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Sample records for hg isobaric contour

  1. Decay studies and mass measurements on isobarically pure neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Schweikhard, L C; Savreux, R P; Hager, U D K; Beck, D; Blaum, K

    2007-01-01

    We propose to perform mass measurements followed by $\\beta$- and $\\gamma$-decay studies on isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes, which are very poorly known due to a large contamination at ISOL-facilities with surface-ionised francium. The aim is to study the binding energies of mother Hg and Tl nuclides, as well as the energies, spins and parities of the excited and ground states in the daughter Tl and Pb isotopes. The proposed studies will address a new subsection of the nuclear chart, with Z 126, where only 9 nuclides have been observed so far. Our studies will provide valuable input for mass models and shell-model calculations: they will probe the proton hole-neutron interaction and will allow to refine the matrix elements for the two-body residual interaction. Furthermore, they also give prospects for discovering new isomeric states or even new isotopes, for which the half-lives are predicted in the minute- and second-range.\\\\ To reach the isobaric purity, the experiments will be p...

  2. Contour Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Moira

    1989-01-01

    Argues that contour tones in East Asian languages behave as melodic units consisting of a root node [upper] dominating a branching specification. It is also argued that, with upper as the tonal root node, no more than two rising or falling tones will contrast underlying. (49 references) (JL)

  3. Survey of Evaluated Isobaric Analog States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCormick, M., E-mail: maccorm@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Audi, G. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2014-06-15

    Isobaric analog states (IAS) can be used to estimate the masses of members belonging to the same isospin multiplet. Experimental and estimated IAS have been used frequently within the Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) in the past, but the associated set of evaluated masses have been published for the first time in AME2012 and NUBASE2012. In this paper the current trends of the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) coefficients are shown. The T = 2 multiplet is used as a detailed illustration.

  4. Isobar suppression in AMS using laser photodetachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forstner, O. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: Oliver.Forstner@univie.ac.at; Andersson, P. [Department of Physics, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Diehl, C. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Golser, R. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Hanstorp, D. [Department of Physics, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Kutschera, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Lindahl, A. [Department of Physics, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    We are investigating the possibility of using laser photodetachment of negative atomic and molecular ions as an additional isobaric selection filter in accelerator mass spectrometry. The aim of this study is to find a possibility to further improve the detection limit for long-lived heavy radionuclides at AMS facilities. We will focus on the astrophysical relevant radionuclide {sup 182}Hf, which is one of the isotopes measured with the 3 MV tandem AMS facility VERA (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator) at the University of Vienna. Laser-induced isobar suppression is also of importance for radioactive-beam facilities. The present detection limit for measuring the isotope ratio {sup 182}Hf/Hf at VERA is 1x10{sup -11}. The limiting factor is the strong background of the stable isobar {sup 182}W. Currently this background is suppressed using suitable molecular ions in the injection stage. Selective laser photodetachment of the negative ions at the injector can lead to an additional suppression of the interfering isobar. Test experiments have been carried out at the negative ion laser spectroscopy setup at Goeteborg University. In a small ion beam apparatus pulsed tunable laser radiation is used to measure the photodetachment cross-section of different atomic and molecular negative ions. We will present studies of the photodetachment process for various tungsten and hafnium molecules with the aim to find a selective isobaric suppression scheme using laser photodetachment spectroscopy in combination with AMS.

  5. Simplifying Massive Contour Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple, efficient and practical algorithm for constructing and subsequently simplifying contour maps from massive high-resolution DEMs, under some practically realistic assumptions on the DEM and contours.......We present a simple, efficient and practical algorithm for constructing and subsequently simplifying contour maps from massive high-resolution DEMs, under some practically realistic assumptions on the DEM and contours....

  6. Isobaric-spin relationships between nuclear spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, J.B.

    1961-01-01

    The simple fact that a one-body energy describes the interaction of a nucleon with a closed neutron subshell is used to establish sets of equations connecting the spectra of nuclei which are related by isobaric-spin when described by means of the nuclear shell model. Certain formal questions about i

  7. Isochoric and isobaric freezing of fish muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Năstase, Gabriel; Lyu, Chenang; Ukpai, Gideon; Șerban, Alexandru; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-02-19

    We have recently shown that, a living organism, which succumbs to freezing to -4 °C in an isobaric thermodynamic system (constant atmospheric pressure), can survive freezing to -4 °C in an isochoric thermodynamic system (constant volume). It is known that the mechanism of cell damage in an isobaric system is the freezing caused increase in extracellular osmolality, and, the consequent cell dehydration. An explanation for the observed survival during isochoric freezing is the thermodynamic modeling supported hypothesis that, in the isochoric frozen solution the extracellular osmolality is comparable to the cell intracellular osmolality. Therefore, cells in the isochoric frozen organism do not dehydrate, and the tissue maintains its morphological integrity. Comparing the histology of: a) fresh fish white muscle, b) fresh muscle frozen to -5 °C in an isobaric system and c) fresh muscle frozen to -5 °C I in an isochoric system, we find convincing evidence of the mechanism of cell dehydration during isobaric freezing. In contrast, the muscle tissue frozen to -5 °C in an isochoric system appears morphologically identical to fresh tissue, with no evidence of dehydration. This is the first experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis that in isochoric freezing there is no cellular dehydration and therefore the morphology of the frozen tissue remains intact.

  8. Isobar separator for radioactive nuclear beams project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    In order to produce pure beams of radioactive products emanating from the production target/ion source system, both mass and isobar separation is required. A preliminary mass separation with a resolution {triangle}M/M of approximately 10{sup -3} will select the proper mass beam. An isobar separator is needed because the masses of adjacent isobars are usually quite close, especially for beams near stability. In general, a mass resolution of 5 x 10{sup -5} is needed for isobar separation in the A < 120 region, while a resolution of 3 x 10{sup -5} or better is needed for heavier masses. Magnets are used to obtain mass separation. However, in addition to having mass dispersion properties, magnets also have an equal energy dispersion. This means that an energy variation in the beam cannot be distinguished from a mass difference. This is important because ions emerge from the ion source having a small ({approximately} 10{sup -5} - 10{sup -4}) energy spread. In order to make the system respond only to mass differences, it must be made energy dispersion. This is normally accomplished by using a combination of electric and magnetic fields. The most convenient way of doing this is to use an electric deflection following the magnet separator. A preliminary isobar separator which achieves a mass resolution of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} is shown in Figure I-38. It uses two large 60{degrees} bending magnets to obtain a mass dispersion of 140 mm/%, and four electric dipoles with bending angles of 39{degrees} to cancel the energy dispersion. Sextupole and octupole correction elements are used to reduce the geometrical aberrations.

  9. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  10. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  11. Fairfax County Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This layer contains contours that were derived from the digital terrain model made up of irregularly spaced mass points and breaklines. The contours are 5 foot...

  12. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  13. Nearly Complete Isobar Suppression by Photodetachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, P. [University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Lindahl, A. O. [University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Hanstorp, D. [University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Liu, Yun [ORNL; Liu, Yuan [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of selective suppression of negative ions by photodetachment in a gas-filled radio frequency quadrupole ion cooler was investigated with a new detection method. A neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser beam at 1064 nm was used to remove Co ions in the radio frequency quadrupole cooler and the remaining ions were then probed by photodetachment and neutral particle detection. More than 99.99% suppression of the Co ions was observed. Under identical conditions, only 20% of a Ni beam was suppressed. The results demonstrate that this isobar suppression technique can lead to nearly complete elimination of certain isobaric contaminants in negative ion beams, opening up new experimental possibilities in nuclear and atomic research and accelerator mass spectrometry.

  14. Rational Convolution Roots of Isobaric Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Conci, Aura; Li, Huilan; MacHenry, Trueman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit two matrix representations of the rational roots of generalized Fibonacci polynomials (GFPs) under convolution product, in terms of determinants and permanents, respectively. The underlying root formulas for GFPs and for weighted isobaric polynomials (WIPs), which appeared in an earlier paper by MacHenry and Tudose, make use of two types of operators. These operators are derived from the generating functions for Stirling numbers of the first kind and second kind. Hen...

  15. Isobar Separator for Anions: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Jean-François, E-mail: alaryjf@isobarex.ca [Isobarex Corp., 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Javahery, Gholamreza [IONICS Mass Spectrometry, 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Kieser, William; Zhao, Xiao-Lei [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, Albert [IsoTrace Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Cousins, Lisa [IONICS Mass Spectrometry, 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Charles, Christopher [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The Isobar Separator for Anions (ISA) is an emerging separation technique of isobars applied first to the selective removal of {sup 36}S from {sup 36}Cl, achieving a relative suppression ratio of 6 orders of magnitude. Using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) column incorporating low energy gas cells, this innovative technique enables the use of a wide range of low energy ion–molecule reactions and collisional-induced dissociation processes for suppressing specific atomic of molecular anions with a high degree of selectivity. Other elemental pairs (analyte/isobar) successfully separated at AMS level include Ca/K, Sr/(Y, Zr), Cs/Ba, Hf/W and Pu/U. In view of these initial successes, an effort to develop a version of the ISA that can be used as a robust technique for routine AMS analysis has been undertaken. We will discuss the detailed layout of a practical ISA and the functional requirements that a combined ISA/AMS should meet. These concepts are currently being integrated in a pre-commercial ISA system that will be installed soon at the newly established A.E. Lalonde Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada.

  16. Distributed Contour Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  17. Mesonic and isobar modes in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riek, Felix C.

    2007-07-01

    Experiments with heavy ion collisions, like the ones performed at the GSI, are a tool to gain insight in the structure of matter. One key point needed to understand the experimental data is the theoretical description of the in medium properties of mesons and baryons. In this thesis we first developed a self-consistent description for the light vector mesons, {rho} and {omega}, and the pion at finite temperature and in a baryon free environment. A generalisation of these calculations towards finite densities mandatorily needs a reliable description for the pion and the {delta}(1232) resonance. Here we extended the approaches discussed in literature by the inclusion of vertex corrections and a selfconsistent and completely relativistic description. Within these models we were able to show that even at high temperatures the {rho}-meson properties are not changed dramatically when temperature effects are considered only. In contrast to this the behaviour of the pion and the {delta}-isobar is dramatically changed a finite density. The isobar mass-shift is given by an appropriate choice of the mean-fields. Therefore we can not draw a final conclusion about such shifts within our model. In order to do so more calculations, especially of the photo absorption on the nucleus, have to be performed. A further aspect of the calculations presented is that due to a consistent consideration of vertex corrections we were able to achieve a description of the {delta}-resonance without the usually used soft formfactor. This is especially important for the in-medium calculations because only in this way we can guarantee that soft modes of the spectrum are treated consistently. The techniques developed within this thesis allow for a straight forward generalisation of the presented models with respect to the consideration of more resonances or couplings. Doing so the here obtained description of the in-medium properties of the considered particles can be refined. (orig.)

  18. Mesonic and isobar modes in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riek, Felix C.

    2007-07-01

    Experiments with heavy ion collisions, like the ones performed at the GSI, are a tool to gain insight in the structure of matter. One key point needed to understand the experimental data is the theoretical description of the in medium properties of mesons and baryons. In this thesis we first developed a self-consistent description for the light vector mesons, {rho} and {omega}, and the pion at finite temperature and in a baryon free environment. A generalisation of these calculations towards finite densities mandatorily needs a reliable description for the pion and the {delta}(1232) resonance. Here we extended the approaches discussed in literature by the inclusion of vertex corrections and a selfconsistent and completely relativistic description. Within these models we were able to show that even at high temperatures the {rho}-meson properties are not changed dramatically when temperature effects are considered only. In contrast to this the behaviour of the pion and the {delta}-isobar is dramatically changed a finite density. The isobar mass-shift is given by an appropriate choice of the mean-fields. Therefore we can not draw a final conclusion about such shifts within our model. In order to do so more calculations, especially of the photo absorption on the nucleus, have to be performed. A further aspect of the calculations presented is that due to a consistent consideration of vertex corrections we were able to achieve a description of the {delta}-resonance without the usually used soft formfactor. This is especially important for the in-medium calculations because only in this way we can guarantee that soft modes of the spectrum are treated consistently. The techniques developed within this thesis allow for a straight forward generalisation of the presented models with respect to the consideration of more resonances or couplings. Doing so the here obtained description of the in-medium properties of the considered particles can be refined. (orig.)

  19. Ion reactions for isobar separation in accelerator mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Litherland, A E; Doupe, J P

    2003-01-01

    The use of resonant and near resonant keV ion reactions for isobar separation in AMS is discussed. It is shown that these and other ionic reactions can be useful provided that the multiple scattering is taken into account.

  20. Method of Measurement Isobaric Heat Capacity of the Organic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Neruchev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A technique for measuring the heat capacity of liquids on modernized authors the installation of IT-Cp-400 is considered. The results of measurements the isobaric heat capacity of some bromosubstituted n-alkanes is presented.

  1. The ILIAS project for selective isobar suppression by laser photodetachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, Oliver; Andersson, Pontus; Hanstorp, Dag; Lahner, Johannes; Martschini, Martin; Pitters, Johanna; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Laser photodetachment is the process when the extra electron of a negative ion is removed by means of laser radiation. This can happen only if the photon energy is larger than the electron affinity of the ion. The process can be used in mass spectrometry to selectively suppress unwanted isobars, provided that the electron affinity of the unwanted isobar is lower than that of the isobar under investigation. At the Ion Laser InterAction Setup (ILIAS) at the University of Vienna laser photodetachment of negative atomic and molecular ions is studied and its applicability for selective isobar suppression in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is evaluated. The setup provides mass separated beams of negative ions with energies up to 30 keV. Negative ions are produced in a Middleton type cesium sputter ion source, mass selected and overlapped with a strong continuous wave laser beam. In order to extend the interaction time of ions and laser, the ion beam is decelerated to thermal energies in a gas-filled radio frequency quadrupole cooler. For an appropriate choice of the photon energy, unwanted isobars are neutralized while the isobar of interest is unaffected and remains negatively charged. A description of the ILIAS setup and results from the commissioning phase of the RFQ cooler are presented. Up to 8% ion beam transmission could be achieved after a recent redesign of the extraction system. Furthermore first results of photodetachment experiments of 63Cu- within the RFQ cooler are presented.

  2. The ILIAS project for selective isobar suppression by laser photodetachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forstner, Oliver [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Andersson, Pontus [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hanstorp, Dag [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Lahner, Johannes; Martschini, Martin; Pitters, Johanna; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Laser photodetachment is the process when the extra electron of a negative ion is removed by means of laser radiation. This can happen only if the photon energy is larger than the electron affinity of the ion. The process can be used in mass spectrometry to selectively suppress unwanted isobars, provided that the electron affinity of the unwanted isobar is lower than that of the isobar under investigation. At the Ion Laser InterAction Setup (ILIAS) at the University of Vienna laser photodetachment of negative atomic and molecular ions is studied and its applicability for selective isobar suppression in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is evaluated. The setup provides mass separated beams of negative ions with energies up to 30 keV. Negative ions are produced in a Middleton type cesium sputter ion source, mass selected and overlapped with a strong continuous wave laser beam. In order to extend the interaction time of ions and laser, the ion beam is decelerated to thermal energies in a gas-filled radio frequency quadrupole cooler. For an appropriate choice of the photon energy, unwanted isobars are neutralized while the isobar of interest is unaffected and remains negatively charged. A description of the ILIAS setup and results from the commissioning phase of the RFQ cooler are presented. Up to 8% ion beam transmission could be achieved after a recent redesign of the extraction system. Furthermore first results of photodetachment experiments of {sup 63}Cu{sup −} within the RFQ cooler are presented.

  3. Isobaric gas and steam. Compressed air storage power plant with heat storage system; Isobares GuD. Druckluftspeicherkraftwerk mit Waermespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Leithner, Reinhard; Qi, Dawei [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik; Grote, Wolfgang; Kastsian, Darya; Moennigmann, Martin [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Regelungstechnik und Systemtheorie

    2011-07-01

    The ISACOAST-CC (Isobaric Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage - Combinde Cycle) is a innovative combination of combined cycle power plant, compressed air store and heat store. First calculations show that a storage efficiency of 80 % could be achieved.

  4. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Spinal Levobupivacaine: Hyperbaric Compared with Isobaric Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimolluck Sanansilp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a prospective, double-blinded study in 20 patients undergoing gynecologic surgery with lower abdominal incision, to investigate characteristics of intrathecal hyperbaric levobupivacaine compared with isobaric levobupivacaine. We randomly assigned them to receive 3 mL of either isobaric or hyperbaric 0.42% levobupivacaine intrathecally. We found that hyperbaric levobupivacaine, compared with isobaric levobupivacaine, spread faster to T10 level (2.8 ± 1.1 versus 6.6 ± 4.7 minutes, =0.039, reached higher sensory block levels at 5 and 15 minutes after injection (T8 versus L1, =0.011, and T4 versus T7, =0.027, resp., and had a higher peak level (T4 versus T8, =0.040. Isobaric levobupivacaine caused a wider range of peak levels (L1 to C8 compared with hyperbaric form (T7 to T2. The level of T4 or higher reached 90% in the hyperbaric group compared with 20% in the isobaric group (=0.005. Our results suggest that hyperbaric levobupivacaine was more predictable for sensory block level and more effective for surgical procedures with lower abdominal approach. Hyperbaric levobupivacaine seems to be suitable, but the optimal dosage needs further investigation.

  6. Isobar giant resonance formation in self-conjugate nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.

    1981-03-01

    The production of isobars with concomitant giant resonance excitations due to peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions is investigated. The interaction is described by a modified form of the central term in the one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP) where the projectile ordinary spin operator is replaced by a transition spin operator which describes the creation of an isobar from a nucleon. The scattering is analyzed using time-dependent harmonic perturbation theory to determine the reaction total cross sections. The results obtained, which are valid for reactions involving self-conjugate nuclei, are applied to the specific collison of 2.1 {GeV}/{nucleon}16O projectiles with 12C targets at rest. Cross sections are investigated using two different models for the nuclear spin states. In the first model, the many-body nuclear spin state is reduced, in the spirit of a particle-hole state, to an equivalent two-body state called a particle-core state. In the second model, the many-body spin states are described by unsymmetrized products of individual particle spins. Properties of the spin giant resonance and isobar giant resonance states are investigated. Finally, isobar decay and isobar/pion absorption effects are discussed.

  7. Nucleons and isobars at finite density ({rho}) and temperature (T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenni, R. [Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Genova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy); Dey, J. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Maulana Azad Coll., Calcutta (India); Dey, M. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Calcutta 700 073 (India)

    2001-09-01

    The importance of studying matter at high {rho} increases as more astrophysical data becomes available from recently launched spacecrafts. The importance of high-T studies derives from heavy-ion data. In this paper we set up a formalism to study the nucleons and isobars with long- and short-range potentials non-pertubatively, bosonizing and expanding semi-classically the Feyman integrals up to one loop. We address the low-density, finite-T problem first, the case relevant to heavy-ion collisions, hoping to address the high-density case later. Interactions change the nucleon and isobar numbers at different {rho} and T non-trivially. (orig.)

  8. Nucleons and Isobars at finite density ($\\rho$) and temperature (T)

    CERN Document Server

    Cenni, R; Dey, M; Cenni, Rinaldo; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira

    2001-01-01

    The importance of studying matter at high $\\rho$ increases as more astrophysical data becomes available from recently launched spacecrafts. The importance of high T studies derives from heavy ion data. In this paper we set up a formalism to study the nucleons and isobars with long and short range potentials non-pertubatively, bosonizing and expanding semi-classically the Feyman integrals up to one loop. We address the low density, finite T problem=A0 first, the case relevant to heavy ion collisions, hoping to adresss the high density case later. Interactions change the nucleon and isobar numbers at different $\\rho$ and T non-trivially.

  9. Isobar model analysis of pi0-eta photoproduction on protons

    CERN Document Server

    Fix, A; Lee, A; Ostrick, M

    2010-01-01

    Photoproduction of pi0-eta on protons in the energy range from threshold to 1.4 GeV is discussed. The data for representative angular distributions recently obtained at MAMI C are analyzed using an isobar model. The isobars considered are Delta(1232) and S11(1535) for pi0-p and eta-p states, respectively. In accordance with the results of earlier works the main features of the reaction are explained through the dominance of the D33 wave with a relatively small admixture of positive parity resonances. Comparison with recent experimental results for the photon beam asymmetry is carried out.

  10. Trends in the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCormick Marion

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Isobaric analogue states (IAS can be used to study the charge independence of the nuclear force via first order perturbation theory. In this case the IAS multiplet masses are expected to follow a quadratic form as described by the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME with coefficients accessible through experimental measurements. Higher order effects are expected to appear through cubic, or higher, polynomial terms. The current IMME coefficient trends, as based on the IAS states included in the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation and NUBASE2012 are shown.

  11. Decay Properties Of The Dipole Isobaric Analog Resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorelik, M. L.; Safonov, I. V.; Urin, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A continuum-RPA-based approach is applied to describe the decay properties of isolated dipole isobaric analog resonances in nuclei having not-too-large neutron excess. Calculated for a few resonances in 90Zr the elastic E1-radiative width and partial proton widths for decay into one-hole s

  12. Penning trap for isobaric mass separation at IGISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Kolhinen, V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kopecky, S; Rinta-Antila, S; Szerypo, J; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    A cylindrical Penning trap has been built at the ion guide isotope separator facility IGISOL of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The main goal of the Penning trap application is to purify low-energy radioactive ion beams. The aim is to make isobarically pure beams. The technical description is presented.

  13. Penning trap for isobaric mass separation at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S. E-mail: veli.kolhinen@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kopecky, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J.; Aeystoe, J

    2003-05-01

    A cylindrical Penning trap has been built at the ion guide isotope separator facility IGISOL of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The main goal of the Penning trap application is to purify low-energy radioactive ion beams. The aim is to make isobarically pure beams. The technical description is presented.

  14. NEUTRON DECAY OF THE ISOBARIC ANALOG STATE IN BI-209

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BORDEWIJK, JA; BALANDA, A; BEAUMEL, D; BLOMGREN, J; BRANDENBURG, S; VANTHOF, G; HARAKEH, MN; HOFSTEE, MA; JANECKE, J; KRASZNAHORKAY, A; LAURENT, H; NILSSON, L; OLSSON, N; PERRINO, R; SIEBELINK, R; SODERMAN, PO; VANDERWERF, SY; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1994-01-01

    The isospin-forbidden neutron decay of the isobaric analog state in Bi-208 has been measured, following its excitation via the Pb-208(He-3, t)Bi-208 reaction at 61.2 MeV. In contrast to the proton decay, which is direct, the neutron decay spectrum has a statistical shape. Its branching ratio is dete

  15. Image Demosaicking with Contour Stencils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Getreuer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Demosaicking (or demosaicing is the problem of interpolating full color information on an image where only one color component is known at each pixel. Most demosaicking methods involve some kind of estimation of the underlying image structure, for example, choosing adaptively between interpolating in the horizontal or vertical direction. This article discusses the implementation details of the method introduced in Getreuer, “Color Demosaicing with Contour Stencils,” 2011. Mosaicked contour stencils first estimate the image contour orientations directly from the mosaicked data. The mosaicked contour stencils are then used to guide a simple demosaicking method based on graph regularization.

  16. Isobaric yield ratio difference and Shannon information entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wang Ma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shannon information entropy theory is used to explain the recently proposed isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD probe which aims to determine the nuclear symmetry energy. Theoretically, the difference between the Shannon uncertainties carried by isobars in two different reactions (ΔIn21, is found to be equivalent to the difference between the chemical potentials of protons and neutrons of the reactions [the IBD probe, IB-Δ(βμ21, with β the reverse temperature]. From the viewpoints of Shannon information entropy, the physical meaning of the above chemical potential difference is interpreted by ΔIn21 as denoting the nuclear symmetry energy or density difference between neutrons and protons in reactions more concisely than from the statistical ablation–abrasion model.

  17. TITAN's multiple-reflection time-of-flight isobar separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Moritz Pascal; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    At the ISAC facility located at TRIUMF exotic nuclei are produced by the ISOL method. Exotic nuclei are separated by a magnetic separator and transported to TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN). TITAN is a system of multiple ion traps for high precision mass measurements and in-trap decay spectroscopy. Although ISAC can deliver some of the highest yields for even many of the most exotic species many measurements suffer from a strong isobaric background. This background often prevents the high precision measurement of the species of interest. To overcome this limitation an additional isobar separator based on the Multiple-Reflection Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MR-TOF-MS) technique has been developed for TITAN. Mass selection is achieved using dynamic re-trapping of the species of interest after a time-of-flight analysis in an electrostatic isochronous reflector system. Additionally the MR-TOF-MS will, on its own, enable mass measurements of very short-lived nuclides that are weakly produced. Being able to measure all isobars of a given mass number at the same time the MR-TOF-MS can be used for beam diagnostics or determination of beam compositions. Results from the offline commissioning showing mass resolving power and separation power will be presented.

  18. Chemical thermodynamics of Hg1201 and Hg1223 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadashi

    1998-03-01

    The decomposition equilibrium of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was studied using a thermomicrobalance. A thermodynamic diagram representing the stability domains of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was constructed. Using the diagram, it was shown that Hg1201 is metastable at 800°C and that Hg1223 is stable at 660°C due to the formation of an atmosphere of mercury vapor and oxygen formed by the decomposition of excess HgO. Chemical analysis revealed that the valence of Hg is +2 regardless of the oxygen content. The dependence of Tc on the oxygen content was also studied.

  19. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County 5ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — 5ft cartographic contour file for Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It includes indexes for 10, 25,...

  20. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County 5ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 5ft cartographic contour file for Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It includes indexes for 10, 25,...

  1. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County NW 1ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 1ft contour file for the northwest portion of Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the USGS corrected elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It...

  2. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County SE 1ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 1ft contour file for the southeast portion of Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the USGS corrected elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It...

  3. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County SW 1ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 1ft contour file for the southwest portion of Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the USGS corrected elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It...

  4. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County NE 1ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 1ft contour file for the northeast portion of Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the USGS corrected elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It...

  5. Wavelet Representation of Contour Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, M; Laney, D E; Duchaineau, M A; Hansen, C D; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-07-19

    We present a new wavelet compression and multiresolution modeling approach for sets of contours (level sets). In contrast to previous wavelet schemes, our algorithm creates a parametrization of a scalar field induced by its contoum and compactly stores this parametrization rather than function values sampled on a regular grid. Our representation is based on hierarchical polygon meshes with subdivision connectivity whose vertices are transformed into wavelet coefficients. From this sparse set of coefficients, every set of contours can be efficiently reconstructed at multiple levels of resolution. When applying lossy compression, introducing high quantization errors, our method preserves contour topology, in contrast to compression methods applied to the corresponding field function. We provide numerical results for scalar fields defined on planar domains. Our approach generalizes to volumetric domains, time-varying contours, and level sets of vector fields.

  6. Visualizing Contour Trees within Histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Many of the topological features of the isosurfaces of a scalar volume field can be compactly represented by its contour tree. Unfortunately, the contour trees of most real-world volume data sets are too complex to be visualized by dot-and-line diagrams. Therefore, we propose a new visualization...... that is suitable for large contour trees and efficiently conveys the topological structure of the most important isosurface components. This visualization is integrated into a histogram of the volume data; thus, it offers strictly more information than a traditional histogram. We present algorithms...... to automatically compute the graph layout and to calculate appropriate approximations of the contour tree and the surface area of the relevant isosurface components. The benefits of this new visualization are demonstrated with the help of several publicly available volume data sets....

  7. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  8. Contours--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Contours--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is...

  10. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  11. Optimality of human contour integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo A Ernst

    Full Text Available For processing and segmenting visual scenes, the brain is required to combine a multitude of features and sensory channels. It is neither known if these complex tasks involve optimal integration of information, nor according to which objectives computations might be performed. Here, we investigate if optimal inference can explain contour integration in human subjects. We performed experiments where observers detected contours of curvilinearly aligned edge configurations embedded into randomly oriented distractors. The key feature of our framework is to use a generative process for creating the contours, for which it is possible to derive a class of ideal detection models. This allowed us to compare human detection for contours with different statistical properties to the corresponding ideal detection models for the same stimuli. We then subjected the detection models to realistic constraints and required them to reproduce human decisions for every stimulus as well as possible. By independently varying the four model parameters, we identify a single detection model which quantitatively captures all correlations of human decision behaviour for more than 2000 stimuli from 42 contour ensembles with greatly varying statistical properties. This model reveals specific interactions between edges closely matching independent findings from physiology and psychophysics. These interactions imply a statistics of contours for which edge stimuli are indeed optimally integrated by the visual system, with the objective of inferring the presence of contours in cluttered scenes. The recurrent algorithm of our model makes testable predictions about the temporal dynamics of neuronal populations engaged in contour integration, and it suggests a strong directionality of the underlying functional anatomy.

  12. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  13. Nucleons and Isobars at finite density ($\\rho$) and temperature (T)

    OpenAIRE

    Cenni, Rinaldo; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira

    2001-01-01

    The importance of studying matter at high $\\rho$ increases as more astrophysical data becomes available from recently launched spacecrafts. The importance of high T studies derives from heavy ion data. In this paper we set up a formalism to study the nucleons and isobars with long and short range potentials non-pertubatively, bosonizing and expanding semi-classically the Feyman integrals up to one loop. We address the low density, finite T problem=A0 first, the case relevant to heavy ion coll...

  14. Isobar gas and steam. Compressed air storage plant with heat storage; Isobares GuD. Druckluftspeicherkraftwrk mit Waermespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard; Nielsen, Lasse [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik

    2008-07-01

    Due to the worldwide increasing energy consumption the unfavourable aspects of the today's power supply structure are strengthened continuously. There are two compressed air energy storage power stations existing. However, these power stations exhibit worse efficiencies of storage in comparison to existing pumped-storage power plants. In order to avoid this disadvantage, a concept of a isobaric gas and steam compressed air storage plant was developed at the institute for heat and fuel technology at the technical university of Braunschweig. This concept is presented in the contribution under consideration.

  15. Topological Cacti: Visualizing Contour-based Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio

    2011-05-26

    Contours, the connected components of level sets, play an important role in understanding the global structure of a scalar field. In particular their nestingbehavior and topology-often represented in form of a contour tree-have been used extensively for visualization and analysis. However, traditional contour trees onlyencode structural properties like number of contours or the nesting of contours, but little quantitative information such as volume or other statistics. Here we use thesegmentation implied by a contour tree to compute a large number of per-contour (interval) based statistics of both the function defining the contour tree as well asother co-located functions. We introduce a new visual metaphor for contour trees, called topological cacti, that extends the traditional toporrery display of acontour tree to display additional quantitative information as width of the cactus trunk and length of its spikes. We apply the new technique to scalar fields ofvarying dimension and different measures to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  16. Isobar Model for Photoproduction of K+Sigma0 and K0Sigma+ on the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Mart, T

    2005-01-01

    Kaon photoproductions on the proton gamma p --> K+Sigma0 and gamma p --> K0Sigma+ have been simultaneously analyzed by using isobar models and new SAPHIR data. The result shows that isobar models such as KAON MAID require more resonances in order to explain the data.

  17. Rapid cooling of neutron stars by hyperons and Delta isobars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Madappa; Prakash, Manju; Lattimer, James M.; Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Direct Urca processes with hyperons and/or nucleon isobars can occur in dense matter as long as the concentration of Lambda hyperons exceeds a critical value that is less than 3 percent and is typically about 0.1 percent. The neutrino luminosities from the hyperon Urca processes are about 5-100 times less than the typical luminosity from the nucleon direct Urca process, if the latter process is not forbidden, but they are larger than those expected from other sources. These direct Urca processes provide avenues for rapid cooling of neutron stars which invoke neither exotic states nor the large proton fraction (of order 0.11-0.15) required for the nucleon direct Urca process.

  18. Performance of isobaric and isotopic labeling in quantitative plant proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become indispensable for peptide and protein quantification in proteomics studies. When proteomics technologies are applied to understand the biology of plants, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is still the prevalent method for protein fractionation, identification......, and quantitation. In the present work, we have used LC-MS to compare an isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) chemical labeling technique to quantify proteins in the endosperm of Ricinus communis seeds at three developmental stages (IV, VI, and X). Endosperm proteins of each stage were trypsin-digested in...... the efficiency of the iTRAQ and ICPL in protein quantification depends on several parameters, both labeling methods were able to successfully quantify proteins present in the endosperm of castor bean during seed development and, when combined, increase the number of quantified proteins....

  19. Mapping Isobaric Aging onto the Equilibrium Phase Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niss, Kristine

    2017-09-01

    The linear volume relaxation and the nonlinear volume aging of a glass-forming liquid are measured, directly compared, and used to extract the out-of-equilibrium relaxation time. This opens a window to investigate how the relaxation time depends on temperature, structure, and volume in parts of phase space that are not accessed by the equilibrium liquid. It is found that the temperature dependence of relaxation time is non-Arrhenius even in the isostructural case—challenging the Adam-Gibbs entropy model. Based on the presented data and the idea that aging happens through quasiequilibrium states, we suggest a mapping of the out-of-equilibrium states during isobaric aging to the equilibrium phase diagram. This mapping implies the existence of isostructural lines in the equilibrium phase diagram. The relaxation time is found to depend on the bath temperature, density, and a just single structural parameter, referred to as an effective temperature.

  20. Illusory contour formation survives crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jonathan Siu Fung; Cheung, Sing-Hang

    2012-06-12

    Flanked objects are difficult to identify using peripheral vision due to visual crowding, which limits conscious access to target identity. Nonetheless, certain types of visual information have been shown to survive crowding. Such resilience to crowding provides valuable information about the underlying neural mechanism of crowding. Here we ask whether illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. We manipulated the presence of illusory contours through the (mis)alignment of the four inducers of a Kanizsa square. In the inducer-aligned condition, the observers judged the perceived shape (thin vs. fat) of the illusory Kanizsa square, manipulated by small rotations of the inducers. In the inducer-misaligned condition, three of the four inducers (all except the upper-left) were rotated 90°. The observers judged the orientation of the upper-left inducer. Crowding of the inducers worsened observers' performance significantly only in the inducer-misaligned condition. Our findings suggest that information for illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. Crowding happens at a stage where the low-level featural information is integrated for inducer orientation discrimination, but not at a stage where the same information is used for illusory contour formation.

  1. Towards Stabilizing Parametric Active Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren Ingvor;

    2014-01-01

    Numerical instability often occurs in evolving of parametric active contours. This is mainly due to the undesired change of parametrization during evolution. In this paper, we propose a new tangential diffusion term to compensate this undesired change. As a result, the parametrization will converge...

  2. Contour Detection by CORF Operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzopardi, George; Petkov, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    We propose a contour operator, called CORF, inspired by the properties of simple cells in visual cortex. It combines, by a weighted geometric mean, the blurred responses of difference-of-Gaussian operators that model cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). An operator that has gained

  3. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  4. Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Bathymetry Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Gulf of Mexico Depth Contours derived from NOAA's NGDC bathymetric grids and from BOEM's seismic grid compilation. Both NOAA and BOEM contours are shown in meters or...

  5. From Inpainting to Active Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2008-01-01

    image and a guess on the location of the object to be segmented via variational inpainting method. A numerical evaluation of this reconstruction provides a "disocclusion measure" and the correct foreground segmentation region is expected to maximize this measure. This formulation is in fact an optimal...... control problem, where controls are shapes/regions and states are the corresponding inpaintings. Optimization of the disocclusion measure leads formally to a coupled contour evolution equation, an inpainting equation (the state equation) as well as a linear PDE depending on the inpainting (the adjoint...... state equation). The contour evolution is implemented in the framework of level sets. Finally, the proposed method is validated on various examples. We focus among others in the segmentation of calcified plaques observed in radiographs from human lumbar aortic regions. Keywords  Segmentation - Inpainting...

  6. Undesirable charge-enhancement of isobaric tagged phosphopeptides leads to reduced identification efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    labeling of proteins and peptides for in vitro cell culture systems (stable isotope labeling using amino acids in cell culture, SILAC) or isobaric peptide labels such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and tandem mass tags (TMT) for both in vitro and in vivo systems....... These quantitation strategies have also been successfully applied to phosphoproteomics studies for the investigation of signal transduction pathways. Here we describe major drawbacks associated with isobaric labeling for the identification and quantitation of phosphopeptides using electrospray tandem mass...

  7. Test the chiral magnetic effect with isobaric collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Ma, Guo-Liang; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The quark-gluon matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may contain local domains in which P and CP symmetries are not preserved. When coupled with an external magnetic field, such P- and CP-odd domains will generate electric currents along the magnetic field --- a phenomenon called the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Recently, the STAR Collaboration at RHIC and the ALICE Collaboration at the LHC released data of charge-dependent azimuthal-angle correlators with features consistent with the CME expectation. However, the experimental observable is contaminated with significant background contributions from elliptic-flow-driven effects, which makes the interpretation of the data ambiguous. In this Letter, we show that the collisions of isobaric nuclei, $^{96}_{44}$Ru + $^{96}_{44}$Ru and $^{96}_{40}$Zr + $^{96}_{40}$Zr, provide an ideal tool to disentangle the CME signal from the background effects. Our simulation demonstrates that the two collision types at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=200$ GeV have more than...

  8. Symmetry Energy from Systematic of Isobaric Analog States

    CERN Document Server

    Danielewicz, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Excitation energies to isobaric states, that are analogs of ground states, are dominated by contributions from the symmetry energy. This opens up a possibility of investigating the symmetry energy on nucleus-by-nucleus basis. Upon correcting energies of measured nuclear levels for shell and pairing effects, we find that the lowest energies for a given isospin rise in proportion to the square of isospin, allowing for an interpretation of the coefficient of proportionality in terms of a symmetry coefficient for a given nucleus. In the (A,Z) regions where there are enough data, we demonstrate a Z-independence of that coefficient. We further concentrate on the A-dependence of the coefficient, in order to learn about the density dependence of symmetry energy in uniform matter, given the changes of the density in the surface region. In parallel to the analysis of data, we carry out an analysis of the coefficient for nuclei calculated within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach, with known symmetry energy for unif...

  9. Grouping by proximity in haptic contour detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista E Overvliet

    Full Text Available We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots, relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection.

  10. Active Contour with A Tangential Component

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junyan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional edge-based active contours often require the normal component of an edge indicator function on the optimal contours to approximate zero, while the tangential component can still be significant. In real images, the full gradients of the edge indicator function along the object boundaries are often small. Hence, the curve evolution of edge-based active contours can terminate early before converging to the object boundaries with a careless contour initialization. We propose a novel Geodesic Snakes (GeoSnakes) active contour that requires the full gradients of the edge indicator to vanish at the optimal solution. Besides, the conventional curve evolution approach for minimizing active contour energy cannot fully solve the Euler-Lagrange (EL) equation of our GeoSnakes active contour, causing a Pseudo Stationary Phenomenon (PSP). To address the PSP problem, we propose an auxiliary curve evolution equation, named the equilibrium flow (EF) equation. Based on the EF and the conventional curve evolution, w...

  11. Rapid Analysis of Isobaric Exogenous Metabolites by Differential Mobility Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parson, Whitney B [ORNL; Schneider, Bradley B [MDS Sciex; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Corr, Jay [AB Sciex; Covey, Thomas R. [MDS Sciex; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The direct separation of isobaric glucuronide metabolites from propranolol dosed tissue extracts by differential mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) with the use of a polar gas-phase chemical modifier was demonstrated. The DMS gas-phase separation was able to resolve the isobaric metabolites with separation times on the order of ms instead of mins to hrs typically required when using pre-ionization chromatographic separation methods. Direct separation of isobaric metabolites from the complex tissue extract was validated using standards as well as implementing an HPLC separation prior to the DMS-MS analysis to pre-separate the species of interest. The ability to separate isobaric exogenous metabolites directly from a complex tissue extract is expected to facilitate the drug development process by increasing analytical throughput without the requirement for pre-ionization cleanup or separation strategies.

  12. The dependence of isobaric thermal heat capacity of gas condensates in liquid phase on their temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhovich Y. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the thermo-physical properties of liquids gives an opportunity of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of condensed matter theory, phase transitions and critical phenomena. To forecast the thermo-dynamic properties of liquid natural hydrocarbons one must know the basic heat-physical characteristics in a wide range of condition parameters. We have researched specific isobaric thermal heat capacity of gas condensates of Oposhnyanskoye, Solokhovskoye, Bukharskoye, Rybalskoye, Stavropolskoye, Schebelinskoye and Yubileinoye deposits theoretically and experimentally. These substances were in liquid phase on pseudo-critical isobar in the range of temperatures from minus 40 till 100 °C. In the article the findings of the investigation are presented. The mean relative experimental error doesn’t exceed ± 1.5 %, with reliability 0.95. The universal equation expressing specific isobaric thermal heat capacity as the function of temperature and molar mass has been obtained. It describes specific isobaric thermal heat capacity on pseudo-critical isobar for investigated natural hydrocarbons with the mean relative error, which does not exceed ± 1.65 %. The use of the equation for the calculation of specific isobaric thermal heat capacity of the substances of other deposits is recommended

  13. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  14. Contours, 2 Ft. Contours, Published in 2006, North Georgia College and State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2006. It is described as '2 Ft. Contours'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  15. NY_GOME_CONTOURS: New York Bight and Gulf of Maine bathymetric contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This bathymetric shapefile contains 10 m contours for the continental shelf and 100 m beyond the 200 m shelf edge. The contours have been derived from the National...

