasizes CLSM containing simulated mineral waste,showing that such material can exhibit the required characteristics of strength,porosity and permeability.When toxic components,e.g.,arsenic from refractory gold ore,are present,encapsulation will be required.Process water is typically recycled as far as possible,although any excess should be treated before re-use or discharge.The paper also highlights treatment by reverse osmosis (one of the few methods able to generally remove dissolved components),particularly showing that arsenic in oxidation state +6 can be readily removed for discharge (<50×10-12 As),although additional ion exchange is needed for potable water (<10×10-12 As).

  6. Bioaccessibility of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in mine waste, urban soil, and road dust in the historical mining village of Kaňk, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahota, Petr; Raus, Karel; Rychlíková, Eva; Rohovec, Jan

    2017-06-15

    Historical mining activities in the village of Kaňk (in the northern part of the Kutná Hora ore district, Czech Republic) produced large amounts of mine wastes which contain significant amounts of metal(loid) contaminants such as As, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Given the proximity of residential communities to these mining residues, we investigated samples of mine waste (n = 5), urban soil (n = 6), and road dust (n = 5) with a special focus on the solid speciation of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn using a combination of methods (XRD, SEM/EDS, oxalate extractions), as well as on in vitro bioaccessibility in simulated gastric and lung fluids to assess the potential exposure risks for humans. Bulk chemical analyses indicated that As is the most important contaminant in the mine wastes (~1.15 wt%), urban soils (~2900 mg/kg) and road dusts (~440 mg/kg). Bioaccessible fractions of As were quite low (4-13%) in both the simulated gastric and lung fluids, while the bioaccessibility of metals ranged between mine waste materials and highly contaminated urban soil. Based on the risk assessment, arsenic was found to be the element posing the greatest risk.

  7. Hot particles in industrial waste and mining tailings

    CERN Document Server

    Selchau-Hansen, K; Freyer, K; Treutler, C; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    Industrial waste was studied concerning its radioactive pollution. Using known properties of the solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 we found among a high concentration of more or less homogeneously distributed single alpha-tracks discrete spots of very high enrichments of alpha-particles created by so called hot particles. We will report about the alpha-activity, the concentration of hot particles and about their ability to be air borne.

  8. The mineral treasure that almost got away: Re-evaluating yesterday's mine waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högdahl, K.; Jonsson, E.; Troll, V.; Majka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Rare metals and semi-metals such as In, Ga, Se, Te and rare earth elements (REE) are increasing in demand for use in "new" and "green" technology. Yet, before the end of the 20th century the applications and thus the markets for these elements were limited. In many mines, the exploration paradigms and current knowledge as well as contemporary analytical methodology likely resulted in minerals hosting these metals to end up as waste, that is, on the mine dumps. In other cases, they were identified, but considered as mineralogical "exotica". Even extremely well-known and traditionally valuable metals such as gold went undetected on the dumps in some mine fields. This is due to a combination of factors such as that the deposits were "of the wrong type", assays were expensive, and suitable laboratory capacity sparse. This implies that in many regions, this old mine waste is a potential resource for several sought-after metals and semi-metals, including the ones increasingly used in modern high-tech applications. Admittedly, many older dumps and dump fields host only minor to moderate total amounts of material, but in todaýs society - increasingly focused on sustainability and related needs for recycling - this is likely to become an asset. In Sweden, many mine dumps date back hundreds of years or more as mining has been documented to go back at least 1000 years. Before the 20th century, only a single or, at best, a couple of metals were extracted from any given mine. Due to modern development in analytical techniques, the concentrations of trace elements, including highly sought-after metals and semi-metals can be obtained at moderate costs today. The presence of variable amounts of precious and rare elements along with the main ore commodity has now been documented in several cases. A recently started project in the classic, Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore province in central Sweden is aimed at resolving the potential for finding and utilising these "unknown

  9. Metal accumulation in wild plants surrounding mining wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R. Carrillo [Soil Chemistry, IRENAT, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carr, Mexico-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Mexico 56230 (Mexico)]. E-mail: crogelio@colpos.mx; Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.A. [Soil Microbiology, IRENAT, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carr, Mexico-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Mexico 56230 (Mexico)]. E-mail: carmeng@colpos.mx

    2006-11-15

    Four sites were selected for collection of plants growing on polluted soil developed on tailings from Ag, Au, and Zn mines at the Zacatecas state in Mexico. Trace element concentrations varied between sites, the most polluted area was at El Bote mine near to Zacatecas city. The ranges of total concentration in soil were as follows: Cd 11-47, Ni 19-26, Pb 232-695, Mn 1132-2400, Cu 134-186 and Zn 116-827 mg kg{sup -1} air-dried soil weight. All soil samples had concentrations above typical values for non-polluted soils from the same soil types (Cd 0.6 {+-} 0.3, Ni 52 {+-} 4, Pb 41 {+-} 3 mg kg{sup -1}). However, for the majority of samples the DTPA-extractable element concentrations were less than 10% of the total. Some of the wild plants are potentially metal tolerant, because they were able to grow in highly polluted substrates. Plant metal analysis revealed that most species did not translocate metals to their aerial parts, therefore they behave as excluder plants. Polygonum aviculare accumulated Zn (9236 mg kg{sup -1}) at concentrations near to the criteria for hyperaccumulator plants. Jatropha dioica also accumulated high Zn (6249 mg kg{sup -1}) concentrations. - Polygonum aviculare and Jatropha dioica accumulated Zn at concentrations near to the criteria for hyperaccumulator plants.

  10. Variably-saturated Flow Through Mine Waste Rock in a Permafrost Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, M.; Gupton, M.; Smith, L.; Blowes, D.; Sego, D.

    2007-12-01

    Mining in northern Canada creates waste rock piles with the potential of generating acid rock drainage (ARD). Test piles fifteen meters high and smaller-scale collection lysimeters have been constructed to investigate infiltration and variably-saturated water flow through heterogeneous material in a region of continuous permafrost. Data collection includes time domain and frequency domain reflectrometry, lysimetry, tensiometers, electrical conductivity sensors, and flow gauges. Capillarity-driven flow travels slower than seasonal frost and thaw propagation, resulting in wetting fronts that freeze and are remobilized in the following summer period. In addition, highly permeable zones of waste rock can transmit water at rates as high as meters per hour, under certain conditions. Results from the research may be incorporated into mine closure strategies to minimize contaminant loading in cold climates.

  11. Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Exhalation Zones of Thermally Active Mine Waste Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Kuna-Gwoździewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research carried out on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in gases of exhalation zones, created on the surface of a thermally active coal mine waste dump. The oxidation and self-heating of mine waste are accompanied with the intensive emission of flue gases, including PAH group compounds. Taking into consideration the fact the hydrocarbons show strong genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, research was conducted to establish their content in the examined gases. The research object was a gangue dump located in Rybnik. The research was performed in 2012. In total, 24 samples of gas were collected with PUF (polyurethane foam sampling cartridges with a quartz fibre filter and an aspirator. The collected samples were analysed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and a fluorescence detector (FLD to evaluate the amount of PAH present.

  12. PPLICATION OF COAL MINING WASTE IN THE PRODUCTION OF STRUCTURAL CERAMICS USING AN ECOLOGICALLY FRIENDLY AND RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that the use of spoil heaps (coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics is expedient. It shows the reduction of negative ecological effects during the life cycle when coal mining waste is used in the initial blend for the production of structural ceramics. It shows that the development of the recommendations for the use of coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics is an urgent issue as far as the use of coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics can lead both to the achievement of resource saving and positive ecological effect and to the undesirable decrease of the basic physical and mechanical properties of the final products when the structure of the mix is inappropriate. In order to develop these recommendations the authors have examined the microstructure, mineral composition and physical and mechanical properties of structural ceramics produced with the use of coal mining waste, which effect the consumer properties of the target material. As a result of the research the authors have made the conclusions about the nature and degree of impact of coal mining waste quantity on the physical and mechanical properties of construction ceramics. The comparison of the data received during the measurement of the basic physical and mechanical properties of construction ceramics with the results of the research of microstructure, elemental and mineral composition of the samples has shown their correlation.

  13. Settlement behavior of coal mine waste in different surrounding rock conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-de; LI Xi-bing; HU Bing-nan; CHEN Feng; XU Ji-cheng; LI Di-yuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of complex conditions of in-situ surrounding rocks on the settlement behavior of nubbly coal mine waste subjected to high gravity pressure, four kinds of loading chambers made of different similar materials with different elastic moduli in experiments were used to simulate the deformation features of in-site rocks, including soft, moderate hardness, hard and extra-hard rocks. The results show that all the settlement-axial load (or axial strain-stress) curves obtained under four different surrounding rock conditions present power-exponential function feature. The final settlement of coal mine waste under the same axial load is closely related to the lumpiness gradations and the deformation behavior of chamber materials used to simulate behaviors of different in-situ surrounding rocks. In the same surrounding rock condition, the final settlement under the same maximum axial load decreases with the decrease of the proportion of larger gradation of coal mine waste. While for the same lumpiness gradation case, the settlement increases with the decrease of elastic modulus of simulated surrounding rocks and the lateral pressure induced by axial load increases with the increase of elastic modulus of loading chambers that are used to simulate different surrounding rocks. The test results also reveal that both the compaction curve and lateral pressure curve show a three-stage behavior, and the duration of each stage, which is closely related to gradations and the deformation feature of loading chamber materials, decreases with the increase of the proportion of the small size of coal mine waste and elastic modulus of the simulated rock materials.

  14. Arsenic mineralogy and mobility in the arsenic-rich historical mine waste dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Michal, E-mail: filippi@gli.cas.cz [Institute of Geology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Rozvojová 269, 165 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Drahota, Petr [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Machovič, Vladimír [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Böhmová, Vlasta [Institute of Geology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Rozvojová 269, 165 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Mihaljevič, Martin [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    A more than 250 year-old mine dump was studied to document the products of long-term arsenopyrite oxidation under natural conditions in a coarse-grained mine waste dump and to evaluate the environmental hazards associated with this material. Using complementary mineralogical and chemical approaches (SEM/EDS/WDS, XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, pore water analysis, chemical extraction techniques and thermodynamic PHREEQC-2 modeling), we documented the mineralogical/geochemical characteristics of the dumped arsenopyrite-rich material and environmental stability of the newly formed secondary minerals. A distinct mineralogical zonation was found (listed based on the distance from the decomposed arsenopyrite): scorodite (locally associated with native sulfur pseudomorphs) plus amorphous ferric arsenate (AFA/pitticite), kaňkite, As-bearing ferric (hydr)oxides and jarosite. Ferric arsenates and ferric (hydr)oxides were found to dissolve and again precipitate from downward migrating As-rich solutions cementing rock fragments. Acidic pore water (pH 3.8) has elevated concentrations of As with an average value of about 2.9 mg L{sup −1}. Aqueous As is highly correlated with pH (R{sup 2} = 0.97, p < 0.001) indicating that incongruent dissolution of ferric arsenates controls dissolved As well as the pH of the percolating waste solution. Arsenic released from the dissolution of ferric arsenates into the pore water is, however, trapped by latter and lower-down precipitating jarosite and especially ferric (hydr)oxides. The efficiency of As sequestration by ferric (hydr)oxides in the waste dump and underlying soil has been found to be very effective, suggesting limited environmental impact of the mine waste dump on the surrounding soil ecosystems. - Highlights: • More than 250 year-old arsenopyrite-rich mine waste dump was studied. • Mineral transformation and the environmental stability of different secondary arsenic mineral phases were assessed. • High efficiency of As

  15. Measurements and modeling of gas fluxes in unsaturated mine waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabwe, L.K.

    2008-07-01

    A technique known as dynamic closed chamber (DDC) was recently developed to measure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fluxes from the soil surface to the atmosphere. The field application of the DCC was investigated in this thesis with a particular focus on quantifying reaction rates in 2 waste-rock piles at the Key Lake uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan. The dominant geochemical reactions in both waste-rock piles were not typical of acid rock drainage (ARD) waste-rock piles. The CO{sub 2} fluxes measured in this study occur in the organic material underlying the waste rocks. The study provided a complete suite of measurements needed to characterize spatial distribution of CO{sub 2} fluxes on larger-scale studies of waste-rock piles. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} flux measuring techniques, the DCC method accurately quantified field soil respiration and had an added advantage in terms of speed and repeatability. The DCC was also used to investigate CO{sub 2} fluxes under the climatic variables that affect soil water content in waste-rock piles. A simple model for predicting the effects of soil water content on CO{sub 2} diffusion coefficient and concentration profiles was developed and verified. It was concluded that the DCC method is suitable for field applications to quantify CO{sub 2} fluxes and to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of CO{sub 2} fluxes from unsaturated C-horizon soils and waste-rock piles.

  16. Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

    1993-11-01

    For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

  17. REMOVAL AND CONCENTRATION OF URANIUM FROM WASTE MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Augusta Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of leaching agents, such as sodium citrate and ammonium carbonate, were assessed for the extraction of uranium from one mining residue containing 0.25% U. Concentration techniques such as precipitation and ion exchange were employed to recover the uranium from the leaching liquor. Leaching results showed maximum uranium extraction of about 40% for both reagents. The use 10 mol L-1 NaOH to precipitate the uranium from the leach liquor leads to a recovery of 62%; what was considered not satisfactory. In view of this, resins were used to concentrate the uranium from the liquor and the metal loading obtained at pH 3.9 was higher for the resin DOWEX RPU, whose maximum loading maximum capacity was 148.3 mg g-1, compared to 126.9 mg g-1 presented by the resin IRA 910 U.

  18. Spread and partitioning of arsenic in soils from a mine waste site in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Serrano, S. [Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, CSIC, Catedratico Agustin Escardino 9, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The formation of scorodite is an important mechanism for the natural attenuation of arsenic in a wide range of environments. It is dumped on site by metallurgical industries to minimize arsenic release. However, the long-term stability of these deposits is unclear. Sequential As extractions and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were used to determine both As and Fe speciation in a small catchment area affected by a scorodite-rich waste pile at an abandoned smelting factory. Our results indicate that this deposit behaves as an acute point source of As and metal pollution and confirms the strong association of As(V) with Fe(III) oxide phases, highlighting the important role of ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in natural systems. In this seasonally variable system, other trapping forms such as jarosite-like minerals also play a role in the attenuation of As. Overall, our results demonstrate that scorodite should not be considered an environmental stable repository for As attenuation when dumped outside because natural rainfall and the resulting runoff drive As dispersion in the environment and indicate the need to monitor and reclamate As-rich mine deposits. - Highlights: • A scorodite-rich mining waste at an old smelting factory in Madrid is described. • Scorodite-rich mining wastes act as an acute point source of As pollution in soils. • Arsenic extraction and XANES analyses show ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in soils.

  19. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in solid wastes and soils from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Michael; Millward, Geoffrey; Henderson, Samuel; Blake, William

    2017-07-01

    Bioaccessible U, Th, Pb and the (238)U decay products (214)Pb and (210)Pb have been determined, using a modified Unified BARGE Method (UBM), in waste solids and soils from an abandoned uranium mine in South West England, UK. Maximum aqua regia extractable concentrations for U, Th and Pb were 16,200, 3.8 and 4750 μg g(-1), respectively. (238)U had highest activity concentrations near the mine shaft, where the decay products(214)Pb and (210)Pb had values of 235 and 180 Bq g(-1), respectively. UBM extractions gave mean gastro-intestinal bioaccessibility factors (BAFs) for U and Pb in the waste solids of 0.05 and 0.03, respectively, whereas those for the soils were significantly higher at 0.24 and 0.17. The mean BAFs for the transient radionuclides, (214)Pb and (210)Pb, were similar to those for stable Pb implying that the stable and radioactive Pb isotopes were attached to similar sites on the particles. The doses arising from the ingestion of particulate (210)Pb due to soil pica behaviour were in the range 0.2-65 and 17 years), respectively. The results suggest that the health risk posed by abandoned uranium mines, with waste rock and tailings, throughout the world should take account of the dose due to both bioaccessible radionuclides, as well as their stable counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery of uranium from mine waste by leaching with carbonate-based reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elizângela A; Ladeira, Ana C Q

    2011-04-15

    Waste materials, stored in inappropriate places, are one of the most significant environmental issues concerning mining activities. In Brazil, one closed uranium mine has faced such a problem. The waste, produced during the neutralization of acid drainage and containing several metals including uranium, has been disposed into the mine opening as a temporary alternative for over 20 years. The present work aimed at the recovery of the uranium present in the aforementioned waste. The effect of the following parameters on the leaching procedure was investigated: solid/liquid ratio, time, temperature, extracting agents, concentration of reagents, and the use of oxidants. The chemical characterization showed that the main constituents of the sample are Ca, S, Mn, and Al. Uranium is around 0.25%. The crystallized phases are ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SO(4))(3)·(OH)(12)·26H(2)O) as the major phase followed by gypsum (CaSO(4)·2H(2)O), calcite (CaCO(3)), and bassanite (CaSO(4)·0.5H(2)O). Carbonate and bicarbonate were observed to be effective extractants for the uranium. However, a combination of both reagents proved to be a better option than their individual use, and extractions around 100% were achieved. The optimum experimental condition for attaining the maximum dissolution is 0.11 solid/liquid ratio, 0.50 mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3), 1.00 mol L(-1) NaHCO(3), 20 h, and room temperature.

  1. Quijarroite, Cu6HgPb2Bi4Se12, a New Selenide from the El Dragόn Mine, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Förster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quijarroite, ideally Cu6HgPb2Bi4Se12, is a new selenide species from the El Dragόn mine, Department of Potosí, Bolivia. It most frequently occurs as lath-shaped thin plates (up to 150 µm in length and 20 µm in width intimately (subparallel intergrown with hansblockite, forming an angular network-like intersertal texture. Quijarroite is occasionally also present as sub- to anhedral grains up to 200 µm in length and 50 µm in width. It is non-fluorescent, black and opaque with a metallic luster and black streak. It is brittle, with an irregular fracture and no obvious cleavage and parting. In plane-polarized incident light, quijarroite is weakly pleochroic from cream to very slightly more brownish-cream, displaying no internal reflections. Between crossed polars, quijarroite is moderately anisotropic with pale orange-brown to blue rotation tints. Lamellar twinning on {110} is common; parquet twinning occurs rarely. The reflectance values in the air for the COM (Commission on Ore Mineralogy standard wavelengths (R1 and R2 are: 46.7, 46.8 (470 nm, 47.4, 48.2 (546 nm, 47.1, 48.5 (589 nm, and 46.6, 48.7 (650 nm. Electron-microprobe analyses yielded a mean composition of Cu 13.34, Ag 1.02, Hg 7.67, Pb 16.87, Co 0.03, Ni 0.15, Bi 27.65, Se 33.52, total 100.24 wt %. The mean empirical formula, normalized to 25 apfu (atoms per formula unit, is (Cu5.84Ag0.26Σ = 6.10(Hg1.06Ni0.07Co0.01Σ = 1.14Pb2.27Bi3.68Se11.81 (n = 24. The simplified formula is Cu6HgPb2Bi4Se12. Quijarroite is orthorhombic, space group Pmn21, with a = 9.2413(8, b = 9.0206(7, c = 9.6219(8 Å, V = 802.1(1 Å3, Z = 1. The calculated density is 5.771 g·cm−3. The five strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines (d in Å (I/I0 (hkl are: 5.36 (55 (111, 3.785 (60 (211, 3.291 (90 (022, 3.125 (100 (212, and 2.312 (50 (400. The crystal structure of quijarroite can be considered a galena derivative and could be derived from that of bournonite. It is a primary mineral, deposited from an

  2. Transport and fate of mercury under different hydrologic regimes in polluted stream in mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Larssen, Thorjørn; Vogt, Rolf D; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Seepage from Hg mine wastes and calcines contains high concentrations of mercury (Hg). Hg pollution is a major environmental problem in areas with abandoned mercury mines and retorting units. This study evaluates factors, especially the hydrological and sedimentary variables, governing temporal and spatial variation in levels and state of mercury in streams impacted by Hg contaminated runoff. Samples were taken during different flow regimes in the Wanshan Hg mining area in Guizhou Province, China. In its headwaters the sampled streams/rivers pass by several mine wastes and calcines with high concentration of Hg. Seepage causes serious Hg contamination to the downstream area. Concentrations of Hg in water samples showed significant seasonal variations. Periods of higher flow showed high concentrations of total Hg (THg) in water due to more particles being re-suspended and transported. The concentrations of major anions (e.g., Cl-, F-, NO3- and SO4(2-)) were lower during higher flow due to dilution. Due to both sedimentation of particles and dilution from tributaries the concentration of THg decreased from 2100 ng/L to background levels (MINTEQ) showed that Hg(OH)2 associated with dissolved organic matter is the main form of Hg in dissolved phase in surface waters in Wanshan (over 95%).

  3. Metal binding by bacteria from uranium mining waste piles and its technological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, K; Raff, J; Merroun, M; Fahmy, K; Selenska-Pobell, S

    2006-01-01

    Uranium mining waste piles, heavily polluted with radionuclides and other toxic metals, are a reservoir for bacteria that have evolved special strategies to survive in these extreme environments. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adaptation may enable the development of novel bioremediation strategies and other technological applications. Cell isolates of Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12 from a uranium mining waste pile in Germany are able to accumulate high amounts of toxic metals such as U, Cu, Pb, Al, and Cd as well as precious metals. Some of these metals, i.e. U, Cu, Pd(II), Pt(II) and Au(III), are also bound by the highly orderd paracrystalline proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) that envelopes the cells of this strain. These special capabilities of the cells and the S-layer proteins of B. sphaericus JG-A12 are highly interesting for the clean-up of uranium contaminated waste waters, for the recovery of precious metals from electronic wastes, and for the production of metal nanoclusters. The fabricated nanoparticles are promising for the development of novel catalysts. This work reviews the molecular biology of the S-layer of the strain JG-A12 and the S-layer dependent interactions of the bacterial cells with metals. It presents future perspectives for their application in bioremediation and nanotechnology.

  4. Deformation Monitoring of Waste-Rock-Backfilled Mining Gob for Ground Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Zhang, Yubao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Zhanhai; Ma, Shuqi

    2017-01-01

    Backfill mining is an effective option to mitigate ground subsidence, especially for mining under surface infrastructure, such as buildings, dams, rivers and railways. To evaluate its performance, continual long-term field monitoring of the deformation of backfilled gob is important to satisfy strict public scrutiny. Based on industrial Ethernet, a real-time monitoring system was established to monitor the deformation of waste-rock-backfilled gob at −700 m depth in the Tangshan coal mine, Hebei Province, China. The designed deformation sensors, based on a resistance transducer mechanism, were placed vertically between the roof and floor. Stress sensors were installed above square steel plates that were anchored to the floor strata. Meanwhile, data cables were protected by steel tubes in case of damage. The developed system continually harvested field data for three months. The results show that industrial Ethernet technology can be reliably used for long-term data transmission in complicated underground mining conditions. The monitoring reveals that the roof subsidence of the backfilled gob area can be categorized into four phases. The bearing load of the backfill developed gradually and simultaneously with the deformation of the roof strata, and started to be almost invariable when the mining face passed 97 m. PMID:28475168

  5. Deformation Monitoring of Waste-Rock-Backfilled Mining Gob for Ground Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Zhang, Yubao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Zhanhai; Ma, Shuqi

    2017-05-05

    Backfill mining is an effective option to mitigate ground subsidence, especially for mining under surface infrastructure, such as buildings, dams, rivers and railways. To evaluate its performance, continual long-term field monitoring of the deformation of backfilled gob is important to satisfy strict public scrutiny. Based on industrial Ethernet, a real-time monitoring system was established to monitor the deformation of waste-rock-backfilled gob at -700 m depth in the Tangshan coal mine, Hebei Province, China. The designed deformation sensors, based on a resistance transducer mechanism, were placed vertically between the roof and floor. Stress sensors were installed above square steel plates that were anchored to the floor strata. Meanwhile, data cables were protected by steel tubes in case of damage. The developed system continually harvested field data for three months. The results show that industrial Ethernet technology can be reliably used for long-term data transmission in complicated underground mining conditions. The monitoring reveals that the roof subsidence of the backfilled gob area can be categorized into four phases. The bearing load of the backfill developed gradually and simultaneously with the deformation of the roof strata, and started to be almost invariable when the mining face passed 97 m.

  6. Changes on aggregation in mine waste amended with biochar and marble mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Muñoz, María; Guzmán, Jose; Zornoza, Raúl; Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Faz, Ángel; Lal, Rattan

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities have produced large amounts of wastes over centuries accumulated in tailing ponds in Southeast Spain. Applications of biochar may have a high potential for reclamation of degraded soils. Distribution, size and stability of aggregates are important indices of soil physical quality. However, research data on aggregation processes at amended mining tailings with biochar are scanty. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of seven different treatments involving biochar and marble mud (MM) on the aggregation in mine waste (MW). Seven different treatments were tested after 90 days of incubation in the laboratory. These treatments were the mix of MW and: biochar from solid pig manure (PM), biochar from cotton crop residues (CR), biochar from municipal solid waste (MSW), marble mud (MM), PM+MM, CR+MM, MSW+MM and control without amendment. High sand percentages were identified in the MW. The biochars made from wastes (PM, CR, MSW) were obtained through pyrolysis of feedstocks. The water stability of soil aggregates was studied. The data on total aggregation were corrected for the primary particles considering the sandy texture of the MW. Moreover, partial aggregation was determined for each fraction and the mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates was computed. Soil bulk density and total porosity were also determined. No significant differences were observed in total aggregation and MWD among treatments including the control. For the size range of >4.75 mm, there were significant differences in aggregates > 4.75 mm between CR+MM in comparison with that for CT. There were also significant differences between MSW and PM+MM for the 1-0.425 mm fraction, and between CT and MM and CR for 0.425-0.162 mm aggregate size fractions. Therefore, CR-derived biochar applied with MM enhanced stability of macro-aggregates. Furthermore, soil bulk density was also the lowest bulk density and total porosity the highest for the CR-derived biochar

  7. Effects of mushroom waste on improvement of reclaimed soil quality in coal mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Li GUO; Qian LI; Xin-Ju LI; Yao-Lun ZHAO; Xin-Gang WANG

    2013-01-01

    Restoring soil quality is the main evaluation norm of the reclamation.In order to reveal the effects of mushroom waste on the quality improvement of reclaimed soil in coal mining areas,the physical,chemical and microbial characteristics of soil are studied.The results show clear improvement in the soil after using mushroom waste.Because of human cultivation and fertilization,cultivated soil after reclamation exhibits high comprehensive quality and the index of quality of surface soil reaches 0.64 and 0.73.The average index of surface soil quality is as high as 0.52 and 0.54.In comparison,the quality of reclaimed soil of forest land is low,with average index of 0.40.The effects of mushroom waste are mainly on the surface soil in the first 2 years after the application.After that period,with the decomposition of mushroom waste,soil quality index tends to be the same as the original soil.The quality of surface soil is higher than that of subsoil,especially after the application of mushroom waste,at which point the soil quality reaches a peak at about 15 cm.Cultivated soil after reclamation has great variance in quality,after the coefficient of 24.74%.Mushroom waste can reduce such variation,particularly with long-term use.The variance efficient falls to 3.59% after 3-year application.

  8. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  9. Reversed mining and reversed-reversed mining: the irrational context of geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2000-06-01

    Man does not only extract material from the Earth but increasingly uses the underground for storage and disposal purposes. One of the materials that might be disposed of this way is high-level nuclear waste. The development of safe disposal procedures, the choice of suitable host rocks, and the design of underground facilities have taken much time and money, but commissions in several countries have presented reports showing that — and how — safe geological disposal will be possible in such a way that definite isolation from the biosphere is achieved. Political views have changed in the past few years, however, and there is a strong tendency now to require that the high-level waste disposed of will be retrievable. Considering the underlying arguments for isolation from the biosphere, and also considering waste policy in general, this provides an irrational context. The development of new procedures and the design of new disposal facilities that allow retrieval will take much time again. A consequence may be that the high-active, heat-generating nuclear waste will be stored temporarily for a much longer time than objectively desirable. The delay in disposal and the counterproductive requirement of retrievability are partly due to the fact that earth-science organisations have failed to communicate in the way they should, possibly fearing public (and financial) reactions if taking a position that is (was?) considered as politically incorrect. Such an attitude should not be maintained in modern society, which has the right to be informed reliably by the scientific community.

  10. Strata movement controlling effect of waste and fly ash backfillings in fully mechanized coal mining with backfilling face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jixiong; Zhang Qiang; Huang Yanli; Liu Jinwei; Zhou Nan; Zan Dongfeng

    2011-01-01

    A fully mechanized coal mining with backfilling (FMCMB) provides advantages of safety and efficiency for coal mining under buildings,railways,and water bodies.According to the field geological conditions,we analyzed the controlling effect of strata movement by the waste and fly ash backfilling in FMCMB face.Based on the key strata theory,we established the equivalent mining thickness model,and analyzed the action of the bulk factor of backfilling body to the equivalent mining thickness.In addition,we numerically simulated the controlling function of the strata movement by backfilling bodies with different strength.And the numerical simulation result show that the deformation of stratum and the subsidence of surface can be controlled by FMCMB.The result provides references to the effective execution of fully mechanized coal mining with solid waste backfilling in goal.

  11. Mercury Contamination - Amalgamate (contract with NFS and ADA). Demonstration of DeHgSM Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 1675

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Through efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of bulk elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides stored at various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is thought to be approximately 16 m3 (Conley et al. 1998). At least 19 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) specifies amalgamation as the treatment method for radioactively contaminated elemental mercury. Although the chemistry of amalgamation is well known, the practical engineering of a sizable amalgamation process has not been tested (Tyson 1993). To eliminate the existing DOE inventory in a reasonable timeframe, scalable equipment is needed that can produce waste forms that meet the EPA definition of amalgamation, produce waste forms that pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit of 0.20 mg/L, limit mercury vapor concentrations during processing to below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) 8-h worker exposure limit (50 mg/m3) for mercury, and perform the above economically.

  12. Mercury Contamination - Amalgamate (contract with NFS and ADA). Demonstration of DeHgSM Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 1675

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Through efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of bulk elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides stored at various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is thought to be approximately 16 m3 (Conley et al. 1998). At least 19 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) specifies amalgamation as the treatment method for radioactively contaminated elemental mercury. Although the chemistry of amalgamation is well known, the practical engineering of a sizable amalgamation process has not been tested (Tyson 1993). To eliminate the existing DOE inventory in a reasonable timeframe, scalable equipment is needed that can produce waste forms that meet the EPA definition of amalgamation, produce waste forms that pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit of 0.20 mg/L, limit mercury vapor concentrations during processing to below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) 8-h worker exposure limit (50 mg/m3) for mercury, and perform the above economically.

  13. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  14. Effects of stimulation of copper bioleaching on microbial community in vineyard soil and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Bortolon, Leandro; Lambais, Márcio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Long-term copper application in vineyards and copper mining activities cause heavy metal pollution sites. Such sites need remediation to protect soil and water quality. Bioremediation of contaminated areas through bioleaching can help to remove copper ions from the contaminated soils. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different treatments for copper bioleaching in two diverse copper-contaminated soils (a 40-year-old vineyard and a copper mining waste) and to evaluate the effect on microbial community by applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons and DNA sequence analysis. Several treatments with HCl, H(2)SO(4), and FeSO(4) were evaluated by stimulation of bioleaching of copper in the soils. Treatments and extractions using FeSO(4) and H(2)SO(4) mixture at 30°C displayed more copper leaching than extractions with deionized water at room temperature. Treatment with H(2)SO(4) supported bioleaching of as much as 120 mg kg(-1) of copper from vineyard soil after 115 days of incubation. DGGE analysis of the treatments revealed that some treatments caused greater diversity of microorganisms in the vineyard soil compared to the copper mining waste. Nucleotide Blast of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA gene bands from DGGE indicated the presence of Rhodobacter sp., Silicibacter sp., Bacillus sp., Paracoccus sp., Pediococcus sp., a Myxococcales, Clostridium sp., Thiomonas sp., a firmicute, Caulobacter vibrioides, Serratia sp., and an actinomycetales in vineyard soil. Contrarily, Sphingomonas was the predominant genus in copper mining waste in most treatments. Paracoccus sp. and Enterobacter sp. were also identified from DGGE bands of the copper mining waste. Paracoccus species is involved in the copper bioleaching by sulfur oxidation system, liberating the copper bounded in the soils and hence promoting copper bioremediation. Results indicate that stimulation of bioleaching with a combination of FeSO(4

  15. Arsenic mineralogy and mobility in the arsenic-rich historical mine waste dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Michal; Drahota, Petr; Machovič, Vladimír; Böhmová, Vlasta; Mihaljevič, Martin

    2015-12-01

    A more than 250 year-old mine dump was studied to document the products of long-term arsenopyrite oxidation under natural conditions in a coarse-grained mine waste dump and to evaluate the environmental hazards associated with this material. Using complementary mineralogical and chemical approaches (SEM/EDS/WDS, XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, pore water analysis, chemical extraction techniques and thermodynamic PHREEQC-2 modeling), we documented the mineralogical/geochemical characteristics of the dumped arsenopyrite-rich material and environmental stability of the newly formed secondary minerals. A distinct mineralogical zonation was found (listed based on the distance from the decomposed arsenopyrite): scorodite (locally associated with native sulfur pseudomorphs) plus amorphous ferric arsenate (AFA/pitticite), kaňkite, As-bearing ferric (hydr)oxides and jarosite. Ferric arsenates and ferric (hydr)oxides were found to dissolve and again precipitate from downward migrating As-rich solutions cementing rock fragments. Acidic pore water (pH3.8) has elevated concentrations of As with an average value of about 2.9 mg L(-1). Aqueous As is highly correlated with pH (R2=0.97, pdump and underlying soil has been found to be very effective, suggesting limited environmental impact of the mine waste dump on the surrounding soil ecosystems.

  16. Selected Water- and Sediment-Quality, Aquatic Biology, and Mine-Waste Data from the Ely Copper Mine Superfund Site, Vershire, VT, 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Denise M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hathaway, Edward; Coles, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The data contained in this report are a compilation of selected water- and sediment-quality, aquatic biology, and mine-waste data collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site in Vershire, VT, from August 1998 through May 2007. The Ely Copper Mine Superfund site is in eastern, central Vermont (fig. 1) within the Vermont Copper Belt (Hammarstrom and others, 2001). The Ely Copper Mine site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2001. Previous investigations conducted at the site documented that the mine is contributing metals and highly acidic waters to local streams (Hammarstrom and others, 2001; Holmes and others, 2002; Piatak and others, 2003, 2004, and 2006). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USEPA, compiled selected data from previous investigations into uniform datasets that will be used to help characterize the extent of contamination at the mine. The data may be used to determine the magnitude of biological impacts from the contamination and in the development of remediation activities. This report contains analytical data for samples collected from 98 stream locations, 6 pond locations, 21 surface-water seeps, and 29 mine-waste locations. The 98 stream locations are within 3 streams and their tributaries. Ely Brook flows directly through the Ely Copper Mine then into Schoolhouse Brook (fig. 2), which joins the Ompompanoosuc River (fig. 1). The six pond locations are along Ely Brook Tributary 2 (fig. 2). The surface-water seeps and mine-waste locations are near the headwaters of Ely Brook (fig. 2 and fig. 3). The datasets 'Site_Directory' and 'Coordinates' contain specific information about each of the sample locations including stream name, number of meters from the mouth of stream, geographic coordinates, types of samples collected (matrix of sample), and the figure on which the sample location is depicted. Data have been collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site by the

  17. Hair trace elements concentration to describe polymetallic mining waste exposure in Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Souza Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo; Bénéfice, Eric; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Severe polymetallic contamination is frequently observed in the mining communities of Bolivian Altiplano. We evaluated hair trace elements concentrations at the population level to characterise exposure profile in different contexts of contact with mining and metallurgical pollution. We sampled 242 children aged 7 to 12 years in schools from five Oruro districts located in different contexts of potential contamination. Hair trace elements concentrations were measured using ICP-MS (Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Sb, Sn, Bi, Ag, Ni, Se, Cu, Cr, Mn, Co and Zn). We compared concentration according to school areas and gender. Concentrations were markedly different depending on school areas. Children from schools near industrial areas were far more exposed to non essential elements than children from downtown and suburban schools, as well as the rural school. The most concentrated non-essential element was Pb (geometric means (SD): 1.6 (1.3) µg/g in rural school; 2.0 (2.3) µg/g in suburban school; 2.3 (3.0) µg/g in downtown school; 14.1 (2.7) µg/g in the mine school and 21.2 (3.3) µg/g in the smelter school). Boys showed higher levels for all non-essential elements while girls had higher levels of Zn. Hair trace elements concentrations highlighted the heterogeneity of exposure profiles, identifying the most contaminated districts.