  16. NY_GOME_CONTOURS: New York Bight and Gulf of Maine bathymetric contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This bathymetric shapefile contains 10 m contours for the continental shelf and 100 m beyond the 200 m shelf edge. The contours have been derived from the National...

  17. Contours, Two Foot Contours, Published in 2007, Not Applicable scale, Dunn County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2007. It is described as 'Two Foot Contours'....

  18. Contour extracting networks in early extrastriate cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O.; Hess, Robert F.; May, Keith A.; Harvey, Ben M.; Rokers, Bas; Barendregt, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the visual cortex process a local region of visual space, but in order to adequately analyze natural images, neurons need to interact. The notion of an ''association field'' proposes that neurons interact to extract extended contours. Here, we identify the site and properties of contour

  19. RFP for the Comet Nuclei Tour (CONTOUR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Madsen, Peter Buch; Betto, Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to The Johns Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory for their Comet Nuclei TOUR (CONTOUR) Program.......This document describes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to The Johns Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory for their Comet Nuclei TOUR (CONTOUR) Program....

  20. Contour extracting networks in early extrastriate cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O.; Hess, Robert F.; May, Keith A.; Harvey, Ben M.; Rokers, Bas; Barendregt, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the visual cortex process a local region of visual space, but in order to adequately analyze natural images, neurons need to interact. The notion of an ''association field'' proposes that neurons interact to extract extended contours. Here, we identify the site and properties of contour i

  1. Effect of particle fluctuation on isoscaling and isobaric yield ratio of nuclear multifragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, S

    2016-01-01

    Isoscaling and isobaric yield ratio parameters are compared from canonical and grand canonical ensembles when applied to multifragmentation of finite nuclei. Source dependence of isoscaling parameters and source and isospin dependence of isobaric yield ratio parameters are examined in the framework of the canonical and the grand canonical models. It is found that as the nucleus fragments more, results from both the ensembles converge and observables calculated from the canonical ensemble coincide more with those obtained from the formulae derived using the grand canonical ensemble.

  2. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PC. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PC. This approach is comprised of two mass spectr...

  3. Contours--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara...

  4. Contours--Offshore Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Coal Oil Point, California (vector data file is included in...

  5. Transgressive Contours--Bolinas to Pescadero, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Bolinas to Pescadero, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  6. Contours-Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is...

  7. Contours--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Contours--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  10. An Active Contour for Range Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Khaldi Amine; Merouani Hayet Farida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new classification of range image segmentation method is proposed according to the criterion of homogeneity which obeys the segmentation, then, a deformable model-type active contour “Snake” is applied to segment range images.

  11. Contours--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  12. Contours-Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is...

  13. Water-table contours of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of water-table contours for Nevada. These data were created as part of an effort to provide statewide information on water table and depth to...

  14. Contours--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Contours--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. The vector data file is...

  16. Contours Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The vector data file...

  17. Contours--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  18. Contours--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  19. Contours--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. The vector data file is...

  20. Contours--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  1. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  2. Transgressive Contours--Bolinas to Pescadero, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Bolinas to Pescadero, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  3. Contours--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  4. Contours--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  5. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  6. Study of $^{13}$Be through isobaric analog resonances in the Maya active target

    CERN Multimedia

    Riisager, K; Orr, N A; Jonson, B N G; Raabe, R; Fynbo, H O U; Nilsson, T

    We propose to perform an experiment with a $^{12}$Be beam and the Maya active target. We intend to study the ground state of $^{13}$Be through the population of its isobaric analog resonance in $^{13}$B. The resonance will be identified detecting its proton- and neutron-decay channels.

  7. Baryonic {sup 3}P{sub 2} superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with {delta} isobar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuka, T.; Tamagaki, R. [Iwate Univ., Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We study the baryonic {sup 3}P{sup 2} superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with isobar ({delta}) degrees of freedom. After a remark on motivations of the present study, the outline of theoretical framework is briefly described, typical results of the superfluid critical temperature are shown, and the possibility of coexistence of the superfluid with charged-pion condensation is discussed. (author)

  8. Fuel Application Efficiency in Ideal Cycle of Gas Turbine Plant with Isobaric Heat Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals expediency to use in prospect fuels with maximum value  Qнр∑Vi and minimum theoretical burning temperature in order to obtain maximum efficiency of the ideal cycle in GTP with isobaric heat supply.

  9. MilQuant: a free, generic software tool for isobaric tagging-based quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao; Zhao, Minzhi; Shen, Hongyan; Zhao, Xuyang; Tong, Yuanpeng; Wang, Qingsong; Wei, Shicheng; Ji, Jianguo

    2012-09-18

    Isobaric tagging techniques such as iTRAQ and TMT are widely used in quantitative proteomics and especially useful for samples that demand in vitro labeling. Due to diversity in choices of MS acquisition approaches, identification algorithms, and relative abundance deduction strategies, researchers are faced with a plethora of possibilities when it comes to data analysis. However, the lack of generic and flexible software tool often makes it cumbersome for researchers to perform the analysis entirely as desired. In this paper, we present MilQuant, mzXML-based isobaric labeling quantitator, a pipeline of freely available programs that supports native acquisition files produced by all mass spectrometer types and collection approaches currently used in isobaric tagging based MS data collection. Moreover, aside from effective normalization and abundance ratio deduction algorithms, MilQuant exports various intermediate results along each step of the pipeline, making it easy for researchers to customize the analysis. The functionality of MilQuant was demonstrated by four distinct datasets from different laboratories. The compatibility and extendibility of MilQuant makes it a generic and flexible tool that can serve as a full solution to data analysis of isobaric tagging-based quantitation.

  10. Ultrasound guided single injection caudal epidural anesthesia of isobaric bupivacaine with/without dexamethasone for geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. El Gendy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Adding dexamethasone with isobaric bupivacaine caudal anesthesia prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and decreased postoperative analgesic requirement in geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery in comparison isobaric bupivacaine alone.

  11. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude using dynamic contour tonometry and contact lens tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grus Franz-H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Ocular Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT, investigational device supplied by SMT (Swiss Microtechnology AG, Switzerland allows simultaneous recording of intraocular pressure (IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA. It was the aim of this study to compare the IOP results of this new device with Goldmann tonometry. Furthermore, IOP and OPA measured with the new slitlamp-mounted DCT were compared to the IOP and OPA measured with the hand-held SmartLens®, a gonioscopic contact lens tonometer (ODC Ophthalmic Development Company AG, Switzerland. Methods Nineteen healthy subjects were included in this study. IOP was determined by three consecutive measurements with each of the DCT, SmartLens®, and Goldmann tonometer. Furthermore, OPA was measured three times consecutively by DCT and SmartLens®. Results No difference (P = 0.09 was found between the IOP values by means of DCT (mean: 16.6 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.04 mm Hg and Goldmann tonometry (mean: 16.17 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.03 mm Hg. The IOP values of SmartLens® (mean: 20.25 mm Hg, median: 19.00 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.96 mm Hg were significantly higher (P = 0.0008 both from Goldmann tonometry and DCT. The OPA values of the DCT (mean: 3.08 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.92 mm Hg were significantly lower (P = 0.0003 than those obtained by SmartLens® (mean: 3.92 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.83 mm Hg. Conclusions DCT was equivalent to Goldmann applanation tonometry in measurement of IOP in a small group of normal subjects. In contrast, SmartLens® (contact lens tonometry gave IOP readings that were significantly higher compared with Goldmann applanation tonometer readings. Both devices, DCT and SmartLens® provide the measurement of OPA which could be helpful e.g. for the management of glaucoma.

  12. Decoupled active contour (DAC) for boundary detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Akshaya Kumar; Fieguth, Paul W; Clausi, David A

    2011-02-01

    The accurate detection of object boundaries via active contours is an ongoing research topic in computer vision. Most active contours converge toward some desired contour by minimizing a sum of internal (prior) and external (image measurement) energy terms. Such an approach is elegant, but suffers from a slow convergence rate and frequently misconverges in the presence of noise or complex contours. To address these limitations, a decoupled active contour (DAC) is developed which applies the two energy terms separately. Essentially, the DAC consists of a measurement update step, employing a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Viterbi search, and then a separate prior step, which modifies the updated curve based on the relative strengths of the measurement uncertainty and the nonstationary prior. By separating the measurement and prior steps, the algorithm is less likely to misconverge; furthermore, the use of a Viterbi optimizer allows the method to converge far more rapidly than energy-based iterative solvers. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed approach is robust to noise, can capture regions of very high curvature, and exhibits limited dependence on contour initialization or parameter settings. Compared to five other published methods and across many image sets, the DAC is found to be faster with better or comparable segmentation accuracy.

  13. Isolating contour information from arbitrary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of natural vision (physiological and perceptual) serve as a basis for attempting the development of a general processing scheme for contour extraction. Contour information is assumed to be central to visual recognition skills. While the scheme must be regarded as highly preliminary, initial results do compare favorably with the visual perception of structure. The scheme pays special attention to the construction of a smallest scale circular difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) convolution, calibration of multiscale edge detection thresholds with the visual perception of grayscale boundaries, and contour/texture discrimination methods derived from fundamental assumptions of connectivity and the characteristics of printed text. Contour information is required to fall between a minimum connectivity limit and maximum regional spatial density limit at each scale. Results support the idea that contour information, in images possessing good image quality, is (centered at about 10 cyc/deg and 30 cyc/deg). Further, lower spatial frequency channels appear to play a major role only in contour extraction from images with serious global image defects.

  14. Perception of illusory contours enhanced in motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪睿; 王志宏; 吴新年; 汪云九; 李东光

    2003-01-01

    Investigation on illusory contours is important for understanding the mechanisms un-derlying the object recognition of human visual system. Numerous researches have shown that illusory contours formed in motion and stereopsis are generated by the unmatched features. Here we conduct three psychophysical experiments to test if Kanizsa illusory contours are also caused by unmatched information. Different types of motion (including horizontal translation, radial ex-panding and shrinking) are utilized in the experiments. The results show that no matter under what kind of motion, when figures or background move separately illusory contours are perceived stronger, and there is no significant difference between the perceived strength in these two types of motion. However, no such enhancement of perceived strength is found when figures and background move together. It is found that the strengthened unmatched features generate the enhancement effect of illusory contour perception in motion. Thus the results suggest that the process of unmatched information in visual system is a critical step in the formation of illusory contours.

  15. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with Δ isobar intermediate states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit Δ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with Δ isobar intermediate states (N 3 LO Δ ) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606.06335]. We find that using this N 3 LO Δ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit Δ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results with the empirical constraints on this quantity obtained using the excitation energies to isobaric analog states in nuclei and using experimental data on the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei, finding a very good agreement in all the considered nucleonic density range. In addition, we find that the explicit inclusion of Δ isobars diminishes the strength of the three-nucleon interactions needed to get a good saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. We also compare the results of our calculations with those obtained by other research groups using chiral nuclear interactions with different many-body methods, finding in many cases a very satisfactory agreement.

  16. Comparative study of intrathecal hyperbaric versus isobaric ropivacaine: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperbaric ropivacaine produce more reliable sensory and motor block, with faster onset, better quality of muscles relaxation than isobaric ropivacaine. So, this study was designed to compare the efficacy of hyperbaric ropivacaine with isobaric ropivacaine in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Methods: A randomized controlled double blind study in two groups of patients. group A (n=35 received 3 ml of isobaric ropivacaine 6 mg/ml (18 mg. Group B (n=35 received 3 ml of hyperbaric ropivacaine 6 mg/ml (18 mg. The onset and duration of sensory block at dermatome level T10, maximum upper and lower spread of sensory block, intensity, and duration of motor block were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Block characteristics were compared using the two-tailed Mann - Whitney U-test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results: The median time of onset of sensory block at the T10 dermatome was 4.4±1.3 min in group B and 6.0±1.03 min in group A. The median time to maximum block height was 16.7±3.7 min in group A and 12.03±1.96 min in group B. The median duration of complete motor recovery (B0 was significantly shorter in the heavy ropivacaine group (166.5±11.7 min compared with the isobaric ropivacaine group (192.9±9.6 min. Conclusions: Intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine provides more rapid, adequate, and good quality of sensory and motor block with rapid post-operative recovery as compare to isobaric ropivacaine.

  17. Vapor-liquid equilibria of coal-derived liquids; 3: Binary systems with tetralin at 200 mmHg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, B.; Beltran, S.; Cabezas, J.L. (University Coll., Burgos (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Coca, J. (Univ. of Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data are reported for binary systems of tetralin with p-xylene, [gamma]-picoline, piperidine, and pyridine; all systems were measured at 26.66 kPa (200 mmHg) with a recirculation still. Liquid-phase activity coefficients were correlated using the Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations. Vapor-phase nonidealities were found negligible under the experimental conditions of this work, and deviations of the liquid phase from the ideal behavior, as described by Raoult's law, were found to be slightly positive for all the systems.

  18. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon Ha [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer.

  19. A FUZZY FILTERING MODEL FOR CONTOUR DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Rajakumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Contour detection is the basic property of image processing. Fuzzy Filtering technique is proposed to generate thick edges in two dimensional gray images. Fuzzy logic is applied to extract value for an image and is used for object contour detection. Fuzzy based pixel selection can reduce the drawbacks of conventional methods(Prewitt, Robert. In the traditional methods, filter mask is used for all kinds of images. It may succeed in one kind of image but fail in another one. In this frame work the threshold parameter values are obtained from the fuzzy histogram of the input image. The Fuzzy inference method selects the complete information about the border of the object and the resultant image has less impulse noise and the contrast of the edge is increased. The extracted object contour is thicker than the existing methods. The performance of the algorithm is tested with Peak Signal Noise Ratio(PSNR and Complex Wavelet Structural Similarity Metrics(CWSSIM.

  20. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present...... a kinetic data structure that maintains the contour tree of h over time. Our data structure maintains certificates that fail only when h(v)=h(u) for two adjacent vertices v and u in M, or when two saddle vertices lie on the same contour of M. A certificate failure is handled in O(log(n)) time. We also show...

  1. Coding Long Contour Shapes of Binary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cruz, Hermilo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Mario A.

    This is an extension of the paper appeared in [15]. This time, we compare four methods: Arithmetic coding applied to 3OT chain code (Arith-3OT), Arithmetic coding applied to DFCCE (Arith-DFCCE), Huffman coding applied to DFCCE chain code (Huff-DFCCE), and, to measure the efficiency of the chain codes, we propose to compare the methods with JBIG, which constitutes an international standard. In the aim to look for a suitable and better representation of contour shapes, our probes suggest that a sound method to represent contour shapes is 3OT, because Arithmetic coding applied to it gives the best results regarding JBIG, independently of the perimeter of the contour shapes.

  2. Chemical thermodynamics of the Hg1212 phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo

    1997-02-01

    The single phase of Hg1212 was synthesized by the simple oxide method using starting materials containing HgO 16% in excess. Stability regions of Hg1212 and pure HgO were determined by measuring the decomposition temperature as a function of oxygen partial pressure, and thermodynamic diagrams showing the stability domains of HgO and Hg1212 were constructed. The thermodynamical condition of formation of Hg1212 was discussed using the diagrams. It was found by chemical analysis that the valence of Hg is always 2 + and the valence of Ce changes with the oxygen content. TC (zero) changed from 122 to 118 K when the oxygen content was increased from 6.10 to 6.22.

  3. Conversion of contours to cartesian grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Broe, B. Riget

    2006-07-15

    A robust and efficient method of calculating a cartesian grid of heights or roughnesses from contour line maps is developed. The purpose of the grids is to serve as input for atmospheric flow solvers such as WAsP Engineering or EllipSys3D. The method builds on Delaunay triangulation constrained to include all contour segments in the triangulation. It is furthermore refined to avoid spurious flat areas produced by the Delaunay triangulation. Robust ways to extrapolate beyond the convex hull of the map points are provided. (au)

  4. Conversion of contours to cartesian grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Broe, Brian Riget

    A robust and efficient method of calculating a cartesian grid of heights or roughnesses from contour line maps is developed. The purpose of the grids is to serve as input for atmospheric flow solvers such as WAsP Engineering or EllipSys3D. The method builds on Delaunay triangulation constrained t...... to include all contour segments in the triangulation. It is furthermore refined to avoid spurious flat areas produced by the Delaunay triangulation. Robust ways to extrapolate beyond the convex hull of the map points are provided....

  5. Dalitz plot analysis of the $D^+ \\rightarrow K^- K^+ K^+$ decay with the isobar model

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note presents a study of the $K^-K^+$ S-wave amplitude in doubly Cabibbo-suppressed ${D^+ \\rightarrow K^- K^+ K^+}$ decays performed using $2 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at $8~\\text{TeV}$ centre-of-mass energy. The Dalitz plot is studied under the assumption of the isobar model for resonance scattering. Models with combinations of resonant states are tested. Fits of comparable quality are obtained for different $K^-K^+$ S-wave parameterizations. The results obtained indicate that a variation of the S-wave phase at both ends of $K^-K^+$ spectrum is needed to describe the data. Further studies beyond the näive isobar model are foreseen to understand the $K^-K^+$ S-wave.

  6. Revalidation of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the $A=20$ quintet

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, B E; Wrede, C; Allen, J; Bardayan, D W; Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Chipps, K A; Febbraro, M; Fry, C; Hall, M R; Hall, O; Liddick, S N; O'Malley, P; Ong, W; Pain, S D; Schwartz, S B; Shidling, P; Sims, H; Thompson, P; Zhang, H

    2015-01-01

    An unexpected breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation in the $A=20$, $T=2$ quintet was recently reported, presenting a challenge to modern theories of nuclear structure. In the present work, the excitation energy of the lowest $T = 2$ state in $^{20}$Na has been measured to be $6498.4 \\pm 0.2_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 0.4_{\\textrm{syst}}$ keV by using the superallowed $0^+ \\rightarrow 0^+$ beta decay of $^{20}$Mg to access it and an array of high-purity germanium detectors to detect its $\\gamma$-ray deexcitation. This value differs by 27 keV (1.9 standard deviations) from the recommended value of $6525 \\pm 14$ keV and is a factor of 28 more precise. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is shown to be revalidated when the new value is adopted.

  7. Phase Structure of the T-matrix and Multichannel Unitary Isobar Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S.; Nakayama, K.

    2015-04-01

    By exploiting the full phase structure of the meson-baryon coupled channels reaction amplitude-here including also the photon-baryon channel-an isobar model is constructed which fulfills automatically the unitarity and analyticity conditions of the S-matrix, in addition to gauge invariance in the case of photoproduction. In particular, it is shown that the unitarity of the (resonance) pole amplitude arises from the dressing mechanism inherent in the basic T-matrix equation, requiring no extra unitarity condition on the pole amplitude as is the case in earlier works on isobar models. As an example, the present model is applied in the description of the meson-nucleon reactions including the πN , ηN , σN , ρN and πΔ channels. The latter three account effectively for the ππN channel. FFE-COSY Grant No. 41788390.

  8. Isobaric heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and fluctuational properties of 1-bromoalkanes

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkovskii, V I; Neruchev, Yu A; Goncharov, A L; Postnikov, E B

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the experimental measurements of the isobaric heat capacity for 1-bromohexane, 1-bromoheptane, 1-bromooctane, 1-bromononane, 1-bromodecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-bromododecane and 1-bromo-tetradecane at normal pressure and the speed of sound and the density for 1-bromotetradecane within the temperature range 298.15--423.15~K. These data on the isobaric heat capacity and the literature-based reference data for the density and the speed of sound were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility and the inverse reduced fluctuations. Based on the comparison of the results for pure n-alkanes and $\\alpha,\\omega$-dibromoalkanes, we discuss the influence of bromine atom on the volume fluctuations.

  9. Metric-tensor flexible-cell algorithm for isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, E

    2001-01-01

    An extended Hamiltonian approach to conduct isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations with full cell flexibility is presented. The components of the metric tensor are used as the fictitious degrees of freedom for the cell, thus avoiding the problem of spurious cell rotations and artificial symmetry breaking effects present in the original Parrinello-Rahman scheme. This is complemented by the Nose-Poincare approach for isothermal sampling. The combination of these two approaches leads to equations of motion that are Hamiltonian in structure, and which can therefore be solved numerically using recently developed powerful symplectic integrators. One such integrator, the generalised leap-frog, is employed to provide a numerical algorithm for integrating the isothermal-isobaric equations of motion obtained.

  10. A New Method to Treat High Anal Fistula - Bidirectional Isobaric Drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Linghua; Wang, Yanmei; Zhao, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    cavity, then put the drainage seton to form a two-way isobaric drainage with the low incision. The patients in Control group were treated using a high cutting seton therapy with the low incision. The changes of average wound healing time, the cure rate, the recurrence rate, the postoperative pain (four......-category verbal rating scale, VRS), and the score of anal function (Wexner Incontinence Score) were quantitatively evaluated. Results: Comparison of the efficacy between two groups indicated that the complete cure rate differed significantly between two groups (Phealing time was significantly shorter......: In this study we first time report to use the bidirectional isobaric drainage method to treat the simple high anal fistula. This method has high cure rate, less recurrence rate, low expenses, less wound, less pain and short course. In the future, we will use this method to treat complicated high anal fistula...

  11. Revalidation of the isobaric multiplet mass equation at A=53, T=3/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Su

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The T=3/2 isobaric analog state (IAS in 53Co is firmly established through a comprehensive measurement of β-delayed γ and proton decay of 53Ni. The determined excitation energy of 53Co IAS combined with the mass of 53Co generates a precise mass excess of −38333.6(27 keV for the 53Co IAS, which is 70(18 keV lower than the previously adopted value. The new result solves a problem raised by incorrect assignments of the 53Co IAS of unexpected deviation from the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME at A=53, T=3/2.

  12. Isobaric thermal expansivity behaviour against temperature and pressure of associating fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navia, Paloma; Troncoso, Jacobo [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Romani, Luis, E-mail: romani@uvigo.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    In order to study the influence of association on the isobaric thermal expansivity, this magnitude has been experimentally determined for a set of associating fluids within the temperature and pressure intervals (278.15 to 348.15) K and (5 to 55) MPa by means of calorimetric measurements. The 1-alcohol series, from methanol to 1-decanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, and 1-pentylamine were selected. With a view on checking the quality of the experimental data, they are compared with available literature values; good coherence was obtained for most of the studied liquids. The analysis of the experimental results reveals that the association capability presents a strong influence not only on the value of the isobaric thermal expansivity itself, but also on its behaviour against temperature and pressure.

  13. A STUDY OF HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE VERSUS ISOBARIC ROPIVACAINE FOR ELECTIVE CAESAREAN DELIVERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Ramana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Is to compare the anaesthetic effects of intrathecal administration of hyperbaric Bupivacaine 10 mg with isobaric Ropivacaine 15 mg for elective caesarean delivery. METHOD 100 parturients of ASA 1 and II posted for elective caesarean delivery were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each: Group A received intrathecal 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine 10 mg and Group B received intrathecal 0.75% isobaric Ropivacaine 15 mg. Time of onset and regression of sensory and motor blocks, haemodynamics, time of first complaint of pain, neonatal APGAR and side-effects were evaluated. RESULTS Ropivacaine group has significantly slower onset of sensory analgesia at T6 (4.45±0.03 in Ropivacaine group as against 2.38±0.36 in Bupivacaine group, p 0.05. There was no difference in the haemodynamics and neonatal APGAR. Neither of the groups had any significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. CONCLUSION Intrathecal Isobaric Ropivacaine 15 mg provides effective spinal anaesthesia for caesarean delivery. It has slower onset, shorter motor block, early sensory regression and similar postoperative analgesia and APGAR scores as compared to 10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. The shorter duration of motor block can facilitate early ambulation and makes Ropivacaine a good alternative for elective caesarean deliveries.

  14. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Logoteta, Domenico; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit $\\Delta$ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states (N3LO$\\Delta$) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606:06335]. We find that using this N3LO$\\Delta$ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit $\\Delta$ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results wit...

  15. [Nursing Care of Lumbar Spine Fusion Surgery Using a Semi-Rigid Device (ISOBAR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Shan; Su, Shu-Fen

    2016-04-01

    Aging frequently induces degenerative changes in the spine. Patients who suffer from lumbar degenerative disease tend to have lower back pain, neurological claudication, and neuropathy. Furthermore, incontinence may be an increasing issue as symptoms become severe. Lumbar spine fusion surgery is necessary if clinical symptoms continue to worsen or if the patient fails to respond to medication, physical therapy, or alternative treatments. However, this surgical procedure frequently induces adjacent segment disease (ASD), which is evidenced by the appearance of pathological changes in the upper and lower sections of the spinal surgical sites. In 1997, ISOBAR TTL dynamic rod stabilization was developed for application in spinal fusion surgery to prevent ASD-related complications. The device has proven effective in reducing pain in the lower back and legs, decreasing functional disability, improving quality of life, and retarding disc degeneration. However, the effectiveness of this intervention in decreasing the incidence of ASD requires further research investigation, and relevant literature and research in Taiwan is still lacking. This article discusses lumbar degenerative disease, its indications, the contraindications of lumbar spine fusion surgery using ISOBAR, and related postoperative nursing care. We hope this article provides proper and new knowledge to clinical nurses for the care of patients undergoing lumbar spine fusion surgery with ISOBAR.

  16. Isobaric Molecular Dynamics Version of the Generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM): Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małolepsza, Edyta; Secor, Maxim; Keyes, Tom

    2015-10-22

    A prescription for sampling isobaric generalized ensembles with molecular dynamics is presented and applied to the generalized replica exchange method (gREM), which was designed to simulate first-order phase transitions. The properties of the isobaric gREM ensemble are discussed, and a study is presented for the liquid-vapor equilibrium of the guest molecules given for gas hydrate formation with the mW water model. Phase diagrams, critical parameters, and a law of corresponding states are obtained.

  17. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  18. Contours--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 5 [in figs. 1, 2, 3], 7, 10, SIM 3261) of the...

  19. Contours--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map...

  20. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present...

  1. An Active Contour for Range Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldi Amine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new classification of range image segmentation method is proposed according to the criterion of homogeneity which obeys the segmentation, then, a deformable model-type active contour “Snake” is applied to segment range images.

  2. Regression Model With Elliptically Contoured Errors

    CERN Document Server

    Arashi, M; Tabatabaey, S M M

    2012-01-01

    For the regression model where the errors follow the elliptically contoured distribution (ECD), we consider the least squares (LS), restricted LS (RLS), preliminary test (PT), Stein-type shrinkage (S) and positive-rule shrinkage (PRS) estimators for the regression parameters. We compare the quadratic risks of the estimators to determine the relative dominance properties of the five estimators.

  3. Contours--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 5 [in figs. 1, 2, 3], 7, 10, SIM 3261) of the...

  4. Automatic contour welder incorporates speed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Speed control system maintains the welding torch of an automatic welder at a substantially constant speed. The system is particularly useful when welding contoured or unusually shaped surfaces, which cause the distance from the work surface to the weld carriage to vary in a random manner.

  5. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...

  6. Contours--Offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map...

  7. Analysis of CVC roll contour and determination of roll crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Xu; Xianjun Liu; Jiarong Zhao; Junwei Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical analysis of continuous variable crown (CVC) roll contour used in CSP production line was conducted and the roll contour function of CVC roll was obtained. The validation with actual CVC roll contour shows that the calculation values of the roll contour function and the actual roll contour parameters given by equipment provider are the same, which proves that the roll contour function of CVC rolls given in this article is correct. The nonlinear relationship between the roll crown of CVC rolls and roll shift amounts was deduced. The concept of crown extremum was given.

  8. Subsidence Contours for South Louisiana; UTM 15N NAD83; LRA (2005); [subsidence_contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The GIS data shapefile represents average subsidence contour intervals (0.02 cm/year over 10,000 years) for Coastal LA derived from the following: Kulp, M.A., 2000,...

  9. USGS Elevation Contours Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Elevation Contours service from The National Map (TNM) consists of contours generated for the conterminous United States from 1- and 1/3 arc-second...

  10. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-09-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems. The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours. The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  11. [External contour acquisition system for radiotherapy: an original solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, D; Brochet, F; Bohémier, R; Gagnon, J

    2000-01-01

    A contour acquisition system has been designed in radiotherapy at the Sagamie Hospital complex (Chicoutimi, Québec) to measure the external contours of the patients who do not need a CT exam. This measuring system can produce transversal, sagittal or coronal patient contours in the treatment position. The absolute accuracy of the system is +/- 1 mm. The contours produced by this equipment can be transferred electronically or on paper to the planning system.

  12. Goldmann Applanation Tonometry versus Dynamic Contour Tonometry after Vitrectomy with Silicone Oil Endotamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuest, Matthias; Mamas, Nikolaos; Walter, Peter; Mazinani, Babac E; Roessler, Gemot; Plange, Niklas

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the agreement of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements using dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in eyes after vitrectomy with silicone oil endotamponade and controls. In this prospective comparative study, IOP was measured with GAT and DCT in 30 eyes with oil endotamponade 1-3 days after vitrectomy and 40 untreated controls. In addition, ocular pulse amplitude (OPA), corneal pachymetry (CCT), and axial length (AL) were measured. GAT values in the oil group were significantly higher compared to control eyes (mean GAT oil 13.6 ± 5.1 mmHg; mean GAT control 10.8 ± 2.1 mmHg; p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in DCT measurements (mean DCT oil 12.0 ± 4.1 mmHg; mean DCT control 11.9 ± 2.9 mmHg; p = 0.9). This led to a significant difference of GAT-DCT between the oil and control group (mean difference of GAT-DCT oil 1.6 ± 4.7 mmHg; mean difference of GAT-DCT control -1.1 ± 2.6 mmHg; p = 0.004). The difference between GAT and DCT was negatively correlated with the mean IOP measured by both methods (r = -0.36, p = 0.02) and positively correlated with CCT only in the control group (r = 0.36, p = 0.02), as well as to AL only in the oil group (r = 0.46, p = 0.01). The OPA did not differ significantly between groups. GAT and DCT showed a good agreement in control eyes. The difference of GAT and DCT is significantly changed in eyes after vitrectomy with silicone oil endotamponade. Our findings suggest that GAT overestimates IOP in this situation.

  13. Edge and line oriented contour detection : State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai

    We present an overview of various edge and line oriented approaches to contour detection that have been proposed in the last two decades. By edge and line oriented we mean methods that do not rely on segmentation. Distinction is made between edges and contours. Contour detectors are divided in local

  14. Edge and line oriented contour detection : State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of various edge and line oriented approaches to contour detection that have been proposed in the last two decades. By edge and line oriented we mean methods that do not rely on segmentation. Distinction is made between edges and contours. Contour detectors are divided in local

  15. Human Lips-Contour Recognition and Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Tareque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-lip detection is an important criterion for many automated modern system in present day. Like computerized speech reading, face recognition etc. system can work more precisely if human-lip can detect accurately. There are many processes for detecting human-lip. In this paper an approach is developed so that the region of a human-lip can be detected, we called it lip contour. For this a region-based Active Contour Model (ACM is introduced with watershed segmentation. In this model we used global energy terms instead of local energy terms because, global energy gives better convergence rate for malicious environment. At the time of ACM initialization by using H8 based on Lyapunov stability theory, the system gives more accurate and stable result.

  16. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present...... a kinetic data structure (KDS) for maintaining T efficiently. It maintains certificates that fail, i.e., an event occurs, only when the heights of two adjacent vertices become equal or two saddle vertices appear on the same contour. Assuming that the heights of two vertices of Sigma become equal only O(1......) times and these instances can be computed in O(1) time, the KDS processes O(kappa + n) events, where n is the number of vertices in Sigma and kappa is the number of events at which the combinatorial structure of T changes, and processes each event in O(log n) time. The KDS can be extended to maintain...

  17. Contours, contours 500 ft, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'contours 500 ft'....

  18. Contours, ft 10 NED contours 2, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'ft 10 NED contours...

  19. Contours, contours 100 ft, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'contours 100 ft'....

  20. Contours, contours_2ft, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Dodge County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2007. It is described as 'contours_2ft'. Data...

  1. Contours, ft 10 NED contours 1, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'ft 10 NED contours...

  2. Contours, Tagged Vector Contours obtained from DASC, Published in 2003, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Reno County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2003. It is described as 'Tagged Vector Contours obtained from DASC'. Data by this publisher...

  3. Contours, contour 500 ft, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'contour 500 ft'....

  4. Contours, contour 50 ft, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'contour 50 ft'....

  5. Contours, contour 10 ft, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'contour 10 ft'....

  6. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  7. Contour Estimation by Array Processing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourennane Salah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the estimation of rectilinear and distorted contours in images by high-resolution methods. In the case of rectilinear contours, it has been shown that it is possible to transpose this image processing problem to an array processing problem. The existing straight line characterization method called subspace-based line detection (SLIDE leads to models with orientations and offsets of straight lines as the desired parameters. Firstly, a high-resolution method of array processing leads to the orientation of the lines. Secondly, their offset can be estimated by either the well-known method of extension of the Hough transform or another method, namely, the variable speed propagation scheme, that belongs to the array processing applications field. We associate it with the method called "modified forward-backward linear prediction" (MFBLP. The signal generation process devoted to straight lines retrieval is retained for the case of distorted contours estimation. This issue is handled for the first time thanks to an inverse problem formulation and a phase model determination. The proposed method is initialized by means of the SLIDE algorithm.

  8. Dynamic Active Contours for Visual Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, Marc; Tannenbaum, Allen; Angenent, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    Visual tracking using active contours is usually set in a static framework. The active contour tracks the object of interest in a given frame of an image sequence. A subsequent prediction step ensures good initial placement for the next frame. This approach is unnatural; the curve evolution gets decoupled from the actual dynamics of the objects to be tracked. True dynamical approaches exist, all being marker particle based and thus prone to the shortcomings of such particle-based implementations. In particular, topological changes are not handled naturally in this framework. The now classical level set approach is tailored for evolutions of manifolds of codimension one. However, dynamic curve evolution is at least a codimension two problem. We propose an efficient, level set based approach for dynamic curve evolution, which addresses the artificial separation of segmentation and prediction while retaining all the desirable properties of the level set formulation. It is based on a new energy minimization functional which, for the first time, puts dynamics into the geodesic active contour framework.

  9. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the system methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susial, P.; Ortega, J. (Univ. de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain). Lab. de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica)

    1993-10-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were determined at 74.66, 101.32, and 127.99 kPa for binary mixtures containing methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol by using a dynamic still with vapor and liquid circulation. No azeotrope was detected. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the point to point test. Application of the group-contribution models ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC to the activity coefficients at the three pressures studied gives average errors of less than 10%, 11%, and 3%, respectively.

  10. JYFLTRAP: a cylindrical Penning trap for isobaric beam purification at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S.; Kopecky, S. E-mail: kopecky@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J.; Aeystoe, J

    2004-08-11

    A Penning trap has been installed for isobaric beam purification at the IGISOL-facility at the University of Jyvaeskylae. In this paper, the technical details of this new device together with results of the first tests are presented. The mass resolving power, depending on the excitation parameters and the ion species, can be as high as 145 000 and the total transmission has been determined to be 17%. In addition, it is shown that with this experimental setup it is possible to measure atomic masses up to A=120 with accuracies of approximately 50 keV.

  11. Hg transfer from contaminated soils to plants and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Henriques, B.; Reis, A.T.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the transfer of mercury (Hg) from soil to crops is crucial due to Hg toxicity and Hg occurrence in terrestrial systems. Previous research has shown that available Hg in soils contributes to plant Hg levels. Plant Hg concentrations are related to soil conditions and plant characteristic

  12. Preprocessing significantly improves the peptide/protein identification sensitivity of high-resolution isobarically labeled tandem mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Quanhu; Li, Rongxia; Dai, Jie; Li, Qingrun; Su, Zhiduan; Guo, Yan; Li, Chen; Shyr, Yu; Zeng, Rong

    2015-02-01

    Isobaric labeling techniques coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry have been widely employed in proteomic workflows requiring relative quantification. For each high-resolution tandem mass spectrum (MS/MS), isobaric labeling techniques can be used not only to quantify the peptide from different samples by reporter ions, but also to identify the peptide it is derived from. Because the ions related to isobaric labeling may act as noise in database searching, the MS/MS spectrum should be preprocessed before peptide or protein identification. In this article, we demonstrate that there are a lot of high-frequency, high-abundance isobaric related ions in the MS/MS spectrum, and removing isobaric related ions combined with deisotoping and deconvolution in MS/MS preprocessing procedures significantly improves the peptide/protein identification sensitivity. The user-friendly software package TurboRaw2MGF (v2.0) has been implemented for converting raw TIC data files to mascot generic format files and can be downloaded for free from https://github.com/shengqh/RCPA.Tools/releases as part of the software suite ProteomicsTools. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000994.

  13. VT 10 ft Contour Lines generated from bare earth lidar - Chittenden

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ElevationContours_CN10T (10ft contours) was extracted from ElevationContours_CN2T (2ft contours), which was generated by USGS from the 2004...

  14. Context modulates the ERP signature of contour integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Machilsen

    Full Text Available We investigated how the electrophysiological signature of contour integration is changed by the context in which a contour is embedded. Specifically, we manipulated the orientations of Gabor elements surrounding an embedded shape outline. The amplitudes of early visual components over posterior scalp regions were changed by the presence of a contour, and by the orientation of elements surrounding the contour. Differences in context type had an effect on the early P1 and N1 components, but not on the later P2 component. The presence of a contour had an effect on the N1 and P2 components, but not on the earlier P1 component. A modulatory effect of context on contour integration was observed on the N1 component. These results highlight the importance of the context in which contour integration takes place.

  15. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  16. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  17. Incorporating Prior Shape into Geometric Active Contours for Face Contour Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGFuzhen; SUJianbo; XIYugeng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new method that incorporates prior shape information into geometric active contours for face contour detection is proposed. As in general a human face can be treated as an ellipse with a little shape variation, the prior face shape is represented as an elliptical curve. By combining the prior face shape with the powerful geometric active model proposed by Chan and Vese, the improved geometric active model can retain all the advantage of the Chan-Vese model and can detect face contours in images with complex backgrounds accurately even if the image is noisy. Moreover, by implementing the new model in a variational level set framework, automatic topological changes of the model can be achieved naturally and the transformation parameters that map the face boundary to the prior shape can be roughly estimated simultaneously. The experimental results show our procedure to be eiTicient.

  18. Three-dimensional adult male head and skull contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Calvin; Loyd, Andre M; Nightingale, Roger; Myers, Barry S; Damon, Andrew; Bass, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, affecting millions of people annually. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element models (FEMs) provide a means of understanding factors leading to TBI, potentially reducing the occurrence. Thus, there is a need to ensure that these tools accurately model humans. For example, the Hybrid III was not based on 3-dimensional human head shape data. The objective of this study is to produce average head and skull contours for an average U.S. male that can be used for ATDs and FEMs. Computed tomography (CT) scans of adult male heads were obtained from a database provided by the University of Virginia Center for Applied Biomechanics. An orthographic viewer was used to extract head and skull contours from the CT scans. Landmarks were measured graphically using HyperMesh (Altair, HyperWorks). To determine the head occipital condyle (OC) centroid, surface meshes of the OCs were made and the centroid of the surfaces was calculated. The Hybrid III contour was obtained using a MicroScribe Digitizer (Solution Technologies, Inc., Oella, MD). Comparisons of the average male and ATD contours were performed using 2 methods: (1) the midsagittal and midcoronal ATD contours relative to the OC centroid were compared to the corresponding 1 SD range of the average male contours; (2) the ATD sagittal contour was translated relative to the average male sagittal contour to minimize the area between the 2 contours. Average male head and skull contours were created. Landmark measurements were made for the dorsum sellae, nasion skin, nasion bone, infraorbital foramen, and external auditory meatus, all relative to the OC centroid. The Hybrid III midsagittal contour was outside the 1 SD range for 15.2 percent of the average male head contour but only by a maximum distance of 1.5 mm, whereas the Hybrid III midcoronal head contour was outside the 1 SD range for 12.2 percent of the average male head contour by a maximum distance

  19. Isobaric multiplet mass equation in the $A=31$ $T = 3/2$ quartets

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Liddick, S N; Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bardayan, D W; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Fry, C; Glassman, B E; Langer, C; Larson, N R; McNeice, E I; Meisel, Z; Ong, W; O'Malley, P D; Pain, S D; Prokop, C J; Schwartz, S B; Suchyta, S; Thompson, P; Walters, M; Xu, X

    2016-01-01

    The observed mass excesses of analog nuclear states with the same mass number $A$ and isospin $T$ can be used to test the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME), which has, in most cases, been validated to a high degree of precision. A recent measurement [Kankainen et al., Phys. Rev. C 93 041304(R) (2016)] of the ground-state mass of $^{31}$Cl led to a substantial breakdown of the IMME for the lowest $A = 31, T = 3/2$ quartet. The second-lowest $A = 31, T = 3/2$ quartet is not complete, due to uncertainties associated with the identity of the $^{31}$S member state. Using a fast $^{31}$Cl beam implanted into a plastic scintillator and a high-purity Ge $\\gamma$-ray detection array, $\\gamma$ rays from the $^{31}$Cl$(\\beta\\gamma)$$^{31}$S sequence were measured. Shell-model calculations using USDB and the recently-developed USDE interactions were performed for comparison. Isospin mixing between the $^{31}$S isobaric analog state (IAS) at 6279.0(6) keV and a nearby state at 6390.2(7) keV was observed. The second ...

  20. Texture evolution during isothermal, isostrain, and isobaric loading of polycrystalline shape memory NiTi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, D. E.; Padula, S. A.; Benafan, O.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2017-06-01

    In situ neutron diffraction was used to provide insights into martensite variant microstructures during isothermal, isobaric, and isostrain loading in shape memory NiTi. The results show that variant microstructures were equivalent for the corresponding strain, and more importantly, the reversibility and equivalency were immediately evident in variant microstructures that were first formed isobarically but then reoriented to near random self-accommodated microstructures following isothermal deformation. Variant microstructures formed isothermally were not significantly affected by a subsequent thermal cycle under constant strain. In all loading cases considered, the resulting variant microstructure correlated with strain and did not correlate with stress. Based on the ability to select a variant microstructure for a given strain despite thermomechanical loading history, the results demonstrated here can be obtained by following any sequence of thermomechanical loading paths over multiple cycles. Thus, for training shape memory alloys (repeating thermomechanical cycling to obtain the desired variant microstructure), optimal paths can be selected so as to minimize the number of training cycles required, thereby increasing the overall stability and fatigue life of these alloys in actuator or medical applications.

  1. [Clinical research of hyperbaric, isobaric, and hypobaric solutions of bupivacaine in continuous spinal anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-wei; Bai, Nian-yue; Guo, Qu-lian

    2005-02-01

    To compare the anesthesia properities of hyperbaric bupivacaine with those of isobaric and hypobaric solutions when administered in the supine position undergoing hip surgery or lower limb surgery using continuous spinal anesthesia. Sixty patients( ASA I approximately III ) scheduled for hip or lower limb surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups with 20 patients in each group: Group A: 0. 375% hyperbaric bupivacaine solutions; Group B :0.375% isobaric bupivacaine solutions; and Group C: 0. 375% hypobaric bupivacaine solutions. The following variables were measured every 2 minutes during the first 30 minutes after the intrathecal injection : the onset time of sensation block, the highest plane of analgesia, the time to reach complete motor blockade, and the plane of analgesia and the extent of lower extremities' movement (modified bromage score, BMS) at different time after the administration. Meanwhile the changes of hemodynamics were recorded. There was no statistical difference among the basic conditions ( P > 0.05). The onset time of sensation block, and the time to reach complete motor blockade, and the time receiving the highest sharp pain sensory block in Group A were significantly shorter than those in Group B and Group C ( P anesthesic conditions with moderate hemodynamic changes and satisfying analgesia effects. Under similar conditions, 0. 375% hyperbaric bupivacaine produces major hemodynamic consequences with high cephalad spread and 0. 375% hypobaric bupivacaine has a too long onset time.

  2. Breakdown of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation for the A = 20 and 21 Multiplets

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, A T; Andreoiu, C; Bader, A; Chaudhuri, A; Chowdhury, U; Grossheim, A; Klawitter, R; Kwiatkowski, A A; Leach, K G; Lennarz, A; Macdonald, T D; Schultz, B E; Lassen, J; Heggen, H; Raeder, S; Teigelhöfer, A; Brown, B A; Magilligan, A; Holt, J D; Menéndez, J; Simonis, J; Schwenk, A; Dilling, J

    2014-01-01

    Using the Penning trap mass spectrometer TITAN, we performed the first direct mass measurements of 20,21Mg, isotopes that are the most proton-rich members of the A = 20 and A = 21 isospin multiplets. These measurements were possible through the use of a unique ion-guide laser ion source, a development that suppressed isobaric contamination by six orders of magnitude. Compared to the latest atomic mass evaluation, we find that the mass of 21Mg is in good agreement but that the mass of 20Mg deviates by 3{\\sigma}. These measurements reduce the uncertainties in the masses of 20,21Mg by 15 and 22 times, respectively, resulting in a significant departure from the expected behavior of the isobaric multiplet mass equation in both the A = 20 and A = 21 multiplets. This presents a challenge to shell model calculations using either the isospin non-conserving USDA/B Hamiltonians or isospin non-conserving interactions based on chiral two- and three-nucleon forces.

  3. Zr/Nb isobar separation experiment for future 93Zr AMS measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Anderson, T.; Bowers, M.; Bauder, W.; Collon, P.; Kutschera, W.; Kashiv, Y.; Lachner, J.; Martschini, M.; Ostdiek, K.; Robertson, D.; Schmitt, C.; Skulski, M.; Steier, P.

    2015-10-01

    93Zr (t1/2 = 1.6 Ma) is mostly produced by the main s-process in low-to-intermediate mass AGB stars. Large uncertainty exists in the current 92Zr(n,γ)93Zr Maxwellian Average cross section. This could have significant impact on nucleosynthesis calculations. Large amounts of 93Zr are also produced in nuclear reactors and pose long-term environmental radioactivity. Hence, measurement of 93Zr by the AMS is important for both fields above. We report here on progress in the development of AMS method to measure 93Zr. Compared with 98 MeV beam energy, Zr/Nb isobar position separation was improved using 155.2 MeV beam energy and Gas-Filled Magnet. Energy loss measurement with increased beam energy inside the detector indicates that higher beam energy can improve isobar energy loss separation. A chemical procedure to reduce the Nb content in Zr samples has been developed and tested. It reduces the 93Nb content by a factor of 1000.

  4. Isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations from first principles: Application to liquid water at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M; Siepmann, J I; Kuo, I W; Mundy, C J; VandeVondele, J; Hutter, J; Mohamed, F; Krack, M

    2004-12-02

    A series of first principles Monte Carlo simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble were carried out for liquid water at ambient conditions (T = 298 K and p = 1 atm). The Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) pseudopotentials were employed with the CP2K simulation package to examine systems consisting of 64 water molecules. The fluctuations in the system volume encountered in simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble requires a reconsideration of the suitability of the typical charge density cutoff and the regular grid generation method previously used for the computation of the electrostatic energy in first principles simulations in the microcanonical or canonical ensembles. In particular, it is noted that a much higher cutoff is needed and that the most computationally efficient method of creating grids can result in poor simulations. Analysis of the simulation trajectories using a very large charge density cutoff at 1200 Ry and four different grid generation methods point to a substantially underestimated liquid density of about 0.85 g/cm{sup 3} resulting in a somewhat understructured liquid (with a value of about 2.7 for the height of the first peak in the oxygen/oxygen radial distribution function) for BLYP-GTH water at ambient conditions.

  5. Automated Contour Detection for Intravascular Ultrasound Image Sequences Based on Fast Active Contour Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hai-yan; WANG Hui-nan

    2006-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound can provide high-resolution real-time crosssectional images about lumen, plaque and tissue. Traditionally, the luminal border and medial-adventitial border are traced manually. This process is extremely timeconsuming and the subjective difference would be large. In this paper, a new automated contour detection method is introduced based on fast active contour model.Experimental results found that lumen and vessel area measurements after automated detection showed good agreement with manual tracings with high correlation coefficients (0.94 and 0.95, respectively) and small system difference ( -0.32 and 0.56, respectively). So it can be a reliable and accurate diagnostic tool.

  6. Evaluated experimental isobaric analogue states from T=1/2 to T=3 and associated IMME coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCormick, M., E-mail: maccorm@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Audi, G. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2014-05-15

    Isobaric multiplets can be used to provide reliable mass predictions through the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME). Isobaric Analogue States (IAS) for isospin multiplets from T=1/2 to 3 have been studied within the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME2012). Each IAS established from published experimental reaction data has been expressed in the form of a primary reaction Q-value and, when necessary, has been recalibrated. The evaluated IAS masses are provided here along with the associated IMME coefficients. Quadratic and higher order forms of the IMME have been considered, and global trends have been extracted. Particular nuclides requiring experimental investigation have been identified and discussed. This dataset is the most precise and extensive set of evaluated IAS to date.

  7. Evaluated Experimental Isobaric Analogue States from $T = 1/2$ to $T = 3$ and associated IMME coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    MacCormick, M

    2013-01-01

    Isobaric multiplets can be used to provide reliable mass predictions through the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME). Isobaric analogue states (IAS) for isospin multiplets from $T=1/2$ to $T=3$ have been studied within the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation (Ame2012). Each IAS established from published experimental reaction data has been expressed in the form of a primary reaction $Q$-value, and if necessary, has been recalibrated. The evaluated IAS masses are provided here along with the associated IMME coefficients. Quadratic and higher order forms of the IMME have been considered, and global trends have been extracted. Particular nuclides, requiring experimental investigation, have been identified and discussed. This dataset is the most precise and extensive set of evaluated IAS to date.

  8. Hybrid antenna synthesis for reconfigurable contoured beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, A. D.; Westcott, B. S.

    1993-08-01

    A reflector illuminated by a small phased array is an attractive antenna configuration for systems requiring reconfigurable contoured beams. The use of a shaped reflector can provide control of the feed power distribution and antenna geometry. A systematic reflector synthesis technique based on geometric optics is formulated, using complex coordinate notation and illustrated by application to a simple design requirement. Results demonstrate that geometric shaping can be successfully applied to systems with distributed sources, and that significant beam reconfiguration can be achieved by phase-only control of the feed array.

  9. Alar Contour Grafts in Rhinoplasty: A Safe and Reproducible Way to Refine Alar Contour Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jacob G; Roostaeian, Jason; Small, Kevin H; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Lee, Michael R; Harris, Ryan; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    Alar rim deformities such as retraction, notching, collapse, and asymmetry are common problems in rhinoplasty patients. Although alar rim deformities may be improved through rhinoplasty, this area is prone to late changes because of scarring of the soft triangles and a paucity of native structural support. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of alar contour grafts on primary rhinoplasty. Fifty consecutive primary rhinoplasty patients with preoperative and postoperative photographs who received alar contour grafts were evaluated for alar aesthetics; 50 consecutive primary rhinoplasty patients without such grafts served as controls. Differences among alar retraction, notching, collapse, and asymmetry from anterior, lateral, and basal views were evaluated. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 4 years and was graded on a four-point scale. The average difference between the two groups' aggregate preoperative scores was 0.21 (p = 0.24). The average preoperative and postoperative scores in the nongraft group were significant for worsening retraction, notching, and collapse but insignificant for asymmetry. The preoperative and postoperative scores for the graft group were insignificant for retraction but improved significantly for notching, collapse, and asymmetry. Postoperatively, the aggregate average of the scores in the nongroup was 0.32 points worse (p Alar contour grafts have a clear and important impact on cosmetic results of primary rhinoplasty. Use of alar contour grafts has been shown to improve aesthetics, whereas there is a worsening of the measured parameters postoperatively without use of these grafts. Therapeutic, III.

  10. What is in a contour map? A region-based logical formalization of contour semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Hahmann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Contours maps (such as topographic maps) compress the information of a function over a two-dimensional area into a discrete set of closed lines that connect points of equal value (isolines), striking a fine balance between expressiveness and cognitive simplicity. They allow humans to perform many common sense reasoning tasks about the underlying function (e.g. elevation).

  11. Automatic Detection of Adenocarcinoma using Active Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NeelapalaAnilKumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CT scan is the one of the image representation for abdomen, where the tumour to be located and specified effectively with clarity, by the medical expert. This role can be hold by using one of the image processing techniques called segmentation. Image segmentation is the technique which isolates the image into different regions to simplify the image and identify the Tumour easily. Image segmentation has been extensively studied by various approaches. This work, focus on the one of the image segmentation technique with a new regularization term that yields an unsupervised segmentation model which identifies different Tumour locations in a given CT image. Active contours form a boundary around a particular part of the image based on an energy function. The energy function may include intensity values of pixels or gradient values. Chen-Vase method of active contour algorithm is adopted for image segmentation. The segmentation is done after properly masking of CT scan image. The cancer prone area is generalized prior to the masking of the image. Effected abdomen cancer can be identified for better analysis of medical experts using image processing MATLAB tools. This paper describes a new method to detect and extract the features in CT scan images, which shows good performance in detection of difficult features. And the developed technique makes use of major image processing methods and fundamentals to detect the cancer with minimum possible human interaction.

  12. Wound Image Analysis Using Contour Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sundeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the algorithm described in this paper is to segment wound images from the normal and classify them according to the types of the wound. The segmentation of wounds extravagates color representation, which has been followed by an algorithm of grayscale segmentation based on the stack mathematical approach. Accurate classification of wounds and analyzing wound healing process is a critical task for patient care and health cost reduction at hospital. The tissue uniformity and flatness leads to a simplified approach but requires multispectral imaging for enhanced wound delineation. Contour Evolution method which uses multispectral imaging replaces more complex tools such as, SVM supervised classification, as no training step is required. In Contour Evolution, classification can be done by clustering color information, with differential quantization algorithm, the color centroids of small squares taken from segmented part of the wound image in (C1,C2 plane. Where C1, C2 are two chrominance components. Wound healing is identified by measuring the size of the wound through various means like contact and noncontact methods of wound. The wound tissues proportion is also estimated by a qualitative visual assessment based on the red-yellow-black code. Moreover, involving all the spectral response of the tissue and not only RGB components provides a higher discrimination for separating healed epithelial tissue from granulation tissue.

  13. Study fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper to identify deviations fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots, determine the error pattern detected, and define the ways to solve the problem.The paper presents the research results of fidelity spatial contours done by Fanuc M- 710iC/50 industrial robot when moving along a predetermined path. The proposed method uses a QC20-W ballbar wireless system of Renishaw company, designed to diagnose the state of the measurement and playback linear and angular displacements of the CNC.The solutions to adapt the QC20-W ballbar system to the constructive peculiarities of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes are given. The stages of the preparation of diagnostic systems and software robot movements are described.According to study results of errors that arise while playing back the programmed motions of a fixed point of robot capture in three mutually perpendicular planes its practical accuracy has been defined when performing movements in a given region of the working area, thereby allowing us, eventually, to draw a conclusion on the possibility to use a robot in one technological process or another.The study has resulted in emerging the guidelines for the operation of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes. Using these guidelines enables us to increase the playback accuracy of the industrial robot to 0.01 mm.

  14. Evaluating the Efficacy of Tramadol as an Adjuvant to Intrathecal Isobaric Levobupivacaine for Elective Infraumbilical Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dewan Roshan; Mohamed, Hajer; Krishnaveni, N; Nag, Kusha

    2017-01-01

    Long-acting local anesthetics are used in subarachnoid block to increase the duration of anesthesia. Adjuvants are added to improve the duration of analgesia. Randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Department of Anesthesiology in a tertiary care hospital. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose tramadol as an intrathecal adjuvant to levobupivacaine in terms of duration of analgesia, onset of sensory blockade, onset of motor blockade, and duration of motor blockade. After obtaining the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and informed consent, sixty patients posted for infraumbilical surgeries were recruited. Randomization was done using a sealed envelope technique. Patients were divided into two groups: LT received 3 ml of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine with tramadol 10 mg (0.2 ml) and LS received 3 ml of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine with 0.2 ml of normal saline. Duration of analgesia, onset of sensory blockade, and onset and duration of motor blockade were recorded. There was no statistical difference in demographic data between the two groups. The mean onset time of sensory blockade in Group LS was 12.7 ± 9.81 min and for Group LT was 12.9 ± 0.81 min, which was not statistically significant between two groups (P = 0.93). The mean onset time of motor blockade in Group LS was 13.4 ± 10 min and for Group LT was 14.4 ± 10 min, which was no statistically significant between the two groups (P = 0.71). The mean time duration of analgesia in Group LS was 170.3 ± 59 min and for LT was 198.9 ± 57.33 min. There was mild prolongation of analgesia in Group LT, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.0615). The mean duration of motor blockade in Group LS was 170.23 ± 58 min and Group LT was 190.76 ± 4 min, which was not statistically significant between the two groups (P = 0.14). Low-dose tramadol as an adjuvant to isobaric intrathecal levobupivacaine does not prolong analgesia significantly.

  15. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics with Delta isobar and large-N_c relations

    CERN Document Server

    Granados, C

    2016-01-01

    Transverse densities describe the spatial distribution of electromagnetic current in the nucleon at fixed light-front time. At peripheral distances b = O(M_pi^{-1}) the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). Recent work has shown that the EFT results can be represented in first-quantized form, as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions describing the transition of the nucleon to soft-pion-nucleon intermediate states, resulting in a quantum-mechanical picture of the peripheral transverse densities. We now extend this representation to include intermediate states with Delta isobars and implement relations based on the large-N_c limit of QCD. We derive the wave function overlap formulas for the Delta contributions to the peripheral transverse densities by way of a three-dimensional reduction of relativistic chiral EFT expressions. Our procedure effectively maintains rotational invariance and avoids the ambiguit...

  16. Neutron density distributions of neutron-rich nuclei studied with the isobaric yield ratio difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Bai, Xiao-Man; Yu, Jiao; Wei, Hui-Ling [Henan Normal University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Xinxiang (China)

    2014-09-15

    The isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) between two reactions of similar experimental setups is found to be sensitive to nuclear density differences between projectiles. In this article, the IBD probe is used to study the density variation in neutron-rich {sup 48}Ca. By adjusting diffuseness in the neutron density distribution, three different neutron density distributions of {sup 48}Ca are obtained. The yields of fragments in the 80A MeV {sup 40,} {sup 48}Ca + {sup 12}C reactions are calculated by using a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model. It is found that the IBD results obtained from the prefragments are sensitive to the density distribution of the projectile, while the IBD results from the final fragments are less sensitive to the density distribution of the projectile. (orig.)

  17. Isobaric Identification Using Gas-Filled Time-of-Flight Measurements in an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-Jing; RUAN Xiang-Dong; HE Ming; WANG Hui-Juan; LI Guo-Qiang; WU Shao-Yong; DONG Ke-Jun; LIN Min; JIANG Shan

    2005-01-01

    @@ A gas-filled time-of-flight (GF-TOF) detector has been built and developed to improve the ability of isobaric identification in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, and a time resolution (without gas filled)of better than 350ps is achieved. The GF-TOF detector is tested by means of measuring a standard AgCl(36Cl/Cl = 7.6 × 10-9g/g) sample with the 36Cl ion energy of 64, 49 and 33MeV, respectively. 36Cl and 36S particles were successfully separated in the TOF spectra output from the GF-TOF detector. The comparison between the gas-filled time-of-flight method and the △E - E method is described. Some results relative to the GF-TOF method are given as well.

  18. Isobar channels in the production of π+π- pairs on a proton by virtual photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, V D; Mokeev, V I; Shvedunov, N V; Boluchevskii, A A; Battaglieri, M; Golovach, E N; Elouardrhiri, L; Joo, K; Isupov, E L; Ishkhanov, B S; Markov, N S; Ripani, M; Ricco, J; Sapunenko, V V; Taiuti, M; Fedotov, G V

    2007-03-01

    A new approach is developed for evaluating contributions of various isobar channels to the double charged-pion production in the reactions γ r,v p → π + π - p. This approach makes it possible to determine both respective cross sections and amplitudes for quasi-two-particle channels from a fit to data on cross sections for a three-particle final state. The diffractive anzatz, which is widely used to describe rho-meson production, is modified to meet the purpose of the description of data in the near-threshold and subthreshold regions. The cross sections for rho-meson electroproduction in the energy region of nucleon-resonance excitation are determined for the first time on the basis of the latest data of the CLAS Collaboration.

  19. Emission Spectra of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.

    2000-12-01

    A study of emission spectra of a gas-discharge plasma produced in a HgBr/HgCl excimer lamp, which is filled with multicomponent working mixtures at atmospheric pressure (HgBr2 and HgCl2 with additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon), are reported. A gas-discharge plasma was produced by high-frequency (pulses ˜100 ns long with a repetition rate of up to 2000 Hz) barrier and surface discharges, which took place simultaneously. Emission of HgBr* and HgCl* excimer molecules, the second positive system of molecular oxygen, and helium and xenon lines in the UV, visible, and IR spectral regions was observed. The strongest emission of HgBr* and HgCl* molecules (the emission intensities were in the ratio 10:1) was observed in the HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixture. Regularities in spectral and integrated characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  20. Predictive Modeling of Complex Contoured Composite Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The existing HDWLT (pictured) contoured composite structure design, its analyses and manufacturing tools, will be used to validate key analyses inputs through...

  1. A new algorithm of brain volume contours segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建明; 施鹏飞

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores brain CT slices segmentation technique and some related problems, including contours segmentation algorithms, edge detector, algorithm evaluation and experimental results. This article describes a method for contour-based segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical data sets. With this method, the user manually traces one or more 2D contours of an anatomical structure of interest on parallel planes arbitrarily cutting the data set. The experimental results showes the segmentation based on 3D brain volume and 2D CT slices. The main creative contributions in this paper are: (1) contours segmentation algorithm; (2) edge detector; (3) algorithm evaluation.

  2. Probabilistic contour extraction based on shape prior model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; LIANG De-qun

    2005-01-01

    Statistical shape prior model is employed to construct the dynamics in probabilistic contour estimation.By applying principal component analysis,plausible shape samples are efficiently generated to predict contour samples.Based on the shape-dependent dynamics and probabilistic image model,a particle filter is used to estimate the contour with a specific shape.Compared with the deterministic approach with shape information,the proposed method is simple yet more effective in extracting contours from images with shape variations and occlusion.

  3. Effects of Spatial Frequency Similarity and Dissimilarity on Contour Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Persike

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of spatial frequency similarity and dissimilarity on human contour integration under various conditions of uncertainty. Participants performed a temporal 2AFC contour detection task. Spatial frequency jitter up to 3.0 octaves was applied either to background elements, or to contour and background elements, or to none of both. Results converge on four major findings. (1 Contours defined by spatial frequency similarity alone are only scarcely visible, suggesting the absence of specialized cortical routines for shape detection based on spatial frequency similarity. (2 When orientation collinearity and spatial frequency similarity are combined along a contour, performance amplifies far beyond probability summation when compared to the fully heterogenous condition but only to a margin compatible with probability summation when compared to the fully homogenous case. (3 Psychometric functions are steeper but not shifted for homogenous contours in heterogenous backgrounds indicating an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. The additional similarity cue therefore not so much improves contour detection performance but primarily reduces observer uncertainty about whether a potential candidate is a contour or just a false positive. (4 Contour integration is a broadband mechanism which is only moderately impaired by spatial frequency dissimilarity.

  4. HgTe-CdTe SUPERLATTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D; Mcgill, T.

    1984-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of the electronic properties of HgTe-CdTe superlattices. The band gap as a function of layer thickness, effective masses normal to the layer plane and tunneling length are compared to the corresponding (Hg, Cd)Te alloys. We find that the superlattice possesses a number of properties that may make it superior to the corresponding alloy as an infrared material.

  5. Geological, isothermal, and isobaric 3-D model construction in early stage of geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, M. P.; Suryantini; Catigtig, D.; Regandara, R.; Asnin, S. N.; Pratama, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    Construction of geology, thermal anomaly and pressure distribution of a geothermal system in the early stage of exploration where data is limited is described using a 3-D software, Leapfrog Geothermal. The geological 3-D model was developed from a topographic map (derived from DEM data), geological map and literature studies reported in an early geological survey. The isothermal 3-D model was constructed using reservoir temperature estimation from geothermometry calculated from chemical analyses on surface manifestations, available shallow gradient temperature hole data and the normal gradient temperature (3°C/100m) for a nonthermal area. The isobaric 3-D model was built using hydrostatic pressure where the hydrostatic pressure is determined by the product of the fluid density, acceleration due to gravity, and depth. Fluid density is given by saturated liquid density as a function of temperature. There are some constraints on the modelling result such as (1) within the predicted reservoir, the geothermal gradient is not constant but continues to increase, thus, creating an anomalously high temperature at depth, and (2) the lithology model is made by interpolating and extrapolating cross-sections whereas usually only two to three geology sections were available for this study. Hence, the modeller must understand the geology. An additional cross section was developed by the modeller which may not be as suitable as the geologist constructed sections. The results of this study can be combined with geophysical data such as gravity, geomagnetic, micro-tremor and resistivity data. The combination of geological, geochemical, isothermal, isobaric and geophysical data could be used in (1) estimating the geometry and size of the geothermal reservoir, (2) predicting the depth of top reservoir, and (3) creating well prognosis for exploration and production wells.

  6. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism under isobaric heating: New evidence from the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiong-Yan; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki

    2014-12-01

    The Khondalite Belt within Inner Mongolia Suture Zone (IMSZ) in the North China Craton (NCC) preserves evidence for extreme crustal metamorphism under ultra-high temperature (UHT) conditions at ca. 1.92 Ga, associated with the subduction-collision tectonics between the Yinshan and Ordos Blocks. Here we report a new locality in Hongsigou where cordierite- and spinel-bearing granulites record UHT metamorphism. The prograde, peak, and retrograde mineral assemblages in these pelitic granulites have been identified based on petrography and mineral chemistry as: Bt1 + Grt1 + Sil1 + Kfs1 + Pl1 + Ilm + Qtz1, Grt1 + Sil2 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Spl + Ilm + Qtz2 + Liq, and Crd + Grt2 + Sil3 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Ilm + Qtz2 respectively. The peak metamorphic conditions of the pelitic granulite were estimated as 930-1050 °C and 6.5-7.5 kbar based on pseudosection analysis in the system NCKFMASHTO, suggesting extreme thermal metamorphism. We report LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data from the granulite which show weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1881 ± 6.6 Ma, marking the timing of UHT metamorphism. Lu-Hf analyses of the zircons show εHf(t) values within a restricted range of -4.2 to 0.3 and together with Hf model ages, a Paleoproterozoic arc magmatic source is inferred for the detrital zircons. The estimated P-T path for the UHT granulite suggests isobaric heating followed by cooling and decompression along a clockwise trajectory, different from the anti-clockwise P-T paths defined in earlier studies for the 1.92 Ga UHT rocks from the IMSZ. The younger age and the isobaric heating trajectory suggest that the Hongsigou UHT rocks are related to heat input from underplated mafic magmas following continental collision.

  7. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qun-feng; WANG Cheng-yun; WANG Da-hui; SUN Guan; XU Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed.

  8. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Petr; Bukowski, Michael; Rosenberger, Thad A; Picklo, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PCs. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PCs. This approach is comprised of two MS methods: a precursor ion scanning (PIS) of mass m/z 184 in positive mode (PIS m/z +184) and MS(3) fragmentation in negative mode, both performed on the same instrument, a hybrid triple quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. The MS(3) experiment identified the FA composition and the relative abundance of isobaric and sn-1, sn-2 positional isomeric PC species, which were subsequently combined with absolute quantitative data obtained by PIS m/z +184 scan. This approach was applied to the analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology human blood plasma standard reference material (SRM 1950). We quantified more than 70 PCs and confirmed that a majority are present in isobaric and isomeric mixtures. The FA content determined by this method was comparable to that obtained using GC with flame ionization detection, supporting the quantitative nature of this MS method. This methodology will provide more in-depth biomarker information for clinical and mechanistic studies.

  9. Measurements of the densities, isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene in large liquid scintillator detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ding, Yayun; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We report the measurements of the densities of linear alkylbenzene at three temperatures over 4 to 23 Celsius degree with pressures up to 10 MPa. The measurements have been analysed to yield the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and, so far for the first time, isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene.

  10. 46 CFR 53.05-1 - Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG... requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401). (a) The pressure relief valve requirements and the safety valve requirements for steam boilers must be as indicated in HG-400 and HG-401 of section IV...

  11. Investigation of Hg uptake and transport between paddy soil and rice seeds combining Hg isotopic composition and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human consumption of rice constitutes a potential toxicological risk in mercury (Hg polluted areas such as Hg mining regions in China. It is recognized to be an important source of Hg for the local human diet considering the efficient bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg in rice seed. To assess Hg sources and uptake pathways to the rice plants, Hg speciation and isotopic composition were investigated in rice seeds and their corresponding paddy soils from different locations within the Wanshan Hg mining area (Guizhou Province, China. A large variation of Hg speciation is observed in rice seeds and paddy soils irrespective of the sampling location. Mass dependent fractionation (MDF of Hg in rice seeds differs by up to ∼4.0 ‰ in δ202Hg values, while mass independent fractionation (MIF of Hg isotopes remains constant (Δ199Hg ∼ 0‰. Hg isotopic composition in rice seeds covaries with that of paddy soils but exhibits lighter isotopic signature (δ202Hg. Such isotopic offset is mainly attributed to plant uptake and translocation processes. Also, seeds containing higher MeHg (MeHg/total Hg > 50% have significantly heavier Hg isotopes suggesting that MeHg uptake and transport to the seed in such rice plants is facilitated compared to inorganic Hg.

  12. India-Pakistan: Contours of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Mittal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even after about 70 years of separation, India and Pakistan continue to live in the prison of the past. The rhetoric of partition is still alive in the memory of the people of both the countries. They have constructed fixed, unchanging and competing images for each other. While Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, India adopted secularism, thereby, negating the two-nation theory. The ‘differences’ along with memories of partition has made Indian and Pakistani to remain in permanent hostile situation. The leaders of the two countries try to settle their disputes but fails because of lack of support from their social and political institutions. Since its coming into power in 2014, the NDA government under the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has managed to engage the Pakistani establishment, despite many problems between the two countries. This article tries to highlight upon the contours of relationships post-2014.

  13. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  14. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  15. Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and methyl mercury in Hg accumulation and toxicity in weanling and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Li, Wen-Kai; Hou, Wei-Yu; Luo, Ya; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Li, Cen; Wei, Li-Xin; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-15

    Mercury sulfides are used in Ayurvedic medicines, Tibetan medicines, and Chinese medicines for thousands of years and are still used today. Cinnabar (α-HgS) and metacinnabar (β-HgS) are different from mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (MeHg) in their disposition and toxicity. Whether such scenario applies to weanling and aged animals is not known. To address this question, weanling (21d) and aged (450d) rats were orally given Zuotai (54% β-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgS (α-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgCl2 (34.6mg/kg), or MeHg (MeHgCl, 3.2mg/kg) for 7days. Accumulation of Hg in kidney and liver, and the toxicity-sensitive gene expressions were examined. Animal body weight gain was decreased by HgCl2 and to a lesser extent by MeHg, but unaltered after Zuotai and HgS. HgCl2 and MeHg produced dramatic tissue Hg accumulation, increased kidney (kim-1 and Ngal) and liver (Ho-1) injury-sensitive gene expressions, but such changes are absent or mild after Zuotai and HgS. Aged rats were more susceptible than weanling rats to Hg toxicity. To examine roles of transporters in Hg accumulation, transporter gene expressions were examined. The expression of renal uptake transporters Oat1, Oct2, and Oatp4c1 and hepatic Oatp2 was decreased, while the expression of renal efflux transporter Mrp2, Mrp4 and Mdr1b was increased following HgCl2 and MeHg, but unaffected by Zuotai and HgS. Thus, Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and MeHg in producing tissue Hg accumulation and toxicity, and aged rats are more susceptible than weanling rats. Transporter expression could be adaptive means to reduce tissue Hg burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CMOS image sensor with contour enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liya; Lai, Xiaofeng; Chen, Kun; Yuan, Xianghui

    2010-10-01

    Imitating the signal acquisition and processing of vertebrate retina, a CMOS image sensor with bionic pre-processing circuit is designed. Integration of signal-process circuit on-chip can reduce the requirement of bandwidth and precision of the subsequent interface circuit, and simplify the design of the computer-vision system. This signal pre-processing circuit consists of adaptive photoreceptor, spatial filtering resistive network and Op-Amp calculation circuit. The adaptive photoreceptor unit with a dynamic range of approximately 100 dB has a good self-adaptability for the transient changes in light intensity instead of intensity level itself. Spatial low-pass filtering resistive network used to mimic the function of horizontal cell, is composed of the horizontal resistor (HRES) circuit and OTA (Operational Transconductance Amplifier) circuit. HRES circuit, imitating dendrite of the neuron cell, comprises of two series MOS transistors operated in weak inversion region. Appending two diode-connected n-channel transistors to a simple transconductance amplifier forms the OTA Op-Amp circuit, which provides stable bias voltage for the gate of MOS transistors in HRES circuit, while serves as an OTA voltage follower to provide input voltage for the network nodes. The Op-Amp calculation circuit with a simple two-stage Op-Amp achieves the image contour enhancing. By adjusting the bias voltage of the resistive network, the smoothing effect can be tuned to change the effect of image's contour enhancement. Simulations of cell circuit and 16×16 2D circuit array are implemented using CSMC 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process.

  17. Local probing of Hg neighboorhood in HgBa$_{2}$CuO$_{4+\\delta}$

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Loureiro, S M; Toulemonde, P; Le Floc'h, S; Bordet, P; Capponi, J J; Gatt, R; Tröger, W; Ctortecka, B; Butz, T; Haas, H; Marques, J G; Soares, J C

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients (EFG) on mercury sites of the Hg1201 high-TC superconductors were measured with the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique. In Hg1201 samples where PAC detects higher oxygen content the EFGs have decreased to lower values indicating an elongation of the Hg-apical oxygen dumb-bell. On the same samples the asymmetry parameter of the EFG becomes non-zero below 100 K, showing that the charge distribution near the Hg-apical oxygen chain becomes non-axially symmetric at low temperature.

  18. Complexation of Hg with phytochelatins is important for plant Hg tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Millán, Rocío; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Leduc, Danika L; Andrews, Joy C; Abadía, Javier; Hernández, Luís E

    2011-05-01

    Three-week-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and maize (Zea mays) were exposed for 7 d to 30 µm of mercury (HgCl(2) ) to characterize the Hg speciation in root, with no symptoms of being poisoned. The largest pool (99%) was associated with the particulate fraction, whereas the soluble fraction (SF) accounted for a minor proportion (phytochelatins (PCs) in root SF, which was particularly varied in alfalfa (eight ligands and five stoichiometries), a species that also accumulated homophytochelatins. Spatial localization of Hg in alfalfa roots by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy showed that most of the Hg co-localized with sulphur in the vascular cylinder. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fingerprint fitting revealed that Hg was bound in vivo to organic-S compounds, i.e. biomolecules containing cysteine. Albeit a minor proportion of total Hg, Hg-PCs complexes in the SF might be important for tolerance to Hg, as was found with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants cad2-1 (with low glutathione content) and cad1-3 (unable to synthesize PCs) in comparison with wild type plants. Interestingly, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight analysis showed that none of these mutants accumulated Hg-biothiol complexes.

  19. 32 CFR 707.5 - Underway replenishment contour lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underway replenishment contour lights. 707.5... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.5 Underway replenishment contour lights... underway replenishment operations, either red or blue lights at delivery-ship-deck-edge extremities....

  20. A bit-level systolic array for digital contour smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nikolai; Sloboda, Fridrich

    1989-01-01

    Linear operators for digital contour smoothing are described. These operators are defined by circulant Toeplitz matrices and allow to smooth digital contours in the least-squares sense. They minimize the undersampling, digitizing and quantizing error and allow to calculate invariants, such as curvat

  1. Compressing industrial computed tomography images by means of contour coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haina; Zeng, Li

    2013-10-01

    An improved method for compressing industrial computed tomography (CT) images is presented. To have higher resolution and precision, the amount of industrial CT data has become larger and larger. Considering that industrial CT images are approximately piece-wise constant, we develop a compression method based on contour coding. The traditional contour-based method for compressing gray images usually needs two steps. The first is contour extraction and then compression, which is negative for compression efficiency. So we merge the Freeman encoding idea into an improved method for two-dimensional contours extraction (2-D-IMCE) to improve the compression efficiency. By exploiting the continuity and logical linking, preliminary contour codes are directly obtained simultaneously with the contour extraction. By that, the two steps of the traditional contour-based compression method are simplified into only one. Finally, Huffman coding is employed to further losslessly compress preliminary contour codes. Experimental results show that this method can obtain a good compression ratio as well as keeping satisfactory quality of compressed images.

  2. Influence of Endwall Contouring on the Secondary Flow in Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Da-wei; QIAO Wei-yang; XU Kai-fu

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the endwall contouring on the secondary flow in turbine nozzle guide vane. The three contoured cascades with the same contouring profile and the different positions where the contoured profile locates at are researched. The results show that the contouring configuration can reduce the aerodynamic losses of the cascade. The flat side takes advantage of a stronger decrease of the losses, compared to the contoured side. The contouring configuration can also inhibit the secondary flow. The contoured cascade in which the contouring profile starts upstream of the airfoil, ends at the middle of the airfoil has the best effect of improving secondary flow.

  3. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Schoeller, M; Savanov, I; Arlt, R; Castelli, F; Curto, G Lo; Briquet, M; Dall, T H

    2012-01-01

    The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. We re-analyse available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD19400, using FORS2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We downloaded from the ESO archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudina...

  4. HgCdTe barrier infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, new strategies to achieve high-operating temperature (HOT) detectors have been proposed, including barrier structures such as nBn devices, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage (cascade) infrared detectors. The ability to tune the positions of the conduction and valence band edges independently in a broken-gap type-II superlattices is especially helpful in the design of unipolar barriers. This idea has been also implemented in HgCdTe ternary material system. However, the implementation of this detector structure in HgCdTe material system is not straightforward due to the existence of a valence band discontinuity (barrier) at the absorber-barrier interface. In this paper we present status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with emphasis on technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown HgCdTe barrier detectors achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. From the perspective of device fabrication their important technological advantage results from less stringent surface passivation requirements and tolerance to threading dislocations.

  5. Contour polygonal approximation using shortest path in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Backes, André Ricardo; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

    2013-01-01

    Contour polygonal approximation is a simplified representation of a contour by line segments, so that the main characteristics of the contour remain in a small number of line segments. This paper presents a novel method for polygonal approximation based on the Complex Networks theory. We convert each point of the contour into a vertex, so that we model a regular network. Then we transform this network into a Small-World Complex Network by applying some transformations over its edges. By analyzing of network properties, especially the geodesic path, we compute the polygonal approximation. The paper presents the main characteristics of the method, as well as its functionality. We evaluate the proposed method using benchmark contours, and compare its results with other polygonal approximation methods.

  6. Tensor-SIFT based Earth Mover's Distance for Contour Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Peihua

    2010-01-01

    Contour tracking in adverse environments is a challenging problem due to cluttered background, illumination variation, occlusion, and noise, among others. This paper presents a robust contour tracking method by contributing to some of the key issues involved, including (a) a region functional formulation and its optimization; (b) design of a robust and effective feature; and (c) development of an integrated tracking algorithm. First, we formulate a region functional based on robust Earth Mover's distance (EMD) with kernel density for distribution modeling, and propose a two-phase method for its optimization. In the first phase, letting the candidate contour be fixed, we express EMD as the transportation problem and solve it by the simplex algorithm. Next, using the theory of shape derivative, we make a perturbation analysis of the contour around the best solution to the transportation problem. This leads to a partial differential equation (PDE) that governs the contour evolution. Second, we design a novel and...

  7. Contour-Based Surface Reconstruction using MPU Implicit Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Ilya; Marker, Jeffrey; Museth, Ken; Nissanov, Jonathan; Breen, David

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a technique for creating a smooth, closed surface from a set of 2D contours, which have been extracted from a 3D scan. The technique interprets the pixels that make up the contours as points in ℝ(3) and employs Multi-level Partition of Unity (MPU) implicit models to create a surface that approximately fits to the 3D points. Since MPU implicit models additionally require surface normal information at each point, an algorithm that estimates normals from the contour data is also described. Contour data frequently contains noise from the scanning and delineation process. MPU implicit models provide a superior approach to the problem of contour-based surface reconstruction, especially in the presence of noise, because they are based on adaptive implicit functions that locally approximate the points within a controllable error bound. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique with a number of example datasets, providing images and error statistics generated from our results.

  8. Contour integration and segmentation with a new lateral connections model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chao

    2011-11-01

    Automatically target contour detection from cluttered scenes is a very difficult task for computer vision. Humans, however, have a much better background suppress ability. The preceding models could not implement such a task very well. In this letter, an effective contour integration method based on human visual perception mechanism is proposed. The algorithm combines the properties of primary visual cortex and psychology researching results to simulate the contour perception of the V1 cortex. The new lateral connection based computational model have a better texture suppress ability, while, target's contour is enhanced. Compared with traditional methods, experiments show that the new method implement a more reasonable simulation of the V1 function structure, availably enhance the target's contour while suppress the cluttered background, obtain a balance between over and lose detection, besides, it has better accuracy with less computational complexity and time-consuming.