  18. The Transformation of Coal-Mining Waste Minerals in the Pozzolanic Reactions of Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Giménez-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry has the potential to become a major consumer of recycled waste materials that are transformed and recycled in various forms as aggregates and pozzolanic materials. These recycled waste materials would otherwise have been dumped in landfill sites, leaving hazardous elements to break down and contaminate the environment. There are several approaches for the reuse of these waste products, especially in relation to clay minerals that can induce pozzolanic reactions of special interest in the cement industry. In the present paper, scientific aspects are discussed in relation to several inert coal-mining wastes and their recycling as alternative sources of future eco-efficient pozzolans, based on activated phyllosilicates. The presence of kaolinite in this waste indicates that thermal treatment at 600 °C for 2 h transformed these minerals into a highly reactive metakaolinite over the first seven days of the pozzolanic reaction. Moreover, high contents of metakaolinite, together with silica and alumina sheet structures, assisted the appearance of layered double hydroxides through metastable phases, forming stratlingite throughout the main phase of the pozzolanic reaction after 28 days (as recommended by the European Standard as the reaction proceeded.

  19. Production of Ceramic Balls by High Temperature Atomization of Mine Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunsik; Ha, Minchul; Yang, Dong-hyo; Sohn, Jeong-soo; Park, Joohyun

    Gold tailing, red mud and waste limestones are industrial wastes that are mostly landfilled near the process plants. These increase the environmental risks as well as the necessity of waste management. Recycling of materials has been limited due to the fine particle sizes, heavy metals and unique oxide compositions. The authors investigated the potential utilization of these industrial wastes by melting and granulation technique. As quartz, hematite, alumina and lime consist more than 90wt% of mine wastes, CaO-FetO-Al2O3-SiO2 quaternary oxide system was applied to the thermodynamic calculations. Compositions of molten oxides were designed considering the lowest melting temperature and the adequate viscosity for atomization. Samples were melted by high frequency induction furnace then the atomization was carried out by air blowing technique. Viscosities of the melts were measured to quantify the optimum melting and atomization condition. Size distribution of the produced ceramic balls was investigated to estimate potential of the product to be used as abrasive materials.

  20. A simplified method for estimation of jarosite and acid-forming sulfates in acid mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Levay, George

    2007-02-01

    In acid base accounting (ABA) estimates of acid mine wastes, the acid potential (AP) estimate can be improved by using the net carbonate value (NCV) reactive sulfide S method rather than total S assay methods but this does not give recovery of potentially acid producing ferrous and ferric sulfates present in many wastes. For more accurate estimation of AP, an effective, site-specific method to quantify acid sulfate salts, such as jarosite and melanterite, in waste rocks has been developed and tested on synthetic and real wastes. The SPOCAS (acid sulfate soils) methods have been modified to an effective, rapid method to speciate sulfate forms in different synthetic waste samples. A three-step sequential extraction procedure has been established. These steps are: (1) argon-purged water extraction (3 min) to extract soluble Fe(II) salts (particularly melanterite), epsomite and gypsum (1 wt.% S) as copper sulfides, the second step of roasting needs to be excluded from the procedure with an increased time of 4 M HCl extraction to 16 h for jarosite determination.

  1. The legal framework governing waste utilisation in mining; Der rechtliche Rahmen der Abfallverwertung im Bergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Berg- und Umweltrecht

    2001-07-01

    Seen from the legal aspect, waste utilisation in mining is generally a very difficult issue, particularly as regards waste management law. Here it poses various problems which concern the fundamental principles of waste management law. These issues are increasingly coming under the influence of European law, which in its present state already imposes a very differentiated, absolutely binding regime on member states. Moreover, its demarcation between reutilisation and removal is decisive for the legal consequences that follow. Some Laender impose obligations to offer for sale or surrender as well as more stringent monitoring and proof requirements for hazardous wastes. EU member states also have more powerful rights of objection when it comes to the transboundary movement of waste destined for disposal. [German] Die Abfallverwertung im Bergbau ist insgesamt ein rechtlich sehr schwieriges Thema. Das gilt einmal in abfallrechtlicher Hinsicht. Hier werden verschiedene Probleme relevant, welche die Grundlagen des Abfallrechts betreffen. Das ist insbesondere die in diesem Bereich schwierige Abgrenzungsfrage zwischen Verwertung und Beseitigung. Mehr und mehr wird diese Problematik vom Europarecht gepraegt, welches bereits ein sehr differenziertes und fuer die Mitgliedstaaten verbindliches Abfallregime statuiert. Die Abgrenzung von Verwertung und Beseitigung entscheidet zudem ueber den Eintritt unterschiedlichster Rechtsfolgen. Fuer gefaehrliche Abfaelle bestehen in manchen Bundeslaendern Andienungs- und Ueberlassungspflichten und strengere Nachweis- und Ueberwachungsanforderungen. Im Rahmen der grenzueberschreitenden Verbringung von Abfaellen stehen den Mitgliedstaaten staerkere Einwendungsmoeglichkeiten zu, wenn es sich um Abfaelle zur Beseitigung handelt. (orig.)

  2. Heavy equipment maintenance wastes and environmental management in the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2002-10-01

    Maintenance wastes, if not managed properly, represent significant environmental issues for mining operations. Petroleum hydrocarbon liquid wastes were studied at an Australian site and a review of the literature and technology vendors was carried out to identify oil/water separation technologies. Treatment technologies and practices for managing oily wastewater, used across the broader mining industry in the Asia-Pacific region, were also identified. Key findings from the study were: (1) primary treatment is required to remove grease oil contamination and to protect secondary oily wastewater treatment systems from being overloaded; (2) selection of an effective secondary treatment system is dependent on influent oil droplet size and concentration, suspended solids concentration, flow rates (and their variability), environmental conditions, maintenance schedules and effectiveness, treatment targets and costs; and (3) oily wastewater treatment systems, based on mechanical separation, are favoured over those that are chemically based, as they simplify operational requirements. Source reduction, through housekeeping, equipment and reagent modifications, and segregation and/or consolidation of hydrocarbon waste streams, minimizes treatment costs, safety and environmental impact.

  3. Large-scale experiments for microbiological evaluation of measures for safeguarding sulfidic mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, A; Jozsa, P G; Kovacs, Z M; Jelea, M; Sand, W

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of a German-Romanian scientific cooperation, experiments were performed to evaluate feasible and cheap techniques for the safe storage of mine waste to prevent acid rock drainage (ARD). A large four-chamber percolator (4CP) was installed in a waste heap at Ilba Mine, Romania, to test the effect of biocides and alkaline layers on the bacteria causing acid rock drainage (ARD). The 4CP consisted of four chambers each containing 65 m3 of sulfidic waste material. The 4CP enabled the transfer of laboratory results to a technical scale. The detergent sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) was proved to be active against the leaching bacteria. Organotrophic micro-organisms were not effected by the SDS application. The alkaline layers caused an increase of pH, however, a decrease of cell numbers was measured only in adjacent ore layers, but not in the whole ore body. A rapid evaluation of the effects of these countermeasures on ARD formation became possible by microcalorimetric activity measurements for bioleaching.

  4. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Pellitero, E. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodriguez, M.A. [Faculty of Sciences, Crystallography and Mineralogy Area, Avd. Elvas s/n. Extremadura University, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F. [Ceramic and Glass Institute (CSIC), c/Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Rubin, J. [Material Science Institute of Aragon, CSIC-Zaragoza University, c/Maria de Luna 3, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  5. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  6. Cover design for radioactive and AMD-producing mine waste in the Ronneburg area, eastern Thuringia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzweiler, R; Jahn, S; Neubert, G; Paul, M

    2001-01-01

    At the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, large scale underground and open pit mining for nearly 40 years resulted in a production of about 113,000 tonnes of uranium and about 200 million cubic metres of mine waste. In their present state, these materials cause risks to human health and strong environmental impacts and therefore demand remedial action. The remediation options available are relocation of mine spoil into the open pit and on site remediation by landscaping/contouring, placement of a cover and revegetation. A suitable vegetated cover system combined with a surface water drainage system provides long-term stability against erosion and reduces acid generation thereby meeting the main remediation objectives which are long-term reduction of radiological exposure and contaminant emissions and recultivation. The design of the cover system includes the evaluation of geotechnical, radiological, hydrological, geochemical and ecological criteria and models. The optimized overall model for the cover system has to comply with general conditions as, e.g. economic efficiency, public acceptance and sustainability. Most critical elements for the long-term performance of the cover system designed for the Beerwalde dump are the barrier system and its long-term integrity and a largely self-sustainable vegetation.

  7. Molecular characterization of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans strains isolated from mine wastes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, L C; Bergamo, R F; Garcia, O; de Mello, M P; Manfio, G P; Ottoboni, L M

    2001-10-01

    Nineteen strains of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, including 12 strains isolated from coal, copper, gold and uranium mines in Brazil, strains isolated from similar sources in other countries and the type strains of the two species were characterized together with the type strain of A. caldus by using a combination of molecular systematic methods, namely ribotyping, BOX- and ERIC-PCR and DNA-DNA hybridization assays. Data derived from the molecular fingerprinting analyses showed that the tested strains encompassed a high degree of genetic variability. Two of the Brazilian A. ferrooxidans organisms (strains SSP and PCE) isolated from acid coal mine waste and uranium mine effluent, respectively, and A. thiooxidans strain DAMS, isolated from uranium mine effluent, were the most genetically divergent organisms. The DNA-DNA hybridization data did not support the allocation of Acidithiobacillus strain SSP to the A. ferrooxidans genomic species, as it shared only just over 40% DNA relatedness with the type strain of the species. Acidithiobacillus strain SSP was not clearly related to A. ferrooxidans in the 16S rDNA tree.

  8. Identification of lead chemical form in mine waste materials by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Raijeli L.; Zheng, Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Ng, Jack; Harris, Hugh H.; Noller, Barry

    2010-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides a direct means for measuring lead chemical forms in complex samples. In this study, XAS was used to identify the presence of plumbojarosite (PbFe6(SO4)4(OH)12) by lead L3-edge XANES spectra in mine waste from a small gold mining operation in Fiji. The presence of plumbojarosite in tailings was confirmed by XRD but XANES gave better resolution. The potential for human uptake of Pb from tailings was measured using a physiologically based extract test (PBET), an in-vitro bioaccessibility (BAc) method. The BAc of Pb was 55%. Particle size distribution of tailings indicated that 40% of PM10 particulates exist which could be a potential risk for respiratory effects via the inhalation route. Food items collected in the proximity of the mine site had lead concentrations which exceed food standard guidelines. Lead within the mining lease exceeded sediment guidelines. The results from this study are used to investigate exposure pathways via ingestion and inhalation for potential risk exposure pathways of Pb in that locality. The highest Pb concentration in soil and tailings was 25,839 mg/kg, exceeding the Australian National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) soil health investigation levels.

  9. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops.

  10. Reconnaissance study of the mining waste from the Gold Quadrilateral of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) - data from SUSMIN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Marian; Cioacă, Mihaela Elena; Ion, Daniel; Rusu, Constantin; Floria, Nelu; Maftei, Raluca; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The Gold Quadrilateral of the Apuseni Mountains contains numerous epithermal Au-Ag deposits and porphyry Cu-Au deposits. Most mines are now closed. A reconnaissance investigation has been made on samples from the waste rock dumps at Bucium, Stănija, Valea Arsului, Ruda Barza, Larga, Haneş, Radeş-Runcu, Dealul Fetii, Valea Lungă and Caraci, and from the tailing ponds at Ţărăţel and Ribiţa (Brad mining field), Valea Săliştei and Gura Roşiei (Roşia Montană). Mercury shows the most elevated values (close to 0.8 ppm) at Ruda Barza and Haneş. Copper and Zn have contents of tens to hundreds ppm, while Pb can reach thousands ppm. Arsenic has highest values at Ruda, Haneş and Larga (150-280 ppm). Gold and silver contents vary from 0.1 ppm to 0.8 ppm and from 1 ppm to 23 ppm, respectively. For comparison, the rocks in the porphyry Cu-Au deposits at Bolcana, Bucium, Rovina, Roşia Poieni and Valea Arsului showed contents of 0.1-1.3 ppm Au, 0.2-8.5 ppm Ag, 4-278 ppm Pb, 0.2-105 ppm Te and 20-26 ppm As (Cioacă et al., 2014). The samples of sulfide-rich waste from the former processing plant at Bucium showed Te contents of 200-400 ppm. The material in the tailings ponds at Ribiţa and Ţărăţel is dominated by quartz, followed by clay minerals and gypsum ± calcite. At Valea Săliştei and Gura Roşiei, K-feldspar is dominant, followed by quartz and clay minerals. At Valea Săliştei and Gura Roşiei (> 9% K2O), potassium is significantly higher than it is at Ribiţa and Ţărăţel (< 2.5% K2O). Hg, Cu, Zn, As, Te and Bi are one order of magnitude higher at Ribiţa and Ţărăţel than they are at Valea Săliştei and Gura Roşiei. The gold content is ca. 0.3 ppm at Ţărăţel, 0.4 ppm at Valea Săliştei and Gura Roşiei and 0.8 ppm at Ribiţa. The results encourage further investigations for the assessment of the economic potential of the mining waste in the Gold Quadrilateral. This research is part of the SUSMIN project (http

  11. Modeling the Use of Mine Waste Rock as a Porous Medium Reservoir for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelick, R. A.; Donelick, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    We are studying the engineering and economic feasibilities of constructing Big Mass Battery (BiMBy) compressed air energy storage devices using some of the giga-tonnes of annually generated and historically produced mine waste rock/overburden/tailings (waste rock). This beneficial use of waste rock is based on the large mass (Big Mass), large pore volume, and wide range of waste rock permeabilities available at some large open pit metal mines and coal strip mines. Porous Big Mass is encapsulated and overlain by additional Big Mass; compressed air is pumped into the encapsulated pore space when renewable energy is abundant; compressed air is released from the encapsulated pore space to run turbines to generate electricity at the grid scale when consumers demand electricity. Energy storage capacity modeling: 1) Yerington Pit, Anaconda Copper Mine, Yerington, NV (inactive metal mine): 340 Mt Big Mass, energy storage capacity equivalent to 390k-710k home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 20% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. 2) Berkeley Pit, Butte Copper Mine, Butte, MT (inactive metal mine): 870 Mt Big Mass, energy storage capacity equivalent to 1.4M-2.9M home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 20% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. 3) Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, MT (active coal strip mine): 87 Mt over 2 years, energy storage capacity equivalent to 45k-67k home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 30% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. Encapsulating impermeable layer modeling: Inactive mine pits like Yerington Pit and Berkeley Pit, and similar active pits, have associated with them low permeability earthen material (silt and clay in Big Mass) at sufficient quantities to manufacture an encapsulating structure with minimal loss of efficiency due to leakage, a lifetime of decades or even centuries, and minimal need for the use of geomembranes. Active coal strip mines like Rosebud mine have associated with them low permeability earthen material such as

  12. Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David

    2014-05-01

    In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

  13. Use of coal mining waste for the removal of acidity and metal ions Al(III), Fe(III) and Mn(II) in acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geremias, R.; Laus, R.; Macan, J.M.; Pedrosa, R.C.; Laranjeira, M.C.M.; Silvan, J.; Favere, F.V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2008-08-15

    The coal industry may generate acid mine drainage (AMD) and mining wastes, which may adversely affect the quality of the environment. In this study we propose the use of this waste in the removal of acidity and metal ions, as well as in the reduction of the toxicity of AMD. A physico-chemical analysis of the waste shows the presence of mainly SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a superficial area of 4.316 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The treatment of AMD with the waste resulted in an increase in pH from 2.6 to 7.8 and removed 100% of the Al(III), 100% of the Fe(III) and 89% of the Mn (II). We also observed that the high toxicity of the AMD towards Daphnia magna (LC50 = 3.68%) and Artemia sp. (LC50 = 4.97%) was completely eliminated after treatment with the waste. The data obtained allow us to propose that the waste can be used in the treatment of AMD, providing an economic use for the waste.

  14. Characterization and speciation of mercury-bearing mine wastes using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.S.; Brown, Gordon E.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mining of mercury deposits located in the California Coast Range has resulted in the release of mercury to the local environment and water supplies. The solubility, transport, and potential bioavailability of mercury are controlled by its chemical speciation, which can be directly determined for samples with total mercury concentrations greater than 100 mg kg-1 (ppm) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). This technique has the additional benefits of being non-destructive to the sample, element-specific, relatively sensitive at low concentrations, and requiring minimal sample preparation. In this study, Hg L(III)-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were collected for several mercury mine tailings (calcines) in the California Coast Range. Total mercury concentrations of samples analyzed ranged from 230 to 1060 ppm. Speciation data (mercury phases present and relative abundances) were obtained by comparing the spectra from heterogeneous, roasted (calcined) mine tailings samples with a spectral database of mercury minerals and sorbed mercury complexes. Speciation analyses were also conducted on known mixtures of pure mercury minerals in order to assess the quantitative accuracy of the technique. While some calcine samples were found to consist exclusively of mercuric sulfide, others contain additional, more soluble mercury phases, indicating a greater potential for the release of mercury into solution. Also, a correlation was observed between samples from hot-spring mercury deposits, in which chloride levels are elevated, and the presence of mercury-chloride species as detected by the speciation analysis. The speciation results demonstrate the ability of XAS to identify multiple mercury phases in a heterogeneous sample, with a quantitative accuracy of ??25% for the mercury-containing phases considered. Use of this technique, in conjunction with standard microanalytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis

  15. The environmental context of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and its potential role as an ecosystem engineer in sulphidic mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebenaa, Gustav

    2001-06-01

    Microorganisms are the causative agent of the environmental problems since they catalyse the weathering of the (sulphidic) waste. The chemical oxidation alone is not fast enough to create any severe environmental problems. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is thought to be a key organism in weathering of sulphide minerals. A. ferrooxidans is affected by several more or less abiotic factors. The influence of temperature, pH and nutrient deficiency as potentially limiting factors for the activity of A. ferrooxidans has been investigated. It seems that temperature has less influence on its activity, but rather reflects the origin of the bacterial isolate. An alkaline pH seems enough to hinder growth and activity. The nutrients do not seem to be a limiting factor in the studied environment. The possible regulation of the activity of A. ferrooxidans is therefore a way to, at least partly, mitigate the environmental impact from mine waste. Waste from the mining industry is the largest waste problem in Sweden. With amounts over 600 million tonnes one could easily imagine the tremendous cost involved in the abatement. The MiMi-programme, with researchers from several relevant fields, has as its aim to evaluate present and to find alternative techniques to mitigate the environmental impact from mine waste. The understanding of A. ferrooxidans and its role as an ecosystem engineer is essential both in evaluating present techniques and even more so in finding alternative abatement techniques for sulphidic mine waste.

  16. A novel acidophile community populating waste ore deposits at an acid mine drainage site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Chun-bo; ZHANG Hong-xun; BAI Zhi-hui; HU Qing; ZHANG Bao-guo

    2007-01-01

    Waste ore samples (pH 3.0) were collected at an acid mine drainage site in Anhui, China. The present acidophilic microbial community in the waste ore was studied with 16S rRNA gene clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Eighteen different clones were identified and affiliated with Actinobacteria, low G + C Gram-positives, Thermomicrobia, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidate division TM7, and Planctomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a diversity of acidophiles in the samples that were mostly novel. It is unexpected that the moderately thermophilic acidophiles were abundant in the acidic ecosystem and may play a great role in the generation of AMD. The result of DGGE was consistent with that of clone library analysis. These findings help in the better understanding of the generation mechanism of AMD and in developing a more efficient method to control AMD.

  17. Possible salt mine sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, K.K.

    1972-06-30

    The motivation for this investigation is the necessity for finding the safest possible repository for solid atomic plant wastes. It is believed that rooms mined in thick beds of salt would afford the best sanctuary. This is due especially to the impermeability of massive rock salt. This rock has enough plasticity so that it tends to give rather than fracture when disturbed by movements of the earth's crust. In addition, due to water conditions at the time of deposition, the rocks most commonly associated with salt (anhydrite and shale) are likewise relatively impervious. A number of areas have been selected for detailed discussion because of the excellence of the geological and environmental factors. The optimum requirements for a viable waste disposal prospect are described in detail and nine prospects are considered further.

  18. Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 μg/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 μg/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 μg/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 μg/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 μg/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 μg/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 μg/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 μg/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 μg/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 μg/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 μg/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 μg/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 μg/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water

  19. Environmental assessment of mining industry solid pollution in the mercurial district of Azzaba, northeast Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seklaoui, M'hamed; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Benali, Hanafi; Alligui, Fadila; Prochaska, Walter

    2016-11-01

    To date, there have been few detailed studies regarding the impact of mining and metallogenic activities on solid fractions in the Azzaba mercurial district (northeast Algeria) despite its importance and global similarity with large Hg mines. To assess the degree, distribution, and sources of pollution, a physical inventory of apparent pollution was developed, and several samples of mining waste, process waste, sediment, and soil were collected on regional and local scales to determine the concentration of Hg and other metals according to their existing mineralogical association. Several physico-chemical parameters that are known to influence the pollution distribution are realized. The extremely high concentrations of all metals exceed all norms and predominantly characterize the metallurgic and mining areas; the metal concentrations significantly decrease at significant low distances from these sources. The geo-accumulation index, which is the most realistic assessment method, demonstrates that soils and sediments near waste dumps and abandoned Hg mines are extremely polluted by all analyzed metals. The pollution by these metals decreases significantly with distance, which indicates a limited dispersion. The results of a clustering analysis and an integrated pollution index suggest that waste dumps, which are composed of calcine and condensation wastes, are the main source of pollution. Correlations and principal component analysis reveal the important role of hosting carbonate rocks in limiting pollution and differentiating calcine wastes from condensation waste, which has an extremely high Hg concentration (˃1 %).

  20. Environmental impacts of unmanaged solid waste at a former base metal mining and ore processing site (Kirki, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulos, Alexandros; Lemière, Bruno; Michael, Konstantinos; Crouzet, Catherine; Laperche, Valérie; Romaidis, Ioannis; Drougas, Iakovos; Lassin, Arnault

    2010-11-01

    The Kirki project aimed to identify, among the mining waste abandoned at a mine and processing plant, the most critical potential pollution sources, the exposed milieus and the main pathways for contamination of a littoral area. This was accompanied by the definition of a monitoring network and remedial options. For this purpose, field analytical methods were extensively used to allow a more precise identification of the source, to draw relevant conceptual models and outline a monitoring network. Data interpretation was based on temporal series and on a geographical model. A classification method for mining waste was established, based on data on pollutant contents and emissions, and their long-term pollution potential. Mining waste present at the Kirki mine and plant sites comprises (A) extraction waste, mainly metal sulfide-rich rocks; (B) processing waste, mainly tailings, with iron and sulfides, sulfates or other species, plus residues of processing reagents; and (C) other waste, comprising leftover processing reagents and Pb-Zn concentrates. Critical toxic species include cadmium and cyanide. The stormy rainfall regime and hilly topography favour the flush release of large amounts of pollutants. The potential impacts and remedial options vary greatly. Type C waste may generate immediate and severe chemical hazards, and should be dealt with urgently by careful removal, as it is localised in a few spots. Type B waste has significant acid mine drainage potential and contains significant amounts of bioavailable heavy metals and metalloids, but they may also be released in solid form into the surface water through dam failure. The most urgent action is thus dams consolidation. Type A waste is by far the most bulky, and it cannot be economically removed. Unfortunately, it is also the most prone to acid mine drainage (seepage pH 1 to 2). This requires neutralisation to prevent acid water accelerating heavy metals and metalloids transfer. All waste management options

  1. Retention of contaminants in northern natural peatlands treating mine waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2014-05-01

    The mining industry in Finland is growing, leading to an increasing number of working and proposed mine sites. As a consequence, the amount of mine waste waters created is likewise increasing. This poses a great challenge for water management and purification, as these mine waste waters can lead to severe environmental and health consequences when released to receiving water bodies untreated. In the past years, the use of natural peatlands for cost-effective passive waste water treatment has been increasing. In this study, the fate of mine water contaminants in a treatment peatland receiving process waters from the Kittilä gold mine was investigated. Special attention was paid to the fate of potentially harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony or nickel. During the 4 years of operation, the peatland removed contaminants from process waters at varying efficiencies. While arsenic, antimony and nickel were retained at high efficiencies (>80% retention), other contaminants such as zinc, sulfate or iron were not retained or even leaching from the peatland. Soil samples taken in 2013 showed a linear increase of arsenic, antimony and nickel concentration in the peatland as compared to earlier sampling times, in agreement with the good retention efficiencies for those contaminants. Measured concentrations exceeded guideline values for contaminated soils, indicating that the prolonged use of treatment peatlands leads to high soil contamination and restrict further uses of the peatlands without remediation measures. Soil and pore water samples were taken along a transect with varying distance from the process water distribution ditch and analyzed for total and more easily mobile concentrations of contaminants (peat soil) as well as total and dissolved contaminants (water samples). Concentrations of contaminants such as arsenic, manganese or antimony in peat and pore water samples were highest near the distribution ditch and decreased with increasing distance from the

  2. Relation Between Edaphic Factors and Vegetation Development on Copper Mine Wastes: A Case Study From Bor (Serbia, SE Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranđelović, Dragana; Cvetković, Vladica; Mihailović, Nevena; Jovanović, Slobodan

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between edaphic characteristics and vegetation growing on mine wastes in the Bor region (East Serbia, SE Europe) was studied using multivariate statistical analysis. The influence of edaphic factors on the composition of plant life-forms was also investigated, since it could reflect strategies for the avoidance of or tolerance to disturbances of ecosystems. The goal was to provide potential models for the restoration and management of this and similar mine waste areas. The results of this study imply that soil textures, nitrogen contents, reclamation technology and the presence of hydrothermally altered andesite as the type of bedrock significantly influenced plant colonization and vegetation composition of the Bor mine wastes. These edaphic factors explained 30.3 % of the total variation in the vegetation data set. It was also revealed that the pattern of plant life-forms found on the considered site groups corresponded to the soil texture. Based on their relative abundance on the investigated sites and relationships with soil properties it is concluded that therophytes and geophytes are unsuccessful primary colonizers of the Bor mine wastes. Hemicryptophytes of psammophytic character were the most successful primary colonizers and therefore potential candidates for anthropogenically-assisted natural recovery. This study suggested that an assessment of edaphic factors should be widely used in the characterization of mine wastes prior to reclamation. Estimation of their role in the development of existing mine vegetation should predate reclamation procedures. Thus, approaches based on adequate plant life-forms should have a more prominent role in future mine reclamation schemes.

  3. Mercury isotope fractionation during ore retorting in the Almadén mining district, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2013-01-01

    Almadén, Spain, is the world's largest mercury (Hg) mining district, which has produced over 250,000 metric tons of Hg representing about 30% of the historical Hg produced worldwide. The objective of this study was to measure Hg isotopic compositions of cinnabar ore, mine waste calcine (retorted ore), elemental Hg (Hg0(L)), and elemental Hg gas (Hg0(g)), to evaluate potential Hg isotopic fractionation. Almadén cinnabar ore δ202Hg varied from − 0.92 to 0.15‰ (mean of − 0.56‰, σ = 0.35‰, n = 7), whereas calcine was isotopically heavier and δ202Hg ranged from − 0.03‰ to 1.01‰ (mean of 0.43‰, σ = 0.44‰, n = 8). The average δ202Hg enrichment of 0.99‰ between cinnabar ore and calcines generated during ore retorting indicated Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation (MDF). Mass independent fractionation (MIF) was not observed in any of the samples in this study. Laboratory retorting experiments of cinnabar also were carried out to evaluate Hg isotopic fractionation of products generated during retorting such as calcine, Hg0(L), and Hg0(g). Calcine and Hg0(L) generated during these retorting experiments showed an enrichment in δ202Hg of as much as 1.90‰ and 0.67‰, respectively, compared to the original cinnabar ore. The δ202Hg for Hg0(g) generated during the retorting experiments was as much as 1.16‰ isotopically lighter compared to cinnabar, thus, when cinnabar ore was roasted, the resultant calcines formed were isotopically heavier, whereas the Hg0(g) generated was isotopically lighter in Hg isotopes.

  4. The use of coal mining wastes for manufacturing paving materials; Los Esteriles del Carbon como Materia Prima para la Fabricacion de Materiales para Pavimentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This project was aimed at proving the technical feasibility of the use of coal mining wastes in the manufacturing of paving materials: floor-tiles, flags, paving-stones, grit stones, etc. The study proved that coal mining wastes in a mixture with other raw materials can be used in the manufacturing of paving materials: floor-tiles, paving-stones, grit stones.

  5. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  6. Cooperative urban mining in Brazil: Collective practices in selective household waste collection and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutberlet, J

    2015-11-01

    Solid waste is a major urban challenge worldwide and reclaiming the resources embedded in waste streams, involving organized recyclers, is a smart response to it. Informal and organized recyclers, mostly in the global south, already act as important urban miners in resource recovery. The paper describes the complex operations of recycling cooperatives and draws attention to their economic, environmental, and social contributions. A detailed discussion based on empirical data from the recycling network COOPCENT-ABC in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, contextualizes this form of urban mining. The analysis is situated within Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) and Ecological Economy (EE) theory. Current challenges related to planning, public policy, and the implementation of cooperative recycling are analysed on the level of individual recyclers, cooperatives, municipalities and internationally. There are still many hurdles for the informal, organized recycling sector to become recognized as a key player in efficient material separation and to up-scale these activities for an effective contribution to the SSE and EE. Policies need to be in place to guarantee fair and safe work relations. There is a win-win situation where communities and the environment will benefit from organized urban mining.

  7. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Andreazza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29º09'53.92''S and 51º31'39.40''W and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30º29'43.48''S and 53'32'37.87W. Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L-1 in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h. GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration.

  8. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, R; Pieniz, S; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O

    2011-01-01

    Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol) were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29°09'53.92″S and 51°31'39.40″W) and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30°29'43.48″S and 53'32'37.87W). Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L(-1) in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus) displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h). GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration.

  9. Metal recovery by bioleaching of sulfidic mining wastes — Application to a European case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guézennec, A. G.; Jacob, J.; Joulian, C.; Dupraz, S.; Menard, Y.; d'Hugues, P.

    The non-energy extractive industry (NEEI) of the EU-25 generated a direct turnover of about €40 billion, and provided employment to about 250000 people in 16629 companies in 2004. The use of primary raw materials in the production of other branches of EU industry means they have a central role in guaranteeing industrial and economic sustainability. Nevertheless current demand exceeds production, and so the EU is heavily dependent on minerals and metals imports. In this context of securing access to metals, turning mining wastes into new resources of currently unexploited valuable metals is an important challenge. The mining wastes can contain base and precious metals, but also metalloids and rare earth elements that are nowadays considered as highly critical for the industrial development of the European Union. Nevertheless, the development of alternative routes to conventional processing is still required in order to decrease the cost associated to the treatment of these unconventional resources which are more complex in composition and with lower grades.

  10. DTM-based Design of Mine Waste Dump%基于DTM的矿山排土场设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊; 刘景秀; 李慧

    2013-01-01

    针对矿山排土场(废石场)设计的方法和要求,探讨了将地理信息系统的数字地面模型(digital terrain model,DTM)技术运用于矿山排土场的选址设计方案的可行性.以矿区地形数字高程模型以及排土场设计要素为依据,模拟出设计面的数字高程模型,并且计算出了相应的排土场容量.采用该技术可提高矿山排土场设计的工作效率并具有较高的准确性和智能化水平.%Based on the methods and requirements for the design of mining waste dump, digital terrain model (DTM) technology in the geographic information system was applied for choosing sit of mining waste dump. Digital elevation model of design surface was simulated according to mining area terrain digital elevation model and design elements of waste dump. The capacity of the waste dump were stimulated and calculated. This technique can be used to improve the efficiency of designing the mining waste dump in high accuracy and level of intelligence.

  11. Solution of the capacity increase of the waste dump at the Merkur surface mine in Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, P.

    1987-06-01

    The methods used in the past for backfilling the large dump at the Merkur surface mine have, due to an ignorance of the factors influencing dump stability, resulted in significant capacity reductions of the dump. This ignorance was the result of insufficient knowledge, research, and poor practice at the operation. Recent re-evaluation of the actual stability conditions has led to a solution which permits an increase in the dump capacity, such that it is compatible with future mining plans. By considering the structure of the soils being used as backfill, specific technological processes are being defined which enable the preservation of the highest possible shear strength of the clayey soils, and thereby maximize the utilization of the internal capacity with at least short term stability. Questions regarding the behaviour and properties of the loose clayey material are also being answered, and new methods of stability calculation for the high dump are being developed. The key to these solutions has been the knowledge gained regarding the shear strength of the loose clayey material under various effective stress conditions, while realizing that three different zones can exist simultaneously within the body of the dump: the slope areas (having the greatest failure-inducing stress), the temporary areas (having a somewhat lower applied stress), and the dump core (where the tendency to fail is nearly zero). Through a sound application of this knowledge, the capacity of the waste dump at the large Merkur surface mine has been adequately expanded for the future.

  12. Developmental Design of Anaerobic Wetland System for Mining Waste Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tin mining is one of the oldest industries in Malaysia that have started since 1820s. These mining activities have resulted in about 13,700 hectors of tin tailings throughout the peninsula. These tailings have created numerous environmental problems such as threat to natural reserves due to landscape changes, damage to natural drainage, pollution and destruction of natural habitats. Approach: This research provided an approach for designing a constructed wetland system for treatment of tin-contaminated wastewater from mining catchment, a system that is known to provide a more economical treatment than the conventional system. Design of wetland was mostly based on the review of scientific literature, theoretical modelling and verification of performance via a pilot system. Results: Initially, physio-chemical characteristics and concentration of heavy metals in the soil and ponds were evaluated. It was found that the soil and water quality of area is highly degraded. This study will help for the design of the wetland for wastewater treatment. The study area consists of five mined out ponds in the catchment, each pond arranged in series with a 48 h hydraulic retention time. Wetland system comprises of three compartments in series-an ‘inflow’ pond receiving untreated tailings water overflowing into a wetland compartment, which in turn overflows into an 'outflow' pond receiving the now treated water. Each compartment filled with approximately 50 cm depth of a mixture of the cattle manure as (25% and municipal waste compost (75% as substrate. Waterproof baffles in each wetland compartment serve to increase the flow path of the water, thereby increasing the potential for sulphate retention. Additionally 30 tonnes of limestone will be deposited at the far end of the wetland, to facilitate final pH adjustment if it should be required. On site a computer connected to the pumps regulates the flow of tailings water through the systems

  13. Mutielemental concentration and physiological responses of Lavandula pedunculata growing in soils developed on different mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to: i) evaluate the accumulation and translocation patterns of potentially hazardous elements into the Lavandula pedunculata and their influence in the concentrations of nutrients; and ii) compare some physiological responses associated with oxidative stress (concentration of chlorophylls (Chla, Chlb and total), carotenoids, and total protein) and several components involved in tolerance mechanisms (concentrations of proline and acid-soluble thiols and total/specific activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), in plants growing in soils with a multielemental contamination and non-contaminated. Composite samples of soils, developed on mine wastes and/or host rocks, and L. pedunculata (roots and shoots) were collected in São Domingos mine (SE of Portugal) and in a reference area with non-contaminated soils, Corte do Pinto, with the same climatic conditions. São Domingos soils had high total concentrations of several hazardous elements (e.g. As and Pb) but their available fractions were small (mainly importance of the elements. In general, plant shoots from São Domingos had the highest elements concentrations, but only As, Mn and Zn reached phytotoxic concentrations. Concentration of Chlb in shoots from São Domingos was higher than those from Corte do Pinto. No significant differences were obtained between concentrations of Chla, total protein, proline and acid-soluble thiols in shoots collected in both areas, as well as SOD activity (total and specific) and specific CAT activity. Total CAT activity varied with population being lower in the shoots of the plants from São Domingos, but no correlation was obtained between this enzymatic activity and the concentrations of the studied elements in shoots. Lavandula pedunculata plants are able to survive in soils developed on different mine wastes with multielemental contamination and low fertility showing no symptoms (visible and physiological) of phytotoxicity or deficiency. Copyright

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Potash Mining in the Region of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; Beauheim, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been developed for underground disposal of transuranic waste in halite beds of the Permian Salado Formation. Managed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP has been operational since March 1999. Regulatory requirements call for the DOE to submit a Compliance Recertification Application (CRA) every five years, the first of which is due to the Environmental Protection Agency in 2004. In support of the CRA, performance assessment (PA) analysis is being conducted. PA is a series of linked models that make probabilistic assessments of possible future states of the WIPP and its performance under each of those states. One possible future state involves human intrusion into the repository creating pathways for upward migration of radionuclides into the Culebra dolomite aquifer. The Culebra is about 200 m below ground surface and 400 m above the repository. Current and future potash mining in the upper Salado Formation, within and outside the WIPP boundary, will likely cause subsidence of the Culebra, resulting in higher transmissivities that may change regional groundwater flow patterns. This analysis evaluates the impact of potash mining on the Culebra flow patterns and the resulting influence on repository performance. The impacts are modeled by creating 100 calibrated transmissivity (T) fields through stochastic inverse modeling using the parameter estimation code, PEST. Transmissivities in each field are then scaled in areas deemed to contain extractable potash by a random mining factor between 1 and 1000. Two mining scenarios are modeled: mining in all extractable areas within the WIPP boundary and across the entire region and mining everywhere except within the WIPP boundary. Three random mining factors are applied to each calibrated T-field for both mining scenarios, creating 600 instances of modified T-fields. Steady-state flow models are run for each instance and particle tracking is used to

  15. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  16. Characterisation of sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps using electrical resistivity imaging: the case study of the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Mauro; Servida, Diego; Lupis, Domenico

    2013-07-01

    Sulphide-bearing mine dumps are potential sources of pollution when acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs. Because the generation of AMD depends on the volume and composition of waste materials, their characterisation is crucial for the evaluation of geochemical hazards and for the design of remediation strategies to minimise their environmental impact. In this paper, a cost-effective strategy for the characterisation of an inactive mine dump in the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy) using earth resistivity imaging (ERI) is presented. As no information regarding the nature of waste rocks is found in reports for the mine, five ERI profiles were acquired at the top of the waste pile. The results show that waste rocks are heterogeneous with a maximum thickness of 30 m. Due to the large amounts of dispersed sulphide minerals, the waste rocks are characterised by an electrically conductive geophysical signature in comparison to the surrounding resistive metamorphic bedrock. A geostatistical approach was adopted to estimate the elevation of the edges of the mine dump, and the net volume of the waste rocks was computed through a raster analysis of the elevations of the upper and lower boundaries of the mine dump. High-conductivity anomalies were detected within the core of the mine dump. The integration of the hydrogeological, geochemical and geological framework of the Rio Marina mining district suggests that these anomalies could be a geophysical signature of subsurface regions where AMD is currently generated or stored, thus representing sources of environmental pollution.

  17. Review of samples of water, sediment, tailings, and biota at the Little Bonanza mercury mine, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; Goldstein, Daniel N.; Brussee, Brianne E.; May, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives The Little Bonanza mercury (Hg) mine, located in San Luis Obispo County, California, is a relatively small mine with, a historical total Hg production of about 1,000 flasks. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of the previously unnamed west fork of Las Tablas Creek (WF Las Tablas Creek), which flows into the Nacimiento Reservoir. Wasterock and tailings eroded from the Little Bonanza Hg Mine have contributed Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of WF Las Tablas Creek. The mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), which requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at and downstream from the minesite. This report is in response that request, from the lead agency which is mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Little Bonanza minesite as a means of reducing Hg transport to WF Las Tablas Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, wasterock, sediment, water, and biota at the Little Bonanza Mine that was completed on April 6, 2010. Conditions during sampling were dry and no rain had occurred in the watershed for several weeks. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could produce elevated levels of monomethyl mercury (MMeHg) in WF Las Tablas Creek and in biota.

  18. Investigative studies for the use of an inactive asbestos mine as a disposal site for asbestos wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, Evangelos; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Koumantakis, Emmanuil; Nikolaos, Stappas

    2008-05-30

    Although, according to European legislation the use of Asbestos Containing Materials is forbidden, many buildings in Greece still contain asbestos products, which must be removed at some point in the near future. Therefore, suitable disposal sites must be found within Greece, so that the unverified disposal of asbestos waste in municipal waste Landfills is brought to an end. In the present work, an innovative approach to the disposal problem of asbestos wastes in Greece has been examined, through a risk assessment analysis of the inactive asbestos mine of Northern Greece and an evaluation of its suitability as a disposal site for asbestos wastes in the future. According to the research carried out, two areas (Site 1 and Site 2) inside the mine area are suitable for the construction of a disposal site for asbestos wastes. The geological investigations showed that in Site 1 and Site 2 ultrabasic rocks of ophiolite complex were prevalent, which have been intensely serpentinized and converted into the fibrous shape of serpentine (asbestos). Concentrations of hazardous substances such as heavy metals in the soil of Site 1 and Site 2 oscillate at low levels, with the exception of the concentrations of nickel and chrome which are high. The investigative work also included the collection of meteorological data and the monitoring of the water level of the artificial lake, which has developed inside the open mine. The main aim is to safely dispose asbestos wastes inside the mine, to minimize any pollution of the wider vicinity of the mine, as well as to engage in restoration activities.

  19. Microbial iron reduction related to metal speciation in mine waste at the former uranium mine in Ranstad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, F.T. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

    1998-02-01

    Mining activities in Ranstad uranium mine started in 1965 and ended in 1969. In 1988 the final restoration was discussed, and it was proposed to water-fill the open pit and cover the waste disposal area using the `dry method`. Today the open pit has become a lake. Also some alum shale was placed on the land surface where it has been weathered by oxygen and water during 30 years. In 1994 it was observed that the color of the lake turned over to brown-red. Further studies showed increasing iron concentration in the lake and around the tailings area. For estimation of microbial iron reduction in the lake, three iron reducing bacteria were isolated from the water-filled open pit. For the enrichment process, water samples were inoculated in an anoxic enrichment medium. The isolates were able to reduce Fe(III) oxyhydroxide by oxidation of lactate as energy source. Growth of these strains was determined by production of a black precipitation of iron sulfide and was confirmed by estimation of total number of cells. Fe(III) reduction was monitored by measuring the accumulation of Fe(II) over time. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains Tran-l, Tran-2, and Tran-3 with the EMBL data base showed 98.6% identity with Shewanella putrefaciens, 98.7% identity with Shewanella alga and 98.2% identity with Aeromonas salmonicida, respectively. S. putrefaciens strains have been isolated from many different environments, many of which are suboxic or anoxic. In addition to growing aerobically, S. putrefaciens can use Fe(III) as terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. To distinguish if the Fe(III) and/or organic compounds presence in weathered alum shale can be utilized by iron reducing bacteria isolated from the lake, reduction of Fe(III) coupled to the oxidation of organic compounds in sterile and non-sterile weathered alum shale was studied. The reduction of Fe(III) coupled to growth of bacteria on sterile and non-sterile shale was observed. Furthermore

  20. Distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi coal mine in Huainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhao-xia; WANG Shun-chang; WANG Xing-ming

    2012-01-01

    In China,coal mine spoils have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air,soil and water environments.The coal waste pile occupies lots of arable land and endangers the ecological system in the coal mine district.Vegetation restoration is an efficient approach for controlling the environment pollution of coal waste pile,and is also a topic of current interest in restoration ecology and degradation system ecology.This study focused on the distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi Coal Mine in Huainan.The results show that two stable plant communities (Synodon dactylon+Erigeron bonariensis.L+Setaria viridis community and Humulus scanden+Erigeron bonariensis.L community) exist at the bottom of the pile.Synodon dactylon and Erigeron bonariensis.L have much higher values of summed dominance ratio,which denote that these two species can be used for restoration of coal waste piles.The high levels of pH (8.77) and salinity,low levels of total P and total K in coal mine spoil can be the limiting factors for the residence and growth of vegetation.

  1. Mineralogic sources of metals in leachates from the weathering of sedex, massive sulfide, and vein deposit mining wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, P.L.; Seal, R.R.; Piatak, N.M.; Lowers, H.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered mine waste consists of oxidized primary minerals and chemically unstable secondary phases that can be sources of readily soluble metals and acid rock drainage. Elevated concentrations of metals such as Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn are observed in deionized water-based leachate solutions derived from complex sedex and Cu-Pb-Zn mine wastes. Leachate (USGS FLT) from the Elizabeth mine, a massive sulfide deposit, has a pH of 3.4 and high concentrations of Al (16700 ug/L), Cu (440 ug/L), and Zn (8620 ug/L). Leachate from the sedex Faro mine has a pH of 3.5 and high concentrations of Al (2040 ug/L), Cu (1930 ug/L), Pb (2080 ug/L), and Zn (52900 ug/L). In contrast, higher-pH leachates produced from tailings of polymetallic vein deposits have order of magnitude lower metal concentrations. These data indicate that highly soluble secondary mineral phases exist at the surface of waste material where the samples were collected. Sulfide minerals from all sites exhibit differential degrees of weathering, from dissolution etched grain rims, to rinds of secondary minerals, to skeletal remnants. These microscale mineral-dissolution textures enhance weathering and metal teachability of waste material. Besides the formation of secondary minerals, sulfide grains from dried tailings samples may be coated by amorphous Fe-Al-Si minerals that also adsorb metals such as Cu, Ni, and Zn.

  2. Identification of the Origin and Behaviour of Arsenic in Mine Waste Dumps Using Correlation Analysis: A Case Study Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Yousefi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the probable origin and behaviour of arsenic certainly gives valuable insights into the potential for transfer in the environment and of the risks involved in mining sites. Sequential extraction analyses are common experiments often used to study the origin and behaviour of potentially toxic elements. The method, however, presents some deficiencies, including labor-intensive procedure, interferences of phases, being impractical for testing large number of samples in heterogeneous environment as well as inability for determining the individual minerals as source or sink terms for toxic elements. This study attempts to determine the origin and behaviour of arsenic in waste dump using correlation analysis approach. To this end, sixty samples were collected from two waste dumps at the Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine in Kerman Province, Iran. The statistical results along with previous experimental investigations and also sequential extraction experiment revealed that adsorption on muscovite is the main source, and that oxy hydroxides of iron and manganese are the main adsorbent minerals which control the concentrations of arsenic in the waste dumps of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine.

  3. Syrian bean-caper (Zygophyllum fabago L.) improves organic matter and other properties of mine wastes deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabas, S; Arocena, J M; Acosta, J A; Faz, A; Martínez-Martínez, S; Zornoza, R; Carmona, D M

    2014-01-01

    The omni-presence of Zygophyllum fabago L. (Syrian bean-caper) natural colonies in post mining areas prompted us to investigate its contributions to reclamation of mine wastes deposits in southeast Spain. Select plant-related (edaphic) characteristics and bio- and water soluble-Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago were compared to deposits one year since application of pig slurry and marble waste. Total N in rhizosphere increased up to a factor of 20X (339 vs 17 mg N kg(-1)) in El Gorguel and 27X (85 vs 3.1 mg N kg(-1)) in El Lirio sites. Organic matter accumulation in rhizosphere from litter and roots of Z. fabago increased organic C from 6.6 to 19.5 g kg(-1) in El Gorguel and from 2.1 to 5.7 g kg(-1) in El Lirio in one year. Dissolution of inorganic C takes place due to organic acids from root exudates of Z. fabago. Reduction in bio-available Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago at El Lirio is attributed to increase in pH from 5.3 to 7.7 through marble waste addition, although increased cation exchange capacity may also have played a role. Addition of marble waste to encourage colonization by Z. fabago in acidic mine wastes deposits was recommended.

  4. Mapping mine wastes and analyzing areas affected by selenium-rich water runoff in southeast Idaho using AVIRIS imagery and digital elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Remotely sensed hyperspectral and digital elevation data from southeastern Idaho are combined in a new method to assess mine waste contamination. Waste rock from phosphorite mining in the area contains selenium, cadmium, vanadium, and other metals. Toxic concentrations of selenium have been found in plants and soils near some mine waste dumps. Eighteen mine waste dumps and five vegetation cover types in the southeast Idaho phosphate district were mapped by using Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery and field data. The interaction of surface water runoff with mine waste was assessed by registering the AVIRIS results to digital elevation data, enabling determinations of (1) mine dump morphologies, (2) catchment watershed areas above each mine dump, (3) flow directions from the dumps, (4) stream gradients, and (5) the extent of downstream wetlands available for selenium absorption. Watersheds with the most severe selenium contamination, such as the South Maybe Canyon watershed, are associated with mine dumps that have large catchment watershed areas, high stream gradients, a paucity of downstream wetlands, and dump forms that tend to obstruct stream flow. Watersheds associated with low concentrations of dissolved selenium, such as Angus Creek, have mine dumps with small catchment watershed areas, low stream gradients, abundant wetlands vegetation, and less obstructing dump morphologies. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of coal mining wastes in building reinforced earth; Utilizacion de los Esteriles del Carbon en la Construccion de Tierra Armada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This project was aimed at evaluating the technical appropriateness of coal mining wastes for its possible use as filling material in reinforced earth structures of roads and highways, etc., and to establish the acceptance, implementation and quality control criteria, which can be included in the Spanish General Technical Standard of Road and Bridges Works (PG-3). With that aim, four types of coal mining wastes were selected out of an inventory and several corrosion tests were conducted with different types of reinforcements and following the results, the most appropriate coal mining wastes, the acceptance limits and the quality control tests to be applied to the materials obtained from coal mining wastes as filling material in reinforced earth structures were established. A real scale reinforced earth structure was erected using mining wastes as filling material and different types of reinforcements. It was tested under normal traffic conditions, carrying out thermal controls, and controls regarding the rolling and the corrosion of the reinforcements. The results proved that coal mining wastes can be used in general as filling material for building earth structures with polymeric reinforcements. As a result of this study 150,000 tons of coal mining wastes were used for building reinforced earth structures in different works carried out in the Principado de Asturias. (Author)

  6. Research on ground water pollution by leacheate of waste dump of open pit coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-bin; YAN Hong-kun; WANG Zhao-jun

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of investigation and research on the pollution source and pollution pathway of Yujiagou area, by the ground water quality analysis and the leaching and soaking experiments of the gangue, reliable data were obtained. The experiment results prove that these inorganic salt elements are easily dissolved by the water. The main pollu-tion factors in the ground water are consisted with the main pollution factor in the leading water of the gangue. By synthetically analyzing, a conclusion is shown that the salts in the leacheate of the waste dump of open pit coal mine are the primary pollution source for groundwater of Yujiagou area. An assessment is made about the degree of pollution of the ground water in the study area.

  7. Dissolution kinetics of aluminum and iron from coal mining waste by hydrochloric acid☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Cui; Yanxia Guo; Xuming Wang; Zhiping Du; Fangqin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of aluminum from coal mining waste (CMW) is an important industrial process. The two major problems in applications are low aluminum dissolution efficiency and high iron content in the raw material, which affect the quantity and quality of products. To improve the aluminum recovery process, the leaching kinet-ics of CMW with hydrochloric acid was studied. A shrinking core model was used to investigate aluminum and iron dissolution kinetics. Based on the kinetic characteristics, a process for recovering aluminum was proposed and tested experimental y. It is found that the aluminum leaching reaction is controlled by surface reaction at low temperatures (40–80 °C) and by diffusion process at higher temperatures (90–106 °C). The iron dissolution process is dominated by surface reaction at 40–100 °C. The results show that iron could be dissolved or separated by concentrated hydrochloric acid. Fine grinding wil improve aluminum dissolution significantly.

  8. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, R.; Pieniz, S.; Okeke, B.C.; Camargo, F.A.O

    2011-01-01

    Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol) were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29°09′53.92″S and 51°31′39.40″W) and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30°29′43.48″S and 53′32′37.87W). Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L−1 in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus) displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h). GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration. PMID:24031606

  9. The use of coal mining wastes in building road beds; Utilizacion de los Esteriles del Carbon como Materiales para Capas de Firmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This project was aimed at carrying out a study in order to determine the nature and characteristics of coal mining wastes for its possible use in building road beds and to establish the acceptance, implementation and quality control criteria, which can be included in the Spanish General Technical Standard of Road and Bridges Works (PG-3). With that aim, six types of coal mining wastes were selected out of an inventory and several tests were conducted and following the results, the most appropriate coal mining wastes, the acceptance limits and the quality control tests to be applied to the materials obtained from coal mining wastes to road beds were established. A grinding and classification plant was designed in order to obtain the necessary granular materials for conducting real scale compaction tests in road stages. Several types of coal mining wastes were tested: red, black, treated (in the above mentioned plant) untreated, with different bed thickness and runs in the compactors. Likewise, laboratory tests were carried out on black and red coal mining wastes by adding binder materials. The results proved that coal mining wastes can be used as granular material for building different road beds, such as bound with cement, gravel-emulsion or on their own. As a result of this study 53,000 tons of black coal mining wastes mixed with 6% of cement as binder were used for building a 5 km stage of the Highway Oviedo-Mieres, as well as 16,000 tons of red coal mining wastes in the Ujo-Caborana road, which is still being used in the works carried out a present. (Author)

  10. Size-dependent characterisation of historical gold mine wastes to examine human pathways of exposure to arsenic and other potentially toxic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim; Pearce, Dora C; Florentine, Singarayer; Bennett, John W; Stopic, Attila

    2016-10-01

    Abandoned historical gold mining wastes often exist as geographically extensive, unremediated, and poorly contained deposits that contain elevated levels of As and other potentially toxic elements (PTEs). One of the key variables governing human exposure to PTEs in mine waste is particle size. By applying a size-resolved approach to mine waste characterisation, this study reports on the proportions of mine waste relevant to human exposure and mobility, as well as their corresponding PTE concentrations, in four distinct historical mine wastes from the gold province in Central Victoria, Australia. To the best of our knowledge, such a detailed investigation and comparison of historical mining wastes has not been conducted in this mining-affected region. Mass distribution analysis revealed notable proportions of waste material in the readily ingestible size fraction (≤250 µm; 36.1-75.6 %) and the dust size fraction (≤100 µm; 5.9-45.6 %), suggesting a high potential for human exposure and dust mobilisation. Common to all mine waste types were statistically significant inverse trends between particle size and levels of As and Zn. Enrichment of As in the finest investigated size fraction (≤53 µm) is of particular concern as these particles are highly susceptible to long-distance atmospheric transport. Human populations that reside in the prevailing wind direction from a mine waste deposit may be at risk of As exposure via inhalation and/or ingestion pathways. Enrichment of PTEs in the finer size fractions indicates that human health risk assessments based on bulk contaminant concentrations may underestimate potential exposure intensities.

  11. Uranium biomineralization by a metal resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from contaminated mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Sangeeta [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Sar, Pinaki, E-mail: sarpinaki@yahoo.com [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Uranium biomineralization by a metal-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from uranium mine waste was characterized for its potential in bioremediation. Uranium resistance, its cellular localization and chemical nature of uranium-bacteria interaction were elucidated. Survival and uranium biomineralization from mine water were investigated using microcosm experiments. The selected bacterium showed U resistance and accumulation (maximum of 275 mg U g{sup -1} cell dry wt.) following incubation in 100 mg U L{sup -1}, pH 4.0, for 6 h. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that bioaccumulated uranium was deposited within the cell envelope as needle shaped U-phosphate compounds that attain crystallinity only at pH 4.0. A synergistic involvement of deprotonated phosphate and carboxyl moieties in facilitating bioprecipitation of uranium was evident from FTIR analysis. Based on these findings we attribute the localized U sequestration by this bacterium as innocuous complex to its possible mechanism of uranium resistance. Microcosm data confirmed that the strain can remove soluble uranium (99%) and sequester it as U oxide and phosphate minerals while maintaining its viability. The study showed that indigenous bacteria from contaminated site that can survive uranium and other heavy metal toxicity and sequester soluble uranium as biominerals could play important role in uranium bioremediation.

  12. Plant and fungal biodiversity from metal mine wastes under remediation at Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Larrocea, Maria del Pilar [Departamento de Edafologia, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico); Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN 2508, Zacatenco 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR)-Instituto Politecnico Nacional - Unidad Sinaloa, Blvd. Juan de Dios Batiz Paredes No. 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101 (Mexico); Carrillo-Gonzalez, Rogelio [Programa de Edafologia, Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Hernandez-Hernandez, Jani [Departamento de Edafologia, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico); Garduno, Margarita Diaz [Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 38.5, Chapingo, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Lopez-Meyer, Melina [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR)-Instituto Politecnico Nacional - Unidad Sinaloa, Blvd. Juan de Dios Batiz Paredes No. 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101 (Mexico); Gomez-Flores, Lydia [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN 2508, Zacatenco 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Chavez, Ma. del Carmen A., E-mail: carmeng@colpos.m [Programa de Edafologia, Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    Plant establishment, presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and other rhizospheric fungi were studied in mine wastes from Zimapan, Hidalgo state, Mexico, using a holistic approach. Two long-term afforested and three non-afforested mine tailings were included in this research. Fifty-six plant species belonging to 29 families were successfully established on the afforested sites, while unmanaged tailings had only a few native plant species colonizing the surrounding soils. Almost all plant roots collected were associated to AMF in these sites. The genus Glomus was the most abundant AMF species found in their rhizosphere; however, the Acaulospora genus was also observed. Other rhizospheric fungi were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis. Their role in these substrates, i.e. biocontrol, pollutant- and organic matter-degradation, and aides that increase plant metal tolerance is discussed. Our results advance the understanding of fungal diversity in sites polluted with metals and present alternative plants for remediation use. - Rhizospheric fungi and organic matter encourage plant vegetation of tailings by pioneers and colonizing species.

  13. Sequential Extraction Results and Mineralogy of Mine Waste and Stream Sediments Associated With Metal Mines in Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Lamothe, P.J.; Brown, Z.A.; Adams, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report results from sequential extraction experiments and the quantitative mineralogy for samples of stream sediments and mine wastes collected from metal mines. Samples were from the Elizabeth, Ely Copper, and Pike Hill Copper mines in Vermont, the Callahan Mine in Maine, and the Martha Mine in New Zealand. The extraction technique targeted the following operationally defined fractions and solid-phase forms: (1) soluble, adsorbed, and exchangeable fractions; (2) carbonates; (3) organic material; (4) amorphous iron- and aluminum-hydroxides and crystalline manganese-oxides; (5) crystalline iron-oxides; (6) sulfides and selenides; and (7) residual material. For most elements, the sum of an element from all extractions steps correlated well with the original unleached concentration. Also, the quantitative mineralogy of the original material compared to that of the residues from two extraction steps gave insight into the effectiveness of reagents at dissolving targeted phases. The data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion and further analyses and interpretation will be presented elsewhere.

  14. Waste production and disposal in mining, milling, and metallurgical industries. (Production de matieres steriles et evacuation de celles-ci dans les mines, le moulin et les industries metallurgiques)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, R. E

    ... be implemented when it becomes effective in July 1977. Three succeeding chapters discuss the general nature of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes generated by mining, milling, and metallurgical industries...

  15. Adsorption and removal of arsenic from water by iron ore mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Nguyen, Thi Van Trang; Pham, Tuan Linh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuth; Ngo, Huu Hao; Kandasamy, J; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Nguyen, Duc Tho

    2009-01-01

    There is a global need to develop low-cost technologies to remove arsenic from water for individual household water supply. In this study, a purified and enriched waste material (treated magnetite waste, TMW) from the Trai Cau's iron ore mine in the Thai Nguyen Province in Vietnam was examined for its capacity to remove arsenic. The treatment system was packed with TMW that consisted of 75% of ferrous-ferric oxide (Fe(3)O(4)) and had a large surface area of 89.7 m(2)/g. The experiments were conducted at a filtration rate of 0.05 m/h to treat groundwater with an arsenic concentration of 380 microg/L and iron, manganese and phosphate concentrations of 2.07 mg/L, 0.093 mg/L and 1.6 mg/L respectively. The batch experimental results show that this new material was able to absorb up to 0.74 mg arsenic/g. The results also indicated that the treatment system removed more than 90% arsenic giving an effluent with an arsenic concentration of less than 30 microg/L while achieving a removal efficiency of about 80% for Mn(2 + ) and PO(4) (3-). This could be a promising and cost-effective new material for capturing arsenic as well as other metals from groundwater.

  16. Growth rate characteristics of acidophilic heterotrophic organisms from mine waste rock piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, T. W.; Silverstein, J.; Jenkins, J.; Andre, B. J.; Rajaram, H.

    2010-12-01

    Autotrophic iron oxidizing bacteria play a key role in pyrite oxidation and generation of acid mine drainage AMD. Scarcity of organic substrates in many disturbed sites insures that IOB have sufficient oxygen and other nutrients for growth. It is proposed that addition of organic carbon substrate to waste rock piles will result in enrichment of heterotrophic microorganisms limiting the role of IOB in AMD generation. Previous researchers have used the acidophilic heterotroph Acidiphilium cryptum as a model to study the effects of organic substrate addition on the pyrite oxidation/AMD cycle. In order to develop a quantitative model of effects such as competition for oxygen, it is necessary to use growth and substrate consumption rate expressions, and one approach is to choose a model strain such as A. cryptum for kinetic studies. However we have found that the growth rate characteristics of A. cryptum may not provide an accurate model of the remediation effects of organic addition to subsurface mined sites. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) assays of extracts of mine waste rock enriched with glucose and yeast extract did not produce countable numbers of cells in the Acidiphilium genus, with a detection limit of3 x 104 cells/gram rock, despite evidence of the presence of well established heterotrophic organisms. However, an MPN enrichment produced heterotrophic population estimates of 1x107 and 1x109 cells/gram rock. Growth rate studies of A. cryptum showed that cultures took 120 hours to degrade 50% of an initial glucose concentration of 2,000 mg/L. However a mixed culture enriched from mine waste rock consumed 100% of the same amount of glucose in 24 hours. Substrate consumption data for the mixed culture were fit to a Monod growth model: {dS}/{dt} = μ_{max}S {( {X_0}/{Y} + S_0 -S )}/{(K_s +S)} Kinetic parameters were estimated utilizing a non linear regression method coupled with an ODE solver. The maximum specific growth rate of the mixed population with

  17. Effect of Organic Manures on the Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Chromite-Asbestos Mine Waste: A Pot Scale Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Adarsh; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The abandoned chromite-asbestos mines are located in the Roro hills, West Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India, where mining operation ceased in 1983, and since then these mines are causing environmental pollution. The present study was planned to phytoremediate these metalloid and metal contaminated mine waste by using two aromatic grasses, Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides by applying different proportions of amendments (chicken manure, farmyard manure and garden soil). Mine waste has neutral pH, low electrical conductivity and organic carbon with higher concentration of total metals (Cr and Ni) as compared to soil. Application of manures resulted significant improvements of mine waste characteristics and plant growth, reduction in the availability of total extractable toxic metals (Cr, Ni) and increase in Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in the substrate. The maximum growth and biomass production for C. citratus and C. zizanioides were found in T-IV combination comprising of mine waste (90%), chicken manure (2.5%), farmyard manure (2.5%) and garden soil (5%). Addition of T-IV combination also resulted in low Cr and Ni accumulation in roots and reduction in translocation to shoots. Study indicates that C. citratus and C. zizanioides can be used for phytostabilization of abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste with amendments.

  18. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  19. State of the art of waste utilization in underground mining; Stand der Abfallverwertung im Bergbau unter Tage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, F. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    The practice of filling depleted mines to protect humans, the environment and the mining site itself has a long tradition in European mining. Its continuation in all branches of mining, using suitable wastes, therefore only appears sensible, especially in consideration of the Recycling Economy Law. In Germany activities to develop the scientific knowledge, modern technology and technical rules required for proper mine filling with wastes have been going on for fifteen years. It would be sad if this were not taken into account in the current political and legal decision making process and if premature decisions were made out of respect for past political declarations of intent. [German] Das Einbringen von Versatz zum Schutz von Menschen, Umwelt und Lagerstaette hat im Europaeischen Bergbau eine lange Tradition. Insbesondere im Sinne der Kreislaufwirtschaft ist es daher nur konsequent, geeignete Abfaelle in allen Bergbauzweigen dazu gezielt zu verwerten. Die fuer eine geordnete Versatzwirtschaft mit Abfaellen erforderlichen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse, modernen Techniken und technischen Regeln wurden in Deutschland in den letzten 15 Jahren geschaffen. Es waere bedauerlich, wenn dies beim politischen und juristischen Abwaegungsprozess nicht angemessen beruecksichtigt wuerde und vor dem Hintergrund politischer Absichtserklaerungen vorschnelle Entscheidungen gefaellt wuerden. (orig.)

  20. Use of compost for the restoration of mine wastes and mine soils; Utilizacion de materiales compostados en la rehabilitacion potencial de espacios afectados por residuos mineros y suelos de mina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradelo, R.

    2013-09-01

    One of the main limitations for the successful restoration of the environmental damages produced by quarrying and mining activities is that mine waste and mine soils are largely devoid of organic matter. For this reason, amelioration with organic materials such as sewage sludge, manure or compost is gaining attention as a desirable strategy that may render good results in restoration. In this paper, recent experiences on the use of composted materials for the amelioration of mine wastes and mine soils are reviewed. The benefits obtained from the use of compost in restoration studies include improvement of the unfavourable physical, chemical and biological properties of mine waste and mine soils. The increase in the organic matter concentrations produces an improvement of the structure which leads to reduced bulk density and increased porosity, thus decreasing the risks of compaction, sealing and erosion. Correction of extreme pH is usually observed. N and P, two elements that are usually lacking in mine waste, are also added with compost in plant-available forms. The introduction of microbial populations leads to the reactivation of biogeochemical cycles which are essential for the long-term fertility and sustainability of new ecosystems. (Author)

  1. Geochemistry of mercury in tropical swamps impacted by gold mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) poses a serious threat to the local environment. Colombia has very active ASGM activities, where mercury (Hg) ends in piles of mining waste, soils, and waterways. In this study, we assessed Hg speciation and bioavailability in sediments of two tropical swamps, impacted by ASGM. In Ayapel swamp, total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in sediments ranged between 145 and 313 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) (mean: 235 ± 49 ng g(-1) dw), whereas Grande Achi swamp levels are 3-fold higher (range: 543-1021 ng g(-1) dw; mean: 722 ± 145 ng g(-1) dw). Even though lower levels of Hg were found in Ayapel, methylation was found to be significantly higher than in Grande Achi, and it is significantly higher in the dry than in the rainy season for both swamps. This increased methylation is linked to the statistically significant correlation between T-Hg, MeHg and organic matter in the Ayapel swamp. In fact, Hg content in both swamps is mainly associated to the organic fraction (Hg-o), with a higher statistically significant difference in Ayapel (43 ± 5%) compared to Grande Achi (33 ± 5%). On the other hand, a significant percentage (30 ± 6%) of elemental Hg fraction (Hg-e) was found in Grande Achi, directly related with Hg released during the gold recovery process from upstream ASGM sites. The percentage of the bioavailable fraction (Hg-w and Hg-h) is elevated (up to 15%), indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment and human health because these labile Hg species could enter the water column and bioaccumulate in biota.

  2. The basis for ecotoxicological concern in aquatic ecosystems contaminated by historical mercury mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, James G; Suchanek, Thomas H

    2008-12-01

    The Coast Range of California is one of five global regions that dominated historical production of mercury (Hg) until declining demand led to the economic collapse of the Hg-mining industry in the United States. Calcines, waste rock, and contaminated alluvium from inactive mine sites can release Hg (including methylmercury, MeHg) to the environment for decades to centuries after mining has ceased. Soils, water, and sediment near mines often contain high concentrations of total Hg (TotHg), and an understanding of the biogeochemical transformations, transport, and bioaccumulation of this toxic metal is needed to assess effects of these contaminated environments on humans and wildlife. We briefly review the environmental behavior and effects of Hg, providing a prelude to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue. Clear Lake is a northern California lake contaminated by wastes from the abandoned Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine, a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site. The primary toxicological problem with Hg in aquatic ecosystems is biotic exposure to MeHg, a highly toxic compound that readily bioaccumulates. Processes that affect the abundance of MeHg (including methylation and demethylation) strongly affect its concentration in all trophic levels of aquatic food webs. MeHg can biomagnify to high concentrations in aquatic food webs, and consumption of fish is the primary pathway for human exposure. Fish consumption advisories have been issued for many North American waters, including Clear Lake and other mine-impacted waters in California, as a means of decreasing MeHg exposure. Concerns about MeHg exposure in humans focus largely on developmental neurotoxicity to the fetus and children. Aquatic food webs are also an important pathway for MeHg exposure of wildlife, which can accumulate high, sometimes harmful, concentrations. In birds, wild mammals, and humans, MeHg readily passes to the developing egg, embryo, or fetus, life stages that are much more

  3. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  4. Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth

    2013-11-01

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation.

  5. Investigation of Hg uptake and transport between paddy soil and rice seeds combining Hg isotopic composition and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human consumption of rice constitutes a potential toxicological risk in mercury (Hg polluted areas such as Hg mining regions in China. It is recognized to be an important source of Hg for the local human diet considering the efficient bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg in rice seed. To assess Hg sources and uptake pathways to the rice plants, Hg speciation and isotopic composition were investigated in rice seeds and their corresponding paddy soils from different locations within the Wanshan Hg mining area (Guizhou Province, China. A large variation of Hg speciation is observed in rice seeds and paddy soils irrespective of the sampling location. Mass dependent fractionation (MDF of Hg in rice seeds differs by up to ∼4.0 ‰ in δ202Hg values, while mass independent fractionation (MIF of Hg isotopes remains constant (Δ199Hg ∼ 0‰. Hg isotopic composition in rice seeds covaries with that of paddy soils but exhibits lighter isotopic signature (δ202Hg. Such isotopic offset is mainly attributed to plant uptake and translocation processes. Also, seeds containing higher MeHg (MeHg/total Hg > 50% have significantly heavier Hg isotopes suggesting that MeHg uptake and transport to the seed in such rice plants is facilitated compared to inorganic Hg.

  6. The use of coal mining wastes as soilles growing medium; Utilizacion de los Esteriles del Carbon como Sustratos en Cultivos sin Suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This project was aimed at evaluating the technical appropriateness of coal mining wastes as: (I) substrate in soilless culture (hydroponics) being used as the only medium or in a mixture with other materials; (II) basic component for container gardening of decorative plants in order to determine the standard mixture with other materials and the most appropriate plant. A greenhouse was built for conducting the tests, vegetables and decorative plants were planted and an exhaustive control of the plantations was carried out. The results obtained proved that coal mining wastes can be used as soilless growing medium for vegetables and for container gardening. At present, the company HORPLASMA with three greenhouses (11,300 m``2) is dedicated to the growing of vegetables with coal mining wastes as substrate and the pot-culture of more than 30,000 decorative plants using as substrate a mixture of 60% coal mining wastes and 40% turf. (Author)

  7. U.S. EPA/U.S. DOE MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining is essential to maintain our way of life. However, based upon industry’s reporting in the most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), the primary sources of heavy metal releases to the environment are mining and mining-related activities. The hard rock mining industry rel...

  8. Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2014-01-01

    A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale.

  9. Transport and fate of mercury under different hydrologic regimes in polluted stream in mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lin; Thorjφrm Larssen; Rolf D. Vogt; Xinbin Feng; Hua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Seepage from Hg mine wastes and calcines contains high concentrations of mercury (Hg).Hg pollution is a major environmental problem in areas with abandoned mercury mines and retorting units.This study evaluates factors, especially the hydrological and sedimentary variables, governing temporal and spatial variation in levels and state of mercury in streams impacted by Hg contaminated runoff.Samples were taken during different flow regimes in the Wanshan Hg mining area in Guizhou Province, China.In its headwaters the sampled streams/rivers pass by several mine wastes and calcines with high concentration of Hg.Seepage causes serious Hg contamination to the downstream area.Concentrations of Hg in water samples showed significant seasonal variations.Periods of higher flow showed high concentrations of total Hg (THg) in water due to more particles being re-suspended and transported.The concentrations of major anions (e.g., CI-, F-, NO3- and 8042-) were lower during higher flow due to dilution.Due to both sedimentation of particles and dilution from tributaries the concentration of THg decreased from 2100 ng/L to background levels (< 50 ng/L) within 10 km distance downstream.Sedimentation is the main reason for the fast decrease of the concentration, it accounts for 69% and 60%for higher flow and lower flow regimes respectively in the upper part of the stream.Speciation calculation of the dissolved Hg fraction (DHg) (using Visual MINTEQ) showed that Hg(OH)2 associated with dissolved organic matter is the main form of Hg in dissolved phase in surface waters in Wanshan (over 95%).

  10. Microbiota of coal pit waste heaps of Chervonograd Mining Region after coal ash application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kuzmishyna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the impact of addition of coal ash from Dobrotvir TPP to waste heaps gangue (Chervonograd Mining Region on the number of different groups of microorganisms. 20 samples from three waste heaps, from the black and red gangue, under the mosses and from bare substrate and also from terrace, top and base of each waste heap, were selected. Waste heaps gangues with coal ash from Dobrotir TPP were mixed in vitro and left for 10 days. We used proportion of coal ash to gangue as 1 to 5. Microorganisms were grown in Petri dishes containing 20–30 ml agar medium and in 22 ml tubes at temperature of 28 °C. Microscopic fungi were revealed on Mash-agar; oligonitrophilic bacteria – on Ashby medium; actinomycetes – on Chapek’s medium; cellulose decomposing aerobic bacteria – on Hetchenson medium; colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria: neutrophilic – on Beyerinck medium, acidophilic – on Silverman and Lundgren 9К medium. The acidity value of waste heaps gangue samples was determined by рН meter рН-150М. We observed that samples collected under the mosses had lower acidity compared to samples from the bare substrate. We also revealed lower acidity of the overburn red gangue than the acidity of freshly deposited black gangue. To sum up, application of coal ash resulted in lowering of acidity value among all samples under study. Coal ash addition led to increase in number of microscopic fungi cells compared to the appropriate control samples. The highest quantity of microscopic fungi (16.2 ± 0.79 х 105 CFU/g of gangue was revealed in sample from red rock of the main waste heap of Central Enrichment Plant (CEP. At the same time, we observed the highest cell number in the control sample under the mosses of “Nadija” coal pit waste heap, (6.1 ± 0.3 х 105 CFU/g of gangue. After coal ash addition, most samples featured 2–3 times higher quantities of colorless sulfur-oxidizing neutrophilic bacteria cells. The

  11. Hydrogeological evaluation of a prototype in-situ leach cell in unsaturated lead-zinc mine and mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roy E.; Kirschner, Frederick E.