  9. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Concussion: Arterial Pulse Contour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F La Fountaine

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The arterial pulse wave (APW has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate, it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW, has yet to be described. A prospective, parallel-group study on cardiovascular autonomic control (i.e., digital electrocardiogram and continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure was performed in the seated upright position in ten athletes with concussion and 7 non-injured control athletes. Changes in APW were compared at rest and during the first 60 seconds (F60 of an isometric handgrip test (IHGT in concussed athletes and non-injured controls within 48 hours (48hr and 1 week (1wk of injury. The concussion group was further separated by the length of time until they were permitted to return to play (RTP>1wk; RTP≤1wk. SysSlope, an indirect measurement of stroke volume, was significantly lower in the concussion group at rest and during F60 at 48hr and 1wk; a paradoxical decline in SysSlope occurred at each visit during the transition from rest to IHGT F60. The RTP>1wk group had lower SysSlope (405±200; 420±88; 454±236 mmHg/s, respectively at rest 48hr compared to the RTP≤1wk and controls. Similarly at 48hr rest, several measurements of arterial stiffness were abnormal in RTP>1wk compared to RTP≤1wk and controls: Peak-to-Notch Latency (0.12±0.04; 0.16±0.02; 0.17±0.05, respectively, Notch Relative Amplitude (0.70±0.03; 0.71±0.04; 0.66±0.14, respectively and Stiffness Index (6.4±0.2; 5.7±0.4; 5.8±0.5, respectively. Use of APW revealed that concussed athletes have a transient increase in peripheral artery

  10. Complexation of Hg with phytochelatins is important for plant Hg tolerance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CARRASCO‐GIL, SANDRA; ÁLVAREZ‐FERNÁNDEZ, ANA; SOBRINO‐PLATA, JUAN; MILLÁN, ROCÍO; CARPENA‐RUIZ, RAMÓN O; LEDUC, DANIKA L; ANDREWS, JOY C; ABADÍA, JAVIER; HERNÁNDEZ, LUÍS E

    2011-01-01

    Three‐week‐old alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ), barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) and maize ( Zea mays ) were exposed for 7 d to 30  µ m of mercury (HgCl 2 ) to characterize the Hg speciation in root, with no symptoms of being poisoned...

  11. Temporal Characteristics of Emission of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.; Polyak, A. V.; Zubrilin, N. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2001-12-01

    Results of a study of temporal characteristics of the emission of gas-discharge plasma of atmospheric pressure in multicomponent mixtures (mercury dibromide and dichloride with helium and additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon) of working media of HgBr/HgCl excimer lamps are presented. Gas-discharge plasma was produced and components of the working mixture were excited by high-frequency barrier and surface discharges occurring simultaneously. The repetition rate of the pumping pulse and its duration are 1000 Hz and ˜100 ns, respectively. It is found that the amplitude and the length of emission pulses and their trailing edge are modified in HgBr2: HgCl2: Xe: He and HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixtures when xenon and molecular nitrogen are added, as compared to a HgBr2: HgCl2: He mixture. Regularities observed in temporal characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  12. Ground-state potential energy curves of LiHg, NaHg, and KHg revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Linda; Hotop, Hartmut; Meyer, Wilfried

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of large-scale CCSD(T) calculations on the potential energy curves for the ground states of LiHg, NaHg, and KHg. In these calculations, the Hg20+ core is simulated by a pseudopotential which has been adjusted to reproduce experimental excitation and ionization energies of the Hg atom at the coupled-cluster level. Moreover, we apply a weighted multiproperty fitting procedure to determine reliable potentials for LiHg, NaHg, and KHg which reproduce the available experimental results. In the case of LiHg, this best-fit potential is based solely on experimental data and its agreement with our calculated potential supports our computational procedure. For NaHg and KHg the experimental data had to be complemented by theoretical results in order to fix a best-fit potential. Our potentials and those proposed previously are evaluated by comparing calculated scattering cross sections and vibrational energy levels with the available experimental data.

  13. Isobaric multiplet mass equation in the A =31 ,T =3 /2 quartets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M. B.; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Fry, C.; Glassman, B. E.; Langer, C.; Larson, N. R.; McNeice, E. I.; Meisel, Z.; Ong, W.; O'Malley, P. D.; Pain, S. D.; Prokop, C. J.; Schwartz, S. B.; Suchyta, S.; Thompson, P.; Walters, M.; Xu, X.

    2016-06-01

    Background: The observed mass excesses of analog nuclear states with the same mass number A and isospin T can be used to test the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME), which has, in most cases, been validated to a high degree of precision. A recent measurement [Kankainen et al., Phys. Rev. C 93, 041304(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.041304] of the ground-state mass of 31Cl led to a substantial breakdown of the IMME for the lowest A =31 ,T =3 /2 quartet. The second-lowest A =31 ,T =3 /2 quartet is not complete, due to uncertainties associated with the identity of the 31S member state. Purpose: Our goal is to populate the two lowest T =3 /2 states in 31S and use the data to investigate the influence of isospin mixing on tests of the IMME in the two lowest A =31 ,T =3 /2 quartets. Methods: Using a fast 31Cl beam implanted into a plastic scintillator and a high-purity Ge γ -ray detection array, γ rays from the 31Cl(β γ )31S sequence were measured. Shell-model calculations using USDB and the recently-developed USDE interactions were performed for comparison. Results: Isospin mixing between the 31S isobaric analog state (IAS) at 6279.0(6) keV and a nearby state at 6390.2(7) keV was observed. The second T =3 /2 state in 31S was observed at Ex=7050.0 (8 ) keV. Calculations using both USDB and USDE predict a triplet of isospin-mixed states, including the lowest T =3 /2 state in 31P, mirroring the observed mixing in 31S, and two isospin-mixed triplets including the second-lowest T =3 /2 states in both 31S and 31P. Conclusions: Isospin mixing in 31S does not by itself explain the IMME breakdown in the lowest quartet, but it likely points to similar isospin mixing in the mirror nucleus 31P, which would result in a perturbation of the 31P IAS energy. USDB and USDE calculations both predict candidate 31P states responsible for the mixing in the energy region slightly above Ex=6400 keV. The second quartet has been completed thanks to the identification of the second 31S T

  14. Quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The nucleus {sup 192}Hg plays a pivotal role for superdeformation in the mass 190 region, since calculations of single-particle levels show large shell-gaps for the superdeformed (SD) shape at N = 112 and Z = 80. As a result, {sup 192}Hg is referred to as the doubly magic SD nucleus for the A = 190 region. In previous studies, only one superdeformed band was observed in this nucleus, and this fact was cited as indirect evidence that large shell gaps do indeed exist at the proposed particle numbers.

  15. Electric field gradients in Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved by compar......We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved...

  16. Directed random polymers via nested contour integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Alexei; Bufetov, Alexey; Corwin, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    We study the partition function of two versions of the continuum directed polymer in 1 + 1 dimension. In the full-space version, the polymer starts at the origin and is free to move transversally in R, and in the half-space version, the polymer starts at the origin but is reflected at the origin and stays in R-. The partition functions solve the stochastic heat equation in full-space or half-space with mixed boundary condition at the origin; or equivalently the free energy satisfies the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. We derive exact formulas for the Laplace transforms of the partition functions. In the full-space this is expressed as a Fredholm determinant while in the half-space this is expressed as a Fredholm Pfaffian. Taking long-time asymptotics we show that the limiting free energy fluctuations scale with exponent 1 / 3 and are given by the GUE and GSE Tracy-Widom distributions. These formulas come from summing divergent moment generating functions, hence are not mathematically justified. The primary purpose of this work is to present a mathematical perspective on the polymer replica method which is used to derive these results. In contrast to other replica method work, we do not appeal directly to the Bethe ansatz for the Lieb-Liniger model but rather utilize nested contour integral formulas for moments as well as their residue expansions.

  17. Refined contour analysis of giant unilamellar vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécréaux, J.; Döbereiner, H.-G.; Prost, J.; Joanny, J.-F.; Bassereau, P.

    2004-03-01

    The fluctuation spectrum of giant unilamellar vesicles is measured using a high-resolution contour detection technique. An analysis at higher q vectors than previously achievable is now possible due to technical improvements of the experimental setup and of the detection algorithm. The global fluctuation spectrum is directly fitted to deduce the membrane tension and the bending modulus of lipid membranes. Moreover, we show that the planar analysis of fluctuations is valid for spherical objects, even at low wave vectors. Corrections due to the integration time of the video camera and to the section of a 3D object by the observation plane are introduced. A precise calculation of the error bars has been done in order to provide reliable error estimate. Eventually, using this technique, we have measured bending moduli for EPC, SOPC and \\chem{SOPC:CHOL} membranes confirming previously published values. An interesting application of this technique can be the measurement of the fluctuation spectra for non-equilibrium membranes, such as “active membranes”.

  18. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  19. Hybrid Parallel Contour Trees, Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-03

    A common operation in scientific visualization is to compute and render a contour of a data set. Given a function of the form f : R^d -> R, a level set is defined as an inverse image f^-1(h) for an isovalue h, and a contour is a single connected component of a level set. The Reeb graph can then be defined to be the result of contracting each contour to a single point, and is well defined for Euclidean spaces or for general manifolds. For simple domains, the graph is guaranteed to be a tree, and is called the contour tree. Analysis can then be performed on the contour tree in order to identify isovalues of particular interest, based on various metrics, and render the corresponding contours, without having to know such isovalues a priori. This code is intended to be the first data-parallel algorithm for computing contour trees. Our implementation will use the portable data-parallel primitives provided by Nvidia’s Thrust library, allowing us to compile our same code for both GPUs and multi-core CPUs. Native OpenMP and purely serial versions of the code will likely also be included. It will also be extended to provide a hybrid data-parallel / distributed algorithm, allowing scaling beyond a single GPU or CPU.

  20. The prevalence of body contouring surgery after gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Kubiena, Harald; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    As bariatric surgery has become more popular, more patients are undergoing body contouring surgery after massive weight loss. Many of the surgical procedures performed on the massive weight loss patient are complex and labor-intensive. Therefore, the plastic surgery unit needs to be prepared for a patient's demand. Little literature is available on how frequently patients who have undergone gastric bypass surgery receive body contouring surgery. Two hundred fifty-two subjects (out of 425 who were mailed the questionnaire) who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009 completed the questionnaire, which obtained information on body image satisfaction and frequency of body contouring surgery after massive weight loss. Of all patients, 74% desire a body contouring surgery after gastric bypass surgery. Fifty-three patients (21%) have undergone a total of 61 body contouring procedures. The most common were abdominoplasties (59%), followed by lower body lifts (20%). In contrast to a positive judgment of the general aspect of the body image satisfaction after massive weight loss, both genders are unsatisfied with body areas like abdomen/waist, breast, and thighs. Paralleling the increasing use of bariatric surgery, there is a high demand for body contouring surgery. A huge disparity exists between the number of subjects who desire a body contouring surgery and those who actually received it.

  1. GPU based contouring method on grid DEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liheng; Wan, Gang; Li, Feng; Chen, Xiaohui; Du, Wenlong

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method to generate contour lines from grid DEM data based on the programmable GPU pipeline. The previous contouring approaches often use CPU to construct a finite element mesh from the raw DEM data, and then extract contour segments from the elements. They also need a tracing or sorting strategy to generate the final continuous contours. These approaches can be heavily CPU-costing and time-consuming. Meanwhile the generated contours would be unsmooth if the raw data is sparsely distributed. Unlike the CPU approaches, we employ the GPU's vertex shader to generate a triangular mesh with arbitrary user-defined density, in which the height of each vertex is calculated through a third-order Cardinal spline function. Then in the same frame, segments are extracted from the triangles by the geometry shader, and translated to the CPU-side with an internal order in the GPU's transform feedback stage. Finally we propose a ;Grid Sorting; algorithm to achieve the continuous contour lines by travelling the segments only once. Our method makes use of multiple stages of GPU pipeline for computation, which can generate smooth contour lines, and is significantly faster than the previous CPU approaches. The algorithm can be easily implemented with OpenGL 3.3 API or higher on consumer-level PCs.

  2. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  3. MBE Growth and Characterization of Hg Based Compounds and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-03

    The molecular beam epitaxy ( MBE ) growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride (Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te) alloys and type III HgTe/Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te heterostructures has...been discussed, including similarities and differences between the (0 0 1) and (1 1 2)Beta orientations. Furthermore, the MBE growth of HgTe-based

  4. Phenylselenolate Mercury Alkyl Compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt: Molecular Structures, Protolytic Hg-C Bond Cleavage and Phenylselenolate Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Quinlivan, Patrick J; Rong, Yi; Parkin, Gerard

    2016-01-08

    The phenylselenolate mercury alkyl compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt, have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, thereby demonstrating that both compounds are monomeric with approximately linear coordination geometries; the mercury centers do, nevertheless, exhibit secondary Hg•••Se intermolecular interactions that serve to increase the coordination number in the solid state. The ethyl derivative, PhSeHgEt, undergoes facile protolytic cleavage of the Hg-C bond to release ethane at room temperature, whereas PhSeHgMe exhibits little reactivity under similar conditions. Interestingly, the cleavage of the Hg-C bond of PhSeHgEt is also more facile than that of the thiolate analogue, PhSHgEt, which demonstrates that coordination by selenium promotes protolytic cleavage of the mercury-carbon bond. The phenylselenolate compounds PhSeHgR (R = Me, Et) also undergo degenerate exchange reactions with, for example, PhSHgR and RHgCl. In each case, the alkyl groups preserve coupling to the (199)Hg nuclei, thereby indicating that the exchange process involves metathesis of the Hg-SePh/Hg-X groups rather than metathesis of the Hg-R/Hg-R groups.

  5. The application of 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy to define the biological chemistry of HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranzo, Olga; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Ryu, Seung-baek;

    2007-01-01

    H values and at peptide/HgII ratios of 3:1 with an unusual trigonal thiolate coordination mode. The resulting HgII complexes are good water-soluble models for HgII binding to the protein MerR. We have carried out a parallel study using 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy...... to characterize the distinct species that are generated under different pH conditions and peptide TRI L9C/HgII ratios. These studies prove for the first time the formation of [Hg{(TRI L9C)2-(TRI L9C H)}], a dithiolate-HgII complex in the hydrophobic interior of the three-stranded coiled coil (TRI L9C)3. 199Hg NMR...... and 199mHg PAC data demonstrate that this dithiolate-HgII complex is different from the dithiolate [Hg(TRI L9C)2], and that the presence of third -helix, containing a protonated cysteine, breaks the symmetry of the coordination environment present in the complex [Hg(TRI L9C)2]. As the pH is raised...

  6. Sensitivity of N/Z ratio in projectile break-up of isobaric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary break-up of projectile-like fragments in non central heavy-ion collisions follows different decay patterns, from equilibrated emission towards dynamical (prompt fission. Recently, comparing two systems with different N/Z in the entrance channel, it has been shown that the dynamical emission cross-section is enhanced for the most neutron rich system while the statistical emission cross-section is independent from the isotopic composition. In order to understand this dependence and disentangle it from the initial size of the nuclei, we have studied the two isobaric systems 124Xe+64 Zn and 124Xe+64 Ni at 35 A MeV (InKiIsSy experiment, in comparison with the previous studied reactions (124Sn +64 Ni and 112Sn +58 Ni at the same bombarding energy. We present the first results evidencing a striking similar effect in the dynamical decay as a function of the N/Z of the target for equal size systems.

  7. Type II shell evolution in A = 70 isobars from the N ≥ 40 island of inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Watanabe, H.; Tsunoda, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Nishimura, S.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y.; Lorusso, G.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Baba, H.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Isobe, T.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoybjor, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Sahin, E.; Sohler, D.; Schaffner, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2017-02-01

    The level structures of 70Co and 70Ni, populated from the β decay of 70Fe, have been investigated using β-delayed γ-ray spectroscopy following in-flight fission of a 238U beam. The experimental results are compared to Monte-Carlo Shell-Model calculations including the pf +g9/2 +d5/2 orbitals. The strong population of a (1+) state at 274 keV in 70Co is at variance with the expected excitation energy of ∼1 MeV from near spherical single-particle estimates. This observation indicates a dominance of prolate-deformed intruder configurations in the low-lying levels, which coexist with the normal near spherical states. It is shown that the β decay of the neutron-rich A = 70 isobars from the new island of inversion to the Z = 28 closed-shell regime progresses in accordance with a newly reported type of shell evolution, the so-called Type II, which involves many particle-hole excitations across energy gaps.

  8. Proteomic analysis of astrocytic secretion that regulates neurogenesis using quantitative amine-specific isobaric tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hu; Zhou, Wenhao [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Wei, Liming; Zhong, Fan [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Roda, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yyang@shmu.edu.cn [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China)

    2010-01-08

    Astrocytes are essential components of neurogenic niches that affect neurogenesis through membrane association and/or the release of soluble factors. To identify factors released from astrocytes that could regulate neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation, we used mild oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to inhibit the secretory capacity of astrocytes. Using the Transwell co-culture system, we found that OGD-treated astrocytes could not promote neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Next, isobaric tagging for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics techniques was performed to identify the proteins in the supernatants of astrocytes (with or without OGD). Through a multi-step analysis and gene ontology classification, 130 extracellular proteins were identified, most of which were involved in neuronal development, the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix composition and supportive functions. Of these proteins, 44 had never been reported to be produced by astrocytes. Using ProteinPilot software analysis, we found that 60 extracellular proteins were significantly altered (27 upregulated and 33 downregulated) in the supernatant of OGD-treated astrocytes. Among these proteins, 7 have been reported to be able to regulate neurogenesis, while others may have the potential to regulate neurogenesis. This study profiles the major proteins released by astrocytes, which play important roles in the modulation of neurogenesis.

  9. Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation with Isobaric-Isothermal and Gibbs-NPT Ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Shouhong

    2012-05-01

    This thesis presents Monte Carlo methods for simulations of phase behaviors of Lennard-Jones fluids. The isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble and Gibbs-NPT ensemble are introduced in detail. NPT ensemble is employed to determine the phase diagram of pure component. The reduced simulation results are verified by comparison with the equation of state by by Johnson et al. and results with L-J parameters of methane agree considerably with the experiment measurements. We adopt the blocking method for variance estimation and error analysis of the simulation results. The relationship between variance and number of Monte Carlo cycles, error propagation and Random Number Generator performance are also investigated. We review the Gibbs-NPT ensemble employed for phase equilibrium of binary mixture. The phase equilibrium is achieved by performing three types of trial move: particle displacement, volume rearrangement and particle transfer. The simulation models and the simulation details are introduced. The simulation results of phase coexistence for methane and ethane are reported with comparison of the experimental data. Good agreement is found for a wide range of pressures. The contribution of this thesis work lies in the study of the error analysis with respect to the Monte Carlo cycles and number of particles in some interesting aspects.

  10. Precision Test of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation in the A = 32, T = 2 Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, R.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bollen, G.; Campbell, C. M.; Folden, C. M., III; Lincoln, D.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Prinke, A.; Savory, J.; Schwarz, S.

    2008-10-01

    Masses of the radionuclides ^32,33Si and ^34P and of the stable nuclide ^32S have been measured with the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) Penning trap mass spectrometer. Relative mass uncertainties of 3 x 10-8 and better have been achieved. The measured mass value of ^32Si differs from the literature value [1,2] by four standard deviations. The precise mass determination of ^32Si and ^32S have been employed to test the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the A = 32, T= 2 isospin quintet. The experimental results indicate a significant deviation from the quadratic form. This work has been supported by Michigan State University, the NSF under contract number PHY- 0606007, and the DOE under the contract DE-FG02-00ER41144. References: 1. G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, and C. Thibault, Nucl. Phys. A729 (2003) 337 2. A. Paul, S. R"ottger, A. Zimbal, and U. Keyser, Hyperfine Interact. 132 (2001) 189

  11. Type II shell evolution in A=70 isobars from the N≥40 island of inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Morales

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The level structures of 70Co and 70Ni, populated from the β decay of 70Fe, have been investigated using β-delayed γ-ray spectroscopy following in-flight fission of a 238U beam. The experimental results are compared to Monte-Carlo Shell-Model calculations including the pf+g9/2+d5/2 orbitals. The strong population of a (1+ state at 274 keV in 70Co is at variance with the expected excitation energy of ∼1 MeV from near spherical single-particle estimates. This observation indicates a dominance of prolate-deformed intruder configurations in the low-lying levels, which coexist with the normal near spherical states. It is shown that the β decay of the neutron-rich A=70 isobars from the new island of inversion to the Z=28 closed-shell regime progresses in accordance with a newly reported type of shell evolution, the so-called Type II, which involves many particle-hole excitations across energy gaps.

  12. Isobar Suppression by Photodetachment in a Gas-Filled RF Quadrupole Ion Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan; Havener, Aaron; Havener, Charles; Liang, Felix

    2005-01-01

    A novel method is described for selective suppression of isobar contaminants in negative radioactive ion beams. Negative ion beams extracted from an ion source were decelerated to low energies and injected into a gas-filled radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) ion guide where the ions were cooled and unwanted ions were selectively removed by non-resonant photodetachment with photons of sufficient energy. Simulation studies show that the laser-ion interaction time in a 40 cm long RFQ ion guide can be on the order of milliseconds, thus, high efficiency photodetachment is possible with commercially available CW lasers. There are a number of adjacent-Z species whose negative ions are such that photodetachment can be used to suppress the unwanted negative ion species while leaving the species of interest intact. Examples of particular interest include suppressing the 56Co- component in a mixed 56Ni- + 56Co- beam and the 17O- component in a mixed 17O- + 17F- beam. In a proof-of-principle experiment a CW Nd:YAG laser at...

  13. A Triple Knockout (TKO) Proteomics Standard for Diagnosing Ion Interference in Isobaric Labeling Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A.; O'Connell, Jeremy D.; Gygi, Steven P.

    2016-10-01

    Isobaric labeling is a powerful strategy for quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic investigations. A complication of such analyses has been the co-isolation of multiple analytes of similar mass-to-charge resulting in the distortion of relative protein abundance measurements across samples. When properly implemented, synchronous precursor selection and triple-stage mass spectrometry (SPS-MS3) can reduce the occurrence of this phenomenon, referred to as ion interference. However, no diagnostic tool is available currently to rapidly and accurately assess ion interference. To address this need, we developed a multiplexed tandem mass tag (TMT)-based standard, termed the triple knockout (TKO). This standard is comprised of three yeast proteomes in triplicate, each from a strain deficient in a highly abundant protein (Met6, Pfk2, or Ura2). The relative abundance patterns of these proteins, which can be inferred from dozens of peptide measurements can demonstrate ion interference in peptide quantification. We expect no signal in channels where the protein is knocked out, permitting maximum sensitivity for measurements of ion interference against a null background. Here, we emphasize the need to investigate further ion interference-generated ratio distortion and promote the TKO standard as a tool to investigate such issues.

  14. Mass of astrophysically relevant $^{31}$Cl and the breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kankainen, A; Eronen, T; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Koponen, J; Moore, I D; Nesterenko, D; Reinikainen, J; Rinta-Antila, S; Voss, A; Äystö, J

    2015-01-01

    The mass of $^{31}$Cl has been measured with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer at the Ion-Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility. The determined mass-excess value, -7034.7(34) keV, is 15 times more precise than in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012. The quadratic form of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the T=3/2 quartet at A=31 fails ($\\chi^2_n$=11.6) and a non-zero cubic term, d=-3.49(44) keV, is obtained when the new mass value is adopted. $^{31}$Cl has been found to be less proton-bound with a proton separation energy of $S_p$=265(4) keV. Energies for the excited states in $^{31}$Cl and the photodisintegration rate on $^{31}$Cl have been determined with significantly improved precision using the new $S_p$ value. The improved photodisintegration rate helps to constrain astrophysical conditions where $^{30}$S can act as a waiting point in the rapid proton capture process in type I x-ray bursts.

  15. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; Gonzalez, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have fai...

  16. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Marina A; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labeling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  17. Phases of the Isobaric Surface Shapes in the Geostrophic State of the Atmosphere and Connection to the Polar Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zakinyan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study of the disturbed isobaric surface shape in the geostrophic state of the atmosphere. It has been shown that, depending on the overheat sign at the equator, the isobaric surface has the shape of an oblate or prolate geoid. If the geostrophic wind velocity is nonzero at the poles, the local pressure extrema (minima for oblate geoid and maxima for prolate geoid appear at the poles in the geostrophic state. This result correlates with the well-known polar vortex phenomenon and possibly can refine our understanding and interpretation of the phenomenon. In other words, the existence of polar minima and maxima of the pressure field can be the peculiarity of the geostrophic state of the atmosphere. It has been found that air must be colder than the surrounding atmosphere for initiation of the zonal eastward transport. For warm air mass, only easterly winds will be observed.

  18. Adaptive Contour Model for Real-Time Foreground Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ying; DING Xiaoqing

    2005-01-01

    A multiscale foreground detection method was developed to segment moving objects from a stationary background. The algorithm is based on a fixed-mesh-based contour model, which starts at the bounding box of the difference map between an input image and its background and ends at a final contour. An adaptive algorithm was developed to calculate an appropriate energy threshold to control the contours to identify the foreground silhouettes. Experiments show that this method more successfully ignores the negative influence of image noise to obtain an accurate foreground map than other foreground detection algorithms. Most shadow pixels are also eliminated by this method.

  19. Details of Side Load Test Data and Analysis for a Truncated Ideal Contour Nozzle and a Parabolic Contour Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Brown, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Two cold flow subscale nozzles were tested for side load characteristics during simulated nozzle start transients. The two test article contours were a truncated ideal and a parabolic. The current paper is an extension of a 2009 AIAA JPC paper on the test results for the same two nozzle test articles. The side load moments were measured with the strain tube approach in MSFC s Nozzle Test Facility. The processing techniques implemented to convert the strain gage signals into side load moment data are explained. Nozzle wall pressure profiles for separated nozzle flow at many NPRs are presented and discussed in detail. The effect of the test cell diffuser inlet on the parabolic nozzle s wall pressure profiles for separated flow is shown. The maximum measured side load moments for the two contours are compared. The truncated ideal contour s peak side load moment was 45% of that of the parabolic contour. The calculated side load moments, via mean-plus-three-standard-deviations at each nozzle pressure ratio, reproduced the characteristics and absolute values of measured maximums for both contours. The effect of facility vibration on the measured side load moments is quantified and the effect on uncertainty is calculated. The nozzle contour designs are discussed and the impact of a minor fabrication flaw in the nozzle contours is explained.

  20. Quantification of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Associated with Polymeric Nanoparticles Using Isobaric-Tagging and MALDI-TOF MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jasper Z. S.; Tucker, Ian G.; McDowell, Arlene

    2016-11-01

    High sensitivity quantification of the putative cell-penetrating peptide di-arginine-histidine (RRH) associated with poly (ethyl-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanoparticles was achieved without analyte separation, using a novel application of isobaric-tagging and high matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled to time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Isobaric-tagging reaction equilibrium was reached after 5 min, with 90% or greater RRH peptide successfully isobaric-tagged after 60 min. The accuracy was greater than 90%, which indicates good reliability of using isobaric-tagged RRH as an internal standard for RRH quantification. The sample intra- and inter-spot coefficients of variations were less than 11%, which indicate good repeatability. The majority of RRH peptides in the nanoparticle formulation were physically associated with the nanoparticles (46.6%), whereas only a small fraction remained unassociated (13.7%). The unrecovered RRH peptide (~40%) was assumed to be covalently associated with PECA nanoparticles.

  1. Relationship Between Soil Properties and Different Fractions of Soil Hg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis methods were used to study the relationship between soil properties and the distribution of different soil Hg fractions with nine representative soils from Chongqing, China. Results showed that clay (< 2 m) could increase water-soluble Hg (r = 0.700*). Soil organic matter (OM) could enhance the increase of elemental Hg (r = 0.674*). The higher the base saturation percentage (BSP), the more the residual Hg (r = 0.684*). Organic Hg, the sum of acid-soluble organic Hg. and alkali-soluble Hg, was positively affected by silt (2~20μm) but negatively affected by pH, with the direct path coefficients amounting to 1.0487 and 0.5121, respectively. The positive effect of OM and negative effect of BSP on organic Hg were the most significant, with the direct path coefficients being 0.7614 and -0.8527, respectively. The indirect effect of clay (< 2 μm) via BSP (path coefficient = 0.4186) was the highest, showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay (< 2 μm) on acid-soluble organic Hg was BSP. Since the available Hg fraction, water-soluble Hg, was positively affected by soil clay content, and the quite immobile and not bioavailable residual Hg by soil BSP, suitable reduction of clay content and increase of BSP would be of much help to reduce the Hg availability and Hg activity in Hg-contaminated soils.

  2. Bathymetric Contours for Prairie Rose Lake, Shelby County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Prairie Rose Lake in Shelby Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of...

  3. Bathymetric Contours for Lake Minnewashta, Dickinson County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Lake Minnewashta in Dickinson Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Lake...

  4. Bathymetric Contours for Littlefield Lake, Audubon County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Littlefield Lake in Audubon Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of...

  5. Bathymetric Contours for Nine Eagles Lake, Decatur County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Nine Eagles Lake in Decatur Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Nine...

  6. Transgressive Contours--Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  7. Contours--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Transgressive Contours--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  9. Contours--Offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Half Moon map area, California. The vector data file is...

  10. Shape reconstruction from apparent contours theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bellettini, Giovanni; Paolini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a variational model concerning the depth of the objects in a picture and the problem of hidden and illusory contours, this book investigates one of the central problems of computer vision: the topological and algorithmic reconstruction of a smooth three dimensional scene starting from the visible part of an apparent contour. The authors focus their attention on the manipulation of apparent contours using a finite set of elementary moves, which correspond to diffeomorphic deformations of three dimensional scenes. A large part of the book is devoted to the algorithmic part, with implementations, experiments, and computed examples. The book is intended also as a user's guide to the software code appcontour, written for the manipulation of apparent contours and their invariants. This book is addressed to theoretical and applied scientists working in the field of mathematical models of image segmentation.

  11. MAP Estimation of Chin and Cheek Contours in Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampmann Markus

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for the estimation of chin and cheek contours in video sequences is proposed. This algorithm exploits a priori knowledge about shape and position of chin and cheek contours in images. Exploiting knowledge about the shape, a parametric 2D model representing chin and cheek contours is introduced. Exploiting knowledge about the position, a MAP estimator is developed taking into account the observed luminance gradient as well as a priori probabilities of chin and cheek contours positions. The proposed algorithm was tested with head and shoulder video sequences (image resolution CIF. In nearly 70% of all investigated video frames, a subjectively error free estimation could be achieved. The 2D estimate error is measured as on average between 2.4 and .

  12. Bathymetric Contours for Upper Gar Lake, Dickinson County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Upper Gar Lake in Dickinson Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Upper...

  13. Bathymetric Contours for Lake Darling, Washington County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Lake Darling in Washington Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Lake...

  14. Contours Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Transgressive Contours--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  16. Using mathematical morphology to determine left ventricular contours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pladellorens, J. (Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain). Dept. d' Optica i Optometria); Serrat, J. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Informatica); Castell, A. (Hospital de la Vall d' Hebro, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear); Yzuel, M.J. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1993-12-01

    Mathematical morphology is used for the determination of left ventricular contours in scintigraphic images using multigated radionuclide angiography. The authors developed a completely automatic method that first restores the image with a Wiener filter, then finds the region where the left ventricle is contained, and finally segments the left ventricle contour and a background zone. The contours depend on the values of the parameters that appear in the mathematical morphology method, which are related to the height and the slope of the count distribution. Results obtained with this method are compared with the contours and the background zones outlined by experts on the basis of the number of counts, and the authors study the values of the parameters with which optimum correlation is obtained. (author).

  17. A historical note on illusory contours in shadow writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Stefano; Marino, Barbara F M

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that illusory contours have been first displayed and discussed by Schumann (1900, Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane 23 1-32). Here we show that, before him, Jastrow (1899, Popular Science Monthly 54 299-312) produced illusory contours consisting of a shadow word. A brief history of shadow writing in psychological literature from Jastrow to Brunswik is presented, in which the contributions of Pillsbury, Warren, Koffka, and Benussi are examined.

  18. Contour Detection Using Cost-Sensitive Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jyh-Jing; Liu, Tyng-Luh

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of contour detection via per-pixel classifications of edge point. To facilitate the process, the proposed approach leverages with DenseNet, an efficient implementation of multiscale convolutional neural networks (CNNs), to extract an informative feature vector for each pixel and uses an SVM classifier to accomplish contour detection. The main challenge lies in adapting a pre-trained per-image CNN model for yielding per-pixel image features. We propose to base on the Den...

  19. Upper Arm Contouring with Brachioplasty after Massive Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ho Han

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background As the obese population increases in Korea, the number of patients who are trying to lose weight has been increasing steadily. In these patients, skin laxity and deformation of the body contour occurs, which could possibly be corrected by various body contouring surgeries. Here, we introduce the brachioplasty method and our experience of various body contouring surgeries performed in our center. Methods From November 2009 to August 2011, five cases of brachioplasty were performed. When the patient presented with sagging of the lateral inframammary crease and bat wing deformity in the axilla, extended brachioplasty was performed; in this case, the deformation of the axilla and lateral chest was corrected at the same time. A traditional brachioplasty was performed when contouring was needed only for skin laxity in the upper arm. Results Complications, such as hematomas or nerve injuries, were not evident. Some patients experienced partial wound dehiscence due to tension or hypertrophic scars found during the follow-up. In general, all of the patients were satisfied with the improvement in their upper arm contour. Conclusions Given the demands for body contouring surgery, the number of brachioplasty surgical procedures is expected to increase significantly, with abdominoplasty comprising a large portion of these surgeries. For the brachioplasty procedure, preparation and preoperative consultation regarding design of the surgery by experienced surgeons was important to prevent complications such as nerve damage or hematoma formation.

  20. The Development of Contour Processing: Evidence from Physiology and Psychophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eTaylor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Object perception and pattern vision depend fundamentally upon the extraction of contours from the visual environment. In adulthood, contour or edge-level processing is supported by the Gestalt heuristics of proximity, collinearity and closure. Less is known, however, about the developmental trajectory of contour detection and contour integration. Within the physiology of the visual system, long-range horizontal connections in V1 and V2 are the likely candidates for implementing these heuristics. While post-mortem anatomical studies of human infants suggest that horizontal interconnections reach maturity by the second year of life, psychophysical research with infants and children suggests a considerably more protracted development. In the present review, data from infancy to adulthood will be discussed in order to track the development of contour detection and integration. The goal of this review is thus to integrate the development of contour detection and integration with research regarding the development of underlying neural circuitry. We conclude that the ontogeny of this system is best characterized as a developmentally extended period of associative acquisition whereby horizontal connectivity becomes functional over longer and longer distances, thus becoming able to effectively integrate over greater spans of visual space.

  1. A fast contour descriptor algorithm for supernova imageclassification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Aragon, David Bradburn

    2006-07-16

    We describe a fast contour descriptor algorithm and its application to a distributed supernova detection system (the Nearby Supernova Factory) that processes 600,000 candidate objects in 80 GB of image data per night. Our shape-detection algorithm reduced the number of false positives generated by the supernova search pipeline by 41% while producing no measurable impact on running time. Fourier descriptors are an established method of numerically describing the shapes of object contours, but transform-based techniques are ordinarily avoided in this type of application due to their computational cost. We devised a fast contour descriptor implementation for supernova candidates that meets the tight processing budget of the application. Using the lowest-order descriptors (F{sub 1} and F{sub -1}) and the total variance in the contour, we obtain one feature representing the eccentricity of the object and another denoting its irregularity. Because the number of Fourier terms to be calculated is fixed and small, the algorithm runs in linear time, rather than the O(n log n) time of an FFT. Constraints on object size allow further optimizations so that the total cost of producing the required contour descriptors is about 4n addition/subtraction operations, where n is the length of the contour.

  2. Visual search of illusory contours: Shape and orientation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Illusory contours are specific class of visual stimuli that represent stimuli configurations perceived as integral irrespective of the fact that they are given in fragmented uncompleted wholes. Due to their specific features, illusory contours gained much attention in last decade representing prototype of stimuli used in investigations focused on binding problem. On the other side, investigations of illusory contours are related to problem of the level of their visual processing. Neurophysiologic studies show that processing of illusory contours proceed relatively early, on the V2 level, on the other hand most of experimental studies claim that illusory contours are perceived with engagement of visual attention, binding their elements to whole percept. This research is focused on two experiments in which visual search of illusory contours are based on shape and orientation. The main experimental procedure evolved the task proposed by Bravo and Nakayama where instead of detection, subjects were performing identification of one among two possible targets. In the first experiment subjects detected the presence of illusory square or illusory triangle, while in the second experiment subject were detecting two different orientations of illusory triangle. The results are interpreted in terms of visual search and feature integration theory. Beside the type of visual search task, search type proved to be dependent of specific features of illusory shapes which further complicate theoretical interpretation of the level of their perception.

  3. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J. [Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing, Department of Chemical Engineering, 230 Ross Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90{sup o}C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8mol kg{sub H{sub 2}O}{sup -1}. The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25{sup o}C and 1atm are 0.1634V for 0.100m, 0.1077V for 1.00m, and 0.0976V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0wt.% NaOH at 80{sup o}C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75{sup o}C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations. (author)

  4. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90 °C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8 mol k gH2O-1 . The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25 °C and 1 atm are 0.1634 V for 0.100m, 0.1077 V for 1.00m, and 0.0976 V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751 V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916 V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0 wt.% NaOH at 80 °C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75 °C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations.

  5. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapanje, A. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)], E-mail: ales.lapanje@bf.uni-lj.si; Drobne, D. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nolde, N. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Department of Environmental Sciences, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Valant, J. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muscet, B. [Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Leser, V. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, M. [Institute of Public Health, Prvomajska 1, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Slomskov trg 15, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 {mu}g Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant.

  6. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics with Δ isobar and large- N c relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, C.; Weiss, C.

    2016-06-01

    Transverse densities describe the spatial distribution of electromagnetic current in the nucleon at fixed light-front time. At peripheral distances b = O( M π - 1 ) the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). Recent work has shown that the EFT results can be represented in first-quantized form, as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions describing the transition of the nucleon to soft-pion-nucleon intermediate states, resulting in a quantum-mechanical picture of the peripheral transverse densities. We now extend this representation to include intermediate states with Δ isobars and implement relations based on the large- N c limit of QCD. We derive the wave function overlap formulas for the Δ contributions to the peripheral transverse densities by way of a three-dimensional reduction of relativistic chiral EFT expressions. Our procedure effectively maintains rotational invariance and avoids the ambiguities with higher-spin particles in the light-front time-ordered approach. We study the interplay of π N and πΔ intermediate states in the quantum-mechanical picture of the densities in a transversely polarized nucleon. We show that the correct N c -scaling of the charge and magnetization densities emerges as the result of the particular combination of currents generated by intermediate states with degenerate N and Δ. The off-shell behavior of the chiral EFT is summarized in contact terms and can be studied easily. The methods developed here can be applied to other peripheral densities and to moments of the nucleon's generalized parton distributions.

  7. A possible analogy between contours in mathematics--as exemplified by Cauchy's integral formula--and contours in the arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerr, S

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to draw an analogy between contour drawing and a particular mathematical theorem. The analogy is seen to depend on the fact that both methods use definite values along a contour to imply a totality of values within the contour; thus, the use of a part to suggest the whole, by way of a hypothetical 'gestalt-like integration' in the case of the art contour, and the usual process of mathematical integration in the case of Cauchy's formula. Examples illustrating the analogy are drawn from a wide range of artistic work: a modern American drawing, a Cro-Magnon cave painting, and two Chinese works. The traditional Chinese philosophy of painting is invoked in support of the analogy because of its explicit emphasis on the primacy of outline drawing in Chinese painting. Some speculations are offered on further development and application of the analogy.

  8. Contours, Cherokee County Contours, Published in unknown, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, City of Woodstock.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of unknown. It is described as 'Cherokee County...

  9. Contours - CONTOURS_24K_USGS_ADRIAN: Elevation Contours from 7.5-Minute Topographic Quadrangle Maps, Grouped into the 30' x 1째 Adrian Quadrangle, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio (United States Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — CONTOURS_24K_USGS_ADRIAN is a shapefile containing elevation contours produced at a scale of 1:24,000, grouped into a 30' x 1째 quadrangle block. Elevation values are...

  10. MBE HgCdTe heterostructure detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Joel N.; Wu, Owen K.

    1990-01-01

    HgCdTe has been the mainstay for medium (3 to 5 micron) and long (10 to 14 micron) wavelength infrared detectors in recent years. Conventional growth and processing techniques are continuing to improve the material. However, the additional ability to tailor composition and placement of doped layers on the tens of angstroms scale using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) provides the opportunity for new device physics and concepts to be utilized. MBE-based device structures to be discussed here can be grouped into two categories: tailored conventional structures and quantum structures. The tailored conventional structures are improvements on familiar devices, but make use of the ability to create layers of varying composition, and thus band gap, at will. The heterostructure junction can be positioned independently of doping p-n junctions. This allows the small band gap region in which the absorption occurs to be separated from a larger band gap region in which the electric field is large and where unwanted tunneling can occur. Data from hybrid MBE/liquid phase epitaxy (LPE)/bulk structures are given. Quantum structures include the HgTe-CdTe superlattice, in which the band gap and transport can be controlled by alternating thin layers (tens of angstroms thick) of HgTe and CdTe. The superlattice has been shown to exhibit behavior which is non-alloy like, including very high hole mobilities, two-dimensional structure in the absorption coefficient, resonant tunneling, and anisotropic transport.