    1992-12-01

    An abandoned waste impoundment located within a portion of the Bunker Hill Superfund Site constitutes a field research area for studying the feasibility of recovering heavy metals in-situ from unsaturated mine and mill wastes. A prototype in-situ leaching cell has been evaluated using liquid-phase tracer tests and other hydrogeologic tests prior to introducing a lixiviant. The results of the tests suggest that: 1) the cell can be operated excursion-free with a low-density lixiviant at an injection/withdrawal rate of approximately 0.32 Vs; and (2) each hydrogeologic unit is highly heterogeneous at the different scales studied.

  12. Application of waste mushroom on land reclamation in the refuse dump of Haizhou Open-pit Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan

    2009-01-01

    In order to rapidly increase the degree of maturation of the soil in land reclama-tion of the refuse dump of the Haizhou open-pit mines,the application of waste mushroom in the process of soil improvement in the dump was studied.Through the research on plant growth,root development and microbial changes in soil and change of physical and chemical characteristics of the plot,the result shows that waste mushroom can increase the degree of maturation of the soil and improve soil fertility.

  13. The effect of rehabilitation on the rate of oxidation of pyrite in a mine waste rock dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J R; Ritchie, A I

    1987-06-01

    Temperature profiles within a mine waste rock dump undergoing pyritic oxidation have been used to estimate the rate of oxidation and the sites where oxidation was occurring. The waste rock dump is located at the abandoned Rum Jungle mine site in Northern Australia and was a major source of pollution to the local river system. The dump was rehabilitated in 1983-84 by reshaping to reduce erosion and covering with clay and soil to reduce infiltration of water.Heat source distributions were derived from temperature profiles measured in the dump. The oxidation of pyritic material is the main cause of heat in the dump, hence the rate and location of oxidation can be obtained from the distribution of heat sources. A comparison of the heat source distributions before and after rehabilitation showed that rehabilitation greatly reduced or stopped the oxidation of pyrite in the dump.

  14. Actinorhizal Alder Phytostabilization Alters Microbial Community Dynamics in Gold Mine Waste Rock from Northern Quebec: A Greenhouse Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Katrina L.; Roy, Sébastien; Khasa, Damase P.; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Phytotechnologies are rapidly replacing conventional ex-situ remediation techniques as they have the added benefit of restoring aesthetic value, important in the reclamation of mine sites. Alders are pioneer species that can tolerate and proliferate in nutrient-poor, contaminated environments, largely due to symbiotic root associations with the N2-fixing bacteria, Frankia and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. In this study, we investigated the growth of two Frankia-inoculated (actinorhizal) alder species, A. crispa and A. glutinosa, in gold mine waste rock from northern Quebec. Alder species had similar survival rates and positively impacted soil quality and physico-chemical properties in similar ways, restoring soil pH to neutrality and reducing extractable metals up to two-fold, while not hyperaccumulating them into above-ground plant biomass. A. glutinosa outperformed A. crispa in terms of growth, as estimated by the seedling volume index (SVI), and root length. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for fungi provided a comprehensive, direct characterization of microbial communities in gold mine waste rock and fine tailings. Plant- and treatment-specific shifts in soil microbial community compositions were observed in planted mine residues. Shannon diversity and the abundance of microbes involved in key ecosystem processes such as contaminant degradation (Sphingomonas, Sphingobium and Pseudomonas), metal sequestration (Brevundimonas and Caulobacter) and N2-fixation (Azotobacter, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Pseudomonas) increased over time, i.e., as plants established in mine waste rock. Acetate mineralization and most probable number (MPN) assays showed that revegetation positively stimulated both bulk and rhizosphere communities, increasing microbial density (biomass increase of 2 orders of magnitude) and mineralization (five-fold). Genomic techniques proved useful in investigating

  15. Actinorhizal Alder Phytostabilization Alters Microbial Community Dynamics in Gold Mine Waste Rock from Northern Quebec: A Greenhouse Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L Callender

    Full Text Available Phytotechnologies are rapidly replacing conventional ex-situ remediation techniques as they have the added benefit of restoring aesthetic value, important in the reclamation of mine sites. Alders are pioneer species that can tolerate and proliferate in nutrient-poor, contaminated environments, largely due to symbiotic root associations with the N2-fixing bacteria, Frankia and ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi. In this study, we investigated the growth of two Frankia-inoculated (actinorhizal alder species, A. crispa and A. glutinosa, in gold mine waste rock from northern Quebec. Alder species had similar survival rates and positively impacted soil quality and physico-chemical properties in similar ways, restoring soil pH to neutrality and reducing extractable metals up to two-fold, while not hyperaccumulating them into above-ground plant biomass. A. glutinosa outperformed A. crispa in terms of growth, as estimated by the seedling volume index (SVI, and root length. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region for fungi provided a comprehensive, direct characterization of microbial communities in gold mine waste rock and fine tailings. Plant- and treatment-specific shifts in soil microbial community compositions were observed in planted mine residues. Shannon diversity and the abundance of microbes involved in key ecosystem processes such as contaminant degradation (Sphingomonas, Sphingobium and Pseudomonas, metal sequestration (Brevundimonas and Caulobacter and N2-fixation (Azotobacter, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Pseudomonas increased over time, i.e., as plants established in mine waste rock. Acetate mineralization and most probable number (MPN assays showed that revegetation positively stimulated both bulk and rhizosphere communities, increasing microbial density (biomass increase of 2 orders of magnitude and mineralization (five-fold. Genomic techniques proved useful in

  16. Waste dumps rehabilitation measures based on physico-chemical analyses in Zăghid mining area (Sălaj County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko M. Varga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with an abandoned coal mine from Zăghid area, North-WesternTransylvanian Basin (Sălaj County. The mining activity was stopped in 2005, without any attempt ofecological rehabilitation of the mined area and especially of the waste dumps left behind. The proposedrehabilitation models are based on some physical-chemical analyses of soil and waste samples (e.g. pH,EC, Salinity, humidity, porosity, density, plasticity, organic substances, mineralogical composition, heavymetals. Erosion map has been drawn based on the determined mineralogical composition (accordingSTAS 1913/5-85 – using Galton curve of tailings and the soil type. The values obtained for moisture andplasticity have been used to determine the ideal general inclination angle of the landfill systems in thestudied perimeter. Through chemical analysis, heavy metals like Ni and Cu have been identified, as themain pollution factors for surface and underground water. Therefore, the concentration of heavy metalsin the waters from Zăghid area is high in the water bodies, which are formed on waste dumps, but alsoin the mine water. This analysis is useful in establishing the actual state of the waste dumps and theircontent and the negative effects, which exercise on the environment in order to select the rehabilitationmodel for the waste dumps from Zăghid mining area. The main measures consist in: waste dumpsleveling, soil remediation, perennial plants culture and acid mine water decontamination.

  17. 浅谈煤矿废水污染的综合治理%Waste water treatment in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽

    2016-01-01

    为了响应国家节能减排的号召,本文着重对煤矿废水的污染现况、污染特点、以及防污措施进行了探讨和论述。%This article focuses on the waste water pollution in coal mine with respect to its current conditions,features and related prevention measures.

  18. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozsin, Gulsen

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sulfide- bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neutralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment ( t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sulfate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  19. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulsen Tozsin

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sul-fide-bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neu-tralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment (t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sul-fate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  20. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology

  1. Technological assessment of a mining-waste dump at the Dexing copper mine, China, for possible conversion to an in situ bioleaching operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aixiang; Yin, Shenghua; Wang, Hongjiang; Qin, Wenqin; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2009-03-01

    In order to extract copper metal from the waste dump of Dexing copper mine and resolve the environmental problems caused by acidic water and heavy metals, a dump bioleaching plant was designed based on a series of experimental investigations. The investigation shown that the low-grade of the dump, refractoriness of chalcopyrite, leakage of pad, small Acidithiobacillus population and low dump permeability are the main factors that contribute to the challenges faced by the plant. Stability of the high and steep slope of the dump is the other hidden danger to which much attention is not paid. To evaluate the potential unstability of the dump, the leaching process, ore surface erosion, particle size, chemical elements and mechanical properties of the waste rock in DCM were investigated through experiment in this paper.

  2. Mercury pollution issues in mining districts (Armenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Sahakyan, Lilit; Belyaeva, Olga; Torosyan, Nver

    2015-04-01

    The issue of mercury (Hg) due to its chemical and geochemical peculiarities and a negative impact it produces on human health has a long history. Existence of international projects devoted to Hg research (AMAP Technical Background Report, 2013) and elaboration on a new convention to combat Hg pollution (http://www.mercuryconvention.org/Home/tabid/3360/Default.aspx) prove that Hg has already become a global concern. Presently, data on Armenia's area pollution with Hg available in international literature sources and reports are scarce and cover pollution sources only. According to published data (AMAP Technical Background Report, 2013), in 2009 summary emission of Hg on the entire territory of the Republic of Armenia made 222,723 kg, considerable shares of which fell on primary copper production (88,057 kg), cement production (57,094 kg), production of gold from large mines (46,728 kg), waste and other losses due to breakage and disposal in landfill (29,995 kg); besides, some quantities originated from amalgams, combustion of different-type fuel and garbage, and so on. One should mind, that these are calculated statistical data, which reflect neither a complete list of Hg pollution sources nor a realistic picture of levels of Hg pollution of different environmental compartments and risks. Local monitoring data on Hg pollution are not sufficient either. This abstract is aimed at revealing of Hg pollution problems in some of Armenia's mining regions through generalization of data on complex investigations implemented at the Center for Ecological-Noosphere Studies NAS RA between 2005 and 2011, and is focused on Hg pollution of different environmental compartments: water - atmosphere - soil - farm produce - atmospheric precipitation - human bio-substrates. The obtained data indicate that as a result of ore mining and processing Hg enters onto the surface, travels through air and water migration streams and finally brings to pollution of all environmental compartments

  3. Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2013-04-01

    Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased

  4. The fate of cyanide in leach wastes at gold mines: an environmental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic chemistry of cyanide, methods by which cyanide can be analyzed, and aspects of cyanide behavior that are most relevant to environmental considerations at mineral processing operations associated with gold mines. The emphasis is on research results reported since 1999 and on data gathered for a series of U.S. Geological Survey studies that began in the late 1990s. Cyanide is added to process solutions as the CN− anion, but ore leaching produces numerous other cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species in addition to the desired cyanocomplex of gold. These can include hydrogen cyanide (HCN); cyanometallic complexes of iron, copper, zinc, nickel, and many other metals; cyanate (CNO−); and thiocyanate (SCN−). The fate of these species in solid wastes and residual process solutions that remain once gold recovery activities are terminated and in any water that moves beyond the ore processing facility dictates the degree to which cyanide poses a risk to aquatic organisms and aquatic-dependent organisms in the local environment.

  5. Spread and partitioning of arsenic in soils from a mine waste site in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Serrano, S; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2014-12-01

    The formation of scorodite is an important mechanism for the natural attenuation of arsenic in a wide range of environments. It is dumped on site by metallurgical industries to minimize arsenic release. However, the long-term stability of these deposits is unclear. Sequential As extractions and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were used to determine both As and Fe speciation in a small catchment area affected by a scorodite-rich waste pile at an abandoned smelting factory. Our results indicate that this deposit behaves as an acute point source of As and metal pollution and confirms the strong association of As(V) with Fe(III) oxide phases, highlighting the important role of ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in natural systems. In this seasonally variable system, other trapping forms such as jarosite-like minerals also play a role in the attenuation of As. Overall, our results demonstrate that scorodite should not be considered an environmental stable repository for As attenuation when dumped outside because natural rainfall and the resulting runoff drive As dispersion in the environment and indicate the need to monitor and reclamate As-rich mine deposits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. HybridICE® filter: ice separation in freeze desalination of mine waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, A; Maree, J P; Mbaya, R K K; Popoola, A P I; Mtombeni, T; Zvinowanda, C M

    2014-01-01

    Freeze desalination is an alternative method for the treatment of mine waste waters. HybridICE(®) technology is a freeze desalination process which generates ice slurry in surface scraper heat exchangers that use R404a as the primary refrigerant. Ice separation from the slurry takes place in the HybridICE filter, a cylindrical unit with a centrally mounted filter element. Principally, the filter module achieves separation of the ice through buoyancy force in a continuous process. The HybridICE filter is a new and economical means of separating ice from the slurry and requires no washing of ice with water. The performance of the filter at a flow-rate of 25 L/min was evaluated over time and with varied evaporating temperature of the refrigerant. Behaviours of the ice fraction and residence time were also investigated. The objective was to find ways to improve the performance of the filter. Results showed that filter performance can be improved by controlling the refrigerant evaporating temperature and eliminating overflow.

  7. Development of an electrical conductivity screening test for mine waste assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Warner, Richard C; Honaker, Rick Q

    2016-10-01

    An environmental concern at mining operations is the potential leaching of trace elements from overburden and byproduct streams of processing plants. To provide a timely assessment of this concern, electrical conductivity of the leachate emanating from the plant waste streams can be measured as an indicator of the trace element content levels using the USGS Field Leach Test (FLT). However, the research reported in this publication revealed the need to modify the FLT procedure to improve the precision of the test results. The primary issue involved the importance of leachant volume-to-particle surface area ratio in the assessment of the leaching potential for a given source. To determine the key factors impacting leachability of a given material, a statistically-designed parametric study was performed. The experimental program evaluated the effects of particle surface area, the leachant volume-to-surface area ratio, and the amount of oxidant used to expedite the leaching rate during the test. The results revealed that the significant parameters are leachant volume-to-solid surface area ratio and the amount of oxidant. The findings were used to recommend a modification to the conductivity screening test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of contamination of the Issyk-Kul' valley natural waters with uranium mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palesski, S.V.; Nikolaeva, I.V.; Saprykin, A.I.; Gavshin, V.M. [The United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The Lake Issyk-Kul' of the central Tyan-Shan is characterized by increased natural uranium content. Uranium-carbon deposit situated on the southern bank of the Lake can be the reason of chemical and radioactive contamination of this unique basin by exploitation wastes. In order to estimate possible danger, a project 'Assessment and prognosis of environmental changes in Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrgyzstan)' was developed and supported by the Program of the European Commission 'Copernicus-2' (2001-2003). According to this project the water assays were sampled from different depths near the banks of the Lake and from low-debit sources draining the dumping grounds of the uranium-carbon deposit. Elemental and isotopic examinations of these water samples were performed using an ELEMENT HR-ICP-MS (Finnigan Mat). The results obtained are the evidence that the ecological status of the Lake Issyk-Kul'is not damaged at present. Wastewaters from the uranium-carbon mine do not make decisive contribution into the natural radioactive background. (authors)

  9. Suitability of static tests for acid rock drainage assessment of mine waste rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi M. Kauppila

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, eight rock samples were analysed with a modified acid-base accounting (ABA test and the corresponding net acid generation (NAG test. In addition, the main and trace elements solubilised during the tests were determined with ICPOES/MS. Both the modified ABA and NAG tests classified the rock samples with a lowsulphide-S content (0.1–0.4 % and low carbonate mineral content (≤0.2 % into the category of ‘potentially acid generating’. The low neutralization potentials of these rocks were partly due to additional acid produced in silicate weathering, upon the hydrolyzation of Fe and Al during the tests. In contrast to the modified ABA, the contribution of slowly reactive carbonate minerals to the neutralisation potential was seen in the NAG test and in the carbonate NP calculation, as they classified the rock samples containing these minerals into the category of ‘non-acid generating’. This supports the use of the carbonate neutralizing potential (NP and/or the NAG test in mine waste screening. In the NAG test, acid generation and neutralization reactions either raising or decreasing the pH significantly influenced the solubility of trace metals and Al. This suggests that the extract contents could be useful in assessing contaminant mobility during long-term acid generating reactions.

  10. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDRA B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine of Jerada is located in north east of Morocco,in horst zone, in the productive geological formation of Westphalian C. The mining activity has generated along 65 years (1936-2001, 15 to 20 millions tons of washery waste rocks, cumulated principally in urban center. The groundwater (n=30 and waste rock (n=7 sampling was led in the middle of May 2008, which presents in local climatic context the end of rainy season and the beginning of sec season. Waste rocks are exhaustively black schist, with a paucity in pyrite (anthracite debris contain between 2 to 5% of synergic pyrite and predominance of calcareous minerals essentially as dolomite. Consequently, the majority of waste rock samples are not acid generators. The pyrite oxidation produces sulphuric acid, which will be quickly neutralized by carbonates. The alkaline tendency of pH classifies Jerada abandoned coal mine in circum neutral mining drainage type (NMD. The leaching through unsaturated and saturated zone will be facilitated due to a big pore size and a breakingtectonic having fractured Jerada coal basin. The deformed black schist alternative to sandstone permits a good water circulation. The massive product of mining drainage and the major pollutant of groundwater is undoubtedly S-SO4 (27/30 exceed WHO guideline. The spatial correlation between S-total and salinity illustrates the deterioration of groundwater quality due to pyrite oxidation. The alteration of schist and halite dissolution contribute to

  11. Utilization of coal mining wastes a filling material in reinforced earth structures: reinforcement corrosion tests; Utilizacion de los esteriles del carbon como material de relleno en estructuras de tierra reforzada: pruebas de corrosion de armaduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Canibano, J.; Pardo, F.; Sopena, L.; Torres, M.; Perez, J.J.; Martinez, C.; Gonzlaez, M.R. [Laboratorio Geotecnia CEDEX (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    In this article are summarized the tests carried out with different types of reinforcing elements and several coal mining wastes in order to determine the occurrence or not of corrosion processes caused by mine stones in the reinforcing elements. (Author)

  12. Federal Register Notice for the Mining Waste Exclusion Final Rule, September 1, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final rule responding to a federal Appeals Court directive to narrow the exclusion of solid waste from the extraction, beneficiation, and processing of ores and minerals from regulation as hazardous waste as it applies to mineral processing wastes.

  13. Effects of caving-mining ratio on the coal and waste rocks gangue flows and the amount of cyclically caved coal in fully mechanized mining of super-thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ningbo; Liu Changyou; Pei Mengsong

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at determining the appropriate caving–mining ratio for fully mechanized mining of 20 m thick coal seam, this research investigated the effects of caving–mining ratio on the flow fields of coal and waste rocks, amount of cyclically caved coal and top coal loss by means of numerical modeling. The research was based on the geological conditions of panel 8102 in Tashan coal mine. The results indicated the loose coal and waste rocks formed an elliptical zone around the drawpoint. The ellipse enlarged with decreasing caving–mining ratio. And its long axis inclined to the gob gradually became vertical and facil-itating the caving and recovery of top coal. The top coal loss showed a cyclical variation;and the loss cycle was shortened with the decreasing in caving–mining ratio. Moreover, the mean squared error (MSE) of the amount of cyclically caved coal went up with increasing caving–mining ratio, indicating a growing imbalance of amount of cyclically caved coal, which could impede the coordinated mining and caving operations. Finally it was found that a caving–mining ratio of 1:2.51 should be reasonable for the conditions.

  14. Numerical simulations of water flow and contaminants transport near mining wastes disposed in a fractured rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Abdelghani Farouk; Aubertin Michel; Simon Richard; Therrien René

    2015-01-01

    A numerical tool, called Hydro-Geosphere, was used to simulate unsaturated water flow and contami-nants migration around an open pit filled with mining wastes. Numerical simulations had been carried out to assess the influence of various factors on water flow and solute transport in and around the surface openings including recharge, properties of the waste material and presence of fractures in the surround-ing rock mass. The effect of the regional hydraulic gradient was also investigated. The analyses were con-ducted by simulating various 2D cases using experimentally obtained material properties and controlled boundary conditions. The effects of the hydrogeological properties of the filling material (i.e., water reten-tion curve and hydraulic conductivity function), fracture network characteristics and conductivity of the joints were assessed. The results illustrate that fractures control water flow and contaminants transport around the waste disposal area. A fracture network can desaturate the system and improve the regional gradient effect.

  15. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Ultra-fine grinding and mechanical activation of mine waste rock using a high-speed stirred mill for mineral carbonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jie Li; Michael Hitch

    2015-01-01

    CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation can permanently store CO2 and mitigate climate change. However, the cost and reaction rate of mineral carbonation must be balanced to be viable for industrial applications. In this study, it was attempted to reduce the carbonation costs by using mine waste rock as a feed stock and to enhance the reaction rate using wet mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method. Slurry rheological properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, crystallinity, and CO2 sequestration reaction efficiency of the initial and mechanically activated mine waste rock and olivine were characterized. The results show that serpentine acts as a catalyst, in-creasing the slurry yield stress, assisting new surface formation, and hindering the size reduction and structure amorphization. Mechanically activated mine waste rock exhibits a higher carbonation conversion than olivine with equal specific milling energy input. The use of a high-speed stirred mill may render the mineral carbonation suitable for mining industrial practice.

  17. Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from southwestern New Mexico, and Leadville, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.; Briggs, Paul H.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    This report details chemistry data derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P.A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1998, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts in southwestern New Mexico (CAR and PET) and near Leadville, Colorado (TUC and MII). Resulting leachate pH values for the four composites ranged from 5.45 to 8.84 and ranked in the following order: CAR < TUC < MII < PET. Specific conductivity values ranged from 85 uS/cm to 847 uS/cm in the following order: PET < MII < CAR < TUC. Geochemical data generated from this investigation reveal that leachate from the CAR composite contains the highest concentrations of Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Al

  18. Geochemical speciation and dynamic of copper in tropical semi-arid soils exposed to metal-bearing mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlatti, Fabio [Department of Environmental Technology, National Department of Mineral Production – DNPM, Rua Dr. José Lourenço, 90560115-280 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Graduate Course of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Federal University of Ceará – UFC, Building 906, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Otero, Xosé Luis; Macias, Felipe [Department of Edaphology and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela – USC, Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa, s/n. Campus sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ferreira, Tiago Osório, E-mail: toferreira@usp.br [Department of Soil Science, University of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Av. Pádua Dias, 11, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Graduate Course of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Federal University of Ceará – UFC, Building 906, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The potentially hazardous effects of rock wastes disposed at open pit in three different areas (Pr: Ore processing; Wr: Waste rock and Bd: Border) of an abandoned copper mine were evaluated in this study, with emphasis on acid drainage generation, metal contamination and copper geochemical dynamics in soils. Samples of waste rock were analyzed by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Soil samples were analyzed to determine the total metal contents (XRF), mineralogy (XRD), pH (H2O and H2O2), organic and inorganic carbon, % of total N, S and P, particle size, and a sequential extraction procedure was used to identify the different copper fractions. As a result of the prevalence of carbonates over sulphides in the wastes, the soil pH remained close to neutral, with absence of acid mine drainage. The geochemical interaction between these mineral phases seems to be the main mechanism to release Cu{sup 2+} ions. Total Cu in soils from the Pr area reached 11,180 mg.kg{sup −1}, while in Wr and Bd areas the values reached, on average, 4683 and 1086 mg.kg{sup −1}, respectively, indicating a very high level of soil contamination. In the Pr and Wr, the Cu was mainly associated with carbonates and amorphous iron oxides. In the Bd areas, the presence of vegetation has influenced the geochemical behavior of copper by increasing the dissolution of carbonates, affecting the buffer capacity of soils against sulphide oxidation, reducing the pH levels and enhancing the proportion of exchangeable and organic bound Cu. The present findings show that the use of plants or organic amendments in mine sites with high concentration of Cu carbonate-containing wastes should be viewed with caution, as the practice may enhance the mobilization of copper to the environment due to an increase in the rate of carbonates dissolution. - Highlights: • The hazardous effects of mine waste rocks at

  19. Impact of mercury mine and smelter St. Ana – Podljubelj on spatial distribution of chemical elements in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Teršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research project was to establish the extension of Hg pollution as a consequence of mining and smelting activities in a narrow Alpine valley. The St. Ana mine was first exploited as early as in 1557 and was finally abandoned in 1902. The entire operating period yielded about 110.000 tons of ore, from which 360 tons of Hg was produced. By soil sampling it was established that on about 9 ha the Hg contents in soil exceed the Slovenian critical values for soil (10 mg/kg. The estimated mercury mean for the studied area is 1.3 mg/kg (0.17 – 718 mg/kg. The highest contents of mercury in soilswere found in the area of the mercury smelter.That is a consequence of former atmospheric emissions and technological losses. High values of Hg were found also in soil on the mine and smelter waste dump. The highest determined contents of Hg (108 mg/kg in this area are almost 7-times lower than thecontents of Hg in the area of the smelter. Mercury in soils generally decrease with depth and distance from the mine and smelter. Apart from the area around the former mine and smelter, mercury appear in higher concentrations also along the road that runs along thevalley, which is due to the use of Hg bearing mine tailings in road construction.

  20. Influence of the presence of carbon dioxide on chemical composition of water in contact with mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cempa-Balewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays post mining areas are often reclaimed and used housing areas, sports areas and recreational areas. Mining waste weathering is a significant factor influencing the condition of the surrounding water and soil environment. It is necessary then to evaluate susceptibility of the waste to weathering in given conditions and predict the rate of the processes. The paper presents initial results of an experimental study evaluating the influence of the presence of CO2 on the composition of leachate obtained when mining waste is exposed to water. The results of the experiments confirm the importance of the oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of carbonate minerals in changing the pH of water interacting with the waste.

  1. Validation of new ceramic materials from tungsten mining wastes. Mechanical properties; Validacion de nuevos materiales ceramicos a partir de rocas de desecho de mineria. Propiedades mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Suarez, J. A.; Montoya Herrera, J.; Silva, A. P.; Peralbo Cano, R.; Castro-Gomes, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    New ceramic materials obtained from tungsten mining wastes, from region of Beira Interior in Portugal, with no commercial use, responsible for landscape and environmental problems are presented. These preshaped new ceramic products, prepared in a wide thermal range (800 degree centigrade to 1300 degree centigrade) was evaluated by mechanical test, but also was characterized the starting raw materials: tungsten wastes mining and industrial kaolin. Results, which also include a mineralogical characterization of ceramic products and morphologic evaluation of neoformed by scanning electron microscopy, show firstly, the feasibility of converting a large number of these wastes in marketable ceramics. Thanks to the experimentation carried out, the ability to generate ceramic materials is emphasized, without the presence of mineral clay, due to the particular composition of these waste of mining with content of acid, neutral and basic oxides. (Author)

  2. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  3. Geochemical and biological characterisation of supergene efflorescences in pollymetallic mining wastes from Portman Bay (SE, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Herrero, Maria Jose; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Molina-Ruiz, Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Bech, Jaume; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    In freshly deposited sulphidic mine tailings, the pH is neutral or slightly alkaline. Due to pyrite oxidation, the pH decreases to values lower than 3 at which acidophilic iron- and sulphur-oxidizing prokaryotes prevail and accelerate the oxidation processes. Portman Bay is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities, during which time great amounts of wastes were produced, characterised by a high potentially toxic elements (PTE) content, acidic pH and minerals resulting from supergene alteration. Three soil samples were collected from the most recent exploitation stage, stored in containers for a year and moistened simulating rainfall events. The percolates obtained were collected and naturally evaporated, obtaining three efflorescence samples. The existence of bacterial activity was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). C15 sample is characterised by copiapite small crystals generating an homogeneous, porous mass. Inside the mass of copiapite crystals, both pyrite and gypsum were also found. In this sample, a laminae of material fills the pore space. The high carbon content shown in the spectrum of this material permits to characterise it as a biofilm. In the cross section sample of C15, a noticeable lamination of copiapite crystals has been observed, probably originated by dissolution processes. A clear limit between the lamination zone and the upper zone of the efflorescence was noticed, and here arborescent forms are developed. C17 and C18 also presented copiapite crystals, but, unlike C15, they do not present lamination and are characterized by an irregular shape and massive fabric. In C17, small crystals growing in the surface of this material were observed, generating small crusts. According to the spectrum analysis, these crusts are formed by alunogen. In C18, crystals of acicular morphology are present, and appear grouped at certain points. Therefore, out of the three natural efflorescences, biotic activity was

  4. Mine waste disposal leads to lower coral cover, reduced species richness and a predominance of simple coral growth forms on a fringing coral reef in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, M D E; Dennis, D; Thomson, D P; Pillans, R D

    2016-04-01

    A large gold mine has been operating at the Lihir Island Group, Papua New Guinea since 1997. The mine disposes of waste rock in nearshore waters, impacting nearby coral communities. During 2010, 2012 we conducted photographic surveys at 73 sites within 40 km of the mine to document impacts of mining operations on the hard coral communities. Coral communities close to the mine (∼2 km to the north and south of the mine) were depaurperate, but surprisingly, coral cover and community composition beyond this range appeared to be relatively similar, suggesting that the mine impacts were limited spatially. In particular, we found mining operations have resulted in a significant decrease in coral cover (4.4% 1.48 km from the disposal site c.f. 66.9% 10.36 km from the disposal site), decreased species richness and a predominance of less complex growth forms within ∼2 km to the north and south of the mine waste disposal site. In contrast to the two 'snapshot' surveys of corals performed in 2010 and 2012, long term data (1999-2012) based on visual estimates of coral cover suggested that impacts on coral communities may have been more extensive than this. With global pressures on the world's coral reefs increasing, it is vital that local, direct anthropogenic pressures are reduced, in order to help offset the impacts of climate change, disease and predation.

  5. UNDERGROUNG PLACEMENT OF COAL PROCESSING WASTE AND COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS BASED PASTE BACKFILL FOR ENHANCED MINING ECONOMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Biswas; D. Deb

    2002-06-01

    This project has successfully demonstrated that the extraction ratio in a room-and-pillar panel at an Illinois mine can be increased from the current value of approximately 56% to about 64%, with backfilling done from the surface upon completion of all mining activities. This was achieved without significant ground control problems due to the increased extraction ratio. The mined-out areas were backfilled from the surface with gob, coal combustion by-products (CCBs), and fine coal processing waste (FCPW)-based paste backfill containing 65%-70% solids to minimize short-term and long-term surface deformations risk. This concept has the potential to increase mine productivity, reduce mining costs, manage large volumes of CCBs beneficially, and improve the miner's health, safety, and environment. Two injection holes were drilled over the demonstration panel to inject the paste backfill. Backfilling was started on August 11, 1999 through the first borehole. About 9,293 tons of paste backfill were injected through this borehole with a maximum flow distance of 300-ft underground. On September 27, 2000, backfilling operation was resumed through the second borehole with a mixture of F ash and FBC ash. A high-speed auger mixer (new technology) was used to mix solids with water. About 6,000 tons of paste backfill were injected underground through this hole. Underground backfilling using the ''Groutnet'' flow model was simulated. Studies indicate that grout flow over 300-foot distance is possible. Approximately 13,000 tons of grout may be pumped through a single hole. The effect of backfilling on the stability of the mine workings was analyzed using SIUPANEL.3D computer program and further verified using finite element analysis techniques. Stiffness of the backfill mix is most critical for enhancing the stability of mine workings. Mine openings do not have to be completely backfilled to enhance their stability. Backfill height of about 50% of the seam

  6. Assessment of two kinetic tests to predict the acid mine drainage in waste rock samples of a uranium mine

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Adriana Trópia de; Faria, Efigênia Miranda de; Chaves, Carla Thamilis Fonseca; Leite,Adilson do Lago; Lena,Jorge Carvalho de

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage is the result of the oxidation process of sulfide bearing rocks. This process occurs when the sulfide material is exposed to atmospheric conditions. Under these conditions, successive oxidation reactions yield sulfuric acid generating acidic waters. This problem becomes more serious when the surrounding rocks are not able to neutralize the acid. The low pH condition of the drained water accelerates the solubility process of solid materials (rocks, soils and sediments) and f...

  7. In vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and bioaccessibility of arsenic and lead from various mine waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Scott; Noller, Barry; Matanitobua, Vitukawalu; Ng, Jack

    2007-10-01

    In vivo models show that the bioavailability of soil contaminants varies between site and type of matrix. Studies demonstrated that assuming 100% bioavailability of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) from soils and mine waste materials overestimates the risk associated with human exposure. In in vitro systems, the simulated bioavailability of a contaminant is referred to as the "bioaccessibility" and is used as an alternative quantitative indicator for in vivo derived bioavailability estimates. The general concept of the in vitro extraction test is to predict the bioavailability of inorganic substances from solid matrices by simulating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environment. The aims of this study were to: (1) investigate the bioaccessibility of As and Pb from various mine wastes, including tailings, heap leach, and waste rock, using a physiologically based extraction test (PBET); (2) validate the bioaccessibility values from PBET with in vivo bioavailability values measured using animal models; and (3) correlate PBET results with the bioavailability values measured from alternative in vivo models (rats and cattle, from Bruce, 2004). Significant correlation was observed between bioaccessibility values from PBET, and bioavailability values generated for both rats and cattle, demonstrating the potential to utilize PBET as a relatively inexpensive alternative to in vivo models for bioavailability assessment.

  8. The use of coal mining wastes for manufacturing paving materials; Los esteriles del carbon como materia prima para la fabricacion de materiales para pavimentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This project was aimed at proving the technical feasibility of the use of coal mining wastes in the manufacturing of paving materials; floor-tiles, flags, paving-stones, grit stones, etc.. With that aim, four types of coal mining wastes were selected out of an inventory and several tests were conducted and following the results, the most appropriate coal mining wastes, the acceptance limits and the quality control tests to be applied to the materials obtained from coal mining wastes as starting materials for the manufacturing of paving materials were established. Different laboratory test were conducted on the manufacturing of flags, floor-tiles and paving-stones. In addition, semi-industrial scale tests were carried out on the manufacturing of grit stones. Preliminary manufactory designs were elaborated for both material types. The study proved that coal mining wastes in a mixture with other raw materials can be used in the manufacturing of paving materials: floor-tiles, flags, paving-stones, grit stones. (Author)

  9. Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, A; Contreras, F; Adams, M; Santos, F

    2006-12-01

    Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5-500 microg g(-1)) relative to natural background concentrations (mining districts (>100,000 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The results from this study also show that Hg emissions from the soil are influenced by solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentration. Our data suggest that solar radiation may be the dominant factor affecting Hg degrees emission since the major species of mercury in polluted soil is Hg degrees (85-97% of total Hg). The simple release of Hg degrees vapor is probably the dominant process occurring with incident light in the field. The apparent activation energy for mercury emission indicates that the volatilization of mercury mainly occurred as a result of the vaporization of elemental mercury in soil. The degree of Hg emission differed significantly among the soil sites studied, which may be due to variations in soil texture, organic matter content and soil compaction.

  10. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT WATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the applicability and limitations of granular zero-valent iron for the treatment of water impacted by mine wastes. Rates of acid neutralization and of metal (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Hg, Al, and Mn) and metalloid (As) uptake were determined in batch systems using simu...

  11. Marble waste and pig manure amendments decrease metal availability, increase soil quality and facilitate vegetation development in bare mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Acosta, José A.; Gómez, M. Dolores; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In order to bring out a functional and sustainable land use in a highly contaminated mine tailing, firstly environmental risks have to be reduced or eliminated by suitable reclamation activities. Tailing ponds pose environmental hazards, such as acidity and toxic metals reaching to waters through wind and water erosions and leaching. As a consequence, soils have no vegetation and low soil organic matter and nutrients. Various physicochemical and biochemical properties, together with exchangeable metals were measured before, 6 months and 12 months after the application of marble waste and pigs manure as reclamation strategy in a tailing pond from SE Spain to reduce hazards for environment and human health. Three months after the last addition of amendments, eight different native shrub species where planted for phytostabilization. Results showed the pH increased up to neutrality. Aggregates stability, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, bioavailable phosphorus and potassium, microbial biomass and microbial activity increased with the application of the amendments, while exchangeable metals drastically decreased (~90%). After one year of plantation, only 20% planted species died, with a high growth of survivals reaching flowering and fructification. This study confirms the high effectiveness of initial applications of marble wastes together with pig manure and plantation of shrub species to initialize the recovery of the ecosystem in bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions. Key Words: pig manure, marble waste, heavy metals, mine soil. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project MIPOLARE (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000439). J.A. Acosta acknowledges a "Saavedra Fajardo" contract from Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia (Spain)

  12. Environmental impact of toxic metals and metalloids from the Muñón Cimero mercury-mining area (Asturias, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Jorge; Ordóñez, Almudena; Alvarez, Rodrigo

    2006-08-25

    This paper presents the results of the sampling surveys carried out in order to evaluate the environmental problems associated to La Soterraña, an abandoned Hg mine in Asturias, north of Spain. In particular, this paper overviews the impact of mining and metallurgical activities on terrestrial and aquatic environments. The wastes generated during the mining activity (ore extraction and processing) and later accumulated on the ground, contain great amount of sulphides, becoming potentially acid-generating. Consequently, the mobility of heavy metals and other ecotoxic elements is enhanced. Wastes are generally located close to watercourses and on very steep hillsides, where they are exposed to oxidative weathering, posing a significant risk due to the release of ecotoxic elements to the environment. Background levels were determined at sites, which had not been directly affected by mercury mining. A multielemental geochemical study of mining wastes, soils, stream sediments, water and air samples collected in the area of influence of the old mining and metallurgical works was carried out. Total Hg and As concentrations in soils reach values up to 502 and 19,940 mg kg(-1), respectively, 500 and 2000 times higher than the local background levels. The effects of mining seem to be intense both in waters and stream sediments, as well as in the local atmosphere, whose Hg content is 10 times higher than the background level in the area. Therefore, the target carcinogenic risk was exceeded for As and Hg in La Soterraña site.

  13. 矿渣型泥石流源区土体的入渗特性%Infiltration Characteristics of Soil in Mine Waste Debris Flow Source Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱兴华; 庄建琦; 李亚哲; 张利勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective] We aim to analyze the infiltration characteristics of mine waste in order to provide the scientific research data for the hydrological processes analysis in mine waste debris flow basin .[Methods] Daxicha gully in Xiaoqinling gold mine was chosen as the research area .The infiltration characteristics of 5 different types of soil including fresh mine waste ,the 1‐year mine waste ,the 4‐year mine waste ,the grass and farmland were investigated by double‐ring infiltration experiments . The experimental data were then used to fit into Horton experience formula .[Results] According to the analysis results ,fresh mine waste had the largest initial infiltration rate and the 4‐year mine waste had the least initial infiltration rate .The sta‐ble infiltration rate of farmland was highest ,which reached to 0 .062 mm/s .[Conclusion] Initial infiltration rate of soil is affected by the soil compaction degree ,and the stable infiltration rate is determined by the grad‐ing characteristic of mine waste debris flow prevention .%[目的]分析矿渣型泥石流源区不同类型土体的入渗特性及差异,为矿渣型泥石流源区的流域水文过程分析提供可靠的基础数据。[方法]以小秦岭金矿区大西岔泥石流沟为研究流域,通过野外双环原位试验,分别测定大西岔沟源区的新矿渣,堆积1a的矿渣,堆积4a的矿渣,耕地和草地这5种不同类型土体的入渗特性,并以霍顿模型对试验数据进行了拟合率定。[结果]通过试验数据分析发现,新矿渣的初始入渗率最大,而堆积4 a的矿渣入渗率最小;稳定入渗率方面,耕地的稳定入渗率最大,达到了0.062 mm/s。[结论]土体的初始入渗速率由土体密实度决定;而土体的稳定入渗率则由土体的级配特性所决定。

  14. Final Regulatory Determination for Special Wastes From Mineral Processing (Mining Waste Exclusion) - Federal Register Notice, June 13, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action presents the Agency's final regulatory determination required by section 3001(b)(3)(C) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for 20 special wastes from the processing of ores and minerals.

  15. COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY USING AHP METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Kubicz; Mateusz Hämmerling; Natalia Walczak

    2016-01-01

    Exploitation of tailing ponds sites for storing all types of waste materials creates multiple problems concerning waste disposal and the environmental impact of the waste. Tailing ponds waste may comprise e.g. flotation tailings from ore enrichment plants. Despite the fact that companies / corporations use state-of-the-art methods of extraction and processing of copper ore, and introduce modern systems of organization and production management, the area located closest to the reservoir is exp...

  16. Kinetics of selenium release in mine waste from the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale, Phosphoria Formation, Wooley Valley, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillings, Lisa M.; Amacher, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorite from the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation has been mined in southeastern Idaho since 1906. Dumps of waste rock from mining operations contain high concentrations of Se which readily leach into nearby streams and wetlands. While the most common mineralogical residence of Se in the phosphatic shale is elemental Se, Se(0), Se is also an integral component of sulfide phases (pyrite, sphalerite and vaesite–pyritess) in the waste rock. It may also be present as adsorbed selenate and/or selenite, and FeSe2 and organo-selenides.Se release from the waste rock has been observed in field and laboratory experiments. Release rates calculated from waste rock dump and column leachate solutions describe the net, overall Se release from all of the possible sources of Se listed above. In field studies, Se concentration in seepage water (pH 7.4–7.8) from the Wooley Valley Unit 4 dump ranges from 3600 µg/L in May to 10 µg/L by Sept. Surface water flow, Q, from the seep also declines over the summer, from 2 L/s in May to 0.03 L/s in Sept. Se flux ([Se] ⁎ Q) reaches a steady-state of reaction with a rate constant, k, = 1.35 – 6.35e−3 h− 1 (11.8–55.6 yr− 1).Laboratory experiments were performed with the waste shale in packed bed reactors; residence time varied from 0.09 to 400 h and outlet pH ∼ 7.5. Here, Se concentration increased with increasing residence time and release was modeled with a first order reaction with k = 2.19e−3 h− 1 (19.2 yr− 1).Rate constants reported here fall within an order of magnitude of reported rate constants for oxidation of Se(0) formed by bacterial precipitation. This similarity among rate constants from both field and laboratory studies combined with the direct observation of Se(0) in waste shales of the Phosphoria Formation suggests that oxidation of Se(0) may control steady-state Se concentration in water draining the Wooley Valley waste dump.

  17. Heavy Metal Behavior in Lichen-Mine Waste Interactions at an Abandoned Mine Site in Southwest Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sueoka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lichen, Stereocaulon exutum Nylander, occurring in a contaminated abandoned mine site was investigated to clarify (1 the behavior of heavy metals and As during the slag weathering processes mediated by the lichen; and (2 the distribution of these elements in the lichen thallus on slag. The heavy metals and As in the slag are dissolved from their original phases during the weathering process by lichen substances (organic acids and hypha penetration, in addition to non-biological weathering. The dissolved elements are absorbed into the lichen thallus. Some of these dissolved elements are distributed in the cells of the hyphae. The others are distributed on the surface of the hyphae as formless particles and show lateral distribution inside the cortex of the thallus. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the thalli are positively correlated with the concentrations in the corresponding substrata and a positive intercept in the regression curve obtained using a linear function. These chemical characteristics make this lichen a good biomarker for Cu and Zn contamination of the substrata of the lichen. Therefore, the present study supposes that Stereocaulon exutum has a possible practical application in biomonitoring or risk assessment of heavy metal pollution at abandoned mine sites.

  18. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: CSIR Groundwater research into mine closure strategies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available (i.e. post-life-of-mine). The potential social, financial and environmental benefits of this shift are significant, these extending to the community, mining houses, and regulatory authorities, alike. The CSIR Groundwater team is currently working...

  19. Geochemical speciation and dynamic of copper in tropical semi-arid soils exposed to metal-bearing mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlatti, Fabio; Otero, Xosé Luis; Macias, Felipe; Ferreira, Tiago Osório

    2014-12-01

    The potentially hazardous effects of rock wastes disposed at open pit in three different areas (Pr: Ore processing; Wr: Waste rock and Bd: Border) of an abandoned copper mine were evaluated in this study, with emphasis on acid drainage generation, metal contamination and copper geochemical dynamics in soils. Samples of waste rock were analyzed by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Soil samples were analyzed to determine the total metal contents (XRF), mineralogy (XRD), pH (H2O and H2O2), organic and inorganic carbon, % of total N, S and P, particle size, and a sequential extraction procedure was used to identify the different copper fractions. As a result of the prevalence of carbonates over sulphides in the wastes, the soil pH remained close to neutral, with absence of acid mine drainage. The geochemical interaction between these mineral phases seems to be the main mechanism to release Cu(2)(+) ions. Total Cu in soils from the Pr area reached 11,180mg.kg(-1), while in Wr and Bd areas the values reached, on average, 4683 and 1086mg.kg(-1), respectively, indicating a very high level of soil contamination. In the Pr and Wr, the Cu was mainly associated with carbonates and amorphous iron oxides. In the Bd areas, the presence of vegetation has influenced the geochemical behavior of copper by increasing the dissolution of carbonates, affecting the buffer capacity of soils against sulphide oxidation, reducing the pH levels and enhancing the proportion of exchangeable and organic bound Cu. The present findings show that the use of plants or organic amendments in mine sites with high concentration of Cu carbonate-containing wastes should be viewed with caution, as the practice may enhance the mobilization of copper to the environment due to an increase in the rate of carbonates dissolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated system for rehabilitation of mine wastes and exploitation of added-value compounds from Cistus ladanifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S.; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe

    2017-04-01

    The rehabilitation of mining areas with sulfide materials, both abandoned and active mines, is a priority because these areas are sources of acid mine drainage and multielemental contamination and, consequently, environmental and health risk. The combined use of Technosols and Phytostabilisation accelerates the area recovery, and ensures the sustainability at long-term of the physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the rehabilitation due to the functional complementarity of the components. Nowadays the rehabilitation strategy of contaminated areas must be based on circular economy, environmental improvements and economic approaches. Cistus ladanifer L. is an autochthones and spontaneous species that contributes to natural rehabilitation of contaminated soils from mining areas. Moreover, bioextracts obtained from C. ladanifer growing in São Domingos mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt) presented several valuable compounds, which can provide an economic return by their use for fragrance and pharmaceutical approaches. This study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the efficiency of an integrated system for the rehabilitation of sulfide-rich and gossan tailings, which combines the application of Technosols and Phytostabilisation, and exploitation of added-value compounds from C. ladanifer bioextracts. The rehabilitation system comprised a surface layer of Technosol and a barrier of alkaline residues (biomass ashes and limestone wastes) that covered sulfide-rich wastes. Two Tecnosols composed of gossan wastes and different mixtures of agro-industrial wastes (from distilleries and greenhouse agriculture without any valorisation) at 150 Mg/ha were tested. In the Technosols was seeded C. ladanifer. After three years of plant growth, shoots biomass was quantified and used to obtain bioextracts (extraction with n-hexane). The organic composition of the bioextracts was determined and some compounds with added value (α-pinene, camphene, camphor

  1. EFFECTS OF SOIL TREATMENT BY COAL MINING CARBONIFEROUS WASTE SLUDGE IN MAIZE GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mujačić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The multifuncional role and importance of organic matter in soil is widely known. It is also known that the organic matter in soil is subjected to microbiological-biochemical processes of transformation, which includes synthesis of humus as well as it’s decomposition -mineralization. Mineralization means transformation-decomposition of organic matter by microbiological processes to mineral products; plant nutrients and water + CO2 as starting and ending component of photosyntesis. Nutrients are partly plant available with fertilizing effect, partly lost from the soil - leaching in ground water, causing it’s eutrophication, but CO2 in atmosphere participates in greenhouse effect. Practically, mineralization means decreasing of organic matter content in soil and soil degradation [1,4]. In natural ecosystems (phytocenoses natural forests and meadows, it is almost a balanced between inflow and consumption of organic matter, while the cultural and anthropogenic soils agrobiocenosis in general, this relationship is disturbed that there is a disproportion between the inflow and loss [1,4]. Therefore, various materials that contains organic material (waste, various flotation, sludge, etc. are often used with more or less success. One of such materials, as well as the potential fertilizer, is carboniferous lake sludge like waste of coal mining sedimented at the bottom of the lake in huge quantities, which is the subject of our reasearch. The research were conducted to determine its fertilizing efects and value for repairing of physical and chemical properties of soil. The research refered to: -- Laboratory analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of the carboniferous sludge samples, -- Analysis of soil of the experimental field -- Research on heavy metals concentration in soil of the experimental farm and in carboniferous sludge, and Research of fertilizing effects of sludge, comparative mineral fertilizer and farmyard manure treatment by

  2. Update and revisions for Open-File Report 98-624, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from the Silverton and Leadville districts in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    This report supersedes, revises, and updates information and data previously released in Open-File Report 98-624 (Montour and others, 1998). Data for this report were derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P. A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1997, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts near Silverton, Colorado (MAY and YUK), and near Leadville, Colorado (VEN and SUN). This report presents analytical results from these sites.

  3. Recycling of waste gasket rubber granules by bulk CuCl2 and nano CuCl2: removal of Hg(II) ions by recycled rubber granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivasigamani, Kalpana; Nanjan, Jayakumar; Mani, Hari Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Environmental problems arise due to the millions of tons of waste rubber that are thrown away in the natural environment. Management of this waste rubber is a big environmental challenge. So, a new, simple and cost-effective recycling method for obtaining recycled waste rubber should be developed. In this study, we found that waste gasket rubber can be desulfurized by means of bulk and nano-sized transition metal halides in the presence of solvents. The recycled product of desulfurized waste gasket rubber granules that is obtained can be used as the cheapest adsorbent in the removal of mercury(II) ions from aqueous solution. Comparative batch studies have been conducted to elucidate the adsorption efficiency of desulfurized rubber using bulk copper chloride and also using nano-sized copper chloride under optimum conditions with commercial activated carbon.

  4. Effect of Intermittent Flow on the Mobility of Metals from Abandoned Uranium Mine Waste Sites on Native American Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Artyushkova, K.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    Column experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent flow on the mobility of metals from abandoned uranium mine waste sites in Blue Gap Tachee (BGT), AZ and Laguna, NM. Intermittent flow represent the rainfall patterns in the southwestern United States, involving alternate wet and dry cycles. In order to simulate these rainfall patterns shorter wet periods of 15, 30, 60, 120 and 360 minutes, followed by longer dry periods of 24 hours, were adopted for the column experiments. The experiment involved sequential leaching of sediments from Laguna and BGT with 18MὨ water (pH 5.4), Synthetic Rain Water (SRW, pH 5.6), 10mM bicarbonate solution (pH 7.9) and 10mM acetic acid (pH 3.4) solution that represent the environmentally relevant conditions as witnessed in BGT water samples (pH 3.8 and 7.4). These reagents were specifically chosen to target most metal species through various transport mechanisms which include advective-dispersive forces, ion-exchange, desorption and dissolution. With just 18MὨ water and SRW almost 90 µg/L of U, 4500 µg/L of V and 20 µg/L of As were released from BGT mine waste while the Laguna sample showed the release of 380 µg/L of U, 2 µg/L of V and 40 µg/L of As. The released U concentrations were 3-13 times its EPA MCL for U which under natural circumstances could threaten the proximate communities. Bicarbonate and acetic acid extractions on the other hand released 3500-6000 µg/L of U, 50-3000 µg/L of V and 14-35 µg/L of As from both Laguna and BGT mine waste respectively. Based on our previously published results, U and V from the uranyl-vanadate (U-V) species within BGT mine waste samples were only partially released with bicarbonate unlike the column experiments where almost all of the U and V from the U-V species were dissolved and released using 10mM bicarbonate solution. For reference, the columns were also leached continuously with bicarbonate and acetic acid for a week (each), to identify if the phases were

  5. Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Soil Polluted with Waste Mining by Using Forage Plants in Successive Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During two years, was studied the phytoextraction potential of some perennial species (Medicago sativa and Trifolium pretense, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne, for Zn, Cd, and Pb from soils polluted with waste mining. The experiment was done on kernozem soil with adding of 20 kg waste mining/m2 and 8 kg biosolid/m2. The results showed that in all experiments, rye-grass is a good extractor for Zn and Cd, and leguminous species for Pb. Both leguminous species, especially M. sativa, presented a high tolerance for lead toxicity, even with 3-4 times greater values than maximum allowable level from actual legislation. In all cases, regardless of the experimental variant, raygrass (Lolium perenne is a good accumulator of Zn and Cd, and red clover (Trifolium pratense of Pb. The values of metal bioaccumulation increase gradually with their concentration in soil. Quality of very good extractor of Pb displayed by Trifolium pratense species are kept even in case of excessive pollution with Pb, when it exceed 3.4 times the maximum permissible norms. This proves, as Medicago sativa species, a good tolerance and resistance to toxicity of this metal. In case of addition of natural zeolite-volcanic tuff there was no increase in the rate of Zn bioaccumulation. Only in case of Cd at Lolium perenne and Pb at Trifolium pratense appear the favourable effect of metallic ions bioavailability in soil for plants.

  6. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-10-01

    Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

  7. "Microscopic evidences of heavy metals distribution and anatomic alterations in breaching-leaves of Cupressus lindleyi growing around mining wastes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Miguel, Gómez-Bernal; Ofelia, Morton-Bermea; Esther Aurora, Ruiz-Huerta; Maria Aurora, Armienta-Hernández; Dávila Osiel, González

    2014-09-01

    In this article a study of the distribution of heavy metals in Cupressus lindleyi breaching-leaves was done in Taxco, Guerrero. At the same, heavy metals micro-localization was conducted in the breaching-leaves to understand the structural changes provoked by mining waste on plants. The most abundant contaminants in soils, tailings and different plant organs (roots, stems, and leaves) were Zn, Mn, and Pb. Nevertheless, As was more accumulated in the stem and breaching-leaves. The translocation factor and the bio-concentration factor were less than 1. The structural changes observed were the great accumulation of starch grains and phenolic compounds in the palisade parenchyma, changes in the hypodermis cell wall and necrotic zones in the palisade parenchyma. The distribution of heavy metals in breaching-leaves tissues was homogeneous in most of the elements. These results showed that C. lindleyi is a species that can be employed in phytostabilization of contaminated zones with mining waste because it is a native plant that does not require a lot of conditions for its development.

  8. Weathering of sulfidic shale and copper mine waste: Secondary minerals and metal cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R.; Meier, A.L.; Jackson, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Metal cycling via physical and chemical weathering of discrete sources (copper mines) and regional (non-point) sources (sulfide-rich shale) is evaluated by examining the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA. The elements in copper mine waste, secondary minerals, stream sediments, and waters that are most likely to have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems are aluminum, copper, zinc, and arsenic because these elements locally exceed toxicity guidelines for surface waters or for stream sediments. Acid-mine drainage has not developed in streams draining inactive copper mines. Acid-rock drainage and chemical weathering processes that accompany debris flows or human disturbances of sulfidic rocks are comparable to processes that develop acid-mine drainage elsewhere. Despite the high rainfall in the mountain range, sheltered areas and intermittent dry spells provide local venues for development of secondary weathering products that can impact aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Ash and sludge covering of mine waste. Benefits and/or risks using ash and sludge for covering of mine waste; Askor och roetslam som taeckskikt foer gruvavfall. Foerdelar och/eller risker med att anvaenda aska och slam som taeckskikt foer gruvavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Johansson, Inger [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2004-01-01

    One of the main sources for metal pollution in Sweden is mine waste. One way to decrease the leaching of metals from mine waste areas is covering which decreases the formation of acid drainage. There is a shortage of appropriate materials to use for covering, and excavation of till and clay from the environment might cause damages on the landscape. Previous studies have demonstrated that sludge and ashes are suitable materials for covering of waste deposits. When covering mine waste with ash and sludge various positive effects would arise, since the production of drainage water decreases as well as the pH increases due to the high buffer-capacity of the ash. In Ervalla outside Oerebro an area with mine waste has been covered with ash and sludge. This area gives a unique possibility to study benefits and/or risks with the covering of mine waste with ash and sludge. This report is a summary of the first phase of the project and the focus has been on characterisation of the material that has been used for covering. Also a monitoring program for the area has started. Preliminary findings indicate that that the covering decreases the leaching of some metals whereas the leaching of some metals increases. A decrease in the concentration of iron, nickel, cobalt and lead was observed and an increase was observed for arsenic, barium, chromium and copper.

  10. The self-absorption correction factors for (210)Pb concentration in mining waste and influence on environmental radiation risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczyk, Michal; Michalik, Boguslaw; Chmielewska, Izabela

    2017-03-01

    The radioactive lead isotope (210)Pb occurs in waste originating from metal smelting and refining industry, gas and oil extraction and sometimes from underground coal mines, which are deposited in natural environment very often. Radiation risk assessment requires accurate knowledge about the concentration of (210)Pb in such materials. Laboratory measurements seem to be the only reliable method applicable in environmental (210)Pb monitoring. One of the methods is gamma-ray spectrometry, which is a very fast and cost-effective method to determine (210)Pb concentration. On the other hand, the self-attenuation of gamma ray from (210)Pb (46.5 keV) in a sample is significant as it does not depend only on sample density but also on sample chemical composition (sample matrix). This phenomenon is responsible for the under-estimation of the (210)Pb activity concentration level often when gamma spectrometry is applied with no regard to relevant corrections. Finally, the corresponding radiation risk can be also improperly evaluated. Sixty samples of coal mining solid tailings (sediments created from underground mining water) were analysed. Slightly modified and adapted to the existing laboratory condition, a transmission method has been applied for the accurate measurement of (210)Pb concentration . The observed concentrations of (210)Pb range between 42.2 ÷ 11,700 Bq·kg(-1) of dry mass. Experimentally obtained correction factors related to a sample density and elemental composition range between 1.11 and 6.97. Neglecting this factor can cause a significant error or underestimations in radiological risk assessment. The obtained results have been used for environmental radiation risk assessment performed by use of the ERICA tool assuming exposure conditions typical for the final destination of such kind of waste.

  11. Use of short-term (5-Minute) and long-term (18-Hour) leaching tests to characterize, fingerprint, and rank mine-waste material from historical mines in the Deer Creek, Snake River, and Clear Creek Watersheds in and around the Montezuma Mining District, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation-induced runoff from historical mine-waste located adjacent to the headwaters of the Snake River, Deer Creek, Saints John Creek, Grizzly Gulch, Stevens Gulch, and Leavenworth Creek contributes to the degradation of water quality in these streams. Because historical mine-waste piles have had long-term exposure to the atmosphere, it is surmised that runoff from these piles, induced by meteorological events such as cloudbursts and snowmelt, may cause mobility of acid and metals into a watershed due to dissolution of soluble minerals. For this study, 13 mine-waste composite samples from various mine-wastes in these drainage basins were leached using both a short-term and a long-term leach test. Analytical results from this combination of leach tests are tools that allow the investigator to quantify (fingerprint) which geochemical components could be expected in runoff from these piles if they were leached by a cloudburst (5-minute leach test), as well as what the ?worst-case? geochemical profile would look like if the material were subject to extended leaching and breakdown of the mine-waste material (18-hour leach test). Also, this combination of leach tests allows the geoscientist the ability to see geochemical changes in the mine-waste leachate over time. That is, does the leachate become more or less acidic over time; does the specific conductance increase or decrease; and are there changes in the concentrations of major or trace elements? Further, use of a ranking scheme described herein will aid in prediction of which historical mine-waste piles have the greatest potential for impact on a watershed should runoff occur. Because of long-term weathering of these historical mine-waste piles, geochemical profiles, leachate time-trends, and relative ranking of the mine-wastes produced from analysis of the leachates are Hageman_SIR_2508.doc 1 7/21/2004 2:50 PM indicative of how the mine-waste piles can be expected to act in the environment and may help to

  12. Uranium mine waste water: potential source of ground water in northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Substantial quantities of water are being pumped from the Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age in uranium mines in the Grants mineral belt in northwestern New Mexico. The water often contains unacceptable amounts of dissolved uranium, radium, iron, and selenium and suspended solids, but with treatment it can be made suitable for municipal and industrial purposes. Water salvaged from current and projected mining operations constitutes the most readily available water in this otherwise water-deficient area.

  13. Probability of failure of waste disposals sites in Žirovski vrh uranium mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Beguš

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The only Uranium mine in Slovenia @irovski vrh was closed in 1990 due to economic reasons. After the closure extensive decommissioning works in the mine and in the surrounding began. In the very beginning after the closure great landslide has been occurred in the mill tailings site and recalculation of stability of existent and alternate sites were performed. In this calculations I used statistical scatter of input variables and calculated probability of failure of sites.

  14. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  15. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  16. Stochastic optimization of mine production scheduling with uncertain ore/metal/waste supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leite Andre; Dimitrakopoulos Roussos

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of long-term mine production scheduling in open pit mines deals with the management of cash flows, typically in the order of hundreds of millions of dollars. Conventional mine scheduling utilizes optimization methods that are not capable of accounting for inherent technical uncertainties such as uncertainty in the expected ore/metal supply from the underground, acknowledged to be the most critical factor. To integrate ore/metal uncertainty into the optimization of mine production scheduling a stochastic integer programming (SIP) formulation is tested at a copper deposit. The stochastic solution maximizes the economic value of a project and minimizes deviations from production targets in the pres-ence of ore/metal uncertainty. Unlike the conventional approach, the SIP model accounts and manages risk in ore supply, leading to a mine production schedule with a 29%higher net present value than the schedule obtained from the conventional, industry-standard optimization approach, thus contributing to improving the management and sustainable utilization of mineral resources.

  17. Multiple applications of the U.S. EPA 1312 leach procedure to mine waste from the animas watershed, SW Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, D.L.; Church, S.E.; Driscoll, R.L.; Adams, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Eleven acid-sulphate and quartz-sericite-pyrite altered mine waste samples from the Animas River watershed in SW Colorado were subjected to a series of 5 to 6 successive leaches using the US EPA 1312 leach protocol to evaluate the transport of metals and loss of acidity from mine wastes as a function of time. Multi-acid digestion ICP-AES analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineral identification, total sulphur, and net acid potential (NAP) determinations were performed on the initial starting materials. Multiple leaching steps generally showed a 'flushing' effect, whereby elements loosely bound, presumably as water-soluble salts, were removed. Aluminum, Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sr, Zn, and S showed decreasing concentration trends, whereas Cu concentrations showed initially decreasing trends, followed by increasing trends in later steps. Concentrations of Zn in the first leach step were independent of whole-sample Zn content. Lead and Ba concentrations consistently increased with each step, indicating that anglesite (PbSO4) and barite (BaSO4), respectively, were dissolving in successive leach steps. Comparison of Fe content with NAP resulted in a modest correlation. However, using the S analyses and XRD identification of sulphide minerals to apportion S amongst enargite, barite, anglesite/galena, and sphalerite, and assigning the remaining S to pyrite, provided a useful correlation between estimated pyrite content and NAP. Whole-sample mass loss correlated well with NAP, but individual elements' behaviors varied between positive correlation (e.g. Al, Fe, Mg), no apparent correlation (Ca, Cd, Pb, Zn), and negative correlation (Cu). Comparison of the summed titrated acidities of the leachates with the whole-sample NAP values yielded an estimate of the fraction of NAP consumed, and led to an estimate of the time it would take to consume the sample acidity by weathering. We estimate, on the basis of these experiments, the acidity in the upper 30 cm would be consumed in 200

  18. Multiple applications of the U.S. EPA 1312 leach procedure to mine waste from the Animas watershed, SW Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Church, Stan E.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Adams, Monique G.

    2011-01-01

    Eleven acid-sulphate and quartz-sericite-pyrite altered mine waste samples from the Animas River watershed in SW Colorado were subjected to a series of 5 to 6 successive leaches using the US EPA 1312 leach protocol to evaluate the transport of metals and loss of acidity from mine wastes as a function of time. Multi-acid digestion ICP-AES analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineral identification, total sulphur, and net acid potential (NAP) determinations were performed on the initial starting materials. Multiple leaching steps generally showed a 'flushing' effect, whereby elements loosely bound, presumably as water-soluble salts, were removed. Aluminum, Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sr, Zn, and S showed decreasing concentration trends, whereas Cu concentrations showed initially decreasing trends, followed by increasing trends in later steps. Concentrations of Zn in the first leach step were independent of whole-sample Zn content. Lead and Ba concentrations consistently increased with each step, indicating that anglesite (PbSO4) and barite (BaSO4), respectively, were dissolving in successive leach steps. Comparison of Fe content with NAP resulted in a modest correlation. However, using the S analyses and XRD identification of sulphide minerals to apportion S amongst enargite, barite, anglesite/galena, and sphalerite, and assigning the remaining S to pyrite, provided a useful correlation between estimated pyrite content and NAP. Whole-sample mass loss correlated well with NAP, but individual elements' behaviors varied between positive correlation (e.g. Al, Fe, Mg), no apparent correlation (Ca, Cd, Pb, Zn), and negative correlation (Cu). Comparison of the summed titrated acidities of the leachates with the whole-sample NAP values yielded an estimate of the fraction of NAP consumed, and led to an estimate of the time it would take to consume the sample acidity by weathering. We estimate, on the basis of these experiments, the acidity in the upper 30 cm would be consumed in 200–1000

  19. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  20. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  1. KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT MERKURI (Hg) DAN TIMBAL (Pb) PADA AIR, SEDIMEN DAN IKAN SELAR TETENGKEK (Megalaspis cordyla L) DI TELUK PALU, SULAWESI TENGAH

    OpenAIRE

    Matius Paundanan; Etty Riani; Syaiful Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Palu bay waters is susceptible to heavy metal pollution due to the inclusion of the waste product of Palu city, and such as agriculture, and traditional mining. The objective of this research was to determine the contamination of heavy metals mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in water, sediment, and torpedo scad fish (Megalaspis cordyla). Sampling was done purposively at 10 sampling points. Parameters of water quality measurements were done in the field for temperature, pH, brightness, turbidity, an...

  2. A Wood-Waste Cover Prevents Sulphide Oxidation and Treats Acid Effluents at the East-Sullivan Mine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, D.; Tassé, N.; Cyr, J.

    2004-05-01

    At the East Sullivan site, wood wastes covering the abandoned mine tailings impoundment prevent sulphide oxidation by creating an anoxic environment. The addition of coarse ligneous wastes favours infiltration, resulting in a water table rise. This maintains most tailings saturated and thus provides an additional protection against sulphide oxidation. Moreover, high infiltration allows a more rapid flushing of acid prone groundwater generated prior to the cover placement. Finally, the pore-waters under the cover are characterized by a strong reducing potential and high alkalinity. These conditions favour sulphate reduction and base metal precipitation as sulphides and carbonates. The restoration strategy capitalized on the alkaline and reductive properties of the waters underlying the wood-waste cover. An original treatment of acid effluents, based on the recirculation of water discharging around the impoundment through the organic cover, was implemented in 1998. In 2003, the total volume of water treated was 725 000 m3. Data gathered near the dispersal zone show that despite dispersing acid water, the groundwater pH decreases by only one unit from 7 to 6, during the recirculation period: May to October. However, alkalinity decreases from 800 to 100 mg/L-CaCO3. But it is back up to 800 mg/L the following spring, thanks to sulphate reduction. Fe2+ concentrations near the dispersal zone are maintained below 2 mg/L. Evolution of the iron mass in the surface waters suggests that the contaminated groundwater flush is completed in the north and west sectors of the impoundment; the east and south ones are expected to be recovered within 3 to 4 years. A wood-waste cover, besides limiting sulphide oxidation, can fill the role of alkaline reducing barrier for the treatment of these acidogenic waters, until a balance between acidity and alkalinity in the effluent is reached.

  3. Effects of tree vegetation and waste amendments on the fractionation of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in polluted mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Verónica; Vega, Flora A; Singh, Bal Ram; Covelo, Emma F

    2013-01-15

    Soils at a depleted copper mine in Touro (Galicia, Spain) are physically and chemically degraded and have also polluted the surrounding area. Due to these environmental problems and the large area of these mine soils, the reclamation strategies carried out at Touro have consisted of planting trees (pine or eucalyptus), amending with waste material (sewage sludge and paper mill residues), or using both treatments. Tree planting has been carried out for 21 years and waste amending for 10. Two different zones were selected in the mine (the settling pond and mine tailing) in order to evaluate the effect of the different reclamation practices on the chemical fractions of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The results showed that soils in the untreated sites were polluted by Cr and Cu. Planting pines and eucalyptus on mine soils decreased the concentration of these heavy metals in non-mobile soil fractions. Amendments also attenuated pollution by Cr and Cu as the wastes that were used had lower concentrations than the untreated mine soils. Planting trees increased Ni, Pb and Zn retention in the non-mobile fractions, preventing them from being leached into surrounding areas. However, caution should be exercised when adding organic wastes, as they can lead to increase concentrations of Ni, Pb and Zn and their phytoavailable form. The results also showed that changes in the chemical fractionation of heavy metals in soils was more influenced by the clay percentage and both dissolved and soil organic carbon (SOC and DOC) than by soil pH or cation exchange capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Projected costs for mined geologic repositories for dispoal of commercial nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, J.D.; Dippold, D.G.; McSweeney, T.I.

    1982-12-01

    This documen reports cost estimates for: (1) the exploration and development activities preceding the final design of terminal isolation facilities for disposal of commercial high-level waste; and (2) the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of such facilities. Exploration and evelopment costs also include a separate cost category for related programs such as subseabed research, activities of the Transportation Technology Center, and waste disposal impact mitigation activities.

  5. Amendments with organic and industrial wastes stimulate soil formation in mine tailings as revealed by micromorphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanuzzi, A.; Arocena, J.M.; van Mourik, J.M.; Faz Cano, A.

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings are inhospitable to plants and soil organisms, because of low pH and poor soil organic matter contents. Vegetation establishment requires a soil system capable of supporting the nutrient and water requirements of plants and associated organisms. The objective of this study was to

  6. The dispersal of metal mining wastes in the catchment of the river Geul (Belgium - The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaers, H.

    1989-01-01

    The metal mining industry has caused large quantities of heavy metals to enter countless river systems. The consequent spread of heavy metals is determined largely by how these metals bind with silt and soil particles and the transport pathways of these particles in the alluvial parts of river syste

  7. The dispersal of metal mining wastes in the catchment of the river Geul (Belgium - The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaers, H.

    1989-01-01

    The metal mining industry has caused large quantities of heavy metals to enter countless river systems. The consequent spread of heavy metals is determined largely by how these metals bind with silt and soil particles and the transport pathways of these particles in the alluvial parts of river

  8. Geophysical experiments to image the shallow internal structure and the moisture distribution of a mine waste rock pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Jérôme; Chouteau, Michel; Aubertin, Michel; Campos, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Several field surveys of a waste rock pile were carried out during the summers of 2002 and 2003 using ground-penetrating radar, electromagnetic conductivity and DC resistivity imaging. The waste rock deposit is prone to generate acid mine drainage (AMD) due to the oxidation of sulphidic minerals. One of the most critical factors that lead to the production of AMD is unsaturated water flow and the ensuing moisture distribution in the waste rock. This geophysical characterization study, performed over a 30 m × 30 m test zone, was designed to image the internal structure controlling the water flux at shallow depth. The subsurface was found to consist of three zones for the first 6 m of the pile, mainly based on electrical resistivities: a thin superficial conductive material, an intermediate 2 to 3 m thick highly resistive zone, and a lower, more conductive medium. With the help of hydrogeological tests, chemical analyses and two 2.5 m-deep trenches, it is shown that the two conductive zones are correlated with fine-grained waste rock and the resistive zone correlates with a coarser material. In the two deeper zones, the contact between the two types of waste rock is typically highlighted by a sharp resistive/conductive boundary. An increase of conductance in the relatively thin upper layer towards the edge of the pile appears to be caused by an increase in thickness of the fine-grained material. Additional geophysical surveys carried out on a profile along the flank of the upper bench of the pile show that the main features of the internal structure are sub-parallel to the slope, at least for the first 3 m in depth. The data also show an increase in resistivity from the top to bottom of the slope, in accordance with expected particle segregation, from fine-grained material at the top to coarser material at the bottom. Wide-angle reflection GPR monitoring during large scale infiltration tests seems to indicate preferential flow paths towards the direction of coarser

  9. Toxicity and metal speciation characterisation of waste water from an abandoned gold mine in tropical northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Rick van; Hogan, Alicia; Harford, Andrew; Markich, Scott

    2008-09-01

    The decommissioned Mount Todd gold mine, located in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia, consists of a large waste water inventory and an acid rock drainage problem, which has the potential to impact upon freshwater ecosystems of the Edith River catchment. The toxicity of retention pond 1 (RP1) water was determined using six local freshwater species (duckweed, alga, cladoceran, snail, hydra and a fish). RP1 water was very toxic to all species, with the percentage dilution of RP1 water inhibiting 10% of organism response (IC10), or lethal to 5% of individuals (LC5), ranging from 0.007 to 0.088%. The percentage dilution of RP1 water inhibiting 50% of organism response (IC50), or lethal to 50% of individuals (LC50), ranged from 0.051% to 0.58%. Based on chemical analyses and geochemical speciation modelling of the test waters, Cu, Zn and Al were the most likely toxic components at acidic dilutions (i.e. > or =1%), while Cu and Zn were the most likely toxic components at 0.1% RP1 water, where pH was 6.5. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were used to predict dilutions of RP1 water that would protect or unacceptably affect the downstream aquatic ecosystems. A dilution ratio of 1 part RP1 water to 20000 parts Edith River water (0.005% RP1 water) was calculated to be required for the protection of at least 95% of species. This information can be used in conjunction with field chemical and biological data to better predict the ecological risks of RP1 waste water downstream of the Mount Todd mine.