  11. Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (Sb (Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 μg/L for As and 5.6 μg/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052–0.56 μg/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 μg/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 μg/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 μg/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

  12. Hg Vetical Transference in Soil—Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOYIJUN; MOUSUSEN; 等

    1998-01-01

    Hg vertial transference in soil-water system was studied by analyzing Hg vertical ditribution in soil column after adding Hg and one of the two leacheates,deionzied water or acid rain,into soil column.The results indicated that Hg was hardly transferable in puple soil.About 86%-88% of the total soil Hg was distributed in the top layer (0-2cm) and to Hg was detected in the leakage when the purple soil column was leached by deionized water and simulated acid rain.But Hg was more movalbe in yellow soil with only about 20%-22% of the total soil Hg distributed in the top layer (0-2cm),and about 17%-25% washed out from the soil column by deionized water and simulted acid rain,Incremant in soil bulk density colud reduce Hg leaching,thus the more the Hg kept in soil,the less the Hg leached into underground water,Deionized water and acid rain almost played the same role in leaching Hg.Bentioint was most effecient in preventing Hg from vertcal transferring in the soil coulumn.

  13. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncato, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges. The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP). Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP). The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different gray shades. These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in is blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this "solution" by the visual system.

  14. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRoncato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges.The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP. Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP. The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different grey shades.These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in are blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this solution by the visual system

  15. Development of a contour meter; Desarrollo de un contornimetro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrada C, F.A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanz, D.E. [Fundacion Escuela de Medicina Nuclear, Garibaldi 405, Capital, Mendoza (Argentina)]. e-mail: andrada@argentina.com

    2006-07-01

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of {+-}1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  16. TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF INTRATHECAL ISOBARIC 0.75% ROPIVACAINE WITH THE COMBINATION OF ISOBARIC 0.75% ROPIVACAINE AND DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN GERIATRIC HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERGOING UROLOGICAL SURGERIES : A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMISED, CONTROLLED, DOUBLE - BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerramsetti Atchyutha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal Anaesthesia is the most common approach for geriatric patients undergoing urological surgeries. Efforts to find a better adjuvant in regional anaesthesia are underway since long. Various adjuvants have been used with local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia to improve quality of intraoperative analgesia and to provide prolonged postoperative analgesia with haemodynamic stability and minimal sideeffects . Dexmedetomidine , the new highly selective α2 - agonist drug , is now being used as a neuraxial adjuvant . AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal isobaric 0.75% Ropivacaine with the combination of isobaric 0.75% Ropivacaine and 5μg of Dexmedetomidine in Geriatric Hypertensive patients undergoing Urological surgeries . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Fifty patients classified in American Society of Anesthesiologists classes II and III scheduled for Urological surgeries were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either . Group R : 1.9 ml of 0.75% isobaric Ropivacaine + 0.1 ml normal saline . Group D : 1.9 ml volume of 0. 75% isobaric ropivacaine +5 μg Dexmedetomidine (0.1ml. RESULTS : Patients in Dexmedetomidine group (D had a significantly longer sensory and motor block time than patients in Normal Saline group (R. The mean time of the two segment regression time in gro up D (115.6 ± 14.5 min was significantly higher than group R (57.4 ± 6.3 min ( P <0.001. The regression time of motor block to reach modified Bromage 0 was ( 246.4 ± 25.7 min in group D and 140.1 ± 32.3 min in group R ( P <0.001.The meantime of rescue analgesia is (425.4±18.9 min in group D when compared to group R (210.3 ± 14.2 . CONCLUSIONS : Intrathecal dexmedetomidine as a adjuvant is improved the quality of intraoperative analgesia and postoperative analgesia better , produced prolonged motor and se nsory block , hemodynamic stability , and reduced demand for rescue analgesics in 24 hours as compared to control group.

  17. Contours, 2' Contours for Iredell County provided by 2003 NC Floodplain Mapping Program data, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2007. It is described as '2' Contours for...

  18. Contours, Contour layer with some elevation information for the northern half of the County., Published in 2000, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Walworth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2000. It is described as 'Contour layer...

  19. Contours, Two-foot contours for Oconee County, Georgia, Published in 2006, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Northeast Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2006. It is described as 'Two-foot contours...

  20. Contours, Two-foot contours for Athens-Clarke County, Georgia, Published in 2005, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Northeast Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2005. It is described as 'Two-foot contours...

  1. Medical Image Segmentation through Bat-Active Contour Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiu O. Isah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, an improved active contour method called Bat-Active Contour Method (BAACM using bat algorithm has been developed. The bat algorithm is incorporated in order to escape local minima entrapped into by the classical active contour method, stabilize contour (snake movement and accurately, reach boundary concavity. Then, the developed Bat-Active Contour Method was applied to a dataset of medical images of the human heart, bone of knee and vertebra which were obtained from Auckland MRI Research Group (Cardiac Atlas Website, University of Auckland. Set of similarity metrics, including Jaccard index and Dice similarity measures were adopted to evaluate the performance of the developed algorithm. Jaccard index values of 0.9310, 0.9234 and 0.8947 and Dice similarity values of 0.8341, 0.8616 and 0.9138 were obtained from the human heart, vertebra and bone of knee images respectively. The results obtained show high similarity measures between BA-ACM algorithm and expert segmented images. Moreso, traditional ACM produced Jaccard index values 0.5873, 0.5601, 0.6009 and Dice similarity values of 0.5974, 0.6079, 0.6102 in the human heart, vertebra and bone of knee images respectively. The results obtained for traditional ACM show low similarity measures between it and expertly segmented images. It is evident from the results obtained that the developed algorithm performed better compared to the traditional ACM

  2. Parallel peak pruning for scalable SMP contour tree computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Hamish A. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Sewell, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahrens, James P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-09

    As data sets grow to exascale, automated data analysis and visualisation are increasingly important, to intermediate human understanding and to reduce demands on disk storage via in situ analysis. Trends in architecture of high performance computing systems necessitate analysis algorithms to make effective use of combinations of massively multicore and distributed systems. One of the principal analytic tools is the contour tree, which analyses relationships between contours to identify features of more than local importance. Unfortunately, the predominant algorithms for computing the contour tree are explicitly serial, and founded on serial metaphors, which has limited the scalability of this form of analysis. While there is some work on distributed contour tree computation, and separately on hybrid GPU-CPU computation, there is no efficient algorithm with strong formal guarantees on performance allied with fast practical performance. Here in this paper, we report the first shared SMP algorithm for fully parallel contour tree computation, withfor-mal guarantees of O(lgnlgt) parallel steps and O(n lgn) work, and implementations with up to 10x parallel speed up in OpenMP and up to 50x speed up in NVIDIA Thrust.

  3. Active contour model based on force field analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhi-qiang; HAN Chong-zhao

    2006-01-01

    The traditional snake initial contour should be close to the true boundary of an object of interest in an image;otherwise,an incorrect result will be obtained.Next,active contours have difficulties progressing into boundary concavities.Moreover,the traditional snake as well as almost all of its improved methods can be easily obtained from the local minimum because snake models are nonconvex.An active contour model based on force field analysis (FFA),namely,FFA snake model,is presented in this paper.Based on analyzing force distribution rules of the distance potential force field,a standard is introduced here to distinguish the false one from contour points.The result is not considered as the final solution when the snake energy is minimal.Furthermore,estimation and calculation should be made according to the established standard;only then can the result be considered final.Thus,the snake is prevented from running into the local minimum.The simulation results show that the FFA snake model has a large capture range and can move a snake into the boundary concavities,and that it is able to obtain the object of interest's contour precisely.Compared with the gradient vector flow snake,this new model has a low computational cost.

  4. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  5. Incorporating Stream Features into Groundwater Contouring Tools Within GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Roger; Kennelly, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogeologists often are called upon to estimate surfaces from discrete, sparse data points. This estimation is often accomplished by manually drawing contours on maps using interpolation methods between points of known value while accounting for features known to influence the water table's surface. By contrast, geographic information systems (GIS) are good at creating smooth continuous surfaces from limited data points and allowing the user to represent the resulting surface resulting with contours, but these automated methods often fail to meet the expectations of many hydrogeologists because they do not include knowledge of other influences on the water table. In this study, we seek to fill this gap in the GIS-based methodology for hydrogeologists through an interactive tool that shapes an interpolated surface based on additional knowledge of the water table inferred from gaining or losing streams. The modified surface is reflected in water table contours that, for example, "V" upstream for gaining streams, and can be interactively adjusted to fit the user's expectations. By modifying not only the contours but also the associated interpolated surface, additional contours will follow the same trend, and the modified surface can be used for other analyses like calculating average gradients and flow paths. The tool leverages Esri's ArcGIS Desktop software, building upon a robust suite of mapping tools. We see this as a prototype for other tools that could be developed for hydrogeologists to account for variations in the water table inferred from local topographic trends, pumping or injection wells, and other hydrogeologic features.

  6. Image automatic mosaics based on contour phase correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; HU Zhiping; LIU Zhitai; OU Zongying

    2007-01-01

    The image planar mosaics is studied,and an image automatic mosaics algorithm on the basis of contour phase correlation is proposed in this paper.To begin with,by taking into account mere translations and rotations between images,a contour phase correlation algorithm is used to realize the preliminary alignments of images,and the initial projective transformation matrices are obtained.Then,an optimization algorithm is used to optimize the initial projective transformation matrices,and complete the precise image mosaics.The contour phase correlation is an improvement on the conventional phase correlation in two aspects:First,the contours of images are extracted,and the phase correlation is applied to the contours of images instead of the whole original images;Second,when there are multiple peak values approximate to the maximum peak value in the δ function array,their corresponding translations can be regarded as candidate translations and calculated separately,and the best translation can be determined by the optimization of conformability of two images in the overlapping area.The running results show that the proposed algorithm can consistently yield high-quality mosaics,even in the cases of poor or differential lighting conditions,existences of minor rotations,and other complicated displacements between images.

  7. Process of [sup 196]Hg enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Mellor, C.E.

    1993-04-27

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of [sup 196]Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  8. Process of .sup.196 Hg enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Mellor, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of .sup.196 Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  9. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  10. Of Variability, or its Absence, in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2003-01-01

    Current models and observations of variability in HgMn stars disagree. We present here the models that argue for pulsating HgMn stars with properties similar to those of Slowly Pulsating B Stars. The lack of observed variable HgMn stars suggests that some physical process is missing from the models. Some possibilities are discussed.

  11. Misleading measures in Vitamin D analysis: A novel LC-MS/MS assay to account for epimers and isobars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroczi Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the accuracies of many commercially available immunoassays for Vitamin D have been questioned. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC- MS/MS has been shown to facilitate accurate separation and quantification of the major circulating metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25OHD3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin-D2 (25OHD2 collectively termed as 25OHD. However, among other interferents, this method may be compromised by overlapping peaks and identical masses of epimers and isobars, resulting in inaccuracies in circulating 25OHD measurements. The aim of this study was to develop a novel LC-MS/MS method that can accurately identify and quantitate 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 through chromatographic separation of 25OHD from its epimers and isobars. Methods A positive ion electrospray ionisation (ESI LC-MS/MS method was used in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM mode for quantification. It involved i liquid-liquid extraction, ii tandem columns (a high resolution ZORBAX C18 coupled to an ULTRON chiral, with guard column and inlet filter, iii Stanozolol-D3 as internal standard, and iv identification via ESI and monitoring of three fragmentation transitions. To demonstrate the practical usefulness of our method, blood samples were collected from 5 healthy male Caucasian volunteers; age range 22 to 37 years and 25OHD2, 25OHD3 along with co-eluting epimers and analogues were quantified. Results The new method allowed chromatographic separation and quantification of 25OHD2, 25OHD3, along with 25OHD3 epimer 3-epi-25OHD3 and isobars 1-α-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (1αOHD3, and 7-α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4. The new assay was capable of detecting 0.25 ng/mL of all analytes in serum. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first specific, reliable, reproducible and robust LC-MS/MS method developed for the accurate detection of 25OHD (Vitamin D. The method is capable of detecting low levels of 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 together with chromatographic

  12. Layering-based Breakpoint Handling in Contour Line Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dan; LONG Yi; CAI Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals withthe automatic connection of contourlines extracted from a scanned browngeographical map. For the variety oftopographical elements contained on amap, the factors causing the interrup-tion of contour line are also multiform,which make the connection task verydifficult. On the basis of separatingthose elements always making the con-tours break and regarding them as ref-erent layers, a layering-based methodis presented. The purpose is to takeinto account property information (likeinclination and configuration) of con-tour lines when they come across otherdifferent symbols, such as gully, cliff,dry land and elevation annotation etc.In this paper, the authors propose thatit should be far more effective and di-rect to adopt different algorithmic op-erators to different factors than usingsingle one operator to all.

  13. A Robust Algorithm of Contour Extraction for Vehicle Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANZhimin; ZHOUJie; GAODashan

    2003-01-01

    Contour extraction of moving vehicle is an important and challenging issue in traffic surveillance. In this paper, a robust algorithm is proposed for contour ex-traction and moving vehicle tracking. First, we establish a modified snake model and utilize the directional infor-mation of the edge map to guide the snaxels' behavior.Then an adaptive shape restriction is embedded into the algorithm to govern the scope of the snake's motion, and Kalman filter is employed to estimate spatio-temporal rela-tionship between successive frames. In addition~ multiple refinements are suggested to compensate for the snake's vulnerability to fake edges. All of them contribute to a ro-bust overall performance in contour extraction and vehicle tracking. Experimental results in real traffic scene prove the effectiveness of our algorithm.The comparison with conventional snakes is also provided.

  14. The perception of 3D shape from planar cut contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Eric J L; Todd, James T; Phillips, Flip

    2011-10-01

    A new computational analysis is described for estimating 3D shapes from orthographic images of surfaces that are textured with planar cut contours. For any given contour pattern, this model provides a family of possible interpretations that are all related by affine scaling and shearing transformations in depth, depending on the specific values of its free parameters that are used to compute the shape estimate. Two psychophysical experiments were performed in an effort to compare the model predictions with observers' judgments of 3D shape for developable and non-developable surfaces. The results reveal that observers' perceptions can be systematically distorted by affine scaling and shearing transformations in depth and that the magnitude and direction of these distortions vary systematically with the 3D orientations of the contour planes.

  15. The TICTOP nozzle: a new nozzle contouring concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Manuel; Makowka, Konrad; Aichner, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Currently, mainly two types of nozzle contouring methods are applied in space propulsion: the truncated ideal contour (TIC) and the thrust-optimized parabola (TOP). This article presents a new nozzle contouring method called TICTOP, combining elements of TIC and TOP design. The resulting nozzle is shock-free as the TIC and therefore does not induce restricted shock separation leading to excessive side-loads. Simultaneously, the TICTOP nozzle will allow higher nozzle wall exit pressures and hence give a better separation margin than is the case for a TIC. Hence, this new nozzle type combines the good properties of TIC and TOP nozzles and eliminates their drawbacks. It is especially suited for first stage application in launchers where flow separation and side-loads are design drivers.

  16. Scattering Suppression and Absorption Enhancement in Contour Nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Onal, E Doruk

    2015-01-01

    The expanding application spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas demand versatile design approaches to tailor the antenna properties for specific requirements. The design efforts primarily concentrate on shifting the operation wavelength or enhancing the local fields by manipulating the size and shape of the nanoantenna. Here, we propose a design path to control the absorption and scattering characteristics of a dipole nanoantenna by introducing a hollow region inside the nanostructure. The resulting contour geometry can significantly suppress the scattering of the dipole nanoantenna and enhance its absorption simultaneously. Both the dipole and the contour dipole nanoantenna couple to equivalent amount of the incident radiation. The dipole nanoantenna scatters 84% of the coupled power (absorbs the remaining 16%) whereas the contour dipole structure scatters only 28% of the coupled power (absorbs the remaining 72%). This constitutes the transformation from scatter to absorber nanoantenna. The scattering of a cont...

  17. Automatic segmentation of leg bones by using active contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunhee; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Sehyung; Lee, Deukhee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new active contours model to segment human leg bones in computed tomography images that is based on a variable-weighted combination of local and global intensity. This model can split an object surrounded by both weak and strong boundaries, and also distinguish very adjacent objects with those boundaries. The ability of this model is required for segmentation in medical images, e.g., human leg bones, which are usually composed of highly inhomogeneous objects and where the distances among organs are very close. We developed an evolution equation of a level set function whose zero level set represents a contour. An initial contour is automatically obtained by applying a histogram based multiphase segmentation method. We experimented with computed tomography images from three patients, and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in experimental results.

  18. HgZnTe-based detectors for LWIR NASA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elizabeth A.; Kalisher, Murray H.

    1990-01-01

    The initial goal was to grow and characterize HgZnTe and determine if it indeed had the advantageous properties that were predicted. Researchers grew both bulk and liquid phase epitaxial HgZnTe. It was determined that HgZnTe had the following properties: (1) microhardness at least 50 percent greater than HgCdTe of equivalent bandgap; (2) Hg annealing rates of at least 2 to 4 times longer than HgCdTe; and (3) higher Hg vacancy formation energies. This early work did not focus on one specific composition (x-value) of HgZnTe since NASA was interested in HgZnTe's potential for a variety of applications. Since the beginning of 1989, researchers have been concentrating, however, on the liquid phase growth of very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) HgZnTe (cutoff approx. equals 17 microns at 65K) to address the requirements of the Earth Observing System (EOS). Since there are no device models to predict the advantages in reliability one can gain with increased microhardness, surface stability, etc., one must fabricate HgZnTe detectors and assess their relative bake stability (accelerated life test behavior) compared with HgCdTe devices fabricated in the same manner. Researchers chose to fabricate HIT detectors as a development vehicle for this program because high performance in the VLWIR has been demonstrated with HgCdTe HIT detectors and the HgCdTe HIT process should be applicable to HgZnTe. HIT detectors have a significant advantage for satellite applications since these devices dissipate much less power than conventional photoconductors to achieve the same responsivity.

  19. Comparison of Goldmann applanation tonometry,rebound tonometry and dynamic contour tonometry in normal and glaucomatous eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatih; ?zcura; Nilgün; Yildirim; Afsun; Sahin; Ertugrul; ?olak

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the intraocular pressure(IOP)measurements obtained with the rebound tonometry(RT), dynamic contour tonometry(DCT) and Goldmann applanation tonometry(GAT) in normal and glaucomatous eyes and investigate the effects of central corneal thickness(CCT) and corneal curvature(CC) on IOP measurements.METHODS: One hundred and twenty-four eyes of 124 subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study.Fifty-six of participants were healthy individuals and 68 of them were glaucomatous patients. IOP was measured on each subject always in the same order, ICare RT-Pascal DCT-GAT, after a minimum interval of 10 min between measurements. CCT and CC were measured using a rotating Scheimpflug camera before the IOP measurements in all subjects. One way repeated measures ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis was used for the statistical assessment.RESULTS: Mean IOP for all enrolled eyes was 16.00±3.80 mm Hg for GAT, 16.99 ±4.91 mm Hg for RT, and20.40 ±4.44 mm Hg for DCT. Mean differences between GAT and RT was-1.75±3.41 mm Hg in normal(P <0.001)and-0.37 ±3.00 mm Hg in glaucomatous eyes(P =0.563).Mean differences between GAT and DCT was-4.06 ±3.42 mm Hg in normal(P < 0.001) and-4.67 ±3.12 mm Hg in glaucomatous eyes(P <0.001). GAT and RT were significantly positive correlated with CCT in normal(r2=0.101, P =0.017 and r2=0.331, P <0.001, respectively) and glaucomatous eyes(r2=0.084, P =0.016 and r2=0.123,P =0.003, respectively). DCT was also significantly positive correlated with CCT in normal eyes( r2=0.179,P =0.001) but not in glaucomatous eyes(r2=0.029, P =0.165).All tonometers were unaffected by CC.CONCLUSION: IOP measurements by RT and DCT were significantly higher than GAT. DCT has highest IOP measurements among these tonometers. RT was most influenced tonometer from CCT although all tonometers were significantly positive correlated with CCT except DCT in glaucomatous eyes. CC did not influence IOP

  20. Fully relativistic coupled cluster and DFT study of electric field gradients at Hg in 199Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the magnitude and interplay of relativistic and electron correlation effects on the electric field gradient (EFG) at the position of Hg in linear and bent HgL2 (L=CH3, Cl, Br, I) and trigonal planar [HgCl3]- complexes using four-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) and non...

  1. The Chevrel phase HgMo6S8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Potel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of HgMo6S8, mercury(II hexamolybdenum octasulfide, is based on (Mo6S8S6 cluster units (overline{3} symmetry interconnected through interunit Mo—S bonds. The Hg2+ cations occupy large voids between the different cluster units and are covalently bonded to two S atoms. The Hg atoms and one S atom lie on sites with crystallographic overline{3} and 3 symmetry, respectively. Refinement of the occupancy factor of the Hg atom led to the composition Hg0.973 (3Mo6S8.

  2. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana [Department of Multimedia, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zamrin, D M [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-02-15

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  3. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  4. Wilson loops at strong coupling for curved contours with cusps

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2015-01-01

    We construct the minimal surface in AdS, relevant for the strong coupling behaviour of local supersymmetric Wilson loops in N=4 SYM for a closed contour formed out of segments of two intersecting circles. Its regularised area is calculated including all divergent parts and the finite renormalised term. Furthermore we prove, that for generic planar curved contours with cusps the cusp anomalous dimensions are functions of the respective cusp angles alone. They do not depend on other local data of the cusps.

  5. Motion estimation of elastic articulated objects from image contours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hai-lang; DAI Yue-wei; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    A new method of elastic articulated objects (human bodies) modeling was presented based on a new conic curve. The model includes 3D object deform able curves which can represent the deformation of human occluding contours. The deformation of human occluding contour can be represented by adjusting only four de-formation parameters for each limb. Then, the 3D deformation parameters are determined by corresponding 2Dcontours from a sequence of stereo images. The algorithm presented in this paper includes deform able conic curve parameters determination and the plane, 3D conic curve lying on, parameter determination.

  6. McCON - A General Contouring Program for Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    contourable values in the vicinity of the given data sets. The recent advent of high quality graphics capabilities on personal computers and workstations... quality than screen plots. Contouring Nonconvex Areas By Composite Fragments 29. The triangle mesh generation criteria will always result in the data...7 RC.N.OL3N.O 7704 CON IN~i 7705 COL4=COLOR B2 IFFIFNME.EO’ M’ G’O 10 7777 ý ý9ýFILE=FNME,STATU$:’OLD’ ,ERR=567’i 567 INDOO 568 C ONTI NUý R AD 9,1

  7. Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

  8. An investigation of the influence of the pairing correlations on the properties of the isobar analog resonances in = 208 nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Küçükbursa; D I Salamov; T Babacan; H A Aygör

    2004-11-01

    Within the quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA), the method of the self-consistent determination of the isovector effective interaction which restores a broken isotopic symmetry for the nuclear part of the Hamiltonian is given. The effect of the pairing correlations between nucleons on the following quantities were investigated for the = 208 nuclei: energies of the isobar analog 0+ states, the isospin admixtures in the ground state of the even–even nuclei, and the differential cross-section for the 208Pb(3He,)208Bi reaction at E(3He) = 450 MeV. Both couplings of the excitation branches with z = 0 ± 1, and the analog state with isovector monopole resonance (IVMR) in the quasi-particle representation were taken into account in our calculations. As a result of these calculations, it was seen that the pairing correlations between nucleons have no considerable effect on the = 23 isospin admixture in the ground state of the 208Pb nucleus, and they cause partially an increase in the isospin impurity of the isobar analog resonance (IAR). It was also established that these correlations have changed the isospin structure of the IAR states, and shifted the energies of the IVMR states to the higher values.

  9. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, Marina A.; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-02-12

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labelling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples, and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  10. [Development of a Software for Automatically Generated Contours in Eclipse TPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhao; Hu, Jinyou; Zou, Lian; Zhang, Weisha; Zou, Yuxin; Luo, Kelin; Liu, Xiangxiang; Yu, Luxin

    2015-03-01

    The automatic generation of planning targets and auxiliary contours have achieved in Eclipse TPS 11.0. The scripting language autohotkey was used to develop a software for automatically generated contours in Eclipse TPS. This software is named Contour Auto Margin (CAM), which is composed of operational functions of contours, script generated visualization and script file operations. RESULTS Ten cases in different cancers have separately selected, in Eclipse TPS 11.0 scripts generated by the software could not only automatically generate contours but also do contour post-processing. For different cancers, there was no difference between automatically generated contours and manually created contours. The CAM is a user-friendly and powerful software, and can automatically generated contours fast in Eclipse TPS 11.0. With the help of CAM, it greatly save plan preparation time and improve working efficiency of radiation therapy physicists.

  11. Mass Independent Fractionation of Hg Isotopes Preserved in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, A. M.; Bergquist, B. A.; Kah, L. C.; Ono, S.; Ghosh, S.; Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a photochemically active, redox-sensitive, chalcophilic metal with complex biogeochemistry that displays a wide range of mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent (MIF) stable isotopic fractionation. In the past decade, Hg isotopes have emerged as important tracers of both the sources and cycling of Hg in the modern environment. However, their utility as environmental proxies in ancient rocks remains largely unexplored. The potential of Hg isotopes to inform Precambrian environments derives from the observation that Hg isotopes with odd atomic mass numbers (199Hg and 201Hg) undergo large MIF by the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) and smaller MIF through the nuclear volume effect (NVE). Small MIF produced via NVE has been observed for numerous transformations and is characterized by MIF ratios (Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg) of about 1.6. Large Hg-MIF driven by MIE has been observed during photochemical transformations and is characterized by Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratios between 1 and 1.3. This MIF signal is sensitive to a range of environmental conditions, including the amount and type of solar radiation, the presence and type of complexing organic ligands, and the Hg/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ratio. Thus, it is hoped that Hg-MIF signals may indirectly record changes in atmospheric composition or seawater chemistry if preserved in marine sedimentary records. Previous work has clearly demonstrated that Hg-MIF signals are preserved in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine shales and massive sulfide deposits. Here, we present evidence that such signals are also preserved in marine shales of mid-Proterozoic age, including the ~1.3 Ga Sulky formation (Dismal Lakes Group, NW Arctic), the ~1.45 Ga Greyson Shale (Belt Basin, Montana), and the ~1.5 Ga Katalsy formation (Kypry Group, Eastern European Platform). We observe that the Greyson shale and shales within the Sulky formation yield negative Hg-MIF with Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratios close to 1 and that Kaltasy group sediments

  12. Theory on the molecular characteristic contour(Ⅰ)——A new approach to defining molecular characteristic contour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东霞; 杨忠志

    1999-01-01

    Based on the classical turning point of electron movement in a molecule, a model for defining the molecular characteristic boundary contour is advanced. By using an accurate ab initio MELD program and an auxiliary program, some electron parameters in a molecule, such as the potential felt by an electron, have been evaluated. According to our model and definition, the molecular characteristic contour of the equilibrium geometry configuration is drawn and a vivid intuitive picture for describing the forming or breaking of a chemical bond is displayed.

  13. Superdeformation studies in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformation in the A {approximately} 190 region was first observed in {sup 191}Hg from an experiment performed at ATLAS using the Argonne Notre Dame {gamma}-ray facility. We recently revisited the study of superdeformation in this nucleus using Gammasphere and the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n) and {sup 174}Yb({sup 22}Ne,5n) reactions at 172 and 120 MeV in order to populate and measure states in the second well. The goal of the experiment was to identify new bands in the data, and thus allow us to gain understanding on the relative placement of single particle orbitals near the N = 112 SD shell gap. From an analysis of the data, the three previously identified SD bands were extended, and their feeding into the yrast states delineated. Two new SD bands were observed and preliminary evidence for a third new band was obtained as well.

  14. Organization of contour from motion processing in primate visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; van Dijk, B.W.; Spekreijse, H.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated where contour from motion processing occurs by recording visual evoked potential (VEP) to a stimulus designed to signal the presence of relative motion-sensitive mechanisms. Two human Ss and 3 monkeys participated in the study and had VEP measured on the scalp and intracortically, respe

  15. Pulse contour-derived cardiac output in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Joakim; Ladefoged, Soeren D

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods for cardiac output determination are essential for studying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension. Use of the current gold standard, the Transonic monitor, requires an arteriovenous fistula. We wished to verify the accuracy of a method based on finger pulse contour...

  16. Design of a Vibrotactile Vest for Contour Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A vibrotactile array is a promising human computer interface which could display graphical information to users in a tactile form. This paper presents the design and testing of an image contour display system with a vibrotactile array. The tactile image display system is attached to the back of the user. It converts visual graphics into 2D tactile images and allows subjects to feel the contours of objects through vibration stimulus. The system consists of a USB camera, 48 (6×8 vibrating motors and an embedded control system. The image is captured by the camera and the 2D contour is extracted and transformed into vibrotactile stimuli using a temporal-spatial dynamic coding method. Preliminary experiments were carried out and the optimal parameters of the vibrating time and duration were explored. To evaluate the feasibility and robustness of this vibration mode, letters were also tactilely displayed and the recognition rate about the alphabet letter display was investigated. It was shown that under the condition of no pre-training for the subjects, the recognition rate was 82%. Such a recognition rate is higher than that of the scanning mode (47.5% and the improved handwriting mode (76.8%. The results indicated that the proposed method was efficient in conveying the contour information to the visually impaired by means of vibrations.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF VISUALLY GUIDED BEHAVIOR REQUIRES ORIENTED CONTOURS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRENNER, E; CORNELISSEN, FW

    1992-01-01

    Kittens do not learn to use visual information to guide their behaviour if they are deprived of the optic flow that accompanies their own movements. We show that the optic flow that is required for developing visually guided behaviour is derived from changes in contour orientations, rather than from

  18. Large-scale Optimization of Contoured Beam Reflectors and Reflectarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar; Sørensen, Stig B.; Jørgensen, Erik;

    2016-01-01

    Designing a contoured beam reflector or performing a direct optimization of a reflectarray requires a mathematical optimization procedure to determine the optimum design of the antenna. A popular approach, used in the market-leading TICRA software POS, can result in computation times on the order...

  19. Design of a Vibrotactile Vest for Contour Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A vibrotactile array is a promising human computer interface which could display graphical information to users in a tactile form. This paper presents the design and testing of an image contour display system with a vibrotactile array. The tactile image display system is attached to the back of the user. It converts visual graphics into 2D tactile images and allows subjects to feel the contours of objects through vibration stimulus. The system consists of a USB camera, 48 (6×8 vibrating motors and an embedded control system. The image is captured by the camera and the 2D contour is extracted and transformed into vibrotactile stimuli using a temporal‐spatial dynamic coding method. Preliminary experiments were carried out and the optimal parameters of the vibrating time and duration were explored. To evaluate the feasibility and robustness of this vibration mode, letters were also tactilely displayed and the recognition rate about the alphabet letter display was investigated. It was shown that under the condition of no pre‐training for the subjects, the recognition rate was 82%. Such a recognition rate is higher than that of the scanning mode (47.5% and the improved handwriting mode (76.8%. The results indicated that the proposed method was efficient in conveying the contour information to the visually impaired by means of vibrations.

  20. Surface Perception from Local Analysis of Texture and Contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Gibson, 1971; Kennedy, 19741 or a learned skill of interpretation analogous to reading, subject to cultural convention (e.g., [ Arnheim , 19541...contours, highlights, and shading edges tell us of the local Gaussian curvature in some cases. 4 t . SStevens I102 References REFERENCES Arnheim . R

  1. Use of rapidly hardening hydroxyapatite cement for facial contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Ji Ye; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2010-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite cement is an ideal alloplastic material to replace the autogenous bone grafts in craniofacial surgery. Hydroxyapatite cement is advantageous because it can be easily molded by hand unlike other alloplastic materials such as silicone and high-density polyethylene. For aesthetic applications of hydroxyapatite cement, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the rapidly hardening hydroxyapatite cement used in facial contour augmentation, especially for the forehead and the malar area. A total of 18 cases of facial skeleton augmentation or contouring surgery using rapidly hardening hydroxyapatite cement (Mimix; Biomet, Warsaw, IN) were examined, and the long-term cosmetic results and any complications were also analyzed. The aims of facial contouring surgeries were to correct the following conditions: hemifacial microsomia, craniosynostosis, posttraumatic facial deformity, deformity after tumor resection, dentofacial deformity, and Romberg disease. The application sites of hydroxyapatite cement were the forehead, malar area, chin, and paranasal area. A mean of 16 g (range, 5-50 g) of the hydroxyapatite cement was used. Postoperative infection, seroma, and migration of the implant were not observed during the follow-up period of 23 months. Rapidly hardening hydroxyapatite cement, Mimix, is easy to manipulate, promptly sclerotized, and can be replaced by living bone tissue, with a low complication rate. Therefore, it can be an optimal treatment that can be used instead of other conventional types of alloplastic materials used in facial contouring surgery.

  2. Automatic Image Segmentation Using Active Contours with Univariate Marginal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cruz-Aceves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel automatic image segmentation method based on the theory of active contour models and estimation of distribution algorithms. The proposed method uses the univariate marginal distribution model to infer statistical dependencies between the control points on different active contours. These contours have been generated through an alignment process of reference shape priors, in order to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding different interactive segmentation techniques. This proposed method is applied in the segmentation of the hollow core in microscopic images of photonic crystal fibers and it is also used to segment the human heart and ventricular areas from datasets of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, respectively. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of similarity measures has been adopted. The experimental results suggest that the proposed image segmentation method outperforms the traditional active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of segmentation accuracy and stability.

  3. Integrability and Wilson loops: the wavy line contour

    CERN Document Server

    Cagnazzo, A

    2013-01-01

    The Wilson loop with a wavy line contour is studied using integrable methods. The auxiliary problem is solved and the Lax operator is built to first order in perturbation theory, considering a small perturbation from the straight line. Finally the spectral curve of the solution is considered.

  4. The role of non-CRF inhibition in contour detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.; Skala,

    2003-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve the performance of contour detectors. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation selective neurons in the primary visual cortex of macaque monkeys and has been

  5. Active contours for localizing polyps in colonoscopic NBI image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, Matthias; Gross, Sebastian; Behrens, Alexander; Stehle, Thomas; Aach, Til

    2011-03-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common type of cancer in the United States of America. Every year about 140,000 people are newly diagnosed with colon cancer. Early detection is crucial for a successful therapy. The standard screening procedure is called colonoscopy. Using this endoscopic examination physicians can find colon polyps and remove them if necessary. Adenomatous colon polyps are deemed a preliminary stage of colon cancer. The removal of a polyp, though, can lead to complications like severe bleedings or colon perforation. Thus, only polyps diagnosed as adenomatous should be removed. To decide whether a polyp is adenomatous the polyp's surface structure including vascular patterns has to be inspected. Narrow-Band imaging (NBI) is a new tool to improve visibility of vascular patterns of the polyps. The first step for an automatic polyp classification system is the localization of the polyp. We investigate active contours for the localization of colon polyps in NBI image data. The shape of polyps, though roughly approximated by an elliptic form, is highly variable. Active contours offer the flexibility to adapt to polyp variation well. To avoid clustering of contour polygon points we propose the application of active rays. The quality of the results was evaluated based on manually segmented polyps as ground truth data. The results were compared to a template matching approach and to the Generalized Hough Transform. Active contours are superior to the Hough transform and perform equally well as the template matching approach.

  6. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The c

  7. Applying manifold learning to plotting approximate contour trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigeo; Fujishiro, Issei; Okada, Masato

    2009-01-01

    A contour tree is a powerful tool for delineating the topological evolution of isosurfaces of a single-valued function, and thus has been frequently used as a means of extracting features from volumes and their time-varying behaviors. Several sophisticated algorithms have been proposed for constructing contour trees while they often complicate the software implementation especially for higher-dimensional cases such as time-varying volumes. This paper presents a simple yet effective approach to plotting in 3D space, approximate contour trees from a set of scattered samples embedded in the high-dimensional space. Our main idea is to take advantage of manifold learning so that we can elongate the distribution of high-dimensional data samples to embed it into a low-dimensional space while respecting its local proximity of sample points. The contribution of this paper lies in the introduction of new distance metrics to manifold learning, which allows us to reformulate existing algorithms as a variant of currently available dimensionality reduction scheme. Efficient reduction of data sizes together with segmentation capability is also developed to equip our approach with a coarse-to-fine analysis even for large-scale datasets. Examples are provided to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can successfully traverse the features of volumes and their temporal behaviors through the constructed contour trees.

  8. A contoured continuum surface force model for particle methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guangtao; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Chen, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A surface tension model is essential to simulate multiphase flows with deformed interfaces. This study develops a contoured continuum surface force (CCSF) model for particle methods. A color function that varies sharply across the interface to mark different fluid phases is smoothed in the transition region, where the local contour curvature can be regarded as the interface curvature. The local contour passing through each reference particle in the transition region is extracted from the local profile of the smoothed color function. The local contour curvature is calculated based on the Taylor series expansion of the smoothed color function, whose derivatives are calculated accurately according to the definition of the smoothed color function. Two schemes are proposed to specify the smooth radius: fixed scheme, where 2 ×re (re = particle interaction radius) is assigned to all particles in the transition region; and varied scheme, where re and 2 ×re are assigned to the central and edged particles in the transition region respectively. Numerical examples, including curvature calculation for static circle and ellipse interfaces, deformation of square droplet to a circle (2D and 3D), droplet deformation in shear flow, and droplet coalescence, are simulated to verify the CCSF model and compare its performance with those of other methods. The CCSF model with the fixed scheme is proven to produce the most accurate curvature and lowest parasitic currents among the tested methods.

  9. Topology Optimization - Improved Checker-Board Filtering With Sharp Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Gejl; Lund, Jeppe Jessen; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    In topology optimization it is mandatory to use a filtering technique in order to prevent checker-boarder solutions. The paper examines a new filtering principle and demonstrates an improved sharpness in the contours. This was not realized in the original proposal of the filter. Furthermore...

  10. A method of dealing polygon's self-intersection contour in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yong-qiang; MO Jian-hua; HUANG Shu-huai

    2007-01-01

    The contour of the slices of SLA parts is composed of a great deal of small lines. When offsetting the contour to compensate for the radius of laser spot, many self-intersection contours come into being, which decrease the precision of formed parts. A new lemma to judge the local self-intersection contour and the global self-intersection contour separately is put forward, according to which self-intersection contour can be removed reliably. Meanwhile, a new beam offsetting algorithm for SLA parts is described, which brings about good results in the practical manufacturing process.

  11. The role of "contrast enhancement" in the detection and appearance of visual contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R F; Dakin, S C; Field, D J

    1998-03-01

    We test the proposition that the appearance and detection of visual contours is based on an increase in the perceived contrast of contour elements. First we show that detection of contours is quite possible in the presence of very high levels of variability in contrast. Second we show that inclusion in a contour does not induce Gabor patches to appear to be of higher contrast than patches outside of a contour. These results suggest that, contrary to a number of current models, contrast or its assumed physiological correlate (the mean firing rate of early cortical neurons) is not the determining information for identifying the contour.

  12. Ladder contours are undetectable in the periphery: a crowding effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Keith A; Hess, Robert F

    2007-10-29

    We studied the perceptual integration of contours consisting of Gabor elements positioned along a smooth path, embedded among distractor elements. Contour elements either formed tangents to the path ("snakes") or were perpendicular to it ("ladders"). Perfectly straight snakes and ladders were easily detected in the fovea but, at an eccentricity of 6 degrees , only the snakes were detectable. The disproportionate impairment of peripheral ladder detection remained when we brought foveal performance away from ceiling by jittering the orientations of the elements. We propose that the failure to detect peripheral ladders is a form of crowding, the phenomenon observed when identification of peripherally located letters is disrupted by flanking letters. D. G. Pelli, M. Palomares, and N. J. Majaj (2004) outlined a model in which simple feature detectors are followed by integration fields, which are involved in tasks, such as letter identification, that require the outputs of several detectors. They proposed that crowding occurs because small integration fields are absent from the periphery, leading to inappropriate feature integration by large peripheral integration fields. We argue that the "association field," which has been proposed to mediate contour integration (D. J. Field, A. Hayes, & R. F. Hess, 1993), is a type of integration field. Our data are explained by an elaboration of Pelli et al.'s model, in which weak ladder integration competes with strong snake integration. In the fovea, the association fields were small, and the model integrated snakes and ladders with little interference. In the periphery, the association fields were large, and integration of ladders was severely disrupted by interference from spurious snake contours. In contrast, the model easily detected snake contours in the periphery. In a further demonstration of the possible link between contour integration and crowding, we ran our contour integration model on groups of three-letter stimuli

  13. Relationship Between Soil Properties and Different Fractions of Soil Hg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUHONGTAO; YUGUIFEN; 等

    2001-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis methods were used to study the relationship between soil properties and the distribution of different soil Hg fractions with nine representative soils from Chongqing,China,Results showed that clay(<2m) could increase water-soluble Hg(r=0.700*).Soil organic matter (OM) could enhance the increase of elemental Hg(r=0.674*),The higher the base saturation percentage (BSP) ,the more the residual Hg(R=0.684*) .Organic Hg,the sum of said-soluble organic He and alkali-soluble Hg,was positively affected by silt(2-20μm)but negatively affected by pH,with the direct path coefficients amounting to 1.0487 and 0.5121,respectively .The positive effect of OM and negative effect of BSP on organic Hg were the most significant ,with the direct path coefficients being 0.7614 and -0.8527,respectively. The indirect effect of clay(<2μm) iva BSP (path coefficient=0.4186) was the highest,showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay(<2μm) via BSP (path coefficient=0.4186) was the highest,showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay(<2μm) on acid-soluble organic Hw was BSP.since the available Hg fraction,water-soluble Hg,was positively affected by soil clay content,and the quite immobile and not bioavailable residual Hg by soil BSP,suitable reduction of clay content and increase of BSP would be of much help to reduce the Hg availability and Hg activity in Hg-contaminated soils.