  10. The geochemical release feature of Tl in Tl-rich pyrite mine wastes: a long-term leaching test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinwen; Chen, Nan; Rajan, Ivy; Sun, Zhehua; Wu, Huiming; Chen, Diyun; Kong, Lingjun

    2017-05-01

    Identifying and revealing the geochemical behaviour of Tl during mine waste weathering are very important to assess the potential environmental impact of Thallium (Tl) from open mine-waste piles. Herein, two methods including the modified BCR sequential extraction and the long-term humidity cell tests (HCT) were employed to understand the Tl chemical fractions and to stimulate intense chemical weathering process, respectively. The results from BCR sequential extraction showed that the Tl concentration in the studied sample was 18.78 mg/kg, containing 1.878 mg/kg oxidisable, 0.282 mg/kg acid exchangeable and 1.596 mg/kg reducible Tl. The acid exchangeable fraction contributed to a particular potential risk to the aquatic marine life in the early stages and the Fe/Mn oxidisable fraction posed a potential risk being dissolved into solution at low pH (i.e. acidic conditions). The variations of Tl concentration in leachates were classified as two period as the pH values decrease. In the first period, the Tl concentrations decreased positively with pH value with poor correlation between pH value and SO4(2-) concentration in leachates. Drastic release of Tl was observed in the early period once the material was exposed to air and water, being ascribe to the acid exchangeable fraction bound to carbonate as dissolved by acid. During the second period, three increased peaks of Tl concentration (11.02, 16.03, 43.15 μg/L) and four increased peaks of SO4(2-) concentration (315, 390, 899.61 and 2670 mg/L) were observed. A good correlation (R (2) = 0.8384) between the concentrations of Tl and SO4(2-) was observed, indicating the Tl was mainly released from the oxidation of sulphide.

  11. Applied mineralogy of the constituent clays of the mineral wastes from the coal mines in the Teruel mining zone; Mineralogia aplicada de arcillas constitutivas de esteriles en minas de carbon de la zona minera de Teruel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida, J.; Lopez Buendia, A.M.; Serrano, J.; De La Torre, J.; Sienes, M. [Univ. Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Geologia

    1993-12-31

    The coals of the district of Teruel (NE Spain) presents as mine wastes several industrial minerals and rocks (sands, kaolins, clays, Al-sulfates,...) the mining of which would be interesting. The aim of this work is the mineralogical and ceramic characterisation of these clays. So mineralogical and petrographical data as well as technological data concerning granulometry, chemical analysis and Atteberg index have been used in order to compare these clays with those analysed and typified in previous works and with those actually used as ceramic raw materials in the NE of Teruel. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Influence of the contaminated wastes/soils on the geochemical characteristics of the Bodelhão stream waters and sediments from Panasqueira mine area, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Maria Manuela; Godinho, Berta; Magalhães, Maria Clara F.; Anjos, Carla; Santos, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Panasqueira is a famous Portuguese tin-tungsten mine operating more or less continuously since the end of the nineteenth century. This mine is located in the Central Iberian Zone, northwest of Castelo Branco, about 35 km from Fundão, being the greatest producer of tungsten in Europe. Panasqueira mine also produces copper and tin. The ore exploitation has caused huge local visual and chemical impact from the large waste tailings, together with water drainage from mine galleries, seepage and effluents from water plant treatment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the contaminated wastes and soils on the water and sediments characteristics of the Bodelhão stream. This stream crosses the mine area at the bottom of the main tailings, receiving sediments, seepage and drainage waters from wastes and/or soils developed on the waste materials which cover the host rocks (schists), and also from the water treatment plant. Waste materials contain different levels of hazardous chemical elements depending on their age and degree of weathering (mg/kg - As: 466-632; Cd: 2.6-4.2; Cu: 264-457; Zn: 340-456; W: 40-1310). Soils developed on old wastes (60-80 years old) are mainly silty loam, acidic (except one soil (pH 8.2) developed on waste materials covered by leakage mud from a pipe conducting effluent to a pond), with relatively high concentration of organic carbon (median 48.6 g/kg). The majority of soils are heavily contaminated in As (158-7790 mg/kg), Cd (0.6-138 mg/kg), Cu (51-4081 mg/kg), W (19-1450 mg/kg), and Zn (142-12300 mg/kg). The fraction of these elements extracted with DTPA solution, relatively to total concentration, varies from low to As (bank sediments (g/kg, As: 5.56-44.0; Cu: 1.99- >10; Zn: 1.29-14.1; S: 7.2-66.9; W: 1.04-6.32, and Cd: 11.4-138 mg/kg) when compared with the same elements in soils, indicate high dispersion of the chemical elements through waters both in solution and particulate material. Bed and river banks are

  13. Mercury contamination and its potential health effects in a lead-zinc mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Chaobing [Guangxi University, Nanning 530001 (China)] [Environmental Monitoring Station of Guangxi, Nanning 530022 (China); Zhang Chaolan, E-mail: zhangcl@gxu.edu.cn [Guangxi University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li Lihe [Environmental Monitoring Station of Guangxi, Nanning 530022 (China); Li Zhongyi [Guangxi University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li Ning [Environmental Monitoring Station of Guangxi, Nanning 530022 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Soil in the investigated area is severely contaminated by mercury. {yields} Contamination of T-Hg in paddy field soils is more severe than that in dry land soils. {yields} Vertical distributions of T-Hg are different in the paddy and dry land samples. {yields} T-Hg contents in the agricultural products exceed the Chinese tolerance value. - Abstract: Mercury contamination of the environment is of worldwide concern because of its global presence and its potent neurotoxicity. Mining, smelting and the electronics industry are the main sources of Hg pollution. However, few studies have been performed to investigate systemic Hg contamination in metal mining regions. In this study, concentrations of Hg in air, farmland soil, and crops were measured in a Pb-Zn mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China. Key factors that could affect Hg distribution, such as the fate of waste ore and waste residue, were analyzed. Geo-statistical methods were adopted to analyze the characteristics of spatial structure and distribution of Hg. The results show that Hg contamination in this region is serious. The total mercury (T-Hg) content is far higher than the Level II Limit Value of Chinese Soil Standards of 0.30 mg kg{sup -1}, showing obvious directional characteristics from WNW to ESE. Highest Hg concentrations were found in the WNW portion of the study area. The contamination of paddy soil is higher than that in dry farmland soil. The vertical distribution of T-Hg and its decrease with depth suggest that the important sources are waste water irrigation and the improper disposal of the waste ore and waste rock. The T-Hg concentrations in the agricultural products examined exceed the Chinese tolerance value (0.02 mg kg{sup -1} for rice and 0.01 mg kg{sup -1} for vegetables), indicating the seriousness of the problem. The ecological environment and the safety of food grown in this mining area are being affected, with the result that human health is

  14. Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, B; Thatoi, H N; Das, N N; Pandey, B D

    2013-04-15

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants, and its occurrence is rare in nature. Lower to higher chromium containing effluents and solid wastes released by activities such as mining, metal plating, wood preservation, ink manufacture, dyes, pigments, glass and ceramics, tanning and textile industries, and corrosion inhibitors in cooling water, induce pollution and may cause major health hazards. Besides, natural processes (weathering and biochemical) also contribute to the mobility of chromium which enters in to the soil affecting the plant growth and metabolic functions of the living species. Generally, chemical processes are used for Cr- remediation. However, with the inference derived from the diverse Cr-resistance mechanism displayed by microorganisms and the plants including biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux, bioremediation is emerging as a potential tool to address the problem of Cr(VI) pollution. This review focuses on the chemistry of chromium, its use, and toxicity and mobility in soil, while assessing its concentration in effluents/wastes which becomes the source of pollution. In order to conserve the environment and resources, the chemical/biological remediation processes for Cr(VI) and their efficiency have been summarised in some detail. The interaction of chromium with various microbial/bacterial strains isolated and their reduction capacity towards Cr(VI) are also discussed.

  15. Application of Response Surface Methodology on Leaching of Iron from Partially Laterised Khondalite Rocks: A Bauxite Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) is used for a quadratic model that continuously controls the process parameters. This model is used to optimize the removal of iron oxide from Partially Laterised Khondalite (PLK) rocks which is influenced by several independent variables namely acid concentration, time and temperature. Second order response functions are produced for leaching of iron oxide from PLK rocks-a bauxite mining waste. In RSM, Box-Behnken design is used for the process optimization to achieve maximum removal of iron oxide. The influence of the process variables of leaching of iron oxide is presented in the form of 3-D response graphs. The results of this investigation reveals that 3 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 240 min time and 373 K temperature are found to be the best conditions for removal of 99% Fe2O3. The product obtain at this condition contain 80% brightness which is suitable for ceramic and filler industry applications. The novelity of the work is that the waste can be a value added product after suitable physical beneficiation and chemical treatment.

  16. Coal from the waste disposal site of the Siersza mine (Trzebinia, Poland and its properties as a possible alternative fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosa Beata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors recovered bituminous coal from the dump of the closed down Siersza mine in Trzebinia, determined its properties and evaluated a possibility of applying it as an alternative fuel for the cement industry. The dump material was enriched in a laboratory using the gravity (jigs, shaking tables and flotation methods of coal cleaning. The gross calorific value of the processing products, measured with a calorimetric bomb, ranges from 13.588 to 22.543 MJ·kg−1. The contents of heavy metals, determined with XRF, are as follows: Fe 3.76–5.25 mg·kg−1, Mn 0.037–0.132 mg·kg−1, Ti 0.325–0.493 mg·kg−1 and Zn 0.113–0.329 mg·kg−1, while of Hg (determined with ASA from 0.02689 to 0.21870 mg·kg−1. The content of sulphur is 0.7349–1.0484 wt.% and of chlorine Cl 0.131–0.135 wt.%, the net calorific value of 13.446–22.538 MJ·kg−1. The results indicate that the laboratory jigging and flotation provide products that meet the parameters of the solid fuels selected by applicable to the needs of cement plants.

  17. Phytoremediation potential of some agricultural plants on heavy metal contaminated mine waste soils, salem district, tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmapriya, S; Murugan, N; Ragavendran, C; Thangabalu, R; Natarajan, D

    2016-01-01

    The Pot culture experiment performed for phytoextraction potential of selected agricultural plants [millet (Eleusine coracana), mustard (Brassica juncea), jowar (Sorghum bicolor), black gram (Vigna mungo), pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis)] grown in metal contaminated soils around the Salem region, Tamilnadu, India. Physiochemical characterization of soils, reported as low to medium level of N, P, K was found in test soils. The Cr content higher in mine soils than control and the values are 0.176 mg/L in Dalmia soil and 0.049 mg/L in Burn & Co soil. The germination rate low in mine soil than control soils (25 to 85%). The content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, carbohydrate and protein decreased in mine soils than control. The morphological parameters and biomass values decreased in experimental plants due to metal accumulation. Proline content increased in test plants and ranged from 0.113 mg g(-1) to 0.858 mg g(-1) which indicate the stress condition due to toxicity of metals. Sorghum and black gram plants reported as metal tolerant capacity. Among the plants, Sorghum produced good results (both biomass and biochemical parameters) which equal to control plant and suggests Sorghum plant is an ideal for remediation of metal contaminated soils.

  18. USING THE SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS TO TREAT RESIDUAL MERCURY WASTES FROM GOLD MINING OPERATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.ADAMS,J.KALB,P.WAN,R.Y.LEVIER,M.

    2003-02-24

    Large quantities of mercury are generated as a by-product during the processing of gold ore following mining operations. Newmont Mining Corporation (NMC), which operates some of the world's largest gold mines, sought a method to permanently ''retire'' its mercury by-products, thereby avoiding potential environmental liability. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization-Solidification (SPSS) is an innovative technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated materials, such as soil, sludge and debris. BNL conducted a treatability study to determine the potential applicability of SPSS for treatment of Newmont mercury, and the treated product passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test for toxicity. The SPSS process has been shown to be effective on radioactive and nonradioactive mercury and mercury-contaminated materials with a pilot-scale batch system capable of producing 0.03 m{sup 3} (1 ft{sup 3}) per batch. Engineering scale-up issues are discussed and material property tests addressing these issues are described.

  19. Radon emission from uranium mining waste rock dumps and resulting radon immission; Radonemissionsverhalten von Halden des Uranbergbaus und daraus resultierende Radonemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regner, J.; Hinz, W.; Schmidt, P. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Since more than 20 years, Wismut GmbH has been investigating the radon situation at uranium mining waste rock dumps. In the present paper the results of 19 complex studies at uranium mining dumps in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) are reported. Although the mean specific activity of Ra-226 of the waste rock material was on a rather low level of about 0.5 Bq/g, the mean radon concentration in free atmosphere at the public exposure sites in the immediate vicinity of the dumps reached a value of about 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for a half-year exposition and of about 600 Bq/m{sup 3} for a one-year exposition. Certain geometries and structures of waste rock dumps and the occurrence of convective airflows in the dumps are main reasons for the high radon emission despite of the relatively low specific Ra-226 activity. A case study for two buildings directly on the top of a waste rock dump in the town Johanngeorgenstadt is presented. The hypothetical interpolation of the results for Ra-226-activity to a value below the threshold value of 0.2 Bq/g leads to the assumption that problematic radon situations may also occur outside the areas of legacies of uranium mining. Considering the aspects mentioned, a clearance level for NORM of 1 Bq/g is questionable.

  20. Discussion on the heap modes of waste dump in openpit mines%露天矿排土场堆排方式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培武

    2012-01-01

    剥岩、排土是露天矿不可或缺的开采工艺,排土场堆排对露天矿安全生产具有重要意义.介绍了露天矿剥离岩土排土场压坡脚式、覆盖式及其二者组合的3种堆排方式,列举了国内外多个工程实例;通过对紫金山金铜矿北口排土场压坡脚式排土部分改造为覆盖式排土的方案论证,阐述了排土场结构参数选取及堆置计划,在此基础上提出了排土场防滑坡、防泥石流、防滚石、防渗水污染、植被及生态恢复等综合治理措施.%Rock stripping and waste emission are indispensable stoping techniques in openpit mining. The heaping of waste dump has important significance for the openpit mining safety. The paper introduces three heap modes of waste dump in openpit mines, including basal slope-pressure type, cover type and their combination. Several domestic project examples are illustrated. The scheme is demonstrated, to change the heap mode of northern waste dump in Zijinshan gold-copper mine from basal slope-pressure type to cover type. The structural parameters and heap plan of the waste dump are introduced. The comprehensive treatment measures of anti-landslide, anti-debris flow, anti-stone-fall, anti-seepage pollution, vegetation and ecological restoration are proposed.

  1. Acid rock drainage and metal leaching from mine waste material (tailings) of a Pb-Zn-Ag skarn deposit: environmental assessment through static and kinetic laboratory tests

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Adriana Méndez Ortiz; Alejandro Carrillo Chávez; Marcos Gustavo Monroy Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the processes and products involved in the generation of acid rock drainage – metal leaching (ARD-ML) from mine waste material (tailings) derived from the exploitation of an ore type Pb- Zn-Ag skarn were characterized. Laboratory tests (static and kinetic) of historic and recent tailings were conducted along with the mineralogical characterization of solids, and chemical analyses of solids and leachates. Pyrite (FeS2) is the most abundant sulfi de phase, and one of the main mine...

  2. Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out Area ... and processing through mining activities especially, of the solid minerals are going ... approach to evaluating hazards represented by different kinds of mine waste be ...

  3. Environmental variables in a holistic evaluation of land contaminated by historic mine wastes: a study of multi-element mine wastes in West Devon, England using arsenic as an element of potential concern to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E I

    2000-04-17

    Unusual and unexpected concentrations of a number of elements were identified in samples of house dust, that indicated the presence of mine wastes in an area where they were not expected. In pursuing this matter, several other very unusual observations and practices, involving highly contaminated mine wastes, were also identified. Here, using an available, but not a custom-made database, the matter is pursued. In England and Wales, the usual framework within which hazards are assessed, starts with an identification of those levels of exposure to elements which are considered to be safe and acceptable. At the other extreme, levels that are considered to be hazardous are identified together with procedures for dealing with them for different situations; for example, the manner in which contaminated land is to be used. The level at which an identification of sites and their use rests with the Local Authority, such as District Councils. Although new legislation is pending; at present for the non-occupationally exposed population there are no firm values to define which levels are acceptable and those that are not acceptable. One of the elements in the samples is arsenic and, because of its well-known toxicity, this element is selected to be of prime concern. However, simultaneous exposure to the general public is from a number of other elements, such as copper, lead, zinc, antimony, molybdenum, tin, selenium and mercury which are present in the mine wastes. The collective impairment to human health, if it should occur, is far too complex to evaluate, hence a need to focus attention upon arsenic which by any standard is present in some samples at very high concentrations, for example > 1000 mg/kg. Irrespective of any changes in permitted levels of exposure to the general public in the study area, together with those that are occupationally exposed, it is the past exposure that will give rise to the present patterns of morbidity and mortality. Because of a latent period

  4. Mine stability evaluation of panel 1 during waste emplacement operations at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, H. [Maleki Technologies Inc., Spokane, WA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The specific objectives of the work were defined by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) as follows: (1) assess the stability of panel 1 during the proposed operation of waste emplacement; (2) estimate the amount of time before room closure would be expected to transfer rock loads to the waste packages. The work consisted of (1) an analysis of geotechnical data and a review of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans for waste emplacement in panel 1, (2) an evaluation of ground conditions based on data analysis and observations of changes in ground conditions since the first evaluation in 1993 (USBM 1993), and (3) preparation of a report and presentation of the results to EEG staff. Excluded from this study are radiological safety issues and policies. The study is based on data provided by DOE and Westinghouse Electric Corporation (operator of the site) and conversations with DOE and Westinghouse personnel. MTI cannot independently verify the accuracy of the data within the scope of this study and recommends independent evaluations of data gathering, quality assurance procedures, and structural designs. The operator has the ultimate responsibility for structural designs and has expressed a strong commitment to ensuring worker safety.

  5. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  6. Mining and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisgyorgy, S.

    1986-01-01

    The realization of new mining projects should be preceded by detailed studies on the impact of mining activities on the environment. For defining the conditions of environmental protection and for making proper financial plans the preparation of an information system is needed. The possible social effects of the mining investments have to be estimated, first of all from the points of view of waste disposal, mining hydrology, subsidence due to underground mining etc.

  7. Options for compiling an inventory of mining waste sites throughout Europe by combining Landsat-TM derived information with national and pan-European thematic data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijdea, Anca-Marina; Sommer, Stefan

    2004-10-01

    Presently no reliable synoptic picture of number, extent, distribution and emissions from mining waste sites exists, neither for EU member states, nor for the Accession and Candidate Countries. At EU level, this information is needed to assess the large range of environmental impacts caused by mining wastes and their emissions in a coherent way across the different policies addressing the protection and sustainable use of environmental resources. The core task lies in the harmonised collection and standardised compilation and evaluation of existing data and in connecting them to a geographical reference system compatible with other European data sets. In the proposed approach information from national registers of mining wastes is linked to related standardized spatial data layers such as CORINE Land Cover (the classes of mineral extraction sites, dump sites) or other data sets available in the EUROSTAT GISCO data base, thus adding the spatial dimension at regional scale. Higher level of spatial detail and distinction between mineral extraction site and waste sites with or without accumulation of potentially hazardous material is added by remote sensing, applying a semi-automated principal component analysis (PCA) to selected spectral channels of geo-referenced Landsat-TM full scenes. The method was demonstrated on large areas covering approximately 120000 km2 of Slovakia and Romania and was validated against mining-related features from Pan-European and/or national databases, detailed geological maps, mineral resource maps, as well as by a GIS analysis showing the distribution of anomalous pixels in the above-mentioned features compared to the main land cover classes.

  8. Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

    2002-06-01

    A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that

  9. Controls on Weathering of Pyrrhotite in a Low-Sulfide, Granitic Mine-Waste Rock in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, J. B.; Holland, S.; Sinclair, S.; Blowes, D.

    2013-12-01

    Increased environmental risk is incurred with expansion of mineral extraction in the Arctic. A greater understanding of geochemical processes associated with hard-rock mining in this cold climate is needed to evaluate and mitigate these risks. A laboratory and in-situ experiment was conducted to examine mineral weathering and the generation of acid rock drainage in a low-sulfide, run-of-mine waste rock in an Arctic climate. Rock with different concentrations of sulfides (primarily pyrrhotite [Fe7S8] containing small amounts of Co and Ni) and carbonates were weathered in the laboratory and in-situ, large-scale test piles to examine leachate composition and mineral weathering. The relatively larger sulfide-containing rock produced sufficient acid to overcome carbonate buffering and produced a declining pH environment with concomitant release of SO4, Fe, Co, and Ni. Following carbonate consumption, aluminosilicate buffering stabilized the pH above 4 until a reduction in acid generation. Results from the laboratory experiment assisted in determining that after consumption of 1.6 percent of the total sulfide, the larger sulfide-concentration test pile likely is at an internal steady-state or maximal weathering rate after seven years of precipitation input and weathering that is controlled by an annual freeze-thaw cycle. Further weathering of the test pile should be driven by external factors of temperature and precipitation in this Arctic, semi-arid region instead of internal factors of wetting and non-equilibrium buffering. It is predicted that maximal weathering will continue until at least 20 percent of the total sulfide is consumed. Using the identified evolution of sulfide consumption in this Arctic climate, a variable rate factor can now be assessed for the possible early evolution and maximal weathering of larger scale waste-rock piles and seasonal differences because of changes in the volume of a waste-rock pile undergoing active weathering due to the freeze

  10. The reclamation plan for uranium mine facilities in Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC. Mainly concerning waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ningyo Toge Environmental Engineering Center, Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The JNC conducted R and D projects on uranium exploration in Japan from 1956 to 1987. Several mine facilities, such as waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond, were retained around Ningyo-Toge after the projects ended. Thus, JNC's Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center proposed a reclamation plan for these facilities with fundamental policy, an example of safety analysis and timetables. Although the plan is primarily based on the Japanese Mine Safety Law, it also refers to ICRP recommendations, IAEA reports, measures implemented overseas, etc. because this is the first such case in Japan. This plan was evaluated and validated from the technological viewpoint by the Technological Advisory Board on the Reclamation of the Ningyo-Toge uranium mining and milling facilities, in the 4th Meeting on April 11, 2002. The Board was established on January 29, 2001 and composes 10 experts regarding nuclear energy, radiology, mining, civil engineering, etc.; its chairperson is Dr. M. Nakano, a professor emeritus of Univ. of Tokyo. This report illustrates the reclamation plan mainly concerning waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond. (author)

  11. Metals from mine waste as potential cause of oxidative stress in burrowing crab Neohelice granulata from San Antonio bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Marinho, Carmen H; Malanga, Gabriela

    2016-10-01

    The Natural Protected Area San Antonio bay is of particular importance for its congregation of migratory shorebirds and it has been declared one of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network International site (WHSRN). Present study represents the first assessment of variation on oxidative stress biomarkers in male crab Neohelice granulata from San Antonio bay (Río Negro, Argentina) under field conditions, associated mainly to metal contamination coming from passive mining wastes. Three sites were sampled once every three months from November 2012 to August 2013 within this sea inlet (Pile, Fishery and Port) and a control site at the southeast of the bay (Punta Perdices). Accumulation of Ni, Zn, Cr and Al varied only with seasons although without a constant trend, meanwhile Cd, Cu and Pb also varied among sites being highest in Pile and Port. Biochemical results indicated that variations in catalase activity was only site specific being maximum in Pile; meanwhile lipid radical, α-tocopherol and metallothioneins were only seasonal specific being higher in autumn and winter. Seasonal variation was also found for total thioles, being the content higher in summer and autumn than in winter. Correlation analysis revealed that malondialdehyde and α-tocopherol have a positive association with Al and negative with Ni, meanwhile GST has a positive association with Fe. Crabs from the closest area to the waste pile did not exhibit a differentiated oxidative pressure despite the higher accumulation of metals. It is possible that crabs from contaminated areas have developed a tolerance to metals, indicating a strong ecotoxicological selective pressure. More studies are needed to assess whether there is a transfer of metals through the food chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological aspects of vetiver grass for rehabilitation in abandoned metalliferous mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, J; Chan, G S Y; Zhang, J; Liang, J; Wong, M H

    2003-09-01

    Physiological aspects of why vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can be tolerant to heavy metals and be used as an alternative method for rehabilitation of abandoned metalliferous mine wastelands have been investigated. The results showed that high proportions of lead and zinc (Pb/Zn) tailing greatly inhibited the leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, and photosynthesis of leaves, but stimulated the accumulation of proline and abscisic acid (ABA), and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), implying that different mechanisms to detoxify active oxygen species (AOS) existed in different parts of plants. Physiological responses to heavy metal treatments differed greatly between roots and shoots. Nitrogen fertilizer application could greatly alleviate the adverse effects of high proportions of Pb/Zn tailing on vetiver grass growth.

  13. Magnetic separation: its application in mining, waste purification, medicine, biochemistry and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, M; Hulliger, J

    2017-10-02

    The use of strong magnetic field gradients and high magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets or superconducting coils has found applications in many fields such as mining, solid state chemistry, biochemistry and medical research. Lab scale or industrial implementations involve separation of macro- and nanoparticles, cells, proteins, and macromolecules down to small molecules and ions. Most promising are those attempts where the object to be separated is attached to a strong magnetic nanoparticle. Here, all kinds of specific affinity interactions are used to attach magnetic carrier particles to mainly objects of biological interest. Other attempts use a strong paramagnetic suspension for the separation of purely diamagnetic objects, such as bio-macromolecules or heavy metals. The application of magnetic separation to superconducting inorganic phases is of particular interest in combination with ceramic combinatorial chemistry to generate a library of e.g. cuprate superconductors.

  14. Study of trace elements in coal and mining wastes and its significance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); CHE Yao(车遥); TANG Xiu-yi(唐修义)

    2003-01-01

    In the world energy about 26% of all was derived from coal combustion. Nearly 80% of the electricity produced in China is generated from coal. Coal will play the most important role in the coming 50 years as the past century in China. However one consequentially of the mining and combustion of coal is the mobilization of trace elements, especially trace metals, which have environmental and human health significance. Information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal, and information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the relations of the minerals in coal can help to predict the behavior of the potentially toxic trace metals during cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching.

  15. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  16. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E. R.; Gray, J. R.

    1995-07-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  17. Waste management in underground mining. Colloquium; Abfallentsorgung im Bergbau unter Tage. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, W.; Martens, P.N.; Pretz, T. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    The problem of underground waste management is reviewed from various aspects. Technical, legal and ecological problems are outlined with particular emphasis on the aspect of long-term safety. [German] Ziel unserer Veranstaltung ist, die Problematik der untertaegigen Abfallentsorgung aus den unterschiedlichsten Perspektiven zu beleuchten. Sowohl die technische als auch die rechtliche wie auch die oekologische Sichtweise werden aufgezeigt. In technischer Hinsicht werden der aktuelle Stand der Methoden und Fortentwicklungsmoeglichkeiten dargestellt und anhand konkreter Beispiele erlaeutert. Besondere Bedeutung hat dabei die Frage der Langzeitsicherheit. (orig.)

  18. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300/sup 0/C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed.

  19. PBC Triggers in Water Reservoirs, Coal Mining Areas and Waste Disposal Sites: From Newcastle to New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Daniel; Mytilinaiou, Maria G.; Rigopoulou, Eirini I.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.

    2010-01-01

    Various environmental factors have been proposed as triggers of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a progressive autoimmune cholestatic liver disease which is characterised by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts. Support for their pathogenic role in PBC is provided by epidemiological studies reporting familial clustering and clusters of the disease within a given geographical area. The seminal study by Triger reporting that the great majority of PBC cases in the English city of Sheffield drank water from a specific water reservoir, has been followed by studies reporting disease 'hot spots' within a restricted geographic region of the former coal mining area of Newcastle. The New York study reporting an increased risk and significant clustering of PBC cases near toxic federal waste disposal sites has added strength to the notion that environmental factors, possibly in the form of infectious agents or toxic/chemical environmental factors in areas of contaminated land, water or polluted air may play a key role in the development of the disease. This review discusses the findings of reports investigating environmental factors which may contribute to the cause of primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:21297253

  20. PBC Triggers in Water Reservoirs, Coal Mining Areas and Waste Disposal Sites: From Newcastle to New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Smyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various environmental factors have been proposed as triggers of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, a progressive autoimmune cholestatic liver disease which is characterised by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts. Support for their pathogenic role in PBC is provided by epidemiological studies reporting familial clustering and clusters of the disease within a given geographical area. The seminal study by Triger reporting that the great majority of PBC cases in the English city of Sheffield drank water from a specific water reservoir, has been followed by studies reporting disease 'hot spots' within a restricted geographic region of the former coal mining area of Newcastle. The New York study reporting an increased risk and significant clustering of PBC cases near toxic federal waste disposal sites has added strength to the notion that environmental factors, possibly in the form of infectious agents or toxic/chemical environmental factors in areas of contaminated land, water or polluted air may play a key role in the development of the disease. This review discusses the findings of reports investigating environmental factors which may contribute to the cause of primary biliary cirrhosis.

  1. Effect of Genetically Modified Poplars on Soil Microbial Communities during the Phytoremediation of Waste Mine Tailings▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Moonsuk; Kim, Yongho; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Young Im; Yi, Hana

    2011-01-01

    The application of transgenic plants to clean up environmental pollution caused by the wastes of heavy metal mining is a promising method for removing metal pollutants from soils. However, the effect of using genetically modified organisms for phytoremediation is a poorly researched topic in terms of microbial community structures, despite the important role of microorganisms in the health of soil. In this study, a comparative analysis of the bacterial and archaeal communities found in the rhizosphere of genetically modified (GM) versus wild-type (WT) poplar was conducted on trees at different growth stages (i.e., the rhizospheres of 1.5-, 2.5-, and 3-year-old poplars) that were cultivated on contaminated soils together with nonplanted control soil. Based on the results of DNA pyrosequencing, poplar type and growth stages were associated with directional changes in the structure of the microbial community. The rate of change was faster in GM poplars than in WT poplars, but the microbial communities were identical in the 3-year-old poplars. This phenomenon may arise because of a higher rate and greater extent of metal accumulation in GM poplars than in naturally occurring plants, which resulted in greater changes in soil environments and hence the microbial habitat. PMID:21890678

  2. Reclamation of acidic mine residues by creation of technosoils with the addition of biochar and marble waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Acosta, José; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raul

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the short-term effect of biochar and marble waste addition for the reclamation of acidic mine residues. A lab incubation was carried out for 90 days. Biochars derived from pig manure (PM), crop residues (CR) and municipal solid waste (MSW) were added to the soil at a rate of 20 g kg-1. The marble waste (MW) was added at a rate of 200 g kg-1. Bochars and MW were applied independently and combined. A control soil was used without application of amendments. The evolution of different physical, chemical and biochemical properties and availability of heavy metals was periodically monitored. Results showed that original pH (2.8) was increased with all amendments, those samples containing MW being the ones with the highest pH (~8.0). The electrical conductivity (EC) decreased from 6.6 to 3.0-4.5 mS cm-1 in all the treatments receiving MW. Soil organic C (SOC) increased in all samples receiving biochar up to 18-20 g kg-1, with no shifts during the 90 d incubation, indicating the high stability of the C supplied. Recalcitrant organic C accounted for ~90-98% of the SOC. No significant effect of amendment addition was observed for carbohydrates, soluble C, microbial biomass C and β-glucosidase activity. However, arylesterase activity increased with amendments, highly related to pH. The availability of heavy metals decreased up to 90-95% owing to the addition of amendments, mainly in samples containing MW. The MW provided conditions to increase pH and decrease EC and metals mobility. Biochar was an effective strategy to increase SOC, recalcitrant C and AS, essential to create soil structure. However, a labile source of organic matter should be added together with the proposed amendments to promote the activation of microbial communities. Acknowledgement : This work has been funded by Fundación Séneca (Agency of Science and Technology of the Region of Murcia, Spain) by the project 18920/JLI/13

  3. Arsenic Speciation in Old Mine Waste Site in Korea - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, N.; Choi, I.; Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2004-05-01

    The ulsan mine, which is known as an important producer of iron, tungsten and arsenic ores in southeastern Korea, is located in Gyeongsangnam Province. This mine is of calcareous skarn deposit represented by ore pipe consisting mainly of magnetite with minor scheelite, sulphides, sulphosalts, arsenides and sulpharsenides (Choi et.al. 1993). A total of 13 groundwater samples and a surface-water sample at an adjacent creek, Dalcheon, were collected in January 2004. Most samples showed neutral pH ranges and normal ORP and temperature conditions. But one sample showed basic and extremely reducing condition, and another one was with relatively high temperature. Results of chemical analysis indicate that total arsenic concentrations of all samples are exceeding the WHO guideline for drinking water quality (10 ug/L), and 64% of those are over the Korean Drinking Water Guideline (KDWG) of 50 ug/L. Especially, arsenic concentrations in two samples exceed 1000 ug/L. Concentrations of some elements like Al, Fe, Mn, SO4 are over the KDWG in several samples, too. Consequence of arsenic speciation using IC-ICP-MS, arsenic exists as three species; arsenite, arsenate, and monomethylarsonate (MMA). Arsenite detected in three groundwater samples. Two of these were from wells in the tailing dam, and the other was the one with basic pH and extremely reducing condition. Arsenic in a surface-water sample mainly exists as MMA form that has lower toxicity than inorganic species. This indicates that microbial activity is the important factor to explain risks in the studied environment. Except for these samples, arsenic exists as arsenate form. Samples were prepared in two ways; 1) acidified water samples with phosphoric acid to the pH less than 2 and filtered through 0.45 um filter papers, and 2) filtered water samples first and then acidified. Comparison of the analysis from the two sample sets indicates that significant mass of arsenic appears to be with clay and the pH condition of the

  4. Tinjauan terhadap tailing mengandung unsur pencemar Arsen (As), Merkuri (Hg), Timbal (Pb), dan Kadmium (Cd) dari sisa pengolahan bijih logam

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Zulkifli Herman

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol1no1.20064aWhen tailing of a mining activity is discharged into either landscape or river body, the pollutan element wastes are possible to disperse within those areas and may cause pollution on environment. The environment pollution hazards of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) probably occurred if tailing with the content of those elements is not handled properly. Particularly in the tropical regions, higher rates of chemical weathering...

  5. Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J W; Sutherland, D J

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake were determined during 1978 near an operating silver mine and an abandoned uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues were also collected. The mines, situated on the same site, deposited tailings and other waste material directly into the lake. The concentrations of mercury, lead, manganese, and nickel in the sediments were highest near the tailings deposit and decreased significantly as the distance from the mine increased. Although there were also significant positive correlations between these metals and the organic content of the sediments, water depth and slope of the bottom had no impact on metal distribution. Since the concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, copper, 226radium, 210lead and 230thorium varied inconsistently throughout the study area, the distribution of these substances could not be related to any of the environmental factors that were measured. There were, however, significant negative correlations between the concentrations of 232thorium and 228thorium and distance from the mine and organic content of the sediments. Heavy metal and radionuclide levels in water were generally below detectable limits, reflecting the strong chemical bonding characteristics of the sediments. The low concentrations of mercury in the tissues of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were probably related to low uptake rates and the ability of this species to move into uncontaminated areas of the lake.

  6. Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.; Sutherland, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake were determined during 1978 near an operating silver mine and an abandoned uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues were also collected. The mines, situated on the same site, deposited tailings and other waste material directly into the lake. The concentrations of mercury, lead, manganese, and nickel in the sediments were highest near the tailings deposit and decreased significantly as the distance from the mine increased. Although there were also significant positive correlations between these metals and the organic content of the sediments, water depth and slope of the bottom had no impact on metal distribution. Since the concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, copper, 226radium, 210lead and 230thorium varied inconsistently throughout the study area, the distribution of these substances could not be related to any of the environmental factors that were measured. There were, however, significant negative correlations between the concentrations of 232thorium and 228thorium and distance from the mine and organic content of the sediments. Heavy metal and radionuclide levels in water were generally below detectable limits, reflecting the strong chemical bonding characteristics of the sediments. The low concentrations of mercury in the tissues of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were probably related to low uptake rates and the ability of this species to move into uncontaminated areas of the lake.

  7. Impact of industrial and mine drainage wastes on the heavy metal distribution in the drainage basin and estuary of the Sado River (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, P; Lavigne, R; Cortez, L

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results from a survey of the heavy metal distribution in sediments in the drainage basin and estuary of the Sado River (Portugal). In the drainage basin, heavy metals originate mostly from pyrite outcrop erosion and mining activities (Cd, Zn, Cu and locally Hg, Pg), and also from crust erosion (Sn, Ni, Ti, Zr). These sources are not correlated with the particulate organic carbon (POC) and so the metals are thought to be in inorganic forms in this area. Anthropogenic heavy metal sources (urban and industrial) are found in the lower estuary (Sn, Cd, Hg, Zn, Pb and Cu) along with high POC concentrations. In this zone, these metals are thought to be strongly adsorbed onto organic particles. Furthermore, organo-metallic species are likely to be present, as demonstrated in the case of Sn, since methyl- and butyl-tin species were detected in sediments from this area. This suggests the need for the detection of organo-metallic species to understand the heavy metal geochemical cycles. No long-term changes in metal concentrations are found in sediment cores, except in the middle estuary (Zn, Cu) due to the development of mining activities on an industrial scale in the 1860s.