  14. SU-E-J-129: Atlas Development for Cardiac Automatic Contouring Using Multi-Atlas Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, R; Yang, J; Pan, T; Milgrom, S; Pinnix, C; Shi, A; Yang, J; Liu, Y; Nguyen, Q; Gomez, D; Dabaja, B; Balter, P; Court, L; Liao, Z [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a set of atlases for automatic contouring of cardiac structures to determine heart radiation dose and the associated toxicity. Methods: Six thoracic cancer patients with both contrast and non-contrast CT images were acquired for this study. Eight radiation oncologists manually and independently delineated cardiac contours on the non-contrast CT by referring to the fused contrast CT and following the RTOG 1106 atlas contouring guideline. Fifteen regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated, including heart, four chambers, four coronary arteries, pulmonary artery and vein, inferior and superior vena cava, and ascending and descending aorta. Individual expert contours were fused using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm for each ROI and each patient. The fused contours became atlases for an in-house multi-atlas segmentation. Using leave-one-out test, we generated auto-segmented contours for each ROI and each patient. The auto-segmented contours were compared with the fused contours using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean surface distance (MSD). Results: Inter-observer variability was not obvious for heart, chambers, and aorta but was large for other structures that were not clearly distinguishable on CT image. The average DSC between individual expert contours and the fused contours were less than 50% for coronary arteries and pulmonary vein, and the average MSD were greater than 4.0 mm. The largest MSD of expert contours deviating from the fused contours was 2.5 cm. The mean DSC and MSD of auto-segmented contours were within one standard deviation of expert contouring variability except the right coronary artery. The coronary arteries, vena cava, and pulmonary vein had DSC<70% and MSD>3.0 mm. Conclusion: A set of cardiac atlases was created for cardiac automatic contouring, the accuracy of which was comparable to the variability in expert contouring. However, substantial modification may need

  15. Fast Contour-Tracing Algorithm Based on a Pixel-Following Method for Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jonghoon; Chae, Seungho; Shim, Jinwook; Kim, Dongchul; Cheong, Cheolho; Han, Tack-Don

    2016-03-09

    Contour pixels distinguish objects from the background. Tracing and extracting contour pixels are widely used for smart/wearable image sensor devices, because these are simple and useful for detecting objects. In this paper, we present a novel contour-tracing algorithm for fast and accurate contour following. The proposed algorithm classifies the type of contour pixel, based on its local pattern. Then, it traces the next contour using the previous pixel's type. Therefore, it can classify the type of contour pixels as a straight line, inner corner, outer corner and inner-outer corner, and it can extract pixels of a specific contour type. Moreover, it can trace contour pixels rapidly because it can determine the local minimal path using the contour case. In addition, the proposed algorithm is capable of the compressing data of contour pixels using the representative points and inner-outer corner points, and it can accurately restore the contour image from the data. To compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to that of conventional techniques, we measure their processing time and accuracy. In the experimental results, the proposed algorithm shows better performance compared to the others. Furthermore, it can provide the compressed data of contour pixels and restore them accurately, including the inner-outer corner, which cannot be restored using conventional algorithms.

  16. Fast Contour-Tracing Algorithm Based on a Pixel-Following Method for Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghoon Seo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contour pixels distinguish objects from the background. Tracing and extracting contour pixels are widely used for smart/wearable image sensor devices, because these are simple and useful for detecting objects. In this paper, we present a novel contour-tracing algorithm for fast and accurate contour following. The proposed algorithm classifies the type of contour pixel, based on its local pattern. Then, it traces the next contour using the previous pixel’s type. Therefore, it can classify the type of contour pixels as a straight line, inner corner, outer corner and inner-outer corner, and it can extract pixels of a specific contour type. Moreover, it can trace contour pixels rapidly because it can determine the local minimal path using the contour case. In addition, the proposed algorithm is capable of the compressing data of contour pixels using the representative points and inner-outer corner points, and it can accurately restore the contour image from the data. To compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to that of conventional techniques, we measure their processing time and accuracy. In the experimental results, the proposed algorithm shows better performance compared to the others. Furthermore, it can provide the compressed data of contour pixels and restore them accurately, including the inner-outer corner, which cannot be restored using conventional algorithms.

  17. Recognizing the authenticity of emotional expressions: F0 contour matters when you need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Matthis; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Fischer, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Authenticity of vocal emotion expression affects emotion recognition and brain activity in the so-called Theory of Mind (ToM) network, which is implied in the ability to explain and predict behavior by attributing mental states to other individuals. Exploiting the variability of the fundamental frequency (F0 contour), which varies more (higher contour) in play-acted expressions than authentic ones, we examined whether contour biases explicit categorization toward a particular authenticity or emotion category. Moreover, we tested whether contour modulates blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response in the ToM network and explored the role of task as a top-down modulator. The effects of contour on BOLD signal were analyzed by contrasting high and low contour stimuli within two previous fMRI studies that implemented emotion and authenticity rating tasks. Participants preferentially categorized higher contour stimuli as play-acted and lower contour stimuli as sad. Higher contour was found to up-regulate activation task-independently in the primary auditory cortex. Stimulus contour and task were found to interact in a network including medial prefrontal cortex, with an increase in BOLD signal for low-contour stimuli during explicit perception of authenticity and an increase for high-contour stimuli during explicit perception of emotion. Contour-induced BOLD effects appear to be purely stimulus-driven in early auditory and intonation perception, while being strongly task-dependent in regions involved in higher cognition.

  18. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Marcelo, E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rocha, Joao B.T., E-mail: jbtrocha@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  19. Modeling interactions of Hg(II) and bauxitic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Rohan; Tobschall, Heinz J; Bandara, Atula

    2007-11-01

    The adsorptive interactions of Hg(II) with gibbsite-rich soils (hereafter SOIL-g) were modeled by 1-pK surface complexation theory using charge distribution multi-site ion competition model (CD MUSIC) incorporating basic Stern layer model (BSM) to account for electrostatic effects. The model calibrations were performed for the experimental data of synthetic gibbsite-Hg(II) adsorption. When [NaNO(3)] > or = 0.01M, the Hg(II) adsorption density values, of gibbsite, Gamma(Hg(II)), showed a negligible variation with ionic strength. However, Gamma(Hg(II)) values show a marked variation with the [Cl(-)]. When [Cl(-)] > or = 0.01M, the Gamma(Hg(II)) values showed a significant reduction with the pH. The Hg(II) adsorption behavior in NaNO(3) was modeled assuming homogeneous solid surface. The introduction of high affinity sites, i.e., >Al(s)OH at a low concentration (typically about 0.045 sites nm(-2)) is required to model Hg(II) adsorption in NaCl. According to IR spectroscopic data, the bauxitic soil (SOIL-g) is characterized by gibbsite and bayerite. These mineral phases were not treated discretely in modeling of Hg(II) and soil interactions. The CD MUSIC/BSM model combination can be used to model Hg(II) adsorption on bauxitic soil. The role of organic matter seems to play a role on Hg(II) binding when pH>8. The Hg(II) adsorption in the presence of excess Cl(-) ions required the selection of high affinity sites in modeling.

  20. Lithography process for patterning HgI2 photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark J.; James, Ralph B.; Hermon, Haim

    2004-11-23

    A photolithographic process forms patterns on HgI.sub.2 surfaces and defines metal sublimation masks and electrodes to substantially improve device performance by increasing the realizable design space. Techniques for smoothing HgI.sub.2 surfaces and for producing trenches in HgI.sub.2 are provided. A sublimation process is described which produces etched-trench devices with enhanced electron-transport-only behavior.

  1. Epitaxial growth of HgTe by a MOVPE process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, S.J.C.; Mullin, J.B.; Royle, A. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (UK))

    1982-03-01

    Epitaxial layers of HgTe have been grown onto insulating CdTe substrates by the pyrolysis of (C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/Te in the presence of Hg vapour using a H/sub 2/ flow system. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and conductivity measurements have shown that the electrical properties of the layers are comparable with good quality bulk HgTe.

  2. U.S. Atlantic East Coast bathymetry contours (EGLORIA_CNT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric contours, which comprise this GIS data layer, contains contours for the U.S. Atlantic East Coast. The dataset was created for use with the USGS...

  3. Comprehensive contour prediction model of work rolls in hot wide strip mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Quan Yang; Anrui He; Renzhong Wang

    2007-01-01

    The predictive calculation of comprehensive contour of work rolls in the on-line strip shape control model during hot rolling consists of two important parts of wear contour calculation and thermal contour calculation, which have a direct influence on the accuracy of shape control. A statistical wear model and a finite difference thermal contour model of work rolls were described. The comprehensive contour is the equivalence treatment of the sum of grinding, wear, and thermal contours. This comprehensive contour calculation model has been applied successfully in the real on-line strip shape control model. Its high precision has been proved through the large amounts of actual roll profile measurements and theoretical analyses. The hit rates (percent of shape index satisfying requirement) of crown and head flatness of the strips rolled, by using the shape control model, which includes the comprehensive contour calculation model, have about 16% and 10% increase respectively, compared to those of strips rolled by using manual operation.

  4. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  5. U.S. Atlantic East Coast bathymetry contours (EGLORIA_CNT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric contours, which comprise this GIS data layer, contains contours for the U.S. Atlantic East Coast. The dataset was created for use with the USGS...

  6. Experiments with a New 201Hg+ Ion Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, E. A.; Taghavi-Larigani, S.; Lea, S. N.; Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we describe a new clock based on 201Hg+. All previous mercury ion clocks have been based on 199Hg+. We have recently completed construction of the 201Hg+ clock and will describe modifications to the design of our existing 199Hg+ clocks to accommodate the new isotope. We will also describe initial spectroscopic measurements of the hyperfine manifold, and possible future experiments. One experiment could place a limit on variations in the strong interaction fundamental constant ratio mq/ΛQCD.REFID="9789812838223_0043FN001">

  7. Improved method for determination of the suppression of isobars in a gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, P; Hanstorp, D; Lindahl, A O [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Havener, C C; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yun, E-mail: pontus.andersson@physics.gu.s [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 208, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    An improved measurement of the limit of isobar suppression by photodetachment has been made. A gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide was used to slow down negative ions for the purpose of acquiring long interaction times with the applied laser light. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1064nm) was used to selectively deplete a beam of Co{sup -} ions inside the rf ion guide and the remaining ions was probed using photodetachment by another Nd:YAG laser and a neutral detector. The neutral detection system allowed for a detection limit more than one order of magnitude better than the previous measurements. With this improved detection method, we show that the suppression of Co{sup -} ions was at least four orders of magnitude.

  8. A meson-exchange isobar model for the {pi}{sup +}d {r_reversible} pp reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canton, L.; Cattapan, G.; Dortmans, P.J.; Pisent, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy); Svenne, J.P. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Winnipeg Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    1994-10-10

    A broad set of observables are calculated for the {pi}{sup +} d {r_reversible} pp reaction with a relatively simple meson-exchange isobar model. The comparison between the calculated results and experimental data (including spin observables), shows that the model gives an overall phenomenologically acceptable description of the reaction around the {Delta} resonance. The effects due to the inclusion of Galilei invariant (pseudovector) recoil term in the {pi}NN vertex, of relativistic corrections to the {rho}-exchange component of the {Delta}N transition potential, and of NN final state interaction in the {pi}{sup +}d {yields} p+p process are also discussed. It is estimated that the model is sufficiently simple to be extended to the case of pion absorption on other light nuclei, in particular {sup 3}He (or tritium). 32 refs., 13 figs.

  9. A vibrational spectroscopic study of structure evolution of water dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide under isobaric heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, R; Tassaing, T; Danten, Y; Besnard, M

    2004-06-08

    A combination of Raman scattering spectroscopy and infrared absorption was applied to investigate the structural evolution of water dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide under isobaric heating (T=40-340 degrees C, P=250 bar). Quantitative analysis of experimental spectra allowed us to determine that at relatively moderate temperatures water dissolved in CO(2)-rich phase exists only under monomeric form (solitary water surrounding by CO(2) molecules), but hydrogen-bonded species, namely, dimers, begin to appear upon heating. At the same time, the ratio of dimers to monomers concentration increases with further temperature increase and at temperatures close to the temperature of total miscibility of the mixture (T=366 degrees C, P=250 bar), water dimers only are present in the CO(2)-rich phase. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  10. The separation and analysis of symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine and other hydrophilic isobaric compounds using aqueous normal phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Joseph J; Matyksa, Maria T; Modereger, Brent; Hasbun, Alejandra; Phan, Vy T; Mehr, Zahra; Guzman, Mariano; Watanable, Seiichiro

    2016-04-01

    Two biologically important compounds with clinical relevance, asymmetric dimethylarginine and symmetric dimethylarginine, are analyzed using aqueous normal phase chromatography on silica hydride-based columns. Two different stationary phases were tested, a commercially available Diamond Hydride™ and a 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid experimental column. Two types of analytical protocols were investigated: analysis of the compounds when separation was achieved and analysis of the compounds with partial chromatographic separation. Urine samples from tuberculosis patients were tested for levels of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine. The mass spectrometric technique of in-source fragmentation that can provide data similar to a tandem mass analyzer was evaluated as a means of identification and quantitation of the two compounds when complete separation is not achieved. This same protocol was also evaluated for two other isobaric compounds, glucose-1 and glucose-6 phohsphate, and leucine and isoleucine.

  11. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics analysis of gene regulation by SprC in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanqiang; Hu, Fupin; Yang, Han; Ding, Baixing; Xu, Xiaogang; He, Chunyan; Cui, Zelin; Shu, Wen; Liu, Qingzhong

    2017-09-06

    To explore the complete gene networks regulated by small RNA SprC and its targets in Staphylococcus aureus. The isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and bioinformatic methods were utilized to identify and analyze the target proteins affected by SprC in S. aureus N315. Proteomic analysis showed that the expression of 44 proteins was modulated by SprC. Further, bioinformatic analysis displayed that these affected proteins mainly associated with metabolic and cellular process, biological regulation and catalytic activity. Our data provide a rich resource of SprC targets in S. aureus, although the mechanism of regulation by SprC is yet to be elucidated.

  12. Isobaric production cross sections from 0.6 GeV proton irradiation of neptunium and thorium using mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, H.U. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: hansueli.wenger@psi.ch; Al Mazouzi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Atchison, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Burghartz, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Guenther-Leopold, I. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Heimgartner, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hellwig, Ch. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ingold, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kopajtic, Z. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Linder, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2006-01-09

    A high-fluence proton irradiation of neptunium was the last experiment in PSIs programme ATHENA related to accelerator-based transmutation. The principal aim of the programme has been to provide experimental data for the validation of theoretical models in nucleon-meson transport codes, with emphasis on the mass yield distribution of fission and spallation products. An improved mass spectrometry method has allowed the direct derivation of isobaric production cross sections with only minor corrections and an estimate of the fission cross section by integration in the fission hump. In a second sample position of the irradiation head, a repetition of the previous ATHENA experiment with thorium was possible, profiting from the improved mass spectrometry technique. The experimental results are better predicted by the code FUSSPOT than by HETC/RAL, both used at PSI.

  13. Study of the Effect of Reduced Iron Temperature Rising on Total Carbon Formation in Iron Reactor Isobaric and Cooling Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Alamsari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented the mathematical model in the iron reactor. The model was limited to Isobaric Zone and Cooling Zone termed as IZ and CZ, respectively. The simulation was done by adapting the heat and mass transfer equations. The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the temperature increasing effect of reduced-iron on sponge-iron quality. The calculations are solved using Finite Element Method (FEM. The results showed that the temperature and concentration values from the simulation have high similarity to the reference data with Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE about 0.7. The formation of total-carbon in the both zones decreased metallization degree until 1.72%. The increase in reduced-iron temperature higher than 1200 K produces total-carbon higher than 3%. Thus the increase in reduced-iron temperature more than 1200 K is not recommended because it can decrease metallization degree.

  14. Realistic calculations for c coefficients of the isobaric mass multiplet equation in 1 p 0 f shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, W. E.; Brown, B. A.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.

    2017-08-01

    We present calculations for the c coefficients of the isobaric mass multiplet equation for nuclei from A =42 to A =54 based on input from three realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. We demonstrate that there is a clear dependence on the short-range charge-symmetry-breaking (CSB) part of the strong interaction and that there is significant disagreement in the CSB part between the commonly used CD-Bonn, chiral effective field theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order, and Argonne V18 nucleon-nucleon interactions. In addition, we show that all three interactions give a CSB contribution to the c coefficient that is too large when compared to experiment.

  15. Observation of the double isobaric analog transition 18O(π+,π-) 18Ne at 50 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, A.; Johnson, R. R.; Wienands, U.; Hessey, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Forster, B. M.; Grion, N.; Mills, D.; Rozon, F. M.; Smith, G. R.; Trelle, And R.; Gill, D. R.; Sheffer, G.; Anderl, T.

    1985-09-01

    The angular distribution of the differential cross sections for the transition to the double isobaric analog state in the reaction 18(π+,π-) 18Ne was measured at six angles from 20° to 120°. Extrapolation of the differential cross section results in 5.3+/-0.5 μb/sr at 0° and an angle-integrated cross section of 16.7+/-1.2 μb. The forward peaking and magnitude of the cross sections differ from those predicted by simple sequential models and the trends of data at higher energies. The results are compared to recent data for the same transition on 14C at 50 MeV and to a calculation in the six-quark bag model.

  16. LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method development for AMG 900: resolution of an isobaric interference in rodent in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be, Xuhai; Moore, Earl S; Zhao, Zhiyang; Wells, Mary C

    2013-02-23

    AMG 900 is an orally available small molecule that is a highly potent and selective pan-aurora kinase inhibitor currently in development for the treatment of advanced human cancers. A co-eluting, isobaric interference was discovered in preliminary LC-MS/MS analyses of rodent in vivo pharmacokinetic samples during preclinical evaluation of AMG 900. The interference was identified as a major circulating N-oxide metabolite which partially converted to an [M+H-O](+) ion under the conditions of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. A selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of AMG 900 and its N-oxide metabolite in plasma was developed and successfully applied for the bioanalysis of discovery stage preclinical rodent pharmacokinetic studies.

  17. PENCEMARAN LOGAM BERAT MERKURI (Hg PADA AIRTANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Triadi Putranto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The earth consists largely of water because the land area is smaller than the ocean. Human beings on this earthcan not escape the need for water. Water is the main requirement for the process of life on the earth.Relatively clean water that is coveted by men, whether for purposes of daily life, for industrial purposes, for thecleanliness of city sanitation, as well as for agricultural purposes and so forth. Heavy metal pollution is a veryserious issue to be handled, because of adverse environmental and ecosystem in general. Heavy metallic elementis the element which has a density of more than 5 gr/cm3. Hg has a density of 13.55 gr/cm3. Disaster is anoutbreak of Minamata mercury poisoning in people who eat fish contaminated by mercury in Minamata Japan,and this event is known as Minamata Disease. Efforts to tackle the heavy metal pollution can actually be doneusing a chemical process or by microorganism such as microbes and bacteria.

  18. Neural Correlates of the Poggendorff Illusion Driven by Illusory Contour: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Chen; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    The Poggendorff illusion is a well-documented geometric illusion that involves the brain's perception of the interaction between oblique lines and object contours: an oblique line is apparently misaligned once interrupted by two parallel contours. This illusion occurs even when the parallel contours are defined subjectively or illusorily. In this fMRI study, we adopted a 4 (type of stimuli: Poggendorff illusion under real contour and its corresponding control condition; Poggendorff illusion u...

  19. Research on Constructing Contours from Regular Terrain Grids Containing Invalid Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Wei-min; WU Fan

    2004-01-01

    A new method for constructing contours from complicated terrain elevation grids containing invalid data is put forward. By using this method, the topological consistency of contours in groups can be maintained effectively and the contours can be drawn smoothly based on boundaries pre-searching and local correction. An experimental example is given to demonstrate that the contours constructed by this method are of good quality.

  20. Hg-coordination studies of oligopeptides containing cysteine, histidine and tyrosine by $^{199m}$Hg-TDPAC

    CERN Document Server

    Ctortecka, B; Mallion, S; Butz, T; Hoffmann, R

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of histidine- and tyrosine- containing peptide chains with Hg(II), the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of /sup 199m/Hg in the Hg complexes of the oligopeptides alanyl-alanyl-histidyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAHAA-NH /sub 2/) and alanyl-alanyl-tyrosyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAYAA-NH/sub 2/) was determined by time differential perturbed angular correlation and is compared with previous data on alanyl-alanyl-cysteyl-alanyl- alanyl (AACAA-OH). The /sup 199m/Hg-NQIs depend on the oligopeptide to Hg(II) stoichiometry and indicate that two-fold and four-fold coordinations occur for the bound Hg(II). (12 refs).

  1. Proteomic Identification and Quantification of S-glutathionylation in Mouse Macrophages Using Resin-Assisted Enrichment and Isobaric Labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Dian; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Guo, Jia; Hatchell, Kayla E.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Clauss, Therese RW; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Wu, Si; Purvine, Samuel O.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Thrall, Brian D.; Qian, Weijun

    2014-02-11

    Protein S-glutathionylation (SSG) is an important regulatory posttranslational modification of protein cysteine (Cys) thiol redox switches, yet the role of specific cysteine residues as targets of modification is poorly understood. We report a novel quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic method for site-specific identification and quantification of S-glutathionylation across different conditions. Briefly, this approach consists of initial blocking of free thiols by alkylation, selective reduction of glutathionylated thiols and enrichment using thiol affinity resins, followed by on-resin tryptic digestion and isobaric labeling with iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) for MS-based identification and quantification. The overall approach was validated by application to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with different doses of diamide to induce glutathionylation. A total of 1071 Cys-sites from 690 proteins were identified in response to diamide treatment, with ~90% of the sites displaying >2-fold increases in SSG-modification compared to controls.. This approach was extended to identify potential SSG modified Cys-sites in response to H2O2, an endogenous oxidant produced by activated macrophages and many pathophysiological stimuli. The results revealed 364 Cys-sites from 265 proteins that were sensitive to S-glutathionylation in response to H2O2 treatment. These proteins covered a range of molecular types and molecular functions with free radical scavenging, and cell death and survival included as the most significantly enriched functional categories. Overall the results demonstrate that our approach is effective for site-specific identification and quantification of S-glutathionylated proteins. The analytical strategy also provides a unique approach to determining the major pathways and cell processes most susceptible to glutathionylation at a proteome-wide scale.

  2. Molecular dynamics in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble: the requirement of a "shell" molecule. III. Discontinuous potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uline, Mark J; Corti, David S

    2008-07-07

    Based on the approach of Gruhn and Monson [Phys. Rev. E 63, 061106 (2001)], we present a new method for deriving the collisions dynamics for particles that interact via discontinuous potentials. By invoking the conservation of the extended Hamiltonian, we generate molecular dynamics (MD) algorithms for simulating the hard-sphere and square-well fluids within the isothermal-isobaric (NpT) ensemble. Consistent with the recent rigorous reformulation of the NpT ensemble partition function, the equations of motion impose a constant external pressure via the introduction of a shell particle of known mass [M. J. Uline and D. S. Corti, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 164101 (2005); 123, 164102 (2005)], which serves to define uniquely the volume of the system. The particles are also connected to a temperature reservoir through the use of a chain of Nose-Hoover thermostats, the properties of which are not affected by a hard-sphere or square-well collision. By using the Liouville operator formalism and the Trotter expansion theorem to integrate the equations of motion, the update of the thermostat variables can be decoupled from the update of the positions of the particles and the momentum changes upon a collision. Hence, once the appropriate collision dynamics for the isobaric-isenthalpic (NpH) equations of motion is known, the adaptation of the algorithm to the NpT ensemble is straightforward. Results of MD simulations for the pure component square-well fluid are presented and serve to validate our algorithm. Finally, since the mass of the shell particle is known, the system itself, and not a piston of arbitrary mass, controls the time scales for internal pressure and volume fluctuations. We therefore consider the influence of the shell particle algorithm on the dynamics of the square-well fluid.

  3. Isobaric Heat Capacities of Micelle Formation by 1-Methyl-4-n-dodecylpyridinium Iodide in Aqueous Solution; Effects of Added Urea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, Willem; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Bijma, Koos; Blandamer, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Over the temperature range from 303 to 333 K, the enthalpy of micelle formation by 1-methyl-4-n-dodecylpyridinium iodide in aqueous solution is exothermic, characterised by an isobaric heat capacity of micelle formation equal to -439 ± 10 J K-1 mol-1. At 303 K, the critical micellar concentration (2

  4. Neutron decay of deep hole states and isobaric analog states in Sn-115 populated by the (He-3,alpha) reaction at 102 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soderman, PO; Ringbom, A; Blomgren, J; Olsson, N; Nilsson, L; Bordewijk, JA; van't Hof, G; Hofstee, MA; van der Ploeg, H; van der Werf, SY; Krasznahorkay, A; Balanda, A; Chmielewska, D; Laurent, H

    2001-01-01

    Neutron decay of excited hole states and isobaric analog states (IAS) populated by the Sn-116(He-3,alpha) reaction at an energy of 102 MeV has been investigated. The alpha -particles were analysed in a magnetic spectrograph positioned at 1.4 degrees and detected with a multiwire drift chamber. Excit

  5. Direct lead isotope analysis in Hg-rich sulfides by LA-MC-ICP-MS with a gas exchange device and matrix-matched calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Günther, Detlef; Liu, Yongsheng; Ling, Wenli; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Haihong; Gao, Shan

    2016-12-15

    In situ Pb isotope data of sulfide samples measured by LA-MC-ICP-MS provide valuable geochemical information for studies of the origin and evolution of ore deposits. However, the severe isobaric interference of (204)Hg on (204)Pb and the lack of matrix-matched sulfide reference materials limit the precision of Pb isotopic analyses for Hg-rich sulfides. In this study, we observe that Hg forms vapor and can be completely removed from sample aerosol particles produced by laser ablation using a gas exchange device. Additionally, this device does not influence the signal intensities of Pb isotopes. The within-run precision, the external reproducibility and the analytical accuracy are significantly improved for the Hg-rich sulfide samples using this mercury-vapor-removing device. Matrix effects are observed when using silicate glass reference materials as the external standards to assess the relationship of mass fractionation factors between Tl and Pb in sulfide samples, resulting in a maximum deviation of ∼0.20% for (20x)Pb/(204)Pb. Matrix-matched reference materials are therefore required for the highly precise and accurate Pb isotope analyses of sulfide samples. We investigated two sulfide samples, MASS-1 (the Unites States Geological Survey reference materials) and Sph-HYLM (a natural sphalerite), as potential candidates. Repeated analyses of the two proposed sulfide reference materials by LA-MC-ICP-MS yield good external reproducibility of ICP-MS, demonstrating the reliability and robustness of our analytical protocol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of contouring variability on dosimetric parameters for brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Julia; Dunscombe, Peter; Lau, Harold; Burns, Paul; Lim, Gerald; Liu, Hong-Wei; Nordal, Robert; Starreveld, Yves; Valev, Boris; Voroney, Jon-Paul; Spencer, David P

    2013-12-01

    To quantify the effect of contouring variation on stereotactic radiosurgery plan quality metrics for brain metastases. Fourteen metastases, each contoured by 8 physicians, formed the basis of this study. A template-based dynamic conformal 5-arc dose distribution was developed for each of the 112 contours, and each dose distribution was applied to the 7 other contours in each patient set. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) plan quality metrics and the Paddick conformity index were calculated for each of the 896 combinations of dose distributions and contours. The ratio of largest to smallest contour volume for each metastasis varied from 1.25 to 4.47, with a median value of 1.68 (n=8). The median absolute difference in RTOG conformity index between the value for the reference contour and the values for the alternative contours was 0.35. The variation of the range of conformity index for all contours for a given tumor varied with the tumor size. The high degree of interobserver contouring variation strongly suggests that peer review or consultation should be adopted to standardize tumor volume prescription. Observer confidence was not reflected in contouring consistency. The impact of contouring variability on plan quality metrics, used as criteria for clinical trial protocol compliance, was such that the category of compliance was robust to interobserver effects only 70% of the time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast Graph Partitioning Active Contours for Image Segmentation Using Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath SumitK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a method to improve the accuracy and speed, as well as significantly reduce the memory requirements, for the recently proposed Graph Partitioning Active Contours (GPACs algorithm for image segmentation in the work of Sumengen and Manjunath (2006. Instead of computing an approximate but still expensive dissimilarity matrix of quadratic size, , for a 2D image of size and regular image tiles of size , we use fixed length histograms and an intensity-based symmetric-centrosymmetric extensor matrix to jointly compute terms associated with the complete dissimilarity matrix. This computationally efficient reformulation of GPAC using a very small memory footprint offers two distinct advantages over the original implementation. It speeds up convergence of the evolving active contour and seamlessly extends performance of GPAC to multidimensional images.

  8. Region-based active contour with noise and shape priors

    CERN Document Server

    Lecellier, François; Fadili, Jalal; Aubert, Gilles; Revenu, Marinette; Saloux, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to combine formally noise and shape priors in region-based active contours. On the one hand, we use the general framework of exponential family as a prior model for noise. On the other hand, translation and scale invariant Legendre moments are considered to incorporate the shape prior (e.g. fidelity to a reference shape). The combination of the two prior terms in the active contour functional yields the final evolution equation whose evolution speed is rigorously derived using shape derivative tools. Experimental results on both synthetic images and real life cardiac echography data clearly demonstrate the robustness to initialization and noise, flexibility and large potential applicability of our segmentation algorithm.

  9. Segmentation of Coronal Holes Using Active Contours Without Edges

    CERN Document Server

    Boucheron, L E; McAteer, R T J

    2016-01-01

    An application of active contours without edges is presented as an efficient and effective means of extracting and characterizing coronal holes. Coronal holes are regions of low-density plasma on the Sun with open magnetic field lines. As the source of the fast solar wind, the detection and characterization of these regions is important for both testing theories of their formation and evolution and from a space weather perspective. Coronal holes are detected in full disk extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of the corona obtained with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). The proposed method detects coronal boundaries without determining any fixed intensity value in the data. Instead, the active contour segmentation employs an energy-minimization in which coronal holes are assumed to have more homogeneous intensities than surrounding active regions and quiet Sun. The segmented coronal holes tend to correspond to unipolar magnetic regions, are consistent with concurrent solar wind ...

  10. BABEL - A method for digitization and restoration of contour maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphalen, Gernot

    1995-03-01

    We have developed BABEL as a method for digitization and restoration of contour maps. The results of the comparison between restoration and template are encouraging and first applications are proving very useful. The restoration method is now quite flexible and fast. The result is available as a standard fits file, so that the restored map can be transferred into various coordinate systems and projections and can be used for further digital processing, e.g. for comparison of older radio data with new infrared or X-ray data. So far we have digitized various HI line and 11.1 cm continuum contour maps, for which we know that the original digital data were lost or did never exist in a machine readable format.

  11. Diffusion tensor driven contour closing for cell microinjection targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Gabriele; Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a novel approach to robust automatic detection of unstained living cells in bright-field (BF) microscope images with the goal of producing a target list for an automated microinjection system. The overall image analysis process is described and includes: preprocessing, ridge enhancement, image segmentation, shape analysis and injection point definition. The developed algorithm implements a new version of anisotropic contour completion (ACC) based on the partial differential equation (PDE) for heat diffusion which improves the cell segmentation process by elongating the edges only along their tangent direction. The developed ACC algorithm is equivalent to a dilation of the binary edge image with a continuous elliptic structural element that takes into account local orientation of the contours preventing extension towards normal direction. Experiments carried out on real images of 10 to 50 microm CHO-K1 adherent cells show a remarkable reliability in the algorithm along with up to 85% success for cell detection and injection point definition.

  12. Effects of Contoured Pallets on AMC Mission Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    airlines. It postulated that national security would benefit from keeping commercial airlines as a viable source of airlift (Donovan, 2011). After the...Research Project, AFIT/ GMO /ENS/04I-01, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH McNabb, Duncan J. (2009). Statement of General Duncan...analysis of the benefits in producing more contoured pallets AMC and USTRANSCOM can increase the efficiency of channel airlift while boosting civilian

  13. Yet another method for triangulation and contouring for automated cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Floriani, L.; Falcidieno, B.; Nasy, G.; Pienovi, C.

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for hierarchical subdivision of a set of three-dimensional surface observations. The data structure used for obtaining the desired triangulation is also singularly appropriate for extracting contours. Some examples are presented, and the results obtained are compared with those given by Delaunay triangulation. The data points selected by the algorithm provide a better approximation to the desired surface than do randomly selected points.

  14. Contour classification in thermographic images for detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuniewski, Rafał; Nowak, Robert M.; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Oleszkiewicz, Witold

    2016-09-01

    Thermographic images of breast taken by the Braster device are uploaded into web application which uses different classification algorithms to automatically decide whether a patient should be more thoroughly examined. This article presents the approach to the task of classifying contours visible on thermographic images of breast taken by the Braster device in order to make the decision about the existence of cancerous tumors in breast. It presents the results of the researches conducted on the different classification algorithms.

  15. Comparison of Goldmann applanation and dynamic contour tonometry in a population of Mexican open-angle glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Roman, J; Gil-Carrasco, F; Martinez, A; Albis-Donado, O; De la Torre-Tovar, J D

    2013-06-01

    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained with Goldmann applanation (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) in a Mexican population. 40 glaucoma patients were included in this cross-sectional observational cohort study. IOP measurements were performed in the following order: DCT, ultrasonic pachymetry and GAT, with a 5-minute difference between each measurement, between 8 am and 2 pm. Only DCT measurements of good quality (Q ≤ 3) were accepted. GAT measurements were made three times with the same Goldmann tonometer, previously checked for calibration errors, and the mean was used for statistical purposes. The IOP (mean [standard deviation], 95 % confidence interval [CI]) measured with the Goldmann tonometer (13.2 [2.4], 12.4-14.0 mmHg) was significantly lower than that obtained with the DCT (18.4 [3.3], 17.0-19.2 mmHg), p DCT were (r = 0.24, 95 % CI = 0.07-0.52, p = 0.133) and (r = 0.13, 95 % CI = -0.19 to 0.43, p = 0.412), respectively. The concordance correlation coefficient between GAT and DCT was r c = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.17-0.41). DCT seems to overestimate the IOP as compared to GAT. Additionally, although there was a good correlation between the IOP measurements assessed with either GAT or DCT, the agreement was poor.

  16. Visual search of illusory contours: an attempt of automatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Belgrade Recent research, which was mostly focused on assessing the types of visual search of illusory contours, showed that visual search is dependent on factors like target configuration and task type. Some experimental research supports the theory of parallel search while other research supports the theory of serial search of illusory contours. The inconsistency is most likely due to the fact that various types of illusory contour configurations were used in set creation. Up to this point, our research indicated that the serial search is used in most cases. Some exceptions of search type have been proven in some modification of task type but nevertheless the search profile remained serial. In this article, we are reporting on two visual search experiments. The first experiment was an investigation of a specific feature of a Kanisza type illusory triangle, orientation. The validity of the profile defined in the first experiment was tested in our second experiment with an attempt to automatize the visual search by the multiplication of the initial experimental trials. Our results confirmed that, regardless of the number of experimental trials, the visual search profile remains serial.

  17. Practical contour segmentation algorithm for small animal digital radiography image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fang; Hui, Gong

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a practical, automated contour segmentation technique for digital radiography image is described. Digital radiography is an imaging mode based on the penetrability of x-ray. Unlike reflection imaging mode such as visible light camera, the pixel brightness represents the summation of the attenuations on the photon thoroughfare. It is not chromophotograph but gray scale picture. Contour extraction is of great importance in medical applications, especially in non-destructive inspection. Manual segmentation techniques include pixel selection, geometrical boundary selection and tracing. But it relies heavily on the experience of the operators, and is time-consuming. Some researchers try to find contours from the intensity jumping characters around them. However these characters also exist in the juncture of bone and soft tissue. The practical way is back to the primordial threshold algorithm. This research emphasizes on how to find the optimal threshold. A high resolution digital radiography system is used to provide the oriental gray scale image. A mouse is applied as the sample of this paper to show the feasibility of the algorithm.

  18. SO2/Hg removal from flue gas by dry FGD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fan; Wang Hongmei; Zhang Fan; Zhu Jinwei; Tian Gang; Liu Yu; Mao Jixian

    2012-01-01

    To study the mechanism of SO2 and Hg removal from flue gas,an experimental packed bed reactor was designed to simulate the dry FGD,where a mixture of lime and fly ash in ratio 1∶3 w/w was used as the SO2 and Hg sorbent,and steam at temperature of 100 ℃ was applied for activation of the sorbent,while the activation time set to 20 min.The experimental factors including the SO2/Hg sorbent characteristics,50% breakthrough time for SO2/Hg removal,sorbent packed bed depth and reaction temperature were investigated.The experimental results show that after steam activation,the BET specific surface area and specific pore volume increased from 37.8 to 45.5 m2/g and from 0.42 to 0.51 cm3/g,respectively.With activation of the sorbent by steam,the 50% breakthrough times of SO2 and Hg removal increased from 34 to 42 min and from 23 to 45 min,respectively.When the packed bed depth was increased from 5 to 25 mm,the 50% breakthrough times for Hg and SO2 removal increased from 12 to 52 min and from 6 to 47 min,respectively.With the increase of the reaction temperature,the 50% breakthrough of SO2/Hg removal decreased accordingly.Steam activation can efficiently improve SO2/Hg removal simultaneously.

  19. Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart; Jugo chart jo deno kyokuchi gensho jikan contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kametani, T.

    1997-05-27

    Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart is examined for further improvement on the result of the ultimate interpretation in the seismic reflection survey. The policy is made clear from the beginning that local phenomena are to be discussed, and data prior CMP stacking is interpreted in detail. For this purpose, it is effective to make use of the time contour expression in the midpoint-offset plane simultaneously with the CMP and COP panels. For the review of data prior to CMP stacking, it is convenient to use the CMP (CDP) stacking chart in which the data is arranged methodically. In this chart, all the channels which are crude data prior to stacking are plotted on midpoint-offset coordinates, which plane is called the MOD (Midpoint Offset Domain) panel. Various panels can be chosen unrestrictedly, and their mutual relations can be easily grasped. When data points are given a time axis, they can be expressed in a time contour. Studies are conducted about the underground structure, multiple reflection paths divided by it, and characteristics of detour reflection attributable to faults. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Determination of MeHg sources to fish in the St. Louis River, MN, USA, using Hg stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes region has become a prevalent concern due to elevated methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish. While atmospheric deposition of Hg is ubiquitous, releases from legacy point-sources give rise to numerous Areas of Concern (AOCs) across the Great ...

  1. Tracing anthropogenic Hg and Pb input using stable Hg and Pb isotope ratios in sediments of the central Portuguese Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil-Holmens, M.; Blum, J.; Canário, J.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Trancoso, M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Johnson, M.; Branco, V.; Cesário, R.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Boer, W.; Melo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Three short marine sediment cores from the Cascais Submarine Canyon (CSC; cores 252-32 and 252-35) and the Estremadura Spur (core 252-16) on the central Portuguese Margin were analysed for Hg, Pb, Al, and Mn concentrations, and both Pb and Hg stable isotope compositions, in order to reconstruct tren

  2. A Contour-Guided Deformable Image Registration Algorithm for Adaptive Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xuejun; Wang, Jing; Yordy, John; Mell, Loren; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2013-01-01

    In adaptive radiotherapy, deformable image registration is often conducted between the planning CT and treatment CT (or cone beam CT) to generate a deformation vector field (DVF) for dose accumulation and contour propagation. The auto propagated contours on the treatment CT may contain relatively large errors, especially in low contrast regions. A clinician inspection and editing of the propagated contours are frequently needed. The edited contours are able to meet the clinical requirement for adaptive therapy; however, the DVF is still inaccurate and inconsistent with the edited contours. The purpose of this work is to develop a contour-guided deformable image registration (CG-DIR) algorithm to improve the accuracy and consistency of the DVF for adaptive radiotherapy. Incorporation of the edited contours into the registration algorithm is realized by regularizing the objective function of the original demons algorithm with a term of intensity matching between the delineated structures set pairs. The CG-DIR a...

  3. RBF neural network and active circles based algorithm for contours extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiheng; Zeng Delu; Xie Shengli

    2007-01-01

    For the contours extraction from the images, active contour model and self-organizing map based approach are popular nowadays. But they are still confronted with the problems that the optimization of energy function will trap in local minimums and the contour evolutions greatly depend on the initial contour selection. Addressing to these problems, a contours extraction algorithm based on RBF neural network is proposed here. A series of circles with adaptive radius and center is firstly used to search image feature points that are scattered enough. After the feature points are clustered, a group of radial basis functions are constructed. Using the pixels' intensities and gradients as the input vector, the final object contour can be obtained by the predicting ability of the neural network. The RBF neural network based algorithm is tested on three kinds of images, such as changing topology, complicated background, and blurring or noisy boundary. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs contours extraction greatly.

  4. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  5. An investigation for the HgCdTe cleaning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Yi; Wang, Nili; Zhao, Shuiping; Liu, Shi-Jia; Li, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    A new cleaning process for HgCdTe was designed - which used the improved SC-1,SC-2 and Br2- C2H5OH solutions as the main cleaning fluid and applied mega sound waves in the cleaning process. By analyzing the test results carried out on the HgCdTe surface, it was found that the material of HgCdTe for the application of new cleaning process was better than the one for the application of conventional cleaning process in the minority carrier lifetime, residual organic contamination, responsivity and specific detectivity.

  6. Doping and Diffusion in HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    In’i, -InT. Te - 1.8 ( - 3 .5 )h ( + 2.9 - 6/) TeT1’- Tej . 4 Hg rich HgCdTe Hg - 1.8 + 1.2 + 1.4 - 2p H - ’g, - H g j.. ’TI - tetrahedral position...A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 11.81 (1988). B. D. Patterson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 60, 69 (1988). 60 V. A. Singh , C. Weigel, J. W. Corbett, and L. M

  7. The hydrological impact of contour trenching in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramana, K. E. R.; Ertsen, M. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.; de Laat, P.; Nonner, J.

    2009-04-01

    At the foothill in the driest rural area in Vietnam, at Ninh Thuan province, poor farmers cultivate up-land crops during the wet season. The area is about 9 hectares of deforested land with a slope up to 8% and has a geology surface of crusted sands and gravels. Water is scarce during the dry season and runs off rapidly during the wet season. Hence, to provide sustainable water resources and support crop growth, a project started in 2007 aiming introducing contour trenching. The main purpose of contour trenching is to trap run off, increase soil moisture for vegetation growth and recharge the groundwater. In order to investigate the impact of the trenches, a field monitoring program was initiated measuring rainfall, soil moisture content, surface water levels and groundwater levels. Recorded annual rainfall reached 600 mm. The groundwater levels are relatively deep and constant at -8 and -10 meters. The soil moisture content ranged from 3% at the driest condition to 37% below the trench at ponding. Water levels in trenches differed from uphill to downhill with higher levels at the first trench uphill. After ponding, water in the trenches infiltrates within a period of days. In this contribution, available field measurements are analyzed in two ways. First, runoff is analyzed. Immediately after significant rainfall events, the observed ponding levels in the trenches with defined uphill runoff areas can be related to the rainfall. The results show reduction of runoff coefficients per trench in downhill direction. Second, the two dimension numerical saturated-unsaturated model Hydrus 2-D was used to simulate the soil moisture content measurements. Model results confirm that infiltration is a quick process in this area with its loamy sand soils. Based on these analyzes, potential of contour trenches for local water retention and groundwater recharge will be discussed.

  8. Cryolipolysis for noninvasive body contouring: clinical efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krueger N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nils Krueger,1 Sophia V Mai,2 Stefanie Luebberding,1 Neil S Sadick3 1Rosenpark Research, Darmstadt, Germany; 2Department of Dermatology, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, LA, 3Department of Dermatology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In recent years, a number of modalities have become available for the noninvasive reduction of adipose tissue, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency, low-level laser, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Each technology employs a different mechanism of action to cause apoptosis or necrosis of the targeted adipocytes. Among these technologies, cryolipolysis has not only been commercially available for the longest time, but has also been best researched including in vitro and animal models and randomized controlled clinical trials in humans. The principle behind cryolipolysis exploits the premise that adipocytes are more susceptible to cooling than other skin cells. The precise application of cold temperatures triggers apoptosis of the adipocytes, which invokes an inflammatory response and leads to slow digestion by surrounding macrophages. In clinical studies, cryolipolysis was shown to reduce subcutaneous fat at the treatment site by up to 25% after one treatment. Improvements were seen in 86% of treated subjects. At 73%, the patient satisfaction rate is higher than with other technologies used for noninvasive lipolysis. Cryolipolysis has been proven to be a very safe method for body contouring, and is accomplished with only minimal discomfort. Expected side effects are temporary erythema, bruising, and transient numbness that usually resolve within 14 days after treatment. With a prevalence of 0.1%, the most common complaint is late-onset pain, occurring 2 weeks post-procedure, which resolves without intervention. Although no procedure has been accepted as the gold standard for noninvasive body contouring as yet, cryolipolysis is considered to be both safe and efficient with a

  9. Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM): A Cruise Missile Guidance Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joe P.

    1980-12-01

    The Cruise Missile is guided by an inertial guidance system aided by an updating technique called Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM). Chance-Vought first proposed the terrain correlation technique in the late 1950's. Since that time TERCOM has evolved into a reliable, accurate, all weather, day and night method of position fixing and updating for cruise missiles. A brief history of TERCOM development will be presented giving results where possible. A description of TERCOM and how is works will be discussed. A snapshot of the present TERCOM status and future planned developments will be addressed.

  10. Laser Welding Of Contoured Thin-Wall Housings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Lyle B.; Oleksiak, Carl E.

    1991-01-01

    Superalloy parts joined with less distortion. Carbon dioxide laser beam directed by optics in numerically controlled robot arm welds shell-type turbopump housings having complicated shapes. 5-kW laser, following single programmed three-dimensional pass, produces high-quality, full-penetration weld pass in age-hardenable nickel superalloy. Operator easily programs robot by using teaching pendant to track weld joint and keeps laser focused on workpiece while following contour of shell. Shells welded in rapid succession, with minimal change in setup for each.

  11. Control of Open Contour Formations of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Zimmer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a distributed elastic behaviour for a deformable chain-like formation of small autonomous underwater vehicles with the task of forming special shapes which have been explicitly defined or are defined by some iso-contour of an environmental concentration field. In the latter case, the formation has to move in such a way as to meet certain formation parameters as well as adapt to the iso-line. We base our controller on our previous models (for manually controlled end points using general curve evolution theory but will also propose appropriate motions for the end robots of an open chain.

  12. SOl-based radial-contour-mode micromechanical disk resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Yingqian; Zhao Zhengping; Yang Yongjun; Hu Xiaodong; Li Qian

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a radial-contour-mode micromechanical disk resonator for radio frequency applications.This disk resonator with a gold plated layer as the electrodes,was prepared on a silicon-on-insulator wafer,which is supported by an anchor on another silicon wafer through Au-Au thermo-compression bonding.The gap between the disk and the surrounding gold electrodes is 100 nm.The radius of the disk is 20 μm and the thickness is 4.5μm.In results,the resonator shows a resonant frequency of 143 MHz and a quality factor of 5600 in vacuum.

  13. Contour tracking and corner detection in a logic programming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Benjamin; Pau, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    The added functionality such as contour tracking and corner detection which logic programming lends to standard image operators is described. An environment for implementing low-level imaging operations with Prolog predicates is considered. Within this environment, higher-level image predicates...... has been very good in many more complex images, as it allows for feedback both ways between sensor input and symbolic models. More important is the parameter selection capability in a dynamic version where background properties change. The authors present examples of Prolog predicates for performing...

  14. Pulse contour-derived cardiac output in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Joakim; Ladefoged, Soeren D

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods for cardiac output determination are essential for studying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension. Use of the current gold standard, the Transonic monitor, requires an arteriovenous fistula. We wished to verify the accuracy of a method based on finger pulse contour...... analysis, namely the Finometer monitor (FNM) for further use on patients dialyzing on a central vascular catheter. Fifty simultaneous cardiac output measurements were obtained during hemodialysis sessions in 25 patients. The internal variability of the FNM measurements was assessed by comparing 24 pairs...

  15. Differences in Radiotherapy Delivery and Outcome Due to Contouring Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Persson, Gitte; Højgaard, Liselotte;

    2012-01-01

    segmentation methods also produce different results. There is no consensus on how to account for the contouring uncertainty, but has been suggested to incorporate it into the planning target volume (PTV) margin. Current recipes for the PTV margin are based on normal distribution assumptions and are more......Gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation is central for radiotherapy planning. It provides the basis of the clinical target volume and, ultimately, the planning target volume which is used for dose optimization. Manual GTV delineations are prone to intra- and inter-observer variation and automatic...

  16. The Effect of Local Orientation Change on the Detection of Contours Defined by Constant Curvature: Psychophysics and Image Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Sieu K.; Cham, Joey; Hayes, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the detection of contours defined by constant curvature and the statistics of curved contours in natural scenes. In Experiment 1, we examined the degree to which human sensitivity to contours is affected by changing the curvature angle and disrupting contour curvature continuity by varying the orientation of end elements. We find that (1) changing the angle of contour curvature decreased detection performance, while (2) end elements oriented in the direction (i.e., clockwise) of curvature facilitated contour detection regardless of the curvature angle of the contour. In Experiment 2 we further established that the relative effect of end—element orientation on contour detection was not only dependent on their orientation (collinear or cocircular), but also their spatial separation from the contour, and whether the contour shape was curved or not (i.e., C-shaped or S-shaped). Increasing the spatial separation of end-elements reduced contour detection performance regardless of their orientation or the contour shape. However, at small separations, cocircular end-elements facilitated the detection of C-shaped contours, but not S-shaped contours. The opposite result was observed for collinear end-elements, which improved the detection of S- shaped, but not C-shaped contours. These dissociative results confirmed that the visual system specifically codes contour curvature, but the association of contour elements occurs locally. Finally, we undertook an analysis of natural images that mapped contours with a constant angular change and determined the frequency of occurrence of end elements with different orientations. Analogous to our behavioral data, this image analysis revealed that the mapped end elements of constantly curved contours are likely to be oriented clockwise to the angle of curvature. Our findings indicate that the visual system is selectively sensitive to contours defined by constant curvature and that this might

  17. The Poggendorff illusion driven by real and illusory contour: Behavioral and neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Qi

    2016-05-01

    The Poggendorff illusion refers to the phenomenon that the human brain misperceives a diagonal line as being apparently misaligned once the diagonal line is interrupted by two parallel edges, and the size of illusion is negatively correlated with the angle of interception of the oblique, i.e. the sharper the oblique angle, the larger the illusion. This optical illusion can be produced by both real and illusory contour. In this fMRI study, by parametrically varying the oblique angle, we investigated the shared and specific neural mechanisms underlying the Poggendorff illusion induced by real and illusory contour. At the behavioral level, not only the real but also the illusory contours were capable of inducing significant Poggendorff illusion. The size of illusion induced by the real contour, however, was larger than that induced by the illusory contour. At the neural level, real and illusory contours commonly activated more dorsal visual areas, and the real contours specifically activated more ventral visual areas. More importantly, examinations on the parametric modulation effects of the size of illusion revealed the specific neural mechanisms underlying the Poggendorff illusion induced by the real and the illusory contours, respectively. Left precentral gyrus and right middle occipital cortex were specifically involved in the Poggendorff illusion induced by the real contour. On the other hand, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and right lateral occipital complex (LOC) were specifically involved in the Poggendorff illusion induced by the illusory contour. Functional implications of the above findings were further discussed.

  18. An automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, William J.; McWilliam, Alan; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Mackay, Ranald I.; van Herk, Marcel

    2016-12-01

    Contour propagation is an essential component of adaptive radiotherapy, but current contour propagation algorithms are not yet sufficiently accurate to be used without manual supervision. Manual review of propagated contours is time-consuming, making routine implementation of real-time adaptive radiotherapy unrealistic. Automated methods of monitoring the performance of contour propagation algorithms are therefore required. We have developed an automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation and validated it on a cohort of head and neck patients, on which parotids were outlined by two observers. Two types of error were simulated—mislabelling of contours and introducing noise in the scans before propagation. The ability of the workflow to correctly predict the occurrence of errors was tested, taking both sets of observer contours as ground truth, using receiver operator characteristic analysis. The area under the curve was 0.90 and 0.85 for the observers, indicating good ability to predict the occurrence of errors. This tool could potentially be used to identify propagated contours that are likely to be incorrect, acting as a flag for manual review of these contours. This would make contour propagation more efficient, facilitating the routine implementation of adaptive radiotherapy.

  19. An automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, William J; McWilliam, Alan; Slevin, Nicholas J; Mackay, Ranald I; van Herk, Marcel

    2016-12-21

    Contour propagation is an essential component of adaptive radiotherapy, but current contour propagation algorithms are not yet sufficiently accurate to be used without manual supervision. Manual review of propagated contours is time-consuming, making routine implementation of real-time adaptive radiotherapy unrealistic. Automated methods of monitoring the performance of contour propagation algorithms are therefore required. We have developed an automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation and validated it on a cohort of head and neck patients, on which parotids were outlined by two observers. Two types of error were simulated-mislabelling of contours and introducing noise in the scans before propagation. The ability of the workflow to correctly predict the occurrence of errors was tested, taking both sets of observer contours as ground truth, using receiver operator characteristic analysis. The area under the curve was 0.90 and 0.85 for the observers, indicating good ability to predict the occurrence of errors. This tool could potentially be used to identify propagated contours that are likely to be incorrect, acting as a flag for manual review of these contours. This would make contour propagation more efficient, facilitating the routine implementation of adaptive radiotherapy.

  20. Body contouring after obesity surgery is associated with a weight loss benefit among patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Shenaq, Deana; Teven, Chad M; Prachand, Vivek; Roughton, Michelle; Zachary, Lawrence

    2017-09-01

    Patients who undergo obesity surgery often require body contouring procedures to eliminate excess skin. Recent studies suggest that body contouring surgery may provide psychological benefits to patients after obesity surgery. However, it remains unclear how body contouring may affect weight loss maintenance after obesity surgery. This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent obesity surgery with or without body contouring at a single institution from 2000 to 2005. Charts were reviewed for demographic, medical, and surgical information. The primary outcome of interest was the difference in weight loss maintenance among patients who underwent body contouring versus those who did not. A total of 318 patients were included for analysis in this study, of which 70 underwent obesity surgery with body contouring and 248 underwent obesity surgery without body contouring. The mean change in BMI among patients who did not undergo body contouring was 19.7 kg/m(2). The mean change in BMI among patients who underwent body contouring was 22.1 kg/m(2). Among patients who underwent body contouring surgery, 2.9% (2/70) of patients did not maintain at least a 20% decrease in body weight during the entire follow-up period (mean follow-up time 92.2 months). Among patients who did not undergo body contouring surgery, 10% (25/248) of patients did not maintain at least a 20% decrease in body weight during the entire follow-up period (mean follow-up time 39.0 months) (χ(2) = 3.67, p = 0.055). Body contouring surgery may have a positive effect on weight loss maintenance after body contouring determined from the mean weight change and on percentage of patients who maintain at least a 20% decrease in body weight. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Uptake of HgCl{sub 2} and MeHgCl in an insect cell line (Aedes albopictus C6/36)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeckman, B.; Cornelis, R.; Rzeznik, U.; Raes, H. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The authors studied the uptake mechanism of mercuric chloride (Hg) and methylmercuric chloride (MeHg) in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells. The uptake kinetics, together with the effect of temperature and a metabolic inhibitor (2,4-dinitrophenol) on the mercury accumulation, were examined. Both amounts of internalized Hg and MeHg increased linearly with the extracellular concentration. Initially, the influx rate was high for both metal species but MeHg was found to accumulate seven times faster than Hg. At longer exposure times it leveled off for Hg, while for MeHg, the intracellular concentration decreased. Hg toxicity was not significantly influenced by elevated temperatures; in contrast there was a marked decrease of the LC{sub 50/24 h} value for MeHg. On the other hand, Hg accumulation was temperature dependent but MeHg was not. The different toxicity and uptake rate of both mercury compounds can be explained in terms of membrane permeability and target site. For Hg the main target seems to be the plasma membrane, while MeHg readily crosses this barrier and reacts with intracellular targets. 2,4-Dinitrophenol had no effect on the accumulation of Hg but that of MeHg was doubled.

  2. Results Of Hg Speciation Testing On DWPF SMECT-1, SMECT-3, And SMECT-5 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The thirteenth shipment of samples was designated to include Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 736 and 738 samples. Triplicate samples of each material were prepared for this shipment. Each replicate was analyzed for seven Hg species: total Hg, total soluble (dissolved) Hg, elemental Hg [Hg(0)], ionic (inorganic) Hg [Hg(I) and Hg(II)], methyl Hg [CH3Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], ethyl Hg [CH3CH2-Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], and dimethyl Hg [(CH3)2Hg]. The difference between the total Hg and total soluble Hg measurements gives the particulate Hg concentration, i.e. Hg adsorbed to the surface of particulate matter in the sample but without resolution of the specific adsorbed species. The average concentrations of Hg species in the aqueous samples derived from Eurofins reported data corrected for dilutions performed by SRNL are tabulated.

  3. Quantum Calorimeters Based on HgCdTe Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's next generation of x-ray observation missions require x-ray calorimeters with superior energy resolution. Semimetallic HgTe has already proven itself as an...

  4. Enrichment of Pb, Hg and Cr in cultured carp otolith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... record the pollution condition at the sampling time. ... aquatic organisms are aquatic algae, zooplankton .... element cannot show that Hg concentration in otolith ..... from Atlantic croaker along an estuarine pollution gradient.

  5. Quantum Calorimeters Based on HgCdTe Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's next generation of x-ray observation missions require x-ray calorimeters with superior energy resolution. Semimetallic HgTe has already proven itself as an...

  6. Properties of Light Hg, Pb and Po Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Muntian, I

    2003-01-01

    Quality of mass description for three different theoretical mass models is studied. Masses and deformations for Po, Pb and Hg isotopes are compared with experimental data. Gap in the proton single particle energy spectrum is discussed.

  7. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  8. Interaction of Hg Atom with Bare Si(111) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-Jun; LIU Ying

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the interaction between Hg atom and bare Si(111) surface, three types of silicon cluster models of Si4H7, Si7H10 and Si16H20 together with their Hg complexes were studied by using hybrid (U)B3LYP density functional theory method. Optimized geometries and energies for Hg atom on different adsorption sites indicate that: 1) the binding energies at different adsorption sites are small (ranging from ~3 to 8 kJ/mol dependent on the adsorption sites), suggesting a weak interaction between Hg atom and silicon surface; 2) the most favorable adsorption site is the on top (T) site. By analyzing their natural bonding orbitals, the possible reason of this difference is suggested.

  9. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaya Ramirez, E., E-mail: minaya@ipno.in2p3.fr [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Cam, J.-F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen (France); Chauveau, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Daudin, L. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Delahaye, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Dupré, P. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Lunney, D. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); Metz, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Naimi, S. [Riken, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Perrot, L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Orsay (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 10{sup 5} ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 10{sup 5} is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  10. Charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state at medium energies as a probe of the neutron skin

    CERN Document Server

    Loc, Bui Minh; Zegers, R G T

    2014-01-01

    The charge-exchange (3He,t) scattering to the isobaric analog state (IAS) of the target can be considered as "elastic" scattering of 3He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. Therefore, the accurately measured charge-exchange scattering cross- section for the IAS can be a good probe of the isospin dependence of the OP, which is determined exclusively within the folding model by the difference between the neutron and proton densities and isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Given the neutron skin of the target is related directly to the same density difference, it can be well probed in the analysis of the charge- exchange (3He,t) reactions at medium energies when the two-step processes can be neglected and the t-matrix interaction can be used in the folding calculation. For this purpose, the data of the (3He,t) scattering to the IAS of 90Zr and 208Pb targets at Elab = 420 MeV have been analyzed in the distorted wave Born approximation using the...

  11. Measurement and correlation of isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium for the binary system of cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE data for the cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran (THF system were measured at 101.3 kPa by using an equilibrium still. Thermodynamic consistency of the experimental data was confirmed by means of the Herington method. The experimental data were correlated and calculated by the Margules, Van Laar and Wilson activity-coefficient models, respectively. The Wilson and Van Laar activity-coefficient models are better than the Margules activity-coefficient model based on the average absolute deviations of temperature and the vapor-phase composition. For the Wilson and Van Laar activity-coefficient models the average absolute deviations between the experimental and the calculated values were 0.24 K and 0.23 K for the boiling point, and 0.0040 for vapor-phase composition, respectively. These agree well with the experimental data. Therefore, it was shown that the Wilson and Van Laar activity-coefficient models satisfactorily correlate the experimental results of the cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran system.

  12. Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria for sulfolane with toluene, ethylbenzene, and isopropylbenzene at 101.33 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhengrong; Huang Lei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of State Education Ministry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xia Shuqian, E-mail: shuqianxia@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of State Education Ministry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ma Peisheng [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of State Education Ministry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > The VLE data of toluene, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene with sulfolane were measured. > Both NRTL and UNIQUAC models can fit the experimental data well. > The new group interaction parameters of UNIFAC were regressed from the VLE data. > The estimated result shows that the group interaction parameters are reliable. - Abstract: Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data have been measured for the (toluene + sulfolane), (ethylbenzene + sulfolane), and (isopropylbenzene + sulfolane) binary systems with a modified Rose-Williams still at 101.33 kPa. The experimental data of binary systems were well correlated by the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) and universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) activity coefficient models for the liquid phase. All the experimental results passed the thermodynamic consistency test by the Herington method. Furthermore, the model UNIFAC (Do) group contribution method was used. Sulfolane is treated as a group (TMS), the new group interaction parameters for CH{sub 2}-TMS, ACH-TMS and ACCH{sub 2}-TMS were regressed from the VLE data of (toluene + sulfolane) and (ethylbenzene + sulfolane) binary systems. Then these group interaction parameters were used to estimate phase equilibrium data of the (isopropylbenzene + sulfolane) binary system. The results showed that the estimated data were in good agreement with the experimental values. The maximum and average absolute deviations of the temperature were 4.50 K and 2.39 K, respectively. The maximum and average absolute deviations for the vapour phase compositions of isopropylbenzene were 0.0237 and 0.0137, respectively.

  13. Cardiac dysfunction in HgCl2-induced nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodrigues, Mónica; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Moura, Cláudia; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2010-03-01

    The experimental model of HgCl(2) injection is characterized by a systemic autoimmune disease which leads to the development of nephrotic syndrome (NS). NS seems to be accompanied by cardiovascular alterations, since patients with NS present an increased incidence in cardiac disease. The aim of our work was to study the effects of HgCl(2)-induced NS on myocardial function and morphometry. Normotensive Brown-Norway rats were injected with HgCl(2) (1 mg/kg, HgCl(2) group; n = 6, subcutaneous) or the vehicle (control group; n = 6, subcutaneous) on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11. The animals were placed in metabolic cages for evaluation of urinary excretion of noradrenaline, sodium, total proteins, albumin and creatinine. Fourteen and 21 days after the first HgCl(2) injection, left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics was evaluated through pressure micromanometers in basal and isovolumetric heartbeats. The heart and gastrocnemius muscle weights and tibial length were also examined. In an additional group of animals cardiac dimensions and ejection fraction were assessed by echocardiography and LV apoptosis and fibrosis were studied. HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, sodium retention and ascites at day 14. These alterations were accompanied by LV hemodynamic changes only in isovolumetric heartbeats. Similarly, on day 21, HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, but no sodium retention or ascites. These animals presented LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in both basal and isovolumetric heartbeats, as well as cardiac atrophy, LV fibrosis and an increase in myocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, HgCl(2)-induced NS is accompanied by LV dysfunction and can be a promising model for studying the link between NS and cardiac disease.

  14. Searching for Line Profile Variability in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S; Knoglinger, P

    2002-01-01

    Spectra of four non-magnetic chemically peculiar late B type stars (HgMn) stars are analysed to detect periodic spectral line variations (LPVs). A procedure developed to study LPVs in Slowly Pulsating B stars has been adopted as pulsational properties of HgMn stars should be expected to be similar. In the preliminary results discussed here no conclusive evidence for periodic LPVs was uncovered. A more sensitive re-analysis of the data is under way.

  15. First observation of excited states in 173Hg93

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, D; Scholey, C; Bianco, L; Capponi, L; Carroll, R J; Darby, I G; Donosa, L; Drummond, M; Ertugral, F; Greenlees, P T; Grahn, T; Hauschild, K; Herzan, A; Jakobsson, U; Jones, P; Joss, D T; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Ketelhut, S; Labiche, M; Leino, M; Lopez-Martens, A; Mullholland, K; Nieminen, P; Peura, P; Rahkila, P; Rinta-Antila, S; Ruotsalainen, P; Sandzelius, M; Saren, J; Saygi, B; Simpson, J; Sorri, J; Thornthwaite, A; Uusitalo, J

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-deficient nucleus 173Hg has been studied following fusion-evaporation reactions. The observation of gamma rays decaying from excited states are reported for the first time and a tentative level scheme is proposed. The proposed level scheme is discussed within the context of the systematics of neighbouring neutron-deficient Hg nuclei. In addition to the gamma-ray spectroscopy, the alpha decay of this nucleus has been measured yielding superior precision to earlier measurements.

  16. Theory on the molecular characteristic contour (II)--Molecular intrinsic characteristic contours of several typical organic molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Lidong; ZHAO; Dongxia; YANG; Zhongzhi

    2005-01-01

    The molecular intrinsic characteristic contour (MICC) is defined based on the classical turning point of electron movement in a molecule. Three typical organic molecules, I.e. Methane, methanol and formic acid, were employed as examples for detailed introduction of our method. Investigations on the cross-sections of MICC provide important information about atomic size changing in the process of forming molecules. The electron density distributions on the MICCs of these molecules were calculated and shown for the first time. Results showed that the electron density distribution on the MICC correlates closely with molecular chemical properties, and it provides a new insight into molecular boundary.

  17. RESEARCH OF BASIFACIAL CONTOURING SCULPTURE BY MANDIBULAR ANGLE OSTECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-lin; DAI Chuan-chang; ZHU Guo-xian; ZHANG Ying; JIN Yu-qing; WANG Wei; QI Chuan-liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective Mandibular angle ostectomy is usually applied to the facial contouring sculpture.We evaluated the various techniques in order to enhance the precision and avoid unnecessary damage. Methods Before operation the area and quantity resected bone were designed according to facial measurement, mandible pantomography and orthophoria and lateral localized radiograph of skull. The Incises of mandibular angle ostectomy included intraoral, retroauricular or intraoral associated with retroauricular. Howerer, the sagittal resection of mandible outer table was necessary in all intraoral incise. Results Single mandibular angle ostectomy was not satisfactory for the patients having mandible hypertrophy with over-width basifacial contouring. Mandibular angle ostectomy combined with the sagittal resection of outer table of mandibular angle were required. Good symmetry and ap pearance were gained in 206 cases. One case had facial paralysis. Two patients occured mandibular fracture during the operation. Three cases complicated angled deformity at mandible body. Conclusion Reduction mandibuloplasty should be selected depends on varied types of mandibular angle hypertrophy before operation.

  18. Pupil segmentation using active contour with shape prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpai, Charles O.; Dlay, Satnam S.; Woo, Wai L.

    2015-03-01

    Iris segmentation is the process of defining the valid part of the eye image used for further processing (feature extraction, matching and decision making). Segmentation of the iris mostly starts with pupil boundary segmentation. Most pupil segmentation techniques are based on the assumption that the pupil is circular shape. In this paper, we propose a new pupil segmentation technique which combines shape, location and spatial information for accurate and efficient segmentation of the pupil. Initially, the pupil's position and radius is estimated using a statistical approach and circular Hough transform. In order to segment the irregular boundary of the pupil, an active contour model is initialized close to the estimated boundary using information from the first step and segmentation is achieved using energy minimization based active contour. Pre-processing and post-processing were carried out to remove noise and occlusions respectively. Experimental results on CASIA V1.0 and 4.0 shows that the proposed method is highly effective at segmenting irregular boundaries of the pupil.

  19. Fast Virtual Stenting with Active Contour Models in Intracranical Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jingru; Long, Yunling; Yan, Huagang; Meng, Qianqian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xinjian; Li, Haiyun

    2016-02-15

    Intracranial stents are becoming increasingly a useful option in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Image simulation of the releasing stent configuration together with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation prior to intervention will help surgeons optimize intervention scheme. This paper proposed a fast virtual stenting of IAs based on active contour model (ACM) which was able to virtually release stents within any patient-specific shaped vessel and aneurysm models built on real medical image data. In this method, an initial stent mesh was generated along the centerline of the parent artery without the need for registration between the stent contour and the vessel. Additionally, the diameter of the initial stent volumetric mesh was set to the maximum inscribed sphere diameter of the parent artery to improve the stenting accuracy and save computational cost. At last, a novel criterion for terminating virtual stent expanding that was based on the collision detection of the axis aligned bounding boxes was applied, making the stent expansion free of edge effect. The experiment results of the virtual stenting and the corresponding CFD simulations exhibited the efficacy and accuracy of the ACM based method, which are valuable to intervention scheme selection and therapy plan confirmation.

  20. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kastengren, Alan L [ANL

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  1. A NOVEL FAST MOVING OBJECT CONTOUR TRACKING ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Guocheng; Yang Hao; Wu Zhenyang

    2009-01-01

    If a somewhat fast moving object exists in a complicated tracking environment, snake's nodes may fall into the inaccurate local minima. We propose a mean shift snake algorithm to solve this problem. However, if the object goes beyond the limits of mean shift snake module operation in successive sequences, mean shift snake's nodes may also fall into the local minima in their moving to the new object position. This paper presents a motion compensation strategy by using particle filter; therefore a new Particle Filter Mean Shift Snake (PFMSS) algorithm is proposed which combines particle filter with mean shift snake to fulfill the estimation of the fast moving object contour. Firstly, the fast moving object is tracked by particle filter to create a coarse position which is used to initialize the mean shift algorithm. Secondly, the whole relevant motion information is used to compensate the snake's node positions. Finally, snake algorithm is used to extract the exact object contour and the useful information of the object is fed back. Some real world sequences are tested and the results show that the novel tracking method have a good performance with high accuracy in solving the fast moving problems in cluttered background.

  2. Contouring error compensation on a micro coordinate measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Wang, Hung-Yu; Ye, Jyun-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional measurements of nano-technology researches have received a great attention in the world. Based on the high accuracy demand, the error compensation of measurement machine is very important. In this study, a high precision Micro-CMM (coordinate measuring machine) has been developed which is composed of a coplanar stage for reducing the Abbé error in the vertical direction, the linear diffraction grating interferometer (LDGI) as the position feedback sensor in nanometer resolution, and ultrasonic motors for position control. This paper presents the error compensation strategy including "Home accuracy" and "Position accuracy" in both axes. For the home error compensation, we utilize a commercial DVD pick-up head and its S-curve principle to accurately search the origin of each axis. For the positioning error compensation, the absolute positions relative to the home are calibrated by laser interferometer and the error budget table is stored for feed forward error compensation. Contouring error can thus be compensated if both the compensation of both X and Y positioning errors are applied. Experiments show the contouring accuracy can be controlled to within 50nm after compensation.

  3. Evaluation of solar mirror figure by moire contouring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.W.; Lind, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    Moire topography is applied to the figure assessment of solar mirrors. The technique is demonstrated on component facets of a six-meter diameter, four-meter focal length, parabolic dish collector. The relative ease of experimental implementation and subsequent data analysis suggests distinct advantages over the more established laser ray trace or BCS/ICS technique for many applications. The theoretical and experimental considerations necessary to fully implement moire topography on mirror surfaces are detailed. A procedure to de-specularize the mirror is demonstrated which conserves the surface morphology without damaging the reflective surface. The moire fringe patterns observed for the actual mirror facets are compared with theoretical contours generated for representative dish facets using a computer simulation algorithm. A method for evaluating the figure error of the real facet is presented in which the error parameter takes the form of an average absolute deviation of the surface slope from theoretical. The experimental measurement system used for this study employs a 200 line/inch Ronchi transmission grating. The mirror surface is illuminated by a collimated beam at 60/sup 0/. The fringe observation is performed normal to the grating. These parameters yield contour intervals for the fringe patterns of 0.073 mm. The practical considerations for extending the techniques to higher resolution are discussed.

  4. Segmentation of Coronal Holes Using Active Contours Without Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheron, L. E.; Valluri, M.; McAteer, R. T. J.

    2016-10-01

    An application of active contours without edges is presented as an efficient and effective means of extracting and characterizing coronal holes. Coronal holes are regions of low-density plasma on the Sun with open magnetic field lines. The detection and characterization of these regions is important for testing theories of their formation and evolution, and also from a space weather perspective because they are the source of the fast solar wind. Coronal holes are detected in full-disk extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of the corona obtained with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). The proposed method detects coronal boundaries without determining any fixed intensity value in the data. Instead, the active contour segmentation employs an energy-minimization in which coronal holes are assumed to have more homogeneous intensities than the surrounding active regions and quiet Sun. The segmented coronal holes tend to correspond to unipolar magnetic regions, are consistent with concurrent solar wind observations, and qualitatively match the coronal holes segmented by other methods. The means to identify a coronal hole without specifying a final intensity threshold may allow this algorithm to be more robust across multiple datasets, regardless of data type, resolution, and quality.

  5. Lateral lower face and neck contouring following burn injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrollah Motamed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The neck is normally a concave and highly mobile structure. Facial and cervical skin is prone to burn scar contracture because of its thin nature. The goal of treatment is to reconstruct this region to achieve a good aesthetic outcome and also normal neck and chin mobilization. This study was conducted to compare the effect of one row of suture and three rows of suture in critical points of the neck to recreate cervicomandibular angle for better contouring of the neck. A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2006 until August 2010. A total of 65 patients underwent lower lateral face and neck burn scar contracture reconstruction. The mean age of participants was 25.5 years old. After designing a local flap, in 31 patients we applied one row of suture. In 34 patients, we used three rows of suture on each side of the neck incorporation with  the recipient bed and the flap dermis or capsule to recreate a natural lower lateral face and neck contour (P<0.001. The standard deviation in hospitalization was 7 ± 2 days for group A and 6 ± 1 days for group B. In a two years follow-up, no blunting of cervicomandibular angle occurred and three rows of suture were superior according to present findings.

  6. Contoured-gap coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cassibry, J. T.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Arrays of supersonic, high momentum flux plasma jets can be used as standoff compression drivers for generating spherically imploding plasma liners for driving magneto-inertial fusion, hence the name plasma-jet-driven MIF (PJMIF). HyperV developed linear plasma jets for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL where two guns were successfully tested. Further development at HyperV resulted in achieving the PLX goal of 8000 μg at 50 km/s. Prior work on contoured-gap coaxial guns demonstrated an approach to control the blowby instability and achieved substantial performance improvements. For future plasma liner experiments we propose to use contoured-gap coaxial guns with small Minirailgun injectors. We will describe such a gun for a 60-gun plasma liner experiment. Discussion topics will include impurity control, plasma jet symmetry and topology (esp. related to uniformity and compactness), velocity capability, and techniques planned for achieving gun efficiency of >50% using tailored impedance matched pulse forming networks. Mach2 and UAH SPH code simulations will be included. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-05ER54810.

  7. The Contour Mapping Program for Prompt Environmental Radiation Distribution Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Yoo, Dong Han; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    For prompt response and consequent measure at the environmental radiation emergency of nuclear installations which include nuclear power plants, needed is rapid and movable monitoring system which can display and analyze distribution of overall environmental radiation around surrounding area. At occurrence of the nuclear emergency including the disastrous accident like the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants accident or detected radiation in the public city environment, the comprehensive understanding of rapid radiation distribution, which has measurement error, is essential for the quick measuring on the public protection in the surrounding area. For that, 2D and 3D contour mapping method are developed for the distribution of natural radiation, major artificial radiation ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I), and total radiation, which is based on the information which is auto-recognized and interpolated for virtually measured radiation data by using random number generation. Especially, the radiation contour is displayed on the map image of the measured area so that the radiation distribution can be understood at a glance. 2D and 3D mapping programming for the distribution of radiation on the simulated measured radiation data was carried out by using MATLAB language. It showed the operation time of a few ten seconds which was more than 100 times faster than conventional technique. It was thought that the present study could be directly employed for the understanding of rapid and comprehensive radiation distribution on the public environment at the nuclear or radiation emergency.

  8. Segmentation of Coronal Holes Using Active Contours Without Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheron, L. E.; Valluri, M.; McAteer, R. T. J.

    2016-09-01

    An application of active contours without edges is presented as an efficient and effective means of extracting and characterizing coronal holes. Coronal holes are regions of low-density plasma on the Sun with open magnetic field lines. The detection and characterization of these regions is important for testing theories of their formation and evolution, and also from a space weather perspective because they are the source of the fast solar wind. Coronal holes are detected in full-disk extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of the corona obtained with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). The proposed method detects coronal boundaries without determining any fixed intensity value in the data. Instead, the active contour segmentation employs an energy-minimization in which coronal holes are assumed to have more homogeneous intensities than the surrounding active regions and quiet Sun. The segmented coronal holes tend to correspond to unipolar magnetic regions, are consistent with concurrent solar wind observations, and qualitatively match the coronal holes segmented by other methods. The means to identify a coronal hole without specifying a final intensity threshold may allow this algorithm to be more robust across multiple datasets, regardless of data type, resolution, and quality.

  9. Crystal structure of K[Hg(SCN)3] - a redetermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Matthias; Häusler, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The crystal structure of the room-temperature modification of K[Hg(SCN)3], potassium tri-thio-cyanato-mercurate(II), was redetermined based on modern CCD data. In comparison with the previous report [Zhdanov & Sanadze (1952 ▶). Zh. Fiz. Khim. 26, 469-478], reliability factors, standard deviations of lattice parameters and atomic coordinates, as well as anisotropic displacement parameters, were revealed for all atoms. The higher precision and accuracy of the model is, for example, reflected by the Hg-S bond lengths of 2.3954 (11), 2.4481 (8) and 2.7653 (6) Å in comparison with values of 2.24, 2.43 and 2.77 Å. All atoms in the crystal structure are located on mirror planes. The Hg(2+) cation is surrounded by four S atoms in a seesaw shape [S-Hg-S angles range from 94.65 (2) to 154.06 (3)°]. The HgS4 polyhedra share a common S atom, building up chains extending parallel to [010]. All S atoms of the resulting (1) ∞[HgS2/1S2/2] chains are also part of SCN(-) anions that link these chains with the K(+) cations into a three-dimensional network. The K-N bond lengths of the distorted KN7 polyhedra lie between 2.926 (2) and 3.051 (3) Å.

  10. Self-powered sensor for trace Hg2+ detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dan; Deng, Liu; Guo, Shaojun; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-05-15

    A self-powered electrochemical sensor has been facilely designed for sensitive detection of Hg(2+) based on the inhibition of biocatalysis process of enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC) for the first time. The as-prepared one-compartment BFC, which was consisted of alcohol dehydrogenase supported on single-walled carbon nanohorns-based mediator system as the anode and bilirubin oxidase as the cathodic biocatalyst, generated an open circuit potential (V(oc)) of 636 mV and a maximum power density of 137 μW cm(-2). It was interestingly found that the presence of Hg(2+) would affect the performance of the constructed BFC (e.g., V(oc)). Taking advantage of the inhibitive effect of Hg(2+), a novel self-powered Hg(2+) sensor has been developed, which showed a linear range of 1-500 nM (R(2) = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1 nM at room temperature. In addition, this BFC-type sensor exhibited good selectivity for Hg(2+) against other common environmental metal ions, and the feasibility of the method for Hg(2+) detection in actual water samples (i.e., tap, ground, and lake water) was demonstrated with satisfactory results.