  8. Ash and sludge covering of mine waste - Final report. Benefits and/or risks using ash and sludge for covering of weathered mine waste; Aska och roetslam som taet- och taeckskikt foer vittrat gruvavfall - Slutrapport. Foerdelar och/eller risker med att anvaenda aska och slam som taet- och taeckskikt foer vittrat gruvavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Karlsson, Ulrika [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2006-02-15

    One of the main sources for metal pollution in Sweden is mine waste. One way to decrease the leaching of metals from mine waste areas are covering which decreases the volume of acid drainage. There is a shortage of appropriate materials to use for covering and excavation of till and clay from the environment might cause damages on the landscape. Previous studies have demonstrated that sludge and ashes are suitable materials for covering of waste deposits. When covering mine waste with ash and sludge various positive effects would arise, since the production of drainage water decreases as well as the pH increases due to the high buffer capacity of the ash. In Ervalla outside Oerebro an area with mine waste (tailings) has been covered with ash and sludge. This area gives a unique possibility to study benefits and/or risks with the covering of mine waste with ash and sludge. Unfortunately, the covering was not, from the start, carried out in a way that made it possible to evaluate the data. For instance, data about the surface and groundwater quality prior to the covering is lacking. Sulphidic minerals are also very common in the area, giving rise to acidic groundwater from other parts of the area, which haven't been remediated. This report is a final report where all phases are presented (phase 1 and 2). Focus in phase 1 has been on characterization of the material that has been used for covering and initiation of a monitoring program. In phase 2 focus has been on evaluation of monitoring data and the pros and cons of the deposit regarding the environment. Preliminary findings indicate that that the covering increases the leaching of some metals whereas the leaching of some metals decreases. An increase was observed for pH, calcium, potassium, sodium, arsenic, barium, chromium and copper. A decrease in the concentration of iron, nickel, cobalt, lead and zinc was observed. Other benefits with the remediation is also discussed (increased plant growth and an area

  9. Groundwater contributions to metal transport in a small river affected by mining and smelting waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Schäfer, Jörg; Dabrin, Aymeric; Girardot, Naïg; Blanc, Gérard

    2007-08-01

    The Riou Mort watershed, strongly affected by former coal mining and Zn ore treatment, has been the major source of the historical polymetallic pollution of the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine system. Two decades after the end of ore treatment, the former industrial area still contributes important amounts of metals/metalloids from various, partly unidentified, sources to the downstream river system. This study presents the high spatial variability of metal/metalloid (Cd, Zn, As, Sb, U, V) concentrations in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from eight observation sites during a short, intense flood event. Despite important dilution effects, the observed concentration levels at the different sites suggested additional Cd and Zn inputs, probably from polluted groundwater. This formerly unknown metal source was then localized and characterized by sampling water and SPM along two longitudinal profiles during different hydrological situations. Groundwater inputs of "truly dissolved" (treatment of the polluted groundwater), that are expected to strongly reduce dissolved Cd and Zn emissions into the Riou Mort River.

  10. Redistribution of radioactive mine wastes by slushflows and other processes in small mountain river basin in Russian Subarctics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garankina, Ekaterina; Belyaev, Vladimir; Ivanov, Maxim; Romanenko, Fedor; Gurinov, Artem; Tulyakov, Egor; Kuzmenkova, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    decades. One of the unique features of that basin is that there was radioactive ore mine active in late 1930s on one of the steep valley sides. The mine was active only for several years as the production of radioactive minerals appeared to be much lower than expected. However, mine wastes are still remaining there as scree slopes on right valley side in its middle reach under several mine entrances. Colluvial material on these screes is highly enriched by several natural radionuclides including members of the 232Th decay chain. We have made an attempt to use this feature for fingerprinting sediment redistribution along the valley by slushflows and fluvial processes. Results of gamma-spectrometric analysis of finer sediment fractions from different geomorphic settings within the Hackman basin have shown that there is a systematic non-uniform spatial distribution of 232Th decay chain natural radionuclides closely related to its geological background and geomorphological structure. It proves that natural lithogenic radionuclide content in clastic sediments can be used for fingerprinting of slushflows debris sources and sinks and, possibly for distinguishing between in situ slushflow deposits and those partly reworked by later fluvial activities.

  11. Measures for the prevention of mine waste by reducing the prostrate cut in extraction operations with cutting extraction; Massnahmen zur Bergevermeidung durch Reduzierung des Liegendschnitts in Abbaubetrieben mit schneidender Gewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroker, Jueergen; Telsemeyer, Thomas [Bergwerk Auguste Victoria, RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Marl (Germany); Rosinski, Dirk [Bergwerk Lippe, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2009-11-05

    Within the scope of an investigation into the mines of RAG over a period of consideration from 1{sup st} January 2006 to 30 June 2007 it was established that approximately 25% of all accumulated mine waste is caused by prostrate additional cut in the extraction operations. A prostrate additional cut is required in the extraction operations for system-related reasons, in which the passage height of the extraction facilities is not guaranteed as a result of the loosening of the coal seam. The additional extraction of the footwall rock, which exceeds this subsequently defined extent, causes the preventable mine waste. Using the example of the extraction operation with cutting extraction in the Auguste Victoria and Lippe collieries it is shown which technical and organisational measures applying the Eicontrol system have successfully contributed to the reduction of the prostrate additional cut with the objective of preventing mine waste. (orig.)

  12. Deep Submarine Tailings Disposal (DSTP) the Proposed Use of Submarine Canyons and Artificial Turbidity Currents for the Disposal of Mine Waste: Current Practice, Future Plans, and Cumulative Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Moran, R.

    2015-12-01

    The wastes from mining operations ( tailings) have been disposed of in the fluvial environment (riverine disposal) and in nearshore marine environments for much of the last century. The scale of modern mining operations has led to increasing use of steep slopes and submarine canyons for deposition of these wastes at depths of 2000m - 4000m. Current mine disposal operations in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea which use Deep Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) release volumes between 5000 tpd and 160,000 tpd. Planning is underway by the"Consortium," an industry and government group in Chile which would deposit mine waste of 1M tpd into the Humbolt Current Large Marine Ecosystem (HCLME) which provides nearly 20% of the fish biomass harvested on a sustainable basis worldwide. Underwater pipelines discharge tailings as a slurry to create a continuous artificial turbidity current with particle size distribtions (PSD's) ranging from sand to clay sized fractions. Potential problems arise from benthic smothering, angular particulate uptake by benthic organisms, and from the bioaccumulation of a complex of heavy metals by both benthic and pelagic species. While much is known about the binding of copper and other toxic heavy metals in a reducing environment, little has been done to consider the implications of ocean dumping where 1% of tailings discharged may consist of unrecovered heavy metals. Synergistic cumulative impacts to just the HCLME from the dumping of the more than 3M tpy of reactive metals in these tailings sediments remains unknown and poses substantial risks. DSTP assumes a stable deep sea depositional environment but upwelling currents and plume shear may make this hard to accomplish.

  13. Assessing Resiliency in a Large Lake Receiving Mine Tailings Waste: Impacts of Major Environmental Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Owens, Philip; Albers, Sam

    2016-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Initial estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids) and eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a plume of fine-grained sediment (D50 of ca. 1 μm) remained suspended in the water column. The impact of the distribution of this sediment was monitored over the next 15 months using water column profiling for temperature, conductivity, fluorescence and turbidity with depth. The plume movement was regulated by natural processes associated with the physical limnology of this large fjord lake, specifically, seiche events which transferred suspended particles both up-lake, against the flow regime, and down-lake into the Quesnel River. Samples of lake water and bottom sediment taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of total metals and other elements, which may have important ecosystem implications in this watershed. Indeed, the breach occurred at a time when a peak run of sockeye salmon were returning to their natal streams in the Quesnel basin. Zooplankton sampling for metals was initiated in fall 2014 to determine up take of metals into the food web. This poster describes the failure of the impoundment dam and presents results of sampling the aquatic environment over the first fifteen months of impact.

  14. IMPACT OF MINING WASTES ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE PROVINCE JERADA (EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATTIOUI MOUNIA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jerada coal mine is located in north east of Morocco, and closed in late 2001.Today the quantity stored is about 15 to 20 million tonnes. These releases contain significant levels of accompanying elements or secondary minerals such as iron sulfides (pyrite and their oxidation products.Monitor the groundwater quality was developed in the region in order to assess the quality of these waters and to estimate the risk of contamination. The study focused on 35 wells spread to cover almost all of the study area.Two main sampling campaigns were conducted, the first one in October 2010, the second in July 2011.The pH of the different measuring points is generally between 6 and alkaline tending 8 show groundwater level in the region.The results obtained by ion chromatography show an average sulphate concentration of about 700mg/l.These concentrations are much higher in the wet season than the dry season. The average nitrate levels are in the range of 300mg/l while those chlorides are of the order of 418 mg/l.The analysis by emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP showed mean concentrations of calcium in the range of 170mg/l,340mg/l for sodium and 309mg/l for magnesium while contents of Al, As, Cd remain negligible or even below the detection limit.The results of physico-chemical analysis of groundwater level in the province of Jerada show high pollution level in the region.

  15. Use of microbes for cost reduction of metal removal from metals and mining industry waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.R.H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Division for Environmental Science & Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Acid-rock drainage (ARD) - also known as acid-mine drainage (AMD) - results from the exposure of sulfide minerals, particularly pyritic and pyrrhotitic minerals, to atmospheric oxygen and water. Recent developments and improvements have resulted in construction of bioreactors that have a smaller footprint, and treat the metals and acidity more effectively. Many studies have demonstrated that the primary removal mechanisms for the metals are sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These microbes facilitate the conversion of sulphate to sulphide. The sulphides react with metals to precipitate them as metal sulfides, many of which are stable in the anaerobic conditions of the treatment system. Plants have been shown to remove metals by uptake or oxidative precipitation near the roots. Plants seem to account for only a small percentage of the metal removal capacity of the wetland treatment systems. Adsorption of metals to the organic substrates of the treatment systems can result in metal removal, but adsorption capacity is saturated in short periods of time. The SRB are obligate anaerobes which prefer conditions between pH 5 and 8. Thus, the input water characteristics could impact the efficiency and life expectancy of the treatment systems. The most important characteristic of input waters seems to be pH. Oxyanions such as chromate and arsenate can be removed using the wetland treatment system (passive bioreactor) technology. Arsenic is removed as an arsenic sulfide compound and chromate is reduced to Cr(III) and precipitated as a hydroxide. The passive bioreactor - wetland treatment system offers a less expensive alternative to the conventional chemical precipitation technologies. There still are problems of system hydraulics and useful life to be addressed.

  16. Groundwater contributions to metal transport in a small river affected by mining and smelting waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coynel, A.; Schafer, J.; Dabrin, A.; Girardot, N.; Blanc, G. [University of Bordeaux, Talence (France)

    2007-08-15

    The Riou Mort watershed, strongly affected by former coal mining and ZEE ore treatment, has been the major source of the historical polymetallic pollution of the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine system. Two decades after the end of ore treatment, the former industrial area still contributes important amounts of metals/metalloids from various, partly unidentified, sources to the downstream river system. This study presents the high spatial variability of metal/metalloid (Cd, Zn, As, Sb, U, V) concentrations in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from eight observation sites during a short, intense flood event. Despite important dilution effects, the observed concentration levels at the different sites suggested additional Cd and Zn inputs, probably from polluted groundwater. This formerly unknown metal source was then localized and characterized by sampling water and SPM along two longitudinal profiles during different hydrological situations. Groundwater inputs of 'truly dissolved' (<0.02pm) Cd and Zn occurred along -200m, contributing 43% and 28% to the total annual (2004) Cd and Zn fluxes in the Riou Mort River. The estimated groundwater concentrations of Cd and Zn (2500-6700 and 83,000-170,000 mu g1{sup -1}, respectively) in the source zone were consistent with values measured in samples from the near aquifer (5400-13,000 and 200,000-400,000 mu g1{sup -1}). The present work induced concrete remediation actions (pumping and treatment of the polluted groundwater), that are expected to strongly reduce dissolved Cd and Zn emissions into the Riou Mort River.

  17. Mobilization of Ag, heavy metals and Eu from the waste deposit of the Las Herrerias mine (Almería, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, A.; Cardellach, E.

    2009-02-01

    We studied the mobility of silver, heavy metals and europium in waste from the Las Herrerías mine in Almería (SE Spain). The most abundant primary mineral phases in the mine wastes are hematite, hydrohematite, barite, quartz, muscovite, anorthite, calcite and phillipsite. The minor phase consisted of primary minerals including ankerite, cinnabar, digenite, magnesite, stannite, siderite and jamesonite, and secondary minerals such as glauberite, szomolnokite, thenardite and uklonscovite. The soils show high concentrations of Ag (mean 21.6 mg kg-1), Ba (mean 2.5%), Fe (mean 114,000 mg kg-1), Sb (mean 342.5 mg kg-1), Pb (mean 1,229.8 mg kg-1), Zn (mean 493 mg kg-1), Mn (mean 4,321.1 mg kg-1), Cd (mean 1.2 mg kg-1) and Eu (mean 4.0 mg kg-1). The column experiments showed mobilization of Ag, Al, Ba, Cu, Cd, Eu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sb, Pb and Zn, and the inverse modelling showed that the dissolution of hematite, hausmannite, pyrolusite and anglesite can largely account for the mobilization of Fe, Mn and Pb in the leaching experiment. The mobility of silver may be caused by the presence of kongsbergite and chlorargyrite in the waste, while the mobility of Eu seems to be determined by Eu(OH)3, which controls the solubility of Eu in the pH-Eh conditions of the experiments. The mineralogy, pH, Eh and geochemical composition of the mine wastes may explain the possible mobilization of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the absence of contaminants in the groundwater may be caused by the carbonate-rich environment of “host-rocks” that limits their mobility.

  18. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, Browns Hole, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry

    2012-01-01

    During August of 2008, 35 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, undisturbed geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Browns Hole in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were (1) to assess impacts on human health due to exposure to radium, uranium, and thorium during recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management lands; (2) to compare concentrations of trace elements associated with mine waste dumps to natural background concentrations; (3) to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps; and (4) to assess contamination from waste dumps to the local perennial stream water in Muleshoe Creek. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. Solid samples were digested and analyzed for major and trace elements. Analytical values for radium and uranium in digested samples were compared to multiple soil screening levels developed from annual dosage calculations in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act's minimum cleanup guidelines for uranium waste sites. Three occupancy durations for sites were considered: 4.6 days per year, 7.0 days per year, and 14.0 days per year. None of the sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 96 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 4.6 days per year exposure. Two sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 66 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 7.0 days per year exposure. Seven sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 33 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 14.0 days per year exposure. A perennial stream that flows next to the toe of a uranium waste dump was sampled, analyzed for major and trace elements, and compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. None of the water-quality standards were exceeded in the stream samples.

  19. Results Of Hg Speciation Testing On DWPF SMECT-1, SMECT-3, And SMECT-5 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The thirteenth shipment of samples was designated to include Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 736 and 738 samples. Triplicate samples of each material were prepared for this shipment. Each replicate was analyzed for seven Hg species: total Hg, total soluble (dissolved) Hg, elemental Hg [Hg(0)], ionic (inorganic) Hg [Hg(I) and Hg(II)], methyl Hg [CH3Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], ethyl Hg [CH3CH2-Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], and dimethyl Hg [(CH3)2Hg]. The difference between the total Hg and total soluble Hg measurements gives the particulate Hg concentration, i.e. Hg adsorbed to the surface of particulate matter in the sample but without resolution of the specific adsorbed species. The average concentrations of Hg species in the aqueous samples derived from Eurofins reported data corrected for dilutions performed by SRNL are tabulated.

  20. Chemical thermodynamics of Hg1201 and Hg1223 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadashi

    1998-03-01

    The decomposition equilibrium of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was studied using a thermomicrobalance. A thermodynamic diagram representing the stability domains of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was constructed. Using the diagram, it was shown that Hg1201 is metastable at 800°C and that Hg1223 is stable at 660°C due to the formation of an atmosphere of mercury vapor and oxygen formed by the decomposition of excess HgO. Chemical analysis revealed that the valence of Hg is +2 regardless of the oxygen content. The dependence of Tc on the oxygen content was also studied.

  1. Experimental Study on the Waste Heat Utilization of Air Compressor in Coal Mine%煤矿空压机废热利用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建学; 牛永胜; 袁静

    2012-01-01

    针对目前空压机排风废热的回收利用存在的问题,设计了采用热泵技术对空压机废热的回收方案。分析了空压机废热源热泵系统的工作原理,并建立了实验台进行实验研究,测试了不同的空压机排风温度、热水出水温度等因素对空压机废热源热泵系统性能的影响。通过对空压机废热源热泵系统在山西某煤矿的应用的举例,分析了煤矿空压机废热利用可收获的经济效益和社会效益。%Aiming at the current problems for the recycling and utilization of air compressor exhaust waste heat,it designed the recycling plan of air compressor waste heat with heat pump technology.The working principle of the heat pump system of air compressor waste heat source was analyzed,and the experiment table was established to do experimental research,test factors such as different air compressor exhaust temperature,outlet temperature of hot water which influence on the performance of the heat pump system.Through the exemplifying of the air compressor waste heat source heat pump system application to a coal mine in Shanxi province,it analyzed the economic benefit and social benefit which could be obtained by the air compressor waste heat utilization in the coal mine.

  2. Environmental Geochemistry and Acid Mine Drainage Evaluation of an Abandoned Coal Waste Pile at the Alborz-Sharghi Coal Washing Plant, NE Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodeiri Shokri, Behshad, E-mail: b.jodeiri@hut.ac.ir [Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), Department of Mining Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz [University of Tehran, School of Mining, College of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazi, Hamidreza [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, an abandoned waste coal pile, which is resulted from Alborz-Sharghi coal washing plant, NE of Iran was mineralogically and geochemically characterized to evaluate pyrite oxidation, acid mine drainage (AMD) generation, and trace element mobility. After digging ten trenches and vertical sampling, a quantitative method including the atomic absorption test, and the quality-based methods including optical study were carried out for determination of pyrite fractions in the waste pile. The geochemical results revealed that the fraction of remaining pyrite increased with depth, indicating that pyrite oxidation is limited to the shallower depths of the pile which were confirmed by variations of sulfate, pH, EC, and carbonate with depth of the pile. To evaluate the trend of trace elements and mineralogical constituents of the waste particles, the samples were analyzed by using XRD, ICP-MS, and ICP-OES methods. The results showed the secondary and neutralizing minerals comprising gypsum have been formed below the oxidation zone. Besides, positive values of net neutralization potential indicated that AMD generation has not taken in the waste pile. In addition, variations of trace elements with depth reveal that Pb and Zn exhibited increasing trends from pile surface toward the bottom sampling trenches while another of them such as Cu and Ni had decreasing trends with increasing depth of the waste pile.

  3. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H. K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L. M.

    2009-07-01

    The heavy metal contamination from mining industry has become a growing problem both in chile and worldwide. This contamination includes large areas with soil pollution, contaminated rivers and continuous generation of mining waste deposits. The solid waste that will be analysed is mine tailings, which are the residual products after the flotation process in conventional sulphide copper mining. (Author)

  4. Research cooperation project in fiscal 1998. General report on research cooperation related to mine waste water treatment technology by utilizing biotechnology; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku sokatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes cooperative development of bio-treatment technology for mine waste water generated by operating mines in China. Certain types of bacteria have capability to oxidize ferrous iron in the waste water into ferric iron ions. The bacteria cause ferric iron oxides in low pH regions to get deposited, and can remove them from sedimentation by using cheap calcium carbonate as a neutralizer. Volumetric reduction in waste sediments may also be achieved during removing heavy metals in a pretreatment process. Great advance may be expected in taking actions to prevent water quality contamination. This paper summarizes activities taken in fiscal 1998. Eight site surveys in total were carried out using 47 persons in total. Major activities included operation study guidance of a pilot plant, and surveys for measures on heavy metal generation sources in Wushan Mine. In addition, site surveys were performed at Dexing Mine and Yinshan Zinc Mine. Subsequently from fiscal 1997, a bench scale testing equipment used in Japan and consumables were transported to China. The operation study data on the pilot plant were put into order and analyzed. Concept design was also made on a waste water treatment facility for Wushan Mine. (NEDO)

  5. [Hyperspectral extraction of soil available nitrogen in Nan Mountain coal waste scenic spot of Jinhuagong Mine based on enter-PLSR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-xin; Wang, Yun-jia; Xiong, Ji-bing

    2014-06-01

    Soil available nitrogen content is an important index reflecting soil fertility. It provides dynamic information for land reclamation and ecological restoration if soil available nitrogen can be monitored and evaluated using hyperspectral technology. Facing the study blank of soil available nitrogen in National Mine Park and the deficiency of poor computational efficiency of partial least squares regression (PLSR) method, the present paper presents the relationship between soil spectrum and soil available nitrogen based on spectrum curves (ranging from 350 to 2 500 nm) of 30 salinized chestnut soil samples, which were collected from southern mountain coal waste scenic spot, located in Jinhuagong mine in Datong city, Shanxi Province, China (one part of Jinhuagong national mine park). Soil reflection spectrum was mathematically manipulated into first derivative and inverse-log spectral curves, then a corresponding estimation model was built and examined by PLSR and Enter-partial least squares regression (Enter-PLSR) based on characteristic absorption. The result indicated that Enter-PLSR corresponding estimation model greatly increased the computation efficiency by reducing the number of independent variables to 12 from 122 in case of a close accuracy of PLS corresponding estimation model. By using hyperspectral technology and Enter-PLSR method, the study blank of soil available nitrogen in National Mine Park was filled. At the same time, the computation efficiency problem of PLSR was resolved.

  6. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  7. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  8. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael L.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Johnson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    During July and August of 2006, 117 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in the San Rafael Swell, in southeastern Utah. The objective of this sampling program was to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a field leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, U, V, and Zn at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah and for Hg at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential of suspect uranium waste dumps, leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards and the ratio of samples that exceeded standards to the total number of samples was determined for each element having a water-quality standard for aquatic life and drinking-water. Approximately 56 percent (48/85) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps had one or more chemical constituents that exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were along Reds Canyon Road between Tomsich Butte and Family Butte. Twelve of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates contained three or more constituents that exceeded drinking-water-quality standards. Eighteen of the uranium waste dump sites had three or more constituents that exceeded trace

  9. Radioactivity measurements in the vicinity of the mine waste heap at Crossen and radiation dose assessment; Radioaktivitaetsmessungen in der Umgebung der Bergehalde Crossen und Abschaetzung der Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulzer, R.

    1998-09-01

    The radiation dose to the population living in the vicinity of the mine waste heap is assessed. The measurements carried out were to verify the dose relevance of ambient radioactivity on site, in particular the ingestion and inhalation pathways and the external exposure pathways. The nuclide Pb-210 was used as an indicator because of its large dose factor for assessment of ingestion and its airborne dispersion as an Rn-222 daughter product. The waste heap material releases large quantities of this nuclide. Ingestion of radioactivity from the waste heap may be caused by wind-borne erosion and activity deposition on plants in the area. Thererfore, the specific activities of Pb-210 and Ra-226 have been measured in soil and plant specimens sampled at various distances from the waste heap. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Strahlenexposition der in der Naehe einer Bergehalde lebenden Bevoelkerung wird bestimmt. Zu diesem Zweck wurden Messungen realisiert, die den Ingestions- und Inhalationspfad sowie die externe Exposition fuer die vorgefundene Situation auf ihre Dosisrelevanz ueberpruefen sollten. Hierzu diente das Nuklid Pb-210 mit seinem grossen Dosisfaktor fuer die Ingestion und seiner besonderen Verbreitungsmoeglichkeit ueber die Luft als Tochter von Rn-222. Dieses wird aus dem Haldenmaterial in grossen Mengen freigesetzt. Haldenmaterial kann ueber den Ingestionspfad in den menschlichen Koerper aufgenommen werden, wenn es durch Winderosion auf Pflanzenoberflaechen in der Umgebung abgelagert wird.Deshalb wurden die spezifischen Aktivitaeten an Pb-210 und Ra-226 von Boden- und Pflanzenproben in verschiedenen Entfernungen zur Halde bestimmt.

  10. Radioactivity measurements in the vicinity of the mine waste heap at Crossen and radiation dose assessment; Radioaktivitaetsmessungen in der Umgebung der Bergehalde Crossen und Abschaetzung der Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulzer, R.

    1998-09-01

    The radiation dose to the population living in the vicinity of the mine waste heap is assessed. The measurements carried out were to verify the dose relevance of ambient radioactivity on site, in particular the ingestion and inhalation pathways and the external exposure pathways. The nuclide Pb-210 was used as an indicator because of its large dose factor for assessment of ingestion and its airborne dispersion as an Rn-222 daughter product. The waste heap material releases large quantities of this nuclide. Ingestion of radioactivity from the waste heap may be caused by wind-borne erosion and activity deposition on plants in the area. Thererfore, the specific activities of Pb-210 and Ra-226 have been measured in soil and plant specimens sampled at various distances from the waste heap. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Strahlenexposition der in der Naehe einer Bergehalde lebenden Bevoelkerung wird bestimmt. Zu diesem Zweck wurden Messungen realisiert, die den Ingestions- und Inhalationspfad sowie die externe Exposition fuer die vorgefundene Situation auf ihre Dosisrelevanz ueberpruefen sollten. Hierzu diente das Nuklid Pb-210 mit seinem grossen Dosisfaktor fuer die Ingestion und seiner besonderen Verbreitungsmoeglichkeit ueber die Luft als Tochter von Rn-222. Dieses wird aus dem Haldenmaterial in grossen Mengen freigesetzt. Haldenmaterial kann ueber den Ingestionspfad in den menschlichen Koerper aufgenommen werden, wenn es durch Winderosion auf Pflanzenoberflaechen in der Umgebung abgelagert wird.Deshalb wurden die spezifischen Aktivitaeten an Pb-210 und Ra-226 von Boden- und Pflanzenproben in verschiedenen Entfernungen zur Halde bestimmt.

  11. A proposal to improve e-waste collection efficiency in urban mining: Container loading and vehicle routing problems - A case study of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), also known as e-waste, is one of the most important waste streams with high recycling potential. Materials used in these products are valuable, but some of them are hazardous. The urban mining approach attempts to recycle as many materials as possible, so efficiency in collection is vital. There are two main methods used to collect WEEE: stationary and mobile, each with different variants. The responsibility of WEEE organizations and waste collection companies is to assure all resources required for these activities - bins, containers, collection vehicles and staff - are available, taking into account cost minimization. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly determine the capacity of containers and number of collection vehicles for an area where WEEE need to be collected. There are two main problems encountered in collection, storage and transportation of WEEE: container loading problems and vehicle routing problems. In this study, an adaptation of these two models for packing and collecting WEEE is proposed, along with a practical implementation plan designed to be useful for collection companies' guidelines for container loading and route optimization. The solutions are presented in the case studies of real-world conditions for WEEE collection companies in Poland.

  12. The utilization of coal mining wastes as filling materials in reinforced earth structures. III. Construction of a full scale experimental structure; Utilizacion de los esteriles del carbon como material de relleno en estructuras de tierra reforzada. II. Construccion de una estructura experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CaNibano Gonzalez, J.; Martinez, C.; Gonzalez, M.R. [HUNOSA. Programa Desarrollo Esteriles. Oviedo (Spain); Pardo, F.; SopeNa, L. [CEDEX. Laboratorio Geotecnia, Madrid (Spain); Torres, M. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Oviedo (Spain); Perez, J.J. [MOPTMA. Demarcacion Carreteras del Estado, Oviedo (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    This article describes the construction of a full scale experimental structure in which coal mining wastes (mine stones) were utilized as a filling material. In such structure, which was 20 m long and 2 high coal mining wastes from two different tips were tested together with different types of reinforcing frames such as metal bands, geomeshes and Paraweb (Freyssisol) bands. Also, thermocouples were placed at different heights. On the other hand, the said structure was subjected to 3.085 passes of a truck having a ballast of 10.5 tons on its rear axle. The performance of the coal mining wastes was completely satisfactory. (Author) 3 refs.

  13. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  14. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  15. STUDY ON PHYTO-EXTRACTION BALANCE OF ZN, CD AND PB FROM MINE-WASTE POLLUTED SOILS BY USING FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA AND LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the cultivation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea and of perennial ryegrass for two years on a chernozem type of soil, in the Banat's plain area we investigated the phyto-extraction potential of Zn, Cd and Pb. In the experimental plot it has been incorporated a quantity of 20 kg of mine-waste per square meter, in a mass ratio of 1:2,5. The mine-waste polluting "contribution" was of 1209 mg Zn / kg d.s., 4.70 mg Cd / kg d.s. and 188.2 mg Pb / kg d.s. The metals content in the soil was determined at the two moments of biomass harvesting, and through balance calculations we could establish the phyto-extraction efficiency of the two foragegrasses species. The obtained results indicate that Festuca arundinacea has an average phyto-extraction yield of 50% for Zn and Cd in the soil; in the case of an ionic excess of 3,5 to 4 times, the phyto-extraction efficiency is reduced, more obvious in the case of Pb (lead ions. The species Lolium perenne registers a yield of almost 92% in the process of phyto-extraction of Zn. The yield values for Cd si Pb are lower, but comparable with the control plot. Unlike Festuca arundinacea, the Lollium perenne species tolerates better the Cd and Pb ionic excess.

  16. Impact of waste coal mining on distribution and accumulation of salts in the soil on the territory located nearcoal mining heap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroyik H.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of influence of dump mine rocks of Western Donbas, that is warehoused in dumps on the ecological state of the soils located near-by dumps, is conducted. It is shown that as a result of process of migration ofwater-soluble salts that is lixiviated from dumps, zones are formed with enhanceable maintenance of toxic salts and there is transformation of chemical composition of the ground cover.

  17. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 19. Leaching Characteristics of Composited Materials from Mine Waste-Rock Piles and Naturally Altered Areas near Questa, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Briggs, Paul H.; Sutley, Stephen J.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Livo, K. Eric; Verplanck, Philip L.; Adams, Monique G.; Gemery-Hill, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to compare and contrast the leachability of metals and the acidity from individual mine waste-rock piles and natural erosional scars in the study area near Questa, New Mexico. Surficial multi-increment (composite) samples less than 2 millimeters in diameter from five waste-rock piles, nine erosional-scar areas, a less-altered site, and a tailings slurry-pipe sample were analyzed for bulk chemistry and mineralogy and subjected to two back-to-back leaching procedures. The first leaching procedure, the U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test (FLT), is a short-duration leach (5-minute shaking and 10-minute settling) and is intended to leach readily soluble materials. The FLT was immediately followed by an 18-hour, end-over-end rotation leaching procedure. Comparison of results from the back-to-back leaching procedures can provide information about reactions that may take place upon migration of leachates through changing geochemical conditions (for example, pH changes), both within the waste-rock and scar materials and away from the source materials. For the scar leachates, the concentrations of leachable metals varied substantially between the scar areas sampled. The scar leachates have low pH (pH 3.2-4.1). Under these low-pH conditions, cationic metals are solubilized and mobile, but anionic species, such as molybdenum, are less soluble and less mobile. Generally, metal concentrations in the waste-rock leachates did not exceed the upper range of those metal concentrations in the erosional-scar leachates. One exception is molybdenum, which is notably higher in the waste-rock leachates compared with the scar leachates. Most of the waste-rock leachates were at least mildly acidic (pH 3.0-6.2). The pH values in the waste-rock leachates span a large pH range that includes some pH-dependent solubility and metal-attenuation reactions. An increase in pH with leaching time and agitation indicates that there is pH-buffering capacity in some of the

  18. The optimized design for waste water treatment of a uranium mine in Fuzhou%抚州某铀矿点废水处理的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄连军; 范利军; 彭洪; 赵晓晖; 李登峰

    2013-01-01

    将废水分为较高铀质量浓度废水和低铀浓度废水分别处理,且增加矿泥处理.通过该优化设计,较好地解决了721-15废水站处理能力不足和矿井水混浊的问题.%The waste water treatment design of a uranium mine site in Fuzhou was optimized,including that the waste water was divided into high uranium concentration wastewater and low uranium concentration waste water and they were treated respectively,and the sludge after flocculating was treated.The problem of insufficient treatment capacity in the 721-15 waste water treatment station was solved by optimization and the pollution to the environment around the mine was avoided.

  19. Distribution of total mercury and methylmercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki River, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hamada, Yuriko Kono; Matsuyama, Akito; Imura, Ryusuke; Taniguchi, Yoko; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the soil and water around the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia. The concentration of T-Hg and MeHg in the forest soil ranged from 0.07 to 16.7 mg kg(-1) and from Mercury deposited on the soil surface can be trapped and retained by organic matter and subjected to methylation. The slope of the line obtained for the T-Hg vs. TOC plot became larger near the ASGM villages, implying a higher rate of mercury deposition in these areas. In contrast, the plots of MeHg vs. TOC fell along the same trend line regardless of the distance from the ASGM village. Organic carbon content may be a predominant factor in controlling MeHg formation in forest soils. The T-Hg concentration in the river water ranged from 0.40 to 9.6 μg L(-1). River water used for irrigation can prove to be a source of mercury for the paddy fields. The concentrations of Hg(0) and Hg(2+) in river water showed similar variations as that observed for the T-Hg concentration. The highest Hg(0) concentration of 3.2 μg L(-1) can be attributed to the waste inflow from work sites. The presence of Hg(0) in river water can become a source of mercury present in the atmosphere along the river. MeHg concentration in the river water was found to be 0.004-0.14% of T-Hg concentration, which was considerably lower than the concentrations of other Hg species. However, MeHg comprised approximately 0.2% of the T-Hg in paddy field soil. Mercury deposited from the atmosphere and the river water can be subjected to methylation. Paddy fields are very important ecosystems; therefore, the effect of MeHg on these ecosystems and human beings should be further investigated.

  20. Plant Cover and Soil Biochemical Properties in a Mine Tailing Pond Five Years After Application of Marble Wastes and Organic Amendments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. ZORNOZA; A. FAZ; D. M. CARMONA; S. KABAS; S. MART(I)NEZ-MART(I)NEZ; J. A. ACOSTA

    2012-01-01

    Tailing ponds pose environmental hazards,such as toxic metals which can contaminate the surroundings through wind and water erosions and leaching.Various chemical and biochemical properties,together with extractable and soluble metals were measured five years after reclamation of a polluted soil affected by former mining activities.This abandoned mine site contains large amounts of Fe-oxyhydroxides,sulphates,and heavy metals.As a consequence,soils remain bare and the soil organic matter content is low (< 3 g kg-1).Marble waste,pig manure and sewage sludge were applied in 2004.Plant cover and richness,and soil chemical,biochemical and biological parameters were analysed five years later.Results showed that all soil biochemical properties as well as vegetation cover and richness were higher in treated soils than in the untreated contaminated plots (control),although organic matter,pH values and extractable metals concentrations were similar among treatments.Soluble cadmium and zinc were lower in the amended plots than in control.As a general pattern,soil amended with pig manure showed higher values of most biochemical properties compared to sewage sludge application,while the doses did not have a great effect,being only significant for β-glucosidase,phosphodiesterase and arylsulfatase.Significant correlations were found between vegetation cover,richness and soil biochemical properties,suggesting a high interdependence between plant colonization and reactivation of biogeochemical cycles during five years.This study confirms the high effectiveness of an initial application of the amendments tested to initialize the recovery of ecosystems in bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions. This research also shows the high sensitivity of certain biochemical properties in order to evaluate soil quality and reactivation of nutrients cycles in reclaimed mine soils.

  1. 利用矿山固体废物料固结矿区路面的试验研究%Experimental Study on Consolidation Mining Area of Pavement of Mining Solid Waste Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建军; 刘占全

    2012-01-01

    The iron ore tailings mud and gravel drift mine is the main emission solid waste Bayanobo West Mine Concentrator. Tailings mud instead of sand,drift gravel instead of graded gravel, RCC process was adopted in the mine road construction. It improves the mine haulage road traffic, and extends vehicle service life. The trial achieved its optimum moisture content and the largest proportion of indicators, and 28 d compressive strength of more than 18 MPa industrial test road in the mining area on the main transport ramp, a total of 4, the road length of 66.5 m, width 9.0 m, covering an areaabout 600 m2 with feeding amount a total of 165 t - tailings mud the average strength of roller compacted concrete pavement core samples of concrete strength test results, in more than 18 MPa.%白云鄂博两矿铁矿尾矿泥和甩尾碎石是矿山选矿厂排放的主要固体废弃物.利用尾矿泥代替砂、甩尾碎石代替级配碎石,采用碾压混凝土工艺进行矿区路面修筑,是改善矿区运输道路路况,延长汽车使用寿命的根本性措施.试验取得了其最佳含水量和最大比重的指标,28d抗压强度达到18 MPa以上.工业试验路面选择在矿区主运输坡道上,一共做了4块,路面总长66.5m,宽9.0m,面积约600 m2,用料量共计165 t.根据路面混凝土芯样强度试验结果,尾矿泥碾压混凝土平均强度在18 MPa以上.