  11. Improving data quality and preserving HCD-generated reporter ions with EThcD for isobaric tag-based quantitative proteomics and proteome-wide PTM studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Shi, Xudong; Feng, Yu; Kent, K Craig; Li, Lingjun

    2017-05-22

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based isobaric labeling has undergone rapid development in recent years due to its capability for high throughput quantitation. Apart from its originally designed use with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), isobaric tagging technique could also work with electron-transfer dissociation (ETD), which provides complementarity to CID and is preferred in sequencing peptides with post-translational modifications (PTMs). However, ETD suffers from long reaction time, reduced duty cycle and bias against peptides with lower charge states. In addition, common fragmentation mechanism in ETD results in altered reporter ion production, decreased multiplexing capability, and even loss of quantitation capability for some of the isobaric tags, including custom-designed dimethyl leucine (DiLeu) tags. Here, we demonstrate a novel electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation (EThcD) approach that preserves original reporter ion channels, mitigates bias against lower charge states, improves sensitivity, and significantly improves data quality for quantitative proteomics and proteome-wide PTM studies. Systematic optimization was performed to achieve a balance between data quality and sensitivity. We provide direct comparison of EThcD with ETD and HCD for DiLeu- and TMT-labeled HEK cell lysate and IMAC enriched phosphopeptides. Results demonstrate improved data quality and phosphorylation localization accuracy while preserving sufficient reporter ion production. Biological studies were performed to investigate phosphorylation changes in a mouse vascular smooth muscle cell line treated with four different conditions. Overall, EThcD exhibits superior performance compared to conventional ETD and offers distinct advantages compared to HCD in isobaric labeling based quantitative proteomics and quantitative PTM studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ups and Downs in Auditory Development: Preschoolers' Sensitivity to Pitch Contour and Timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Much research has explored developing sound representations in language, but less work addresses developing representations of other sound patterns. This study examined preschool children's musical representations using two different tasks: discrimination and sound-picture association. Melodic contour--a musically relevant property--and instrumental timbre, which is (arguably) less musically relevant, were tested. In Experiment 1, children failed to associate cartoon characters to melodies with maximally different pitch contours, with no advantage for melody preexposure. Experiment 2 also used different-contour melodies and found good discrimination, whereas association was at chance. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2, but with a large timbre change instead of a contour change. Here, discrimination and association were both excellent. Preschool-aged children may have stronger or more durable representations of timbre than contour, particularly in more difficult tasks. Reasons for weaker association of contour than timbre information are discussed, along with implications for auditory development. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Visually-salient contour detection using a V1 neural model with horizontal connections

    CERN Document Server

    Loxley, P N

    2011-01-01

    A convolution model which accounts for neural activity dynamics in the primary visual cortex is derived and used to detect visually salient contours in images. Image inputs to the model are modulated by long-range horizontal connections, allowing contextual effects in the image to determine visual saliency, i.e. line segments arranged in a closed contour elicit a larger neural response than line segments forming background clutter. The model is tested on 3 types of contour, including a line, a circular closed contour, and a non-circular closed contour. Using a modified association field to describe horizontal connections the model is found to perform well for different parameter values. For each type of contour a different facilitation mechanism is found. Operating as a feed-forward network, the model assigns saliency by increasing the neural activity of line segments facilitated by the horizontal connections. Alternatively, operating as a feedback network, the model can achieve further improvement over sever...

  14. COMPARISON OF THREE DIFFERENT IMAGE FORCES FOR ACTIVE CONTOURS ON ABDOMINAL IMAGE BOUNDARY DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Galatia Ballangan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Active contour, or snake, is an energy minimizing spline that is useful in image boundary detection. Active contours are stimulated by internal forces, image forces and external forces which maintain the shape of the contours while attract the contours to some desired features, usually edges. Problems in implementing active contours such as convergence and initialization have motivated researchers to modify image forces of the active contours. This paper presents a comparative study among three different image forces: traditional snakes, balloon and gradient vector flow (GVF. The study is validated by experiments on abdominal image boundaries detection. These lead to the conclusion that GVF gives the most appropriate results among the other approaches.

  15. Fully automated contour detection algorithm the preliminary step for scatter and attenuation compensation in SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, R.B.; Mas, J.; Bidet, R.

    1988-12-01

    Contour detection is an important step in information extraction from nuclear medicine images. In order to perform accurate quantitative studies in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) a new procedure is described which can rapidly derive the best fit contour of an attenuated medium. Some authors evaluate the influence of the detected contour on the reconstructed images with various attenuation correction techniques. Most of the methods are strongly affected by inaccurately detected contours. This approach uses the Compton window to redetermine the convex contour: It seems to be simpler and more practical in clinical SPECT studies. The main advantages of this procedure are the high speed of computation, the accuracy of the contour found and the programme's automation. Results obtained using computer simulated and real phantoms or clinical studies demonstrate the reliability of the present algorithm.

  16. Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea G; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Dranguet, Perrine; Makri, Stamatina; Björn, Erik; Ungureanu, Viorel Gh; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl(-) concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  17. Joint Denoising / Compression of Image Contours via Shape Prior and Context Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Amin; Cheung, Gene; Florencio, Dinei

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of depth sensing technologies, the extraction of object contours in images---a common and important pre-processing step for later higher-level computer vision tasks like object detection and human action recognition---has become easier. However, acquisition noise in captured depth images means that detected contours suffer from unavoidable errors. In this paper, we propose to jointly denoise and compress detected contours in an image for bandwidth-constrained transmission to a...

  18. Hg $L_{3}$ edge absorption study of the $HgBa_{2}CuO_{4}\\delta$ superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Ziyu, Wu; Bianconi, A

    2001-01-01

    The HgBa/sub 2/CuO/sub 4+ delta / superconductor has been studied by high resolution Hg L/sub 3/ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectrum has been simulated by full multiple-scattering calculations in order to explore the origin of different features in the experimental spectrum. The experimental Hg L/sub 3/-edge spectrum could be well reproduced by considering a cluster of 85 atoms, containing 10 shells, within a radius of about 7 AA from the central Hg atom. The low energy spectral feature in the XANES spectrum is found to be due to a transition from the Hg p states to the electronic states hybridized with higher shell Ba atoms. This implies that the transition features in the Hg L/sub 3/- edge XANES are strongly influenced by medium range order effects unlike the case of L/sub 3/ edge of 3d transition metals where short- range order is enough to describe the main transition features. (25 refs).

  19. Hg SOIL GAS AND Hg SOIL DISTRIBUTION AROUND FORMER „ZRINSKI“ MINE ON MT. MEDVEDNICA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jug

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the field and laboratory researches, statistical analyses and graphical displays of the results of Hg soil gas and Hg soil distribution in the area around former mining site „Zrinski“ on Mt. Medvednica. The values of overall Hg concentrations in the soil gas show lognormal distribution, and their spatial distribution outlines the connection with the present Pb-Ag-Zn mineralization and confirms anthropogenic origin of uneven landscape relief (waste rock clusters. Regression analysis of the dependence between Hg contents in the soil gas and the distance from the mine entrance (correlation coefficient r also points to the considerable spatial dependence. Hg soil contents show as well distribution similar to lognormal, and there is a slight correlation when compared with Hg soil gas content. Concentrations are mostly within background values, except in the immediate vicinity of the mine entrance where the values are significantly higher due to the mineralization influence concentrated in the waste-rock clusters. Soil pollution caused by mercury is of local character with the spreading tendency to the south-west because of the dominant relief influence. Mercury found in the soil of the research location derives from the present mineral body and former mining activities, while possible anthropogenic atmospheric inputs from remote sources can not be proven on the basic of conducted research studies (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Parallel development of contour integration and visual contrast sensitivity at low spatial frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedek, Krisztina; Janáky, Márta; Braunitzer, Gábor;

    2010-01-01

    and contour integration in 152 healthy volunteers aged between 5 and 30 years. The results revealed a significant maturation of contrast sensitivity at low spatial frequencies (0.5, 1.2, and 1.9 cycles/degree) and contour integration. The largest developmental step was observed for both contrast sensitivity...... and contour integration tasks when the 5-8-year olds were compared with the 9-11-year olds. There was a significant correlation between the development of low spatial frequency contrast sensitivity and contour integration. These results raise the possibility that the development of low spatial frequency...

  1. Active contours extension and similarity indicators for improved 3D segmentation of thyroid ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, P.; Illanes, A.; Arens, C.; Hansen, C.; Friebe, M.

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid segmentation in tracked 2D ultrasound (US) using active contours has a low segmentation accuracy mainly due to the fact that smaller structures cannot be efficiently recognized and segmented. To address this issue, we propose a new similarity indicator with the main objective to provide information to the active contour algorithm concerning the regions that the active contour should continue to expand or should stop. First, a preprocessing step is carried out in order to attenuate the noise present in the US image and to increase its contrast, using histogram equalization and a median filter. In the second step, active contours are used to segment the thyroid in each 2D image of the dataset. After performing a first segmentation, two similarity indicators (ratio of mean square error, MSE and correlation between histograms) are computed at each contour point of the initial segmented thyroid between rectangles located inside and outside the obtained contour. A threshold is used on a final indicator computed from the other two indicators to find the probable regions for further segmentation using active contours. This process is repeated until no new segmentation region is identified. Finally, all the segmented thyroid images passed through a 3D reconstruction algorithm to obtain a 3D volume segmented thyroid. The results showed that including similarity indicators based on histogram equalization and MSE between inside and outside regions of the contour can help to segment difficult areas that active contours have problem to segment.

  2. Parallel development of contour integration and visual contrast sensitivity at low spatial frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedek, Krisztina; Janáky, Márta; Braunitzer, Gábor

    2010-01-01

    and contour integration in 152 healthy volunteers aged between 5 and 30 years. The results revealed a significant maturation of contrast sensitivity at low spatial frequencies (0.5, 1.2, and 1.9 cycles/degree) and contour integration. The largest developmental step was observed for both contrast sensitivity...... processing may affect attentional mechanisms, which may have an impact on early contour integration.......It has been suggested that visual contrast sensitivity and contour integration functions exhibit a late maturation during adolescence. However, the relationship between these functions has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the development of visual contrast sensitivity...

  3. Superconducting Hg-Based Mixed Oxides and Oxyfluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, E. V.

    2000-09-01

    Syntheses under high pressure and under controlled mercury and oxygen partial pressures of different members of the HgBa2Can-1CunO2n+2+δ series have been developed. There are two main parameters influencing Tc in this family: width of a perovskite slab (n) and concentration (δ) of the extra oxygen located in the Hg layer. The increase of Tc with n occurs until the third member, while after that it decreases. All the members of the series exhibit similar cupola shaped dependencies of Tc vs. δ. Strongly overdoped high members of the series with n = 3-5 were prepared only using high pressure technique and BaO2 as an internal oxidizer. Neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out for monophase oxygenated HgBa2CuO4F4+δ and fluorinated HgBa2CuO4Fδ samples with different extra oxygen or fluorine content and Tc values. Fluorinated series also exhibits the cupola -like behavior for the Tc vs. δ dependence. NPD showed twice the amount of extra fluorine in comparison with those for the oxygenated Hg-1201 phases with close Tc's. The exchange of the extra oxygen by double amount of fluorine causes shortening of the apical Cu-O distances, while the in-plane ones, as well as Tc, do not vary. The influence of the external pressure on the structure and Tc of Hg-1201 strongly depends on the doping level. The increase of the extra oxygen content on going from underdoped to overdoped state results in the larger compression of the apical Cu-O and Ba-OHg distances while the HgO2 dumbbell as well as the distance between Ba and O from the (CuO2) layers becomes practically pressure independent. These results together with the data for fluorinated materials allow to elucidate the crucial structural features responsible for the Tc variation under high pressure.

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECT OF 0.5% AND 0.75% ISOBARIC ROPIVACAINE IN SPINAL ANAESTHESIA IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE LOWER LIMB SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tridip Jyoti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The study was conducted to compare the differences in the onset, duration of action and complications of intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine 0.5% (Group I and intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine 0.75% (Group II in elective lower limb surgeries. METHODS We enrolled 60 patients of ASA (American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grade I-II scheduled for lower limb surgeries under spinal anaesthesia for this prospective randomized control trial. The patients were randomized to receive either 15 mg of 0.5% isobaric ropivacaine or 22.5 mg of 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine intrathecally. The time of onset of sensory and motor block, haemodynamic status, time for regression of sensory level to T10 dermatome, time of first request of analgesics and adverse effects were compared in both the groups. RESULTS The time of onset of sensory and motor block was significantly longer in Group-I than Group-II (P0.05. The onset of analgesia was faster in Group II (2.13±0.50 mins. than Group I (2.6±0.93 mins.. The time for regression of sensory level to T10 dermatome (Group-I 150±28.9 minutes and Group-II 180±32.07 were statistically longer in Group II (P<0.001. The time of first request of analgesics by the patient in Group-I was 197±31.20 minutes and in Group II was 219±31.66 minutes, which was statistically significant (P<0.001. The onset of motor block was quicker (P˂0.05 and the total duration of motor block was longer (P˂0.05 in Group II. No unexpected adverse events were registered. CONCLUSION The subarachnoid injection of glucose-free isobaric ropivacaine 0.5% and 0.75% solutions results in a variable spread of analgesia, accompanied by a good quality of motor block. Ropivacaine 0.75% produces a better quality of analgesia and longer duration of analgesia than the 0.5% solution.

  5. Clinical observation on different doses of isobaric bupivacaine for caesarean delivery in black African parturients with pregnancy-induced hypertension%不同剂量布比卡因用于非洲黑人妊娠高血压综合征产妇剖宫产的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵新峰

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察不同剂量等比重布比卡因联合芬太尼蛛网膜下腔硬膜外腔联合麻醉(combined spinal-epidural anesthesia,CSEA)在合并妊娠高血压综合征(妊高征)的非洲黑人产妇剖宫产手术的临床效果,探讨合适的局部麻醉药剂量.方法 选择合并轻重度先兆子痫黑人产妇75例,美国麻醉医师协会(ASA)分级Ⅱ级~Ⅲ级,按0.5%等比重布比卡因剂量完全随机分为3组,每组25例:A组8 mg,B组10 mg,C组12 mg.记录蛛网膜下腔麻醉(spinal anaesthesia,SA)前5 min、SA后5、10、15、30 min的心率(heart rate,HR)、收缩压(systolic pressure,SBP)、舒张压(diastolic pressure,DBP)和脉搏血氧饱和度(pulse oxygen saturation,SpO2).观察产妇的麻醉效果、感觉阻滞平面、低血压和恶心呕吐发生率、硬膜外用药、麻黄碱用量及新生儿Apgar评分. 结果 3组产妇在SA后5 min SBP和DBP显著下降达最低值,与A组[SBP(142±12) mmHg(l mmHg=0.133 kPa),DBP(96±1 1)mmHg]、B组[SBP(139±12) mmHg,DBP(95±12) mmHg]比较,C组[SBP(125±16) mmHg,DBP(88±12)mmHg]血压下降显著(P<0.05);SA后感觉阻滞平面达T6的例数B组(23例)、C组(24例)多于A组(17例)(P<0.05),达T4的例数C组(13例)多于A组(2例)、B组(3例)(P<0.05);麻醉效果B组(优88%)、C组(优100%)优于A组(优64%)(P<0.05);低血压发生率C组(88%)组高于A组(24%)、B组(32%)(P<0.05);恶心呕吐发生率C组(15%)高于A组(6%)、B组(7%)(P<0.05);麻黄碱用量C组[(53±11) mg]多于A组[(10±5)mg]、B组[(14±5)mg](P<0.05);A组(9例)硬膜外用药例数明显多于B组(1例)、C组(0)(P<0.05). 结论 CSEA用于合并妊高征的黑人产妇剖宫产手术,0.5%等比重布比卡因10 mg联合芬太尼20 μg蛛网膜下腔注射能提供良好的麻醉效果,而且降低并发症的发生率,是合适的局部麻醉药剂量.%Objective to observe the clinical effect of combined spinal and epidural anesthesia(CSEA) in different doses of isobaric

  6. Statistical region-based active contours with exponential family observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lecellier, François; Fadili, Jalal; Aubert, Gilles; Revenu, Marinette

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on statistical region-based active contour models where image features (e.g. intensity) are random variables whose distribution belongs to some parametric family (e.g. exponential) rather than confining ourselves to the special Gaussian case. Using shape derivation tools, our effort focuses on constructing a general expression for the derivative of the energy (with respect to a domain) and derive the corresponding evolution speed. A general result is stated within the framework of multi-parameter exponential family. More particularly, when using Maximum Likelihood estimators, the evolution speed has a closed-form expression that depends simply on the probability density function, while complicating additive terms appear when using other estimators, e.g. moments method. Experimental results on both synthesized and real images demonstrate the applicability of our approach.

  7. Equivalence of Two Contour Prescriptions in Superstring Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-01-01

    Conventional superstring perturbation theory based on the world-sheet approach gives divergent results for the S-matrix whenever the total center of mass energy of the incoming particles exceeds the threshold of production of any final state consistent with conservation laws. Two systematic approaches have been suggested for dealing with this difficulty. The first one involves deforming the integration cycles over the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces into complexified moduli space. The second one treats the amplitude as a sum of superstring field theory Feynman diagrams and deforms the integration contours over loop energies of the Feynman diagram into the complex plane. In this paper we establish the equivalence of the two prescriptions to all orders in perturbation theory. Since the second approach is known to lead to unitary amplitudes, this establishes the consistency of the first prescription with unitarity.

  8. Hough Transform and Active Contour for Enhanced Iris Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iris segmentation is considered as the most difficult and fundamental step in an iris recognition system. While iris boundaries are largely approximated by two circles or ellipses, other methods define more accurately the iris resulting in better recognition results. In this paper we propose an iris segmentation method using Hough transform and active contour to detect a circular approximation of the outer iris boundary and to accurately segment the inner boundary in its real shape motivated by the fact that richer iris textures are closer to the pupil than to the sclera. Normalization, encoding and matching are implemented according to Daugmans method. The method, tested on CASIA-V3 iris images database is compared to Daugmans iris recognition system. Recognition performance is measured in terms of decidability, accuracy at the equal error rate and ROC curves. Improved recognition performance is obtained using our segmentation model proposing its use for better iris recognition system.

  9. Reconfigurable contour beam generation using a smart subreflector antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Washington, Gregory N.; Theunissen, Wilhelmus H.

    2000-06-01

    A novel way to design, synthesize and adjust the reconfigurable dual offset contour beam reflector antenna employing an adjustable subreflector is presented. The work also presents a graphical user interface based computer code that connects the electro-magnetic effects to the mechanical surface deflections. The subreflector surface is described by using the finite element method and the far-field radiation pattern is calculated by reflector diffraction synthesis. The reflector surface shape is adjusted using a set of linear piezoelectric point actuators attached to its back surface, from which the diffraction synthesis code calculates the radiation pattern. An example of this method applied to the contiguous US is also presented. As a future work, a software package will be built where the finite element code and the diffraction synthesis code are combined, and it will be used for advanced actuator placement and reflector design problem.

  10. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: The impact of dental amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, Iman, E-mail: iman@kfshrc.edu.sa [Biological and Medical Research Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sedairi, Al anoud [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box: 24452, Riyadh 11495 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine ({mu}g/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter ({mu}g/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N = 106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N = 76), with means of 3.763 {mu}g/g creatinine versus 3.457 {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P = 0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P = 0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 {mu}g/g (N = 97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 {mu}g/g (N = 74) for those without amalgam fillings (P = 0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 {mu}g/g, N = 61) versus those with (0.163 {mu}g/g, N = 101), the relationship was not significant (P = 0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (P < 0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse relationship was seen between NHg levels and dental amalgam fillings (P = 0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and

  11. Overcoming phytoremediation limitations. A case study of Hg contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a broad term that comprises several technologies to clean up water and soil. Despite the numerous articles appearing in scientific journals, very few field applications of phytoextraction have been successfully realized. The research here reported on Phytoextraction, the use the plant to "extract" metals from contaminated soil, is focused on implementations to overcome two main drawbacks: the survival of plants in unfavorable environmental conditions (contaminant toxicity, low fertility, etc.) and the often lengthy time it takes to reduce contaminants to the requested level. Moreover, to overcome the imbalance between the technology's potential and its drawbacks, there is growing interest in the use of plants to reduce only the fraction that is the most hazardous to the environment and human health, that is to target the bioavailable fractions of metals in soil. Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping (BCS) would be a remediation approach focused to remove the bioavailable metal fractions. BCS have been used in a mercury contaminated soil from Italian industrial site. Bioavailable fractions were determined by sequential extraction with H2O and NH4Cl.Combined treatments of plant hormone and thioligand to strength Hg uptake by crop plants (Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) were tested. Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution following treatments were compared. Results indicate the plant hormone, cytokinine (CK) foliar treatment, increased evapotranspiration rate in both tested plants. The Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants increased with simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments. B. juncea was the most effective in Hg uptake. Application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 232% in shoots and 39% in roots with respect to control. While H. annuus gave a better response in plant biomass production, the application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to

  12. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  13. Spectroscopic variability and magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Savanov, I S; Dall, T; Schoeller, M; Cowley, C R; Briquet, M; Arlt, R

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of exotic abundances, chemical inhomogeneities, and weak magnetic fields on the surface of late B-type primaries in spectroscopic binaries has important implications not only for our understanding of the formation mechanisms of stars with Hg and Mn peculiarities themselves, but also for the general understanding of B-type star formation in binary systems. The origin of the abundance anomalies observed in late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity is still poorly understood. The connection between HgMn peculiarity and membership in binary and multiple systems is supported by our observations during the last decade. The important result achieved in our studies of a large sample of HgMn stars is the finding that most HgMn stars exhibit spectral variability of various chemical elements, proving that the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution on the surface of these stars is a rather common characteristic and not a rare phenomenon. Further, in the studied systems, we found that all components are che...

  14. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  15. Are there tangled magnetic fields on HgMn stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Jeffers, S V; Johns-Krull, C M; Keller, C U; Rodenhuis, M; Snik, F; Stempels, H C; Valenti, J A

    2013-01-01

    Several recent spectrophotometric studies failed to detect significant global magnetic fields in late-B HgMn chemically peculiar stars, but some investigations have suggested the presence of strong unstructured or tangled fields in these objects. We used detailed spectrum synthesis analysis to search for evidence of tangled magnetic fields in high-quality observed spectra of 8 slowly rotating HgMn stars and one normal late-B star. We also evaluated recent sporadic detections of weak longitudinal magnetic fields in HgMn stars based on the moment technique. Our analysis of the Zeeman broadening of magnetically sensitive spectral lines reveals no evidence of tangled magnetic fields in any of the studied HgMn or normal stars. We infer upper limits of 200-700 G for the mean magnetic field modulus -- much smaller than the field strengths implied by studies based on differential magnetic line intensification and quadratic field diagnostics. The new HARPSpol longitudinal field measurements for the extreme HgMn star H...

  16. Contours, Hawaii (Big Island) Hypsography - 40 ft Contour Interval, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, U.S. Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. It is described as 'Hawaii (Big...

  17. Bathymetric Contours - LAKE_BATHYMETRY_IDNR_IN: Bathymetric Contours for Selected Lakes in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LAKE_BATHYMETRY_IDNR_IN.SHP provides bathymetric contours for the following 85 lakes in Indiana, with depths calculated from the average shoreline of each lake:...

  18. Contours, 2 and 5 foot contours, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2007. It is described as '2 and 5...

  19. Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Target Volume and Organ at Risk Contour Delineation Agreement Among NRG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Elizabeth H., E-mail: ebaldini@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Bosch, Walter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Haas, Rick L.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Catton, Charles N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Olsen, Jeffrey R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Finkelstein, Steven E. [Translational Research Consortium, 21st Century Oncology, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wang, Dian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability in target volume and organ at risk (OAR) contour delineation for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Radiation planning computed tomography (CT) scans for 2 cases of RPS were distributed among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists with instructions for contouring gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), high-risk CTV (HR CTV: area judged to be at high risk of resulting in positive margins after resection), and OARs: bowel bag, small bowel, colon, stomach, and duodenum. Analysis of contour agreement was performed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results: Ten radiation oncologists contoured both RPS cases, 1 contoured only RPS1, and 1 contoured only RPS2 such that each case was contoured by 11 radiation oncologists. The first case (RPS 1) was a patient with a de-differentiated (DD) liposarcoma (LPS) with a predominant well-differentiated (WD) component, and the second case (RPS 2) was a patient with DD LPS made up almost entirely of a DD component. Contouring agreement for GTV and CTV contours was high. However, the agreement for HR CTVs was only moderate. For OARs, agreement for stomach, bowel bag, small bowel, and colon was high, but agreement for duodenum (distorted by tumor in one of these cases) was fair to moderate. Conclusions: For preoperative treatment of RPS, sarcoma radiation oncologists contoured GTV, CTV, and most OARs with a high level of agreement. HR CTV contours were more variable. Further clarification of this volume with the help of sarcoma surgical oncologists is necessary to reach consensus. More attention to delineation of the duodenum is also needed.

  20. Crystal structure of Hg2SO4 – a redetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of mercury(I sulfate (or mercurous sulfate, Hg2SO4, was re-determined based on modern CCD data. In comparison with the previous determination from Weissenberg film data [Dorm (1969. Acta Chem. Scand. 23, 1607–1615], all atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters, leading to higher precision in terms of bond lengths and angles [e.g. Hg—Hg = 2.5031 (7 compared to 2.500 (3Å]. The structure consists of alternating rows along [001] of Hg22+ dumbbells (generated by inversion symmetry and SO42− tetrahedra (symmetry 2. The dumbbells are linked via short O—Hg—Hg—O bonds to the sulfate tetrahedra into chains extending parallel to [20-1]. More remote O—Hg—Hg—O bonds connect these chains into a three-dimensional framework.

  1. Characterization studies of purified HgI{sub 2} precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. E-mail: Schieber@vms.huji.ac.il; Zuck, A.; Sanguinetti, S.; Montalti, M.; Braiman, M.; Melekhov, L.; Nissenbaum, J.; Grilli, E.; Guzzi, M.; Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L

    1999-06-01

    The ability of HgI{sub 2} powders, used as precursors in mercuric iodide crystal growth, to produce high-quality detectors may be predicted by non-destructive methods like photoluminescence. In fact, it is possible to correlate the presence and the intensity ratio of specific bands in the photoluminescence spectrum of a HgI{sub 2} crystal to its impurity content and stoichiometry. These quantities determine the detector grade that may be achieved using that starting material. Nine different HgI{sub 2} precursors, obtained by different purification methods, have been characterized. The lowest impurity content is achieved via poly-ethylene treatment, which gives also a powder of relatively good stoichiometric quality.

  2. [Experimental Research of Hg (II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions of HgCl2 with Nano-TiO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiong; Zhang, Jin-yang; Wang, Ding-yong; Qin, Cai-qing; Xu, Feng; Luo Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi

    2016-01-15

    Mercury removal from aqueous solutions of HgCl2 was studied by indoor simulation experiments, and the effects of three different diameter of particles of Nano-TiO2 ( Nano-Titanium Dioxide) at different dosage, pH, adsorption time and the initial concentration of Hg2+ on the mercury adsorption from simulated wastewater were investigated. The single factor experiments showed that the optimal conditions were: 7.5 g x L(-1) of 5 nm TiO2 or 2.0 g x L(-1) of 100 nm TiO2, pH 8.0, initial concentration of Hg2+ 15 x mg x L(-1) adsorption time 5 min, and under these conditions the adsorption rates reached 99.5% and 99.3%, relatively. When the content of 25 nm TiO2 was 10 g x L(-1), and the other conditions were pH 8.0, initial concentration of Hg2+ 15 mg x L(-1), adsorption time 60 min, the adsorption rate was 62.8%. The Hg(II) removal effects of the TiO2 particles with different diameters followed the order of 100 nm TiO2 > 5 nm TiO2 > 25 nm TiO2. Component adsorption results showed that the 5 nm TiO2 component adsorption effect was superior to its single adsorption effect, while there was little difference between 100 nm TiO2 component adsorption effect and its single adsorption effect. The results of orthogonal experiments indicated that the influencing factors of the adsorption rate followed the order of pH > the initial concentration of Hg2+ > time > dosage. The optimal experiment scheme was: pH 8.0, a dosage of 100 nm Nano-TiO2 of 2.0 g x L(-1) an initial Hg2+ concentration of 25 mg x L(-1) and adsorption time of 10 min. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum adsorption rate reached 99.9%, at the same time, the equilibrium concentration of Hg(II) was 0.033 mg x L(-1) adsorptive capacity was 26.95 mg x g(-1). The adsorption isotherm was in line with the Langmuir isotherm equation, indicating that the Hg(II) uptake by 100 nm Nano-TiO2 was typical monolayer adsorption.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of alpha- and beta-HgS nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galain, Isabel; María, Pérez Barthaburu; Ivana, Aguiar; Laura, Fornaro

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized HgS nanostructures by the hydrothermal method in order to use them as electron acceptors in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. We employed different mercury sources (HgO and Hg(CH3COO)2) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hexadecanethiol (HDT) as stabilizing/capping agent for controlling size, crystallinity, morphology and stability of the obtained nanostructures. We also used thiourea as sulfur source, and a temperature of 180 °C during 6 h. Synthesized nanostructures were characterized by powder X-Ray Diffraction, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Transmission Electron Microscopy. When PVP acts as stabilizing agent, the mercury source has influence on the size -but not in morphology- of the beta-HgS obtained nansostructures. HDT has control over nanostructures' size and depending on the relation Hg:HDT, we obtained a mixture of alpha and beta HgS which can be advantageous in the application in solar cells, due their absorption in different spectral regions. The smallest nanostructures obtained have a mean diameter of 20 nm when using HDT as capping agent. Also, we deposited the aforementioned nanostructures onto flat glass substrates by the spin coating technique as a first approach of an active layer of a solar cell. The depositions were characterized by atomic force microscopy. We obtained smaller particle deposition and higher particle density -but a lower area coverage (5%) - in samples with HDT as capping agent. This work presents promising results on nanostructures for future application on hybrid solar cells. Further efforts will be focused on the deposition of organic-inorganic layers.

  4. Automatic diatom identification using contour analysis by morphological curvature scale spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Bayer, Micha M.; Juggins, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A method for automatic identification of diatoms (single-celled algae with silica shells) based on extraction of features on the contour of the cells by multi-scale mathematical morphology is presented. After extracting the contour of the cell, it is smoothed adaptively, encoded using Freeman chain

  5. Contour Extraction in Prostate Ultrasound Images Using the Wavelet Transform and Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    signal noise levels. In this paper we present a semi-automatic prostate contour extraction scheme, which is based on the wavelet transform and active...contour models, or snakes. The ultrasound image is first decomposed into edge naps at different resolutions via the wavelet transform . Seed points are

  6. Hemagglutinin outer contour detection methods based on regular hexagon bar template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miaomiao; Jing, Wenbo; Duan, Jin; Wang, Xiaoman

    2014-11-01

    In order to extract hemagglutinin outer contour accurately in the hemagglutinin image, analyzes the hemagglutinin protein content by the size of detected contour, presents a regular hexagon bar circle detection algorithm which uses regular hexagon bar detection template to detect outer contour of the hemagglutinin. Firstly, the hemagglutinin image thresholded by using OTSU adaptive thresholding method; and then using regular hexagon bar detection template method to rough align hemagglutinin after thresholded, intersection of detection template and the hemagglutinin contour area is attained, the noise near hemagglutinin contour is reduced by using the standardization relationship of the hexagon bars, so the hemagglutinin pixels are accurately obtained; finally the hemagglutinin outer contour information is gained by the geometric relationship of pixels, the hemagglutinin position is achieved precisely. The experimental results show that: the contour detection error due to the density uneven and the edge unclearly of hemagglutinin image protein is better reduced, the detection accuracy is increased by a factor of 0.47, detection speed is increased by a factor of 0.56.The hemagglutinin contour can be dected stablely, fastly, accurately and the is significant to the study of the hemagglutinin protein content.

  7. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Klassen, Anne; Rose, Michael

    2017-01-01

    to the post-body contouring surgery period. Data were collected using REDCap, and analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: For all appearance and health-related quality-of-life scales, the mean score was significantly lower in the pre-bariatric surgery group compared with the post-body contouring group...

  8. Dilated contour extraction and component labeling algorithm for object vector representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourikhine, Alexei N.

    2005-08-01

    Object boundary extraction from binary images is important for many applications, e.g., image vectorization, automatic interpretation of images containing segmentation results, printed and handwritten documents and drawings, maps, and AutoCAD drawings. Efficient and reliable contour extraction is also important for pattern recognition due to its impact on shape-based object characterization and recognition. The presented contour tracing and component labeling algorithm produces dilated (sub-pixel) contours associated with corresponding regions. The algorithm has the following features: (1) it always produces non-intersecting, non-degenerate contours, including the case of one-pixel wide objects; (2) it associates the outer and inner (i.e., around hole) contours with the corresponding regions during the process of contour tracing in a single pass over the image; (3) it maintains desired connectivity of object regions as specified by 8-neighbor or 4-neighbor connectivity of adjacent pixels; (4) it avoids degenerate regions in both background and foreground; (5) it allows an easy augmentation that will provide information about the containment relations among regions; (6) it has a time complexity that is dominantly linear in the number of contour points. This early component labeling (contour-region association) enables subsequent efficient object-based processing of the image information.

  9. The Role of Tone Height, Melodic Contour, and Tone Chroma in Melody Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Dominic W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relationships among tone height, melodic contour, tone chroma, and recognition of recently learned melodies were investigated. Results replicated previous studies using familiar folk songs, providing evidence that melodic contour, tone chroma, and tone height contribute to recognition of both highly familiar and recently learned melodies.…

  10. Fourier Descriptor Analysis and Unification of Voice Range Profile Contours: Method and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Ternstrom, Sten; Lamarche, Anick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a method for unified description, statistical modeling, and comparison of voice range profile (VRP) contours, even from diverse sources. Method: A morphologic modeling technique, which is based on Fourier descriptors (FDs), is applied to the VRP contour. The technique, which essentially involves resampling of the curve of the…

  11. Contour Propagation Using Feature-Based Deformable Registration for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate target delineation of CT image is a critical step in radiotherapy treatment planning. This paper describes a novel strategy for automatic contour propagation, based on deformable registration, for CT images of lung cancer. The proposed strategy starts with a manual-delineated contour in one slice of a 3D CT image. By means of feature-based deformable registration, the initial contour in other slices of the image can be propagated automatically, and then refined by active contour approach. Three algorithms are employed in the strategy: the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF, Thin-Plate Spline (TPS, and an adapted active contour (Snake, used to refine and modify the initial contours. Five pulmonary cancer cases with about 400 slices and 1000 contours have been used to verify the proposed strategy. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed strategy can improve the segmentation performance in the pulmonary CT images. Jaccard similarity (JS mean is about 0.88 and the maximum of Hausdorff distance (HD is about 90%. In addition, delineation time has been considerably reduced. The proposed feature-based deformable registration method in the automatic contour propagation improves the delineation efficiency significantly.

  12. Fourier Descriptor Analysis and Unification of Voice Range Profile Contours: Method and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Ternstrom, Sten; Lamarche, Anick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a method for unified description, statistical modeling, and comparison of voice range profile (VRP) contours, even from diverse sources. Method: A morphologic modeling technique, which is based on Fourier descriptors (FDs), is applied to the VRP contour. The technique, which essentially involves resampling of the curve of the…

  13. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: the impact of dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Sedairi, Al Anoud

    2011-07-15

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine (μg/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter (μg/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N=106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N=76), with means of 3.763 μg/g creatinine versus 3.457 μg/g creatinine, respectively (P=0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P=0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 μg/g (N=97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 μg/g (N=74) for those without amalgam fillings (P=0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 μg/g, N=61) versus those with (0.163 μg/g, N=101), the relationship was not significant (P=0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (Pdental amalgam fillings (P=0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and/or nephrotoxic effects of such an increased Hg on children should be a cause of concern, and further investigation is warranted. Our

  14. Crystal Growth of Solid Solution HgCdTe Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of homogenous crystals of HgCdTe alloys is complicated by the large separation between their liquidus and solidus temperatures. Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te is representative of several alloys which have electrical and optical properties that can be compositionally tuned for a number of applications. Limitations imposed by gravity during growth and results from growth under reduced conditions are described. The importance of residual accelerations was demonstrated by dramatic differences in compositional distribution observed for different attitudes of the space shuttle that resulted in different steady acceleration components.

  15. Natural Hg isotopic composition of different Hg compounds in mammal tissues as a proxy for in vivo breakdown of toxic methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Vincent; Masbou, Jeremy; Pastukhov, Mikhail V; Epov, Vladimir N; Point, David; Bérail, Sylvain; Becker, Paul R; Sonke, Jeroen E; Amouroux, David

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, specific attention has been paid to total mercury (HgT) stable isotopic composition, especially in natural samples such as aquatic organisms, due to its potential to track the cycle of this toxic element in the environment. Here, we investigated Hg Compound Specific stable Isotopic Composition (CSIC) of natural inorganic Hg (iHg) and methylmercury (MMHg) in various tissues of aquatic mammals (Beluga whale from the Arctic marine environment and seals from the freshwater lake Baikal, Russia). In seals' organs the variation in mass dependent fractionation (MDF, δ(202)Hg) for total Hg was significantly correlated to the respective fraction of iHg and MMHg compounds, with MMHg being enriched by ∼ 3‰ in heavier isotopes relative to iHg. On the other hand, we observe insignificant variation in Hg mass independent isotope fractionation (MIF, Δ(199)Hg) among iHg and MMHg in all organs for the same mammal species and MMHg in prey items. MIF signatures suggest that both MMHg and iHg in aquatic mammals have the same origin (i.e., MMHg from food), and are representative of Hg photochemistry in the water column of the mammal ecosystem. MDF signatures of Hg compounds indicate that MMHg is demethylated in vivo before being stored in the muscle, and the iHg formed is stored in the liver, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, before excretion. Thus, Hg CSIC analysis in mammals can be a powerful tool for tracing the metabolic response to Hg exposure.

  16. Coronal loop detection and salient contour group extraction from solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Nurcan

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses two different problems: 1) coronal loop detection from solar images: and 2) salient contour group extraction from cluttered images. In the first part, we propose two different solutions to the coronal loop detection problem. The first solution is a block-based coronal loop mining method that detects coronal loops from solar images by dividing the solar image into fixed sized blocks, labeling the blocks as "Loop" or "Non-Loop", extracting features from the labeled blocks, and finally training classifiers to generate learning models that can classify new image blocks. The block-based approach achieves 64% accuracy in 10-fold cross validation experiments. To improve the accuracy and scalability, we propose a contour-based coronal loop detection method that extracts contours from cluttered regions, then labels the contours as "Loop" and "Non-Loop", and extracts geometric features from the labeled contours. The contour-based approach achieves 85% accuracy in 10-fold cross validation experiments, which is a 20% increase compared to the block-based approach. In the second part, we propose a method to extract semi-elliptical open curves from cluttered regions. Our method consists of the following steps: obtaining individual smooth contours along with their saliency measures; then starting from the most salient contour, searching for possible grouping options for each contour; and continuing the grouping until an optimum solution is reached. Our work involved the design and development of a complete system for coronal loop mining in solar images, which required the formulation of new Gestalt perceptual rules and a systematic methodology to select and combine them in a fully automated judicious manner using machine learning techniques that eliminate the need to manually set various weight and threshold values to define an effective cost function. After finding salient contour groups, we close the gaps within the contours in each group and perform

  17. Optical contouring of an acrylic surface for non-intrusive diagnostics in pipe-flow investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, Benjamin J.; Coronado-Diaz, Haydee; Hugo, Ronald J.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, an acrylic surface was optically contoured to correct for the optical distortion caused by a transparent pipe wall. This method can be applied to non-invasive viewing/imaging techniques for fluid flow experiments. Software tools were developed to aid in the design of an optically contoured acrylic test section for pipe-flow experiments. Numerical models were computed for a standard acrylic pipe, inner diameter 57.15 mm, with water enclosed. An optical contour prototype was machined on a 5-axis CNC machine, and polished with 1-15 μm diamond paste, alleviating any surface imperfections without significantly altering the contoured surface. Experiments were then performed to measure the emerging optical wavefront and was found to emerge planar when utilizing the optical contour. It was determined that the wavefront was corrected to within ten wavelengths of a Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser beam.

  18. Parallel algorithm for real-time contouring from grid DEM on modern GPUs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A real-time algorithm for constructing contour maps from grid DEM data is pre-sented.It runs completely within the programmable 3D visualization pipeline.The interpolation is paralleled by rasterizer units in the graphics card,and contour line extraction is paralleled by pixel shader.During each frame of the rendering,we first make an elevation gradient map out of original terrain vertex data,then figure out the final contour lines with image-space processing,and directly blend the results on the original scene to obtain a final scene with contour map using alpha-blending.We implement this method in our global 3D-digitalearth system with Direct3D?9.0c API and tested on some consumer level PC platforms.For arbitrary scene with certain LOD level,the process takes less than 10 ms,giving topologically correct,anti-aliased contour lines.

  19. Isobaric Inert Gas Counterdiffusion,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    19104 Cdr. Claude A. Harvey, MC,USN Dr. John A. Quinn Pearl Harbor, Hawaii School of Chemical Engineering FPO San Francisco, California 96601...supersaturation: A possible explanation for inert gas "urticaria𔃽 and "vertigo." Phys. Med. Biol. 18:356-364. Groom, A.C., R. Morin , and L.E. Farhi. 1967...done at New London with humans, was itching.noticed in that case? A. Yes, Claude Harvey noticed itching. I think it was at the 100 fsw. They did not

  20. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kleinberg, Lawrence R. [Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional 2-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and they do not provide sufficient anatomic detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials: Eight expert academically based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform computed tomographic (CT) simulation datasets and accompanying diagnostic positron emission tomographic/CT images were distributed to each expert, and the expert was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and to generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results: The κ statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the 3 test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the 3 test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions: This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets using these guidelines may require modification in the future.