  2. Arsenic associated with historical gold mining in the Sierra Nevada foothills: Case study and field trip guide for Empire Mine State Historic Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Myers, Perry A; Millsap, Daniel; Regnier, Tamsen B; Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    The Empire Mine, together with other mines in the Grass Valley mining district, produced at least 21.3 million troy ounces (663 tonnes) of gold (Au) during the 1850s through the 1950s, making it the most productive hardrock Au mining district in California history (Clark 1970). The Empire Mine State Historic Park (Empire Mine SHP or EMSHP), established in 1975, provides the public with an opportunity to see many well-preserved features of the historic mining and mineral processing operations (CDPR 2014a).A legacy of Au mining at Empire Mine and elsewhere is contamination of mine wastes and associated soils, surface waters, and groundwaters with arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and other metals. At EMSHP, As has been the principal contaminant of concern and the focus of extensive remediation efforts over the past several years by the State of California, Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) and Newmont USA, Ltd. In addition, the site is the main focus of a multidisciplinary research project on As bioavailability and bioaccessibility led by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) Brownfields Program.This chapter was prepared as a guide for a field trip to EMSHP held on June 14, 2014, in conjunction with a short course on “Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology of Arsenic” held in Nevada City, California on June 15–16, 2014. This guide contains background information on geological setting, mining history, and environmental history at EMSHP and other historical Au mining districts in the Sierra Nevada, followed by descriptions of the field trip stops.

  3. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO{sub 2} emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.perez@dgeo.uhu.es [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA - CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071, Huelva (Spain); Castillo, Julio; Quispe, Dino; Nieto, Jose Miguel [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071, Huelva (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO{sub 2} by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L{sup -1}, iron 348 mg L{sup -1}) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 L s{sup -1} for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO{sub 2} and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  4. Utilization of fly ash to improve the quality of the acid mine drainage generated by oxidation of a sulphide-rich mining waste: Column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; de Almodovar, G.R. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology

    2007-04-15

    The production of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as a result of the oxidative dissolution of sulphides is one of the main pollution problems affecting natural watercourses in mining environments with sulphide-rich residues. In this work, the generation of AMD was prevented by means of the addition of fly ash to sulphide-rich residues in non-saturated column experiments. A column experiment filled with a pyrite-rich sludge with artificial irrigation leached acid drainages (pH approx. 2) containing high concentrations of sulphate, iron and other metals. However, non-saturated column experiments filled with pyritic-rich sludge and fly ash drained leachates characterized by alkaline pH (pH up to 10), low sulphate concentration, and lack of iron and other metals in solution. The pyrite oxidative dissolution at high pH, as a consequence of the leaching of fly ash, favours the metal precipitation inside the column (mainly iron), the coating of pyrite grains, and the attenuation of the oxidation process, resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the leachates.

  5. Human exposure to methylmercury through rice intake in mercury mining areas, Guizhou province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinbin; Li, Ping; Qiu, Guangle; Wang, Shaofeng; Li, Guanghui; Shang, Lihai; Meng, Bo; Jiang, Hongmei; Bai, Weiyang; Li, Zhonggen; Fu, Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (Me-Hg) has caused widespread public human concern as a result of several widely publicized disasters. Me-Hg is highly toxic, and the nervous system is its principal target tissue for humans. Although the general population is primarily exposed to Me-Hg through contaminated fish and marine mammals, in Hg mining areas a long history of mining activities can produce serious Hg pollution to the local environment In a study of 98 persons from the Wanshan Hg mining area, hair Me-Hg levels indicated Me-Hg exposure. Rice, the staple food of the local inhabitants also showed high total Hg (T-Hg) and Me-Hg levels. The geometric mean concentration of T-Hg and mean concentration of Me-Hg in rice samples collected from 3 villages in Wanshan Hg mining area were 36.2 (ranging from 4.9 to 214.7), and 8.5 (ranging from 1.9 to 27.6) microg/kg, respectively, which were significantly elevated compared to the rice samples collected from a reference area, where the mean T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations were 7.0 (3.2-15.1) and 2.5 (0.8-4.3) microg/kg, respectively. Pork meat, vegetable, and drinking water samples collected in Wanshan Hg mining area contained highly elevated T-Hg, but very low levels of Me-Hg. The relationships between the estimated rice Me-Hg intake and hair Me-Hg levels (r = 0.65, p levels indeed was the main route of Me-Hg exposure for the local residents in the Wanshan Hg mining area. From our study, we can conclude that the main human exposure to Me-Hg via food consumption is not restricted to fish, but in some cases in mining areas of China to frequent rice meals.

  6. Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines. Preparatory project. Vol. 2. Annex; Schachtverschluesse fuer untertaegige Deponien in Salzbergwerken. Vorprojekt. Bd. 2. Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Fruth, R. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Stockmann, N. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Birthler, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Boese, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Storck, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Sitz, P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Krausse, A. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Eulenberger, K.H. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Schleinig, J.P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Duddeck, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Ahrens, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Menzel, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Salzer, K. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Minkley, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Busche, H. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Lindloff, U. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Gierenz, S. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    This preparatory study, ``Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines``, was to demonstrate the current scientific and technological know-how based on a comprehensive analysis of the barrier design concepts or established structures intended to serve as barriers in abandoned shafts of potash or rock salt mines. Taking as a basis the current regulatory regime and the available know-how on barrier systems in underground waste repositories taken into account so far in plan approval and licensing procedures, as well as the state of the art, concepts are developed as technical guides and models of barrier systems for mine shafts. The required research work for the various components of a shaft barrier is shown, particularly relating to aspects such as materials suitability and technical realisation. Immediate demand for research activities is shown with regard to the available potentials of mathematic and numeric geotechnical and hydrogeologic calculation models required in order to give proof of the long-term workability of shaft barriers. The authors are of the opinion that the following activities are required in order to meet the research demand quantified: (1) Laboratory and bench-scale experiments for determination of the efficiency of various sealing materials and backfilling materials, and (2) an in-situ, large-scale experiment in order to demonstrate the suitability of low-consolidation shotter columns, or constructional technologies. The laboratory work can be done in the facilities of the GSF research mine of Asse, the Freiburg Mining Academy, and the Institut fuer Gebirgsmechanik in Leipzig, and the benchmark experiments also at the Asse site in the research mine. The Kali und Salz Beteiligungs AG is prepared to offer its mine Salzdetfurth II as a site for the large-scale experiment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Vorstudie ``Schachtverschluesse fuer Untertagedeponien in Salzbergwerken`` wird ausgehend von einer umfangreichen

  7. [Effects of Three Industrial Organic Wastes as Amendments on Plant Growth and the Biochemical Properties of a Pb/Zn Mine Tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi-zhu; Yang, Sheng-xiang; Li, Feng-mei; Cao, Jian-bing; Peng, Qing-jing

    2016-01-15

    A field trial was conducted in an abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial wastes [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments on plant growth, soil nutrients and enzyme activities, and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and the mine tailings. (1) The main findings were as follows: (1) The mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 24.2%-27.3%, 45.7%-48.3%, 18.0%-20.9% and 10.1%-14.2% as compared to the control tailings. When compared to the control tailings, the mean values of organic matter, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 2.27-2.32, 12.4-12.8 and 4.04-4.74 times, respectively. Similarly, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase), being 5.51-6.37, 1.72-1.96, 6.32-6.62 and 2.35-2.62 times higher than those in the control tailings. (2) The application of these wastes promoted seed germination and seedling growth. The vegetation cover reached 84%, 79% and 86% at SSV, MHR and SMC subplots. For Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC led to significant increases in the shoot biomass yields with 4.2-5.6 and 15.7-17.3 times greater than those in the tailings. Moreover, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly reduced the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the shoots of L. perenne and C. dactylon in comparison with the control tailings. (3) Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the vegetation cover and biomass were positively correlated with soil nutrient elements and enzyme activities. Significant negative correlations were observed between DTPA-extractable metal concentrations and vegetation cover and biomass. The metal concentrations in plants were positively correlated with

  8. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test for Assessing Water Reactivity and Leaching Potential of Mine Wastes, Soils, and Other Geologic and Environmental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a fast (5-minute), effective, simple, and cost-effective leach test that can be used to simulate the reactions that occur when materials are leached by water. The USGS Field Leach Test has been used to predict, assess, and characterize the geochemical interactions between water and a broad variety of geologic and environmental matrices. Examples of some of the samples leached include metal mine wastes, various types of dusts, biosolids (processed sewage sludge), flood and wetland sediments, volcanic ash, forest-fire burned soils, and many other diverse matrices. The Field Leach Test has been an integral part of these investigations and has demonstrated its value as a geochemical characterization tool. It has enabled investigators to identify which constituents are water reactive, soluble, mobilized, and made bioaccessible because of leaching by water, and to understand potential impacts of these interactions on the surrounding environment.

  10. Genome Sequence of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, an Acidophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium from Copper Mining Waste in Norilsk, Northern Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Abicht, Helge K.; Mancini, Stefano; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Solioz, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We have sequenced the genome of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, a Gram-positive, acidophilic sulfate-reducing Firmicute isolated from copper tailing sediment in the Norilsk mining-smelting area in Northern Siberia, Russia. This represents the first sequenced genome of a Desulfosporosinus species. The genome has a size of 5.7 Mb and encodes 6,222 putative proteins.

  11. Genome sequence of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, an acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from copper mining waste in Norilsk, Northern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Helge K; Mancini, Stefano; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

    2011-11-01

    We have sequenced the genome of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, a Gram-positive, acidophilic sulfate-reducing Firmicute isolated from copper tailing sediment in the Norilsk mining-smelting area in Northern Siberia, Russia. This represents the first sequenced genome of a Desulfosporosinus species. The genome has a size of 5.7 Mb and encodes 6,222 putative proteins.

  12. EVALUATION OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA LANDFILL MINING DEMONSTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...

  13. Oxygen influx and geochemistry of percolate water from reactive mine waste rock underlying a sloping channelled soil cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Qing, E-mail: qsong3@uwo.ca [Geotechnical Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Yanful, Ernest K., E-mail: eyanful@eng.uwo.ca [Geotechnical Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > A channelled cover with preferential flow can still mitigate ARD to some extent. > Oxygen ingress was more sensitive to the location of the channel than to K{sub s}. > The channel in the barrier layer was a major passage for O{sub 2} ingress. > Actual flushing was an important factor when estimating O{sub 2} decay coefficient. - Abstract: An ideal engineered soil cover can mitigate acid rock drainage (ARD) by limiting water and gaseous O{sub 2} ingress into an underlying waste rock pile. However, the barrier layer in the soil cover almost invariably tends to develop cracks or fractures after placement. These cracks may change water flow and O{sub 2} transport in the soil cover and decrease performance in the long run. The present study employed a 10-cm-wide sand-filled channel installed in a soil barrier layer (silty clay) to model the aggregate of cracks or fractures that may be present in the cover. The soil cover had a slope of 20%. Oxygen transport through the soil cover and oxidation of the underlying waste rock were investigated and compared to a controlled column test with bare waste rock (without soil cover). Moreover, gaseous O{sub 2} transport in the soil cover with channel and its sensitivity to channel location as well as the influence of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the channel material were modeled using the commercial software VADOSE/W. The results indicted that the waste rock underlying the soil cover with channel had a lower oxidation rate than the waste rock without cover because of reduced O{sub 2} ingress and water flushing in the soil cover with channel, which meant a partial soil cover might still be effective to some extent in reducing ARD generation. Gaseous O{sub 2} ingress into the covered waste rock was more sensitive to the channel location than to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the material filling the channel. Aqueous equilibrium speciation modeling and scanning electron microscopy with energy

  14. Effect of neutralized solid waste generated in lime neutralization on the ferrous ion bio-oxidation process during acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Ming

    2015-12-15

    Bio-oxidation of ferrous ions prior to lime neutralization exhibits great potential for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, while slow ferrous ion bio-oxidation or total iron precipitation is a bottleneck in this process. In this study, neutralized solid waste (NSW) harvested in an AMD lime neutralization procedure was added as a crystal seed in AMD for iron oxyhydroxysulfate bio-synthesis. The effect of this waste on ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield during ferrous ion bio-oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated. Ferrous ion oxidation efficiency was greatly improved by adding NSW. After 72 h incubation, total iron precipitation efficiency in treatment with 24 g/L of NSW was 1.74-1.03 times higher than in treatment with 0-12 g/L of NSW. Compared with the conventional treatment system without added NSW, the iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield was increased by approximately 21.2-80.9% when 3-24 g/L of NSW were added. Aside from NSW, jarosite and schwertmannite were the main precipitates during ferrous ion bio-oxidation with NSW addition. NSW can thus serve as the crystal seed for iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral bio-synthesis in AMD, and improve ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation efficiency significantly.

  15. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  16. Recovering lithium mica from the waste after mining Sn-W ores through the use of flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Samková, Radmila

    2009-01-01

    Flotation is one of the possibilities of recovering useful components both at preparation and processing of raw materials, and at recycling and exploitation of a variety of wastes. In the area of Krušné hory occur a number of dumping sites where wastes from treatment of Sn-W ores are deposited, characterized by enhanced content of lithium, rubidium and cesium. These elements are bound to lithium mica – zinwaldite; its recovering is possible through the use of flotation. This paper is devoted ...

  17. Effect of channelling on water balance, oxygen diffusion and oxidation rate in mine waste rock with an inclined multilayer soil cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing; Yanful, Ernest K.

    2010-05-01

    Engineered soil covers provide an option to mitigate acid rock drainage through reduced water flow and gaseous oxygen influx to underlying mine waste. Channels such as fissures, cracks or fractures developed in the barrier may influence the long-term performance of the soil cover. However, limited published information is available on the extent to which soil cover performance is impacted by these fissures and cracks. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of channelling in a barrier layer on water flow and oxygen transport in a soil cover. Two inclined (a slope of 20%) multilayer soil covers were examined under laboratory conditions. One cover had a 10-cm wide sand-filled channel in a compacted barrier layer (silty clay) at the upslope section, while the other cover was a normal one without the channel pathway. The soil covers were installed in plastic boxes measuring 120 cm × 120 cm × 25 cm (width × height × thickness). The sand-filled channel was designed to represent the aggregate of fissures and cracks that may be present in the compacted barrier. The soil covers were subjected to controlled drying and wetting periods selected to simulate field situation at the Whistle mine site near Capreol, Ontario, Canada. The measured results indicated that interflow decreased from 72.8% of the total precipitation in the soil cover without channel flow to 35.3% in the cover with channel flow, and percolation increased from zero in the normal soil cover to 43.0% of the total precipitation in the cover with channel flow. Gaseous oxygen transfer into the waste rock below the cover soils was 1091 times greater in the cover with channel than in the soil cover without channel. The channel pathway present in the barrier layer acted as a major passage for water movement and gaseous oxygen diffusion into the waste rock layer, thus decreasing the performance of the soil cover. The spacing of the channel with respect to the length of the test box is similar to those

  18. Trace element emissions from spontaneous combustion of gob piles in coal mines, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ge, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements from spontaneous combustion of gob piles from coal mining in Shanxi Province, China, have been studied. More than ninety samples of solid waste from gob piles in Shanxi were collected and the contents of twenty potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, F, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U) in these samples were determined. Trace element contents in solid waste samples showed wide ranges. As compared with the upper continental crust, the solid waste samples are significantly enriched in Se (20x) and Tl (12x) and are moderately enriched in F, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Hg, Th, and U (2-5x). The solid waste samples are depleted in V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The solid waste samples are enriched in F, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Th, and U as compared with the Shanxi coals. Most trace elements are higher in the clinker than in the unburnt solid waste except F, Sn, and Hg. Trace element abundances are related to the ash content and composition of the samples. The content of F is negatively correlated with the ash content, while Pb is positively correlated with the ash. The concentrations of As, Mn, Zn, and Cd are highly positively correlated with Fe2O3 in the solid waste. The As content increases with increasing sulfur content in the solid waste. The trace element emissions are calculated for mass balance. The emission factors of trace elements during the spontaneous combustion of the gobs are determined and the trace element concentrations in the flue gas from the spontaneous combustion of solid waste are calculated. More than a half of F, Se, Hg and Pb are released to the atmosphere during spontaneous combustion. Some trace element concentrations in flue gas are higher than the national emission standards. Thus, gob piles from coal mining pose a serious environmental problem. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Zeolites synthesized from pulping white paper waste used in the treatment of acid drainage of mining: preliminary results; Uso de zeolitas obtidas de residuo do processo de polpamento de papel branco para tratamento de drenagem acida de mineracao: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, C.R.; Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil); Angioletto, E.; Rocha, M.R.; Alexandre, N.Z.; Galatto, S.L., E-mail: resmini1@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UESC), SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The coal region in the south of Brazil facing serious environmental problem due of surface and groundwater by sulfur and heavy metals, mainly Fe, Mn and Zn. With zeolites synthesized from pulping white paper waste, a study was developed to verify the possibility of treating acid drainage from mining. Was considered the reduction of metal ions present in water and the change pH values. The zeolites were characterized using XRD, XRF and SEM. Acid drainage from coal mining was characterized using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results showed a reduced content of metal ions and pH increased. (author)

  20. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  1. Possible salt mine and brined cavity sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern southern peninsula of Michigan. [Seven possible sites are considered on the basis of listed criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, K.K.; Bourne, H.L.

    1976-05-31

    A reconnaissance report on the possibilities for disposal of radioactive waste covers Michigan only, and is more detailed than an earlier one involving the northeastern states. Revised ''ground rules'' for pinpointing both mine and dissolved salt cavern sites for waste disposal include environmental, geologic, and economic factors. The Michigan basin is a structural bowl of Paleozoic sediments resting on downwarped Precambrian rocks. The center of the bowl is in Clare and Gladwin Counties, a short distance north of the middle of the Southern Peninsula. The strata dip toward this central area, and some stratigraphic sequences, including especially the salt-containing Silurian section, increase considerably in thickness in that direction. Lesser amounts of salt are also present in the north central part of the Lower Peninsula. Michigan has been an oil and gas producing state since 1925 and widespread exploration has had two effects on the selection of waste disposal sites: (1) large areas are leased for oil and gas; and (2) the borehole concentrations, whether producing wells, dry holes, or industrial brine wells that penetrated the salt section, should be avoided. Two types of nuclear waste, low level and high level, can be stored in man-made openings in salt beds. The storage facilities are created by (1) the development of salt mines where the depths are less than 3000 ft, and (2) cavities produced by pumping water into a salt bed, and bringing brine back out. The high level waste disposal must be confined to mines of limited depth, but the low level wastes can be accommodated in brine cavities at any depth. Seven potential prospects have been investigated and are described in detail.

  2. Effect of Wet Settlement on Mercury in Alpine Soil in Mercury Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJIN-LIN; TANHONG

    1995-01-01

    There is abundance of Mercury mine resurces in the Fanjinshan Mountain,Mining mercury has a long history there,The concentration of geseous Hg produced in smelting He reaches 20-50mg/m3 in the tail gas.Because mercury element is an easily transferring microelement,the paper talks about the effect of mercury in Hg mining in Guizhou Province on alpine soil,analyses Hg content in alpine soil at 2000 m of relative elevation in the Hg mining area,and explores for causes of the Hg pollution.

  3. Alternative waste residue materials for passive in situ prevention of sulfide-mine tailings oxidation: a field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Peter; Johnson, Raymond H; Neuschütz, Clara; Alakangas, Lena; Öhlander, Björn

    2014-02-28

    Novel solutions for sulfide-mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide-tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid amended tailings over 2 years. An application of a 0.2m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings. It merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20%. In addition, sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings-to-sludge interface. By using an additional 0.6m thick fly-ash sealing layer underlying the sewage sludge layer, a solution to mitigate oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimize sulfide-oxidation was found. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and provided a trap for sludge-borne metals. Nevertheless, the biosolid application hampered the application, despite the advances in the effectiveness of the fly-ash layer, as sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite. This created a 0.3m deep oxidized zone in 6-years. This study highlights that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for the remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings to mitigate against sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative waste residue materials for passive in situ prevention of sulfide-mine tailings oxidation: A field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Peter; Johnson, Raymond H.; Neuschutz, Clara; Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Bjorn

    2014-01-01

    Novel solutions for sulfide-mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide-tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid amended tailings over 2 years. An application of a 0.2 m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings. It merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20%. In addition, sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings-to-sludge interface. By using an additional 0.6 m thick fly-ash sealing layer underlying the sewage sludge layer, a solution to mitigate oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimize sulfide-oxidation was found. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and provided a trap for sludge-borne metals. Nevertheless, the biosolid application hampered the application, despite the advances in the effectiveness of the fly-ash layer, as sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite. This created a 0.3 m deep oxidized zone in 6-years. This study highlights that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for the remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings to mitigate against sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation.

  5. Study of Bryophytes in Indigenous Lead and Zinc Mining Waste Land in Bijie Area%毕节地区土法冶炼铅锌废弃地苔藓植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洪; 向良志

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为进一步研究毕节地区铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物在废弃地的重金属修复的应用提供参考.[方法]对毕节地区铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物进行全面调查、标本采集和初步鉴定,并与铜矿、金矿、汞矿区苔藓植物进行比较.[结果]铅锌矿废弃地有苔藓植物4科、14属、30种,有丛藓科和真藓科2个优势科.与铜矿、金矿、汞矿区苔藓植物相比,铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物物种丰富度指数最低,为-0.958 0,种相似性指数也最低,为13.56%,铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物生活型以矮丛集型为主.在4个矿区中,有5种广泛分布的苔藓植物种类,分别是北地扭口藓、双色真藓、银藓、卵蒴丝瓜藓、硬叶对齿藓.[结论]这些种类为进一步利用苔藓植物研究铅锌矿废弃地植被修复提供较好的材料.%[Objective] The research aimed to provide the reference for the application of the bryophytes in the vegetation restoration of the heavy metals in lead and zinc mining waste land in Bijie Area. [ Method] The comprehensive investigation, the collection, and the identification of the bryophyte in lead and zinc mining waste land in Bijie area were carried out. And the bryophytes in lead and zinc mining waste land were compared with those of copper mine, gold mine and mercury mine. [ Result] 30 mosses species in 14 genera of 4 families were reported at the region. There were two dominiant families that were pottiaceae and bryaceae in the region. And species richness of the bryophytes was the lowest in lead and zinc mining waste land, and it was -0. 958 0. The similarity coefficient of the species was the lowest, too. It was 13.56%. Short turfs was the dominant life-forms of the bryophytes in lead and zinc mining waste land. At the same time, there were 4 species of widespread bryophytes found in the four mine. They were Barbula fallax Hedw. , Bryum dichotomum Hedw. , Anomobryum filiforme ( dicks. ) husn. , Pohlia proligera ( kindb

  6. Mineral transformations and Zn, Pb, As, Cd mobility in soils developed on Zn non-sulfide mining wastes near Olkusz, S Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzykowska, Irena; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the degree of threat posed by heavy metals and other environmentally harmful elements it is necessary to determine forms in which these elements occur and their stability in the weathering environment. The aim of this work was to (1) describe mineral transformations occurring in soils developed on Zn non-sulfide mining wastes near Olkusz (S Poland), (2) identify forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, As, Cd; and (3) predict potential mobility of these elements. Studied samples come from soil profiles developed on four dumps after mining of non-sulfide Zn ores from the end of the XIX century until 1985. Two types of approaches were used: mineralogical methods (optical and electron microscopy with in situ elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction) and geochemical methods (selective sequential extraction and bulk elemental analysis). Zn in studied samples is present in smithsonite or hemimorphite, Zn aluminosilicates (smectite and kaolinite groups) and absorbed on Fe-oxide. The largest amounts of Pb is encountered in Mn-oxides and less in cerrusite, Fe-oxides and dolomite. As dominates as the ions absorbed on goethite and Cd as an impurity in carbonates, silicates and Zn-aluminosilicates, and in the form of exchangeable ions. Most important mineral transformations due to weathering observed in the samples are dissolution of dolomite, goethite, smithsonite, hemimorphite and precipitation of Zn-aluminosilicates, Mn-oxides and secondary Fe-oxides. The study has shown that Cd occurring in the form of exchangeable ions, potentially available to living organisms, pose the greatest threat to the environment. Cd is the most mobile in surface horizons of the soils developed on the oxidized ores dumps. Zn and Pb can be released from their forms in the event of a change of pH of the environment to a more acidic and As in case of changing conditions to more reductive.

  7. Assessment o f Heavy Metal Contamination i n t he Abandoned Coal Wastes a t Okpara Mines i n Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezemokwe, D. E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty (20 samples taken from four large coal dumps from Okpara coal mines and twenty four (24 Soil samples from coal mine surroundings were used for this research. Impact of the coal dumps on soils and the environment were assessed by determination of the heavy metal concentrations such as Cadmium, Iron, Zinc, Copper, nickel, chromium, lead, arsenic, cobalt and manganese. Results revealed that all the heavy metals analyzed were present in all the samples. The heavy metal concentration sequence in coal wastes follows the order Fe > Ni > Cu> Mn > Cd > Pb > Co > Cr > Zn> As whereas the Enrichment Factor (EF shows Cd> Pb > Ni > Cu > As > Co > Zn > Cr> Fe > Mn. Results in this medium indicate high level of pollution by Cd and Pb with Health Risk Level (HRL of 3. Ni, Cu, Co and As moderately contaminated the environment. In the underlying Soil medium, the heavy metal concentration trend is in order Fe > Ni > Zn> Cd > Pb > Cr> Cu> Mn > Co > As and the (EF equivalent is in the order Cd > Pb > Ni > As > Zn > Co > Cr > Fe > Mn. Soil medium indicted high level of pollution by Cd and Pb with HRL of 5 and 4 respectively. Ni, As, Cu and Zn moderately polluted the environment. Co and Cu showed low level of pollution with HRL of 2.Soil PH ranged from 4.5 – 6.5 and averaged 5.01 indicating an acid nature. Generally, crops cannot grow or flourish in a polluted soil. Where some manage to grow, they may be poisonous enough to cause health problems to people consuming them.

  8. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 μm) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-Ming; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

  9. 我国铀矿冶废物的利用与有用资源的回收%Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy and recovery of useful resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘英杰; 薛建新; 陈仲秋

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy in China and recovery of useful resources are summarized from the aspects such as recovery of uranium from mine water, reusing of waste water, decontaminating and recycling of radioactivity contaminated metal, backfill of gangues and tailings, and comprehensive recovery and utilization of associated uranium deposits.%概述了铀矿冶系统矿井水中铀回收、水冶废水复用,污染废旧钢铁熔炼去污再利用,废石、尾矿回填利用,以及伴生铀矿综合回收利用等方面的实践.

  10. Evaluation of selected static methods used to estimate element mobility, acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials associated with geologically diverse mining wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study of selected static leaching and acid–base accounting (ABA) methods using a mineralogically diverse set of 12 modern-style, metal mine waste samples was undertaken to understand the relative performance of the various tests. To complement this study, in-depth mineralogical studies were conducted in order to elucidate the relationships between sample mineralogy, weathering features, and leachate and ABA characteristics. In part one of the study, splits of the samples were leached using six commonly used leaching tests including paste pH, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Field Leach Test (FLT) (both 5-min and 18-h agitation), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1312 SPLP (both leachate pH 4.2 and leachate pH 5.0), and the USEPA Method 1311 TCLP (leachate pH 4.9). Leachate geochemical trends were compared in order to assess differences, if any, produced by the various leaching procedures. Results showed that the FLT (5-min agitation) was just as effective as the 18-h leaching tests in revealing the leachate geochemical characteristics of the samples. Leaching results also showed that the TCLP leaching test produces inconsistent results when compared to results produced from the other leaching tests. In part two of the study, the ABA was determined on splits of the samples using both well-established traditional static testing methods and a relatively quick, simplified net acid–base accounting (NABA) procedure. Results showed that the traditional methods, while time consuming, provide the most in-depth data on both the acid generating, and acid neutralizing tendencies of the samples. However, the simplified NABA method provided a relatively fast, effective estimation of the net acid–base account of the samples. Overall, this study showed that while most of the well-established methods are useful and effective, the use of a simplified leaching test and the NABA acid–base accounting method provide investigators fast

  11. Tannery and coal mining waste disposal on soil Resíduos do processamento de peles e de carvão mineral aplicados em solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Henrique Kray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery residues and coal mine waste are heavily polluting sources in Brazil, mainly in the Southern States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. In order to study the effects of residues of chrome leather tanning (sludge and leather shavings and coal waste on soybean and maize crops, a field experiment is in progress since 1996, at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Experimental Station, county of Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The residues were applied twice (growing seasons 1996/97 and 1999/00. The amounts of tannery residues were applied according to their neutralizing value, at rates of up to 86.8 t ha-1, supplying from 671 to 1.342 kg ha-1 Cr(III; coal waste was applied at a total rate of 164 t ha-1. Crop yield and dry matter production were evaluated, as well as the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn and Cr contents. Crop yields with tannery sludge application were similar to those obtained with N and lime supplied with mineral amendments. Plant Cr absorption did not increase significantly with the residue application. Tannery sludge can be used also to neutralize the high acidity developed in the soil by coal mine waste.Os resíduos gerados na exploração de carvão mineral e no processamento de peles são produtos potencialmente poluentes em várias regiões do Brasil, principalmente nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina. O presente trabalho foi conduzido a campo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação e da reaplicação de resíduos carbonífero e de curtume ao Cr sobre as plantas de milho e de soja cultivadas em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na Estação Experimental da UFRGS, localizada no município de Eldorado do Sul (RS. A primeira aplicação dos resíduos foi feita no ano agrícola de 1996/97 e a reaplicação no ano agrícola de 1999/2000. As doses de resíduos de curtume variaram conforme o pH do solo e o poder de neutralização do resíduo, tendo sido adicionadas quantidades

  12. Evaluation and demonstration of remediation alternatives for historical mine waste using ash and alkaline by products; Utvaerdering och demonstration av efterbehandlingsalternativ foer historiskt gruvavfall med aska och alkaliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Sartz, Lotta; Karlsson, Stefan (MTM, Man-Technology-Envionrment, Oerebro Univ., 701 82 Oerebro (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The results clearly show that the use of alkaline by products can significantly reduce the leakage of trace metals from historical acid mine waste. Under ideal conditions (laboratory experiments) pH increase significantly and the trace metal concentrations decrease with around 99% compared to the untreated reference. During more realistic conditions (pilot scale) the same increase in pH was not obtained and thus the decrease in trace metal concentrations was not as great. In the stabilisation experiments pH was between 5.8 and 6.8 while the trace metal reduction was around 96-99%. In the filter experiments a median pH between 4 (aged ash) and 10 (lime kiln dust) was obtained after the alkaline section. Average metal reduction is around 95% for cadmium, copper and lead while it is slightly lower for zinc (85%). In summary it is indicated that hydroxide dominated materials work best in aerated environments while carbonate dominated materials work best in reducing environments. In summary it can be concluded that the use of alkaline by products to neutralise acidic mine waste and acid mine drainage from historical mine sites give rise to both environmental and economical benefits and should therefore be encouraged as a sustainable remediation method

  13. Assessment of waste oyster shells and coal mine drainage sludge for the stabilization of As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Chang, Yoon-Young; Hyun, Seunghun; Ok, Yong Sik; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2016-02-01

    A novel treatment mix was designed for the simultaneous immobilization of As, Cu, and Pb in contaminated soils using natural (waste oyster shells (WOS)) and industrial (coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS)) waste materials. The treatments were conducted using the standard U.S. sieve size no. 20 (0.85 mm) calcined oyster shells (COS) and CMDS materials with a curing time of 1 and 28 days. The As immobilization treatments were evaluated using the 1-N HCl extraction fluid, whereas the Pb and Cu immobilization treatments were evaluated using the 0.1-N HCl extraction fluid based on the Korean leaching standards. The treatment results showed that the immobilization of As, Cu, and Pb was best achieved using a combination mix of 10 wt% COS and 10 wt% CMDS. This treatment mix was highly effective leading to superior leachability reductions for all three target contaminants (>93 % for As and >99 % for Cu and Pb) for a curing period of 28 days. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results showed that As was present in the form of As(V) in the control sample and that no changes in As speciation were observed following the COS-CMDS treatments. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) sample treated with 10 wt% COS and 10 wt% CMDS indicated that As immobilization may be associated with the formation of Ca-As and Fe-As precipitates while Pb and Cu immobilization was most probably linked to calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs) and calcium aluminum hydrates (CAHs).

  14. Characterization of a coal tailing deposit for zero waste mine in the Brazilian coal field of Santa Catarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral Filho, J.R.; Schneider, I.A.H.; Tubino, R.M.C.; Brum de, I.A.S.; Miltzarek, G.; Sampaio, C.H. [South Rio Grande Federal Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil).Graduate Program in Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Technology Center; Schneider, C.H. [Carbonifera Criciuma S.A., Criciuma (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Coal tailings deposits in Brazil are occupying large areas of land while also generating acid mine drainage (AMD) that includes heavy metals. This paper described an analytical study of a typical coal tailings deposit. The study objective was to separate low density, intermediate density, and high density fractions for future reuse. Particle size analysis, disymmetric studies, X-ray diffraction, and tests conducted to determine ash, total sulphur, and acid bases were conducted in order to characterize the coal tailings samples. Results of the study demonstrated a size distribution of 67 percent coarse, 14 percent fine, and 19 percent ultra-fine particles. The gravimetric concentration method was used to recover 34.2 percent of the total deposit for future energy use. Approximately 9.2 percent of the remaining deposit was a pyrite concentrate. The acid generating potential of the remaining materials was reduced by approximately 60 percent. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. The effect of Ca-Fe-As coatings on microbial leaching of metals in arsenic bearing mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisener, C.G.; Guthrie, J.W.; Smeaton, C.M.; Paktunc, D.; Fryer, B.J. (Windsor); (NRC)

    2011-11-07

    Globally arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous trace element derived from the natural weathering of As-bearing rock. With the onset of reducing conditions, the prevalence of aqueous As(III) may be intensified through biotic and abiotic processes. Here we evaluate the stability of arsenic bearing Ca-Fe hydroxide phases collected from exposed tailings at Ketza River mine, Yukon, Canada, during the reductive dissolution of both acid treated and untreated samples by Shewanella putrefaciens 200R and Shewanella sp. ANA-3. Samples were acid treated in order to remove Ca-Fe oxide coatings and evaluate the influence of these coatings on the rates of microbial Fe(III) and As(V) reduction. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) micrographs of the solid phase show significant differences in the chemistry and physical morphology of the material by the bacteria over time and are especially evident in the acid treated samples. Moreover, while solution chemistry showed similar As(III) respiration rates of the inoculated acid treated samples for both ANA3 and 200R at {approx}1.1 x 10{sup -6} {micro}M {center_dot} s{sup -1} {center_dot} m{sup -2}, the Fe(II) respiration rates differed at 1.4 x 10{sup -7} and 9.5 x 10{sup -8} {micro}M {center_dot} s{sup -1} {center_dot} m{sup -2} respectively, thus suggesting strain specific metal reduction metabolic pathways Additionally, the enhanced metal reduction observed in the acid treated inoculated samples suggests that the presence of the Ca-Fe hydroxide phase in the untreated samples acted as a barrier, inhibiting the bacteria from accessing the metals. This has implications for increased mobilization of metals by metal reducing bacteria within areas of increased acidity, such as acid mine drainage sites and industrial tailings ponds that can come into contact with surface and ground water sources.

  16. Microbial communities in a porphyry copper tailings impoundment and their impact on the geochemical dynamics of the mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, Nouhou; Dold, Bernhard; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Holliger, Christof; Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B

    2007-02-01

    The distribution and diversity of acidophilic bacteria of a tailings impoundment at the La Andina copper mine, Chile, was examined. The tailings have low sulfide (1.7% pyrite equivalent) and carbonate (1.4% calcite equivalent) contents and are stratified into three distinct zones: a surface (0-70-80 cm) 'oxidation zone' characterized by low-pH (2.5-4), a 'neutralization zone' (70-80 to 300-400 cm) and an unaltered 'primary zone' below 400 cm. A combined cultivation-dependent and biomolecular approach (terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA clone library analysis) was used to characterize the indigenous prokaryotic communities in the mine tailings. Total cell counts showed that the microbial biomass was greatest in the top 125 cm of the tailings. The largest numbers of bacteria (10(9) g(-1) dry weight of tailings) were found at the oxidation front (the junction between the oxidation and neutralization zones), where sulfide minerals and oxygen were both present. The dominant iron-/sulfur-oxidizing bacteria identified at the oxidation front included bacteria of the genus Leptospirillum (detected by molecular methods), and Gram-positive iron-oxidizing acidophiles related to Sulfobacillus (identified both by molecular and cultivation methods). Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also detected, albeit in relatively small numbers. Heterotrophic acidophiles related to Acidobacterium capsulatum were found by molecular methods, while another Acidobacterium-like bacterium and an Acidiphilium sp. were isolated from oxidation zone samples. A conceptual model was developed, based on microbiological and geochemical data derived from the tailings, to account for the biogeochemical evolution of the Piuquenes tailings impoundment.

  17. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten