WorldWideScience

Sample records for hg female pups

  1. Exposure to pups influences the strength of maternal motivation in virgin female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Katharine M.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2008-01-01

    Following repeated exposure to foster pups, virgin female rats acquire and eventually express a full spectrum of maternal caretaking behaviors directed toward pups. Though these behaviors are vigorous, these females are reportedly less motivated to seek out and interact with pups (i.e. maternally motivated) than parturient females during early postpartum. The present study systematically assesses how the length of pup-exposure and nature of interactions between the female-pup dyad affect maternal motivation in the virgin female rat. Virgin females were exposed to young pups consistently (24 h/day) across a prolonged period (21 days), briefly (1 h/day) across a relatively brief period (7 days), or distally (pups inaccessible in mesh bag). During final pup-exposure days, females were conditioned and tested for their preference for a pup-associated chamber (e.g. maternal motivation) using conditioned place preference. Early postpartum females provided a comparison group. Fully maternal behavior only emerged in females given prolonged pup-exposure; this behavior improved significantly over time and was maximally expressed for a duration equivalent to early postpartum. Females given brief pup-exposure expressed only emergent maternal behaviors initiated by pups; distal pup-exposure evoked pup-avoidance. Virgin females given prolonged or brief pup-exposure expressed substantial pup-associated chamber preference, with more females preferring the pup-associated chamber following longer pup-exposures in a subtle stepwise relationship. Maternal motivation was strikingly similar in prolonged pup-exposure virgin and early postpartum females. Females given distal pup-exposure completely lacked maternal motivation. Maternal behavior did not predict chamber preference. Results suggest that pup-exposure, regardless of length, is sufficient to support strong maternal motivation, whereas parity is not required. PMID:18817796

  2. Normal maternal behavior, but increased pup mortality, in conditional oxytocin receptor knockout females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Stepp, Jennifer E; Lee, Heon-Jin; Young, W Scott; Caldwell, Heather K

    2010-10-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) and the Oxt receptor (Oxtr) are implicated in the onset of maternal behavior in a variety of species. Recently, we developed two Oxtr knockout lines: a total body knockout (Oxtr-/-) and a conditional Oxtr knockout (OxtrFB/FB) in which the Oxtr is lacking only in regions of the forebrain, allowing knockout females to potentially nurse and care for their biological offspring. In the current study, we assessed maternal behavior of postpartum OxtrFB/FB females toward their own pups and maternal behavior of virgin Oxtr-/- females toward foster pups and compared knockouts of both lines to wildtype (Oxtr+/+) littermates. We found that both Oxtr-/- and OxtrFB/FB females appear to have largely normal maternal behaviors. However, with first litters, approximately 40% of the OxtrFB/FB knockout dams experienced high pup mortality, compared to fewer than 10% of the Oxtr+/+ dams. We then went on to test whether or not this phenotype occurred in subsequent litters or when the dams were exposed to an environmental disturbance. We found that regardless of the degree of external disturbance, OxtrFB/FB females lost more pups on their first and second litters compared to wildtype females. Possible reasons for higher pup mortality in OxtrFB/FB females are discussed.

  3. Cohabitation with a sterile male facilitates the development of retrieval behavior in nulliparous female rats exposed to pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Tanco, S A; Walsh, M L

    1992-10-01

    Female rats were housed with a sterile male or another female. After 3 weeks, half of the females that had been housed with a female were rehoused with an intact male. At the end of 6 weeks female or sterile male cagemates were removed. Intact male cagemates and pups were removed 3 to 12 h following parturition. All females were tested for retrieval of three unfamiliar pups placed in their cage on the day following removal of their cagemate. Three unfamiliar pups were placed with each female and the female's behavior observed for 10 min. Observations were made in this way for 13 days or until the female retrieved all three pups within the 10-min interval. Pups were left with the female on days they were not retrieved. Females housed with a sterile male reached criterion for pup retrieval in 2.9 days, significantly fewer days than were required for females housed with another female (6.6 days) but significantly more than were required for a postpartum female (0.8 days). By demonstrating that cohabitation with a male fosters the development of retrieval, these results support evidence from the study of aggressive behavior that pseudopregnancy facilitates the development of behaviors associated with pregnancy and lactation.

  4. Normal Maternal Behavior, But Increased Pup Mortality, in Conditional Oxytocin Receptor Knockout Females

    OpenAIRE

    Macbeth, Abbe H.; Stepp, Jennifer E.; Lee, Heon-Jin; Young, W. Scott; Caldwell, Heather K.

    2010-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) and the Oxt receptor (Oxtr) are implicated in the onset of maternal behavior in a variety of species. Recently, we developed two Oxtr knockout lines: a total body knockout (Oxtr−/−) and a conditional Oxtr knockout (OxtrFB/FB) in which the Oxtr is lacking only in regions of the forebrain, allowing knockout females to potentially nurse and care for their biological offspring. In the current study, we assessed maternal behavior of postpartum OxtrFB/FB females toward their own pups...

  5. Behavioral and pharmacological investigation of anxiety and maternal responsiveness of postpartum female rats in a pup elevated plus maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Qin, Jingxue; Chen, Weihai; Sui, Nan; Chen, Hong; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the validity of a novel pup-based repeated elevated plus maze task to detect reduced anxiety and increased maternal responsiveness in postpartum female rats and explored the roles of dopamine D2, serotonin transporter and GABA/benzodiazepine receptors in the mediation of these processes. Sprague-Dawley postpartum or nulliparous female rats were tested 4 times every other day on postpartum days 4, 6 and 8 in an elevated plus maze with 4 pups or 4 pup-size erasers placed on each end of the two open arms. When tested with erasers, untreated postpartum mother rats entered the open arms proportionally more than nulliparous rats. They also tended to spend more time in the open arms, indicating reduced anxiety. When tested with pups, postpartum rats retrieved pups into the closed arms, entered the open arms and closed arms more and had a higher moving speed than nulliparous rats, indicating increased maternal responsiveness. Both haloperidol (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg, sc) and fluoxetine (5 or 10 mg/kg, ip) dose- and time-dependently decreased the percentage of time spent in the open arms and speed, but did not affect the percentage of open arm entries. Diazepam (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg, ip) did not affect pup retrieval, open arm time/entry in lactating rats. Thus, the percentage of open arm entries appears to be the most sensitive measure of anxiety in postpartum female rats, while speed could be used to index maternal responsiveness to pups, which are likely mediated by the dopamine D2 and serotonin transporter systems.

  6. Habitat selection by female swift foxes (Vulpes velox) during the pup-rearing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Indrani; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Datta, Shubham; Schroeder, Greg M.; Klaver, Robert W.; Honness, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    The swift fox (Vulpes velox) was historically distributed in western South Dakota including the region surrounding Badlands National Park (BNP). The species declined during the mid-1800s, largely due to habitat loss and poisoning targeted at wolves (Canis lupis) and coyotes (C. latrans). Only a small population of swift foxes near Ardmore, South Dakota persisted. In 2003, an introduction program was initiated at BNP with swift foxes translocated from Colorado and Wyoming. We report on habitat use by female swift foxes during the pup-rearing season (May–July) in 2009. Analyses of location data from 13 radiomarked female foxes indicated disproportional use (P Ŷ = 1.01), sparse vegetation (Ŷ = 1.43) and prairie dog towns (Ŷ = 1.18) in proportion to their availability, whereas they were less likely to use woodland (Ŷ = 0.00), shrubland (Ŷ = 0.14), pasture/agricultural-land (Ŷ = 0.25) and development (Ŷ = 0.16) relative to availability. Swift foxes typically are located in habitats that provide greater visibility, such as shortgrass prairie and areas with sparse vegetation; which allow detection of approaching coyotes (e.g., primary predator of swift foxes).

  7. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair M M Baylis

    Full Text Available Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf. However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use.

  8. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use.

  9. Supplementing female rats with DHA-lysophosphatidylcholine increases docosahexaenoic acid and acetylcholine contents in the brain and improves the memory and learning capabilities of the pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, A.; Nieto, S.; Sanhueza, J.; Morgado, N.; Rojas, I.; Zanartu, P.

    2010-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (Dha) is supplied to the foetus and newborn through the mother from their own reserves and their diet. No consensus about the best form to supplement DHA has been established. We propose that DHA containing lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC), obtained from DHA-rich eggs may be a suitable form of DHA and choline (the precursor of acetylcholine) supplementation. We evaluated the effectiveness of DHA-LPC to increase DHA and acetylcholine concentration in the brain of pups born from female rats supplemented with DHA-LPC before and during pregnancy. We also evaluated the effect of DHA supplementation on learning and memory capabilities of pups through the Skinner test for operant conditioning. Female Wistar rats received 40-day supplementation of DHA-LPC (8 mg DHA/kg b.w/daily.), before and during pregnancy. After delivery, plasma, erythrocyte, liver, and adipose tissue DHA and plasma choline were analyzed. Brains from 60 day-old pups separated into frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus, and occipital cortex, were assessed for DHA, acetylcholine, and acetylcholine transferase (CAT) activity. Pups were subjected to the Skinner box test. DHA-LPC supplementation produces higher choline and liver DHA contents in the mothers plasma and increases the pups DHA and acetylcholine in the cerebellum and hippocampus. CAT was not modified by supplementation. The Skinner test shows that pups born from DHA-LPC supplemented mothers exhibit better scores of learning and memory than the controls. Conclusion: DHA-LPC may be an adequate form for DHA supplementation during the perinatal period. (Author) 66 refs.

  10. Three-generation experiment showed female C57BL/6J mice drink drainage canal water containing low level of TCDD-like activity causing high pup mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Huang, Ren; Ran, Xin-Ru; Liu, Han-Ying; Zhang, Yu; Dai, Li-Jun; Li, Bing

    2011-01-01

    2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and similar compounds are toxic to animals and humans. Based on a yeast reporter system, AhR-activating ligands similar in concentration to 2 ng/l of TCDD were detected in two canal waters in Guangzhou, China. In this study, a three-generation experiment was conducted to assess the reproductive and developmental risks associated with these waters in C57BL/6J female mice, including female reproduction, pup indices, reproductive hormone levels, and levels of AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A2 in the uterus. Similar reproductive toxic effects were produced in the offspring of mice that drank the canal water as would occur if they drank 2 ng/l/day TCDD. The major reproductive indices that were affected included mating time and gestation length over all the generations. A striking finding is the TCDD (2 ng/l) and the water samples significantly reduced Day 4 pup survival rates in the F2 and F3. Both TCDD exposure and drinking canal water decreased estradiol-17β (E2) levels in the multiparous females and decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and E2 levels in the virgin females. Immunochemical staining revealed that the AhR and CYP1A2 positive signals were enhanced, and the ARNT positive signal was weakened in the uteri of mice drinking water with TCDD (2 ng/l) and the canal water samples. These results imply that the canal water contains AhR ligands that could induce similar toxic effects as do low levels of TCDD. Exposure to these contaminants can significantly impair the reproductive health of female mice. Considering this canals are open directly to Pearl River, whether these effects could be caused in human reproduction and development warrants further study.

  11. Supplementing female rats with DHA-lysophosphatidylcholine increases docosahexaenoic acid and acetylcholine contents in the brain and improves the memory and learning capabilities of the pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is supplied to the foetus and newborn through the mother from their own reserves and their diet. No consensus about the best form to supplement DHA has been established. We propose that DHAcontaining lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC, obtained from DHA-rich eggs may be a suitable form of DHA and choline (the precursor of acetylcholine supplementation. We evaluated the effectiveness of DHA-LPC to increase DHA and acetylcholine concentration in the brain of pups born from female rats supplemented with DHA-LPC before and during pregnancy. We also evaluated the effect of DHA supplementation on learning and memory capabilities of pups through the Skinner test for operant conditioning. Female Wistar rats received 40-day supplementation of DHA-LPC (8 mg DHA/kg b.w/daily., before and during pregnancy. After delivery, plasma, erythrocyte, liver, and adipose tissue DHA and plasma choline were analyzed. Brains from 60 day-old pups separated into frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus, and occipital cortex, were assessed for DHA, acetylcholine, and acetylcholine transferase (CAT activity. Pups were subjected to the Skinner box test. DHA-LPC supplementation produces higher choline and liver DHA contents in the mother’s plasma and increases the pups’ DHA and acetylcholine in the cerebellum and hippocampus. CAT was not modified by supplementation. The Skinner test shows that pups born from DHA-LPC supplemented mothers exhibit better scores of learning and memory than the controls. Conclusion: DHA-LPC may be an adequate form for DHA supplementation during the perinatal period.El ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA que requiere el feto y el recién nacido lo aporta la madre desde sus reservas y la dieta, por lo cual se sugiere suplementar a la madre con DHA. No hay consenso sobre la mejor forma de suplementación. Proponemos que un lisofosfolípido que contiene DHA y colina (DHA-LPC obtenido de huevos con alto contenido de DHA es

  12. Pup age and aggressive behavior in lactating rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovenardi M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of aggressive behaviors against intruders in the nest area are displayed by female rats during the first 10 days after delivery, declining thereafter to very low levels, even though lactation continues. Cross-fostering experiments were undertaken to test the hypothesis that pup age may affect aggression in lactating rats. The behavior of females on the 8th day after delivery when raising fostered 8-day-old pups was compared to that of females on the 8th postpartum day raising older pups (18 days old for the last 5 days, and females on the 18th day after delivery raising fostered 18-day-old pups were compared to females in the same postpartum period nursing younger pups (8 days of age at the time of the maternal aggression test for 5 days. Pup retrieval activity and plasma prolactin level were also analyzed. Females on the 8th postpartum day nursing 18-day-old pups were less aggressive than females in the same postpartum period, but with 8-day-old pups. Likewise, females on the 18th postpartum day nursing younger pups were more aggressive and presented higher levels of prolactin than females nursing older pups. Thus, pup development can alter the natural decline of maternal aggressive behavior.

  13. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    Body weights of rat pups reared during exposure to hypergravity (hg) are significantly reduced relative to 1 g controls. In the present study, we examined in hg-reared rat pups two major contributors to growth and development, namely growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)l0, plasma GH and IGF-1 were analyzed using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Both hormones were significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g control pups. Together, these findings suggest that GH and IGF-1 are not primary determinants of reduced body weights observed in hg-reared pups. The significant elevations in pup GH and IGF-1 may be related to increased physical stimulation in hypergravity.

  14. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  15. Immunizing adult female mice with a TcpA-A2-CTB chimera provides a high level of protection for their pups in the infant mouse model of cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Price

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae expresses two primary virulence factors, cholera toxin (CT and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP. CT causes profuse watery diarrhea, and TCP (composed of repeating copies of the major pilin TcpA is required for intestinal colonization by V. cholerae. Antibodies to CT or TcpA can protect against cholera in animal models. We developed a TcpA holotoxin-like chimera (TcpA-A2-CTB to elicit both anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in the infant mouse model of cholera. Adult female CD-1 mice were immunized intraperitoneally three times with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera and compared with similar groups immunized with a TcpA+CTB mixture, TcpA alone, TcpA with Salmonella typhimurium flagellin subunit FliC as adjuvant, or CTB alone. Blood and fecal samples were analyzed for antigen-specific IgG or IgA, respectively, using quantitative ELISA. Immunized females were mated; their reared offspring were challenged orogastrically with 10 or 20 LD50 of V. cholerae El Tor N16961; and vaccine efficacy was assessed by survival of the challenged pups at 48 hrs. All pups from dams immunized with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or the TcpA+CTB mixture survived at both challenge doses. In contrast, no pups from dams immunized with TcpA+FliC or CTB alone survived at the 20 LD50 challenge dose, although the anti-TcpA or anti-CTB antibody level elicited by these immunizations was comparable to the corresponding antibody level achieved by immunization with TcpA-A2-CTB or TcpA+CTB. Taken together, these findings comprise strong preliminary evidence for synergistic action between anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies in protecting mice against cholera. Weight loss analysis showed that only immunization of dams with TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or TcpA+CTB mixture protected their pups against excess weight loss from severe diarrhea. These data support the concept of including both TcpA and CTB as immunogens in development of an

  16. [Pup-Associated Conditioned Place Preference and Maternal Behavior in Depressive WAG/Rij Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, K Yu; Tanaeva, K K; Dobryakova, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Elaboration of conditioned place preference (CPP) associated with own and foster pups, and maternal behavior were compared in females of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats. In addition, behavior of females in the open field, elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests were investigated before pregnancy and after pup delivery. In has been found that females of WAG/Rij rats elaborate worse CPP task associated with both their own (WAG/Rij) and foster (Wistar) pups. Thus, the number of females that increase time spent in initially non-preferred compartment after its association with pups and the number of females that reach criterion of CPP elaboration in WAG/Rij rats were less than in Wistar controls. WAG/Rij females exhibited less maternal care in the place preference test both to their own and foster pups: less number of approaches to pups, pups carrying and the time spent in contact with pups non-associated with feeding. In WAG/Rij females compared with Wistar controls immobility time in the forced swimming test was higher both before pregnancy and after pup delivery indicating a stable depression-like state. Before pregnancy, statistically significant inter-strain differences in the anxiety level have not been revealed. After pup delivery, in WAG/Rij females anxiety level decreased but in Wistar females didn't substantially change. Results suggest that worse elaboration of CPP task and reduced maternal care in depressive WAG/Rij females are not associated with specific features of their own pups but are due to their depression-like state. Put into other words, pups for depressive mothers are less potent reinforcer than for "normal" (non-depressive) mothers.

  17. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  18. Movements and foraging areas of naive, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B; Fedak, M; Burton, HR; Engelhard, GH; Reijnders, PJH

    2002-01-01

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L.) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of surviving their first year. But in order to understand what

  19. Movements and foraging areas of naove, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B.; Fedak, M.; Burton, H.R.; Engelhard, G.H.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L. ) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of survivingtheir first year. But in order to understand what

  20. Differences in pup birth weight, pup variability within litters, and dam weight of mice selected for alternative criteria to increase litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, M A; Nielsen, M K; Ribeiro, E L

    1995-07-01

    Selection for litter size had been practiced for 21 generations and relaxed selection for 13 generations in mice. Three replicates were used with four selection criteria: index of components (ovulation rate and ova success), uterine capacity, litter size, and an unselected control. Especially with selection for litter size and the index relative to the control, number of pups born had increased, and differences also occurred in mating weight. Dams of the three replicates and their litters were used to evaluate the effects of accumulated selection on pup birth weight, variability in weight of littermates, and dam's weight at mating and after littering. Total number born, number born alive, number of males, and number of females were also recorded and studied. Mean pup birth weight did not differ among the criteria; however, variability among littermates in pup weight tended to differ among criteria of selection. Regressions for pup weight and within-litter standard deviation of pup weight on number born were small and negative but significant (P litter was normal for 77.2% of the litters, with no differences among the criteria. The difference between weight of male and weight of female pups was significant (P littering weight; however, the maternal weight gain between mating and littering was not different among criteria. Number born differed (P < .003) among the criteria, but there was no significant difference among criteria in numbers of males and females.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Neonatal handling alters the structure of maternal behavior and affects mother-pup bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A R; de Azevedo, M S; de Souza, M A; Lutz, M L; Alves, M B; Izquierdo, I; Cammarota, M; Silveira, P P; Lucion, A B

    2014-05-15

    During early life, a mother and her pups establish a very close relationship, and the olfactory learning of the nest odor is very important for the bond formation. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a structure that plays a fundamental role in the olfactory learning (OL) mechanism that also involves maternal behavior (licking and contact). We hypothesized that handling the pups would alter the structure of the maternal behavior, affect OL, and alter mother-pup relationships. Moreover, changes in the cyclic AMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation (CREB) and neurotrophic factors could be a part of the mechanism of these changes. This study aimed to analyze the effects of neonatal handling, 1 min per day from postpartum day 1 to 10 (PPD 1 to PPD 10), on the maternal behavior and pups' preference for the nest odor in a Y maze (PPD 11). We also tested CREB's phosphorylation and BDNF signaling in the OB of the pups (PPD 7) by Western blot analysis. The results showed that handling alters mother-pups interaction by decreasing mother-pups contact and changing the temporal pattern of all components of the maternal behavior especially the daily licking and nest-building. We found sex-dependent changes in the nest odor preference, CREB and BDNF levels in pups OB. Male pups were more affected by alterations in the licking pattern, and female pups were more affected by changes in the mother-pup contact (the time spent outside the nest and nursing). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups sho

  3. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  4. Gray wolf density and its association with weights and hematology of pups from 1970 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined weights and hematologic profiles of gray wolf (Canis lupus) pups and the associated wolf density in the east-central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota (USA) during 1970 to 1988. We collected weight and hematologic data from 117 pups (57 females, 60 males) during 1 September to 22 November each year. The wolf density (wolves/800 km2) trend was divided into three phases: high (72 +/- 7), 1970 to 1975; medium (44 +/- 2), 1976 to 1983; and low (27 +/- 2), 1984 to 1988. Wolf numbers declined (P = 0.0001) 39 and 63% from 1970 to 1975 to 1976 to 1983 and from 1970 to 1975 to 1984 to 1988, respectively. Weight was similar between male and female pups and did not vary as wolf density changed. Mean hemoglobin (P = 0.04), red (P = 0.0001) and white blood cells (P = 0.002), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (P = 0.0001) did differ among the multi-annual phases of changing wolf density. Weight and hematologic data also were compared to values from captive wolf pups. The high, but declining wolf density was associated with macrocytic, normochromic anemia in wolf pups, whereas the lowest density coincided with a hypochromic anemia. Although hematologic values show promise for assessing wolf pup condition and wolf population status, they must be used cautiously until data are available from other populations.

  5. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M; Vetter, Russell D

    2016-03-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5-38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven.

  6. Nature's food anticipatory experiment: entrainment of locomotor behavior, suprachiasmatic and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei by suckling in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Mario; Tovar, Anibal; Silver, Rae; Mogado, Elvira; Meza, Enrique; Zavaleta, Yael; Juárez, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    In nature and under laboratory conditions, dams nurse rabbit pups once daily for a duration of fewer than 5 min. The present study explored neural mechanisms mediating the timing of nursing in this natural model of food anticipatory activity, focussing on the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the locus of the master circadian clock and on the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), a region implicated in timing of food-entrained behavior. Rabbit pups are born in the dark, with eyelids closed. Nursing visits to the litters also occurs during the dark phase. To explore the effect of the timing of feeding, pups were maintained in constant darkness, while females housed in a light-dark cycle were permitted to nurse their pups either during the night (night-fed group) or day (day-fed group). All pups exhibited anticipatory locomotor activity before daily nursing. In the SCN, PER1 and FOS peaked during the night in both groups, with a longer duration of elevated protein expression in the night-fed group. In contrast, DMH peak PER1 expression occurred 8 h after pups were fed, corresponding to the shift in timing of nursing. Comparison of nursed and 48 h fasted pups indicates that the timing of PER1 expression was similar in the SCN and DMH, with fewer PER1-positive cells in the latter group. The results indicate that rabbit pups show food anticipatory activity, and that timing of nursing differentially affects PER1 expression in the SCN and DMH.

  7. Maternal Disononyl Phthalate Exposure Activates Allergic Airway Inflammation via Stimulatingthe Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway in Rat Pups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHEN Jiao; XIE ChangMing; ZHAO Yan; WANG Xiu; andZHANG YunHui

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectof diisononyl phthalate (DINP) exposure during gestation and lacta-tion on allergic response in pups and to explore the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway on it. MethodsFemale Wistar rats were treated with DINP at different dosages (0, 5, 50,and 500 mg/kg of body weight per day). The pups were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA). The airway response was assessed; the airway histological studies were performed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; and the relative cytokines in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis. ResultsThere was no significant difference in DINP’s effect on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) between male pups and female pups. In the 50 mg/(kg·d) DINP-treated group, airway response to OVA significantly increased and pups showed dramatically enhanced pulmonary resistance (RI) compared with those from controls (P<0.05). Enhanced Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation, and Th2 cytokines expression were observed in pups of 50 mg/(kg·d) DINP-treated group. However, in the 5 and 500 mg/(kg·d) DINP-treated pups, no significant effects were observed. ConclusionTherewas an adjuvant effect of DINP on allergic airway inflammation in pups. Maternal DINP exposure could promote OVA-induced allergic airway response in pups in part by upregulation of PI3K/Akt pathway.

  8. On the Nature of CP Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Bianchini, A.; deMartino, D.; diMille, F.; Williams, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present new X-ray and optical spectra of the old nova CP Pup (nova Pup 1942) obtained with Chandra and the CTIO 4m telescope. The X-ray spectrum reveals a multi-temperature optically thin plasma reaching a maximum temperature of 36+19 keV 16 absorbed by local complex neutral material. The time resolved optical spectroscopy confirms the presence of the 1.47 hr period, with cycle-to-cycle amplitude changes, as well as of an additional long term modulation which is suggestive either of a longer pe- riod or of non-Keplerian velocities in the emission line regions. These new observational facts add further support to CP Pup as a magnetic cataclysmic variable (mCV). We compare the mCV and the non-mCV scenarios and while we cannot conclude whether CP Pup is a long period system, all observational evidences point at an intermediate polar (IP) type CV.

  9. Transformation of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells increases asthmatic susceptibility in pups from allergen-sensitized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jun-Tao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that epinephrine release is impaired in patients with asthma. The pregnancy of female rats (dams with asthma promotes in their pups the differentiation of adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCCs into sympathetic neurons, mediated by nerve growth factor, which leads to a reduction in epinephrine secretion. However, the relatedness between the alteration of AMCCs and increased asthma susceptibility in such offspring has not been established. Methods In this study, we observed the effects of allergization via ovalbumin on rat pups born of asthmatic dams. Results Compared to the offspring of untreated controls, bronchial hyperreactivity and airway inflammation were more severe in the pups from sensitized (asthmatic dams. In pups exposed to nerve growth factor (NGF in utero these effects were aggravated further, but the effects were blocked in pups whose dams had been treated with anti-NGF. Furthermore, alterations in AMCC phenotype corresponded to the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity and lung lesions of the different treatment groups. Such AMCC alterations included degranulation of chromaffin granules, reduction of epinephrine and phenylethanolamine-n-methyl transferase, and elevation of NGF and peripherin levels. Conclusions Our results present evidence that asthma during the pregnancy of rat dams promotes asthma susceptibility in their offspring, and that the transformation of AMCCs to neurons induced by NGF plays an important role in this process.

  10. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  11. Adrenocortical responsiveness in southern elephant seal mothers and pup during lactation and the effect of scientific handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Hall, A.J.; Burton, H.R.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the cortisol responses to chemical and physical restraint stress in southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina females and their pups at three stages during lactation. In anaesthetised females the serum cortisol levels changed moderately during the 45-min sampling period following

  12. Adrenocortical responsiveness in southern elephant seal mothers and pups during lactation and the effect of scientific handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; Brasseur, SMJM; Hall, AJ; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    We examined the cortisol responses to chemical and physical restraint stress in southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina females and their pups at three stages during lactation. In anaesthetised females the serum cortisol levels changed moderately during the 45-min sampling period following

  13. Effect of treating lactating rats with lead acetate and its interaction with vitamin E or C on neurobehavior, development and some biochemical parameters in their pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the effect of administration of vitamin E (600mg/ kg diet concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally and vitamin C (100mg/kg, orally concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally to the female lactating rats on the neurobehavioral, landmarks development and some biochemical tests in their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in open field activity test including (the number of squares crossed and rearing test within 3 minutes, olfactory discrimination test, triglycerides and malondialdehyde brain tissue, with a significant decrease in glutathione brain tissue and high density lipoproteins in their pups. The present study demonstrated that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin C and lead acetate produced a significant decrease in righting reflex test in their pups. Administration of vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in glutathione level accompanied with a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and triglycerides levels in their pups. The present study showed that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin E or C with lead acetate produced a significant decrease in rearing test, whereas a significant increase in high density lipoproteins in their pups. It is concluded that administration vitamin E or C to the female lactating rats reverse the adverse effects produced by lead acetate on neurobehavioral. Vitamin E had positive effect on the levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde brain tissue, triglyceride and high density lipoproteins in their lactating pups.

  14. Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency alters pup-retrieval but not isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, Thomas H J; O'Loan, Jonathan; Splatt, Karisha; Alexander, Suzanne; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2011-02-01

    Evidence from animal experiments now demonstrates that prenatal vitamin D levels influence brain development. The aims of this study were to examine isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations and maternal-infant interactions using a pup-retrieval test in developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficient and control rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient diet or control diet six weeks prior to mating until birth and housed under UVB-free lighting conditions. In two separate experiments we recorded ultrasonic vocalizations at 46KHz in isolated pups and we performed a pup-retrieval test on the day of birth. There was no significant effect of maternal diet on the calling rate of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations by pups. We found that DVD-deficient dams retrieved their pups sooner than control dams and engaged in more pup directed activities (sniffing and carrying pups) and had a longer latency for self-grooming and rearing than control dams. We also assessed vitamin D related measures from a terminal blood sample immediately after the pup-retrieval test and found that DVD-deficient dams and pups had significantly lower levels of 25 OH D₃, 1,25 (OH)₂D₃ and phosphate, elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) but there was no significant effect of maternal diet on calcium levels. We speculate that the altered maternal-pup interactions identified in the DVD model may impact on early periods of brain development and behaviour.

  15. Emotional attachment of pre-weaning pups to mothers and fathers in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhixiong; Zhang, Shuwei; Yu, Chengjun; Li, Yani; Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao

    2017-02-01

    Studies into the effects of maternal and paternal deprivation on the brain and behavior are traditionally done on animals from postnatal day 0 to 14 when parents display high levels of licking and grooming. Deprivation experiments that reveal attachment conducted during this period are confounded because physiological and emotional deprivation occur simultaneously. Whether rodent pups of greater physiological independence from postnatal 14 to 21days show emotional attachment towards mothers and fathers remains unclear. Here we establish a new animal model for attachment experiments in animals 14-21days old using monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Levels of emotional attachment of pups from postnatal 14 to 21days were measured using preference tests. Pups spent more time in contact with their mothers, more time approaching, sniffing, climbing and walking near their mothers, and emitted more calls on their mother's side compared to an unknown female. They also showed a preference for their fathers over an unknown male. While pups displayed attachment to both their mothers and fathers, levels directed towards mothers were higher in tests when mothers and fathers were presented simultaneously. These results indicate that mandarin voles can be used as an animal model to investigate the effects of early emotional attachment disruption on the adult brain and behavior.

  16. Interactions between parents and parents and pups in the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available The California mouse (Peromyscuscalifornicus may be a valuable animal model to study parenting as it is one of the few monogamous and biparental rodent species. By using automated infra-red imaging and video documentation of established pairs spanning two days prior to birth of the litter until d 5 of post natal development (PND, it was possible to follow interactions between parents and between parents and pups. The paired males were attentive to their partners in the form of grooming and sniffing throughout the time period studied. Both these and other activities of the partners, such as eating and drinking, peaked during late light/ mid-dark period. Beginning the day before birth, and most significantly on PND 0, the female made aggressive attempts to exclude the male from nest-attending, acts that were not reciprocated by the male, although he made repeated attempts to mate his partner during that period. By PND 1, males were permitted to return to the nest, where they initiated grooming, licking, and huddling over the litter, although time spent by the male on parental care was still less than that of the female. Male and female pups were of similar size and grew at the same rate. Pups, which are believed to be exothermic for at least the first two weeks post-natally, maintained a body temperature higher than that of their parents until PND 16. Data are consistent with the inference that the male California mouse parent is important in helping retain pup body heat and permit dams increased time to procure food to accommodate her increased energy needs for lactation. These assessments provide indices that may be used to assess the effects of extrinsic factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals, on biparental behaviors and offspring development.

  17. Population dynamics of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae) in pups from South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, in Northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, F J; Leonardi, M S; Berón Vera, B; Vales, D G; Ameghino, S; Raga, J A; Crespo, E A

    2009-03-01

    We analysed population dynamics of the louse Antarctophthirus microchir in pups of the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, at the Punta León rookery (Argentina) over a period of 2 years. A total of 136 pups were aged and marked at the beginning of the lactation period ashore, then sampled for lice at different times within 30 days. Sampling was restricted to the chest and belly, two sites where lice were especially abundant. This concentration on ventral areas might protect lice from thermal stress in the austral summer. Infestation patterns in pups 3 days old suggested that the potential for transmission increased from first nymphs to adults. Population trends of each instar with pup age, based on standardised values of abundance, were conserved between years, reflecting the basic dynamics of recruitment and reproduction. However, trends based on log-transformed abundances varied significantly between years; apparently, environmental conditions affected growth of lice populations differently each year. Stage-based deterministic models for population growth of A. microchir suggested generation times from 18 to 23 days. Accordingly, only 2 lice generations might be produced before pups start going to the sea. Shortening the cycle to accommodate a third generation might be risky, whereas a 2-generation cycle might at least result in larger females producing higher numbers of viable offspring.

  18. Maternal behavior priming in virgin and caesarean-delivered Long-Evans rats: effects of brief contact or continuous exteroceptive pup stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J M

    1983-12-01

    The effects of 8 days of prior exposure to pups (Priming) in the form of continuous exteroceptive (smell, sight and sound), or 15 min/day physical access (taste and touch possible) stimulation on the subsequent latency to become maternal during cohabitation with pups (concaveation) was studied in Long-Evans female rats. Brief daily access was effective in hastening the onset of maternal behavior only in those virgins which engaged in pup licking during Priming and in maintaining short-latency maternal responsiveness only in those day 21 pregnancy-terminated, thelectomized rats which initiated maternal behavior during Priming. Exteroceptive stimulation was ineffective in both virgins and caesarean-sectioned rats. These findings stress the importance of physical interactions with pups (unrelated to nipple stimulation) for the development of nurturance.

  19. Neonatal handling and the maternal odor preference in rat pups: involvement of monoamines and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein pathway in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, C; De Souza, M A; Szawka, R E; Lutz, M L; De Vasconcellos, L F T; Sanvitto, G L; Izquierdo, I; Bevilaqua, L R; Cammarota, M; Lucion, A B

    2009-03-03

    Early-life environmental events, such as the handling procedure, can induce long-lasting alterations upon several behavioral and neuroendocrine systems. However, the changes within the pups that could be causally related to the effects in adulthood are still poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of neonatal handling on behavioral (maternal odor preference) and biochemical (cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT) levels in the olfactory bulb (OB)) parameters in 7-day-old male and female rat pups. Repeated handling (RH) abolished preference for the maternal odor in female pups compared with nonhandled (NH) and the single-handled (SH) ones, while in RH males the preference was not different than NH and SH groups. In both male and female pups, RH decreased NA activity in the OB, but 5-HT activity increased only in males. Since preference for the maternal odor involves the synergic action of NA and 5-HT in the OB, the maintenance of the behavior in RH males could be related to the increased 5-HT activity, in spite of reduction in the NA activity in the OB. RH did not alter CREB phosphorylation in the OB of both male and females compared with NH pups. The repeated handling procedure can affect the behavior of rat pups in response to the maternal odor and biochemical parameters related to the olfactory learning mechanism. Sex differences were already detected in 7-day-old pups. Although the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stressors is reduced in the neonatal period, environmental interventions may impact behavioral and biochemical mechanisms relevant to the animal at that early age.

  20. Chemical thermodynamics of Hg1201 and Hg1223 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadashi

    1998-03-01

    The decomposition equilibrium of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was studied using a thermomicrobalance. A thermodynamic diagram representing the stability domains of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was constructed. Using the diagram, it was shown that Hg1201 is metastable at 800°C and that Hg1223 is stable at 660°C due to the formation of an atmosphere of mercury vapor and oxygen formed by the decomposition of excess HgO. Chemical analysis revealed that the valence of Hg is +2 regardless of the oxygen content. The dependence of Tc on the oxygen content was also studied.

  1. Infanticide and expulsion of females in a cooperative mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Smith, R; McIlrath, G M; Kansky, R; Gaynor, D; O'Riain, M J; Skinner, J D

    1998-12-01

    In cooperative groups of suricates (Suricata suricatta), helpers of both sexes assist breeding adults in defending and feeding pups, and survival rises in larger groups. Despite this, dominant breeding females expel subordinate females from the group in the latter half of their (own) pregnancy apparently because adult females sometimes kill their pups. Some of the females that have been expelled are allowed to rejoin the group soon after the dominant female's pups are born and subsequently assist in rearing the pups. Female helpers initially resist expulsion and repeatedly attempt to return to their natal group, indicating that it is unlikely that dominant females need to grant them reproductive concessions to retain them in the group.

  2. Cooperative Atlantic States Shark Pupping and Nursery (COASTSPAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Survey of inshore areas used by sharks for pupping and nurseries. Various locations have been surveyed, from the U.S. Virgin Islands to Massachusetts, most in...

  3. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  4. Mouse Gives Birth to Pups Using 3-D Printed Ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165622.html Mouse Gives Birth to Pups Using 3-D Printed Ovary Breakthrough ... to use hormone replacement therapies in order to trigger puberty," explained co-researcher Monica Laronda. She's a ...

  5. The rabbit pup, a natural model of nursing anticipatory activity

    OpenAIRE

    Caba, Mario; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Mother rabbits nurse their young once a day with circadian periodicity. Nursing bouts are brief (ca. 3 min) and occur inside the maternal burrow. Despite this limited contact mother rabbits and their pups are tuned to each other to ensure that the capacities of each party are used efficiently to ensure the weaning of a healthy litter. In this review we present behavioral, hormonal, metabolic and hormonal correlates of this phenomenon in mother rabbits and their pups. Research is revealing tha...

  6. Weights, growth, and survival of timber wolf pups in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ballenberghe, V.; Mech, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Weights, growth rates, canine tooth lengths, and survival data were obtained from 73 wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups that were 8 to 28 weeks old when live-trapped in three areas of northern Minnesota from 1969 to 1972. Relative weights of wild pups are expressed as percentages of a standard weight curve based on data from captive pups of similar age. These relative weights varied greatly within litters, between litters, and between years; extremes of 31 to 144 percent of the standard were observed. Growth rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.23 kilograms per day were observed, and similar variations in general devel pment and in replacement and growth of canine teeth were noted. Survival data based on radio-tracking and tag returns indicated that pups with relative weights less than 65 percent of standard have a poor chance of survival, whereas pups of at least 80 percent of standard weight have a high survivability. Pups born in 1972 were especially underweight, probably a result of declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities in the interior of the Superior National Forest study area.

  7. Development enhances hypometabolism in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tift, Michael S; Ranalli, Elizabeth C; Houser, Dorian S; Ortiz, Rudy M; Crocker, Daniel E

    2013-10-01

    Investigation into the development of oxygen storage capacity in air-breathing marine predators has been performed, but little is known about the development of regulatory factors that influence oxygen utilization. Strategies for efficiently using oxygen stores should enable marine predators to optimize time spent foraging underwater.We describe the developmental patterns of oxygen use during voluntary breath-holds in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at 2 and 7 weeks post-weaning. We measured 1) changes in oxygen consumption (VO2), and 2) changes in venous pH, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), haemoglobin saturation (sO2), oxygen content (O2ct), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), haematocrit (Hct) and total haemoglobin (tHb). To examine the effect of the dive response on the development of oxygen utilization, voluntary breath-hold experiments were conducted in and out of water.Suppression of VO2 during voluntary breath-holds increased significantly between 2 and 7 weeks post-weaning, reaching a maximum suppression of 53% below resting metabolic rate and 56% below Kleiber's standard metabolic rate. From 2 to 7 weeks post-weaning, breath-hold VO2 was reduced by 52%. Between the two age classes, this equates to a mean breath-hold VO2 reduction of 16% from resting VO2. Breath-hold VO2 also declined with increasing breath-hold duration, but there was no direct effect of voluntary submergence on reducing VO2.Age did not influence rates of venous pO2 depletion during breath-holds. However, voluntary submergence did result in slower pO2 depletion rates when compared to voluntary terrestrial apnoeas. The differences in whole body VO2 during breath-holds (measured at recovery) and venous pO2 (reflective of tissue O2-use measured during breath-holds), likely reflects metabolic suppression in hypoxic, vasoconstricted tissues.Consistent pCO2 values at the end of all voluntary breath-holds (59.0 ± 0.7 mmHg) suggests the physiological cue for stimulating

  8. Bortezomib prevents acute doxorubicin ovarian insult and follicle demise, improving the fertility window and pup birth weight in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon C Roti Roti

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of female patients survive cancer, but succumb to primary ovarian insufficiency after chemotherapy. We tested the hypothesis that Bortezomib (Bort protects ovaries from doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy by treating female mice with Bort 1 hour prior to DXR. By preventing DXR accumulation in the ovary, Bort attenuated DXR-induced DNA damage in all ovarian cell types, subsequent γH2AFX phosphorylation, and resulting apoptosis in preantral follicles. Bort pretreatment extended the number of litters per mouse, improved litter size and increased pup weight following DXR treatment, thus increasing the duration of post-chemotherapy fertility and improving pup health. As a promising prophylactic ovoprotective agent, Bort does not interfere with cancer treatment, and is currently used as a chemotherapy adjuvant. Bort-based chemoprotection may preserve ovarian function in a non-invasive manner that avoids surgical ovarian preservation, thus diminishing the health complications of premature menopause following cancer treatment.

  9. Sex differences in heart rate variability during sleep following prenatal nicotine exposure in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boychuk, Carie R; Fuller, David D; Hayward, Linda F

    2011-05-16

    The influence of both prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE; 6 mg/kg/day) and sex on heart rate (HR) regulation during sleep versus wakefulness was evaluated in 13, 16 and 26 day old rat pups. Pups were chronically instrumented at least 24 h before testing. On postnatal day 13 (P13), PNE males spent significantly more time in NREM sleep and demonstrated a greater drop in HR when transitioning from quiet wake to sleep compared to age and sex matched controls (-14±5 bpm versus -1±3 bpm, respectively). Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis indicated that this state-dependent drop in HR was primarily associated with a greater reduction in sympathovagal balance (LF/HF ratio) in PNE males compared to controls. No parallel changes in indices of parasympathetic drive (HF power) were identified. In contrast, no significant effect of PNE on HR during sleep versus wakefulness was identified in P13 females. However, independent of state, a significant decrease in HF power was identified in P13 PNE females compared to controls. At P16, state-dependent differences in HR or HRV between PNE and sex-matched control pups were resolved. Additionally, at P26 no significant effect of PNE on state-dependent changes in HR or HRV was identified in either sex. Analysis of the hypothalamic peptide orexin identified that PNE induced approximately a 50% reduction in hypothalamic prepro-orexin mRNA and total mRNA was lowest in PNE males. These findings suggest that PNE induces sex dependent changes in sleep related autonomic regulation of HR during early postnatal development and these changes may be related to epigenetic alterations in the orexin system.

  10. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  11. Effects of handling regime and sex on changes in cortisol, thyroid hormones and body mass in fasting grey seal pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kimberley A; Moss, Simon E W; Pomeroy, Paddy; Speakman, John R; Fedak, Mike A

    2012-01-01

    Survival of seal pups may be affected by their ability to respond appropriately to stress. Chronic stress can adversely affect secretion of cortisol and thyroid hormones, which contribute to the control of fuel utilisation. Repeated handling could disrupt the endocrine response to stress and/or negatively impact upon mass changes during fasting. Here we investigated the effects of handling regime on cortisol and thyroid hormone levels, and body mass changes, in fasting male and female grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus). Females had higher thyroid hormone levels than males throughout fasting and showed a reduction in cortisol midway through the fast that was not seen in males. This may reflect sex-specific fuel allocation or development. Neither handling frequency nor cumulative contact time affected plasma cortisol or thyroid hormone levels, the rate of increase in cortisol over the first five minutes of physical contact or the pattern of mass loss during fasting in either sex. The endocrine response to stress and the control of energy balance in grey seal pups appear to be robust to repeated, short periods of handling. Our results suggest that routine handling should have no additional impact on these animals than general disturbance caused by researchers moving around the colony. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Olfactory classical conditioning in neonatal mouse pups using thermal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Bieke; Matrot, Boris; Ramanantsoa, Nelina; Van den Bergh, Omer; D'Hooge, Rudi; Gallego, Jorge

    2012-04-01

    Mouse models are increasingly used to investigate genetic contributions to developmental disorders in children, especially newborns. In particular, early cognitive assessment in newborn mice is critical to evaluate pediatric drug efficacy and toxicity. Unfortunately, methods for behavioral tests in newborn mice are scarce. Therefore, developing such tests for newborn mice is a priority challenge for neurogenetics and pharmacological research. The aim of the present study was to develop a conditioning method well suited to high-throughput cognitive screening in newborn mice. To this end, we developed an odor-preference conditioning test using ambient temperature as an unconditioned stimulus (US) and artificial odors as conditioned stimuli (CS). First, we showed that mouse pups move toward the thermoneutral temperature when offered a choice between a thermoneutral and cold environment, thus showing thermotaxis. Second, we conducted a classical conditioning paradigm in pups aged six to ten days. In terms of central nervous system development, this period corresponds to extreme prematurity to early post-term period in humans. During acquisition, the pups were alternatively exposed to odor CS paired with either cold or warm temperatures. Immediately after acquisition, the pups underwent a two-odor choice test, which showed preference for the odor previously paired with the warm temperature, thus showing conditioning. The proposed paradigm is easy to conduct, and requires modest experimenter interference. The method is well suited for high-throughput screening of early associative disorders in newborn mice.

  13. The rabbit pup, a natural model of nursing anticipatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Mario; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Mother rabbits nurse their young once a day with circadian periodicity. Nursing bouts are brief (ca. 3 min) and occur inside the maternal burrow. Despite this limited contact mother rabbits and their pups are tuned to each other to ensure that the capacities of each party are used efficiently to ensure the weaning of a healthy litter. In this review we present behavioral, hormonal, metabolic and hormonal correlates of this phenomenon in mother rabbits and their pups. Research is revealing that the circadian rhythm of locomotion shifts in parallel to the timing of nursing in both parties. In pups corticosterone has a circadian rhythm with highest levels at the time of nursing. Other metabolic and hormonal parameters follow an exogenous or endogenous rhythm which is affected by the time of nursing. In the brain clock genes (e.g., Per1) are differentially expressed in specific brain regions (e.g., suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus) in relation to providing or ingesting milk in mothers and young, respectively. These findings suggest that circadian activities are modulated, in the mothers, by suckling stimulation and, in the young, by the ingestion of milk and/or the perception of the mammary pheromone. In conclusion the rabbit pup is an extraordinary model for studying the entraining by a single daily food pulse with minimal manipulations. The mother offers the possibility of studying nursing as a non-photic synchronizer, also with minimal manipulation, as suckling stimulation from the litter occurs only once daily PMID:19863657

  14. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  15. Apsidal motion in southern eccentric eclipsing binaries: GL Car, QX Car, NO Pup and V366 Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.; Zejda, M.; de Villiers, S. N.

    2008-08-01

    The study of apsidal motion in eccentric eclipsing binaries (EEB) provides an important observational test of theoretical models of stellar structure and evolution. The Southern hemisphere contains many interesting and also neglected binary systems. New accurate photoelectric times of minimum light have been obtained for the detached early-type Southern hemisphere EEB GL Car (P = 2.42d,e = 0.15), QX Car (4.48d, 0.15), NO Pup (1.26d, 0.13) and V366 Pup (2.48d, 0.47). The O-C diagrams are analysed using all reliable timings found in the literature and improved or new values for the elements of the apsidal motion are computed. We find more precise, relatively short periods of apsidal motion of about 25.2, 362, 38.3 and 285yr and corresponding internal structure constants, log k2, -1.88, -2.08, -2.32 and -2.38 for GL Car, QX Car, NO Pup and V366 Pup, respectively, with the assumption that the component stars rotate pseudo-synchronously. The relativistic effects are small, being about 3-12 per cent of the total apsidal motion rate in all systems. Based on observations made at the South Africa Astronomical Observatory, Sutherland, South Africa and Mt John University Observatory, University of Canterbury, Lake Tekapo, New Zealand. E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

  16. Mass of weaned elephant seal pups in areas of low and high human presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; van den Hoff, J; Broekman, M; Baarspul, ANJ; Field, [No Value; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    On sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, we examined pup weaning mass of southern elephant seals in relation to human presence. Pup weaning mass was previously found to be positively associated with 1st-year survivorship. Weaned pups were weighed in a remote area, Middle Beach, and in an area of

  17. Novel husbandry techniques support survival of naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhonghe; Vaidya, Amita; Ascher, Jill; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole rat (NMR) is a small eusocial rodent. Because of its remarkable longevity (maximal lifespan, 32 y) and resistance to cancer, the NMR has emerged as a valuable model for aging and cancer research. However, breeding NMR can be difficult. Here, we report the successful introduction and acceptance of pups into a foreign colony with existing pups of different ages. Among the 7 NMR colonies in our satellite facility, one had a consistently poor record of pup viability, with nearly 100% preweaning mortality in multiple litters born over the course of 2 y. The queen of this colony gave birth to 18 pups in January 2013; by 2 d after parturition, it was evident that the pups were not receiving sufficient nourishment. To salvage the litter, the most vigorous pups were cross-fostered to another queen that had recently given birth. On postparturition day 1 (PD1), two pups from the poorly nourished donor litter were bathed with warm water, rolled in recipient colony bedding, and transferred to the recipient colony, which included 8 PD14 pups. The new pups were accepted by the recipient queen, who continued to produce milk in response to suckling by the donor pups well past the weaning of her own litter. This case report provides evidence of successful cross-fostering of NMR pups despite age differences between donor pups and those in the recipient litter; this technique may prove beneficial to researchers struggling with NMR breeding issues.

  18. Exposure to toluene and stress during pregnancy impairs pups' growth and dams' lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberanes-Chávez, Paulina; López-Rubalcava, Carolina; de Gortari, Patricia; Cruz, Silvia L

    2013-01-01

    Inhalant misuse starts at an early age, and a large number of users are women in reproductive age. This study investigates whether exposure to toluene, a commonly misused solvent, alone or combined with restraint stress during pregnancy, produces adverse effects in pregnant mice and their offspring during lactation and adulthood. Pregnant animals were exposed to either 8000ppm toluene (30min/twice daily from gestational days 7-19), restraint stress (three times/day during the same gestation period) or both; control mice were only exposed to air. Our results show that toluene, stress and their combination reduced body weight gain in pregnant females without changing food consumption. In the offspring, all treatments resulted in low body weight at weaning, but with the toluene and stress combination this effect was seen from birth. Weight deficiency could not be attributed to poor maternal behavior during the first 3weeks of age, but to a reduction in pro-TRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and serum prolactin levels in dams. After weaning, pups that were subjected to toluene and stress during gestation had lower body weight and ate less than control animals. In conclusion, the combined exposure to toluene and stress during pregnancy lead to more pronounced effects in dams and longer-lasting actions in pups than exposure to either toluene or stress. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and pup postnatal development in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2016-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nebivolol vs. bisoprolol treatment on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and postnatal development in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in normotensive pregnant Wistar rats by daily administration of l-NAME (100mg/kg/day, in the drinking water) for the period of pregnancy. After 9 days of l-NAME treatment, rats with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) more than 140/90mmHg were considered hypertensive. Then, some of them were treated from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) via oral gavage. SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR) were re-evaluated by tail cuff method on day 19 of pregnancy and morphometrical or histological studies were performed on day 20. In addition, the mortality and postnatal development of newborn pups were assessed in all groups. The l-NAME administration during pregnancy induced an increase in SBP and DBP while HR did not change. Nebivolol or bisoprolol treatment completely prevented the elevation of SBP and DBP induced by l-NAME with a reduction in HR in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The intra-uterine fetal growth and the postnatal development of newborn rats in nebivolol-treated hypertensive group were significantly lower vs. control and higher vs. bisoprolol-treated group with a higher mortality in the both types of treatments vs. control rats. The nebivolol and bisoprolol administration produce adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development, that limits their therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  20. Adiponectin and Insulin in Gray Seals during Suckling and Fasting: Relationship with Nutritional State and Body Mass during Nursing in Mothers and Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K A; Hughes, J; Stamatas, S; Brand, S; Foster, N L; Moss, S E W; Pomeroy, P P

    2015-01-01

    Animals that fast during breeding and/or development, such as phocids, must regulate energy balance carefully to maximize reproductive fitness and survival probability. Adiponectin, produced by adipose tissue, contributes to metabolic regulation by modulating sensitivity to insulin, increasing fatty acid oxidation by liver and muscle, and promoting adipogenesis and lipid storage in fat tissue. We tested the hypotheses that (1) circulating adiponectin, insulin, or relative adiponectin gene expression is related to nutritional state, body mass, and mass gain in wild gray seal pups; (2) plasma adiponectin or insulin is related to maternal lactation duration, body mass, percentage milk fat, or free fatty acid (FFA) concentration; and (3) plasma adiponectin and insulin are correlated with circulating FFA in females and pups. In pups, plasma adiponectin decreased during suckling (linear mixed-effects model [LME]: T = 4.49; P nutritional state, were also positively related to body mass (LME: T = 3.58; P = 0.004). Adiponectin and insulin levels did not change during lactation and were unrelated to milk FFA or percentage milk fat in adult females. Our data suggest that adiponectin, in conjunction with insulin, may facilitate fat storage in seals and is likely to be particularly important in the development of blubber reserves in pups.

  1. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  2. Firing patterns of maternal rat prelimbic neurons during spontaneous contact with pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo

    2012-08-01

    Extracellular single unit activity was recorded from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of postpartum dams over the course of 3 days while they engaged in spontaneous pup-directed behaviors and non-specific exploratory behavior. Out of 109 units identified over the course of the experiment, 15 units were observed to be pup-responsive and 15 increased their discharge rates non-specifically while not attending to pups. An association between neuronal activity and typical maternal behaviors (e.g., retrieval, pup-grooming, nursing) was not observed. Instead, brief bouts of snout contact with pups were accompanied by phasic increases and decreases in spike rates. The observed pup contact responsive cells might play a role in processing of sensory feedback from pups or the transmission of modulatory output to other subcortical maternal brain areas.

  3. Stable isotope values in pup vibrissae reveal geographic variation in diets of gestating Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Rick D.; Doll, Andrew C.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Witteveen, Briana; Kline, Thomas C.; Kurle, Carolyn M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors, including limitation in food resources, have been proposed as possible causes for the lack of recovery of the endangered western segment of the Steller sea lion population in the United States. Because maternal body condition has important consequences on fetal development and neonatal survival, the diets of pregnant females may be particularly important in regulating population sizes. We used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of vibrissae from Steller sea lion pups as an indirect indicator of maternal diets during gestation. Combining these data with isotope data from potential prey species in a Bayesian mixing model, we generated proportional estimates of dietary consumption for key prey. Our analysis indicated that females in the most westerly metapopulations relied heavily on Atka mackerel and squid, whereas females inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska region had a fairly mixed diet, and the metapopulation of Southeast Alaska showed a strong reliance on forage fish. These results are similar to previous data from scat collections; however, they indicate a possible under-representation of soft-bodied prey (squid) or prey with fragile skeletons (forage fish) from analyses of data from scats. This study supports the utility of stable isotope modeling in predicting diet composition in gestating adult female Steller sea lions during winter, using pup vibrissae.

  4. Early-life stress is associated with gender-based vulnerability to epileptogenesis in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Desgent

    Full Text Available During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1, and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to

  5. Effects of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF in rat pups: Beneficial effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise.

  6. Effects of estradiol-17β and bisphenol A administered chronically to mice throughout pregnancy and lactation on the male pups' reproductive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi Okada; Osamu Kai

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of estradiol-17β(E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) administered chronically by implanting a silicone tube throughout pregnancy and lactation on male pups' reproductive system in ICR mice. Methods: Female mice were implanted with a tube filled with I0 ng, 500 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg of E2, or 100 μg or 5 mg of BPA, before mating. The tube was kept in the mice throughout pregnancy and lactation, until the pups had weaned at 4 weeks of age. During the period, E2 was released from the tube at 120 pg or 6, 12 or 120 ng/day, and BPA at 1.2 or 60 μg/day. Results: Most of the mice given 1 μg and 10 μg of E2 did not maintain their pregnancy. However, the other groups showed high rates of birth, more than 70%. At age of 4 weeks, the male pups were killed. Body weight and reproductive organ weights (testes, epididymides and accessory reproductive glands) in the treated groups did not differ from the control values, whereas the percentage of seminiferous tubules in the testis with mature spermatids was significantly lower in the groups given 10 ng and 500 ng of E2 and 5 mg of BPA than that in the control. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to E2 and BPA might disrupt spermatogenesis in male pups.

  7. Isolation of cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts from neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Honey B; Gollapudi, Deepika; Gerilechaogetu, Fnu; Li, Jieli; Cristales, Ricardo J; Peng, Xu; Dostal, David E

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) and fibroblasts (FBs) serve as in vitro models for studying fundamental mechanisms underlying cardiac pathologies, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets. Both cell types are relatively easy to culture as monolayers and can be manipulated using molecular and pharmacological tools. Because NRVM cease to proliferate after birth, and FBs undergo phenotypic changes and senescence after a few passages in tissue culture, primary cultures of both cell types are required for experiments. Below we describe methods that provide good cell yield and viability of primary cultures of NRVM and FBs from 0 to 3-day-old neonatal rat pups.

  8. FIRING PATTERNS OF MATERNAL RAT PRELIMBIC NEURONS DURING SPONTANEOUS CONTACT WITH PUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Febo, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular single unit activity was recorded from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of postpartum dams over the course of 3 days while they engaged in spontaneous pup-directed behaviors and non-specific exploratory behavior. Out of 109 units identified over the course of the experiment, 15 units were observed to be pup-responsive and 15 increased their discharge rates non-specifically while not attending to pups. An association between neuronal activity and typical maternal behaviors (e.g., ...

  9. Reproductive Tract Histology in South American Fur Seal Pups (Arctophoca australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Helena; Johansson, Olle

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a detailed histological description of the female reproductive tract of South American fur seal (Arctophoca australis) pups has been conducted. The uterine tube was covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium; nerve fibers were present in the mesosalpinx and beneath the muscular layer. The uterus was bipartitus; the endometrial surface of the horns was lined by a simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium with deep tubular glands; caudally ("the transition area"), the epithelium changed to pseudostratified columnar, few tubular glands were present and the myometrium increased in width. A bistratified epithelium internally coated the uterine body, whereas it changed to cylindrical stratified epithelium with a highly vascularized lamina propria and a strong muscular layer in the cervix; no endometrial glands were observed in this region. From the transition area of the uterus to the vagina there were several nerve fibers and ganglia belonging to the uterovaginalis plexus. In the vestibule, hymenal folds were poorly developed; adnexa structures included the major vestibular glands and a neurovascular structure similar to the vestibular bulb. Minor vestibular glands were associated with the clitoris. The skin of the perineum was lined by a keratinized stratified epithelium, pigmented, with sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles. This is the first detailed histological description of the reproductive tract of South American fur seal pups, including the glandular adnexa and nerve structures. These results contribute to the reproductive biology in Pinniped species, and give a better understanding of the utero-placental perfusion mechanism during diving. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:600-613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Variation in female grey seal (Halichoerus grypus reproductive performance correlates to proactive-reactive behavioural types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Twiss

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences (CIDs in behaviour, indicative of behavioural types or personalities, have been shown in taxa ranging from Cnidaria to Mammalia. However, despite numerous theoretical explanations there remains limited empirical evidence for selective mechanisms that maintain such variation within natural populations. We examined behavioural types and fitness proxies in wild female grey seals at the North Rona breeding colony. Experiments in 2009 and 2010 employed a remotely-controlled vehicle to deliver a novel auditory stimulus to females to elicit changes in pup-checking behaviour. Mothers tested twice during lactation exhibited highly repeatable individual pup-checking rates within and across breeding seasons. Observations of undisturbed mothers (i.e. experiencing no disturbance from conspecifics or experimental test also revealed CIDs in pup-checking behaviour. However, there was no correlation between an individuals' pup-checking rate during undisturbed observations with the rate in response to the auditory test, indicating plasticity across situations. The extent to which individuals changed rates of pup-checking from undisturbed to disturbed conditions revealed a continuum of behavioural types from proactive females, who maintained a similar rate throughout, to reactive females, who increased pup-checking markedly in response to the test. Variation in maternal expenditure (daily mass loss rate was greater among more reactive mothers than proactive mothers. Consequently pups of more reactive mothers had more varied growth rates centred around the long-term population mean. These patterns could not be accounted for by other measured covariates as behavioural type was unrelated to a mother's prior experience, degree of inter-annual site fidelity, physical characteristics of their pupping habitat, pup sex or pup activity. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in behavioural types is maintained by

  11. A possible physiological role of taurine in the adult female rat liver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierre, Y; Chatagner, F

    1981-01-01

    ...) in the liver of the lactating rat: 1.84 twenty-one days after the birth of pups. These observations suggest a physiological role for the higher concentration of taurine in the liver of the adult female rat...

  12. Automated classification of mouse pup isolation syllables: from cluster analysis to an Excel-based "mouse pup syllable classification calculator".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Gadziola, Marie A; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Mouse pups vocalize at high rates when they are cold or isolated from the nest. The proportions of each syllable type produced carry information about disease state and are being used as behavioral markers for the internal state of animals. Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified 10 syllable types based on their spectro-temporal features. However, manual classification of mouse syllables is time consuming and vulnerable to experimenter bias. This study uses an automated cluster analysis to identify acoustically distinct syllable types produced by CBA/CaJ mouse pups, and then compares the results to prior manual classification methods. The cluster analysis identified two syllable types, based on their frequency bands, that have continuous frequency-time structure, and two syllable types featuring abrupt frequency transitions. Although cluster analysis computed fewer syllable types than manual classification, the clusters represented well the probability distributions of the acoustic features within syllables. These probability distributions indicate that some of the manually classified syllable types are not statistically distinct. The characteristics of the four classified clusters were used to generate a Microsoft Excel-based mouse syllable classifier that rapidly categorizes syllables, with over a 90% match, into the syllable types determined by cluster analysis.

  13. Short-term effects of a perinatal exposure to the HBCDD α-isomer in rats: Assessment of early motor and sensory development, spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety in pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Nicolas; Olry, Jean-Charles; Cariou, Ronan; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Travel, Angélique; Jondreville, Catherine; Schroeder, Henri

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental neurotoxicity of an early exposure to α-HBCDD through the ingestion of contaminated hen's egg in pregnant and lactating Wistar female rats. Hens were given α-HBCDD-contaminated feed (40 ng/g fresh matter) for 5 and 10 days, which produced eggs with HBCDD content of 33 and 102 ng/glipid weight, respectively. Female rats were administered daily p.o. with an appropriate volume of the whole egg from the day of fertilization (GD0) to the weaning day for pups (PND21). Fetuses and pups were thus exposed continuously to α-HBCDD via the dam over a whole 42-day period that included both gestation and lactation. The administered egg volume was calculated on the basis of daily egg consumption in humans (0.7 egg/person/day) and duration of gestation and lactation in both species, which led animals to be exposed to α-HBCDD at levels of 22 and 66 ng/kg/day, respectively. Neurobehavioral development of pups was investigated from PND3 to PND25 using various tasks including the righting reflex (PND4), the grasping reflex (PND5), the negative geotaxis (PND9), the forelimb grip strength test (PND10) and the locomotor coordination test (PND20). Pup ultrasonic vocalizations were also recorded daily from PND4 to PND14. After weaning, behaviors related to spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety were examined in the open-field (PND25) and in an elevated-plus maze (PND26), respectively. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight of pups exposed to the lower HBCDD level from PND3 to PND28, whereas the weight of rat pups given 66 ng/kg/day of HBCDD was not different from controls. During the first 3 weeks of life, impairments in motor maturation of pups were observed in a dose-dependent manner depending on the test, whereas no significant differences were reported between male and female pups. At PND26, the anxiety level of female rats exposed to the lowest dose of HBCDD (22 ng/kg/day) was significantly reduced whereas it

  14. File list: InP.Pup.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.05.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016169,SR...X016163,SRX016168,SRX016164,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Pup.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.20.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016163,SR...X016164,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Pup.05.AllAg.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.05.AllAg.AllCell dm3 Input control Pupae SRX016169,SRX016163,SRX016168,SRX0...16164,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.05.AllAg.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Pup.20.AllAg.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.20.AllAg.AllCell dm3 Input control Pupae SRX016163,SRX016164,SRX016169,SRX0...16168,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.20.AllAg.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Pup.10.AllAg.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.10.AllAg.AllCell dm3 Input control Pupae SRX016165,SRX016163,SRX016164,SRX0...16169,SRX016168,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.10.AllAg.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Pup.05.GFP.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.05.GFP.AllCell dm3 TFs and others GFP Pupae SRX032125,SRX030964,SRX016162,S...RX030962 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.05.GFP.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016163,SR...X016167,SRX016169,SRX016164,SRX016165,SRX016168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016165,SR...X016163,SRX016164,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Pup.50.AllAg.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.50.AllAg.AllCell dm3 Input control Pupae SRX016163,SRX016167,SRX016169,SRX0...16164,SRX016165,SRX016168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.50.AllAg.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Pup.05.SuBRACKETLTplBRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.05.SuBRACKETLTplBRACKETR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(Tpl) Pupae http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.05.SuBRACKETLTplBRACKETR.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Pup.50.SuBRACKETLTplBRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.50.SuBRACKETLTplBRACKETR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(Tpl) Pupae http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.50.SuBRACKETLTplBRACKETR.AllCell.bed ...

  5. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  6. File list: Oth.Pup.50.GFP.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.50.GFP.AllCell dm3 TFs and others GFP Pupae SRX030964,SRX032125,SRX016162,S...RX030962 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.50.GFP.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Pup.10.GFP.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.10.GFP.AllCell dm3 TFs and others GFP Pupae SRX032125,SRX030964,SRX016162,S...RX030962 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.10.GFP.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 Unclassified Pupae White prepupae SRX027391,SRX...027390 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013069,SRX013036,S...RX013035,SRX013059,SRX013011,SRX013037,SRX013095,SRX013083,SRX013060 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013036,SRX013035,SRX013...037,SRX013011,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013037,SRX013036,S...RX013011,SRX013035,SRX013069,SRX013059,SRX013083,SRX013060,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 All antigens Pupae White prepupae SRX041396,SRX...RX016167,SRX495249,SRX016169,SRX016164,SRX467066,SRX032126,SRX016165,SRX016168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013036,SRX013035,SRX013...011,SRX013037,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013069,SRX013036,S...RX013035,SRX013037,SRX013011,SRX013059,SRX013060,SRX013095,SRX013083 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Pup.10.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.10.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 Input control Pupae White prepupae SRX016165,SR...X016163,SRX016164,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.10.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Pup.05.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Pup.05.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 Unclassified Pupae White prepupae SRX027391,SRX...027390 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Pup.05.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013036,SRX013085,SRX013037,SRX013...095,SRX013035,SRX013011 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Pup.05.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.05.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 Input control Pupae White prepupae SRX016169,SR...X016163,SRX016168,SRX016164,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.05.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Pup.50.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Pup.50.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 Unclassified Pupae White prepupae SRX027391,SRX...027390 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Pup.50.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Pup.10.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.10.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 TFs and others Pupae White prepupae SRX032125,S...,SRX495188 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.10.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Pup.20.GFP.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.20.GFP.AllCell dm3 TFs and others GFP Pupae SRX030964,SRX016162,SRX032125,S...RX030962 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.20.GFP.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Pup.05.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.05.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 TFs and others Pupae White prepupae SRX027388,S...,SRX495188 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.05.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 All antigens Pupae White prepupae SRX041396,SRX...RX016164,SRX032126,SRX030963,SRX032127,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016165,SRX016167,SRX495216 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 TFs and others Pupae White prepupae SRX027388,S... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013037,SRX013036,SRX013...011,SRX013035,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Pup.10.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Pup.10.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 Unclassified Pupae White prepupae SRX027391,SRX...027390 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Pup.10.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 Input control Pupae White prepupae SRX016163,SR...X016164,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.20.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013069,SRX013059,SRX013036,S...RX013085,SRX013037,SRX013095,SRX013035,SRX013083,SRX013060,SRX013011 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Pup.50.AllAg.White_prepupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.50.AllAg.White_prepupae dm3 Input control Pupae White prepupae SRX016163,SR...X016167,SRX016169,SRX016164,SRX016165,SRX016168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.50.AllAg.White_prepupae.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Pup.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pup.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell dm3 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Pupae SRX...013069 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Pup.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Pup.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pup.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell dm3 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Pupae SRX...013069 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Pup.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  12. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion pups conducted on rookeries in Alaska from 1961-06-22 to 2015-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0128189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  13. Analysis of within Subjects Variability in Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalization: Pups Exhibit Inconsistent, State-Like Patterns of Call Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Michael A.; Dougherty, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship), as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state. To address this question, we have employed a mixed modeling approach to describe consistency in USV features across time, leveraging multiple large cohorts recorded from two strains, and across ages/times. We find that most features of pup USV show consistent patterns within a recording session, but inconsistent patterns across postnatal development. This supports the conclusion that pup USV is most strongly influenced by “state”-like variables. In contrast, adult USV call rate and call duration show higher consistency across sessions and may reflect a stable “trait.” However, spectral features of adult song such as the presence of pitch jumps do not show this level of consistency, suggesting that pitch modulation is more susceptible to factors affecting the animal's state at the time of recording. Overall, the utility of this work is three-fold. First, as variability necessarily affects the sensitivity of the assay to detect experimental perturbation, we hope the information provided here will be used to help researchers plan sufficiently powered experiments, as well as prioritize specific ages to study USV behavior and to decide which features to consider most strongly in analysis. Second, via the mouseTube platform, we have provided these hundreds of recordings and associated data to serve as a shared resource for other researchers interested in either benchmark data for

  14. Analysis of within subjects variability in mouse ultrasonic vocalization: pups exhibit inconsistent, state-like patterns of call production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adam Rieger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship, as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state. To address this question, we have employed a mixed modeling approach to describe consistency in USV features across time, leveraging multiple large cohorts recorded from two strains, and across ages/times. We find that most features of pup USV show consistent patterns within a recording session, but inconsistent patterns across postnatal development. This supports the conclusion that pup USV is most strongly influenced by state-like variables. In contrast, adult USV call rate and call duration show higher consistency across sessions and may reflect a stable trait. However, spectral features of adult song such as the presence of pitch jumps do not show this level of consistency, suggesting that pitch modulation is more susceptible to factors affecting the animal's state at the time of recording. Overall, the utility of this work is threefold. First, as variability necessarily affects the sensitivity of the assay to detect experimental perturbation, we hope the information provided here will be used to help researchers plan sufficiently powered experiments, as well as prioritize specific ages to study USV behavior and to decide which features to consider most strongly in analysis. Second, via the mouseTube platform, we have provided these hundreds of recordings and associated data to serve as a shared resource for other researchers interested in either benchmark data for

  15. Oral administration of deuterium-labelled polyamines to sucking rat pups : luminal uptake, metabolic fate and effects on gastrointestinal maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout, B; van Faassen, A; van Beusekom, C M; Kingma, A W; de Hoog, E; Nagel, G T; Karrenbeld, A; Boersma, E R; Muskiet, F A

    1997-01-01

    Non-physiological amounts of oral polyamines have been reported to induce precocious gut maturation in rat pups. The aim of the present study was to investigate organ distribution and metabolic fate of orally administered stable-isotopically labelled polyamines in rat pups. Pups received tetradeuter

  16. Recycling of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) by PUP1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlowski, Nicolas; Bürkle, Lukas; Pourcel, Lucille; Moulin, Michael; Stolz, Jürgen; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor for more than 140 essential enzymatic reactions and was recently proposed as a potent antioxidant, playing a role in the photoprotection of plants. De novo biosynthesis of the vitamin has been described relatively recently and is derived from simple sugar precursors as well as glutamine. In addition, the vitamin can be taken up from exogenous sources in a broad range of organisms, including plants. However, specific transporters have been identified only in yeast. Here we assess the ability of the family of Arabidopsis purine permeases (PUPs) to transport vitamin B6. Several members of the family complement the growth phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain impaired in both de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 as well as its uptake. The strongest activity was observed with PUP1 and was confirmed by direct measurement of uptake in yeast as well as in planta, defining PUP1 as a high affinity transporter for pyridoxine. At the tissue level the protein is localised to hydathodes and here we use confocal microscopy to illustrate that at the cellular level it is targeted to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, we observe alterations in pyridoxine recycling from the guttation sap upon overexpression of PUP1 and in a pup1 mutant, consistent with the role of the protein in retrieval of pyridoxine. Furthermore, combining the pup1 mutant with a vitamin B6 de novo biosynthesis mutant (pdx1.3) corroborates that PUP1 is involved in the uptake of the vitamin.

  17. Do Laboratory Mouse Females that Lose Their Litters Behave Differently around Parturition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elin M.; Hultgren, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency in laboratory mouse breeding is hampered by poor reproductive performance, including the loss of entire litters shortly after birth. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood and establishing the cause of death in laboratory mouse pups can be complicated. Newborn mouse pups are generally hidden in nests, dead pups are often eaten by the female, and the widespread practice of leaving periparturient females undisturbed complicates inspection, which may delay the discovery of pup loss. In order to efficiently prevent problems with litter loss, it is important to find key factors for survival. We investigated differences in periparturient behavior between female laboratory mice whose pups survived until weaning and females whose entire litters were lost. Video recordings of 82 primiparous females of the C57BL/6 strain or knockouts with C57BL/6 background were used. The mice were observed from 24 h before until 24 h after parturition and female behaviors coded using a pre-established ethogram. The relationship between behavior and survival was analyzed using logistic models, where litter survival was regressed on the proportion of 30-s observations with at least one occurrence of the behavior. We found that females with surviving litters performed more nest building behavior during the last 24 h before parturition (p = 0.004) and spent less time outside the nest during the entire observation period (p = 0.001). Increased litter survival was also associated with more passive maternal behaviors and the female ignoring still pups less. Females that lost their litters performed more parturition-related behaviors, suggesting prolonged labor. The results indicate that maternal behavior plays a significant role in laboratory mouse pup survival. Complications at parturition also contribute to litter mortality. PMID:27575720

  18. Do Laboratory Mouse Females that Lose Their Litters Behave Differently around Parturition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elin M; Hultgren, Jan; Algers, Bo; Olsson, I Anna S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency in laboratory mouse breeding is hampered by poor reproductive performance, including the loss of entire litters shortly after birth. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood and establishing the cause of death in laboratory mouse pups can be complicated. Newborn mouse pups are generally hidden in nests, dead pups are often eaten by the female, and the widespread practice of leaving periparturient females undisturbed complicates inspection, which may delay the discovery of pup loss. In order to efficiently prevent problems with litter loss, it is important to find key factors for survival. We investigated differences in periparturient behavior between female laboratory mice whose pups survived until weaning and females whose entire litters were lost. Video recordings of 82 primiparous females of the C57BL/6 strain or knockouts with C57BL/6 background were used. The mice were observed from 24 h before until 24 h after parturition and female behaviors coded using a pre-established ethogram. The relationship between behavior and survival was analyzed using logistic models, where litter survival was regressed on the proportion of 30-s observations with at least one occurrence of the behavior. We found that females with surviving litters performed more nest building behavior during the last 24 h before parturition (p = 0.004) and spent less time outside the nest during the entire observation period (p = 0.001). Increased litter survival was also associated with more passive maternal behaviors and the female ignoring still pups less. Females that lost their litters performed more parturition-related behaviors, suggesting prolonged labor. The results indicate that maternal behavior plays a significant role in laboratory mouse pup survival. Complications at parturition also contribute to litter mortality.

  19. Live pups from evaporatively dried mouse sperm stored at ambient temperature for up to 2 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a mouse sperm preservation method based on evaporative drying. Mouse sperm were evaporatively dried and stored at 4°C and ambient temperature for 3 months to 2 years. Upon rehydration, a single sperm was injected into a mature oocyte to develop into a blastocyst after culture or a live birth after embryo transfer to a recipient female. For the samples stored at 4°C for 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, the blastocyst formation rate was 61.5%, 49.1%, 31.5%, 32.2%, and 41.4%, respectively. The blastocyst rate for those stored at ambient temperature (∼22°C for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months was 57.8%, 36.2%, 33.6%, and 34.4%, respectively. Fifteen, eight and three live pups were produced from sperm stored at room temperature for 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. This is the first report of live offspring produced from dried mouse sperm stored at ambient temperature for up to 2 years. Based on these results, we suggest that evaporative drying is a potentially useful method for the routine preservation of mouse sperm.

  20. Autonomic substrates of the response to pups in male prairie voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Kenkel

    Full Text Available Caregiving by nonparents (alloparenting and fathers is a defining aspect of human social behavior, yet this phenomenon is rare among mammals. Male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster spontaneously exhibit high levels of alloparental care, even in the absence of reproductive experience. In previous studies, exposure to a pup was selectively associated with increased activity in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons along with decreased plasma corticosterone. In the present study, physiological, pharmacological and neuroanatomical methods were used to explore the autonomic and behavioral consequences of exposing male prairie voles to a pup. Reproductively naïve, adult male prairie voles were implanted with radiotransmitters used for recording ECG, temperature and activity. Males responded with a sustained increase in heart-rate during pup exposure. This prolonged increase in heart rate was not explained by novelty, locomotion or thermoregulation. Although heart rate was elevated during pup exposure, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA did not differ between these males and males exposed to control stimuli indicating that vagal inhibition of the heart was maintained. Blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors with atenolol abolished the pup-induced heart rate increase, implicating sympathetic activity in the pup-induced increase in heart rate. Blockade of vagal input to the heart delayed the males' approach to the pup. Increased activity in brainstem autonomic regulatory nuclei was also observed in males exposed to pups. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to a pup activates both vagal and sympathetic systems. This unique physiological state (i.e. increased sympathetic excitation of the heart, while maintaining some vagal cardiac tone associated with male caregiving behavior may allow males to both nurture and protect infants.

  1. Dog days of summer: Influences on decision of wolves to move pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Nordhagen, Matthew; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    For animals that forage widely, protecting young from predation can span relatively long time periods due to the inability of young to travel with and be protected by their parents. Moving relatively immobile young to improve access to important resources, limit detection of concentrated scent by predators, and decrease infestations by ectoparasites can be advantageous. Moving young, however, can also expose them to increased mortality risks (e.g., accidents, getting lost, predation). For group-living animals that live in variable environments and care for young over extended time periods, the influence of biotic factors (e.g., group size, predation risk) and abiotic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation) on the decision to move young is unknown. We used data from 25 satellite-collared wolves ( Canis lupus ) in Idaho, Montana, and Yellowstone National Park to evaluate how these factors could influence the decision to move pups during the pup-rearing season. We hypothesized that litter size, the number of adults in a group, and perceived predation risk would positively affect the number of times gray wolves moved pups. We further hypothesized that wolves would move their pups more often when it was hot and dry to ensure sufficient access to water. Contrary to our hypothesis, monthly temperature above the 30-year average was negatively related to the number of times wolves moved their pups. Monthly precipitation above the 30-year average, however, was positively related to the amount of time wolves spent at pup-rearing sites after leaving the natal den. We found little relationship between risk of predation (by grizzly bears, humans, or conspecifics) or group and litter sizes and number of times wolves moved their pups. Our findings suggest that abiotic factors most strongly influence the decision of wolves to move pups, although responses to unpredictable biotic events (e.g., a predator encountering pups) cannot be ruled out.

  2. Diving Related Changes in the Blood Oxygen Stores of Rehabilitating Harbor Seal Pups (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amber; Ono, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups begin diving within hours of birth, stimulating the development of the blood oxygen (O2) stores necessary to sustain underwater aerobic metabolism. Since harbor seals experience a brief nursing period, the early-life development of these blood O2 stores is necessary for successful post-weaning foraging. If mothers and pups become prematurely separated, the pup may be transported to a wildlife rehabilitation center for care. Previous studies suggest that the shallow pools and lack of diving in rehabilitation facilities may lead to under-developed blood O2 stores, but diving behavior during rehabilitation has not been investigated. This study aimed to simultaneously study the diving behaviors and blood O2 store development of rehabilitating harbor seal pups. Standard hematology measurements (Hct, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC) were taken to investigate O2 storage capacity and pups were equipped with time-depth recorders to investigate natural diving behavior while in rehabilitation. Linear mixed models of the data indicate that all measured blood parameters changed with age; however, when compared to literature values for wild harbor seal pups, rehabilitating pups have smaller red blood cells (RBCs) that can store less hemoglobin (Hb) and subsequently, less O2, potentially limiting their diving capabilities. Wild pups completed longer dives at younger ages (maximum reported dives were observed (maximum during rehabilitation: 13.6 min at 89 days of age). Further, this study suggests that there may be a positive relationship between RBC size and the frequency of long duration dives. Thus, rehabilitating harbor seal pups should be encouraged to make frequent, long duration dives to prepare themselves for post-release foraging.

  3. Induction of neonatal lupus in pups of mice immunized with synthetic peptides derived from amino acid sequences of the serotoninergic 5-HT4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, P; Roegel, J C; Lezoualc'h, F; Fischmeister, R; Imbs, J L; Hoebeke, J

    2001-02-01

    We have previously suggested that the recognition of a cross-reactive epitope on the 5-HT4 receptor and the 52-kDa SSA/Ro protein by serotonin-antagonizing autoantibodies could explain the electrophysiological symptoms of congenital heart block in neonatal lupus. To confirm this hypothesis, we immunized female mice with four synthetic peptides corresponding to the recognized epitopes. All mice developed anti-peptide antibodies, which cross-reacted with the Ro52 and 5-HT4 receptor peptides and recognized both cognate proteins. Peptide-immune mice were mated. The pups from mice immunized with the Ro52 peptides had no symptoms of neonatal lupus apart from bradycardia. However, pups from mice immunized with the 5-HT4 receptor peptides and bradycardia, atrioventricular block of type I or II, longer QT intervals, skin rashes and neuromotor problems. The 5-HT4 receptor was detectable in the different fetal tissues affected (heart, skin and brain) by immunohistochemistry. Hearts from diseased pups were less developed and showed disorganized myocardial hyperplasia, compared to the normal littermates. These results demonstrate that the serotoninergic 5-HT4 receptor is the antigenic target of physiopathological autoantibodies in neonatal lupus.

  4. Female prairie vole mate-choice is affected by the males' birth litter composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males' birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups' intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life.

  5. Chemical thermodynamics of the Hg1212 phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo

    1997-02-01

    The single phase of Hg1212 was synthesized by the simple oxide method using starting materials containing HgO 16% in excess. Stability regions of Hg1212 and pure HgO were determined by measuring the decomposition temperature as a function of oxygen partial pressure, and thermodynamic diagrams showing the stability domains of HgO and Hg1212 were constructed. The thermodynamical condition of formation of Hg1212 was discussed using the diagrams. It was found by chemical analysis that the valence of Hg is always 2 + and the valence of Ce changes with the oxygen content. TC (zero) changed from 122 to 118 K when the oxygen content was increased from 6.10 to 6.22.

  6. Isolation induced changes in Guinea Pig Cavia porcellus pup distress whistles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrícia F. Monticelli; Rosana S. Tokumaru; César Ades

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to assess the influence of the duration of a brief isolation period on whistle acoustic structure, werecorded the distress whistles of six 8-day old pups separated for 15 min from their...

  7. Increased ultrasonic vocalizations and risk-taking in rat pups of sleep-deprived dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Kamalesh K; Patel, Niraj; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rodent pups are analogous to cries in human babies. There is reduction in USVs in pups after experimental deprivation of rapid eye movement sleep of dams during pregnancy. However, the effects of total sleep deprivation on the USVs of newborns and their emotional development are not documented. Male pups born to the rats that underwent total sleep deprivation for 5h during the third trimester made higher vocalizations, when tested on early postnatal days (pnds) in an isolation-paradigm. Their anxiety-related behaviors during pnds 25-28, were tested using elevated plus maze (EPM). In comparison to the control pups, weanlings of sleep-deprived dams made increased entries into the open arms and higher mobility in the EPM. Enhanced distress calls during early pnds and reduction in risk assessment in weanlings indicate a link between the two behaviors. The USVs during ontogeny may provide early signals about altered emotional development.

  8. Developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Shindala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period demonstrated in a dose – dependent manner significant decreased (P<0.05 the percentage of survival of the pups to weaning, body weight, index of development, whereas brain, heart, kindey, lung,liver / body weight ratio significantly increased (P<0.05 as well as delays in physical maturation (ear opening, fur development, tooth eruption, eye opening in the pups. Swimming scores on postnatal day 9, 13, 15, 17, 20 was significantly decreased (P<0.05 in offspring from mothers treated with betamethasone 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. In conclusion, the results suggest that betamethasone induced developmental toxic effects in suckling pups exposed to its through the milk.

  9. Alaska Steller sea lion pup serum chemistry and hematology values, 1998-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  10. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Mukaida, Naofumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Hirao, Atsushi; Kato, Yukio; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Kato, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Cherepanov, Stanislav M; Salmina, Alla B; Hirai, Hirokazu; Asano, Masahide; Brown, David A; Nagano, Isamu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone stimulation. Without these signals or in the absence of maternal mates, the sires do not retrieve their pups within 5 min. These results show that, in mice, the maternal parent communicates to the paternal parent to encourage pup care. This new paradigm may be useful in the analysis of the parental brain during paternal care induced by interactive communication.

  11. cerebellar parameters in developing 15 day old rat pups treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-06-06

    Jun 6, 2001 ... numbers of neurons and Purkinje cells in intracerebellar nuclei and cerebellum respectively ... numerical density and total number of glial cells in treated pups ... Cerebellar parameters in the same, showed significant.

  12. Influence of cafeteria diet and fish oil in pregnancy and lactation on pups' body weight and fatty acid profiles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Blanco, Clara; Amusquivar, Encarnación; Bispo, Kenia; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of cafeteria diet (CD) and fish oil supplements given to pregnant and lactating rats on the birth weight and fatty acid profiles of their offspring. Female rats were given standard diet (STD) or CD for 22 days before pregnancy. After mating, some animals remained on STD or CD; for some CD rats, the diet was supplemented with 8.78 % fish oil (CD-FO). After 12 days, half the CD-FO group returned to CD (CD-FO12) and the others remained on CD-FO. At birth, body weights of pups of the three CD groups were lower than STD, maintained until 21 days in the CD-FO group only. At the end of lactation, dams of the CD groups had increased plasma triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids, and glycerol concentrations, whereas most n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) were decreased, the effect being greatest in the CD-FO group, where most n-3 LCPUFA were increased and indices of Δ(5) and Δ(6) desaturase activities decreased. The 21-day-old pups of the CD group had increased plasma TAG, not present in the CD-FO group, which had increased 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. In both 2- and 21-day-old CD pups, plasma concentrations of ARA were lower than STD, and even lower in the two CD-FO groups. The effect of CD and CD-FO decreasing pups body weight could be related to decreased concentrations of ARA, caused by the inhibition of the Δ(5) and Δ(6) desaturases in the pathway of n-6 LCPUFA biosynthesis.

  13. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Birgitte I; Goebel, Michael E; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how variation in the pattern and magnitude of parental effort influences allocation decisions in offspring. We determined the energy budget of Antarctic fur seal pups and examined the relative importance of timing of provisioning, pup traits (mass, condition, sex), and weather (wind chill and solar radiation) on allocation of energy obtained in milk by measuring milk energy intake, field metabolic rate (FMR), and growth rate in 48 Antarctic fur seal pups over three developmental stages (perinatal, premolt, and molt). The relative amount of milk energy used for growth was 59.1% ± 8.1% during the perinatal period but decreased to 23.4% ± 15.5% and 26.0% ± 13.9% during the premolt and molt. This decrease was associated with a greater amount of time spent fasting, along with an increase in pup activity while the mother was at sea foraging. Average daily milk intake, pup mass, and condition were all important in determining how much energy was available for growth, but the amount of energy obtained as milk was the single most important factor determining pup growth. While mean mass-specific FMR did not change with developmental stage (range = 1.74-1.77 mL O(2)/g/h), the factors that accounted for variation in FMR did. Weather (wind chill and solar radiation) and pup traits (mass and condition) influenced mass-specific FMR, but these impacts varied across development. This study provides information about the factors influencing how offspring allocate energy toward growth and maintenance and improves our predictions about how a changing environment may affect energy allocation in pups.

  14. Sexual dimorphism in Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae): can pregnancy and pup carrying be responsible for differences in wing shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Nícholas F; de Oliveira, Hernani F M

    2012-01-01

    Competition is one of the most cited mechanisms to explain secondary sexual dimorphism in animals. Nonetheless, it has been proposed that sexual dimorphism in bat wings is also a result of adaptive pressures to compensate additional weight caused by fetus or pup carrying during the reproductive period of females. The main objective of this study is to verify the existence of sexual dimorphism in Sturnira lilium wings. We employed geometric morphometrics techniques using anatomical landmarks superimposition to obtain size (Centroid Size) and shape variables of wings, which were reduced by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). We also employed classical morphometrics using wing length measurements to compare efficiency between these two morphometric approaches and make comparisons using wing area measurements. LDA indicated significant differences between wing shapes of males and females, with 91% (stepwise classification) and 80% (leave-one-out cross validation) of correct classification. However, the size variable obtained did not contribute to such classifications. We have observed larger areas in female wings, but we found no differences in wing length measurements and no allometric effects in wing length, shape and area measurements. Interestingly, our study has provided evidences of morphological differences where classical morphometrics have failed. LDA and area measurements analyses revealed that females have a different area distribution in distinct portions of the wing, with wider dactylopatagia and plagiopatagia, and wingtips more triangular than males. No differences in body length or relative wing length were observed between the sexes, but pregnant females have more body weight than non-pregnant females and males. Our findings suggest that sexual dimorphism in the wing shape of S. lilium is probably related to the increase in flight efficiency of females during reproductive period. It decreases wing loading in specific portions of the wing and reduces

  15. Characterization of a purine permease family gene OsPUP7 involved in growth and development control in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhuyun; Xiong, Lizhong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, PUP-type cytokinin transporter genes were identified in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The Oryza sativa purine permease (OsPUP) family has 12 members that show similar predicted protein sequences with AtPUPs. To reveal the functions of OsPUP genes, we searched the T-DNA mutant library of rice and found one mutant for the member OsPUP7. The T-DNA insertion caused a new transcript that encodes a protein with 26 amino acids different from the native OsPUP7 at the C-terminus. The mutant showed multiple phenotypic changes including increased plant height, big seeds, and delayed flowering. The mutant also showed increased sensitivity to drought and salt stresses and treatments with kinetin and abscisic acid. OsPUP7 is expressed mainly in the vascular bundle, pistil, and stamens. The measurement of cytokinins (CKs) showed that CK content in the mutant spikelets accumulated higher than that in the wild type. Moreover, uptake experiment in the yeast fcy2 mutant suggested that OsPUP7 has the ability to transport caffeine, a CK derivative. Our results indicate that the PUP transport system also exists in rice, and OsPUP7 has an important role in the transport of CK, thus affecting developmental process and stress responses.

  16. Plasticity in breathing and arterial blood pressure following acute intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia in infant rat pups with a partial loss of 5-HT neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Jennifer; Cummings, Kevin J

    2015-11-15

    The role of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in cardiovascular responses to acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) has not been studied in the neonatal period. We hypothesized that a partial loss of 5-HT neurons would reduce arterial blood pressure (BP) at rest, increase the fall in BP during hypoxia, and reduce the long-term facilitation of breathing (vLTF) and BP following AIH. We exposed 2-wk-old, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-treated and controls to AIH (10% O2; n = 13 control, 14 treated), acute intermittent hypercapnia (5% CO2; n = 12 and 11), or acute intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (AIHH; 10% O2, 5% CO2; n = 15 and 17). We gave five 5-min challenges of AIH and acute intermittent hypercapnia, and twenty ∼20-s challenges of AIHH to mimic sleep apnea. Systolic BP (sBP), diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, heart rate (HR), ventilation (V̇e), and metabolic rate (V̇o2) were continuously monitored. 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine induced an ∼35% loss of 5-HT neurons from the medullary raphe. Compared with controls, pups deficient in 5-HT neurons had reduced resting sBP (∼6 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (∼5 mmHg), and HR (56 beats/min), and experienced a reduced drop in BP during hypoxia. AIHH induced vLTF in both groups, reflected in increased V̇e and V̇e/V̇o2, and decreased arterial Pco2. The sBP of pups deficient in 5-HT neurons, but not controls, was increased 1 h following AIHH. Our data suggest that a relatively small loss of 5-HT neurons compromises resting BP and HR, but has no influence on ventilatory plasticity induced by AIHH. AIHH may be useful for reversing cardiorespiratory defects related to partial 5-HT system dysfunction.

  17. Phenobarbital (PB)-induced changes in blood coagulationrelated parameters in pregnant rats, lactating rats and pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Kidokoro, Yuri; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Kishi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Emi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi

    2009-12-01

    Effects of repeated administration of phenobarbital (PB) on blood coagulation-related parameters were examined in non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats, and also in pups born to PB-treated lactating dams. PB was orally administered at a dose level of 80 mg/kg/day to pregnant (from gestation day (GD) 13), postpartum (from postpartum day (PPD) 7) and non-pregnant rats (from 13 weeks of age) for 7 days. Blood was collected on GD20 or PPD14 to perform blood coagulation examination. Concurrently, the blood coagulation parameters were examined in the pups. Increases in liver weight and/or hepatic cytochrome P450 content were observed in the PB-treated non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was prolonged and anti-thrombin III (ATIII) concentration was increased in the lactating rats, while there were no changes in prothrombin time (PT) or APTT in the non-pregnant and pregnant rats. Moreover, prolongation of PT and APTT and decreases in factors VII and IX activities were observed in their pups. Thus, prolongation of blood coagulation time was confirmed in both dams and their pups following PB-administration to lactating dams. Effects of vitamin K(2) (VK(2)) on PB-induced changes in blood coagulation-related parameters of both dams and their pups were examined by co-administration with PB and VK(2) to lactating dams. PT and APTT were comparable to the control and PB-induced prolongation of blood coagulation time was improved in the pups while APTT was prolonged in dams, suggesting that VK(2) was beneficial to pups but not to dams.

  18. Maternal deprivation of rat pups reduces body weight and alters behavior in adulthood in a gender-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal environment is critical for its capacity to influence adult behavior, and is associated with traits of altered physiological and neurobiological function and long-term predisposition to depression. Here we describe the delayed effects of maternal deprivation (MD in male and female Wistar pups on their physical development and behavior in adulthood in tasks designed to explore depressive-like (forced swimming test, FST, and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze, EPM. We observed that MD led to reduced body weight in adulthood, anxiety-like traits in the EPM test and increased activity in the phases of the FST. Particularly, a consistent sexual dimorphism was observed in the responses to MD. A lower increase in body weight during maturation of MD rats was more pronounced in males than in females. MD anxiogenic effects were more pronounced in females, while in FST only MD males showed a marked increase in swimming activity followed by decreased immobility. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029

  19. Ethological analysis of mother-pup interactions and other behavioral reactions in rats: effects of malnutrition and tactile stimulation of the pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riul T.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother-pup interaction, as well as other behavioral reactions were studied during the lactation period in 24 litters of Wistar rats and their dams fed either a 16% (control - C; 12 litters or a 6% (malnourished - M; 12 litters protein diet. The diets were isocaloric. Throughout lactation there was a 36.4% weight loss of M dams and a 63% body weight deficit in the M pups when compared to control pups. During this period, half of the litters were exposed daily to additional tactile stimulation (CS or MS, while the other half were submitted to normal rearing conditions (CN or MN. The tactile stimulation of pups (handling consisted of holding the animal in one hand and gently touching the dorsal part of the animal's body with the fingers for 3 min. A special camera and a time-lapse video were used to record litter behavior in their home cages. Starting at 6 p.m. and ending at 6 a.m., on days 3, 6, 12, 15, 18 and 21 of lactation, photos were taken at 4-s intervals. An increase in the frequency (154.88 ± 16.19 and duration (455.86 ± 18.05 min of suckling was observed throughout the lactation period in all groups compared to birth day (frequency 24.88 ± 2.37 and duration 376.76 ± 21.01 min, but the frequency was higher in the C (84.96 ± 8.52 than in the M group (43.13 ± 4.37; however, the M group (470.2 ± 11.87 min spent more time suckling as compared with the C group (393.67 ± 13.09 min. The M dams showed a decreased frequency of resting position throughout the lactation period (6.5 ± 2.48 compared to birth day (25.42 ± 7.74. Pups from the C group were more frequently observed separated (73.02 ± 4.38 and interacting (258.99 ± 20.61 more with their mothers than the M pups (separated 66.94 ± 5.5 and interacting 165.72 ± 12.05. Tactile stimulation did not interact with diet condition, showing that the kind of stimulation used in the present study did not lead to recovery from the changes induced by protein malnutrition. The changes in

  20. Hg transfer from contaminated soils to plants and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Henriques, B.; Reis, A.T.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the transfer of mercury (Hg) from soil to crops is crucial due to Hg toxicity and Hg occurrence in terrestrial systems. Previous research has shown that available Hg in soils contributes to plant Hg levels. Plant Hg concentrations are related to soil conditions and plant characteristic

  1. Clonal spread of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates among pups in two kennels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Toshio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the dog breeding industry is common in many countries, the presence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria among pups in kennels has been infrequently investigated. This study was conducted to better understand the epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from kennel pups not treated with antimicrobials. We investigated susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobials, and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL in 86 faecal E. coli isolates from 43 pups in two kennels. Genetic relatedness among all isolates was assessed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Susceptibility tests revealed that 76% of the isolates were resistant to one or more of tested antimicrobials, with resistance to dihydrostreptomycin most frequently encountered (66.3% followed by ampicillin (60.5%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (41.9%, oxytetracycline (26.7%, and chloramphenicol (26.7%. Multidrug resistance, defined as resistance against two or more classes of antimicrobials, was observed in 52 (60.5% isolates. Three pups in one kennel harboured SHV-12 ESBL-producing isolates. A comparison between the two kennels showed that frequencies of resistance against seven antimicrobials and the variation in resistant phenotypes differed significantly. Analysis by PFGE revealed that clone sharing rates among pups of the same litters were not significantly different in both kennels (64.0% vs. 88.9%, whereas the rates among pups from different litters were significantly different between the two kennels (72.0% vs. 33.3%, P E. coli clones, including multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing clones. It is likely that resistant and susceptible bacteria can clonally spread among the same and/or different litters thus affecting the resistance prevalence.

  2. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  3. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  4. Early Oral Ovalbumin Exposure during Maternal Milk Feeding Prevents Spontaneous Allergic Sensitization in Allergy-Prone Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaweyah El-Merhibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data to support the practice of delaying the introduction of allergenic foods into the infant diet to prevent allergy development. This study investigated immune response development after early oral egg antigen (Ovalbumin; OVA exposure in a rat pup model. Brown Norway (BN rat pups were randomly allocated into groups: dam reared (DR, DR pups challenged daily (days 4–13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAc, DR pups challenged intermittently (on day 4, 10, 12, and 13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAi, formula-fed pups (FF, and FF pups challenged daily with oral OVA (FF + OVA. Immune parameters assessed included OVA-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgA. Ileal and splenic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1, mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad 2/4/7, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 were determined. Ileum was stained for TGF-β1 and Smad4. Results. Feeding OVA daily to DR pups maintained systemic and local gut antibody and immunoregulatory marker mRNA responses. Systemic TGF-β1 was lower in DR + OVAi pups compared to DR and DR + OVAc pups. Feeding OVA to FF pups resulted in significantly greater OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and lower IgA and TGF-β1 and Smad expression compared to DR pups. Conclusions. Early daily OVA exposure in the presence of maternal milk maintains immune markers associated with a regulated immune response, preventing early allergic sensitization.

  5. File list: Oth.Pup.50.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.50.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others mod(mdg4) Pupae http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.50.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Pup.05.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.05.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others mod(mdg4) Pupae http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.05.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Pup.05.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR205.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.05.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR205.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)205 Pupae htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.05.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR205.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Pup.20.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.20.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others mod(mdg4) Pupae http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.20.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Pup.10.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.10.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others mod(mdg4) Pupae http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.10.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Pup.10.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR205.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.10.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR205.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)205 Pupae htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.10.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR205.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Pup.20.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.20.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)2-HP2 Pupae... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.20.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Pup.20.lBRACKETL3BRACKETRmbt.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.20.lBRACKETL3BRACKETRmbt.AllCell dm3 TFs and others l(3)mbt Pupae http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.20.lBRACKETL3BRACKETRmbt.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Pup.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR3-7.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR3-7.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)3-7 Pupae htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR3-7.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Pup.50.lBRACKETL3BRACKETRmbt.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.50.lBRACKETL3BRACKETRmbt.AllCell dm3 TFs and others l(3)mbt Pupae http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.50.lBRACKETL3BRACKETRmbt.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Pup.10.lBRACKETL3BRACKETRmbt.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.10.lBRACKETL3BRACKETRmbt.AllCell dm3 TFs and others l(3)mbt Pupae http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.10.lBRACKETL3BRACKETRmbt.AllCell.bed ...

  16. Relationships between vitamin A and PCBs in grey seal mothers and pups during lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Berghe, Marie, E-mail: marie.vandenberghe@uclouvain.b [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Unite de biochimie de la nutrition, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mat, Audrey [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Unite de biochimie de la nutrition, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Arriola, Aline, E-mail: aa226@st-andrews.ac.u [Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Polain, Stephanie; Stekke, Valerie [Laboratoire d' ecologie animale et d' ecotoxicologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 15, 4000 Sart-Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Thome, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jp.thome@ulg.ac.b [Laboratoire d' ecologie animale et d' ecotoxicologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 15, 4000 Sart-Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Gaspart, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.gaspart@uclouvain.b [Unite d' economie rurale, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/15, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pomeroy, Paddy, E-mail: pp6@st-andrews.ac.u [Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Larondelle, Yvan, E-mail: yvan.larondelle@uclouvain.b [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Unite de biochimie de la nutrition, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.b [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Unite de biochimie de la nutrition, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    A previous study has shown a simultaneous increase of vitamin A and PCBs in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) milk at late lactation (). Here we sought to understand this unexpected relationship by comparing the dynamics of vitamin A and PCBs in the different tissue compartments of transfer. Lactating grey seals and their pups were sampled longitudinally in Scotland during the 2006 breeding season. As blubber reserves decreased, concentrations of vitamin A and PCBs increased during lactation in the inner layer of maternal blubber. A concomitant rise was observed in milk and consequently in the serum of suckling pups. The similar dynamics of vitamin A and PCBs in milk and inner blubber suggest a common mechanism of mobilisation from maternal body stores and transfer into the milk. A panel data analysis highlighted a negative impact of PCBs in milk and pup serum on vitamin A status in pup serum. - Vitamin A and PCBs show similar dynamics in maternal inner blubber and milk during lactation in grey seal.

  17. Minute virus of canines (MVC, canine parvovirus type-1): pathogenicity for pups and seroprevalence estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, L E; Schlafer, D H; Hashimoto, A

    1994-04-01

    Minute virus of canines (MVC, canine parvovirus type-1) caused inapparent to severe illness in neonatal specific-pathogen-free pups exposed by the oronasal route. The experimental disease was generally mild. Four of 21 infected pups had clinical signs of respiratory illness, but only 2 pups, not euthanized during the early postinoculation period, developed severe illness or died. Principal pathologic changes included bronchitis and interstitial pneumonia with various degrees of lymphadenitis. In contrast to the reported field cases, enteric signs were absent in the experimentally infected animals. Histopathologic changes in the small intestine were mild or absent. Bronchial, bronchiolar, and alveolar epithelial cells appeared to be the sites of initial and most extensive viral growth, reflecting the pattern of histopathologic changes. The disease caused by MVC was mild in comparison to that caused by canine parvovirus-type 2. MVC now appears to be established as a cause of illness in young pups and of transplacental infections with embryo resorption. The prevalence of MVC hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies was high (approximately 50%) in adult dog sera from widely separated geographic areas of the United States.

  18. Diphenyl ditelluride induces neurotoxicity and impairment of developmental behavioral in rat pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinton, Simone; Luchese, Cristiane; Stangherlin, Eluza C.; Roman, Silvane S.; Nogueira, Cristina W., E-mail: criswn@quimica.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if acute exposure to diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe){sub 2} causes impairment of developmental behavioral performance in rat pups. Rat pups received a single subcutaneous injection of (PhTe){sub 2} (0.1 mg kg{sup -1}, 3 mL kg{sup -1}) or vehicle (3 mL kg{sup -1}) at 14th postnatal day. After exposure to (PhTe){sub 2}, the general parameters of neurotoxicity, behavioral tasks, cerebral myelin content, histological analysis and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were performed during seven days. The appearance of classic signs of toxicity, behavioral alterations and the reduction in myelin content were dependent on the time after (PhTe){sub 2} exposure to pups. Neuronal damage, reduction of myelin content, and the increase in AChE activity occurred mainly at 4th and 5th day after (PhTe){sub 2} exposure, indicating that the critical period of neurotoxicity is coincident with the major behavioral alterations. In conclusion, exposure to (PhTe){sub 2} induced neurotoxicity and impairment of developmental behavioral in rat pups. (author)

  19. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  20. Renal responses to plasma volume expansion and hyperosmolality in fasting seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2002-01-01

    Renal responses were quantified in northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups during their postweaning fast to examine their excretory capabilities. Pups were infused with either isotonic (0.9%; n = 8; Iso) or hypertonic (16.7%; n = 7; Hyper) saline via an indwelling catheter such that each pup received 3 mmol NaCl/kg. Diuresis after the infusions was similar in magnitude between the two treatments. Osmotic clearance increased by 37% in Iso and 252% in Hyper. Free water clearance was reduced 3.4-fold in Hyper but was not significantly altered in Iso. Glomerular filtration rate increased 71% in the 24-h period after Hyper, but no net change occurred during the same time after Iso. Natriuresis increased 3.6-fold in Iso and 5.3-fold in Hyper. Iso decreased plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol acutely, whereas Hyper increased plasma and excreted AVP and cortisol. Iso was accompanied by the retention of water and electrolytes, whereas the Hyper load was excreted within 24 h. Natriuresis is attributed to increased filtration and is independent of an increase in atrial natriuretic peptide and decreases in ANG II and aldosterone. Fasting pups appear to have well-developed kidneys capable of both extreme conservation and excretion of Na(+).

  1. Maternal Flaxseed Oil During Lactation Enhances Bone Development in Male Rat Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aline D'Avila; Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; de Sousa Dos Santos, Aline; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; do Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves; Velarde, Luis Guillermo Coca; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-08-01

    Flaxseed oil is an alpha linolenic acid source important in the growth and body development stage; furthermore, this acid acts on adipose tissue and bone health. The aim of this study was to evaluate body composition, fatty acid composition, hormone profile, retroperitoneal adipocyte area and femur structure of pups at weaning, whose mothers were fed a diet containing flaxseed oil during lactation. After birth, pups were randomly assigned: control (C, n = 12) and flaxseed oil (FO, n = 12), rats whose mothers were treated with diet containing soybean or flaxseed oil. At 21 days, the pups were weaned and body mass, length, body composition, biochemical parameter, leptin, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin, fatty acids composition, intra-abdominal fat mass and femur structure were analyzed. FO showed (p < 0.05): higher body mass (+12 %) and length (+9 %); body fat mass (g, +45 %); bone mineral density (+8 %), bone mineral content (+55 %) and bone area (+35 %), osteocalcin (+173 %) and osteoprotegerin (+183 %). Arachidonic acid was lower (p < 0.0001), alpha-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic were higher (p < 0.0001). Intra-abdominal fat mass was higher (+25 %), however, the retroperitoneal adipocytes area was lower (-44 %). Femur mass (+10 %), distance between epiphyses (+4 %) and bone mineral density (+13 %) were higher. The study demonstrates that adequate flaxseed oil content during a lactation diet plays an important role in the development of pups.

  2. The rabbit pup, a natural model of nursing-anticipatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Mario; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2009-11-01

    Mother rabbits nurse their young once a day with circadian periodicity. Nursing bouts are brief (ca. 3 min) and occur inside the maternal burrow. Despite this limited contact mother rabbits and their pups are tuned to each other to ensure that the capacities of each party are used efficiently to ensure the weaning of a healthy litter. In this review we present behavioral, metabolic and hormonal correlates of this phenomenon in mother rabbits and their pups. Research is revealing that the circadian rhythm of locomotion shifts in parallel to the timing of nursing in both parties. In pups corticosterone has a circadian rhythm with highest levels at the time of nursing. Other metabolic and hormonal parameters follow an exogenous or endogenous rhythm which is affected by the time of nursing. In the brain, clock genes and their proteins (e.g. Per1) are differentially expressed in specific brain regions (e.g. suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus) in relation to providing or ingesting milk in mothers and young, respectively. These findings suggest that circadian activities are modulated, in the mothers, by suckling stimulation and, in the young, by the ingestion of milk and/or the perception of the mammary pheromone. In conclusion, the rabbit pup is an extraordinary model for studying the entraining by a single daily food pulse with minimal manipulations. The mother offers the possibility of studying nursing as a non-photic synchronizer, also with minimal manipulation, as suckling stimulation from the litter occurs only once daily.

  3. Perinatal thiamine deficiency-induced spontaneous abortion and pup-killing responses in rat dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Abdoulaye

    2013-03-01

    The current study attempts to determine whether thiamine (B1 vitamin) deficiency and chronic alcohol-related thiamine-deficient (TD) status, disturb maternal behavior towards pups. During gestation and lactation, Wistar rat dams were exposed to the following treatments: (i) prenatal TD dams; (ii) perinatal TD dams; (iii) postnatal TD dams; (iv) 12% alcohol/water drinking mothers; (v) ad libitum control dams. Pair-feeding treatments controlled malnutrition related to thiamine deficiency; (vi) prenatal pair-fed (PF) dams; (vii) perinatal PF dams; (viii) postnatal PF dams and included also the control of alcohol consummation: (ix) PF saccharose dams. Dams were observed for gestation outcome and for apparent disorders of the maternal behavior related to the pups at parturition. From the nine experimental groups studied, only pre- and perinatal TD dams exhibited spontaneous abortion (33.36 and 41.66%, respectively) followed by pups-killing responses where, respectively, 4 dams/7 (57.14%) and 5 dams/7 (71.43%) showed disruption of maternal behavior and appearance of cannibalism towards pups which all were killed within 48 hours after parturition. Spontaneous abortion and pup-killing responses were not observed in the dams of any other experimental group, suggesting that perinatal disturbances of hormonal factors underlay these maternal disorders. Previous studies reported that thiamine deficiency-induced degeneration of dopamine neurons may be related to mouse-killing aggression in rats. The present study suggests that perinatal thiamine deficiency-induced alteration of dopaminergic neurons in maternal brain could be a trigger factor of pup-killing responses. Central dopamine and oxytocin have been strongly associated with both the onset and maintenance of maternal behavior and the regulation of maternal aggressiveness as well. Our studies suggest that estrogen control oxytocin levels in brain structures of pregnancy-terminated rats via dopamine transmission. Thiamine

  4. Amniotic fluid-borne hepatocyte growth factor protects rat pups against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil K; Baggerman, Eric W; Mohankumar, Krishnan; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Reyes, Victor E; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2014-03-01

    Fetal swallowing of amniotic fluid, which contains numerous cytokines and growth factors, plays a key role in gut mucosal development. Preterm birth interrupts this exposure to amniotic fluid-borne growth factors, possibly contributing to the increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants. We hypothesized that supplementation of formula feeds with amniotic fluid can provide amniotic fluid-borne growth factors and prevent experimental NEC in rat pups. We compared NEC-like injury in rat pups fed with infant formula vs. formula supplemented either with 30% amniotic fluid or recombinant hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Cytokines/growth factors in amniotic fluid were measured by immunoassays. Amniotic fluid and HGF effects on enterocyte migration, proliferation, and survival were measured in cultured IEC6 intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, we used an antibody array to investigate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation and immunoblots to measure phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Amniotic fluid supplementation in oral feeds protected rat pups against NEC-like injury. HGF was the most abundant growth factor in rat amniotic fluid in our panel of analytes. Amniotic fluid increased cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival in vitro. These effects were reproduced by HGF and blocked by anti-HGF antibody or a PI3K inhibitor. HGF transactivated several RTKs in IEC6 cells, indicating that its effects extended to multiple signaling pathways. Finally, similar to amniotic fluid, recombinant HGF also reduced the frequency and severity of NEC-like injury in rat pups. Amniotic fluid supplementation protects rat pups against experimental NEC, which is mediated, at least in part, by HGF.

  5. Immune status and function in harbor seal pups during the course of rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, H; Haulena, M; Akhurst, L M F; Raverty, S A; Ross, P S

    2013-09-01

    Routine hematological and serum chemistry parameters are important tools for the evaluation of health and the treatment of marine mammals admitted to rehabilitation centers. The evaluation of phagocytosis, oxidative burst and immunoglobulin G (IgG), as markers of immune system function, and haptoglobin (Hp), as a stress marker, were evaluated alongside routine hematology and chemistry as potentially informative diagnostic tools for marine mammal health assessments. Blood samples from harbor seal pups (Phoca vitulina) admitted to (n=46), and released from (n=28), the Vancouver Aquarium's Marine Mammal Rescue Center (VAMMRC) were collected (1) to perform routine and novel functional approaches to evaluate the health of pups at admission; (2) to determine how these parameters changed during the rehabilitation process; and (3) to generate baseline values for reference purposes. Sodium was the only blood parameter which differed between seal pups that survived and those that died, with the surviving pups exhibiting higher levels on admission diagnostics. Positive correlations between total protein concentrations, IgG and Hp levels were observed with globulin concentrations of seal pups. Changes in serum chemistry values between admission and release included a decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), glucose, bicarbonate, total bilirubin, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels, and an increase in mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes, eosinophils, urea, potassium, anion gap, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, globulin and osmolality levels. During the rehabilitation process, phagocytosis decreased, while Hp levels increased. Age and improved health appeared to underlie changes in these parameters during the rehabilitation period.

  6. Artificial feeding synchronizes behavioral, hormonal, metabolic and neural parameters in mother-deprived neonatal rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Elvira; Juárez, Claudia; Melo, Angel I; Domínguez, Belisario; Lehman, Michael N; Escobar, Carolina; Meza, Enrique; Caba, Mario

    2011-12-01

    Nursing in the rabbit is under circadian control, and pups have a daily anticipatory behavioral arousal synchronized to this unique event, but it is not known which signal is the main entraining cue. In the present study, we hypothesized that food is the main entraining signal. Using mother-deprived pups, we tested the effects of artificial feeding on the synchronization of locomotor behavior, plasma glucose, corticosterone, c-Fos (FOS) and PERIOD1 (PER1) rhythms in suprachiasmatic, supraoptic, paraventricular and tuberomammillary nuclei. At postnatal day 1, an intragastric tube was placed by gastrostomy. The next day and for the rest of the experiment, pups were fed with a milk formula through the cannula at either 02:00 h or 10:00 h [feeding time = zeitgeber time (ZT)0]. At postnatal days 5-7, pups exhibited behavioral arousal, with a significant increase in locomotor behavior 60 min before feeding. Glucose levels increased after feeding, peaking at ZT4-ZT12 and then declining. Corticosterone levels were highest around the time of feeding, and then decreased to trough concentrations at ZT12-ZT16, increasing again in anticipation of the next feeding bout. In the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus had a rhythm of FOS and PER1 that was not significantly affected by the feeding schedule. Conversely, the supraoptic, paraventricular and tuberomammillary nuclei had rhythms of both FOS and PER1 induced by the time of scheduled feeding. We conclude that the nursing rabbit pup is a natural model of food entrainment, as food, in this case milk formula, is a strong synchronizing signal for behavioral, hormonal, metabolic and neural parameters. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Emission Spectra of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.

    2000-12-01

    A study of emission spectra of a gas-discharge plasma produced in a HgBr/HgCl excimer lamp, which is filled with multicomponent working mixtures at atmospheric pressure (HgBr2 and HgCl2 with additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon), are reported. A gas-discharge plasma was produced by high-frequency (pulses ˜100 ns long with a repetition rate of up to 2000 Hz) barrier and surface discharges, which took place simultaneously. Emission of HgBr* and HgCl* excimer molecules, the second positive system of molecular oxygen, and helium and xenon lines in the UV, visible, and IR spectral regions was observed. The strongest emission of HgBr* and HgCl* molecules (the emission intensities were in the ratio 10:1) was observed in the HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixture. Regularities in spectral and integrated characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  8. HgTe-CdTe SUPERLATTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D; Mcgill, T.

    1984-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of the electronic properties of HgTe-CdTe superlattices. The band gap as a function of layer thickness, effective masses normal to the layer plane and tunneling length are compared to the corresponding (Hg, Cd)Te alloys. We find that the superlattice possesses a number of properties that may make it superior to the corresponding alloy as an infrared material.

  9. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qun-feng; WANG Cheng-yun; WANG Da-hui; SUN Guan; XU Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed.

  10. Maternal exposure to a Western‐style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M.; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Scope The long‐lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. Methods and results In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2‐week‐old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western‐style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet‐exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Conclusion Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2‐week‐old offspring. PMID:27129739

  11. 46 CFR 53.05-1 - Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG... requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401). (a) The pressure relief valve requirements and the safety valve requirements for steam boilers must be as indicated in HG-400 and HG-401 of section IV...

  12. Investigation of Hg uptake and transport between paddy soil and rice seeds combining Hg isotopic composition and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human consumption of rice constitutes a potential toxicological risk in mercury (Hg polluted areas such as Hg mining regions in China. It is recognized to be an important source of Hg for the local human diet considering the efficient bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg in rice seed. To assess Hg sources and uptake pathways to the rice plants, Hg speciation and isotopic composition were investigated in rice seeds and their corresponding paddy soils from different locations within the Wanshan Hg mining area (Guizhou Province, China. A large variation of Hg speciation is observed in rice seeds and paddy soils irrespective of the sampling location. Mass dependent fractionation (MDF of Hg in rice seeds differs by up to ∼4.0 ‰ in δ202Hg values, while mass independent fractionation (MIF of Hg isotopes remains constant (Δ199Hg ∼ 0‰. Hg isotopic composition in rice seeds covaries with that of paddy soils but exhibits lighter isotopic signature (δ202Hg. Such isotopic offset is mainly attributed to plant uptake and translocation processes. Also, seeds containing higher MeHg (MeHg/total Hg > 50% have significantly heavier Hg isotopes suggesting that MeHg uptake and transport to the seed in such rice plants is facilitated compared to inorganic Hg.

  13. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor disturbance through inhibition of apoptosis in the cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Seo, Tae-Beom; Ji, Eun-Sang; Baek, Seong-Soo; Lee, Sam-Jun; Park, Joon-Ki; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-08-01

    Autism is a neurological disorder that occurs during childhood and is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Abnormalities of the cerebellum in autism include Purkinje cell loss and motor disturbance. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on motor coordination and balance in correlation with reelin expression and the rate of apoptosis in the cerebellum of autistic rat pups. For the induction of the autism-like animal models, 400 mg/kg valproic acid was subcutaneously injected into rat pups on postnatal day 14. Rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min, once a day, five times a week for 4 weeks, starting on postnatal day 28. Motor coordination and balance, as measured using the rotarod test and vertical pole test, were affected by the induction of autism. By contrast, treadmill exercise ameliorated motor dysfunction in the autistic rat pups. The expression levels of reelin, GAD67 and cyclin D1 in the cerebellum of the autistic rat pups were decreased, while the expression levels of these molecules were increased in autistic rat pups who engaged in treadmill exercise. In the cerebellum of the autistic rat pups, Bcl-2 expression was decreased and Bax expression was increased. By contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced Bcl-2 expression and suppressed Bax expression. The therapeutic effect of treadmill exercise on motor deficits may be due to the reelin-mediated anti-apoptotic effect on cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

  14. Impaired Cerebellar Maturation, Growth Restriction, and Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Preterm Rabbit Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Kristbjörg; Länsberg, John-Kalle; Sveinsdóttir, Snjólaug; Garwicz, Martin; Ohlsson, Lennart; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois; Gram, Magnus; Ley, David

    2017-10-04

    Cerebellar growth is impeded following very preterm birth in human infants and the observed reduction in cerebellar volume is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. Decreased levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with decreased cerebellar volume. The relationship between preterm birth, circulating IGF-1, and key cell populations supporting cerebellar proliferation is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preterm birth on postnatal growth, circulating IGF-1, and cerebellar maturation in a preterm rabbit pup model. Preterm rabbit pups (PT) were delivered by cesarean section at day 29 of gestation, cared for in closed incubators with humidified air, and gavage fed with formula. Control term pups (T) delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery at day 32 of gestation were housed and fed by their lactating doe. In vivo perfusion-fixation for immunohistochemical evaluation of cerebellar proliferation, cell maturation, and apoptosis was performed at repeated time points in PT and T pups. Results show that the mean weight of the pups and circulating IGF-1 protein levels were lower in the PT group at all time points (p Preterm birth in rabbit pups is associated with lower circulating levels of IGF-1, decreased postnatal growth, and decreased cerebellar EGL proliferation and Purkinje cell maturation. The preterm rabbit pup model exhibits important characteristics of human preterm birth, and may thus be suitable for the evaluation of interventions aiming to modify growth and cerebellar development in the preterm population. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  16. Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and methyl mercury in Hg accumulation and toxicity in weanling and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Li, Wen-Kai; Hou, Wei-Yu; Luo, Ya; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Li, Cen; Wei, Li-Xin; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-15

    Mercury sulfides are used in Ayurvedic medicines, Tibetan medicines, and Chinese medicines for thousands of years and are still used today. Cinnabar (α-HgS) and metacinnabar (β-HgS) are different from mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (MeHg) in their disposition and toxicity. Whether such scenario applies to weanling and aged animals is not known. To address this question, weanling (21d) and aged (450d) rats were orally given Zuotai (54% β-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgS (α-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgCl2 (34.6mg/kg), or MeHg (MeHgCl, 3.2mg/kg) for 7days. Accumulation of Hg in kidney and liver, and the toxicity-sensitive gene expressions were examined. Animal body weight gain was decreased by HgCl2 and to a lesser extent by MeHg, but unaltered after Zuotai and HgS. HgCl2 and MeHg produced dramatic tissue Hg accumulation, increased kidney (kim-1 and Ngal) and liver (Ho-1) injury-sensitive gene expressions, but such changes are absent or mild after Zuotai and HgS. Aged rats were more susceptible than weanling rats to Hg toxicity. To examine roles of transporters in Hg accumulation, transporter gene expressions were examined. The expression of renal uptake transporters Oat1, Oct2, and Oatp4c1 and hepatic Oatp2 was decreased, while the expression of renal efflux transporter Mrp2, Mrp4 and Mdr1b was increased following HgCl2 and MeHg, but unaffected by Zuotai and HgS. Thus, Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and MeHg in producing tissue Hg accumulation and toxicity, and aged rats are more susceptible than weanling rats. Transporter expression could be adaptive means to reduce tissue Hg burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of intra-uterine and early extra-uterine malnutrition on seizure threshold and hippocampal morphometry of pup rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Mariana Lorenzet; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2010-12-01

    We evaluate the influence of different malnutrition paradigms (intra-uterine × extra-uterine) in body and brain weight, in seizure threshold and in hippocampus morphometry, in developing rats. Intra-uterine malnutrition model consisted in reduction by half of the ration offered to pregnant female; extra-uterine malnutrition consisted of progressive limitation of lactation, from P2 to P15. Seizure induction was accomplished by exposure to flurothyl, at P15. At the same day animals were sacrificed. Morphometric analysis was based on hippocampal pyramidal and granular cells estimate number, through volume calculation and cellular density. Extra-uterine malnutrition significantly reduced pups body and brain weight, seizure threshold and neuronal number in CA4 region only. Intra-uterine malnutrition reduced neuronal number in CA2, CA4 and DG regions regarding well-nourished and extra-uterine malnourished animals. In CA3, CA4 and dentate gyrus, a significant cell increase was observed in groups exposed to seizures, regarding similar control groups.

  18. Lipid Peroxidation and Ultrastructural Modifications in Brain after Perinatal Exposure to Lead and/or Cadmium in Rat Pups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU-MEI ZHANG; XUE-ZHONG LIU; HAO LU; LI MEI; ZONG-PING LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess lipid peroxidation and ultrastructural modifications in rat brains following perinatal exposure to lead (Pb) and/or cadmium (Cd). Methods Female rats were divided into four groups: control group, Pb (300 mg/L) group, Cd group (10 mg/L) and Pb+Cd (300 mg/L, 10 mg/L) group. The compounds were delivered in the drinking water throughout pregnancy and lactation. Results The levels of compounds in blood and brain of the Pb+Cd group were similar to those of other groups, but the effects of Pb+Cd on pups' body and brain weights were higher than on other compounds. Electron microscopy revealed that Pb and Cd had effects on mitochondrial swelling, disruption and cristae loss, Nissl body dissolution, degenerated organelles and vacuoles, cytomembrane disappearance, and nuclear ehromoplasm concentration. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) was decreased, whereas the activity of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) was increased. Conclusion Perinatal exposure to low doses of Pb and Cd can produce alterations in lipid peroxidation and ultrastructural modifications in rat brains, and exposure to both metals can result in greater damages.

  19. Serotonergic and noradrenergic lesions suppress the enhancing effect of maternal exercise during pregnancy on learning and memory in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M M; Emami-Abarghoie, M; Safari, M; Sadighi-Moghaddam, B; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2008-02-19

    The beneficial effects of exercise on learning and memory are well documented but the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal exercise on offspring are not clear yet. Using a two-trial-per-day Morris water maze for five consecutive days, succeeded by a probe trial 2 days later we showed that maternal voluntary exercise (wheel running) by pregnant rats increased the acquisition phase of the pups' learning. Maternal forced swimming by pregnant rats increased both acquisition and retention phases of the pups' learning. Also we found that the rat pups whose mother was submitted to forced-swimming during pregnancy had significantly higher brain, liver, heart and kidney weights compared with their sedentary counterparts. On the other hand we estimated the cell number of different regions of the hippocampus in the rat pups. We found that both exercise models during pregnancy increased the cell number in cornus ammonis subregion 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rat pups. To determine the role that noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors hold in mediation of the maternal exercise in offspring, we used N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and MK-801 to eliminate or block the above systems, respectively. Blocking the NMDA receptors, significantly abolished learning and memory in rat pups from all three experimental groups. Elimination of noradrenergic or serotonergic input did not significantly attenuate the learning and memory in rat pups whose mothers were sedentary, while it significantly reversed the positive effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on rat pups' learning and memory. The presented results suggest that noradrenergic and serotonergic systems in offspring brain seem to have a crucial specific role in mediating the effects of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on rat pups' cognitive function in both models of voluntary and forced exercise.

  20. Local probing of Hg neighboorhood in HgBa$_{2}$CuO$_{4+\\delta}$

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Loureiro, S M; Toulemonde, P; Le Floc'h, S; Bordet, P; Capponi, J J; Gatt, R; Tröger, W; Ctortecka, B; Butz, T; Haas, H; Marques, J G; Soares, J C

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients (EFG) on mercury sites of the Hg1201 high-TC superconductors were measured with the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique. In Hg1201 samples where PAC detects higher oxygen content the EFGs have decreased to lower values indicating an elongation of the Hg-apical oxygen dumb-bell. On the same samples the asymmetry parameter of the EFG becomes non-zero below 100 K, showing that the charge distribution near the Hg-apical oxygen chain becomes non-axially symmetric at low temperature.

  1. Complexation of Hg with phytochelatins is important for plant Hg tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Millán, Rocío; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Leduc, Danika L; Andrews, Joy C; Abadía, Javier; Hernández, Luís E

    2011-05-01

    Three-week-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and maize (Zea mays) were exposed for 7 d to 30 µm of mercury (HgCl(2) ) to characterize the Hg speciation in root, with no symptoms of being poisoned. The largest pool (99%) was associated with the particulate fraction, whereas the soluble fraction (SF) accounted for a minor proportion (phytochelatins (PCs) in root SF, which was particularly varied in alfalfa (eight ligands and five stoichiometries), a species that also accumulated homophytochelatins. Spatial localization of Hg in alfalfa roots by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy showed that most of the Hg co-localized with sulphur in the vascular cylinder. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fingerprint fitting revealed that Hg was bound in vivo to organic-S compounds, i.e. biomolecules containing cysteine. Albeit a minor proportion of total Hg, Hg-PCs complexes in the SF might be important for tolerance to Hg, as was found with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants cad2-1 (with low glutathione content) and cad1-3 (unable to synthesize PCs) in comparison with wild type plants. Interestingly, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight analysis showed that none of these mutants accumulated Hg-biothiol complexes.

  2. Automated classification of mouse pup isolation syllables: from cluster analysis to an Excel based ‘mouse pup syllable classification calculator’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine eGrimsley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse pups vocalize at high rates when they are cold or isolated from the nest. The proportions of each syllable type produced carry information about disease state and are being used as behavioral markers for the internal state of animals. Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified ten syllable types based on their spectro-temporal features. However, manual classification of mouse syllables is time consuming and vulnerable to experimenter bias. This study uses an automated cluster analysis to identify acoustically distinct syllable types produced by CBA/CaJ mouse pups, and then compares the results to prior manual classification methods. The cluster analysis identified two syllable types, based on their frequency bands, that have continuous frequency-time structure, and two syllable types featuring abrupt frequency transitions. Although cluster analysis computed fewer syllable types than manual classification, the clusters represented well the probability distributions of the acoustic features within syllables. These probability distributions indicate that some of the manually classified syllable types are not statistically distinct. The characteristics of the four classified clusters were used to generate a Microsoft Excel-based mouse syllable classifier that rapidly categorizes syllables, with over a 90% match, into the syllable types determined by cluster analysis.

  3. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Schoeller, M; Savanov, I; Arlt, R; Castelli, F; Curto, G Lo; Briquet, M; Dall, T H

    2012-01-01

    The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. We re-analyse available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD19400, using FORS2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We downloaded from the ESO archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudina...

  4. HgCdTe barrier infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, new strategies to achieve high-operating temperature (HOT) detectors have been proposed, including barrier structures such as nBn devices, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage (cascade) infrared detectors. The ability to tune the positions of the conduction and valence band edges independently in a broken-gap type-II superlattices is especially helpful in the design of unipolar barriers. This idea has been also implemented in HgCdTe ternary material system. However, the implementation of this detector structure in HgCdTe material system is not straightforward due to the existence of a valence band discontinuity (barrier) at the absorber-barrier interface. In this paper we present status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with emphasis on technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown HgCdTe barrier detectors achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. From the perspective of device fabrication their important technological advantage results from less stringent surface passivation requirements and tolerance to threading dislocations.

  5. Repeated Long Separations from Pups Produces Depression-like Behavior in Rat Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maria L.; Razzoli, Maria; Vadlamudi, Sivaram Prasad; Trumbull, Whit; Caleffie, Christopher; Pedersen, Cort A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Long (LMS) versus brief (BMS) daily separations of rat pups from their mothers have contrasting effects on their adult stress responses and maternal behavior by respectively decreasing and increasing licking received from their mothers. We hypothesized that LMS decreases pup licking in mothers by inducing learned helplessness, creating a depression-like state. We subjected postpartum rats to LMS (3 h), BMS (15 min) or no separation (NMS) on postpartum days 2–14. After weaning, mothers were given a forced swim test (FST). LMS mothers exhibited more immobility and fewer escape attempts than BMS or NMS mothers. These results suggest that LMS induces a depression-like state, which may account for the reductions in maternal behavior seen in LMS mothers. Immobility in the FST is recognized as an animal model of depression. Therefore, LMS may be a model of maternal depression. PMID:17118566

  6. Prenatal cocaine exposure induces deficits in Pavlovian conditioning and sensory preconditioning among infant rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, C J; Chen, W J; Miller, J; Spear, N E; Spear, L P

    1990-12-01

    Offspring derived from Sprague-Dawley dams that received daily subcutaneous injection of 40 mg/kg.3 cc-1 cocaine hydrochloride (C40) or saline (LC) from Gestational Days 8-20 were tested for first-order Pavlovian conditioning and sensory preconditioning at Postnatal Days 8 (P8), P12, and P21. Although C40 dams gained significantly less weight than LC dams, pup body weights did not differ between the two groups. Significant sensory preconditioning was obtained at P8 and P12 (but not at P21) in LC offspring, confirming previous reports of decline in performance in this task during ontogeny. In contrast, C40 offspring failed to exhibit sensory preconditioning at any test age. In addition, C40 pups tested at P8 did not display significant first-order conditioning. Taken together these results suggest a more general deficit in cognitive functioning rather than a delay in cognitive development in prenatally cocaine-exposed offspring.

  7. Neuropathies of spinal cord development in rat pups maternally fed with fried potato chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelalim A. Gad-Allah

    2013-08-01

    Results: Comparing with acrylamide-treatment, protein expression in spinal cord of pups maternally fed with fried potatoes was altered. Necrosis of motor neuronal cells within grey matter, hyperplasia of ependymal lining cells and fragility of white matter was detected. At ultrastructural level, the sensory and motor neuronal cells showed convoluted nuclear envelope and either chromatolysis or compacted chromatin material. Fragmentation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and damage of mitochondria become well evident in pups maternally fed with potato chips. The neuronal axons possessed vacuolation and demyelination associated with apparent damage of mitochondria. Conclusion: Supplementation of fried potato chips exerted neurotoxicity either directly through their content of acrylamide or via its metabolite glycidamide. Both components were reported to find their way across the placenta during gestation and breast milk during the lactation period, interfering with spinal cord differentiation and adversely affected demyelination. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(4.000: 285-292

  8. Epac Activation Initiates Associative Odor Preference Memories in the Rat Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Powell, Maria; Gutierrez, Sandra Mohammed; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine the role of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in ß-adrenergic-dependent associative odor preference learning in rat pups. Bulbar Epac agonist (8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, or 8-pCPT) infusions, paired with odor, initiated preference learning, which was selective for the paired odor. Interestingly, pairing odor with Epac…

  9. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  10. Nootropic and antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) in immature rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Molodavkin, G M; Borodavkina, M V; Kheyfets, I A; Dugina, Yu L; Sergeeva, S A

    2009-09-01

    The antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) was demonstrated on the model of scopolamine-induced amnesia of passive avoidance reflex and the nootropic effect of this preparation was demonstrated on the model of incomplete conditioning and in rat pups with experimental attention deficit syndrome. The efficiency of the preparation was comparable to that of piracetam and phenibut and even surpassed it by some parameters.

  11. Glutamatergic and GABAergic modulations of ultrasonic vocalizations during maternal separation distress in mouse pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki.; Yap, Jasmine. J.; Bohager, Dawnya Zitzman; Faccidomo, Sara; Clayton, Terry; Cook, James. M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Dysregulation of GABAergic inhibition and glutamatergic excitation has been implicated in exaggerated anxiety. Mouse pups emit distress-like ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when they are separated from their dam/siblings, and this behavior is reduced by benzodiazepines (BZs) which modulate GABAergic inhibition. The roles of glutamate receptors on USVs remain to be investigated. Materials and methods We examined the roles of glutamate receptor subtypes on mouse pup USVs using N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with different affinities [dizocilpine (MK-801), memantine, and neramexane] and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (LY-379268) and antagonist (LY-341495). These effects were compared with classic BZs: flunitrazepam, bromazepam, and chlordiazepoxide. To assess the role of GABAA receptor subunits on USVs, drugs that have preferential actions at different GABAA-α subunits (L-838417 and QH-ii-066) were tested. Seven-day-old CFW mouse pups were separated from their dam and littermates and placed individually on a 19°C test platform for 4 min. Grid crossings and body rolls were measured in addition to USVs. Results Dizocilpine dose-dependently reduced USVs, whereas memantine and neramexane showed biphasic effects and enhanced USVs at low to moderate doses. The NMDA receptor antagonists increased locomotion. LY-379268 reduced USVs but also suppressed locomotion. All BZs reduced USVs and increased motor incoordination. Neither L-838417 nor QH-ii-066 changed USVs, but both induced motor incoordination. Conclusion Low-affinity NMDA receptor antagonists, but not the high-affinity antagonist, enhanced mouse pup distress calls, which may be reflective of an anxiety-like state. BZs reduced USVs but also induced motor incoordination, possibly mediated by the α5 subunit containing GABAA receptors. PMID:19099296

  12. Treatment of pregnant rats with oleoyl-estrone slows down pup fat deposition after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilà Ruth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, oral oleoyl-estrone (OE decreases food intake and body lipid content. The aim of this study was to determine whether OE treatment affects the energy metabolism of pregnant rats and eventually, of their pups; i.e. changes in normal growth patterns and the onset of obesity after weaning. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intragastric gavages of OE in 0.2 ml sunflower oil from days 11 to 21 of pregnancy (i.e. 10 nmol oleoyl-estrone/g/day. Control animals received only the vehicle. Plasma and hormone metabolites were determined together with variations in cellularity of adipose tissue. Results Treatment decreased food intake and lowered weight gain during late pregnancy, mainly because of reduced adipose tissue accumulation in different sites. OE-treated pregnant rats' metabolic pattern after delivery was similar to that of controls. Neonates from OE-treated rats weighed the same as those from controls. They also maintained the same growth rate up to weaning, but pups from OE-treated rats slowed their growth rate afterwards, despite only limited differences in metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The OE influences on pup growth can be partially buffered by maternal lipid mobilization during the second half of pregnancy. This maternal metabolic "imprinting" may condition the eventual accumulation of adipose tissue after weaning, and its effects can affect the regulation of body weight up to adulthood.

  13. The study of triple systems V949 Cen, V358 Pup, and V1055 Sco

    CERN Document Server

    Zasche, P; Jurysek, J; Masek, M

    2015-01-01

    The systems V949 Cen, V358 Pup, and V1055 Sco are triples comprised of an eclipsing binary orbiting with a distant visual component on a much longer orbit. The first detailed photometric analysis of these interesting systems was performed using also the archival data from Hipparcos, ASAS, SuperWASP, OMC, and Pi Of The Sky surveys. The system V358~Pup was also analysed using the archival ESO spectra and the radial velocities were derived. The analyses of their light curves revealed the physical properties of the eclipsing components, while the interferometric data for these systems obtained during the last century show that the binaries are also weakly gravitationally bounded with the third components on much longer orbits. The photometry was carried out with the robotic telescope FRAM (part of the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory), located in Argentina. The BVRI light curves were analysed with the PHOEBE program, yielding the basic physical parameters of the systems and their orbits. V949 Cen and V358 Pup ...

  14. Pairmate-dependent pup retrieval as parental behavior in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkun eLiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate parental care by fathers can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. However, much less is known about paternal behavior in animals compared to those regarding maternal behavior. Previously, we reported that male ICR strain laboratory mice, although not spontaneously parental, can be induced to display maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval when separated from their pups by signals from the pairmate dam (Liu et al., Nat. Commun, 4:1346, 2013. This parental behavior by the ICR sires, which are not genetically biparental, is novel and has been designated as pairmate-dependent paternal behavior. However, the factors critical for this paternal behavior are unclear. Here, we report that the pairmate-dependent paternal retrieval behavior is observed especially in the ICR strain and not in C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice. An ICR sire displays retrieval behavior only toward his biological pups. A sire co-housed with an unrelated non-pairing dam in a new environment, under which 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are not detected, does not show parenting behavior. It is important for sires to establish their own home territory (cage by continuous housing and testing to display retrieval behavior. These results indicated that the ICR sires display distinct paternity, including father-child social interaction, and shed light on parental behavior, although further analyses of paternal care at the neuroendocrinological and neurocircuitry levels are required.

  15. Oxidative stress and alteration of biochemical markers in liver and kidney by malathion in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Slimen; El-Fazaa, Saloua; Gharbi, Najoua

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of malathion exposure through maternal milk on oxidative stress, functional an metabolic parameters in kidney and liver of rat pups. We found that lactational exposure to malation (200 mg/kg, body weight (bw)) induced an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase in malondialdhyde (MDA) content, reflecting lipoperoxidation, a decrease in thiol groups' content as well as depletion of enzyme activities as a superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) on postnatal days (Pnds) 21 and 51. Moreover, the current study showed that malathion induced liver and kidney dysfunctions demonstrated by considerable increase in phosphatase alkaline (PAL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities as well as total and direct bilirubin, creatinine urea and acid uric contents. We also observed an increase in triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the plasma of treated rat pups. These findings evidenced that malathion exposure during lactation through maternal milk of rats pups induced kidney and liver oxidative stress as well as functional and metabolic disorders that play a role in the development of others pathologies as cardiovascular diseases and cancers.

  16. Nicotine exposure affects mother's and pup's nutritional, biochemical, and hormonal profiles during lactation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E; Pinheiro, C R; Santos-Silva, A P; Trevenzoli, I H; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Nogueira Neto, J F; Reis, A M; Passos, M C F; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2010-05-01

    We have shown that maternal nicotine exposure during lactation has long-lasting effects on body adiposity and hormonal status of rat offspring. Here, we studied the nutritional and hormonal profiles in this experimental model. Two days after birth, osmotic minipumps were implanted in lactating rats divided into two groups: NIC - continuous s.c. infusions of nicotine (6 mg/kg per day) for 14 days and C - saline. Dams and pups were killed at 15 and 21 days of lactation. Body weight and food intake were evaluated. Milk, blood, visceral fat, carcass, and adrenal gland were collected. All the significant data were Pmilk production, hyperprolactinemia, and higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Milk from NIC dams had higher lactose concentration and energy content. After nicotine withdrawal (21 days), dams showed lower food intake and hyperleptinemia. The 15-day-old NIC pups presented higher total body fat, higher HDL-C, serum leptin, serum corticosterone, and adrenal catecholamine content, but lower tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels. The 21-day-old NIC pups had higher body protein content and serum globulin. Thus, maternal nicotine exposure during lactation results in important changes in nutritional, biochemical, and hormonal parameters in dams and offspring. The pattern of these effects is clearly distinct when comparing the nicotine-exposed group to the withdrawal group, which could be important for the programming effects observed previously.

  17. Pairmate-dependent pup retrieval as parental behavior in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Nakada, Ryusuke; Yamauchi, Agnes-Mikiko; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate parental care by fathers can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. However, much less is known about paternal behavior in animals compared to those regarding maternal behavior. Previously, we reported that male ICR strain laboratory mice, although not spontaneously parental, can be induced to display maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) when separated from their pups by signals from the pairmate dam (Liu et al., 2013). This parental behavior by the ICR sires, which are not genetically biparental, is novel and has been designated as pairmate-dependent paternal behavior. However, the factors critical for this paternal behavior are unclear. Here, we report that the pairmate-dependent paternal retrieval behavior is observed especially in the ICR strain and not in C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice. An ICR sire displays retrieval behavior only toward his biological pups. A sire co-housed with an unrelated non-pairing dam in a new environment, under which 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are not detected, does not show parenting behavior. It is important for sires to establish their own home territory (cage) by continuous housing and testing to display retrieval behavior. These results indicated that the ICR sires display distinct paternity, including father-child social interaction, and shed light on parental behavior, although further analyses of paternal care at the neuroendocrinological and neurocircuitry levels are required.

  18. Knockout of Lysosomal Enzyme-Targeting Gene Causes Abnormalities in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Terra D.; Holy, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Humans lacking a working copy of the GNPTAB gene suffer from the metabolic disease Mucolipidosis type II (MLII). MLII symptoms include mental retardation, skeletal deformities and cartilage defects as well as a speech delay with most subjects unable to utter single words (Otomo et al., 2009; Cathey et al., 2010; Leroy et al., 2012). Here we asked whether mice lacking a copy of Gnptab gene exhibited vocal abnormities. We recorded ultrasonic vocalizations from 5 to 8 day old mice separated from their mother and littermates. Although Gnptab−/− pups emitted a similar number of calls, several features of the calls were different from their wild type littermates. Gnptab−/− mice showed a decrease in the length of calls, an increase in the intra-bout pause duration, significantly fewer pitch jumps with smaller mean size, and an increase in the number of isolated calls. In addition, Gnptab−/− mice vocalizations had less power, particularly in the higher frequencies. Gnptab+/− mouse vocalizations did not appear to be affected. We then attempted to classify these recordings using these features to determine the genotype of the animal. We were able to correctly identify 87% of the recordings as either Gnptab−/− or Gnptab+/+ pup, significantly better than chance, demonstrating that genotype is a strong predictor of vocalization phenotype. These data show that deletion of genes in the lysosomal enzyme targeting pathway affect mouse pup isolation calls.

  19. Hormonal and metabolic rhythms associated with the daily scheduled nursing in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Elvira; Gordon, M Kathleen; del Carmen Miñana-Solis, María; Meza, Enrique; Levine, Seymour; Escobar, Carolina; Caba, Mario

    2008-08-01

    Young rabbits are nursed every 24 h for a period of 3-5 min. As a consequence, pups are synchronized to this nursing event; this synchronization is characterized by increased locomotor activity and a peaking of core temperature and plasma corticosterone in anticipation of the daily meal. Ghrelin is a hormone suggested to play a role in meal initiation and to promote food intake. The present study explored the role of ghrelin in food-entrained conditions. Newborn rabbits were maintained in constant darkness and nursed once daily at 1000 by the lactating dam. On postnatal day 7, rabbits were killed at six different time points to complete a 24-h cycle. All pups developed locomotor rhythms entrained by mealtime and exhibited anticipatory activity. Food-entrained rhythms in plasma corticosterone and free fatty acids were observed even if two meals were omitted. In contrast, daily food-driven rhythms in stomach weight, plasma glucose, liver glycogen, and ghrelin did not persist when two meals were omitted. Peak ghrelin levels were observed at the moment in the cycle when the stomach weight was lowest, i.e., before initiation of anticipation. The present data are in agreement with previous data from rabbit pups maintained in light-dark conditions and provide evidence that 7- to 9-day-old rabbits in constant darkness can exhibit metabolic and hormonal rhythms mainly driven by the restricted daily nursing.

  20. Complexation of Hg with phytochelatins is important for plant Hg tolerance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CARRASCO‐GIL, SANDRA; ÁLVAREZ‐FERNÁNDEZ, ANA; SOBRINO‐PLATA, JUAN; MILLÁN, ROCÍO; CARPENA‐RUIZ, RAMÓN O; LEDUC, DANIKA L; ANDREWS, JOY C; ABADÍA, JAVIER; HERNÁNDEZ, LUÍS E

    2011-01-01

    Three‐week‐old alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ), barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) and maize ( Zea mays ) were exposed for 7 d to 30  µ m of mercury (HgCl 2 ) to characterize the Hg speciation in root, with no symptoms of being poisoned...

  1. Temporal Characteristics of Emission of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.; Polyak, A. V.; Zubrilin, N. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2001-12-01

    Results of a study of temporal characteristics of the emission of gas-discharge plasma of atmospheric pressure in multicomponent mixtures (mercury dibromide and dichloride with helium and additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon) of working media of HgBr/HgCl excimer lamps are presented. Gas-discharge plasma was produced and components of the working mixture were excited by high-frequency barrier and surface discharges occurring simultaneously. The repetition rate of the pumping pulse and its duration are 1000 Hz and ˜100 ns, respectively. It is found that the amplitude and the length of emission pulses and their trailing edge are modified in HgBr2: HgCl2: Xe: He and HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixtures when xenon and molecular nitrogen are added, as compared to a HgBr2: HgCl2: He mixture. Regularities observed in temporal characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  2. Ground-state potential energy curves of LiHg, NaHg, and KHg revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Linda; Hotop, Hartmut; Meyer, Wilfried

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of large-scale CCSD(T) calculations on the potential energy curves for the ground states of LiHg, NaHg, and KHg. In these calculations, the Hg20+ core is simulated by a pseudopotential which has been adjusted to reproduce experimental excitation and ionization energies of the Hg atom at the coupled-cluster level. Moreover, we apply a weighted multiproperty fitting procedure to determine reliable potentials for LiHg, NaHg, and KHg which reproduce the available experimental results. In the case of LiHg, this best-fit potential is based solely on experimental data and its agreement with our calculated potential supports our computational procedure. For NaHg and KHg the experimental data had to be complemented by theoretical results in order to fix a best-fit potential. Our potentials and those proposed previously are evaluated by comparing calculated scattering cross sections and vibrational energy levels with the available experimental data.

  3. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  4. Adverse effects of melatonin on rat pups of Wistar-Kyoto dams receiving melatonin supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Keah, Lee Siew; Kumar, Arun; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-11-01

    This report documents an incidental finding during a study investigating the effects of melatonin supplementation on the development of blood pressure in SHR. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day of melatonin in drinking water during pregnancy to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams caused a loss of more than 50% of the pups by the age of three weeks and 95% by the age of 6 weeks. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in the two strains or death of any of the SHR pups. No obvious physical defects were present but mean body weight was lower in the surviving WKY rats when compared to that of melatonin supplemented SHR or non-supplemented WKY pups. The reason for the high mortality in WKY pups is uncertain and appears to be strain if not batch specific. There is a need for caution in its use, particularly during pregnancy, and clearly necessitates more detailed studies.

  5. Investigation of death losses in fur seal pups on St. Paul Island, Alaska, June 28 to August 15, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 1957 to understand the causes of death in fur seal pups. A discussion of the results is included.

  6. Quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The nucleus {sup 192}Hg plays a pivotal role for superdeformation in the mass 190 region, since calculations of single-particle levels show large shell-gaps for the superdeformed (SD) shape at N = 112 and Z = 80. As a result, {sup 192}Hg is referred to as the doubly magic SD nucleus for the A = 190 region. In previous studies, only one superdeformed band was observed in this nucleus, and this fact was cited as indirect evidence that large shell gaps do indeed exist at the proposed particle numbers.

  7. Electric field gradients in Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved by compar......We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved...

  8. Early postpartum pup preference is altered by gestational cocaine treatment: associations with infant cues and oxytocin expression in the MPOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippard, E T Cox; Jarrett, T M; McMurray, M S; Zeskind, P S; Garber, K A; Zoghby, C R; Glaze, K; Tate, W; Johns, J M

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fostering studies suggest cocaine-induced deficits in maternal behavior could be associated with altered behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine-exposure. Neonatal vocalizations are an important offspring cue facilitating early interactions between dam and rodent pup offspring and have been shown to be altered following prenatal cocaine-exposure. It is unclear how variations in acoustic parameters of USVs impact maternal behavior and the mechanism(s) underlying these processes. The present study examined differences in cocaine-exposed and control rodent dam maternal preference of cocaine-exposed or untreated pups in a dual choice apparatus. Relationship of preference-like behavior with pup USVs and dam oxytocin expression was explored. Gestational cocaine-exposure interfered with preference-like behavior of dams on postpartum day 1 with cocaine-exposure associated with decreased time spent on the cocaine-exposed pup side compared to the control pup side, and decreases in preference-like behavior associated in part with decreased number of USVs being emitted by cocaine-exposed pups. On postpartum day 5, decreased oxytocin expression in the medial preoptic area was associated with altered preference-like behavior in cocaine-exposed dams, including frequency and latency to touch/sniff pups. Results indicate cocaine's effects on the mother-infant relationship is likely synergistic, in that cocaine influences mother and offspring both independently and concertedly and that variations within pup vocalizations and the oxytocin system may be potential mechanism(s) underlying this synergistic relationship during the postpartum period.

  9. The influence of Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5 on the absorption and excretion of methylmercury (MeHg) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Takuya; Yasutake, Akira; Kumamoto, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Isao; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Ando, Yotaro

    2010-02-01

    Chlorella (Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5), previously identified as Chlorella vulgaris CK-5, is a unicellular green algae that has for many years been used as a nutritional supplement. In order to investigate the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) detoxification by Chlorella, we examined the absorption and excretion of MeHg in mice. Female C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into three groups of five, and were housed in metabolism cages. Mice were orally administered MeHg chloride at doses of 5 mg (4 mg Hg)/kg body weight with or without 100 mg/mouse of P. beyerinckii powder (BP), and were assigned to either a MeHg group or MeHg + BP group, accordingly. Twenty-four hr after oral administration, feces and urine were collected, and blood, liver, and kidney samples were obtained. Total mercury contents in the samples obtained were determined using an atomic absorption method. The amounts of Hg excreted in feces and urine of the MeHg + BP group were increased nearly 1.9 and 2.2-fold compared with those of the MeHg group. On the other hand, blood and organ Hg levels were not significantly different between two groups. These results suggest that the intake of BP may induce the excretion of Hg both in feces and urine, although it does not affect MeHg absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of BP on the tissue mercury accumulation may become evident in a long-term experiment.

  10. Chronic Early-life Stress in Rat Pups Alters Basal Corticosterone, Intestinal Permeability, and Fecal Microbiota at Weaning: Influence of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaoui, Nabila; Jacobs, Jonathan P; Larauche, Muriel; Biraud, Mandy; Million, Mulugeta; Mayer, Emeran; Taché, Yvette

    2017-01-30

    Wistar rat dams exposed to limited nesting stress (LNS) from post-natal days (PND) 2 to 10 display erratic maternal behavior, and their pups show delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impaired epithelial barrier at PND10 and a visceral hypersensitivity at adulthood. Little is known about the impact of early life stress on the offspring before adulthood and the influence of sex. We investigated whether male and female rats previously exposed to LNS displays at weaning altered corticosterone, intestinal permeability, and microbiota. Wistar rat dams and litters were maintained from PND2 to 10 with limited nesting/bedding materials and thereafter reverted to normal housing up to weaning (PND21). Control litters had normal housing. At weaning, we monitored body weight, corticosterone plasma levels (enzyme immunoassay), in vivo intestinal to colon permeability (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa) and fecal microbiota (DNA extraction and amplification of the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene). At weaning, LNS pups had hypercorticosteronemia and enhanced intestinal permeability with females > males while body weights were similar. LNS decreased fecal microbial diversity and induced a distinct composition characterized by increased abundance of Gram positive cocci and reduction of fiber-degrading, butyrate-producing, and mucus-resident microbes. These data indicate that chronic exposure to LNS during the first week post-natally has sustained effects monitored at weaning including hypercorticosteronemia, a leaky gut, and dysbiosis. These alterations may impact on the susceptibility to develop visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats and have relevance to the development of irritable bowel syndrome in childhood.

  11. Chronic Early-life Stress in Rat Pups Alters Basal Corticosterone, Intestinal Permeability, and Fecal Microbiota at Weaning: Influence of Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaoui, Nabila; Jacobs, Jonathan P; Larauche, Muriel; Biraud, Mandy; Million, Mulugeta; Mayer, Emeran; Taché, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Wistar rat dams exposed to limited nesting stress (LNS) from post-natal days (PND) 2 to 10 display erratic maternal behavior, and their pups show delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impaired epithelial barrier at PND10 and a visceral hypersensitivity at adulthood. Little is known about the impact of early life stress on the offspring before adulthood and the influence of sex. We investigated whether male and female rats previously exposed to LNS displays at weaning altered corticosterone, intestinal permeability, and microbiota. Methods Wistar rat dams and litters were maintained from PND2 to 10 with limited nesting/bedding materials and thereafter reverted to normal housing up to weaning (PND21). Control litters had normal housing. At weaning, we monitored body weight, corticosterone plasma levels (enzyme immunoassay), in vivo intestinal to colon permeability (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa) and fecal microbiota (DNA extraction and amplification of the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene). Results At weaning, LNS pups had hypercorticosteronemia and enhanced intestinal permeability with females > males while body weights were similar. LNS decreased fecal microbial diversity and induced a distinct composition characterized by increased abundance of Gram positive cocci and reduction of fiber-degrading, butyrate-producing, and mucus-resident microbes. Conclusions These data indicate that chronic exposure to LNS during the first week post-natally has sustained effects monitored at weaning including hypercorticosteronemia, a leaky gut, and dysbiosis. These alterations may impact on the susceptibility to develop visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats and have relevance to the development of irritable bowel syndrome in childhood. PMID:27829577

  12. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  13. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  14. MBE Growth and Characterization of Hg Based Compounds and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-03

    The molecular beam epitaxy ( MBE ) growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride (Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te) alloys and type III HgTe/Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te heterostructures has...been discussed, including similarities and differences between the (0 0 1) and (1 1 2)Beta orientations. Furthermore, the MBE growth of HgTe-based

  15. Phenylselenolate Mercury Alkyl Compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt: Molecular Structures, Protolytic Hg-C Bond Cleavage and Phenylselenolate Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Quinlivan, Patrick J; Rong, Yi; Parkin, Gerard

    2016-01-08

    The phenylselenolate mercury alkyl compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt, have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, thereby demonstrating that both compounds are monomeric with approximately linear coordination geometries; the mercury centers do, nevertheless, exhibit secondary Hg•••Se intermolecular interactions that serve to increase the coordination number in the solid state. The ethyl derivative, PhSeHgEt, undergoes facile protolytic cleavage of the Hg-C bond to release ethane at room temperature, whereas PhSeHgMe exhibits little reactivity under similar conditions. Interestingly, the cleavage of the Hg-C bond of PhSeHgEt is also more facile than that of the thiolate analogue, PhSHgEt, which demonstrates that coordination by selenium promotes protolytic cleavage of the mercury-carbon bond. The phenylselenolate compounds PhSeHgR (R = Me, Et) also undergo degenerate exchange reactions with, for example, PhSHgR and RHgCl. In each case, the alkyl groups preserve coupling to the (199)Hg nuclei, thereby indicating that the exchange process involves metathesis of the Hg-SePh/Hg-X groups rather than metathesis of the Hg-R/Hg-R groups.

  16. The application of 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy to define the biological chemistry of HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranzo, Olga; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Ryu, Seung-baek;

    2007-01-01

    H values and at peptide/HgII ratios of 3:1 with an unusual trigonal thiolate coordination mode. The resulting HgII complexes are good water-soluble models for HgII binding to the protein MerR. We have carried out a parallel study using 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy...... to characterize the distinct species that are generated under different pH conditions and peptide TRI L9C/HgII ratios. These studies prove for the first time the formation of [Hg{(TRI L9C)2-(TRI L9C H)}], a dithiolate-HgII complex in the hydrophobic interior of the three-stranded coiled coil (TRI L9C)3. 199Hg NMR...... and 199mHg PAC data demonstrate that this dithiolate-HgII complex is different from the dithiolate [Hg(TRI L9C)2], and that the presence of third -helix, containing a protonated cysteine, breaks the symmetry of the coordination environment present in the complex [Hg(TRI L9C)2]. As the pH is raised...

  17. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; Gonzalez, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have fai...

  18. Hypergravity induced prolactin surge in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megory, E.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    Acute initial exposure to hypergravity (HG) was previously found to induce prolonged diestrous in rats, which was followed by return to normal estrous cycling upon more prolonged exposure to continuous HG. Bromergocryptine was found to prevent this prolonged diestrous. In this study it is found that in female rats 20 h of 3.14 G exposure (D-1 1200 h until D-2 0800 h) can induce prolactin surge at D-2 1600 h. Shorter exposure time (8 h), or exposure during a different part of the estrous cycle (19 h: from D-1 0700 h until D-2 0200 h) could not elicit this prolactin surge. Similar exposure of male rats of HG did not alter significantly their prolactin levels. It is possible that the hypothalamus of male and female rats responds differently to stimulation by HG.

  19. Can Nassarius reticulatus be used as a bioindicator for Hg contamination? Results from a longitudinal study of the Portuguese coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, J P; Pimenta, J; Gomes, R; Barroso, C M; Pereira, M E; Pardal, M A; Duarte, A

    2006-06-01

    The focus of this work is to explore the use of the netted whelk, Nassarius reticulatus (L.), as an indicator of mercury (Hg) contamination, by assessing the concentration of Hg in the sediments and in the whelk along the entire Portuguese coast. Total Hg concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (0.01 ng absolute mercury) up to 0.87 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dwt) in sediments and between 0.06 and 1.02 mg kg(-1) (dwt) for organisms, with no significant differences between males and females. Although organic mercury was not detected in the sediments, it represented, on average, 52% of the total Hg in the whelk tissues, and as high as 88% in some cases, suggesting mercury accumulation from dietary intake. Significant negative correlations were found between the total Hg concentrations in the sediments and the log(10) of Hg concentrations in whelk tissues males (r=-0.64; P<0.01) and females (r=-0.52; P<0.01) indicating that the species is a poor indicator of Hg contamination. Nevertheless, since the highest concentrations of organic mercury in the whelk tissues were found in the least contaminated areas, this species must be highly relevant in the trophic web, namely on the possible biomagnification of mercury. The high dietary mercury accumulation from feeding on carrion and the low bioavailability of mercury to whelks in estuarine sediments may be the basis of the mercury accumulation pattern in N. reticulatus.

  20. Relationship Between Soil Properties and Different Fractions of Soil Hg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis methods were used to study the relationship between soil properties and the distribution of different soil Hg fractions with nine representative soils from Chongqing, China. Results showed that clay (< 2 m) could increase water-soluble Hg (r = 0.700*). Soil organic matter (OM) could enhance the increase of elemental Hg (r = 0.674*). The higher the base saturation percentage (BSP), the more the residual Hg (r = 0.684*). Organic Hg, the sum of acid-soluble organic Hg. and alkali-soluble Hg, was positively affected by silt (2~20μm) but negatively affected by pH, with the direct path coefficients amounting to 1.0487 and 0.5121, respectively. The positive effect of OM and negative effect of BSP on organic Hg were the most significant, with the direct path coefficients being 0.7614 and -0.8527, respectively. The indirect effect of clay (< 2 μm) via BSP (path coefficient = 0.4186) was the highest, showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay (< 2 μm) on acid-soluble organic Hg was BSP. Since the available Hg fraction, water-soluble Hg, was positively affected by soil clay content, and the quite immobile and not bioavailable residual Hg by soil BSP, suitable reduction of clay content and increase of BSP would be of much help to reduce the Hg availability and Hg activity in Hg-contaminated soils.

  1. Females exceed males in mercury concentrations of burbot Lota lota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Cott, Peter A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Edwards, William; Ogilvie, Lynn M.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; DeWild, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of differences in contaminant concentrations between sexes of fish, across several fish species, may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female adult burbot Lota lota captured in Lake Erie during summer 2011, and of 14 male and 18 female adult burbot captured in Great Slave Lake (Northwest Territories, Canada) during winter 2013. On average, females were 22 % greater in Hg concentration than males. This difference was probably not due to a greater feeding rate by females, because results from previous studies based on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations of these same burbot indicated that males fed at a substantially greater rate than females. Based on our determinations of Hg concentrations in the gonads and somatic tissue of five ripe females and five ripe males, this difference was not attributable to changes in Hg concentration immediately after spawning due to release of gametes. Further, bioenergetics modeling results from previous studies indicated that growth dilution would not explain any portion of this observed difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We, therefore, conclude that this difference was most likely due to a substantially faster rate of Hg elimination by males compared with females. Male burbot exhibit among the greatest gonadosomatic indices (GSIs) of all male fishes, with their testes accounting for between 10 and 15 % of their body weight when the fish are in ripe condition. Androgens have been linked to enhanced Hg elimination rates in other vertebrates. If androgen production is positively related to GSI, then male burbot would be expected to have among the greatest androgen levels of all fishes. Thus, we hypothesize that male burbot eliminate Hg from their bodies faster than most other male fishes, and this explains the greater Hg concentration in females compared with males.

  2. APHAKIC PHACOEMULSIFICATION AND AUTOMATED ANTERIOR VITRECTOMY, AND POSTRETURN MONITORING OF A REHABILITATED HARBOR SEAL (PHOCA VITULINA RICHARDSI) PUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Douglas W; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Fritz, Kevin J; Simeone, Claire A; Stewart, Brent S

    2015-09-01

    A female harbor seal pup rescued along the coast of San Diego on 13 June 2012 was diagnosed with bilateral mature cataracts, apparently congenital, in association with vitreal herniation in the anterior chamber of each eye. The cataracts were surgically removed on 1 August 2012 with single-port aphakic phacoemulsification and automated anterior vitrectomy. Postoperative monitoring during the next several weeks indicated that vision had been functionally repaired and that she could visually orient to and capture live fish in three different environments and in the presence of other animals. Consequently, we equipped the seal with a satellite-linked radio transmitter and returned her to the Pacific Ocean on 21 November 2012, and then monitored her movements until radio contact ended on 2 March 2013. She remained along the San Diego coast from 21 November until 5 December 2012 when she relocated to the Coronado Islands and remained there until 26 December. She then traveled directly to San Clemente Island and remained foraging in the near-shore kelp beds there through 2 March 2013, when radio contact ended. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of cataract treatment in a marine mammal using high-frequency ultrasound to emulsify the lenses followed by suction removal of the emulsified microfragments (i.e., phacoemulsification). Moreover, the rapid postoperative recovery of the seal and its quick acclimation, orientation, navigation, and foraging in marine habitats after return to the Pacific Ocean indicates that these surgical procedures can be safe and effective treatments for cataracts in seals, with substantially reduced postsurgical complications relative to other types of lens fragmentation and removal procedures.

  3. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J. [Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing, Department of Chemical Engineering, 230 Ross Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90{sup o}C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8mol kg{sub H{sub 2}O}{sup -1}. The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25{sup o}C and 1atm are 0.1634V for 0.100m, 0.1077V for 1.00m, and 0.0976V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0wt.% NaOH at 80{sup o}C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75{sup o}C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations. (author)

  4. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90 °C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8 mol k gH2O-1 . The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25 °C and 1 atm are 0.1634 V for 0.100m, 0.1077 V for 1.00m, and 0.0976 V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751 V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916 V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0 wt.% NaOH at 80 °C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75 °C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations.

  5. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapanje, A. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)], E-mail: ales.lapanje@bf.uni-lj.si; Drobne, D. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nolde, N. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Department of Environmental Sciences, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Valant, J. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muscet, B. [Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Leser, V. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, M. [Institute of Public Health, Prvomajska 1, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Slomskov trg 15, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 {mu}g Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant.

  6. The neurochemical profile of the hippocampus in isoflurane-treated and unanesthetized rat pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menshanov Petr N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In vivo study of cerebral metabolism in neonatal animals by high-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is an important tool for deciphering the developmental origins of adult diseases. Up to date, all in vivo spectrum acquisition procedures have been performed in neonatal rodents under anesthesia. However, it is still unknown if the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane, which is commonly used in magnetic resonance imaging studies, could affect metabolite levels in the brain of neonatal rats. Moreover, the unanesthetized MRS preparation that uses neonatal rodent pups is still lacking.

  7. MBE HgCdTe heterostructure detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Joel N.; Wu, Owen K.

    1990-01-01

    HgCdTe has been the mainstay for medium (3 to 5 micron) and long (10 to 14 micron) wavelength infrared detectors in recent years. Conventional growth and processing techniques are continuing to improve the material. However, the additional ability to tailor composition and placement of doped layers on the tens of angstroms scale using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) provides the opportunity for new device physics and concepts to be utilized. MBE-based device structures to be discussed here can be grouped into two categories: tailored conventional structures and quantum structures. The tailored conventional structures are improvements on familiar devices, but make use of the ability to create layers of varying composition, and thus band gap, at will. The heterostructure junction can be positioned independently of doping p-n junctions. This allows the small band gap region in which the absorption occurs to be separated from a larger band gap region in which the electric field is large and where unwanted tunneling can occur. Data from hybrid MBE/liquid phase epitaxy (LPE)/bulk structures are given. Quantum structures include the HgTe-CdTe superlattice, in which the band gap and transport can be controlled by alternating thin layers (tens of angstroms thick) of HgTe and CdTe. The superlattice has been shown to exhibit behavior which is non-alloy like, including very high hole mobilities, two-dimensional structure in the absorption coefficient, resonant tunneling, and anisotropic transport.

  8. Early retinal blood vessel growth in normal and growth restricted rat pups raised in oxygen and room air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, C A; Wade, J; Gillespie, T; Aspinall, P; McIntosh, N; Fleck, B W

    2011-11-01

    Premature infants are born with incompletely vascularised retinas and are at a risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Rate of prenatal and postnatal body growth is important in the pathogenesis of ROP. The aim of this study was to develop a physiology-based rat model in order to study the effect of growth restriction and oxygen on early retinal vascular development. Rat mothers were fed either a normal (18% casein) or low (9% casein) protein diet (to cause pup growth restriction) from the last week of gestation. After birth, mother and pups were placed in either room air or a specialised oxygen chamber that delivered a rapidly fluctuating hyperoxic oxygen profile. The oxygen profile was based on that from a premature infant who developed severe ROP. On day 14, retinas were dissected, flat-mounted and stained using biotinylated lectin. Images were captured by confocal microscopy. The avascular areas of the retinas were measured and compared. Growth restricted rat pups had significantly larger retinal avascular areas than 'normally grown' rat pups (Mann-Whitney U test, pair (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.001). The authors have developed a novel model for ROP that involves inducing both intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction and also exposes neonatal rat pups to fluctuating oxygen. This physiology-based model can be used to study the effects of growth, nutrition and oxygen on early retinal vascular development.

  9. Induced Folding Under Membrane Mimetic and Acidic Conditions Implies Undiscovered Biological Roles of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-Like Protein Pup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kaiqin; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xuecheng; Shang, Qiang; Liao, Shanhui; Yu, Jigang; Zhang, Jiahai

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin-like proteins play important roles in diverse biological processes. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein), a functional homologue of eukaryotic ubiquitin, interacts with the proteasome ATPase subunit Mpa to recognize and unfold substrates, and then translocate them into the proteasome core for degradation. Previous studies revealed that, Pup, an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), adopts a helical structure upon binding to the N-terminal coiled-coil domain of Mpa, at its disordered C-terminal region. In the present study, using circular dichroism (CD), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we show that membrane mimetic and acidic conditions also induce Pup to adopt helical conformations. Moreover, at low pH, Pup, via both of its N- and C-terminal regions, binds to Mpa on sites from the N-terminal region in addition to the C-terminal region of the coiled-coil domain. Our results imply Pup may play undiscovered roles in some biological processes e.g. those involve in membrane.

  10. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  11. Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (Sb (Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 μg/L for As and 5.6 μg/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052–0.56 μg/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 μg/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 μg/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 μg/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

  12. Hg Vetical Transference in Soil—Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOYIJUN; MOUSUSEN; 等

    1998-01-01

    Hg vertial transference in soil-water system was studied by analyzing Hg vertical ditribution in soil column after adding Hg and one of the two leacheates,deionzied water or acid rain,into soil column.The results indicated that Hg was hardly transferable in puple soil.About 86%-88% of the total soil Hg was distributed in the top layer (0-2cm) and to Hg was detected in the leakage when the purple soil column was leached by deionized water and simulated acid rain.But Hg was more movalbe in yellow soil with only about 20%-22% of the total soil Hg distributed in the top layer (0-2cm),and about 17%-25% washed out from the soil column by deionized water and simulted acid rain,Incremant in soil bulk density colud reduce Hg leaching,thus the more the Hg kept in soil,the less the Hg leached into underground water,Deionized water and acid rain almost played the same role in leaching Hg.Bentioint was most effecient in preventing Hg from vertcal transferring in the soil coulumn.

  13. Impacts of TCDD and MeHg on DNA methylation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, Pål A; Williams, Timothy D; Tung, Hui-shan; Mirbahai, Leda; Sanden, Monica; Skjaerven, Kaja H; Ellingsen, Ståle

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether dioxin (TCDD) and methylmercury (MeHg) pose a threat to offspring of fish exposed to elevated concentrations of these chemicals via epigenetic-based mechanisms. Adult female zebrafish were fed diets added either 20 μg/kg 2,3,7,8 TCDD or 10 mg/kg MeHg for 47 days, or 10 mg/kg 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), a hypomethylating agent, for 32 days, and bred with unexposed males in clean water to produce F1 and F2 offspring. Global DNA methylation, promoter CpG island methylation and target gene transcription in liver of adult females and in 3 days post fertilization (dpf) F1 and F2 embryos were determined with HPLC, a novel CpG island tiling array containing 54,933 different probes and RT-qPCR, respectively. The results showed that chemical treatment had no significant effect on global DNA methylation levels in F1 (MeHg and TCDD) and F2 (MeHg) embryos and only a limited number of genes were identified with altered methylation levels at their promoter regions. CYP1A1 transcription, an established marker of TCDD exposure, was elevated 27-fold in F1 embryos compared to the controls, matching the high levels of CYP1A1 expression observed in F0 TCDD-treated females. This suggests that maternal transfer of TCDD is a significant route of exposure for the F1 offspring. In conclusion, the selected doses of TCDD and MeHg, two chemicals often found in high concentrations in fish, appear to have only modest effects on DNA methylation in F1 (MeHg and TCDD) and F2 (MeHg) embryos of treated F0 females.

  14. A rat pup model of cerebral palsy induced by prenatal inflammation and hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanrong Hu; Feng Gao; Jianxin Li; Lihui Zhao; Gang Chen; Hong Wan; Zhiyou Zhang; Hong Zhi; Wei Liu; Xinwei Qian; Mingzhao Chen; Linbao Wen

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of cerebral palsy established by simple infection or the hypoxia/ischemia method cannot effectively simulate the brain injury of a premature infant. Healthy 17-day-pregnant Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide then subjected to hypoxia. The pups were used for this study at 4 weeks of age. Simultaneously, a hypoxia/ischemia group and a control group were used for comparison. The results of the footprint test, the balance beam test, the water maze test, neuroelectrophysiological examination and neuropathological examination demonstrated that, at 4 weeks after birth, footprint repeat space became larger between the forelimbs and hindlimbs of the rats, the latency period on the balance beam and in the Morris water maze was longer, place navigation and ability were poorer, and the stimulus intensity that induced the maximal wave amplitude of the compound muscle action potential was greater in the lipopolysaccharide/hypoxia and hypoxia/ischemia groups than in the control group. We observed irregular cells around the periventricular area, periventricular leukomalacia and breakage of the nuclear membrane in the lipopolysaccharide/hypoxia and hypoxia/ischemia groups. These results indicate that we successfully established a Wistar rat pup model of cerebral palsy by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia.

  15. Labor Contractions Enhance Oxygenation and Behavioral Activity of Newborn Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, N. A.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.; Balton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Labor contractions help instigate behavioral responses at birth (viz., breathing and suckling) that are vital for the newborn's adaptation to the extrauterine world (Ronca et al., 1996). In the present study, we analyzed the role of labor contractions in postpartum oxygenation and behavioral activity of newborn rat pups. Newborns were observed following either vaginal (V) or cesarean delivery. For cesarean delivery, day 21 pregnant dams' were administered a spinal transaction to eliminate lower body sensation, a laparotomy was performed and the uterus was maintained in a heated (37.5 C) bath. Four rat fetuses in one of the dams' paired uterine horn were compressed (C) to Simulate labor contractions (20 sec/min for 10 min) while four fetuses in the opposite horn were not compressed (NC). Fetuses were surgically removed from the uterus, stroked with a soft brush to mimic postnatal licking by the dam, the umbilical cord occluded. Pups were exposed to room temperature (22 C) for one hr, then nest temperature (33 C) for one hr. PO2, CO2, and O2, saturation were determined at 0, 30, 60, or 120 min post delivery using a blood gas analyzer. V and C delivered neonates showed comparable rates of PO2, CO2 and O2 saturation whereas NC neonates showed depressed levels at all time points (pcontractions in early postpartum adaptation.

  16. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shadab; Basak, Trayambak; Anand Kumar, K; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Lalitha, A; Yadav, Dilip K; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2015-09-08

    Maternal nutritional deficiency significantly perturbs the offspring's physiology predisposing them to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin B12 and folate are two such micronutrients, whose deficiency leads to elevated homocysteine levels. We earlier generated B12 and/or folate deficient rat models and using high-throughput proteomic approach, showed that maternal vitamin B12 deficiency modulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of pups through regulation of PPAR signaling pathway. In this study, using similar approach, we identified 26 differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of pups born to mothers fed with vitamin B12 deficient diet while only four proteins were identified in the folate deficient group. Importantly, proteins like calreticulin, cofilin 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B that are involved in the functioning of the kidney were upregulated in B12 deficient group. Our results hint towards a larger effect of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to that of folate presumably due to greater elevation of homocysteine in vitamin B12 deficient group. In view of widespread vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and its association with several diseases like anemia, cardiovascular and renal diseases, our results may have large implications for kidney diseases in populations deficient in vitamin B12 especially in vegetarians and the elderly people.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups rely on the oxidation of fat stores as their primary source of energy during their 8- to 12-wk postweaning fast; however, potential endocrine mechanisms involved with this increased fat metabolism have yet to be examined. Therefore, 15 pups were serially blood sampled in the field during the first 7 wk of their postweaning fast to examine the changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones (TH), which are involved in fat metabolism in other mammals. Cortisol increased, indicating that it contributed to an increase in lipolysis. Increased total triiodothyronine (tT(3)) and thyroxine (tT(4)) may not reflect increased thyroid gland activity, but rather alterations in hormone metabolism. tT(3)-to-tT(4) ratio decreased, suggesting a decrease in thyroxine (T(4)) deiodination, whereas the negative correlation between total proteins and free T(4) suggests that the increase in free hormone is attributed to a decrease in binding globulins. Changes in TH are most similar to those observed during hibernation than starvation in mammals, suggesting that the metabolic adaptations to natural fasting are more similar to hibernation despite the fact these animals remain active throughout the fasting period.

  18. Sildenafil Improves Brain Injury Recovery following Term Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Male Rat Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Armin; Khoja, Zehra; Johnstone, Aaron; Dale, Laura; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Wintermark, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Term asphyxiated newborns remain at risk of developing brain injury despite available neuropreventive therapies such as hypothermia. Neurorestorative treatments may be an alternative. This study investigated the effect of sildenafil on brain injury induced by neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at term-equivalent age. Neonatal HI was induced in male Long-Evans rat pups at postnatal day 10 (P10) by left common carotid ligation followed by a 2-hour exposure to 8% oxygen; sham-operated rat pups served as the control. Both groups were randomized to oral sildenafil or vehicle twice daily for 7 consecutive days. Gait analysis was performed on P27. At P30, the rats were sacrificed, and their brains were extracted. The surfaces of both hemispheres were measured on hematoxylin and eosin-stained brain sections. Mature neurons and endothelial cells were quantified near the infarct boundary zone using immunohistochemistry. HI caused significant gait impairment and a reduction in the size of the left hemisphere. Treatment with sildenafil led to an improvement in the neurological deficits as measured by gait analysis, as well as an improvement in the size of the left hemisphere. Sildenafil, especially at higher doses, also caused a significant increase in the number of neurons near the infarct boundary zone. In conclusion, sildenafil administered after neonatal HI may improve brain injury recovery by promoting neuronal populations.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of Cepheids (S Cru, AP Pup, AX Cir, S TrA, T Cru, R Mus, S Mus, U Car) and semiregular bright supergiants (V382 Car, HD 75276, R Pup) in the southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Kravtsov, V. V.

    2011-07-01

    We present the second part of the results of our work to investigate the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of southern-hemisphere Cepheids obtained by analyzing 24 spectra for eight bright Cepheids and three semiregular bright supergiants taken with the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory. The chemical composition and atmospheric parameters have been determined for S Cru, AP Pup, AX Cir, S TrA, T Cru, R Mus, S Mus, U Car, V382 Car, HD 75276, and R Pup.

  20. Development of motor coordination and cerebellar structure in male and female rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Baxter, M. G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the developing rat cerebellum is affected by exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that the changes in cerebellar structure in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates may affect their motor coordination. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravitational loading. To test this hypothesis, we compared motor behavior, cerebellar structure, and protein expression in rat neonates exposed to 1.5 1.75G on a 24-ft centrifuge daily for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10, through birth on G22/G23 and through postnatal day (P) 21. Exposure to hypergravity impacted the neurodevelopmental process as indicated by: (1) impaired righting response on P3, more than doubling the righting time at 1.75G, and (2) delayed onset of the startle response by one day, from P9 in controls to P10 in hypergravity-exposed pups. Hypergravity exposure resulted in impaired motor functions as evidenced by performance on a rotarod on P21; the duration of the stay on the rotarod recorded for 1.75G pups of both sexes was one tenth that of the stationary control (SC) pups. These changes in motor behavior were associated with cerebellar changes: (1) cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased by 7.5% in 1.5G-exposed male pups, 27.5% in 1.75G-exposed male pups, 17.5% in 1.5G-exposed female pups, and 22.5% in 1.75G female pups and (2) changes in the expression of glial and neuronal proteins. The results of this study suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development as evidenced by decreased cerebellar mass and altered cerebellar protein expression; cerebellar changes observed in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates are associated with impaired motor behavior. Furthermore, the response to hypergravity appears to be different in male and female neonates. If one accepts that the hypergravity paradigm is a useful animal model with which to predict those biological processes

  1. Reduction in ultrasonic vocalizations in pups born to rapid eye movement sleep restricted mothers in rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh K Gulia

    Full Text Available The effects of rapid eye movement sleep restriction (REMSR in rats during late pregnancy were studied on the ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs made by the pups. USVs are distress calls inaudible to human ears. Rapid eye movement (REM sleep was restricted in one group of pregnant rats for 22 hours, starting from gestational day 14 to 20, using standard single platform method. The USVs of male pups were recorded after a brief isolation from their mother for two minutes on alternate post-natal days, from day one till weaning. The USVs were recorded using microphones and were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using SASPro software. Control pups produced maximum vocalization on post-natal days 9 to 11. In comparison, the pups born to REMSR mothers showed not only a reduction in vocalization but also a delay in peak call making days. The experimental group showed variations in the types and characteristics of call types, and alteration in temporal profile. The blunting of distress call making response in these pups indicates that maternal sleep plays a role in regulating the neural development involved in vocalizations and possibly in shaping the emotional behaviour in neonates. It is suggested that the reduced ultrasonic vocalizations can be utilized as a reliable early marker for affective state in rat pups. Such impaired vocalization responses could provide an important lead in understanding mother-child bonding for an optimal cognitive development during post-partum life. This is the first report showing a potential link between maternal REM sleep deprivation and the vocalization in neonates and infants.

  2. Selenium dietary supplementation as a mechanism to restore hepatic selenoprotein regulation in rat pups exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotty, Karick; Ojeda, M Luisa; Nogales, Fátima; Murillo, M Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol exposure during gestation and lactation decreases selenium (Se) intake, disrupting body Se balance and inducing oxidative stress in rat offspring. Selenium-supplemented diet (0.5 ppm) was administered to ethanol-exposed (20% v/v) dams during gestation and lactation. When the dams' pups were 21 days old, the pups' levels of the main hepatic selenoproteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx1 and GPx4) and selenoprotein P (SelP) were measured. The pups were divided into control (C), alcohol (A), control-selenium (CS), and alcohol-selenium (AS) groups. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of the selenium-supplemented diet on the levels of Se deposits present in the livers of their pups. Alcohol decreases hepatic Se deposits, GPx activity, and GPx1 expression; alcohol increases GPx4 and SelP expression. Se was measured by furnace graphite atomic absorption spectrometry, the antioxidant activity of GPx and concentration of hepatic phospholipids (PL) were determined by spectrophotometry, and the selenoprotein expressions were detected by Western blotting. Selenite treatment prevented alcohol's effects of diminishing the Se deposits, GPx activity, and GPx1 expression, while maintaining the high levels of the expression of GPx4 and SelP. These results suggest that depletion of hepatic Se levels in rat pups, caused by ethanol exposure to their dams, affects the synthesis of the 3 main hepatic selenoproteins in different ways, which is related to a decrease in GPx activity and PL concentration, and an increase in serum Se levels. Selenium supplementation to the dams increased the expression of GPx1, GPx4, and SelP in their pups.

  3. Process of [sup 196]Hg enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Mellor, C.E.

    1993-04-27

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of [sup 196]Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  4. Process of .sup.196 Hg enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Mellor, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of .sup.196 Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  5. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  6. Of Variability, or its Absence, in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2003-01-01

    Current models and observations of variability in HgMn stars disagree. We present here the models that argue for pulsating HgMn stars with properties similar to those of Slowly Pulsating B Stars. The lack of observed variable HgMn stars suggests that some physical process is missing from the models. Some possibilities are discussed.

  7. HgZnTe-based detectors for LWIR NASA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elizabeth A.; Kalisher, Murray H.

    1990-01-01

    The initial goal was to grow and characterize HgZnTe and determine if it indeed had the advantageous properties that were predicted. Researchers grew both bulk and liquid phase epitaxial HgZnTe. It was determined that HgZnTe had the following properties: (1) microhardness at least 50 percent greater than HgCdTe of equivalent bandgap; (2) Hg annealing rates of at least 2 to 4 times longer than HgCdTe; and (3) higher Hg vacancy formation energies. This early work did not focus on one specific composition (x-value) of HgZnTe since NASA was interested in HgZnTe's potential for a variety of applications. Since the beginning of 1989, researchers have been concentrating, however, on the liquid phase growth of very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) HgZnTe (cutoff approx. equals 17 microns at 65K) to address the requirements of the Earth Observing System (EOS). Since there are no device models to predict the advantages in reliability one can gain with increased microhardness, surface stability, etc., one must fabricate HgZnTe detectors and assess their relative bake stability (accelerated life test behavior) compared with HgCdTe devices fabricated in the same manner. Researchers chose to fabricate HIT detectors as a development vehicle for this program because high performance in the VLWIR has been demonstrated with HgCdTe HIT detectors and the HgCdTe HIT process should be applicable to HgZnTe. HIT detectors have a significant advantage for satellite applications since these devices dissipate much less power than conventional photoconductors to achieve the same responsivity.

  8. Fully relativistic coupled cluster and DFT study of electric field gradients at Hg in 199Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the magnitude and interplay of relativistic and electron correlation effects on the electric field gradient (EFG) at the position of Hg in linear and bent HgL2 (L=CH3, Cl, Br, I) and trigonal planar [HgCl3]- complexes using four-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) and non...

  9. The Chevrel phase HgMo6S8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Potel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of HgMo6S8, mercury(II hexamolybdenum octasulfide, is based on (Mo6S8S6 cluster units (overline{3} symmetry interconnected through interunit Mo—S bonds. The Hg2+ cations occupy large voids between the different cluster units and are covalently bonded to two S atoms. The Hg atoms and one S atom lie on sites with crystallographic overline{3} and 3 symmetry, respectively. Refinement of the occupancy factor of the Hg atom led to the composition Hg0.973 (3Mo6S8.

  10. Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

  11. Female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  12. Erythropoietin improved cognitive function and decreased hippocampal caspase activity in rat pups after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michelle E; Requena, Daniela F; Block, Benjamin; Davis, Lizeth J; Rodesch, Christopher; Casper, T Charles; Juul, Sandra E; Kesner, Raymond P; Lane, Robert H

    2014-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Erythropoietin (EPO), an anti-apoptotic cytokine, improved cognitive outcome in adult rats after TBI. To our knowledge, EPO has not been studied in a developmental TBI model. We hypothesized that EPO would improve cognitive outcome and increase neuron fraction in the hippocampus in 17-day-old (P17) rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). EPO or vehicle was given at 1, 24, and 48 h after CCI and at post injury day (PID) 7. Cognitive outcome at PID14 was assessed using Novel Object Recognition (NOR). Hippocampal EPO levels, caspase activity, and mRNA levels of the apoptosis factors Bcl2, Bax, Bcl-xL, and Bad were measured during the first 14 days after injury. Neuron fraction and caspase activation in CA1, CA3, and DG were studied at PID2. EPO normalized recognition memory after CCI. EPO blunted the increased hippocampal caspase activity induced by CCI at PID1, but not at PID2. EPO increased neuron fraction in CA3 at PID2. Brain levels of exogenous EPO appeared low relative to endogenous. Timing of EPO administration was associated with temporal changes in hippocampal mRNA levels of EPO and pro-apoptotic factors. Conclusion/Speculation: EPO improved recognition memory, increased regional hippocampal neuron fraction, and decreased caspase activity in P17 rats after CCI. We speculate that EPO improved cognitive outcome in rat pups after CCI as a result of improved neuronal survival via inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis early after injury.

  13. Female epispadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Krishna Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. The symptoms of female epispadias are primary urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 7-year-old girl presented with partial incontinence of urine. On physical examination, bifid clitoris and labia minora were seen. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, single stage reconstruction of the urethra, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  14. EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF REARING KITS ON SELECTED PARAMETERS IN BLOOD OF POLAR FOXES FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman SZYMECZKO

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the number of rearing kits on selected blood parameters in polar fox females in the fifth week of lactation. The haematological parameters were tested in the blood of polar fox females with small (group A-mean number of pups: 3.5 and large (group B-mean number of pups: 10.7 litter. In female polar foxes rearing 9-13 kits (group B there was found a lower number of red blood cells, a lower haematocrit value and lower concentration of haemoglobin. No significant (P<0.05 effect of litter size on the number of white blood cells was observed, however there was an essential (P<0.05 increase in the percentage of neutrophiles as well as lowering of lymphocytes in the total count of leucocytes in the female of polar foxes from B group. A large number of pups in litter significantly (P<0.05 lowered the content of glucose in female blood on the 35th day of lactation.

  15. Mass Independent Fractionation of Hg Isotopes Preserved in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, A. M.; Bergquist, B. A.; Kah, L. C.; Ono, S.; Ghosh, S.; Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a photochemically active, redox-sensitive, chalcophilic metal with complex biogeochemistry that displays a wide range of mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent (MIF) stable isotopic fractionation. In the past decade, Hg isotopes have emerged as important tracers of both the sources and cycling of Hg in the modern environment. However, their utility as environmental proxies in ancient rocks remains largely unexplored. The potential of Hg isotopes to inform Precambrian environments derives from the observation that Hg isotopes with odd atomic mass numbers (199Hg and 201Hg) undergo large MIF by the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) and smaller MIF through the nuclear volume effect (NVE). Small MIF produced via NVE has been observed for numerous transformations and is characterized by MIF ratios (Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg) of about 1.6. Large Hg-MIF driven by MIE has been observed during photochemical transformations and is characterized by Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratios between 1 and 1.3. This MIF signal is sensitive to a range of environmental conditions, including the amount and type of solar radiation, the presence and type of complexing organic ligands, and the Hg/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ratio. Thus, it is hoped that Hg-MIF signals may indirectly record changes in atmospheric composition or seawater chemistry if preserved in marine sedimentary records. Previous work has clearly demonstrated that Hg-MIF signals are preserved in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine shales and massive sulfide deposits. Here, we present evidence that such signals are also preserved in marine shales of mid-Proterozoic age, including the ~1.3 Ga Sulky formation (Dismal Lakes Group, NW Arctic), the ~1.45 Ga Greyson Shale (Belt Basin, Montana), and the ~1.5 Ga Katalsy formation (Kypry Group, Eastern European Platform). We observe that the Greyson shale and shales within the Sulky formation yield negative Hg-MIF with Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratios close to 1 and that Kaltasy group sediments

  16. Simultaneous canine distemper encephalitis and canine parvovirus infection with distemper-associated cardiac necrosis in a pup

    OpenAIRE

    HEADLEY, Selwyn Arlington; Saito,Taís Berelli

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a...

  17. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Richard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  18. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose response (BBDR) Model***

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the 1-IPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model...

  19. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose-response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (BPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the HPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model p...

  20. Septicaemia and meningitis caused by infection of New Zealand sea lion pups with a hypermucoviscous strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, W D; Rogers, L; Pinpimai, K; Dittmer, K; Marshall, J; Chilvers, B L

    2015-04-17

    This study describes a syndrome of neonatal septicemia and meningitis in New Zealand sea lions, caused by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae that is phenotypically similar to strains causing environmentally-acquired septicemia and neuro-invasive disease in humans. Between late 2006 and early 2010, 123 pups from the Enderby Island breeding colony died of K. pneumoniae infection, with lesions including fibrinous to fibrinosuppurative meningitis, subdural hemorrhage, septic arthritis, herniation and hemorrhage of the cerebellar vermis, lymphadenitis and cellulitis. This infection was responsible for 58% of observed pup mortality over this time period, with most deaths occurring in the latter part of the breeding season (mid February onwards). The results of this study suggest that the pattern of this disease has changed since it was first described in 2002, when most deaths occurred early in the season (early to mid-January), and that it is an important and consistent cause of pup mortality in this population. In addition, a similar disease syndrome and bacterial strain was diagnosed in a single pup in a fragile recolonizing New Zealand sea lion population on mainland New Zealand, and the potential effect on this population is unknown but could have a negative impact on recolonisation at this site.

  1. Superdeformation studies in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformation in the A {approximately} 190 region was first observed in {sup 191}Hg from an experiment performed at ATLAS using the Argonne Notre Dame {gamma}-ray facility. We recently revisited the study of superdeformation in this nucleus using Gammasphere and the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n) and {sup 174}Yb({sup 22}Ne,5n) reactions at 172 and 120 MeV in order to populate and measure states in the second well. The goal of the experiment was to identify new bands in the data, and thus allow us to gain understanding on the relative placement of single particle orbitals near the N = 112 SD shell gap. From an analysis of the data, the three previously identified SD bands were extended, and their feeding into the yrast states delineated. Two new SD bands were observed and preliminary evidence for a third new band was obtained as well.

  2. Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I.H. El-Sayyad, M.A. El-Sherbiny, M.A. Sobh, A.M. Abou-El-Naga, M.A.N. Ibrahim, S.A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE, adrenaline (AD, nor-adrenaline (NAD, serotonin (5-HT, histamine (HS, dopamine (DA and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA. The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

  3. Maternal swimming during pregnancy enhances short-term memory and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Kim, Hong; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young-Sick; Yang, Hye-Young; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Shin, Min-Chul; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Shin, Mal-Soon; Park, Sooyeon; Baek, Seungsoo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2006-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of maternal swimming during pregnancy on the short-term memory ability, hippocampal neurogenesis, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression of rat pups were investigated. After confirming their pregnancy, the pregnant rats were divided into two groups: the control group and the swimming group. From the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery, pregnant rats were subcutaneously injected with 100mg/kg of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) once a day at 30min before the starting of swimming exercise. Pregnant rats in the swimming group were forced to swim for 10min once a day until delivery. On the 21 days after birth, the rat pups were trained in a step-down avoidance test. The latency time of the step-down avoidance task was determined on the 28 days after birth in order to evaluate the short-term memory ability of pups. On the 29 days after birth, the rat pups' brains were removed, and BrdU immunohistochemistry for the detection of neurogenesis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of BDNF mRNA expression were then performed. The rat pups born from the maternal rats that performed swimming during pregnancy showed significantly increased BDNF mRNA expression, enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis, and improved short-term memory capability. The present results have clearly shown that maternal swimming by rats during pregnancy enhances the memory of the rats' offspring by increasing neurogenesis. Our present study provides the evidence that maternal exercise during the gestational period may enhance the brain functions of the mothers' offspring.

  4. Relationship Between Soil Properties and Different Fractions of Soil Hg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUHONGTAO; YUGUIFEN; 等

    2001-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis methods were used to study the relationship between soil properties and the distribution of different soil Hg fractions with nine representative soils from Chongqing,China,Results showed that clay(<2m) could increase water-soluble Hg(r=0.700*).Soil organic matter (OM) could enhance the increase of elemental Hg(r=0.674*),The higher the base saturation percentage (BSP) ,the more the residual Hg(R=0.684*) .Organic Hg,the sum of said-soluble organic He and alkali-soluble Hg,was positively affected by silt(2-20μm)but negatively affected by pH,with the direct path coefficients amounting to 1.0487 and 0.5121,respectively .The positive effect of OM and negative effect of BSP on organic Hg were the most significant ,with the direct path coefficients being 0.7614 and -0.8527,respectively. The indirect effect of clay(<2μm) iva BSP (path coefficient=0.4186) was the highest,showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay(<2μm) via BSP (path coefficient=0.4186) was the highest,showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay(<2μm) on acid-soluble organic Hw was BSP.since the available Hg fraction,water-soluble Hg,was positively affected by soil clay content,and the quite immobile and not bioavailable residual Hg by soil BSP,suitable reduction of clay content and increase of BSP would be of much help to reduce the Hg availability and Hg activity in Hg-contaminated soils.

  5. Progress in The Study of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein (Pup)Proteasome System%原核生物类泛素蛋白Pup-蛋白酶体系统的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪春军; 林进; 张俊杰

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin-proteasome system, the essential mechanism for eukaryotic cellular protein degradation, plays an important role in the regulation of cellular physiological functions. In 1980s, researchers found that proteasome also reside in actinomycetes, but the function and mechanism of the prokaryotic proteasome were unknown. In 2008, the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) was identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. With the help of accessory factors, Dop, PafA and Mpa, Pup covalently linked to the Lys ε-NH2 in the target proteins and mediated the target protein degradation through the proteasome. The discovery of Pup-proteasome system revealed a novel mechanism of prokaryotic protein degradation, which is involved essential physiological function including the intermediary metabolism, information pathway, detoxification/virulence, cell wall and cell membrane formation and so on. Disruption of Pup-proteasome system can suppress the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore it is regarded as the new therapeutic target for tuberculosis. In the present paper, the progress in the study on mechanism and function of Pup-proteasome system is reviewed.%真核泛素-蛋白酶体系统是细胞内蛋白质降解的重要机制,参与细胞生理功能调控,因此泛素-蛋白酶体通路的机制和功能研究备受关注.20世纪80年代,人们就发现放线菌中存在原核蛋白酶体,但是对于原核蛋白酶体的功能和作用机理长期以来了解甚少.2008年,Pearce等在结核分枝杆菌中发现了原核类泛素蛋白(prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein,Pup).在Dop、PafA、Mpa等辅助因子的作用下,Pup可以共价标记多种功能蛋白,并介导被标记蛋白质通过蛋白酶体降解,Pup-蛋白酶体系统的发现揭示了原核生物中一个崭新的蛋白质降解机制.Pup-蛋白酶体系统的靶蛋白涉及物质中间代谢、信号通路、毒性和抗毒性因子、细胞壁和细胞膜组分等多个方面,并

  6. Increasing oxytocin receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens of pre-pubertal female prairie voles enhances alloparental responsiveness and partner preference formation as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Young, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) promote alloparental behavior and partner preference formation in female prairie voles. Within the NAcc there is significant individual variation in OXTR binding and virgin juvenile and adult females with a high density of OXTR in the NAcc display an elevated propensity to engage in alloparental behavior toward novel pups. Over-expression of OXTR in the NAcc of adult female prairie voles using viral vector gene transfer facilitates par...

  7. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Marcelo, E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rocha, Joao B.T., E-mail: jbtrocha@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  8. Modeling interactions of Hg(II) and bauxitic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Rohan; Tobschall, Heinz J; Bandara, Atula

    2007-11-01

    The adsorptive interactions of Hg(II) with gibbsite-rich soils (hereafter SOIL-g) were modeled by 1-pK surface complexation theory using charge distribution multi-site ion competition model (CD MUSIC) incorporating basic Stern layer model (BSM) to account for electrostatic effects. The model calibrations were performed for the experimental data of synthetic gibbsite-Hg(II) adsorption. When [NaNO(3)] > or = 0.01M, the Hg(II) adsorption density values, of gibbsite, Gamma(Hg(II)), showed a negligible variation with ionic strength. However, Gamma(Hg(II)) values show a marked variation with the [Cl(-)]. When [Cl(-)] > or = 0.01M, the Gamma(Hg(II)) values showed a significant reduction with the pH. The Hg(II) adsorption behavior in NaNO(3) was modeled assuming homogeneous solid surface. The introduction of high affinity sites, i.e., >Al(s)OH at a low concentration (typically about 0.045 sites nm(-2)) is required to model Hg(II) adsorption in NaCl. According to IR spectroscopic data, the bauxitic soil (SOIL-g) is characterized by gibbsite and bayerite. These mineral phases were not treated discretely in modeling of Hg(II) and soil interactions. The CD MUSIC/BSM model combination can be used to model Hg(II) adsorption on bauxitic soil. The role of organic matter seems to play a role on Hg(II) binding when pH>8. The Hg(II) adsorption in the presence of excess Cl(-) ions required the selection of high affinity sites in modeling.

  9. Lithography process for patterning HgI2 photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark J.; James, Ralph B.; Hermon, Haim

    2004-11-23

    A photolithographic process forms patterns on HgI.sub.2 surfaces and defines metal sublimation masks and electrodes to substantially improve device performance by increasing the realizable design space. Techniques for smoothing HgI.sub.2 surfaces and for producing trenches in HgI.sub.2 are provided. A sublimation process is described which produces etched-trench devices with enhanced electron-transport-only behavior.

  10. Epitaxial growth of HgTe by a MOVPE process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, S.J.C.; Mullin, J.B.; Royle, A. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (UK))

    1982-03-01

    Epitaxial layers of HgTe have been grown onto insulating CdTe substrates by the pyrolysis of (C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/Te in the presence of Hg vapour using a H/sub 2/ flow system. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and conductivity measurements have shown that the electrical properties of the layers are comparable with good quality bulk HgTe.

  11. Experiments with a New 201Hg+ Ion Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, E. A.; Taghavi-Larigani, S.; Lea, S. N.; Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we describe a new clock based on 201Hg+. All previous mercury ion clocks have been based on 199Hg+. We have recently completed construction of the 201Hg+ clock and will describe modifications to the design of our existing 199Hg+ clocks to accommodate the new isotope. We will also describe initial spectroscopic measurements of the hyperfine manifold, and possible future experiments. One experiment could place a limit on variations in the strong interaction fundamental constant ratio mq/ΛQCD.REFID="9789812838223_0043FN001">

  12. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  13. PENCEMARAN LOGAM BERAT MERKURI (Hg PADA AIRTANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Triadi Putranto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The earth consists largely of water because the land area is smaller than the ocean. Human beings on this earthcan not escape the need for water. Water is the main requirement for the process of life on the earth.Relatively clean water that is coveted by men, whether for purposes of daily life, for industrial purposes, for thecleanliness of city sanitation, as well as for agricultural purposes and so forth. Heavy metal pollution is a veryserious issue to be handled, because of adverse environmental and ecosystem in general. Heavy metallic elementis the element which has a density of more than 5 gr/cm3. Hg has a density of 13.55 gr/cm3. Disaster is anoutbreak of Minamata mercury poisoning in people who eat fish contaminated by mercury in Minamata Japan,and this event is known as Minamata Disease. Efforts to tackle the heavy metal pollution can actually be doneusing a chemical process or by microorganism such as microbes and bacteria.

  14. Hg-coordination studies of oligopeptides containing cysteine, histidine and tyrosine by $^{199m}$Hg-TDPAC

    CERN Document Server

    Ctortecka, B; Mallion, S; Butz, T; Hoffmann, R

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of histidine- and tyrosine- containing peptide chains with Hg(II), the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of /sup 199m/Hg in the Hg complexes of the oligopeptides alanyl-alanyl-histidyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAHAA-NH /sub 2/) and alanyl-alanyl-tyrosyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAYAA-NH/sub 2/) was determined by time differential perturbed angular correlation and is compared with previous data on alanyl-alanyl-cysteyl-alanyl- alanyl (AACAA-OH). The /sup 199m/Hg-NQIs depend on the oligopeptide to Hg(II) stoichiometry and indicate that two-fold and four-fold coordinations occur for the bound Hg(II). (12 refs).

  15. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  16. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  17. OPERATIONS ANVIL, CRESSET, TINDERBOX and GUARDIAN Events Husky Pup, Mighty Epic, Hybla Gold, Diablo Hawk, Huron King, and Miners Iron, 24 October 1975 - 31 October 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-30

    dtd 19 Jun 2013 HAROLD I_. BRODE DNA 6325F OPERATIONS ANVIL, CRESSET, TINDERBOX, AND GUARDIAN EVENTS HUSKY PUP, MIGHTY EPIC, HYBLA GOLD, DIABLO ...ELEMENT NO WO NO ACCESSION ‘~0 1 1 TITLE (/nc/ude Securrfy c~aSSlf!cJrlOn) OPk3ATIONS ANVIL, CRESSET, TINDERBOX, AND GUARDIAN : Events Ilusky Pup, Mighty...OPERATIONS ANVIL,, CRESSl:T, TINDERBOX, <ind GUARDIAN : Events llusky PUP, Mighty Epic, Ifybla Cold, Di,iblo Il;lwk, lluron King, and Miners Iron, 24 October

  18. The effect of methylxanthines on milk volume and composition, and growth of rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A D; Grimble, R F

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of differential dose levels of methylxanthines on lactational performance, with respect to milk volume and composition and pup growth. The methylxanthines; caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, were administered via drinking water in the proportions occurring in tea, at a dose of 50, 1 and 2 mg/kg body-weight respectively to Wistar albino rats throughout pregnancy and for up to the 14th day of lactation. A fourth group received a mixture of all three methylxanthines. Maternal food and fluid intake and weight changes, as well as weight gain in the litter were monitored thrice weekly. Milk samples were collected from the dams on days 7 and 14 of lactation, while milk volume was measured on days 12-13 by a method using tritiated water. Results showed that caffeine and theobromine significantly enhanced litter weight (P less than 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). In the caffeine group, enhanced litter growth was due to a significant increase (P less than 0.05) in milk volume, consequent to increased maternal food intake (P less than 0.05). In the theobromine group there was only a weak association between increased litter weight and milk volume. Theophylline had no effect on the volume or composition of milk, or litter weight. The combination of all three methylxanthines also failed to produce any of the positive effects observed with separate drug treatments.

  19. Plasma-derived versus recombinant factor concentrates in PUPs: a never ending debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, Erik

    2017-01-31

    Inhibitor development in haemophilia is a serious complication to treatment with factor concentrates. Since the advent of more pure products, especially developed using recombinant DNA technology, some studies have shown an increased incidence of inhibitors in previously untreated patients (PUPs) receiving recombinant products whereas plasma-derived concentrates sometimes have been claimed to have a protective role, probably due to the content of von Willebrand factor (VWF). In fact, experiments indicate that the VWF may block uptake of factor VIII into macrophages for further processing to the immune system. Also, a competition between VWF and inhibitor binding to the C2 domain of factor VIII has been suggested. Recently, large cohort and surveillance studies have created a vigorous debate about the role of product class for inhibitor development as results have been conflicting. The only randomised prospective study, the SIPPET study, was published in 2016, and substantiated previous reports claiming that plasma derived concentrates give less inhibitors in patients with severe haemophilia A, previously not exposed to factor VIII. The debate will continue.

  20. Differential responses in the lungs of newborn mouse pups exposed to 85% or >95% oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynette K; Tipple, Trent E; Nelin, Leif D; Welty, Stephen E

    2009-01-01

    Premature infants often develop serious clinical complications associated with respiratory failure and hyperoxic lung injury that includes lung inflammation and alterations in lung development. The goal of these studies is to test the hypothesis that there are differences in the course of lung injury in newborn mice exposed to 85% or >95% oxygen that provide models to address the differential effects of oxidation and inflammation. Our results indicate differences between the 85% and >95% O2 exposure groups by day 14 in weight gain and lung alveolarization. Inflammation, assessed by neutrophil counts, was observed in both hyperoxia groups by day 3 but was dramatically greater in the >95% O2-exposed groups by day 14 and associated with greater developmental deficits. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, and 5-lipoxygenase levels were elevated but no patterns of differences were observed between exposure groups. Prostaglandins D2, E2, and F2alpha were increased in the tissues from mouse pups exposed to >95% O2 at 7 d indicating a differential expression of cyclooxygenase-2 products. Our data indicate that there are differences in the models of 85% or >95% O2 exposure and these differences may provide mechanistic insights into hyperoxic lung injury in an immature system.

  1. Fundamental stellar parameters of $\\zeta$ Pup and $\\gamma^2$ Vel from HIPPARCOS data

    CERN Document Server

    Schärer, D; Grenon, Michel; Schaerer, Daniel; Schmutz, Werner; Grenon, Michel

    1997-01-01

    We report parallax measurements by the HIPPARCOS satellite of zeta Puppis and gamma^2 Velorum. The distance of zeta Pup is d=429 (+120/ -77) pc, in agreement with the commonly adopted value to Vela OB2. However, a significantly smaller distance is found for the gamma^2 Vel system: d=258 (+41/-31) pc. The total mass of gamma^2 Vel derived from its parallax, the angular size of the semi-major axis as measured with intensity interferometry, and the period is M(WR+O)=29.5 (+/-15.9) Msun. This result favors the orbital solution of Pike et al. (1983) over that of Moffat et al. (1986). The stellar parameters for the O star companion derived from line blanketed non-LTE atmosphere models are: Teff=34000 (+/-1500) K, log L/Lsun=5.3 (+/-0.15) from which an evolutionary mass of M=29 (+/-4) Msun and an age of 4.0 (+0.8/-0.5) Myr is obtained from single star evolutionary models. With non-LTE model calculations including He and C we derive a luminosity log L/Lsun~4.7 (+/-0.2) for the WR star. The mass-luminosity relation of...

  2. Dabigatran ameliorates post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus development after germinal matrix haemorrhage in neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebe, Damon; Flores, Jerry J; McBride, Devin W; Krafft, Paul R; Rolland, William B; Lekic, Tim; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    We aim to determine if direct thrombin inhibition by dabigatran will improve long-term brain morphological and neurofunctional outcomes and if potential therapeutic effects are dependent upon reduced PAR-1 stimulation and consequent mTOR activation. Germinal matrix haemorrhage was induced by stereotaxically injecting 0.3 U type VII-S collagenase into the germinal matrix of P7 rat pups. Animals were divided into five groups: sham, vehicle (5% DMSO), dabigatran intraperitoneal, dabigatran intraperitoneal + TFLLR-NH2 (PAR-1 agonist) intranasal, SCH79797 (PAR-1 antagonist) intraperitoneal, and dabigatran intranasal. Neurofunctional outcomes were determined by Morris water maze, rotarod, and foot fault evaluations at three weeks. Brain morphological outcomes were determined by histological Nissl staining at four weeks. Expression levels of p-mTOR/p-p70s6k at three days and vitronectin/fibronectin at 28 days were quantified. Intranasal and intraperitoneal dabigatran promoted long-term neurofunctional recovery, improved brain morphological outcomes, and reduced intracranial pressure at four weeks after GMH. PAR-1 stimulation tended to reverse dabigatran's effects on post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus development. Dabigatran also reduced expression of short-term p-mTOR and long-term extracellular matrix proteins, which tended to be reversed by PAR-1 agonist co-administration. PAR-1 inhibition alone, however, did not achieve the same therapeutic effects as dabigatran administration.

  3. Effects of iron supplementation on growth, gut microbiota, metabolomics and cognitive development of rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Erica E; He, Xuan; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency is common during infancy and therefore iron supplementation is recommended. Recent reports suggest that iron supplementation in already iron replete infants may adversely affect growth, cognitive development, and morbidity. Normal and growth restricted rat pups were given iron daily (30 or 150 μg/d) from birth to postnatal day (PD) 20, and followed to PD56. At PD20, hematology, tissue iron, and the hepatic metabolome were measured. The plasma metabolome and colonic microbial ecology were assessed at PD20 and PD56. T-maze (PD35) and passive avoidance (PD40) tests were used to evaluate cognitive development. Iron supplementation increased iron status in a dose-dependent manner in both groups, but no significant effect of iron on growth was observed. Passive avoidance was significantly lower only in normal rats given high iron compared with controls. In plasma and liver of normal and growth-restricted rats, excess iron increased 3-hydroxybutyrate and decreased several amino acids, urea and myo-inositol. While a profound difference in gut microbiota of normal and growth-restricted rats was observed, with iron supplementation differences in the abundance of strict anaerobes were observed. Excess iron adversely affects cognitive development, which may be a consequence of altered metabolism and/or shifts in gut microbiota.

  4. Differential Responses in the Lungs of Newborn Mouse Pups Exposed to 85% or >95% Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynette K.; Tipple, Trent E.; Nelin, Leif D.; Welty, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    Premature infants often develop serious clinical complications associated with respiratory failure and hyperoxic lung injury that include lung inflammation, and alterations in lung development. The goal of these studies is to test the hypothesis that there are differences in the course of lung injury in newborn mice exposed to 85% or >95% oxygen that provide models to address the differential effects of oxidation and inflammation. Our results indicate differences between the 85% and >95% O2 exposure groups by day 14 in weight gain and lung alveolarization. Inflammation, assessed by neutrophil counts, was observed in both hyperoxia groups by day 3 but was dramatically greater in the >95% O2 exposed groups by day 14 and associated with greater developmental deficits. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, and 5-lipoxygenase levels were elevated but no patterns of differences were observed between exposure groups. Prostaglandins (PG) D2, E2, and F2α were increased in the tissues from mouse pups exposed to >95% O2 at 7 days indicating a differential expression of COX-2 products. Our data indicate that there are differences in the models of 85% or >95% O2 exposure and these differences may provide mechanistic insights into hyperoxic lung injury in an immature system. PMID:18703992

  5. SO2/Hg removal from flue gas by dry FGD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fan; Wang Hongmei; Zhang Fan; Zhu Jinwei; Tian Gang; Liu Yu; Mao Jixian

    2012-01-01

    To study the mechanism of SO2 and Hg removal from flue gas,an experimental packed bed reactor was designed to simulate the dry FGD,where a mixture of lime and fly ash in ratio 1∶3 w/w was used as the SO2 and Hg sorbent,and steam at temperature of 100 ℃ was applied for activation of the sorbent,while the activation time set to 20 min.The experimental factors including the SO2/Hg sorbent characteristics,50% breakthrough time for SO2/Hg removal,sorbent packed bed depth and reaction temperature were investigated.The experimental results show that after steam activation,the BET specific surface area and specific pore volume increased from 37.8 to 45.5 m2/g and from 0.42 to 0.51 cm3/g,respectively.With activation of the sorbent by steam,the 50% breakthrough times of SO2 and Hg removal increased from 34 to 42 min and from 23 to 45 min,respectively.When the packed bed depth was increased from 5 to 25 mm,the 50% breakthrough times for Hg and SO2 removal increased from 12 to 52 min and from 6 to 47 min,respectively.With the increase of the reaction temperature,the 50% breakthrough of SO2/Hg removal decreased accordingly.Steam activation can efficiently improve SO2/Hg removal simultaneously.

  6. Acutely elevated vasopressin increases circulating concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone in fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo; Talamantes, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The physiological actions of vasopressin (VP) in marine mammals are not well defined. To help elucidate its hormonal and renal effects in this group of mammals, northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups (N=7; 99+/-4 kg) were first infused with 0.9% saline (control; 220 ml), followed 24 h later with VP (as a 20 ng kg(-1) bolus, then 2 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for approximately 35 min in 225+/-16 ml saline). During both control and VP periods, blood samples were collected prior to infusion, and 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h after infusion to examine the hormonal responses of the pups to VP. Renal responses were quantified from 24 h urine samples obtained prior to infusion (control) and 24 h post-infusion. Compared to the control period, infusion of VP increased plasma concentrations of cortisol over a 120 min period and aldosterone over 30 min, while plasma renin activity (PRA) was decreased for a 120 min period. The plasma urea:creatinine ratio was elevated following infusion of VP. Urine output and osmotic clearance were increased by 69+/-18% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 36+/-10%, respectively, but free water clearance and glomerular filtration rate were not significantly altered 24 h post-infusion of VP. Solute (osmolality, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) excretion and fractional excretion of electrolytes were also increased when compared to control values. The increase in cortisol concentration suggests that VP may possess corticotropin releasing hormone-like activity in elephant seals. If osmotic diuresis and natriuresis are typical consequences of elevated [VP] in fasting pups, then not increasing VP normally during the fast may serve as a protective mechanism to avoid the potential loss of Na(+) induced by elevated [VP]. Therefore, under natural fasting conditions, pups may be highly sensitive to small changes in [VP], resulting in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.

  7. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on early sexual development in male and female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie

    2014-01-01

    gavaged during pregnancy and lactation from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 with 0, 0.025, 0.25, 5 or 50 mg/kg bw per day BPA. From 0.250 mg/kg and above, male anogenital distance (AGD) was significantly decreased, whereas decreased female AGD was seen from 0.025 mg/kg bw per day and above. Moreover...

  8. Oestrogen-independent, experience-induced maternal behaviour in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2011-01-01

    Nulliparous female mice that have not experienced mating, pregnancy, or parturition show near immediate spontaneous maternal behaviour when presented with foster pups. The fact that virgin mice display spontaneous maternal behaviour indicates that the hormonal events of pregnancy and parturition are not necessary to produce a rapid onset of maternal behaviour in mice. However, it is not known how similar maternal behaviour is between virgin and lactating mice. Here we show that naturally post...

  9. Enriched environment restricted to gestation accelerates the development of sensory and motor circuits in the rat pup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Lorena; García-García, Fabio; Santiago-Roque, Isela; Martínez, Armando J; Coria-Ávila, Genaro A; Corona-Morales, Aleph A

    2015-04-01

    The effects of stimulating environments on the neural plasticity of the adult brain have been well explored; however, how an enriched environment (EE) affects the mother-fetus interaction is poorly understood. We hypothesized that an enriched environment restricted to pregnancy will succeed in accelerating the development of sensory and motor circuits in the offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were maintained either under a standard condition - two animals per standard cage- or an enriched environment - eight subjects in larger cages with different physical configurations-. After birth, litters from both groups (n=16 per group) were cross-fostered with mothers that were simultaneously maintained under standard environment during pregnancy. Sensory and motor development were studied in the pups of both groups with a battery of reflex and physical tests. Auditory and gait reflexes appeared two days earlier in the offspring of EE rats as compared to control subjects (p<0.05). In addition, EE pups displayed a better performance in righting reflex, inclined board and geotaxis tests (p<0.05). Differences were found even three weeks after birth. We conclude that EE limited to the phase of pregnancy stimulates the development of pups inutero so that they are born with a higher grade of development.

  10. Alaska Steller sea lion pups blood serum chemistry and hematology values measured from 1998-06-01 to 2011-07-15 (NCEI Accession 0137994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  11. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Hookworm Intensity of Infection in California sea lion and Northern Fur Seal Pups in California, 1996 through 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  12. Determination of MeHg sources to fish in the St. Louis River, MN, USA, using Hg stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes region has become a prevalent concern due to elevated methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish. While atmospheric deposition of Hg is ubiquitous, releases from legacy point-sources give rise to numerous Areas of Concern (AOCs) across the Great ...

  13. Tracing anthropogenic Hg and Pb input using stable Hg and Pb isotope ratios in sediments of the central Portuguese Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil-Holmens, M.; Blum, J.; Canário, J.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Trancoso, M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Johnson, M.; Branco, V.; Cesário, R.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Boer, W.; Melo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Three short marine sediment cores from the Cascais Submarine Canyon (CSC; cores 252-32 and 252-35) and the Estremadura Spur (core 252-16) on the central Portuguese Margin were analysed for Hg, Pb, Al, and Mn concentrations, and both Pb and Hg stable isotope compositions, in order to reconstruct tren

  14. Study progress of prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup)-proteasome system of My cobacterium tuberculosis%结核分枝杆菌Pup-蛋白酶体系统研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彬; 张万江

    2014-01-01

    Proteasome pathway is another major pathway of protein degradation in addition to lysosome in eukaryotic cell ,which involved a number of physiological functions regulation in cell .Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein was found in My-cobacterium tuberculosis in 2008 .With the effect of co-factor Dop ,PafA and Mpa ,Pup can mark a variety of protein ubiquitina-tion followed by importing them into proteasomal degradation .The target protein of Pup-proteasome system like FabD ,PanB , Ino1 ,Icl ,SodA ,and MtrA are involved with metabolism ,signal transduction pathways ,virulence factors ,pathogenicity and the persistence of bacteria in the host cell .Proteasome inhibitor make the function of proteasome restricted and the accumula-tion of Pup’s labeled substrate result in changes in the expression of gene indirectly ,which impacted the ability of resistance to outside pressure and the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . The finding Pup-proteasome system reveals a novel mechanism of protein degradation in prokaryotes ,which is expected to become a new target of treatment of anti-TB drugs . Here ,we summarize the progress on the Pup-proteasome system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis .%蛋白酶体途径是真核细胞中除溶酶体外降解蛋白质的又一主要途径,参与细胞的多项生理功能调控。2008年在结核分枝杆菌中发现了原核类泛素蛋白(prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein ,Pup)。Pup在辅助因子Dop、PafA、Mpa的作用下,可以泛素化标记多种蛋白,再将其导入蛋白酶体降解。Pup-蛋白酶体系统的靶蛋白FabD、PanB、Ino1、Icl、SodA、M trA等涉及物质代谢、信号传导通路、毒性因子、致病性、细菌在宿主体内的持留等多个方面。蛋白酶体抑制剂使蛋白酶体的功能受到限制,Pup标记底物的累积导致的基因表达的间接改变,对结核分枝杆菌抗外界压力和致病性的能力产生影响。Pup-蛋白酶体系统的发现揭示了

  15. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat p...

  16. Effects of voluntary exercise on the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups born from morphine- dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Safari, Manouchehr; Zarbakhsh, Sam; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2016-11-10

    This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability and proliferation rate. The level of BDNF was measured in the supernant of BMSCs culture by ELISA. The sedentary morphine-dependent mothers' pups showed a significant increase in the percentage cell viability and proliferation rate and also a significant decrease in the BDNF protein levels in BMSCs. The rat pups borne from exercising the control and morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in the percentage viability, proliferation rate and BDNF levels of the BMSCs. This study showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy in morphine-dependent and non-dependent mothers, with increasing of BDNF levels increased the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Also, chronic administration of morphine during pregnancy was able to increase the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal Curcumin Administration Reverses Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects and Decreases iNOS and COX-2 Expressions in Ischemic Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valéria Leimig Telles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to evaluate alterations in ischemic rat pups, from dams administered with curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg. Ten-day-old male pups were subjected or not (SO to brain ischemia and reperfusion, for 1, 7, and 14 days (this last group was submitted to behavioral evaluation. After that, pups were euthanized for determinations of striatal DA and DOPAC in SO, ischemic from untreated (ICUD or curcumin treated (ICTD dams, as well as hippocampal immunohistochemistry assays for iNOS and COX-2 and cresyl violet staining. At the 14th postischemia day, the ICUD group showed increased locomotor activity and rearing behavior, which were reversed in ICTD animals. ICUD pups presented decreased striatal DA and DOPAC levels, relatively to SO, mainly at the 1st postischemia day, but also at the 7th and 14th days which were partially reversed in ICTD pups. A greater number of viable neurons were observed in ICTD, as related to the ICUD group. Ischemia increased iNOS and COX-2 expressions, in CA1 and CA3 areas, at the 1st, 7th, and 14th postischemia days, and these effects were minimized in ICTD pups. In conclusion, the prenatal curcumin treatment was shown to be neuroprotective where the drug anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects probably play a role.

  18. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  19. Intraperitoneal implantation of life-long telemetry transmitters in three rehabilitated harbor seal pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Markus; Haulena, Martin; Rosenberg, Justin F; Nordstrom, Chad

    2017-05-25

    Pinnipeds, including many phocid species of concern, are inaccessible and difficult to monitor for extended periods using conventional, externally attached telemetry devices that are shed during the annual molt. Archival satellite transmitters were implanted intraperitoneally into three stranded Pacific harbor seal pups (Phoca vitulina richardii) that completed rehabilitation, to evaluate the viability of this surgical technique for the deployment of life long telemetry devices in phocids. The life history transmitters record information throughout the life of the host and transmit data to orbiting satellites after extrusion following death. Surgeries were performed under general anesthesia and a single transmitter was inserted into the ventrocaudal abdominal cavity via a 7-8 cm incision along the ventral midline between the umbilicus and pubic symphysis or preputial opening in each animal. Surgeries lasted from 45 to 51 min, and anesthesic times ranged from 55 to 79 min. All animals recovered well, were released into dry holding pens overnight, and were given access to water the following day. All three animals exhibited an expected inflammatory response, with acute phase responses lasting approximately three to four weeks. All three animals were tracked via externally attached satellite transmitters after release at 58 to 78 days following surgery, and minimum post-release survival was confirmed through continued movement data received over 278 to 289 days. The initial findings of low morbidity and zero mortality encountered during captive observation and post-release tracking periods support the viability of this surgical technique for the implantation of long-term telemetry devices in phocids.

  20. Live, full-term mouse pups from oocytes grown and matured in vitro with serum substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hideyuki H; Taniguchi, Ryoma; Sakamoto, Junpei; Sankai, Tadashi; Kada, Hidemi

    2017-06-01

    For in vitro growth and maturation of mouse oocytes (IVG-IVM), serum is added to media up to and including the stage of oocyte maturation; this subsequently supports oocytes through fertilization and early embryo development. However, problems may occur with sera, such as batch differences and issues of biosafety. The purpose of the present study was to determine the capacity for fertilization and pre- and post-implantation development of oocytes that underwent IVG-IVM with a serum substitute. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes from preantral follicles were cultured in medium with either fetal bovine serum (FBS), Serum Substitute Supplement™ (SSS), or Knockout™ Serum Replacement (KSR) for 10days, and were then allowed to mature for 17 h. Subsequently, more than 90% of oocytes underwent germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and more than 70% reached metaphase II, with no significant difference between the groups. A lower fertilization rate, presumably due to zona hardening, was found in the serum substitute groups. Nevertheless, more than 50% of the inseminated oocytes were fertilized and 35%-45% of them underwent first cleavage and developed to the blastocyst stage. Following embryo transfer, one and four live offspring were produced from the SSS and KSR groups, respectively. The present study demonstrated that murine IVG-IVM oocytes cultured in media with a serum substitute, achieved fertilization in vitro, pre- and post-implantation development, and the delivery of live pups, although the efficiency of the process is reduced compared to FBS supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of pgenes were up-regulated and 76 genes were down-regulated in response to MeHg exposure. Individual genes exhibiting altered expression in response to MeHg exposure implicate effects on glutathione metabolism in the mechanism of MeHg neurotoxicity. Gene ontology (GO) terms significantly enriched among altered genes included protein folding, cell redox homeostasis, and steroid biosynthetic process. The most affected biological functions were related to nervous system development and function, as well as lipid metabolism and molecular transport. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress and effects on protein structure in the mechanism of action of MeHg in the female brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and will investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure.

  2. An investigation for the HgCdTe cleaning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Yi; Wang, Nili; Zhao, Shuiping; Liu, Shi-Jia; Li, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    A new cleaning process for HgCdTe was designed - which used the improved SC-1,SC-2 and Br2- C2H5OH solutions as the main cleaning fluid and applied mega sound waves in the cleaning process. By analyzing the test results carried out on the HgCdTe surface, it was found that the material of HgCdTe for the application of new cleaning process was better than the one for the application of conventional cleaning process in the minority carrier lifetime, residual organic contamination, responsivity and specific detectivity.

  3. Doping and Diffusion in HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    In’i, -InT. Te - 1.8 ( - 3 .5 )h ( + 2.9 - 6/) TeT1’- Tej . 4 Hg rich HgCdTe Hg - 1.8 + 1.2 + 1.4 - 2p H - ’g, - H g j.. ’TI - tetrahedral position...A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 11.81 (1988). B. D. Patterson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 60, 69 (1988). 60 V. A. Singh , C. Weigel, J. W. Corbett, and L. M

  4. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  5. Uptake of HgCl{sub 2} and MeHgCl in an insect cell line (Aedes albopictus C6/36)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeckman, B.; Cornelis, R.; Rzeznik, U.; Raes, H. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The authors studied the uptake mechanism of mercuric chloride (Hg) and methylmercuric chloride (MeHg) in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells. The uptake kinetics, together with the effect of temperature and a metabolic inhibitor (2,4-dinitrophenol) on the mercury accumulation, were examined. Both amounts of internalized Hg and MeHg increased linearly with the extracellular concentration. Initially, the influx rate was high for both metal species but MeHg was found to accumulate seven times faster than Hg. At longer exposure times it leveled off for Hg, while for MeHg, the intracellular concentration decreased. Hg toxicity was not significantly influenced by elevated temperatures; in contrast there was a marked decrease of the LC{sub 50/24 h} value for MeHg. On the other hand, Hg accumulation was temperature dependent but MeHg was not. The different toxicity and uptake rate of both mercury compounds can be explained in terms of membrane permeability and target site. For Hg the main target seems to be the plasma membrane, while MeHg readily crosses this barrier and reacts with intracellular targets. 2,4-Dinitrophenol had no effect on the accumulation of Hg but that of MeHg was doubled.

  6. Results Of Hg Speciation Testing On DWPF SMECT-1, SMECT-3, And SMECT-5 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The thirteenth shipment of samples was designated to include Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 736 and 738 samples. Triplicate samples of each material were prepared for this shipment. Each replicate was analyzed for seven Hg species: total Hg, total soluble (dissolved) Hg, elemental Hg [Hg(0)], ionic (inorganic) Hg [Hg(I) and Hg(II)], methyl Hg [CH3Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], ethyl Hg [CH3CH2-Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], and dimethyl Hg [(CH3)2Hg]. The difference between the total Hg and total soluble Hg measurements gives the particulate Hg concentration, i.e. Hg adsorbed to the surface of particulate matter in the sample but without resolution of the specific adsorbed species. The average concentrations of Hg species in the aqueous samples derived from Eurofins reported data corrected for dilutions performed by SRNL are tabulated.

  7. Quantum Calorimeters Based on HgCdTe Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's next generation of x-ray observation missions require x-ray calorimeters with superior energy resolution. Semimetallic HgTe has already proven itself as an...

  8. Enrichment of Pb, Hg and Cr in cultured carp otolith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... record the pollution condition at the sampling time. ... aquatic organisms are aquatic algae, zooplankton .... element cannot show that Hg concentration in otolith ..... from Atlantic croaker along an estuarine pollution gradient.

  9. Quantum Calorimeters Based on HgCdTe Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's next generation of x-ray observation missions require x-ray calorimeters with superior energy resolution. Semimetallic HgTe has already proven itself as an...

  10. Properties of Light Hg, Pb and Po Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Muntian, I

    2003-01-01

    Quality of mass description for three different theoretical mass models is studied. Masses and deformations for Po, Pb and Hg isotopes are compared with experimental data. Gap in the proton single particle energy spectrum is discussed.

  11. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  12. Interaction of Hg Atom with Bare Si(111) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-Jun; LIU Ying

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the interaction between Hg atom and bare Si(111) surface, three types of silicon cluster models of Si4H7, Si7H10 and Si16H20 together with their Hg complexes were studied by using hybrid (U)B3LYP density functional theory method. Optimized geometries and energies for Hg atom on different adsorption sites indicate that: 1) the binding energies at different adsorption sites are small (ranging from ~3 to 8 kJ/mol dependent on the adsorption sites), suggesting a weak interaction between Hg atom and silicon surface; 2) the most favorable adsorption site is the on top (T) site. By analyzing their natural bonding orbitals, the possible reason of this difference is suggested.

  13. Cardiac dysfunction in HgCl2-induced nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodrigues, Mónica; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Moura, Cláudia; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2010-03-01

    The experimental model of HgCl(2) injection is characterized by a systemic autoimmune disease which leads to the development of nephrotic syndrome (NS). NS seems to be accompanied by cardiovascular alterations, since patients with NS present an increased incidence in cardiac disease. The aim of our work was to study the effects of HgCl(2)-induced NS on myocardial function and morphometry. Normotensive Brown-Norway rats were injected with HgCl(2) (1 mg/kg, HgCl(2) group; n = 6, subcutaneous) or the vehicle (control group; n = 6, subcutaneous) on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11. The animals were placed in metabolic cages for evaluation of urinary excretion of noradrenaline, sodium, total proteins, albumin and creatinine. Fourteen and 21 days after the first HgCl(2) injection, left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics was evaluated through pressure micromanometers in basal and isovolumetric heartbeats. The heart and gastrocnemius muscle weights and tibial length were also examined. In an additional group of animals cardiac dimensions and ejection fraction were assessed by echocardiography and LV apoptosis and fibrosis were studied. HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, sodium retention and ascites at day 14. These alterations were accompanied by LV hemodynamic changes only in isovolumetric heartbeats. Similarly, on day 21, HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, but no sodium retention or ascites. These animals presented LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in both basal and isovolumetric heartbeats, as well as cardiac atrophy, LV fibrosis and an increase in myocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, HgCl(2)-induced NS is accompanied by LV dysfunction and can be a promising model for studying the link between NS and cardiac disease.

  14. Searching for Line Profile Variability in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S; Knoglinger, P

    2002-01-01

    Spectra of four non-magnetic chemically peculiar late B type stars (HgMn) stars are analysed to detect periodic spectral line variations (LPVs). A procedure developed to study LPVs in Slowly Pulsating B stars has been adopted as pulsational properties of HgMn stars should be expected to be similar. In the preliminary results discussed here no conclusive evidence for periodic LPVs was uncovered. A more sensitive re-analysis of the data is under way.

  15. First observation of excited states in 173Hg93

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, D; Scholey, C; Bianco, L; Capponi, L; Carroll, R J; Darby, I G; Donosa, L; Drummond, M; Ertugral, F; Greenlees, P T; Grahn, T; Hauschild, K; Herzan, A; Jakobsson, U; Jones, P; Joss, D T; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Ketelhut, S; Labiche, M; Leino, M; Lopez-Martens, A; Mullholland, K; Nieminen, P; Peura, P; Rahkila, P; Rinta-Antila, S; Ruotsalainen, P; Sandzelius, M; Saren, J; Saygi, B; Simpson, J; Sorri, J; Thornthwaite, A; Uusitalo, J

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-deficient nucleus 173Hg has been studied following fusion-evaporation reactions. The observation of gamma rays decaying from excited states are reported for the first time and a tentative level scheme is proposed. The proposed level scheme is discussed within the context of the systematics of neighbouring neutron-deficient Hg nuclei. In addition to the gamma-ray spectroscopy, the alpha decay of this nucleus has been measured yielding superior precision to earlier measurements.

  16. Crystal structure of K[Hg(SCN)3] - a redetermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Matthias; Häusler, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The crystal structure of the room-temperature modification of K[Hg(SCN)3], potassium tri-thio-cyanato-mercurate(II), was redetermined based on modern CCD data. In comparison with the previous report [Zhdanov & Sanadze (1952 ▶). Zh. Fiz. Khim. 26, 469-478], reliability factors, standard deviations of lattice parameters and atomic coordinates, as well as anisotropic displacement parameters, were revealed for all atoms. The higher precision and accuracy of the model is, for example, reflected by the Hg-S bond lengths of 2.3954 (11), 2.4481 (8) and 2.7653 (6) Å in comparison with values of 2.24, 2.43 and 2.77 Å. All atoms in the crystal structure are located on mirror planes. The Hg(2+) cation is surrounded by four S atoms in a seesaw shape [S-Hg-S angles range from 94.65 (2) to 154.06 (3)°]. The HgS4 polyhedra share a common S atom, building up chains extending parallel to [010]. All S atoms of the resulting (1) ∞[HgS2/1S2/2] chains are also part of SCN(-) anions that link these chains with the K(+) cations into a three-dimensional network. The K-N bond lengths of the distorted KN7 polyhedra lie between 2.926 (2) and 3.051 (3) Å.

  17. Self-powered sensor for trace Hg2+ detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dan; Deng, Liu; Guo, Shaojun; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-05-15

    A self-powered electrochemical sensor has been facilely designed for sensitive detection of Hg(2+) based on the inhibition of biocatalysis process of enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC) for the first time. The as-prepared one-compartment BFC, which was consisted of alcohol dehydrogenase supported on single-walled carbon nanohorns-based mediator system as the anode and bilirubin oxidase as the cathodic biocatalyst, generated an open circuit potential (V(oc)) of 636 mV and a maximum power density of 137 μW cm(-2). It was interestingly found that the presence of Hg(2+) would affect the performance of the constructed BFC (e.g., V(oc)). Taking advantage of the inhibitive effect of Hg(2+), a novel self-powered Hg(2+) sensor has been developed, which showed a linear range of 1-500 nM (R(2) = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1 nM at room temperature. In addition, this BFC-type sensor exhibited good selectivity for Hg(2+) against other common environmental metal ions, and the feasibility of the method for Hg(2+) detection in actual water samples (i.e., tap, ground, and lake water) was demonstrated with satisfactory results.

  18. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  19. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  20. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  1. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring.

  2. Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea G; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Dranguet, Perrine; Makri, Stamatina; Björn, Erik; Ungureanu, Viorel Gh; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl(-) concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  3. Implementing trials of complex interventions in community settings: The USC – Rancho Los Amigos Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Florence; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Carlson, Mike; Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Vigen, Cheryl; Hay, Joel; Mallinson, Trudy; Blanchard, Jeanine; Unger, Jennifer B.; Garber, Susan L.; Diaz, Jesus; Florindez, Lucia I.; Atkins, Michal; Rubayi, Salah; Azen, Stanley Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Randomized trials of complex, non-pharmacologic interventions implemented in home and community settings, such as the University of Southern California (USC)–Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center (RLANRC) Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS), present unique challenges with respect to: (a) participant recruitment and retention, (b) intervention delivery and fidelity, (c) randomization and assessment, and (d) potential inadvertent treatment effects. Purpose We describe the methods employed to address the challenges confronted in implementing PUPS. In this randomized controlled trial, we are assessing the efficacy of a complex, preventive intervention in reducing the incidence of, and costs associated with, the development of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury. Method Individuals with spinal cord injury recruited from RLANRC were assigned to either a 12-month preventive intervention group or a standard care control group. The primary outcome is the incidence of serious pressure ulcers with secondary endpoints including ulcer-related surgeries, medical treatment costs, and quality of life. These outcomes are assessed at 12 and 24 months after randomization. Additionally, we are studying the mediating mechanisms that account for intervention outcomes. Results PUPS has been successfully implemented, including recruitment of the target sample size of 170 participants, assurance of the integrity of intervention protocol delivery with an average 90% treatment adherence rate, and enactment of the assessment plan. However, implementation has been replete with challenges. To meet recruitment goals, we instituted a five-pronged approach customized for an underserved, ethnically diverse population. In intervention delivery, we increased staff time to overcome economic and cultural barriers to retention and adherence. To ensure treatment fidelity and replicability, we monitored intervention protocol delivery in accord

  4. Hg $L_{3}$ edge absorption study of the $HgBa_{2}CuO_{4}\\delta$ superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Ziyu, Wu; Bianconi, A

    2001-01-01

    The HgBa/sub 2/CuO/sub 4+ delta / superconductor has been studied by high resolution Hg L/sub 3/ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectrum has been simulated by full multiple-scattering calculations in order to explore the origin of different features in the experimental spectrum. The experimental Hg L/sub 3/-edge spectrum could be well reproduced by considering a cluster of 85 atoms, containing 10 shells, within a radius of about 7 AA from the central Hg atom. The low energy spectral feature in the XANES spectrum is found to be due to a transition from the Hg p states to the electronic states hybridized with higher shell Ba atoms. This implies that the transition features in the Hg L/sub 3/- edge XANES are strongly influenced by medium range order effects unlike the case of L/sub 3/ edge of 3d transition metals where short- range order is enough to describe the main transition features. (25 refs).

  5. Hg SOIL GAS AND Hg SOIL DISTRIBUTION AROUND FORMER „ZRINSKI“ MINE ON MT. MEDVEDNICA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jug

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the field and laboratory researches, statistical analyses and graphical displays of the results of Hg soil gas and Hg soil distribution in the area around former mining site „Zrinski“ on Mt. Medvednica. The values of overall Hg concentrations in the soil gas show lognormal distribution, and their spatial distribution outlines the connection with the present Pb-Ag-Zn mineralization and confirms anthropogenic origin of uneven landscape relief (waste rock clusters. Regression analysis of the dependence between Hg contents in the soil gas and the distance from the mine entrance (correlation coefficient r also points to the considerable spatial dependence. Hg soil contents show as well distribution similar to lognormal, and there is a slight correlation when compared with Hg soil gas content. Concentrations are mostly within background values, except in the immediate vicinity of the mine entrance where the values are significantly higher due to the mineralization influence concentrated in the waste-rock clusters. Soil pollution caused by mercury is of local character with the spreading tendency to the south-west because of the dominant relief influence. Mercury found in the soil of the research location derives from the present mineral body and former mining activities, while possible anthropogenic atmospheric inputs from remote sources can not be proven on the basic of conducted research studies (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Natal and breeding philopatry of female Steller sea lions in southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Information on drivers of dispersal is critical for wildlife conservation but is rare for long-lived marine mammal species with large geographic ranges. We fit multi-state mark-recapture models to resighting data of 369 known-aged Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) females marked as pups on their natal rookeries in southeastern Alaska from 1994–2005 and monitored from 2001–15. We estimated probabilities of females being first observed parous at their natal site (natal philopatry), and of not moving breeding sites among years (breeding philopatry) at large (> 400 km, all five rookeries in southeastern Alaska) and small (reproductive strategies of sea lions. PMID:28591130

  7. Superconducting Hg-Based Mixed Oxides and Oxyfluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, E. V.

    2000-09-01

    Syntheses under high pressure and under controlled mercury and oxygen partial pressures of different members of the HgBa2Can-1CunO2n+2+δ series have been developed. There are two main parameters influencing Tc in this family: width of a perovskite slab (n) and concentration (δ) of the extra oxygen located in the Hg layer. The increase of Tc with n occurs until the third member, while after that it decreases. All the members of the series exhibit similar cupola shaped dependencies of Tc vs. δ. Strongly overdoped high members of the series with n = 3-5 were prepared only using high pressure technique and BaO2 as an internal oxidizer. Neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out for monophase oxygenated HgBa2CuO4F4+δ and fluorinated HgBa2CuO4Fδ samples with different extra oxygen or fluorine content and Tc values. Fluorinated series also exhibits the cupola -like behavior for the Tc vs. δ dependence. NPD showed twice the amount of extra fluorine in comparison with those for the oxygenated Hg-1201 phases with close Tc's. The exchange of the extra oxygen by double amount of fluorine causes shortening of the apical Cu-O distances, while the in-plane ones, as well as Tc, do not vary. The influence of the external pressure on the structure and Tc of Hg-1201 strongly depends on the doping level. The increase of the extra oxygen content on going from underdoped to overdoped state results in the larger compression of the apical Cu-O and Ba-OHg distances while the HgO2 dumbbell as well as the distance between Ba and O from the (CuO2) layers becomes practically pressure independent. These results together with the data for fluorinated materials allow to elucidate the crucial structural features responsible for the Tc variation under high pressure.

  8. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.

  9. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: The impact of dental amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, Iman, E-mail: iman@kfshrc.edu.sa [Biological and Medical Research Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sedairi, Al anoud [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box: 24452, Riyadh 11495 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine ({mu}g/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter ({mu}g/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N = 106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N = 76), with means of 3.763 {mu}g/g creatinine versus 3.457 {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P = 0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P = 0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 {mu}g/g (N = 97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 {mu}g/g (N = 74) for those without amalgam fillings (P = 0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 {mu}g/g, N = 61) versus those with (0.163 {mu}g/g, N = 101), the relationship was not significant (P = 0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (P < 0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse relationship was seen between NHg levels and dental amalgam fillings (P = 0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and

  10. Overcoming phytoremediation limitations. A case study of Hg contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a broad term that comprises several technologies to clean up water and soil. Despite the numerous articles appearing in scientific journals, very few field applications of phytoextraction have been successfully realized. The research here reported on Phytoextraction, the use the plant to "extract" metals from contaminated soil, is focused on implementations to overcome two main drawbacks: the survival of plants in unfavorable environmental conditions (contaminant toxicity, low fertility, etc.) and the often lengthy time it takes to reduce contaminants to the requested level. Moreover, to overcome the imbalance between the technology's potential and its drawbacks, there is growing interest in the use of plants to reduce only the fraction that is the most hazardous to the environment and human health, that is to target the bioavailable fractions of metals in soil. Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping (BCS) would be a remediation approach focused to remove the bioavailable metal fractions. BCS have been used in a mercury contaminated soil from Italian industrial site. Bioavailable fractions were determined by sequential extraction with H2O and NH4Cl.Combined treatments of plant hormone and thioligand to strength Hg uptake by crop plants (Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) were tested. Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution following treatments were compared. Results indicate the plant hormone, cytokinine (CK) foliar treatment, increased evapotranspiration rate in both tested plants. The Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants increased with simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments. B. juncea was the most effective in Hg uptake. Application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 232% in shoots and 39% in roots with respect to control. While H. annuus gave a better response in plant biomass production, the application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to

  11. Spectroscopic variability and magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Savanov, I S; Dall, T; Schoeller, M; Cowley, C R; Briquet, M; Arlt, R

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of exotic abundances, chemical inhomogeneities, and weak magnetic fields on the surface of late B-type primaries in spectroscopic binaries has important implications not only for our understanding of the formation mechanisms of stars with Hg and Mn peculiarities themselves, but also for the general understanding of B-type star formation in binary systems. The origin of the abundance anomalies observed in late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity is still poorly understood. The connection between HgMn peculiarity and membership in binary and multiple systems is supported by our observations during the last decade. The important result achieved in our studies of a large sample of HgMn stars is the finding that most HgMn stars exhibit spectral variability of various chemical elements, proving that the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution on the surface of these stars is a rather common characteristic and not a rare phenomenon. Further, in the studied systems, we found that all components are che...

  12. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  13. Are there tangled magnetic fields on HgMn stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Jeffers, S V; Johns-Krull, C M; Keller, C U; Rodenhuis, M; Snik, F; Stempels, H C; Valenti, J A

    2013-01-01

    Several recent spectrophotometric studies failed to detect significant global magnetic fields in late-B HgMn chemically peculiar stars, but some investigations have suggested the presence of strong unstructured or tangled fields in these objects. We used detailed spectrum synthesis analysis to search for evidence of tangled magnetic fields in high-quality observed spectra of 8 slowly rotating HgMn stars and one normal late-B star. We also evaluated recent sporadic detections of weak longitudinal magnetic fields in HgMn stars based on the moment technique. Our analysis of the Zeeman broadening of magnetically sensitive spectral lines reveals no evidence of tangled magnetic fields in any of the studied HgMn or normal stars. We infer upper limits of 200-700 G for the mean magnetic field modulus -- much smaller than the field strengths implied by studies based on differential magnetic line intensification and quadratic field diagnostics. The new HARPSpol longitudinal field measurements for the extreme HgMn star H...

  14. Crystal structure of Hg2SO4 – a redetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of mercury(I sulfate (or mercurous sulfate, Hg2SO4, was re-determined based on modern CCD data. In comparison with the previous determination from Weissenberg film data [Dorm (1969. Acta Chem. Scand. 23, 1607–1615], all atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters, leading to higher precision in terms of bond lengths and angles [e.g. Hg—Hg = 2.5031 (7 compared to 2.500 (3Å]. The structure consists of alternating rows along [001] of Hg22+ dumbbells (generated by inversion symmetry and SO42− tetrahedra (symmetry 2. The dumbbells are linked via short O—Hg—Hg—O bonds to the sulfate tetrahedra into chains extending parallel to [20-1]. More remote O—Hg—Hg—O bonds connect these chains into a three-dimensional framework.

  15. Characterization studies of purified HgI{sub 2} precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. E-mail: Schieber@vms.huji.ac.il; Zuck, A.; Sanguinetti, S.; Montalti, M.; Braiman, M.; Melekhov, L.; Nissenbaum, J.; Grilli, E.; Guzzi, M.; Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L

    1999-06-01

    The ability of HgI{sub 2} powders, used as precursors in mercuric iodide crystal growth, to produce high-quality detectors may be predicted by non-destructive methods like photoluminescence. In fact, it is possible to correlate the presence and the intensity ratio of specific bands in the photoluminescence spectrum of a HgI{sub 2} crystal to its impurity content and stoichiometry. These quantities determine the detector grade that may be achieved using that starting material. Nine different HgI{sub 2} precursors, obtained by different purification methods, have been characterized. The lowest impurity content is achieved via poly-ethylene treatment, which gives also a powder of relatively good stoichiometric quality.

  16. [Experimental Research of Hg (II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions of HgCl2 with Nano-TiO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiong; Zhang, Jin-yang; Wang, Ding-yong; Qin, Cai-qing; Xu, Feng; Luo Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi

    2016-01-15

    Mercury removal from aqueous solutions of HgCl2 was studied by indoor simulation experiments, and the effects of three different diameter of particles of Nano-TiO2 ( Nano-Titanium Dioxide) at different dosage, pH, adsorption time and the initial concentration of Hg2+ on the mercury adsorption from simulated wastewater were investigated. The single factor experiments showed that the optimal conditions were: 7.5 g x L(-1) of 5 nm TiO2 or 2.0 g x L(-1) of 100 nm TiO2, pH 8.0, initial concentration of Hg2+ 15 x mg x L(-1) adsorption time 5 min, and under these conditions the adsorption rates reached 99.5% and 99.3%, relatively. When the content of 25 nm TiO2 was 10 g x L(-1), and the other conditions were pH 8.0, initial concentration of Hg2+ 15 mg x L(-1), adsorption time 60 min, the adsorption rate was 62.8%. The Hg(II) removal effects of the TiO2 particles with different diameters followed the order of 100 nm TiO2 > 5 nm TiO2 > 25 nm TiO2. Component adsorption results showed that the 5 nm TiO2 component adsorption effect was superior to its single adsorption effect, while there was little difference between 100 nm TiO2 component adsorption effect and its single adsorption effect. The results of orthogonal experiments indicated that the influencing factors of the adsorption rate followed the order of pH > the initial concentration of Hg2+ > time > dosage. The optimal experiment scheme was: pH 8.0, a dosage of 100 nm Nano-TiO2 of 2.0 g x L(-1) an initial Hg2+ concentration of 25 mg x L(-1) and adsorption time of 10 min. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum adsorption rate reached 99.9%, at the same time, the equilibrium concentration of Hg(II) was 0.033 mg x L(-1) adsorptive capacity was 26.95 mg x g(-1). The adsorption isotherm was in line with the Langmuir isotherm equation, indicating that the Hg(II) uptake by 100 nm Nano-TiO2 was typical monolayer adsorption.

  17. The cost of dominance: suppressing subordinate reproduction affects the reproductive success of dominant female banded mongooses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M B V; Nichols, H J; Gilchrist, J S; Cant, M A; Hodge, S J

    2012-02-07

    Social species show considerable variation in the extent to which dominant females suppress subordinate reproduction. Much of this variation may be influenced by the cost of active suppression to dominants, who may be selected to balance the need to maximize the resources available for their own offspring against the costs of interfering with subordinate reproduction. To date, the cost of reproductive suppression has received little attention, despite its potential to influence the outcome of conflict over the distribution of reproduction in social species. Here, we investigate possible costs of reproductive suppression in banded mongooses, where dominant females evict subordinates from their groups, thereby inducing subordinate abortion. We show that evicting subordinate females is associated with substantial costs to dominant females: pups born to females who evicted subordinates while pregnant were lighter than those born after undisturbed gestations; pups whose dependent period was disrupted by an eviction attained a lower weight at independence; and the proportion of a litter that survived to independence was reduced if there was an eviction during the dependent period. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study indicating a possible cost to dominants in attempting to suppress subordinate breeding, and we argue that much of the variation in reproductive skew both within and between social species may be influenced by adaptive variation in the effort invested in suppression by dominants.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of alpha- and beta-HgS nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galain, Isabel; María, Pérez Barthaburu; Ivana, Aguiar; Laura, Fornaro

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized HgS nanostructures by the hydrothermal method in order to use them as electron acceptors in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. We employed different mercury sources (HgO and Hg(CH3COO)2) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hexadecanethiol (HDT) as stabilizing/capping agent for controlling size, crystallinity, morphology and stability of the obtained nanostructures. We also used thiourea as sulfur source, and a temperature of 180 °C during 6 h. Synthesized nanostructures were characterized by powder X-Ray Diffraction, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Transmission Electron Microscopy. When PVP acts as stabilizing agent, the mercury source has influence on the size -but not in morphology- of the beta-HgS obtained nansostructures. HDT has control over nanostructures' size and depending on the relation Hg:HDT, we obtained a mixture of alpha and beta HgS which can be advantageous in the application in solar cells, due their absorption in different spectral regions. The smallest nanostructures obtained have a mean diameter of 20 nm when using HDT as capping agent. Also, we deposited the aforementioned nanostructures onto flat glass substrates by the spin coating technique as a first approach of an active layer of a solar cell. The depositions were characterized by atomic force microscopy. We obtained smaller particle deposition and higher particle density -but a lower area coverage (5%) - in samples with HDT as capping agent. This work presents promising results on nanostructures for future application on hybrid solar cells. Further efforts will be focused on the deposition of organic-inorganic layers.

  19. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: the impact of dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Sedairi, Al Anoud

    2011-07-15

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine (μg/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter (μg/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N=106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N=76), with means of 3.763 μg/g creatinine versus 3.457 μg/g creatinine, respectively (P=0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P=0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 μg/g (N=97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 μg/g (N=74) for those without amalgam fillings (P=0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 μg/g, N=61) versus those with (0.163 μg/g, N=101), the relationship was not significant (P=0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (Pdental amalgam fillings (P=0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and/or nephrotoxic effects of such an increased Hg on children should be a cause of concern, and further investigation is warranted. Our

  20. Crystal Growth of Solid Solution HgCdTe Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of homogenous crystals of HgCdTe alloys is complicated by the large separation between their liquidus and solidus temperatures. Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te is representative of several alloys which have electrical and optical properties that can be compositionally tuned for a number of applications. Limitations imposed by gravity during growth and results from growth under reduced conditions are described. The importance of residual accelerations was demonstrated by dramatic differences in compositional distribution observed for different attitudes of the space shuttle that resulted in different steady acceleration components.

  1. Natural Hg isotopic composition of different Hg compounds in mammal tissues as a proxy for in vivo breakdown of toxic methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Vincent; Masbou, Jeremy; Pastukhov, Mikhail V; Epov, Vladimir N; Point, David; Bérail, Sylvain; Becker, Paul R; Sonke, Jeroen E; Amouroux, David

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, specific attention has been paid to total mercury (HgT) stable isotopic composition, especially in natural samples such as aquatic organisms, due to its potential to track the cycle of this toxic element in the environment. Here, we investigated Hg Compound Specific stable Isotopic Composition (CSIC) of natural inorganic Hg (iHg) and methylmercury (MMHg) in various tissues of aquatic mammals (Beluga whale from the Arctic marine environment and seals from the freshwater lake Baikal, Russia). In seals' organs the variation in mass dependent fractionation (MDF, δ(202)Hg) for total Hg was significantly correlated to the respective fraction of iHg and MMHg compounds, with MMHg being enriched by ∼ 3‰ in heavier isotopes relative to iHg. On the other hand, we observe insignificant variation in Hg mass independent isotope fractionation (MIF, Δ(199)Hg) among iHg and MMHg in all organs for the same mammal species and MMHg in prey items. MIF signatures suggest that both MMHg and iHg in aquatic mammals have the same origin (i.e., MMHg from food), and are representative of Hg photochemistry in the water column of the mammal ecosystem. MDF signatures of Hg compounds indicate that MMHg is demethylated in vivo before being stored in the muscle, and the iHg formed is stored in the liver, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, before excretion. Thus, Hg CSIC analysis in mammals can be a powerful tool for tracing the metabolic response to Hg exposure.

  2. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badzinski, S.S.; Flint, P.L.; Gorman, K.B.; Petrie, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 ??g g-1 dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 ??g g-1 dw), and selenium (Se: >10 ??g g-1 dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Variations in stable isotope fractionation of Hg in food webs of Arctic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Nikolaus; Hintelmann, Holger; Zheng, Wang; Muir, Derek C

    2009-12-15

    Biotic and abiotic fractionation of mercury (Hg) isotopes has recently been shown to occur in aquatic environments. We determined isotope ratios (IRs) of Hg in food webs (zooplankton, chironomids, Arctic char) and sediments of 10 Arctic lakes from four regions and investigated the extent of Hg isotope fractionation. Hg IRs were analyzed by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP/MS). Hg mass independent fractionation (MIF; Delta(199)Hg) and mass dependent fractionation (MDF; delta(202)Hg) were calculated and compared among samples. IRs of Hg in sediment were characterized mainly by MDF and low MIF (Delta(199)Hg -0.37 to 0.74 per thousand). However, all biota showed evidence of MIF, most pronounced in zooplankton (Delta(199)Hg up to 3.40 per thousand) and char (Delta(199)Hg up to 4.87 per thousand). Zooplankton takes up highly fractionated MeHg directly from the water column, while benthic organisms are exposed to sedimentary Hg, which contains less fractionated Hg. As evidenced by delta(13)C measurements, benthic chironomids make up a large proportion of char diet, explaining in part why MIF(char) meteor impact crater lake (Pingualuk) reflects a "pure" atmospheric Hg signature, which is modified only by aqueous in-lake processes. All other lakes are also affected by terrestrial Hg inputs and sediment processes.

  4. 电磁辐射对子代大鼠学习记忆功能的影响%Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on learning and memory function of rat pups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 王晋; 郭国祯

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to electromagnetic radiation results in behavioral effects of rat pups.Methods Wistar rats,either male or female,were divided randomly into four groups respectively:control(CTR),100 seconds(S1),1000 seconds(S10)and 3000 seconds(S30),then each of them were exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 100 kV/m field amplitude of corresponding time.For the day of exposure till 2 months later.they were mated with the rats in the same group and their offspring were divided into four groups(F-GTB,F-S1,F-S10,F-S30)correspondingly.Behavioral changes occur in 2-month old and 6-month old rat pups were found between radiation groups and control,and in Y-maze test,beth male and female pups in F-S10 significantly learned fewer times than their control(total study times:male 14.6±3.9 vs 21.1±7.8,female13.4±3.0 vs 25.8±8.8;false times:male 3.5±2.4 vs 7.8±5.4,female 3.4±2.6 vs 11.0±7.2).In open field test,both maze,male pups in F-S1 and F-S30 learned more times than control in total study time(24.2±8.9 vs 14.1±5.2.30.7±12.4 vs 14.1±5.2).In step throush test and open field test,no significant differences were found between radiation groups and control.Conclusion There was significant genetic effect exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 100 kV/m,mainly manifested in rat pups in growth period but without long-term effect.%目的 研究电磁辐射对子代大鼠学习记忆能力的影响.方法 健康Wistar大鼠分为雌雄2组,每组又随机分为4组:对照组(CRT)、100s组(SI)、1000 s组(S10)和3000 s组(S30)组,分别接受0s、100s、1000 s和3000 s电磁辐射(场强100kV/m).辐照后2月将辐照时间相同的雌性和雄性动物合笼生育子代,子代雌雄2组根据其亲代的分组方式相应分为F-CTR、F-S1、F-S10、F-S30(F指子代),各4组,每组20只.通过行为学实验检测2月龄和6月龄子代大鼠的学习记忆能力.结果 (1)2月龄子代大鼠:穿梭实验中各辐照组与对照组比均差异

  5. 46 CFR 53.01-5 - Scope (modifies HG-100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-5 Scope (modifies HG-100). (a) The regulations in this part apply to steam heating boilers, hot water boilers (which include hot water heating boilers and hot water supply...

  6. Decay from the superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformed bands in {sup 194}H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum {gamma}rays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in {sup 192}Hg. These features include: statistical {gamma}rays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from {gamma}rays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even {sup 191}Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum.

  7. Emission and gain studies of the Tl-Hg excimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilukuri, S.; Nayfeh, M.H.

    1978-11-01

    The pressure and temperature dependence of the Tl-Hg excimer emission in the visible from an rf excited discharge has been studied. The gain of the system in the blue band at 4585 A is probed with an Ar-ion laser. With gain sensitivity limited to 1/2% due to beam steering and defocusing effects, the system has no gain.

  8. Hypotension is 100 mm Hg on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    corroborate the predictive value of admission metabolic acidosis on patient survival. We also were able to show that an SBP of 110 mm Hg after injury was... metabolic acidosis , complications, length of stay, intensive care unit days, and ventilator days all increased. The implication of our result suggested

  9. Experimental study of 199Hg spin anti-relaxation coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhuri, Z; Horras, M; Kirch, K; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Mtchedlishvili, A; Rebreyend, D; Roccia, S; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Zsigmond, G

    2013-01-01

    We report on a comparison of spin relaxation rates in a $^{199}$Hg magnetometer using different wall coatings. A compact mercury magnetometer was built for this purpose. Glass cells coated with fluorinated materials show longer spin coherence times than if coated with their hydrogenated homologues. The longest spin relaxation time of the mercury vapor was measured with a fluorinated paraffin wall coating.

  10. Ion Beam Nanostructuring of HgCdTe Ternary Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Aleksey B.; Savkina, Rada K.; Udovytska, Ruslana S.; Gudymenko, Oleksandr I.; Kladko, Vasyl P.; Korchovyi, Andrii A.

    2017-05-01

    Systematic study of mercury cadmium telluride thin films subjected to the ion beam bombardment was carried out. The evolution of surface morphology of (111) Hg1 - x Cd x Te ( x 0.223) epilayers due to 100 keV B+ and Ag+ ion irradiation was studied by AFM and SEM methods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods were used for the investigation of the chemical compound and structural properties of the surface and subsurface region. It was found that in the range of nanoscale, arrays of holes and mounds on Hg0.777Cd0.223Te (111) surface as well as the polycrystalline Hg1 - x Cd x Te cubic phase with alternative compound ( x 0.20) have been fabricated using 100 keV ion beam irradiation of the basic material. Charge transport investigation with non-stationary impedance spectroscopy method has shown that boron-implanted structures are characterized by capacity-type impedance whereas for silver-implanted structures, an inductive-type impedance (or "negative capacitance") is observed. A hybrid system, which integrates the nanostructured ternary compound (HgCdTe) with metal-oxide (Ag2O) inclusions, was fabricated by Ag+ ion bombardment. The sensitivity of such metal-oxide-semiconductor hybrid structure for sub-THz radiation was detected with NEP 4.5 × 10-8 W/Hz1/2at ν ≈ 140 GHz and 296 K without amplification.

  11. Thermodynamics limits the reactivity of BrHg radical with volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Theodore S.; Schwid, Abraham C.

    2016-08-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere primarily consist of Hg(0), which tends not to enter ecosystems until it is oxidized. Atomic bromine initiates oxidation of Hg(0) via the BrHg intermediate, but the further reactions of BrHg are just beginning to be explored. Here we use quantum chemistry to determine that hydrogen abstraction from hydrocarbons by BrHg is so endothermic as to be irrelevant. Bonds between BrHg and carbon atoms are so weak that BrHg addition to carbon-carbon double bonds atoms will be somewhat ineffective in leading to further reactions.

  12. Isotopic Composition of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (Hg0) at Various Sites in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, A.; Moriya, K.; Yoshinaga, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal, which exists in various chemical forms in the environmental system. In the atmosphere, Hg exists in three forms (Hg0(g), Hg+2(g), and Hg(p)). Hg0(g) is the dominant species of atmospheric Hg, accounting for >95% of the total Hg in the atmosphere. Because Hg0(g) is highly volatile and has limited solubility in water, it cannot be easily removed by wet or dry deposition processes. Therefore, the residence time of Hg0(g) in the atmosphere is relatively long (1 to 2 years), allowing long-range transport from mercury emission source(s). Conversely, Hg+2(g) and Hg(p) are effectively removed from the atmosphere through wet and dry depositions. The determination of mercury source attribution using quantitative data is challenging because Hg0(g) may be deposited on an area upon oxidation to Hg+2(g) and associated with aerosols and particulates to form Hg(p) while the global cycling of Hg0(g). Over the last decade, the development of analytical methods of highly precise Hg isotopic measurements demonstrated mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in environmental samples. For instance, MDF of Hg isotopes is thought to occur during various natural and industrial Hg transformations. MIF of Hg isotopes is observed during abiotic reduction, photochemical and non-photochemical, and physical and chemical processes. Such processes lead to differences in the Hg isotopic composition of different emission sources, both natural and anthropogenic, and atmospheric processes (i.e., transportation, oxidation/reduction, deposition, and reemission). Therefore, Hg isotopic compositions could be used to trace the sources and processes of atmospheric Hg. For securing the reliability and accuracy of atmospheric Hg isotope data, the methods of collection, pretreatment, and isotopic measurement for Hg0(g) were developed to obtain high recovery yield of samples with no Hg isotopic fractionation during each

  13. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input/output processes. In this study, the main controls on Hg methylation rates and total concentrations of MeHg, were investigated at eight sites in Sweden with sediments that had been subjected to local Hg contamination either as Hg(0), or as phenyl-Hg. Sediments were selected to represent a gradient in total Hg concentration, temperature climate, salinity, primary productivity, and organic C content and quality. Most sediments were high in organic matter content due to wood fibre efflux from pulp and paper industry. The pore water was analysed for total Hg, MeHg, DOC, H2S(aq), pH, DOC, Cl and Br. The chemical speciation of Hg(II) and MeHg in pore water was calculated using equilibrium models. Potential methylation and demethylation rates in sediments were determined in incubation experiments at 23° C under N2(g) for 48 h, after addition of isotopically enriched 201Hg(II) and Me204Hg. In all surface (0-20 cm) sediments there was a significant (pproduction overruled degradation and input/output processes of MeHg in surface sediments, and that % MeHg in surface sediments may be used as a proxy for net production of MeHg. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing significant positive relationships between short term (48 h) MeHg production and longer term accumulation of MeHg, across a range of sites with different properties (1). If MeHg was not normalized to total Hg, the relationship was not significant. For sub-sets of brackish waters (pproductivity freshwaters (pproductivity freshwater (p=0.048, n=6), the sum of neutral Hg-sulfides [Hg(SH)20 (aq)] and [HgS0 (aq)] in the sediment pore

  14. Growth, properties and applications of HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, J. L.

    1983-12-01

    This paper provides primarily a review of the methods used to grow HgCdTe with a summary of some of its basic properties and applications. Methods of crystal growth fall generally into three classes: growth from the melt, from solution and from the vapor phase. All three methods have been and are being used to grow HgCdTe. The high vapor pressure of HgCdTe at the melting point, combined with a large segregation coefficient, have effectively limited the use of Czochralski or zone melting techniques, but two melt growth techniques have survived: (1) a variation of Bridgman growth called quench-anneal wherein a dendritic crystal is formed by quenching the melt and is homogenized by solid state recrystallization below the melting point, (2) a variation of freezing from a large volume called slush-growth wherein a melt is held in a temperature gradient for several weeks while a crystal grows. Growth from solution has taken the form of liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on CdTe with the LPE systems including growth from Hg-rich, HgTe-rich and Te-rich solutions and using tipping, vertical dipping, vertical sliding and horizontal sliding. Vapor phase growth is very promising but is not yet in production. Techniques include growth by isothermal close spaced epitaxy in which HgTe is transported isothermally by chemical potential onto CdTe, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in which elements are evaporated in a high vacuum, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in which some of the metal atoms are carried to the substrate bound to organic radicals before being freed by pyrolysis. In all these methods, control of Hg pressure is a major concern. The fundamental properties discussed briefly are those of prime interest to detector manufacturers: energy gap ( Eg), intrinsic carrier concentration ( ni), and electrical activity of dopants. A reasonable fit to the Eg data from ˜ 20 papers is given by Eg = -0.302+1.93x+5.35×10 -4T(1-2x)-0.810x 2+0.832x 3. This gap, combined with k

  15. Formation of PdHg by reaction of palladium thin film contacts deposited onto mercuric iodide ({alpha}-HgI{sub 2}) radiation detector crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medlin, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Van Scyoc, J.M. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Gilbert, T.S. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Schlesinger, T.E. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Boehme, D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Schieber, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Natarajan, M. [TN Technologies, Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); James, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The microstructure and phase distribution of palladium thin films sputter deposited onto {alpha}-HgI{sub 2} for use as electrical contacts in radiation detectors are investigated using electron microscopy. Our results show a limited reaction to form palladium mercuride (PdHg). It is shown that the formation of PdHg via several reaction pathways is thermodynamically feasible. (orig.).

  16. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion adult and juvenile (non-pup) conducted on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and others from 1904-01-01 to 2015-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0128190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  17. Urinary mercury levels in females: influence of skin-lightening creams and dental amalgam fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Saleh, I; Shinwari, N

    1997-10-01

    The influence of application of skin-lightening creams and dental amalgam fillings on the urinary mercury (Hg) level was evaluated in 225 females (ages 17 to 58 years) living in Riyadh, capital of Saudi Arabia. The arithmetic mean of the urinary Hg level was 6.96 +/- 20.43 micrograms 1(-1), in the range 0 to 204.8 micrograms 1(-1). The mean urinary Hg level adjusted by creatinine (Cr) was 11.22 +/- 37.23 micrograms g-1 Cr, in the range 0 to 459.37 micrograms g-1. No significant difference in urinary Hg was noted between the females regarding the use of skin-lightening creams. On the other hand, results showed that urinary Hg concentration was influenced by the use and number of dental amalgam fillings. No women were identified with symptoms or signs that could be attributed to Hg intoxication. Urine analyses for creatinine, urea, uric acid, phosphorus, magnesium, glucose and calcium showed significant correlation with urinary Hg. This suggests that chronic exposure to Hg may be associated with a deterioration of renal function.

  18. Both Maternal and Pup Genotype Influence Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Early Developmental Milestones in Tsc2+/− Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Greene-Colozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by tumor growth and neuropsychological symptoms such as autistic behavior, developmental delay, and epilepsy. While research has shed light on the biochemical and genetic etiology of TSC, the pathogenesis of the neurologic and behavioral manifestations remains poorly understood. TSC patients have a greatly increased risk of developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder, rendering the relationship between the two sets of symptoms an extremely pertinent issue for clinicians. We have expanded on previous observations of aberrant vocalizations in Tsc2+/− mice by testing vocalization output and developmental milestones systematically during the early postnatal period. In this study, we have demonstrated that Tsc2 haploinsufficiency in either dams or their pups results in a pattern of developmental delay in sensorimotor milestones and ultrasonic vocalizations.

  19. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and recent studies in our laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development......, even though the doses of the single compounds are below their individual NOAELs for anti-androgenic effects. Consequently, we have initiated a large project where the purpose is to study mixture effects of endocrine disrupting pesticides at low doses. In the initial range-finding mixture studies, rats...... were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup...

  20. Molecular characterisation of Babesia gibsoni infection from a Pit-bull terrier pup recently imported into South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Matjila

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni was diagnosed in a 3-month-old Pit-bull pup during a routine clinical examination. Diagnosis was confirmed by way of smear examination, PCR, Reverse Line Blot (RLB and sequence analysis which showed 100% homology with B. gibsoni (Japan AB118032 and Babesia sp. (Oklahoma (AF205636. Haematology showed moderate anaemia and severe thrombocytopenia. Treatment was initiated with diminazene aceturate (Berenil RTU(R followed by 2 doses of imidocarb diproprionate (Forray-65(R 3 days and 14 days later, respectively. Babesia gibsoni DNA was still detectable 2 weeks post-treatment on the PCR/RLB test. A 10-day course of combination drug therapy using atovaquone and azithromycin was initiated. Blood samples taken on Day 1 and Day 40 after completion of treatment were negative for B. gibsoni DNA on PCR/RLB test. The implications of a possible introduction of B. gibsoni into South Africa are discussed.

  1. The median preoptic nucleus exhibits circadian regulation and is involved in food anticipatory activity in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Rabbit pups are a natural model to study food anticipatory activity (FAA). Recently, we reported that three areas in the forebrain - the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and medial preoptic area - exhibit activation during FAA. Here, we examined the PER1 protein profile of these three forebrain regions in both nursed and fasted subjects. We found robust PER1 oscillations in the MnPO in nursed subjects, with high PER1 levels during FAA that persisted in fasted subjects. In conclusion, our data indicate that periodic nursing is a strong signal for PER1 oscillations in MnPO and future experiments are warranted to explore the specific role of this area in FAA.

  2. Predicting mercury concentrations in mallard eggs from mercury in the diet or blood of adult females and from duckling down feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of Hg concentrations in avian eggs can be used to predict possible harm to reproduction, but it is not always possible to sample eggs. When eggs cannot be sampled, some substitute tissue, such as female blood, the diet of the breeding female, or down feathers of hatchlings, must be used. When female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing methylmercury chloride, the concentration of Hg in a sample of their blood was closely correlated with the concentration of Hg in the egg they laid the day they were bled (r2=0.88; pembryotoxicity, our findings demonstrate that measuring Hg in the diet of breeding birds, in the blood of egg-laying females, or in down feathers of hatchlings all can be used to estimate what concentration of Hg may have been in the egg.

  3. Comparison of the characteristics and mechanisms of Hg(II) sorption by biochars and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Schierz, Ariette; Xu, Nan; Cao, Xinde

    2016-02-01

    Two biochars were produced from bagasse and hickory chips (referred to as BB and HCB, respectively) and evaluated for their sorption ability of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. A commercial activated carbon (AC) which is commonly used for Hg(II) removal was included for comparison. Both biochars showed higher sorption capacities than AC, following the trend of BB>HCB>AC. The sorption of Hg(II) by BB and AC was mainly attributed to the formation of (COO)2Hg(II) and (O)2Hg(II). As a result, the adsorption capacity of Hg(II) by BB decreased 17.6% and 37.6% after COOH and OH were blocked, respectively and that of Hg(II) by AC decreased 6.63% and 62.2% for COOH and OH hindered, respectively. However, blocking the function groups had little effect on the Hg removal by HCB since sorption of Hg(II) by HCB was mainly resulted from the π electrons of CC and CO induced Hg-π binding. Further X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated the possibility of reduction of the Hg(II) to Hg(I) by phenol groups or π electrons during the removal of Hg(II) by both biochars. In conclusion, biochar is more effective than activated carbon in removing Hg(II) and there exists a high potential that biochar can be a substitute of activated carbon for removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  4. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  5. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol protect from bisphenol A effects in livers and kidneys of lactating mother rats and their pups'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Asma; Ghorbel, Héla; Bouallegui, Zouhair; Marrekchi, Rim; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in hard plastics and the coatings of food and drinks cans which can behave in a similar way to estrogen and other hormones in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of the treatment with oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol olive leaves rich extracts in reducing functional perturbations and oxidative stress arising from BPA treatment in livers and kidneys of lactating mother rats and their pups'. For this, four groups of lactating mothers were used: controls (group A), treated with bisphenol A (group B), treated with bisphenol A and oleuropein (group C) and with bisphenol A and hydroxytyrosol (group D). As results, we had found, in BPA treated group, either in mothers or in their pups', a significant decrease in morphological parameters, in catalase activity and in total antioxidant capacity associated to an increase in malondialdehyde levels in livers and kidneys. For these rats, the histological aspect showed, also, deep changes. Indeed, we had observed, in livers, hepatocellular necrosis associated to leucocytes infiltration and in kidneys tubular and glomerular necrosis. The co-treatments with BPA and oleuropein (group C) or with BPA and hydroxytyrosol (group D) ameliorate all morphological, biochemical and histological parameters as compared to BPA treated group B. The analysis of BPA and its derivatives with LC-MS/MS showed changes in their localizations between serum, livers or kidneys in all studied groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the hepato-protective and reno-protective effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol olive leaves extracts from BPA and its derivates toxicity.

  6. Comparative protective effects of royal jelly and cod liver oil against neurotoxic impact of tartrazine on male rat pups brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Galal, Azza A A; Elewa, Yaser H A

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure.

  7. Effects of voluntary exercise on anxiety-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in rat pups borne from morphine-dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Mokhtari, Amin; Safari, Manouchehr

    2014-08-22

    Exposure to morphine during pregnancy produced long-term effects in offspring behaviors. Recent studies have shown that voluntary exercise decreases the severity of anxiety behaviors in both morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Thus, the aims of the present study were to examine whether maternal exercise decreases prenatal dependence-induced anxiety and also, voluntary consumption of morphine in animal models of craving in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with access to a running wheel that lasted at least 21 days. Then, anxiety-like behaviors using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and voluntary consumption of morphine using a two-bottle choice paradigm (TBC) were tested in male rat pups. The results showed that the rat pups borne from exercising morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time (Pexercising morphine-dependent mothers was less in the second (Pexercise decreases the severity of the anxiogenic-like behaviors and voluntary consumption of morphine in rat pups.

  8. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Erdsack

    Full Text Available Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  9. Energetic costs and thermoregulation in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups: the importance of behavioral strategies for thermal balance in furred marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwanag, Heather E M

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral thermoregulation represents an important strategy for reducing energetic costs in thermally challenging environments, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates. Because of the cryptic lifestyle of aquatic species, the energetic benefits of such behaviors in marine endotherms have been much more difficult to demonstrate. In this study, I examined the importance of behavioral thermoregulation in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pup, a small-bodied endotherm that spends prolonged periods at sea. The thermal neutral zones of three weaned male northern fur seal pups (body mass range = 11.8-12.8 kg) were determined by measuring resting metabolic rate using open-flow respirometry at water temperatures ranging from 2.5° to 25.0°C. Metabolic rate averaged 10.03 ± 2.26 mL O₂kg⁻¹ min⁻¹ for pups resting within their thermal neutral zone; lower critical temperature was 8.3° ± 2.5°C , approximately 8°C higher than the coldest sea surface temperatures encountered in northern Pacific waters. To determine whether behavioral strategies could mitigate this potential thermal limitation, I measured metabolic rate during grooming activities and the unique jughandling behavior of fur seals. Both sedentary grooming and active grooming resulted in significant increases in metabolic rate relative to rest (P = 0.001), and percent time spent grooming increased significantly at colder water temperatures (P strategies may help to mitigate thermal challenges faced by northern fur seal pups while resting at sea.

  10. Pharmacological and methodological aspects of the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups; a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, Lucianne; Verdouw, P Monika; Bakker, Brenda; Wever, Kimberley E

    2015-01-01

    The separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups is one of many that has been used to screen for anxiolytic-like properties of drugs. The test is based on the cross-species phenomenon that infants emit distress calls when placed in social isolation. Here we report a systematic review and

  11. Pharmacological and methodological aspects of the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups; a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, L.; Verdouw, P.M.; Bakker, B.; Wever, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    The separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups is one of many that has been used to screen for anxiolytic-like properties of drugs. The test is based on the cross-species phenomenon that infants emit distress calls when placed in social isolation. Here we report a systematic review and

  12. High removal efficacy of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) ions from aqueous solution by organoalkoxysilane-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Norasikin; Johari, Khairiraihanna; Song, Shiow-Tien; Kong, Helen; Cheu, Siew-Chin; Mat, Hanapi

    2017-03-01

    An effective organoalkoxysilanes-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass (OS-LWB) adsorbent aiming for high removal towards inorganic and organic mercury (Hg(II) and MeHg(II)) ions was prepared. Organoalkoxysilanes (OS) namely mercaptoproyltriethoxylsilane (MPTES), aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTES), aminoethylaminopropyltriethoxylsilane (AEPTES), bis(triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide (BTESPT), methacrylopropyltrimethoxylsilane (MPS) and ureidopropyltriethoxylsilane (URS) were grafted onto the LWB using the same conditions. The MPTES grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass (MPTES-LWB) showed the highest adsorption capacity towards both mercury ions. The adsorption behavior of inorganic and organic mercury ions (Hg(II) and MeHg(II)) in batch adsorption studies shows that it was independent with pH of the solutions and dependent on initial concentration, temperature and contact time. The maximum adsorption capacity of Hg(II) was greater than MeHg(II) which respectively followed the Temkin and Langmuir models. The kinetic data analysis showed that the adsorptions of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) onto MPTES-LWB were respectively controlled by the physical process of film diffusion and the chemical process of physisorption interactions. The overall mechanism of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) adsorption was a combination of diffusion and chemical interaction mechanisms. Regeneration results were very encouraging especially for the Hg(II); this therefore further demonstrated the potential application of organosilane-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass as low-cost adsorbents for mercury removal process.

  13. Species-specific differences and similarities in the behavior of hand-raised dog and wolf pups in social situations with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácsi, Márta; Gyori, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám; Virányi, Zsófia; Kubinyi, Eniko; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

    2005-09-01

    In order to reveal early species-specific differences, we observed the behavior of dog puppies (n = 11) and wolf pups (n = 13) hand raised and intensively socialized in an identical way. The pups were studied in two object-preference tests at age 3, 4, and 5 weeks. After a short isolation, we observed the subjects' behavior in the presence of a pair of objects, one was always the subject's human foster parent (caregiver) and the other was varied; nursing bottle (3 weeks), unfamiliar adult dog (3 and 5 weeks), unfamiliar experimenter (4 and 5 weeks), and familiar conspecific age mate (4 weeks). Dogs and wolves did not differ in their general activity level during the tests. Wolf pups showed preference for the proximity of the caregiver in two of the tests; Bottle-Caregiver at the age of 3 weeks and Experimenter-Caregiver at the age of 5 weeks, while dogs showed preference to the caregiver in three tests; conspecific Pup-Caregiver and Experimenter-Caregiver at the age of 4 weeks and dog-caregiver at the age of 5. Compared to wolves, dogs tended to display more communicative signals that could potentially facilitate social interactions, such as distress vocalization, tail wagging, and gazing at the humans' face. In contrast to dog puppies, wolf pups showed aggressive behavior toward a familiar experimenter and also seemed to be more prone to avoidance. Our results demonstrate that already at this early age--despite unprecedented intensity of socialization and the comparable social (human) environment during early development--there are specific behavioral differences between wolves and dogs mostly with regard to their interactions with humans.

  14. Constituent ratio of motor fibers from the C5-C7 spinal nerves in the radial nerve is greater in pup rats than in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Mingbo; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yudong

    2012-06-01

    Clinically, injuries of C5-C7 of the brachial plexus cause falling of the wrist and fingers in infants but not in adults unless 4 consecutive spinal nerves are injured. The purpose of this study was to compare the constituent difference of spinal nerves in the radial nerve between pup and adult rats.A group of 16 pup rats and a group of 16 adult rats were each divided into 2 groups of 8 (P1 and A1 groups, C5-C6 were divided; P2 and A2 groups, C5-C7 were divided]). A nerve conduction study and histological examination were performed to evaluate radial nerve innervation to the extensor digitorum communis muscle after dividing the spinal nerves. Retrograde tracing with 5% cholera toxin B for anterior horn motoneurons of the spinal cord innervating the radial nerve was performed in 8 pup rats and 8 adult rats. Results showed that the division of C5-C7 caused more significant damage to radial nerve innervation to the extensor digitorum communis in pups than in adults, although the division of C5-C6 did not. In pups, the percentages (median with interquartile) of anterior horn motoneurons of the spinal cord innervating the radial nerve were 36.4 (28.3-38.5) in C5-C6, 28.1 (24.5-32.5) in C7, and 37.5 (36.5-39.3) in C8-T1. In adults, they were 24.2 (23.6-27.8) in C5-C6, 21.8 (19.5-26.3) in C7, and 50.7 (48.7-55.5) C8-T1.This study implies that C7 innervation in the radial nerve in humans may be more critical to the function of this nerve in infants than in adults.

  15. Fate of tritium-labeled vitamin D/sub 3/ and 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ in rabbit does and thier pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidiroglou, H.

    1984-01-01

    Mammary transfer of label from intraperitoneally injected 50 ..mu..Ci (1..cap alpha.., 2..cap alpha..(n)-hydrogen-3) cholecalciferol, and 50 ..mu..Ci (26,27-methyl-hydrogen-3)cholecalciferol was studied in nursing rabbits. Does were injected at 3 days postpartum with one of the two labeled compounds. Pups were killed at either 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days after dosing of the does, and does were killed after 5 days. Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in tissues of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D/sub 3/ than in tissues of those dosed with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in maternal tissues than in tissues of pups. On the 5th day following administration of tritiated vitamin D/sub 3/ or 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, the major portion of the radioactivity in does' plasma and liver was associated with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. In pups from the tritiated vitamin D/sub 3/ group, the concentration of plasma radioactivity associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ (isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography) increased significantly with time, reaching 85% of the total vitamin D and metabolite radioactivity in the pups at the 5th day. Over 90% of the total recovered plasma radioactivity of pups of the tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ group was associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Much more radioactivity was secreted in the milk of tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ dosed does than in milk of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D/sub 3/. 16 references, 3 tables.

  16. The Upside to Hg-DOM Associations for Water Quality: Removal of Hg from Solution Using Coagulaion with Metal-Based Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, Y.; Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Horwath, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the potential use of metal-based coagulants to remove dissolved mercury (Hg) from natural waters and provides information regarding the importance of Hg associations with the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction and metal hydroxides. Previous research indicated coagulants were not effective at removing Hg from solution; however those studies used high concentrations of Hg, which did not reflect naturally occurring concentrations of Hg. Filtered water collected from an agricultural drain in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) was treated with three industrial-grade coagulants (ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and polyaluminum chloride) to determine their efficacy in removing both inroganic (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) from the water column. The Delta suffers from elevated surface water Hg concentrations and as a result is listed as an imparied water body. Coagulants removed up to 85% of DOM from solution. In the absence of DOM, all three coagulants released IHg into solution, however in the presence of DOM the coagulants removed up to 97% of IHg and 80% of MeHg. Results suggest that the removal of Hg is mediated by DOM-coagulant interactions. There was a preferential association of IHg with the more aromatic, higher molecular weight fraction of DOM but no such relationship was found for MeHg. This study offers new fundamental insights regarding large-scale removal of Hg at environmentally relevant concentrations. Research using isotopically labeled Hg is providing insight into whether coagulation can remove recently added Hg (e.g. atmospheric deposition) from solution and whether once formed, the floc can remove additional Hg from the water column.

  17. Female White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus) Trade Off Offspring Skeletal Quality for Self-Maintenance When Dietary Calcium Intake is Low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina M; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-11-01

    During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mineral that females transfer to their young, the amount of mineral allocated to offspring is predicted to be influenced by the availability of mineral in the female's diet. Calcium is the most abundant element in bone, and exogenous calcium appears to be limiting for many species. Thus, we expected that females would adjust mineral allocation to offspring relative to calcium abundance in the diet. We provided breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) with a low-calcium (0.1% Ca) or a standard diet (0.85% Ca) for approximately 1 year. Body mass and skeletal size of pups did not differ between diets. Relative to pups from females on the standard diet, pups from females on the low-calcium diet had less calcium and phosphorus in their femurs and humeri, less body calcium content, reduced mass of their femurs and humeri, and had femurs with a reduced width. Reproducing white-footed mice mobilize more bone when calcium intake is low; however, our results suggest that this does not completely compensate for a reduction in calcium intake. Thus, it appears that when calcium availability is low, female white-footed mice reduce the quantity of mineral allocated per offspring as a means of maintaining their own skeletal condition.

  18. Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla(HP)-171005 (India); Thakur, Anil [Department of Physics, Govt. P. G. College Solan (HP)-173212 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70}, Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30} and Hg{sub 90}In{sub 10}) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.

  19. Removal of Hg~0 with sodium chlorite solution and mass transfer reaction kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The absorption behavior of Hg0 was studied experimentally by using sodium chlorite solution(NaClO2) as the absorbent in a bubble reactor.Primary influencing factors on removal efficiency of Hg0 such as NaClO2 concentration,pH,reaction temperature and the concentration of Hg0 were investigated.The results indicated that 72.91% of Hg0 removal efficiency could be achieved in acidic NaClO2 solution.The removal mechanism of Hg0 was proposed by analyzing of Hg2+ concentration in ab-sorption solution after reaction and comparing the electrode potentials between NaClO2 species and Hg2+/Hg0.The experimental results of mass transfer-reaction kinetics on oxidation of Hg0 by NaClO2 solution showed that with the increase of NaClO2 concentration and the decrease of pH value,the enhancement factor(E) and ratio of KG(Hg0)/kG(Hg0) increased and the liquid phase mass transfer resistance decreased,which is benefit to the mass transfer adsorption reaction.Although the increase of reaction temperature could improve the enhancement factor(E),but the ratio of KG(Hg0)/kG(Hg0) decreased;as a result,the liquid phase mass transfer resistance increased,therefore,the reaction rate for removal of Hg0 decreased.

  20. 640 X 480 Pace HgCdTe FPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lester J.; Bailey, Robert B.; Cabelli, Scott A.; Cooper, Donald E.; McComas, Gail D.; Vural, Kadri; Tennant, William E.

    1992-12-01

    A hybrid HgCdTe 640 X 480 infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) that meets the sensitivity, resolution, and field-of-view requirements of high-performance medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) imaging systems has been developed. The key technology making this large, high sensitivity device producible is the epitaxial growth of HgCdTe on a CdTe-buffered, sapphire substrate (referred to as PACE, for Producible Alternative to CdTe for Epitaxy; PACE-I refers to sapphire). The device offers TV resolution with excellent sensitivity at temperatures below 120 K. Mean NE(Delta) T as low as 13 mK has been achieved at operating temperatures nonuniformity compensation.

  1. Electrical Conductivity of HgTe at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Su, C.-H.; Scripa, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of HgTe was measured using a rotating magnetic field method from 300 K to the melting point (943 K). A microscopic theory for electrical conduction was used to calculate the expected temperature dependence of the HgTe conductivity. A comparison between the measured and calculated conductivities was used to obtain the estimates of the temperature dependence of Gamma(sub 6)-Gamma(sub 8) energy gap from 300 K to 943 K. The estimated temperature coefficient for the energy gap was comparable to the previous results at lower temperatures (less than or equal to 300 K). A rapid increase in the conductivity just above 300 K and a subsequent decrease at 500 K is attributed to band crossover effects. This paper describes the experimental approach and some of the theoretical calculation details.

  2. Electronic structure of rectangular HgTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Ji

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the single- and few-electron ground-states properties of HgTe topological insulator quantum dots with rectangular hard-wall confining potential using configuration interaction method. For the case of single electron, the edge states is robust against the deformation from a square quantum dot to a rectangular ones, in contrast to the bulk states, the energy gap of the QDs increased due to the coupling of the opposite edge states; for the case of few electrons, the electrons first fill the edge states in the bulk band gap and the addition energy exhibit universal even-odd oscillation due to the shape-independent two-fold degeneracy of the edge states. The size of this edge shell can be controlled by tuning the dot size, shape or the bulk band gap via lateral or vertical electric gating respectively of the HgTe quantum dot.

  3. Hvordan understøttes hg-elevers kompetenceudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, Karin Løvenskjold; Hansen, Jens Ager; Karmark, Ole

    Publikationen handler om, hvordan hg-elever arbejder og dermed lærer og udvikler kvalifikationer og kompetencer i de undervisnings- og arbejdsformer, de indgår i. Indholdet er baseret på observationer af elever i klasseundervisning, gruppearbejde eller individuel arbejde i forlængelse af...... klasseundervisning og af elever i projektarbejde. Observationerne er gennemført på tre jyske handelsskoler....

  4. Predicting mercury concentrations in mallard eggs from mercury in the diet or blood of adult females and from duckling down feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary H; Hoffman, David J; Klimstra, Jon D; Stebbins, Katherine R

    2010-02-01

    Measurements of Hg concentrations in avian eggs can be used to predict possible harm to reproduction, but it is not always possible to sample eggs. When eggs cannot be sampled, some substitute tissue, such as female blood, the diet of the breeding female, or down feathers of hatchlings, must be used. When female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing methylmercury chloride, the concentration of Hg in a sample of their blood was closely correlated with the concentration of Hg in the egg they laid the day they were bled (r2 = 0.88; p < 0.001). Even when the blood sample was taken more than two weeks after an egg was laid, there was a strong correlation between Hg concentrations in female blood and eggs (r2 = 0.67; p < 0.0002). When we plotted the dietary concentrations of Hg we fed to the egg-laying females against the concentrations of Hg in their eggs, the r2 value was 0.96 (p < 0.0001). When the concentrations of Hg in the down feathers of newly hatched ducklings were plotted against Hg in the whole ducklings, the r2 value was 0.99 (p < 0.0003). Although measuring Hg in eggs may be the most direct way of predicting possible embryotoxicity, our findings demonstrate that measuring Hg in the diet of breeding birds, in the blood of egg-laying females, or in down feathers of hatchlings all can be used to estimate what concentration of Hg may have been in the egg. Copyright 2009 SETAC.

  5. EDTA and urease effects on Hg accumulation by Lepidium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolińska, Beata; Cedzyńska, Krystyna

    2007-11-01

    The phytoextraction process was conducted under laboratory conditions with the use of garden cress plants (Lepidium sativum). The experiment was carried out in a model soil, which was characterized before conducting the process. Inorganic forms of mercury (HgCl(2), HgSO(4), Hg(NO(3))(2)) were used for contamination of the soil. The phytoextraction process was conducted after EDTA application to the soil and after urease application. Also the influence of simultaneous addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and urease into the soil on phytoextraction process was measured. In all variants of phytoextraction process the total mercury concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of garden cress were determined. The result showed that garden cress accumulated mercury from soil. The overall maximum concentration of mercury in its compounds was found in roots of the plant. In all cases, before addition of urease and EDTA, the translocation process and distribution of mercury in the plant tissues were limited. The addition of urease caused an increase of enzyme activity in the soil and at the same time caused an increase of mercury concentration in plant tissues. Application of EDTA increased solubility of mercury and caused an increase of metal accumulation by plants. After simultaneous addition of EDTA and urease into the soil garden cress accumulated about 20% of total mercury concentration in the soil. Most of mercury compounds were accumulated in leaves and stems of the plants (46.0-56.9% of total mercury concentration in the plant tissues).

  6. Barrier formation at graded HgTe/CdTe heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, D.; Asa, G.; Nemirovsky, Y.

    1996-11-01

    Numerical calculations of graded HgTe/CdTe heterojunction (HJ) band diagrams at equilibrium are presented and discussed. The calculations are performed in the entire compositional range (0HJs are examined as a function of the graded region width and the graded region doping profiles. The graded region width and doping profiles were found to be the two main factors that determine whether barriers are formed as well as their shape and magnitude. The calculated results indicate that epitaxial ohmic HgTe contacts to extrinsic CdTe are possible, provided that the graded region is wider than one micron, and that it has the same doping type as the doping of the substrate with equal or higher absolute value. Further numerical calculations take into consideration the possible existence of distributed interface charges in the graded region of the HJ. It is shown that by assuming a classical transport over the potential barrier, the effective graded interface charge can be determined from the zero bias differential resistance of the HJ. Experimental transport measurements of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown HgTe/p-CdTe graded HJs show a varying degree of rectification, indicating variations in the graded interface charge distributions which result from different MOCVD growth conditions.

  7. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  8. Phase diagrams and microscopic structures of (Hg,Cd)Te, (Hg,Zn)Te, and (Cd,Zn)Te alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, R. S.; Chen, A.-B.; Sher, A.; Berding, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    A cluster theory based on the quasi-chemical approximation has been applied to study the local correlation bond-length distribution, and phase diagrams of the II-VI pseudobinary alloys Hg(1 - x)Cd(x)Te, Hg(1 - x)Zn(x)Te, and Cd(1 - x)Zn(x)Te. The cluster energy is calculated by letting it relax in some effective alloy medium and then considering the contributions from the strain and chemical energies. Two different models are presented to simulate the alloy medium. While both models show that all three alloys have nearly random distributions, the signs of the local correlation prove to be sensitive to the alloy medium chosen for the energy calculation. Good agreement is found between experiment and the bond lengths and phase diagrams in both models.

  9. Selective Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by hydrolyzed acrylamide-grafted PET films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nazia; Sato, Nobuhiro; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Hidaka, Yoshiki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Selective Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions of Hg(II) and Pb(II) using hydrolyzed acrylamide (AAm)-grafted polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was examined to explore the potential reuse of waste PET materials. Selective recovery of Hg(II) from a mixture of soft acids with similar structure, such as Hg(II) and Pb(II), is important to allow the reuse of recovered Hg(II). An adsorbent for selective Hg(II) adsorption was prepared by γ-ray-induced grafting of AAm onto PET films followed by partial hydrolysis through KOH treatment. The adsorption capacity of the AAm-grafted PET films for Hg(II) ions increased from 15 to 70 mg/g after partial hydrolysis because of the reduction of hydrogen bonding between -CONH2 groups and the corresponding improved access of metal ions to the amide groups. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorbent film showed high selectivity for the adsorption of Hg(II) over Pb(II) throughout the entire initial metal concentration range (100-500 mg/L) and pH range (2.2-5.6) studied. The high selectivity is attributed to the ability of Hg(II) ions to form covalent bonds with the amide groups. The calculated selectivity coefficient for the adsorbent binding Hg(II) over Pb(II) was 19.2 at pH 4.5 with an initial metal concentration of 100 mg/L. Selective Hg(II) adsorption equilibrium data followed the Langmuir model and kinetic data were well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation. The adsorbed Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions were effectively desorbed from the adsorbent film by acid treatment, and the regenerated film showed no marked loss of adsorption capacity upon reuse for selective Hg(II) adsorption.

  10. Enhanced Hg{sup 2+} removal and Hg{sup 0} re-emission control from wet fuel gas desulfurization liquors with additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingmei Tang; Jiang Xu; Rongjie Lu; Jingjing Wo; Xinhua Xu [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0}. The present study employed three agents: Na{sub 2}S, 2,4,6-trimercaptotiazine, trisodium salt nonahydrate (TMT) and sodium dithiocarbamate (DTCR) to precipitate aqueous Hg{sup 2+} in simulated desulfurization solutions. The effects of the precipitator's dosing quantity, the initial pH value, the reaction temperature, the concentrations of Cl{sup -} and other metal ions (e.g. Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}) on Hg{sup 2+} removal were studied. A linear relationship was observed between Hg{sup 2+} removal efficiency and the increasing precipitator's doses along with initial pH. The addition of chloride and metal ions impaired the Hg{sup 2+} removal from solutions due to the complexation of Cl{sup -} and Hg{sup 2+} as well as the chelating competition between Hg{sup 2+} and other metal ions. Based on a comprehensive comparison of the treatment effects, DTCR was found to be the most effective precipitating agent. Moreover, all the precipitating agents were potent enough to inhibit Hg{sup 2+} reduction as well as Hg{sup 0} re-emission from FGD liquors. More than 90% Hg{sup 2+} was captured by precipitating agents while Hg{sup 2+} reduction efficiency decreased from 54% to just less than 3%. The additives could efficiently control the secondary Hg{sup 0} pollution from FGD liquors. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Characterization of HgCdTe and HgCdSe Materials for Third Generation Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    etched HgCdTe photodiode .................................. 13 1.6 (a) Hybrid IR FPA, (b) cross section of structure, (c) indium bumps on Si...to areas of approximately 30 cm2. At this size, the wafers used for growth are unable to accommodate more than two 1024 × 1024 FPAs.3 For more...clear advantages over the other substrates because of its low cost, large wafer size, and a thermal-expansion coefficient that perfectly matches

  12. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury ( sup 203 Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimy, M.J.; Takahashi, Y.; Lorscheider, F.L. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-04-01

    In humans, the continuous release of Hg vapor from dental amalgam tooth restorations is markedly increased for prolonged periods after chewing. The present study establishes a time-course distribution for amalgam Hg in body tissues of adult and fetal sheep. Under general anesthesia, five pregnant ewes had twelve occlusal amalgam fillings containing radioactive 203Hg placed in teeth at 112 days gestation. Blood, amniotic fluid, feces, and urine specimens were collected at 1- to 3-day intervals for 16 days. From days 16-140 after amalgam placement (16-41 days for fetal lambs), tissue specimens were analyzed for radioactivity, and total Hg concentrations were calculated. Results demonstrate that Hg from dental amalgam will appear in maternal and fetal blood and amniotic fluid within 2 days after placement of amalgam tooth restorations. Excretion of some of this Hg will also commence within 2 days. All tissues examined displayed Hg accumulation. Highest concentrations of Hg from amalgam in the adult occurred in kidney and liver, whereas in the fetus the highest amalgam Hg concentrations appeared in liver and pituitary gland. The placenta progressively concentrated Hg as gestation advanced to term, and milk concentration of amalgam Hg postpartum provides a potential source of Hg exposure to the newborn. It is concluded that accumulation of amalgam Hg progresses in maternal and fetal tissues to a steady state with advancing gestation and is maintained. Dental amalgam usage as a tooth restorative material in pregnant women and children should be reconsidered.

  13. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  14. N-acetylcysteine prevents spatial memory impairment induced by chronic early postnatal glutaric acid and lipopolysaccharide in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on theses markers. METHODS: Rat pups were injected with GA (5 umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life, and were supplemented with NAC (150 mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period. LPS (2 mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5 or vehicle (saline 0.9% was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. RESULTS: GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could

  15. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Spatial Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Early Postnatal Glutaric Acid and Lipopolysaccharide in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernanda S.; Souza, Mauren A.; Magni, Danieli V.; Ferreira, Ana Paula O.; Mota, Bibiana C.; Cardoso, Andreia M.; Paim, Mariana; Xavier, Léder L.; Ferreira, Juliano; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C.; Da Costa, Jaderson C.; Royes, Luiz Fernando F.; Fighera, Michele R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA) and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on theses markers. Methods Rat pups were injected with GA (5umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life), and were supplemented with NAC (150mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period). LPS (2mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5) or vehicle (saline 0.9%) was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. Results GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. Conclusions These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could represent a possible

  16. The contribution of cell surface FcRn in monoclonal antibody serum uptake from the intestine in suckling rat pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Cooper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn in intestinal epithelium is the primary mechanism for transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG from suckled milk to serum; but the factors contributing to the rapid uptake of IgG are poorly understood. These studies help to determine the contribution of cell-surface FcRn in IgG uptake in 2-week old rat pups by varying local pH and binding conditions. Variants of a human wild-type IgG monoclonal antibody (mAb WT were assessed for binding affinity (KD to rat (rFcRn at pH6.0 and subsequent off-rate at pH7.4 (1/s by Surface Plasmon Resonance. Selected mAbs were administered intra-intestinally in isofluorane-anesthetized 2-week rat pups. Full-length mAb in serum was quantified by immunoassay, (rFcRn mRNA expression by RT-PCR, and mAb epithelial localization was visualized by immunohistochemistry. After duodenal administration, serum levels of mAb variants correlated with their rFcRn off-rate at pH7.4, but not their affinity at pH6.0. The greatest serum levels of IgG were measured when mAb was administered in the duodenum where rFcRn mRNA expression is greatest, and was increased further by duodenal administration in pH6.0 buffer. More intense human IgG immunostaining was detected in epithelium than the same variant administered at higher pH. These data suggest an increased contribution for cell-surface receptor. We conclude that, in the neonate duodenum, receptor off-rates are as important as affinities for FcRn mediated uptake, and cell surface binding of IgG to rFcRn plays contributes to IgG uptake alongside pinocytosis; both of which responsible for increased IgG uptake.

  17. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Franco, E-mail: baldi@unive.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Faleri, Claudia [Department of Environmental Science ‘G. Sarfatti’, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy); Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Via Romana, 17, University of Florence, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup −1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified

  18. Reproductive performance of dibromochloropropane-treated female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, I; Sod-Moriah, U A; Kaplanski, J; Potashnik, G; Buchman, O

    1988-01-01

    Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) is an effective nematocide which has been shown to suppress spermatogenesis and cause infertility in both men and male rats. There are no similar reports concerning the effects of DBCP on female reproduction. The purpose of the present study was to attempt to interfere with the various phases of oogenesis. Proestral or pregnant rats were injected subcutaneously once with 40 mg/kg DBCP on one of each days of L12-L20 of gestation; a double dose (80 mg/kg) was injected in eight consecutive days (L11-L18). In addition, L13 fetuses were injected--directly into the amniotic sac--with 0.1 mg DBCP. Pooled data from the various days of gestation revealed that postimplantation losses were three times as high in the DBCP-treated animals as in DMSO-treated controls. Perinatal deaths were 58% higher and mean pup weights were 30% lower in the DBCP-treated rats than in controls. The reproductive performance of females exposed to DBCP while in utero was affected only to a limited degree (reduced number of ovulations and implantations) as compared with their DMSO counterparts. Doubling the dose (80 mg/kg) seriously reduced the birth weight of pups (50% of controls), all of which died within several hours post-partum. Direct injection of DBCP into embryos or to proestral rats did not have any adverse effects on their future reproductive performance. In contrast to the effect on spermatogenesis, it appears that oogenesis and ova are unaffected by DBCP.

  19. Dielectric properties of nanophase Ag2HgI4 and Ag2HgI4–Al2O3 nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sankara Narayanan Potty; M Abdul Khadar

    2000-10-01

    The dielectric properties of nanophase Ag2HgI4 and Ag2HgI4–Al2O3 nanocomposites at different frequencies have been studied over a temperature range covering the stability range of phase of Ag2HgI4 and beyond the to phase transition temperature. ', tan and a.c. of nanophase Ag2HgI4 and Ag2HgI4–Al2O3 nanocomposites were found to be larger than the reported values for polycrystalline pellets of Ag2HgI4 . The dielectric properties of the nanocomposites were found to be a function of the wt.% of nano alumina. The observed changes are attributed to the grain boundary properties of nanophase materials and to the microsize space charge effects.

  20. On-line method of determining utilization factor in Hg-196 photochemical separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Moskowitz, Philip E.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining the utilization factor [U] in a photochemical mercury enrichment process (.sup.196 Hg) by measuring relative .sup.196 Hg densities using absorption spectroscopy.

  1. Stability and diffusion of Hg implanted YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, J P; Wahl, U; Marques, J G; Alves, E; Amaral, V S; Lourenço, A A; Galindo, V; Von Papen, T; Senateur, J P; Weiss, F; Vantomme, A; Langouche, G; Melo, A A; Da Silva, M F A; Soares, J C; Sousa, J B

    1999-01-01

    The radioactive isotope $^{197m}$Hg was implanted at 60 keV with low fluences (10$^{13}$ ions/cm$^{2}$ ) into YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$ (YBCO) superconducting thin films at ISOLDE/CERN. We report on the Hg dynamics and stability inside the YBCO lattice as a function of annealing temperature up to 890 K in vacuum or O$_{2}$ atmosphere. The perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique was used for probing the Hg behavior at the atomic scale, while by monitoring the sample's activity in situ the Hg outdiffusion was studied. We found that Hg ions occupy unique lattice sites and that Hg should be bound to two apical oxygens. Hg diffusion occurs only for annealing temperatures above 653 K, in vacuum. The Hg migration energy was estimated to be EM = 1.58 $\\pm$ 0.15 eV.

  2. Impacts of forest harvesting on mobilization of Hg and MeHg in drained peatland forests on black schist or felsic bedrock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Starr, Mike; Kantola, Marjatta; Laurén, Ari; Piispanen, Juha; Pietilä, Heidi; Perämäki, Paavo; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuomivirta, Tero; Heikkinen, Juha; Mäkinen, Jari; Nieminen, Tiina M

    2016-04-01

    Forest harvesting, especially when intensified harvesting method as whole-tree harvesting with stump lifting (WTHs) are used, may increase mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) leaching to recipient water courses. The effect can be enhanced if the underlying bedrock and overburden soil contain Hg. The impact of stem-only harvesting (SOH) and WTHs on the concentrations of Hg and MeHg as well as several other variables in the ditch water was studied using a paired catchment approach in eight drained peatland-dominated catchments in Finland (2008-2012). Four of the catchments were on felsic bedrock and four on black schist bedrock containing heavy metals. Although both Hg and MeHg concentrations increased after harvesting in all treated sites according to the randomized intervention analyses (RIAs), there was only a weak indication of a harvest-induced mobilization of Hg and MeHg into the ditches. Furthermore, no clear differences between WTHs and SOH were found, although MeHg showed a nearly significant difference (p = 0.06) between the harvesting regimes. However, there was a clear bedrock effect, since the MeHg concentrations in the ditch water were higher at catchments on black schist than at those on felsic bedrock. The pH, suspended solid matter (SSM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and iron (Fe) concentrations increased after harvest while the sulfate (SO4-S) concentration decreased. The highest abundances of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found on the sites with high MeHg concentrations. The biggest changes in ditch water concentrations occurred first 2 years after harvesting.

  3. Prevention of La3+ on DNA Damage Caused by Hg2+ from Fish Intestines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rare earth elements (REEs) in preventing Hg2+ pollution, using fish intestinal DNA in vitro and study the mechanism of the interactions between Hg2+, La3+, the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+ and DNA by spectroscopy. The interactions between Hg2+, La3+, the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+ and DNA from fish intestine in vitro was investigate by using absorption spectrum and fluorescence emission spectrum. Ultraviolet absorption spectra indicated that the addition of Hg2+, La3+, and the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+ to DNA generated obvious hypochromic effect. Meanwhile, the 205.2 nm peak of DNA blue and the 258.2 nm peak of DNA red shifted. The hypochromic effect and peak shift was caused by these ions in an order of Hg2+>Hg2++La3+>La3+. The fluorescence emission spectra showed that as the addition of Hg2+, La3+, and the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+, the emission peak at about 416.2 nm of DNA did not obviously change, but the fluorescence intensity reduced gradually with the order in treatment was Hg2+>Hg2+ + La3+>La3+. Hg2+, La3+, and the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+ had 1.12, 0.58, and 0.81 binding sites to DNA, the fluorescence quenching of DNA caused by them all attributed to static quenching. The binding constants KA of binding sites were 3.82×104 and 4.22×102 L·mol-1;2.50×104 and 2.95×103 L·mol-1;3.05×104 and 1.00×103 L·mol-1. The results showed that La3+ could relieve destruction caused by Hg2+ on the DNA structure.

  4. The lncRNA MIR31HG regulates p16(INK4A) expression to modulate senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Resano, Marta; Nielsen, Morten M; Maglieri, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    normal conditions, MIR31HG is found in both nucleus and cytoplasm, but following B-RAF expression MIR31HG is located mainly in the cytoplasm. We show that MIR31HG interacts with both INK4A and MIR31HG genomic regions and with Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, and that MIR31HG is required for Pc...

  5. Photodegradation of petroleum under Na and Hg lamps by EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Eduardo di; Melo, Fernando Alves de; Turini, Marilene; Campos, Ariana de [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), PR (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Full text: The environment has become frequent victim of the action of pollutants. This situation has been stimulating several scientific works in the attempt to monitor the self-defence of the environment and minimise the effects caused by these pollutants. The petroleum and its derived, among the several substances that attack the environment, occupy a distinction place in the pollution picture. In the present work, we studied the photodegradation of the Arabian Light and Brazilian (Campos Basin- RJ) oils. Sample of theses oils were irradiated by different time periods in a reactor equipped with Na and Hg vapour lamps, whose emission spectra have different features. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were subjected to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) analysis in a BRUKER (ESP-300) equipment, which operates in the X band (9 GHz) at room temperature. The EPR spectra showed similar features to the two oils. The EPR spectra are composed of a intense signal (one line) with g (spectroscopic factor) about two relative to free radicals and groups of eight lines correspondent to vanadyl porphyrinic compounds (VO{sup 2+}). The parameters of spin Hamiltonian were determined to the two detected paramagnetic species. The two oils irradiated by Na and Hg lamps showed variations in the values of g and {delta}H (linewidth) of the paramagnetic species. The changes in the parameters are the most significant in Brazilian petroleum samples irradiated by Hg lamp. The modifications in the linewidth of free radicals of the Arabian Light petroleum have the same tendency to the two utilised lamps. (author)

  6. Phase effects in HgTe quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, M.; Buhmann, H.; Becker, C.R.; Molenkamp, L.W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    2007-07-01

    HgTe quantum well structures with high electron mobilities have been used to fabricate quantum interference devices. Aharonov-Bohm oscillations have been studied in the low and high magnetic field regime. In the latter case a decrease of the effective ring radius is observed. Additionally, as a consequence of the strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling within this material, it was possible to observe conductance oscillations which are due to the so-called Aharonov-Casher effect. These quantum interference effects are effectively controlled by the applied magnetic and electric field. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Micromagnetic Sensors and Dirac Fermions in HgTe Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ”Experimentelle Physik” of the University of Würzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micr...

  8. COMPARISON OF CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES IN P-ON-N HgCdTe LWIR PHOTODIODES TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper standard techniques for characterization of HgCdTe liquid phase epitaxial layers (LPE) were presented. The performance of long wavelength p-on-n HgCdTe photodiodes fabricated by arsenic diffusion was described. The correlation between LPE HgCdTe material parameters and properties of the infrared photodiodes was demonstrated.

  9. Hg tolerance and biouptake of an isolated pigmentation yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Wang, Chaogang; Liu, Danxia; He, Ning; Deng, Xu

    2017-01-01

    A pigmented yeast R1 with strong tolerance to Hg2+ was isolated. Phylogenetic identification based on the analysis of 26S rDNA and ITS revealed R1 is a Rhodotorula mucilaginosa species. R1 was able to grow in the presence of 80 mg/L Hg2+, but the lag phase was much prolonged compared to its growth in the absence of Hg2+. The maximum Hg2+ binding capacity of R1 was 69.9 mg/g, and dead cells could bind 15% more Hg2+ than living cells. Presence of organic substances drastically reduced bioavailability of Hg2+ and subsequently decreased Hg2+ removal ratio from aqueous solution, but this adverse effect could be remarkably alleviated by the simultaneous process of cell propagation and Hg2+ biouptake with actively growing R1. Furthermore, among the functional groups involved in Hg2+ binding, carboxyl group contributed the most, followed by amino & hydroxyl group and phosphate group. XPS analysis disclosed the mercury species bound on yeast cells was HgCl2 rather than HgO or Hg0. PMID:28253367

  10. Phytoextraction of HG by parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and its growth responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Asma; Farooq, Umar; Naz, Sadia; Khan, Afsar; Khan, Sara; Sarwar, Rizwana; Mahmood, Qaisar; Alam, Arif; Mirza, Nosheen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of mercury (Hg) on the growth and survival of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) was explored at various treatments. The plants were grown in pots having Hoagland's solution to which various Hg treatments were applied and placed under greenhouse conditions. The treatments were: no metal applied (control) and six doses of Hg as mercuric chloride for 15 days. Linear trend of Hg accumulation was noted in roots, stems, and leaves with increasing Hg treatments. The maximum Hg concentration in root, stem and leaf was 8.92, 8.27, and 7.88 at Hg treatments of 25 mg l(-1), respectively. On the whole, Hg accumulation in different plant parts was in the following order: leaves > stem > roots. Linear trend was also observed for Bioaccumulation Factor (BF) and Translocation Factor (TF) with increasing Hg concentrations in the growth medium. The highest respective BFHg and TFHg values were 9.32 and 2.02 for the Hg treatments of 25 and 50 mg l(-1). In spite of the reduced growth in the presence of Hg, the plant has phytoremediation potential. It is recommended that parsley should not be cultivated in Hg contaminated sites in order to avoid dietary toxicity.

  11. The $^{191,193}$Hg and $^{191,193}$Au positon decays

    CERN Document Server

    Vieu, C; Berg, V; Bourgeois, C

    1976-01-01

    The positron spectra emitted by /sup 191/Hg, /sup 193/Hg and their decay products were analyzed with a Gerholm-Lindskog beta spectrometer automatically operated. From the analysis of the Fermi-Kuri diagrams, the total decay energies of /sup 191,193/Hg and /sup 191,193/Au were deduced.

  12. Contamination profiles of selected PCB congeners, chlorinated pesticides, PCDD/Fs in Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Alessandra; Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of some major environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic samples. Concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Antarctic fur seal pups and eggs of three species of penguins. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was the main pollutant, followed by PCBs; other organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCDD/Fs were usually found only in minor quantities. Adélie penguin eggs had significantly higher mean PCB concentrations (p0.05). TEQ values in fur seal blubber in our study were one order of magnitude lower than those considered to elicit physiological effects in aquatic mammals. In general, POP concentrations in our samples suggested that likely the study populations were not currently at risk for adverse health effects, but indicated a clear need for further monitoring to assess the presence and time trend of a broad range of contaminants, mainly emerging POPs thought to be increasing in polar regions.

  13. In vivo digestomics of milk proteins in human milk and infant formula using a suckling rat pup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuaki; Phinney, Brett S; Weber, Darren; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the optimal mode of infant feeding for the first several months of life, and infant formulas serve as an alternative when breast-feeding is not possible. Milk proteins have a balanced amino acid composition and some of them provide beneficial bioactivities in their intact forms. They also encrypt a variety of bioactive peptides, possibly contributing to infant health and growth. However, there is limited knowledge of how milk proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract and bioactive peptides are released in infants. A peptidomic analysis was conducted to identify peptides released from milk proteins in human milk and infant formula, using a suckling rat pup model. Among the major milk proteins targeted, α-lactalbumin and β-casein in human milk, and β-lactoglobulin and β-casein in infant formula were the main sources of peptides, and these peptides covered large parts of the parental proteins' sequences. Release of peptides was concentrated to specific regions, such as residues 70-92 of β-casein in human milk, residues 39-55 of β-lactoglobulin in infant formula, and residues 57-96 and 145-161 of β-CN in infant formula, where resistance to gastrointestinal digestion was suggested. In the context of bioactive peptides, release of fragments containing known bioactive peptides was confirmed, such as β-CN-derived opioid and antihypertensive peptides. It is therefore likely that these fragments are of biological significance in neonatal health and development.

  14. Recognition of Mother's voice evokes metabolic activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and lateral thalamus of Octodon degus pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, K; Poeggel, G

    2001-01-01

    In a variety of animal species, including primates, vocal communication is an essential part to establish and maintain social interactions, including the emotional bond between the newborn, its parents and siblings. The aim of this study in pups of the trumpet-tailed rat, Octodon degus, was to identify cortical and subcortical brain regions, which are involved in the perception of vocalizations uttered by the mother. In this species, which is characterized by an elaborated vocal repertoire, the (14C)-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose autoradiography was applied to measure region-specific metabolic activation in response to the presentation of a learned emotionally relevant acoustic stimulus, the maternal calls. Already at the age of eight days the precentral medial cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the lateral thalamus could be identified by their enhanced metabolic activation in response to the presentation of the emotionally relevant maternal nursing calls, whereas other brain areas, such as the hippocampus and amygdala did not show stimulus-induced activation. Since in humans changes of activity patterns in relation to the emotional content of spoken language have been observed in similar brain regions, e.g. in the anterior cingulate cortex, Octodon degus may provide a suitable animal model to study the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying perception, production and processing of conspecific vocalizations.

  15. Characterization of Electronic Materials HgZnSe and HgZnTe Using Innovative and Conventional Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanton, George; Kesmodel, Roy; Burden, Judy; Su, Ching-Hua; Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    HgZnSe and HgZnTe are electronic materials of interest for potential IR detector and focal plane array applications due to their improved strength and compositional stability over HgCdTe, but they are difficult to grow on Earth and to fully characterize. Conventional contact methods of characterization, such as Hall and van der Paw, although adequate for many situations are typically labor intensive and not entirely suitable where only very small samples are available. To adequately characterize and compare properties of electronic materials grown in low earth orbit with those grown on Earth, innovative techniques are needed that complement existing methods. This paper describes the implementation and test results of a unique non-contact method of characterizing uniformity, mobility, and carrier concentration together with results from conventional methods applied to HgZnSe and HgZnTe. The innovative method has advantages over conventional contact methods since it circumvents problems of possible contamination from alloying electrical contacts to a sample and also has the capability to map a sample. Non- destructive mapping, the determination of the carrier concentration and mobility at each place on a sample, provides a means to quantitatively compare, at high spatial resolution, effects of microgravity on electronic properties and uniformity of electronic materials grown in low-Earth orbit with Earth grown materials. The mapping technique described here uses a 1mm diameter polarized beam of radiation to probe the sample. Activation of a magnetic field, in which the sample is placed, causes the plane of polarization of the probe beam to rotate. This Faraday rotation is a function of the free carrier concentration and the band parameters of the material. Maps of carrier concentration, mobility, and transmission generated from measurements of the Faraday rotation angles over the temperature range from 300K to 77K will be presented. New information on band parameters

  16. Comparison of stress-induced changes in adults and pups: is aldosterone the main adrenocortical stress hormone during the perinatal period in rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Varga

    Full Text Available Positive developmental impact of low stress-induced glucocorticoid levels in early development has been recognized for a long time, while possible involvement of mineralocorticoids in the stress response during the perinatal period has been neglected. The present study aimed at verifying the hypothesis that balance between stress-induced glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid levels is changing during postnatal development. Hormone responses to two different stressors (insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and immune challenge induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharid measured in 10-day-old rats were compared to those in adults. In pups corticosterone responses to both stressors were significantly lower than in adults, which corresponded well with the stress hyporesponsive period. Importantly, stress-induced elevations in aldosterone concentration were significantly higher in pups compared both to corticosterone elevations and to those in adulthood with comparable adrenocorticotropin concentrations in the two age groups. Greater importance of mineralocorticoids compared to glucocorticoids in postnatal period is further supported by changes in gene expression and protein levels of gluco- (GR and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR and selected enzymes measured by quantitative PCR and immunohystochemistry in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, liver and kidney. Gene expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2, an enzyme enabling preferential effects of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors, was higher in 10-day-old pups compared to adult animals. On the contrary, the expression and protein levels of GR, MR and 11β-HSD1 were decreased. Presented results clearly show higher stress-induced release of aldosterone in pups compared to adults and strongly suggest greater importance of mineralocorticoids compared to glucocorticoids in stress during the postnatal period.

  17. Rapid acquisition of operant conditioning in 5-day-old rat pups: a new technique articulating suckling-related motor activity and milk reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos; Molina, Agustin; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    Newborn rats are capable of obtaining milk by attaching to a surrogate nipple. During this procedure pups show a gradual increase in head and forelimb movements oriented towards the artificial device that are similar to those observed during nipple attachment. In the present study the probability of execution of these behaviors was analyzed as a function of their contingency with intraoral milk infusion using brief training procedures (15 min). Five-day-old pups were positioned in a smooth surface having access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump which served to deliver intraoral milk reinforcement (Paired group). Yoked controls received the reinforcer when Paired neonates touched the sensor. Paired pups trained under a continuous reinforcement schedule emitted significantly more responses than Yoked controls following two (Experiment 1) or one training session (Experiment 2). These differences were also observed during an extinction session conducted immediately after training. The level of maternal deprivation before training (3 or 6 hr) or the volume of milk delivered (1.0 or 1.5 microl per pulse) did not affect acquisition or extinction performances. In addition, it was observed that the rate of responding of Paired pups during the early phase of the extinction session significantly predicted subsequent levels of acceptance of the reinforcer. These results indicate that the frequency of suckling-related behaviors can be rapidly modified by means of associative operant processes. The operant procedure here described represents an alternative tool for the ontogenetic analysis of self-administration or behavior processes of seeking.

  18. Pharmacological and methodological aspects of the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenink, Lucianne; Verdouw, P Monika; Bakker, Brenda; Wever, Kimberley E

    2015-04-15

    The separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups is one of many that has been used to screen for anxiolytic-like properties of drugs. The test is based on the cross-species phenomenon that infants emit distress calls when placed in social isolation. Here we report a systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacological intervention in the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups. Electronic databases were searched for original research articles, yielding 32 studies that met inclusion criteria. We extracted data on pharmacological intervention, animal and methodological characteristics, and study quality indicators. Meta-analysis showed that the different drug classes in clinical use for the treatment of anxiety disorders, have comparable effects on vocalization behaviour, irrespective of their mechanism of action. Of the experimental drugs, nociception (NOP) receptor agonists proved very effective in this test. Analysis further indicated that the commonly used read-outs total number and total duration of vocalizations are equally valid. With regard to methodological characteristics, repeated testing of pups as well as selecting pups with moderate or high levels of vocalization were associated with larger treatment effects. Finally, reporting of study methodology, randomization and blinding was poor and Egger's test for small study effects showed that publication bias likely occurred. This review illustrates the value of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in improving translational value and methodological aspects of animal models. It further shows the urgent need to implement existing publication guidelines to maximize the output and impact of experimental animal studies.

  19. Glucose delays the insulin-induced increase in thyroid hormone-mediated signaling in adipose of prolong-fasted elephant seal pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Viscarra, Jose A; Jaques, John T; MacKenzie, Duncan S; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2016-03-15

    Prolonged food deprivation in mammals typically reduces glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations, as well as tissue deiodinase (DI) content and activity, which, collectively, suppress metabolism. However, in elephant seal pups, prolonged fasting does not suppress TH levels; it is associated with upregulation of adipose TH-mediated cellular mechanisms and adipose-specific insulin resistance. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox and the effects of glucose and insulin on TH-mediated signaling in an insulin-resistant tissue are not well defined. To address our hypothesis that insulin increases adipose TH signaling in pups during extended fasting, we assessed the changes in TH-associated genes in response to an insulin infusion in early- and late-fasted pups. In late fasting, insulin increased DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 mRNA expression by 566%, 44%, and 267% at 60 min postinfusion, respectively, with levels decreasing by 120 min. Additionally, we performed a glucose challenge in late-fasted pups to differentiate between insulin- and glucose-mediated effects on TH signaling. In contrast to the insulin-induced effects, glucose infusion did not increase the expressions of DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 until 120 min, suggesting that glucose delays the onset of the insulin-induced effects. The data also suggest that fasting duration increases the sensitivity of adipose TH-mediated mechanisms to insulin, some of which may be mediated by increased glucose. These responses appear to be unique among mammals and to have evolved in elephant seals to facilitate their adaptation to tolerate an extreme physiological condition. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Supplementation of DHA-rich microalgal oil or fish oil during the suckling period in mildly n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Shiho; Endo, Yasushi; Doisaki, Nobushige; Koriyama, Tsuyoshi; Miyazawa, Teruo; Fujimoto, Kenshiro

    2011-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), particularly arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are considered critical for the development of infants and are commonly supplemented in infant formulae. In this study, two common sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, fish oil (FO) and DHA-rich microalgal oil (DMO), were fed to rat pups of mildly n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in LC-PUFA of tissue phospholipids. The milk from dams fed a n-3 PUFA-deficient diet contained less n-3 LC-PUFA than that of dams fed a control diet (AIN-93G). The pups' were given orally 1 mg/g weight of either FO or DMO for 17 days between the ages of 5 and 21 days, the pups were weaned, and sacrificed 1 week later for analysis of fatty acid compositions of brain, heart, kidney, spleen, and thymus phospholipids. Although both FO and DMO brought about a recovery in the tissue DHA levels compared to those of the control group (pups from AIN-93G-fed dams), DMO was more effective at restoring tissue LC-PUFA status because it was richer in DHA than FO. FO had a slightly lower PUFA level than that required to bring the LC-PUFA status completely to normal levels in this experiment, and EPA did not accumulate in tissues under the conditions tested here. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of ingesting either FO or DMO in the pre-weaning period for improving mild n-3 PUFA deficiency.

  1. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  2. HCN Producing Bacteria Enable Sensing Of Non-Bioavailable Hg Species by the Whole Cell Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, M.; Rijavec, T.; Koron, N.; Lapanje, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria play an important role in Hg transformation reactions. The production of cyanide (HCN) and other secondary metabolites seems to be key elements involved in these transformations. Current hypotheses link the role of HCN production to growth inhibition of nonHCN producing competitor organisms (role of an antimicrobial agent). Our past investigations showed that HCN production did not correlate with antimicrobial activity and since pK value of HCN is very high (pK = 9,21), it can be expected that most of the produced HCN is removed from the microenvironment. This way, the expected inhibitory concentrations can hardly be reached. Accordingly, we proposed a new concept, where the ability of complexation of transient metals by HCN served as a regulation process for the accessibility of micro-elements. In our study, we focused on the presence of HCN producing bacteria and carried it out in the Hg contaminated environment connected to the Idrija Mercury Mine, Slovenia. We characterised the isolates according to the presence of Hg resistance (HgR), level of HCN production and genetic similarities. In laboratory setups, using our merR whole cell based biosensor, we determined the transformation of low bioavailable Hg0 and HgS forms into bioavailable Hg by these HCN producing bacteria. We observed that HgR strains producing HCN had the highest impact on increased Hg bioavailability. In the proposed ecological strategy HgR HCN producing bacteria increase their competitive edge over non-HgR competitors through the increase of Hg toxicity. Due to their activity, Hg is made available to other organisms as well and thus enters into the ecosystem. Finally, using some of the characteristics of bacteria (e.g. Hg resistance genetic elements), we developed a fully automated sensing approach, combining biosensorics and mechatronics, to measure the bioavailability of Hg in situ.

  3. Simulation of Small-Pitch HgCdTe Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Marco; Goano, Michele; Bertazzi, Francesco; Ghione, Giovanni; Schirmacher, Wilhelm; Hanna, Stefan; Figgemeier, Heinrich

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies indicate as an important technological step the development of infrared HgCdTe-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) with sub-wavelength pixel pitch, with the advantage of smaller volume, lower weight, and potentially lower cost. In order to assess the limits of pixel pitch scaling, we present combined three-dimensional optical and electrical simulations of long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe FPAs, with 3 μm, 5 μm, and 10 μm pitch. Numerical simulations predict significant cavity effects, brought by the array periodicity. The optical and electrical contributions to spectral inter-pixel crosstalk are investigated as functions of pixel pitch, by illuminating the FPAs with Gaussian beams focused on the central pixel. Despite the FPAs being planar with 100% pixel duty cycle, our calculations suggest that the total crosstalk with nearest-neighbor pixels could be kept acceptably small also with pixels only 3 μ m wide and a diffraction-limited optical system.

  4. Mercury (Hg) emissions from domestic biomass combustion for space heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Choi, Hyun-Deok; Laing, James R; Cui, Huailue; Zananski, Tiffany J; Chandrasekaran, Sriraam Ramanathan; Rattigan, Oliver V; Holsen, Thomas M

    2011-09-01

    Three mercury (Hg) species (gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and fine particulate-bound mercury (PBM(2.5))) were measured in the stack of a small scale wood combustion chamber at 400°C, in the stack of an advanced wood boiler, and in two areas influenced by wood combustion. The low temperature process (lab-scale) emitted mostly GEM (∼99% when burning wood pellets and ∼95% when burning unprocessed wood). The high temperature wood boiler emitted a greater proportion of oxidized Hg (approximately 65%) than the low temperature system. In field measurements, mean PBM(2.5) concentrations at the rural and urban sites in winter were statistically significantly higher than in warmer seasons and were well correlated with Delta-C concentrations, a wood combustion indictor measured by an aethalometer (UV-absorbable carbon minus black carbon). Overall the results suggest that wood combustion may be an important source of oxidized mercury (mostly in the particulate phase) in northern climates in winter.

  5. Lactational exposure to hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB 106) causes hyperactivity in male rat pups by aberrant increase in dopamine and its receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, Ronny; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Takatsuru, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are recognized as persistent environmental pollutants that may cause adverse health problems. Despite extensive investigations of PCB in neural function, little is known about behavioral traits by PCB exposure and its neurochemical mechanism. Here, we report the behavioral study of a rat pup that was exposed to hydroxylated-PCB 106 (OH-PCB 106; 4-hydroxy-2',3,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl) through maternal milk. The different groups of mothers received via gavage corn oil vehicle, 0.5, 5, or 50 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 every second day from day 3 to 13 after delivery. The exposure did not affect the body weight of the dams or the physical development of the newborn pups in both sexes. Male rats exposed to OH-PCB 106 showed hyperactivity that was characterized by increased locomotor activity in novel environment and circadian period. Interestingly, OH-PCB 106-exposed rat pups displayed abnormally high levels of dopamine and D2 dopamine receptor (D2DR), but not D1DR and D5DR, in the striatum, an important center for the coordination of behavior. These findings indicate that OH-PCB 106 has a significant neurotoxic effect on rat behavior, which may be associated with increased D2DR mediated signals.

  6. Prolonged fasting increases the response of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but not vasopressin levels, in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The 8- to 12-week postweaning fast exhibited by northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) occurs without any apparent deleterious effects on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, during the fast the role of vasopressin (AVP) has been shown to be inconclusive and the involvement of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has yet to be examined. To examine the effects of prolonged fasting on these osmoregulatory hormones, 15 postweaned pups were serially blood-sampled during the first 49 days of their fast. Fasting did not induce significant changes in ionic or osmotic concentrations, suggesting electrolyte homeostasis. Total proteins were reduced by day 21 of fasting and remained depressed, suggesting a lack of dehydration. Aldosterone and plasma renin activity exhibited a correlated, linear increase over the first 49 days of the fast, suggesting an active RAAS. Aldosterone exhibited a parabolic trend over the fast with a peak at day 35, suggesting a shift in the sensitivity of the kidney to aldosterone later in the fast. AVP was elevated at day 49 only, but concentrations were relatively low. RAAS was modified during the postweaning fast in pups and appears to play a significant role in the regulation of electrolyte and, most likely, water homeostasis during this period. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Acupuncture stimulation at HT7 alleviates depression-induced behavioral changes via regulation of the serotonin system in the prefrontal cortex of maternally-separated rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyemee; Yoo, Doyoung; Kwon, Sunoh; Yoo, Tae-Won; Park, Hi-Joon; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Seung-Tae

    2012-07-01

    A possible application of acupuncture in alleviating depression-like behavioral changes and regulating serotonin signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of maternally-separated rat pups was investigated in this study. On postnatal day 15, rat pups were maternally-separated and received acupuncture stimulation at acupoint HT7 or ST36 once a day for 7 days. On postnatal day 21, the tail suspension test was performed and the PFC was harvested. Tissue levels of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were then measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and expression of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were assessed by western blotting. Levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were not significantly changed, but the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was significantly increased by maternal separation. The immobility time of maternally-separated rat pups was increased, and increased 5-HTT expression and reduced BDNF level were observed in the PFC. But acupuncture stimulation at HT7 alleviated the behavioral change and regulated the changes of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio, 5-HTT, and BDNF. In conclusion, acupuncture stimulation at HT7 can relieve maternal separation-induced changes, and we propose that regulation of the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio and of 5-HTT expression by acupuncture stimulation are important acupuncture-induced benefits in this animal model of depression.

  8. Hookworm intensity of infection in California sea lion and northern fur seal pups collected at haulouts/rookeries in California from 1996-07-17 to 2003-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0141164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  9. Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

  10. Minority carrier lifetimes in different doped LWIR HgCdTe grown by LPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, GuangYin; Wei, YanFeng; Sun, QuanZhi; Yang, JianRong

    2012-10-01

    The carrier lifetimes of different types of p-type doped HgCdTe(x~0.23) long wavelength infrared (LWIR) epilayers were measured which were Hg-vacancy, Au and arsenic doped ones prepared by Te-rich Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). By comparing the lifetimes of Hg-vacancy and extrinsic doped HgCdTe, we focus on three primary mechanisms limiting the lifetimes in these different p-type HgCdTe samples: radiative recombination, Auger recombination and Schokley-Read- Hall (SRH) Recombination. The recombination mechanism in p-type HgCdTe is the SRH recombination at low temperatures and Auger and radiative recombination at high temperature. It is found that the lifetime of As-doped and Au-doped HgCdTe is far longer than that of Hg-vacancy-doped sample which is caused by the deep energy level of the Hg-vacancy acceptor that is considered as a recombination center in HgCdTe. Also we found lifetime in those p-type doped HgCdTe LWIR epilayers is limited by SRH by comparing the experimental lifetimes with the calculated data. Impurity doping was found to have a main effect on minority carrier lifetime.

  11. Hormone-dependent aggression in male and female rats: experiential, hormonal, and neural foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1992-01-01

    Hormone-dependent aggression in both male and female rats includes the distinctive behavioral characteristics of piloerection and lateral attack. In males the aggression is dependent on testicular testosterone and is commonly known as intermale aggression. In females, the aggression is most commonly observed as maternal aggression and is dependent on hormones whose identity is only beginning to emerge. The present review examines the experiential events which activate hormone-dependent aggression, the relation of the aggression to gonadal hormones, and the neural structures that participate in its modulation. In males and females, the aggression is activated by cohabitation with a conspecific of the opposite sex, by competitive experience, and by repeated exposure to unfamiliar conspecifics. In the female, the presence of pups also activates aggression. In both males and females, hormones are necessary for the full manifestation of the aggression. The essential hormone appears to be testosterone in males and a combination of testosterone and estradiol in females. The information available suggests the neural control systems for hormone-dependent aggression may be similar in males and females. It is argued that hormone-dependent aggression is behaviorally and biologically homologous in male and female rats.

  12. Biosorption of Hg(II) onto goethite with extracellular polymeric substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjuan; Pan, Xiangliang; Mu, Shuyong; Zhang, Daoyong; Yang, Xue; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-05-01

    This study characterized the interactions of goethite, EPS from cyanobacterium Chroococcus sp. and Hg(II) using excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra and adsorption isotherms. Three protein-like fluorescence peaks were noted to quench in the presence of Hg(II). The estimated conditional stability constant (logKa) and the binding constant (logKb) of the studied EPS-Hg(II) systems ranged 3.84-4.24 and 6.99-7.69, respectively. The proteins in EPS formed stable complex with Hg(II). The presence of proteins of Chroococcus sp. enhanced the adsorption capacity of Hg(II) on goethite; therefore, the goethite-EPS soil is a larger Hg(II) sink than goethite alone soil. Biosorption significantly affects the mobility of Hg(II) in goethite soils.

  13. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    Decay of rocks, due both to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, can show up in several different forms, such as neoformation of minerals, decohesion of grains and/or crystals, magnification of previous defects, new discontinuities, etc. Intrinsic factors include the type of material, its properties and microstructure, in particular porosity and microporosity. Extrinsic factors relate to atmosphere and usage of the material itself. Rock degradation has several heavy consequences for commercial stones, such as increase of permeability, loss of material, loss of mechanical strength; these consequences are of crucial importance for conservation of historical buildings. Aim of this study is to compare microporosity of some massive commercial stones by means of X ray microtomography, a non destructive technique, and Hg porosimetry. Nine of the most used Spanish limestones and dolostones have been analysed. The lithotypes have been chosen for their homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and for their low porosity; some of them have been widely used in Spain for historical buildings. Different lithotypes have been described in thin section: Ambarino (A) and Beige Serpiente (BS): brecciated dolostone, composed by microcrystalline dolomitic clasts, in a dolomitic and/or calcitic microcrystalline matrix. Amarillo Triana (AT): yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides. Blanco Alconera (BA): a white-pink homogeneous limestone, with veins. Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble, without any fissures and/or fractures. Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone, characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%). Gris Macael (GM): a calcitic marble wiht darker and lighter beds, conferring a strong anisotropy. Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone with white calcitic veins. Travertino Blanco (TB): a massive white calcitic travertine. Prismatic samples of about 2x1x1 cm

  14. Terahertz photoconductivity in GaAs/AlGaAs and HgTe/HgCdTe quantum Hall devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellmach, C.; Bonk, R.; Hirsch, A.; Nachtwei, G. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 2, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Vasilyev, Y.B. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 2, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hein, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Becker, C.R. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    We present measurements of the THz photoconductivity on different quantum Hall systems. GaAs/AlGaAs and HgTe/HgCdTe (MCT) heterostructures with Hall-bar and Corbino geometry are investigated. A recipe for the preparation of metallic Corbino contacts on MCT is shown. The system is excited by the radiation of a p -Ge laser (tunable from 1.7 to 2.5 THz) and the photoresponse (PR) is measured versus the magnetic field B. We observe enhanced PR around integer filling factors (bolometric PR) and cyclotron resonance (CR) effects. Because of the lower effective mass in MCT, the CR in this system appears at a relatively low magnetic field ({approx}2 T). This is appropriate for possible applications. Finally we present time resolved measurements of the PR on the GaAs system. We find relaxation times from about 10 to over 200 ns, which depend on the geometry, the applied source-drain voltage and the on mobility of the sample. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. The physiology of cooperative breeding in a rare social canid; sex, suppression and pseudopregnancy in female Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Freya; Paris, Monique; Macdonald, David W; Millar, Robert; Argaw, Kifle; Johnson, Paul J; Farstad, Wenche; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2013-10-02

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, differ from other cooperatively breeding canids in that they combine intense sociality with solitary foraging, making them a suitable species in which to study the physiology of cooperative breeding. The reproductive physiology of twenty wild female Ethiopian wolves (eleven dominant and nine subordinate) in Ethiopia's Bale Mountains National Park was studied non-invasively through the extraction and assaying of estradiol, progesterone and glucocorticoids in collected fecal samples using enzyme and radioimmunoassays. All dominant females showed increased estradiol concentrations and/or mating behavior during the annual mating season. In contrast, none of the subordinate females showed increased estradiol concentrations or mating behavior during the mating season. However, two subordinate females came into estrus outside of the mating season. Both dominant and subordinate females had higher average progesterone concentrations during the dominant female's pregnancy than at other times of the year, and two subordinate females allosuckled the dominant female's pups. No statistically significant differences in glucocorticoid concentrations were found between dominant and subordinate females. These results suggest that subordinate females are reproductively suppressed during the annual mating season, but may ovulate outside of the mating season and become pseudopregnant. No evidence was found to suggest that reproductive suppression in subordinate females was regulated through aggressive behaviors, and no relationship was found between fecal glucocorticoids and dominance status. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uptake of Hg2+ by picocyanobacteria in natural water from four Andean lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In lake food webs, planktonic bacteria and algae represent the greatest bioconcentration step for Hg2+ and monomethyl-Hg (MeHg. As they are the most abundant organisms in planktonic trophic webs and also the main food resource for herbivorous plankton, they can mobilize large amounts of Hg to higher trophic levels. In Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina, dissolved organic matter (DOM concentration and character, coupled with photo-reactions, play a central role in the complexation of Hg2+ in the water column and can even regulate the uptake of Hg2+ by planktonic algae. In this investigation we evaluated the DOM character of natural waters (NW from four Andean lakes and studied its influence on the uptake of 197Hg2+ in a strain of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus by using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ by Synechococcus showed different magnitude in NW of lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Morenito and Escondido. Increasing lake DOM concentration reduced the bioavailability of Hg2+ as indicated by the lower uptakes rates found in NW with higher complexity and concentration of the DOM pool. Uptakes of Hg2+ by this picocyanobacteria contrasted among NW from pelagic (surface and bottom and littoral compartments of Lake Escondido which suggest that the entry of this metal may be highly variable even in the same environment. The study of the uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ in a set of dilutions of NW from Lake Escondido demonstrated that the bioavailability of Hg2+ decrease with increasing DOM concentration.

  17. Spatial distribution and accumulation of Hg in soil surrounding a Zn/Pb smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingru; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Long; Liu, Fang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Fengyang

    2014-10-15

    Nonferrous metal smelting is an important atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission source that has significant local and global impacts. To quantify the impact of Hg emission from non-ferrous metal smelter on the surrounding soil, an integrated model parameterizing the processes of smelter emission, air dispersion, atmospheric deposition and Hg accumulation in soil was developed. The concentrations of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) around the smelter and the spatial distribution of Hg in the surrounding soil were measured and compared with the model results. Atmospheric deposition of Hg emitted from the smelter was identified as the main source of Hg accumulation in the surrounding soil. From 1960 to 2011, the smelter emitted approximately 105 t of Hg into the atmosphere, of which 15 t deposited locally and resulted in an increase of Hg concentration in soil from 0.12 to 1.77 mg kg(-1). A detailed examination of wind rose and model data suggested that the area within 1.0-1.5 km northwest and southeast of the smelter was most severely impacted. It was estimated that the smelter operation from 1969 to 1990, when large scale emission controls were not implemented, resulted in 6450 μg m(-2)yr(-1) of Hg net deposition and a model simulated increase of 0.40 mg kg(-1) of Hg accumulation in the soil. During the period from 1991 to 2011, atmospheric Hg emission from the smelter alone increased the average concentration in soil from 0.41 mg kg(-1) to 0.45 mg kg(-1). In the past 50 years, over 86% of Hg emitted from this smelter went into the global pool, indicating the importance of controlling Hg emissions from non-ferrous metal smelters.

  18. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  19. An evolving computational platform for biological mass spectrometry: workflows, statistics and data mining with MASSyPup64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In biological mass spectrometry, crude instrumental data need to be converted into meaningful theoretical models. Several data processing and data evaluation steps are required to come to the final results. These operations are often difficult to reproduce, because of too specific computing platforms. This effect, known as 'workflow decay', can be diminished by using a standardized informatic infrastructure. Thus, we compiled an integrated platform, which contains ready-to-use tools and workflows for mass spectrometry data analysis. Apart from general unit operations, such as peak picking and identification of proteins and metabolites, we put a strong emphasis on the statistical validation of results and Data Mining. MASSyPup64 includes e.g., the OpenMS/TOPPAS framework, the Trans-Proteomic-Pipeline programs, the ProteoWizard tools, X!Tandem, Comet and SpiderMass. The statistical computing language R is installed with packages for MS data analyses, such as XCMS/metaXCMS and MetabR. The R package Rattle provides a user-friendly access to multiple Data Mining methods. Further, we added the non-conventional spreadsheet program teapot for editing large data sets and a command line tool for transposing large matrices. Individual programs, console commands and modules can be integrated using the Workflow Management System (WMS) taverna. We explain the useful combination of the tools by practical examples: (1) A workflow for protein identification and validation, with subsequent Association Analysis of peptides, (2) Cluster analysis and Data Mining in targeted Metabolomics, and (3) Raw data processing, Data Mining and identification of metabolites in untargeted Metabolomics. Association Analyses reveal relationships between variables across different sample sets. We present its application for finding co-occurring peptides, which can be used for target proteomics, the discovery of alternative biomarkers and protein-protein interactions. Data Mining derived models

  20. An evolving computational platform for biological mass spectrometry: workflows, statistics and data mining with MASSyPup64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Winkler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In biological mass spectrometry, crude instrumental data need to be converted into meaningful theoretical models. Several data processing and data evaluation steps are required to come to the final results. These operations are often difficult to reproduce, because of too specific computing platforms. This effect, known as ‘workflow decay’, can be diminished by using a standardized informatic infrastructure. Thus, we compiled an integrated platform, which contains ready-to-use tools and workflows for mass spectrometry data analysis. Apart from general unit operations, such as peak picking and identification of proteins and metabolites, we put a strong emphasis on the statistical validation of results and Data Mining. MASSyPup64 includes e.g., the OpenMS/TOPPAS framework, the Trans-Proteomic-Pipeline programs, the ProteoWizard tools, X!Tandem, Comet and SpiderMass. The statistical computing language R is installed with packages for MS data analyses, such as XCMS/metaXCMS and MetabR. The R package Rattle provides a user-friendly access to multiple Data Mining methods. Further, we added the non-conventional spreadsheet program teapot for editing large data sets and a command line tool for transposing large matrices. Individual programs, console commands and modules can be integrated using the Workflow Management System (WMS taverna. We explain the useful combination of the tools by practical examples: (1 A workflow for protein identification and validation, with subsequent Association Analysis of peptides, (2 Cluster analysis and Data Mining in targeted Metabolomics, and (3 Raw data processing, Data Mining and identification of metabolites in untargeted Metabolomics. Association Analyses reveal relationships between variables across different sample sets. We present its application for finding co-occurring peptides, which can be used for target proteomics, the discovery of alternative biomarkers and protein–protein interactions. Data Mining

  1. An evolving computational platform for biological mass spectrometry: workflows, statistics and data mining with MASSyPup64

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In biological mass spectrometry, crude instrumental data need to be converted into meaningful theoretical models. Several data processing and data evaluation steps are required to come to the final results. These operations are often difficult to reproduce, because of too specific computing platforms. This effect, known as ‘workflow decay’, can be diminished by using a standardized informatic infrastructure. Thus, we compiled an integrated platform, which contains ready-to-use tools and workflows for mass spectrometry data analysis. Apart from general unit operations, such as peak picking and identification of proteins and metabolites, we put a strong emphasis on the statistical validation of results and Data Mining. MASSyPup64 includes e.g., the OpenMS/TOPPAS framework, the Trans-Proteomic-Pipeline programs, the ProteoWizard tools, X!Tandem, Comet and SpiderMass. The statistical computing language R is installed with packages for MS data analyses, such as XCMS/metaXCMS and MetabR. The R package Rattle provides a user-friendly access to multiple Data Mining methods. Further, we added the non-conventional spreadsheet program teapot for editing large data sets and a command line tool for transposing large matrices. Individual programs, console commands and modules can be integrated using the Workflow Management System (WMS) taverna. We explain the useful combination of the tools by practical examples: (1) A workflow for protein identification and validation, with subsequent Association Analysis of peptides, (2) Cluster analysis and Data Mining in targeted Metabolomics, and (3) Raw data processing, Data Mining and identification of metabolites in untargeted Metabolomics. Association Analyses reveal relationships between variables across different sample sets. We present its application for finding co-occurring peptides, which can be used for target proteomics, the discovery of alternative biomarkers and protein–protein interactions. Data Mining derived models

  2. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and MeHg in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from amphipod and worm prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Jessica; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2011-08-15

    Elevated metal levels in fish are a concern for the fish themselves, their predators, and possibly humans who consume contaminated seafood. Metal bioaccumulation models often rely on assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals and loss rate constants after dietary exposure (k(ef)s). These models can be used to better understand processes regulating metal accumulation and can be used to make site-specific predictions of metal concentrations in animal tissues. Fish often consume a varied diet, and prey choice can influence these two parameters. We investigated the trophic transfer of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and methylmercury (MeHg) from a benthic amphipod (Leptocheirus plumulosus) and an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) to killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) using gamma-emitting radioisotopes. Except for MeHg, AEs varied between prey type. AEs were highest for MeHg (92%) and lowest for Cd (2.9-4.5%) and Cr (0.2-4%). Hg(II) showed the largest AE difference between prey type (14% amphipods, 24% worms). For Cd and Hg(II) k(ef)s were higher after consuming amphipods than consuming worms. Tissue distribution data shows that Cd and Hg(II) were mainly associated with the intestine, whereas As and MeHg were transported throughout the body. Calculated trophic transfer factors (TTFs) suggest that MeHg is likely to biomagnify at this trophic step at all ingestion rates, whereas As, Cd, Cr, and Hg(II) will not. Data collected in this study and others indicate that using one prey item to calculate AE and k(ef) could lead to an over- or underestimation of these parameters.

  3. Bioaccumulation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls and pentachlorophenol in the serum of northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.louis@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Stas, Marie [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E. [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, 1801 East Cotati Ave, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Malarvannan, Govindan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2015-01-15

    Northern elephant seals (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) from the Año Nuevo State Reserve (CA, USA) were sampled at 1-, 4-, 7- and 10-week post-weaning. Concentrations of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and their parent PCBs were measured in the serum of each individual. The ΣHO-PCB concentrations in the serum increased significantly between early and late fast (from 282±20 to 529±31 pg/mL). This increase might result from a mobilisation of HO-PCBs transferred from the mother during gestation and/or lactation and stored in the pup's liver. Food deprivation has been shown to exacerbate biotransformation capacities in mammals, birds and fish. The HO-penta-CBs was the predominant homologue group, followed by HO-hexa-CBs and HO-hepta-CBs. No preferential pathway for the metabolism of HO-PCBs (HO-direct insertion or NIH-shift of a chlorine atom) could be evidenced. The concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the serum of weaned NES increased from 103±7 pg/mL at early fast to 246±41 pg/mL at late fast, which is within the range of PCP concentrations usually encountered in marine mammals. - Highlights: • Σ HO-PCB concentrations in serum significantly increased between early and late fast. • The HO-penta-CBs were the predominant homologue group measured in serum. • No preferential pathway for the metabolism of HO-PCBs could be evidenced. • PCP concentrations in serum significantly increased between early and late fast.

  4. Maternal milk, but not formula, regulates the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in allergy-prone rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Katie L; El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Cummins, Adrian G; Grose, Randall H; Lymn, Kerry A; DeNichilo, Mark; Penttila, Irmeli A

    2009-11-01

    Controversy exists regarding the timing of the introduction of allergic foods into the diet. We investigated the immune response of rat pups exposed to beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), one of the main allergenic proteins in cow milk. Brown Norway allergy-prone rats were allocated into groups: dam-reared and unchallenged (DR), DR challenged with BLG via gavage (11 mg/d), or rats fed via gastric cannula a formula containing BLG (11 mg/d). BLG was given from d 4 of life. Rats were killed at d 10, 14, or 21. Sera were assayed for total IgE, BLG-specific IgG1, and rat mucosal mast cell protease II (RMCPII; indicator of mucosal mast cell degranulation). Ileum was assessed for cytokine mRNA. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were assessed for forkhead boxP3 (Foxp3) and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7) expression by real-time PCR and immunostained for Foxp3(+) CD4(+) regulatory cells. Formula feeding compared with dam-rearing with or without oral BLG challenge resulted in significantly greater serum IgE, BLG-specific IgG1, RMCPII, and intestinal mast cells but reduced MLN Foxp3(+) cells, Foxp3, and CCR7 expression and ileal cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and interferon-gamma (P < 0.05). Importantly, giving BLG in the presence of maternal milk resulted in an immune response profile similar to that of unchallenged DR rats but with greater Foxp3 and CCR7 mRNA expression and CD4(+) Foxp3(+) cells (P < 0.05). We conclude that introducing an allergenic food with breast milk reduces immunological indicators of an allergic response, whereas introduction during formula feeding generates an allergic response.

  5. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from Vernonia cinerea attenuate selenite induced cataract formation in Sprague Dawley rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Radha; Gayathri Devi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-02-05

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of active component isolated from flavonoid fraction of Vernonia cinerea (FVC), lupeol on selenite induced cataract formation. Previous reports suggest that phytochemicals or natural plant products retard the process of cataractogenesis by scavenging free oxygen radicals. Hence, the present study sought to assess the potential of lupeol on in vivo selenite induced cataract models. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea, follows standard chromatographic techniques. Structural elucidation of the compound was carried out using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, Mass spectrometry together with other complementary techniques (UV and IR). From these, the isolated compound was identified as Lupeol (3'-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene). The antioxidant activity was comparatively studied using DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay. Lupeol exhibited higher DPPH radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power assay. In this study, cataract was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (4 μg/g body weight) on rat pups. Lupeol was administered orally from 8th day upto 21st day at a concentration 25 μg/g body weight. Cataract was visualized on 16th day with the help of an ophthalmoscope and later on with the naked eye. On the 30th day, rats were euthanized by sodium pentothal injection, lenses were excised and the biochemical parameters such as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Ca(2+) ATPase, glutathione content (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) were estimated and found effective in the treatment of cataract by lupeol.

  6. Tissue mercury concentrations and adrenocortical responses of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near a contaminated river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Haruka; Yates, David E; Evers, David C; Taylor, Robert J; Hopkins, William A

    2010-10-01

    Much of the research on mercury (Hg) in wild vertebrates has focused on piscivores and other animals at high trophic levels. However, recent studies indicated that insectivorous terrestrial vertebrates may also be at risk. In the present study, we examined blood and fur Hg concentrations as well as the adrenocortical responses of insectivorous big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near the Hg-contaminated South River, VA and a nearby reference area. Baseline glucocorticoids and adrenocortical responses to handling have been widely used to assess the influence of environmental stressors because plasma glucocorticoids rise in response to various physical, psychological, and physiological challenges. Female bats captured at the contaminated site had 2.6 times higher blood and fur Hg concentrations than those captured at the reference site (blood: 0.11 vs. 0.04 μg/g wet weight; fur: 28.0 vs. 10.9 μg/g fresh weight). Fur Hg concentrations at the contaminated site were higher than most wild omnivorous and carnivorous mammals reported in the literature. Although fur and blood Hg concentrations were tightly correlated, fur Hg concentrations averaged 260 times higher than concentrations in blood. This suggests that fur may be an important depuration route for bats, just as it is in other mammals. Despite the high Hg concentrations in bat tissue, we did not observe any site difference in adrenocortical responses. Our results suggest that the bats at the contaminated site were exposed to Hg concentrations below those causing adverse effects on their adrenal axis.

  7. Lifetimes of an excited superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    An excited superdeformed band was identified in {sup 192}Hg and the lifetimes of its levels measured with the Doppler-shift attenuation method from data taken with the Eurogam spectrometer. The band is proposed to be based on the two-quasineutron (v[642]3/2 [512]5/2) configuration, which after a band crossing, becomes the (v[642]3/2 [752]5/2) configuration. The transition quadrupole moment Q{sub t} of the excited band is the same as that of the yrast SD band, within experimental errors. This suggests that the deformation of the SD minimum is robust with respect to quasiparticle excitation, despite the occupation of the deformation-driving v[752]5/2 level (from the j{sub 15/2} shell) after the band crossing.

  8. [HG-AFS determination of selenium in Moringa oleifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-qing; Xiao, Zi-jun

    2007-02-01

    The Se content in Moringa oleifera was studied by hydride generation atom fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) with wet digestion. The effects of the way of digestion, the work condition of apparatus, the reaction medium and acidity, and the reducing agent and masking agent on the determination of Se were investigated. And the operating condition of apparatus was optimized. The results showed that the detection limit of Se in this method was 0.42 ng x mL(-1) in the linear ranger of 0-120 ng x mL(-1), the relative standard deviation was 3.53% (n = 11), and the recovery of the method was 95.2%-104.6%. It was showed that the method was very sensitive, simple, rapid and accurate.

  9. Archaic introjects and the cosmology of H.G. Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, A

    1982-01-01

    The roles of the archaic loving and hating introjects are traced in the early scientific romances and the life work of H.G. Wells. The preambivalent polarization of the early loving introjects of an archaic ego ideal (giving rise to utopian fantasies and, later, to promulgations of a new world state) and the early hostile introjects of an archaic superego (giving rise to fears of death and, later, to fears of cosmic dissolution) is represented in eschatological preoccupations with death, the Last Judgment, heaven and hell. These religious preoccupations are derivatives of wishes for maternal union and bliss on the one hand, and of castration anxiety and fears of personal annihilation on the other. Further transformations of the archaic introjects are traced through an indentification with the role of redeemer, and later, through his scientific studies, to an espousal of T.H. Huxley's teachings of organic evolution and to the development of cosmological themes in his work.

  10. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  11. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Female Sexual Dysfunction February 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... Resources Mayo Clinic Cleveland Clinic What is female sexual dysfunction (FSD)? Many women have a low sex ...

  12. Mercury methylation in paddy soil: source and distribution of mercury species at a Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy plantation is the dominant agricultural land use throughout Asia. Rice paddy fields have been identified as important sites for methylmercury (MeHg) production in the terrestrial ecosystem and a primary pathway of MeHg exposure to humans in mercury (Hg) mining areas. We compared the source and distribution of Hg species in different compartments of the rice paddy during a complete rice-growing season at two different typical Hg-contaminated mining sites in Guizhou province, China: an abandoned site with a high Hg concentration in soil but a low concentration in the atmosphere and a current-day artisanal site with a low concentration in soil but a high concentration in the atmosphere. Our results showed that the flux of new Hg to the ecosystem from irrigation and atmospheric deposition was insignificant relative to the pool of old Hg in soil; the dominant source of MeHg to paddy soil is in situ methylation of inorganic Hg (IHg). Elevated MeHg concentrations and the high proportion of Hg as MeHg in paddy water and the surface soil layer at the artisanal site demonstrated active Hg methylation at this site only. We propose that the in situ production of MeHg in paddy water and surface soil is dependent on elevated Hg in the atmosphere and the consequential deposition of new Hg into a low-pH anoxic geochemical system. The absence of depth-dependent variability in the MeHg concentration in soil cores collected from the abandoned Hg mining site, consistent with the low concentration of Hg in the atmosphere and high pH of the paddy water and irrigation water, suggested that net production of MeHg at this site was limited. We propose that the concentration of Hg in ambient air is an indicator for the risk of MeHg accumulation in paddy rice.

  13. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  14. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for methylmercury in female American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.W.; Bennett, R.S.; Rossmann, R.; French, J.B.; Sappington, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury (CH 3Hg) in female American kestrels. The model consists of six tissue compartments corresponding to the brain, liver, kidney, gut, red blood cells, and remaining carcass. Additional compartments describe the elimination of CH3Hg to eggs and growing feathers. Dietary uptake of CH 3Hg was modeled as a diffusion-limited process, and the distribution of CH3Hg among compartments was assumed to be mediated by the flow of blood plasma. To the extent possible, model parameters were developed using information from American kestrels. Additional parameters were based on measured values for closely related species and allometric relationships for birds. The model was calibrated using data from dietary dosing studies with American kestrels. Good agreement between model simulations and measured CH3Hg concentrations in blood and tissues during the loading phase of these studies was obtained by fitting model parameters that control dietary uptake of CH 3Hg and possible hepatic demethylation. Modeled results tended to underestimate the observed effect of egg production on circulating levels of CH3Hg. In general, however, simulations were consistent with observed patterns of CH3Hg uptake and elimination in birds, including the dominant role of feather molt. This model could be used to extrapolate CH 3Hg kinetics from American kestrels to other bird species by appropriate reassignment of parameter values. Alternatively, when combined with a bioenergetics-based description, the model could be used to simulate CH 3Hg kinetics in a long-term environmental exposure. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  15. Using Simple Science to Influence Corporate Responsibility—A Lesson from Mercury (Hg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a powerful neurotoxin with wide environmental distribution. Typical population exposure to Hg comes from fish consumption, with fish being the final ecological endpoint of Hg magnification after a series of biogeochemical processes. The emission of Hg from coal-fired power plants has been strongly implicated as a key source of environmental Hg, and thus the target for various public policy initiatives in the US and abroad. We conducted a study of Hg distribution in surface soils over a broad area of central Indiana (US) to understand the major sources of Hg to local fish, and to assess the potential role of policy compliance in reducing Hg. We found a plume-like distribution pattern for soil Hg, with values exceeding 400 ppb Hg in the heart of the plume, and reducing to background concentration of about 30 ppb outside of the plume. The plume covered hundreds of square kilometers, was centered directly over the downtown area of Indianapolis (a city of roughly 1 million inhabitants), and could be roughly backtracked to a source in the southwest corner of the city, coincident with a large coal-fired utility plant that has the highest reported emissions of Hg in the area. Evidence of this link between a local source of Hg and net Hg deposition, with related implications for Hg runoff to local stream, biomagnification to fish, and fish consumption advisories was reported in regional newspapers and eventually published in scientific journals. But importantly, these findings were used by an NGO (the Beyond Coal campaign by Indiana branch of the Sierra Club) at a critical time to influence a decision by the owner of the power plant of whether to comply with the Hg policy rule by either adding higher technology scrubbing technologies to the plant or simply to convert the plant over to natural gas as the fuel source (a costlier choice upfront). The utility chose the latter option, and with the permanent elimination of Hg emissions, the net measurable effects

  16. Body burden of Hg in different bio-samples of mothers in Shenyang city, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, P<0.001. Frequency of fish consumption more than or equal to 3 times per week during pregnancy was suggested as a significant risk factor of prenatal Hg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, P<0.05. This study provides evidence about Hg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China.

  17. Assessing anthropogenic sources of mercury in soil in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhihui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jingfu; Jiang, Taiming; Xiao, Houjun; Li, Yu; Wang, Xun; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-11-01

    Long-term mining and smelting activities brought a series of environmental issues into soils in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China. Several studies have been published on the concentrations of Hg in local soils, but a comprehensive assessment of the mass of Hg in soil induced by anthropogenic activities, as presented in this paper, has not been previously conducted. Three districts of WMMA were chosen as the study areas. We summarized previous published data and sampled 14 typical soil profiles to analyze the spatial and vertical distributions of Hg in soil in the study areas. The regional geologic background, direct and indirect Hg deposition, and Hg-polluted irrigation water were considered as the main sources of Hg contaminations in local soils. Furthermore, the enrichment factor (EF) method was applied to assess the extent of anthropogenic input of Hg to soil. Titanium (Ti) was chosen to be the reference element to calculate the EF. Generally, the elevated values of EF were observed in the upper soil layers and close to mine wastes. The total budget of Hg in soil contributed from anthropogenic sources was estimated to be 1,227 t in arable soil and 75 t in natural soil. Our data showed that arable soil was the major sink of anthropogenic Hg in the study area.

  18. Lupinus albus plants acquire mercury tolerance when inoculated with an Hg-resistant Bradyrhizobium strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Miguel A; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    One strain of Bradyrhizobium canariense (L-7AH) was selected for its metal-resistance and ability to nodulate white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants, from a collection of rhizobial strains previously created from soils of the Almadén mining district (Spain) with varying levels of Hg contamination. Plants were inoculated with either strain L-7AH (Hg-tolerant) or L-3 (Hg-sensitive, used as control), and watered with nutrient solutions supplemented with various concentrations (0-200 μM) of HgCl2 in a growth chamber. L. albus inoculated with L-7AH were able to nodulate even at the highest concentration of Hg while those inoculated with L-3 had virtually no nodules at Hg concentrations above 25 μM. Plants inoculated with L-7AH, but not those with the control strain, were able to accumulate large amounts of Hg in their roots and nodules. Nodulation with L-7AH allowed plants to maintain constant levels of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in their leaves and a high photosynthetic efficiency, whereas in those inoculated with L-3 both pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly as Hg concentration increased. Nitrogenase activity of plants nodulated with L-7AH remained fairly constant at all concentrations of Hg used. Results suggest that this symbiotic pair may be used for rhizoremediation of Hg-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenylselenolate Mercury Alkyl Compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt: Molecular Structures, Protolytic Hg–C Bond Cleavage and Phenylselenolate Exchange‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Quinlivan, Patrick J.; Rong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The phenylselenolate mercury alkyl compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt, have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, thereby demonstrating that both compounds are monomeric with approximately linear coordination geometries; the mercury centers do, nevertheless, exhibit secondary Hg•••Se intermolecular interactions that serve to increase the coordination number in the solid state. The ethyl derivative, PhSeHgEt, undergoes facile protolytic cleavage of the Hg–C bond to release ethane at room temperature, whereas PhSeHgMe exhibits little reactivity under similar conditions. Interestingly, the cleavage of the Hg–C bond of PhSeHgEt is also more facile than that of the thiolate analogue, PhSHgEt, which demonstrates that coordination by selenium promotes protolytic cleavage of the mercury-carbon bond. The phenylselenolate compounds PhSeHgR (R = Me, Et) also undergo degenerate exchange reactions with, for example, PhSHgR and RHgCl. In each case, the alkyl groups preserve coupling to the 199Hg nuclei, thereby indicating that the exchange process involves metathesis of the Hg–SePh/Hg–X groups rather than metathesis of the Hg–R/Hg–R groups. PMID:26644634

  20. HgTe/CdHgTe double quantum well with a spectrum of bilayer graphene and peculiarities of its magnetotransport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakunin, M. V.; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Podgornykh, S. M.; Popov, M. R.; Neverov, V. N.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    The quantum Hall effect (QHE) in a HgTe/CdHgTe double quantum well (DQW) with a tunneling-transparent barrier and the energy spectrum resembling the band structure of bilayer graphene has been investigated. An experimental manifestation of a tunnel gap between the states of light carriers seen as a magnetoresistance (MR) peak in the in-plane magnetic field has been discovered. An unusual structure of the QHE has been observed in a sample with hole conductivity: there is a pronounced peak on a plateau with the number i = 2 and the slopes of this anomalous peak correspond to two peaks of the longitudinal MR. On the other hand, a stable 2-1 plateau-plateau transition has been observed in much higher fields with the position of this transition corresponding to a considerably higher hole density than follows from the pattern of the QHE in weak fields. The anomalous peak is interpreted as a reentrant QHE between the 2-1-2 states. The position of the anomalous peak is immune to IR illumination and the tilting angle of the magnetic field, although these factors strongly affect its amplitude. According to comparison with the calculated structure of magnetic levels, the anomalous peak is attributed to crossing of electron-like and hole-like levels in the valence band. The difference between the hole densities found in weak field and from the 2-1 transition in strong fields is attributed to the effects of redistribution of holes between the localized states in sideband maxima of the valence subband and the ones delocalized in the overlapping levels of light holes.

  1. Excitation spectra and ground-state properties from density functional theory for the inverted band-structure systems $\\beta$-HgS, HgSe, and HgTe

    CERN Document Server

    Delin, A

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a systematic density-functional study of the mercury chalcogenide compounds $\\beta$-HgS, HgSe, and HgTe using an all-electron full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO) method. We find that, in the zinc-blende structure, both HgSe and HgTe are semimetals whereas $\\beta$-HgS has a small spin-orbit induced band gap. Our calculated relativistic photoemission and inverse photoemission spectra (PES and IPES, respectively) reproduce very well the most recently measured spectra, as do also our theoretical optical spectra. In contrast to the normal situation, we find that the local density approximation (LDA) to the density functional gives calculated equilibrium volumes in much better agreement with experiment than does the generalized gradient corrected functional (GGA). We also address the problem of treating relativistic $p$ electrons with methods based on a scalar-relativistic basis set, and show that the effect is rather small for the present systems.

  2. Mercury in stream water at five Czech catchments across a Hg and S deposition gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, James B.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, Filip; Krám, Pavel; Matoušková, Šárka; Tesař, Miroslav; Hojdová, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Czech Republic was heavily industrialized in the second half of the 20th century but the associated emissions of Hg and S from coal burning were significantly reduced since the 1990s. We studied dissolved (filtered) stream water mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at five catchments with contrasting Hg and S deposition histories in the Bohemian part of the Czech Republic. The median filtered Hg concentrations of stream water samples collected in hydrological years 2012 and 2013 from the five sites varied by an order of magnitude from 1.3 to 18.0 ng L− 1. The Hg concentrations at individual catchments were strongly correlated with DOC concentrations r from 0.64 to 0.93 and with discharge r from 0.48 to 0.75. Annual export fluxes of filtered Hg from individual catchments ranged from 0.11 to 13.3 μg m− 2 yr− 1 and were highest at sites with the highest DOC export fluxes. However, the amount of Hg exported per unit DOC varied widely; the mean Hg/DOC ratio in stream water at the individual sites ranged from 0.28 to 0.90 ng mg− 1. The highest stream Hg/DOC ratios occurred at sites Pluhův Bor and Jezeří which both are in the heavily polluted Black Triangle area. Stream Hg/DOC was inversely related to mineral and total soil pool Hg/C across the five sites. We explain this pattern by greater soil Hg retention due to inhibition of soil organic matter decomposition at the sites with low stream Hg/DOC and/or by precipitation of a metacinnabar (HgS) phase. Thus mobilization of Hg into streams from forest soils likely depends on combined effects of organic matter decomposition dynamics and HgS-like phase precipitation, which were both affected by Hg and S deposition histories.

  3. Impacts of Activated Carbon Amendment on Hg Methylation, Demethylation and Microbial Activity in Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, C. C.; Ghosh, U.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Soren, A.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.; Brown, S.; Henry, E.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ sorbent amendments are a low-impact approach for remediation of contaminants in sediments, particular in habitats like wetlands that provide important ecosystem services. Laboratory microcosm trials (Gilmour et al. 2013) and early field trials show that activated carbon (AC) can effectively increase partitioning of both inorganic Hg and methylmercury to the solid phase. Sediment-water partitioning can serve as a proxy for Hg and MeHg bioavailability in soils. One consideration in using AC in remediation is its potential impact on organisms. For mercury, a critical consideration is the potential impact on net MeHg accumulation and bioavailability. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of AC on rates of methylmercury production and degradation, and on overall microbial activity, in 4 different Hg-contaminated salt marsh soils. The study was done over 28 days in anaerobic, sulfate-reducing slurries. A double label of enriched mercury isotopes (Me199Hg and inorganic 201Hg) was used to separately follow de novo Me201Hg production and Me199Hg degradation. AC amendments decreased both methylation and demethylation rate constants relative to un-amended controls, but the impact on demethylation was stronger. The addition of 5% (dry weight) regenerated AC to soil slurries drove demethylation rate constants to nearly zero; i.e. MeHg sorption to AC almost totally blocked its degradation. The net impact was increased solid phase MeHg concentrations in some of the soil slurries with the highest methylation rate constants. However, the net impact of AC amendments was to increase MeHg (and inorganic Hg) partitioning to the soil phase and decrease concentrations in the aqueous phase. AC significantly decreased aqueous phase inorganic Hg and MeHg concentrations after 28 days. Overall, the efficacy of AC in reducing aqueous MeHg was highest in the soils with the highest MeHg concentrations. The AC addition did not significantly impact microbial activity, as

  4. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-08-06

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy

  5. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-08-06

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy

  6. Growth and characterization of HgI2, PbI2 and PbI2:HgI2 layered semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the preparation of a-HgI2 by Physical Vapor Transport and of PbI2 crystals using the Bridgman technique. The results of the growth of HgI2 diluted in PbI2 by the Bridgman technique are shown for the first time, its limit of solubility having been determined at 600 ppm of HgI2 in the PbI2 matrix. Optical absorption, photoluminescence and electrical conductivity measurements show that the crystals prepared are of good crystalline quality.

  7. Total mercury in female Pacific sharpnose sharks Rhizoprionodon longurio and their embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín G Frías-Espericueta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined the Hg content of blood, placenta and umbilical cord of 20 pregnant females of the viviparous Pacific sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon longurio and of the livers of the embryos contained in their right and left uterus, aiming to provide information on the amount of this metal offloaded during pregnancy by the mother to the embryos. Hg content varied by close or higher than one order of magnitude in all tissues and showed the decreasing trend: maternal blood > umbilical cord > placenta > embryonic livers, with placenta and embryonic livers significantly lower than maternal blood. There were highly significant correlations (P 0.05. The results suggest transplacental Hg transfer and that the liver is not the main site of Hg accumulation.

  8. Sediment accumulation and mercury (Hg) flux in Avicennia marina forest of Deep Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Guo, Meixian; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the rate of sediment accumulation and mercury (Hg) flux in Avicennia marina forest of Deep Bay, China, sediment cores were analyzed. The results showed that Hg concentrations were much higher at all depths compared to the background level. A high correlation between Hg and total organic carbon (TOC) indicated their similar anthropogenic origin. Sedimentation rate was estimated to be 1.38 cm a-1 by 210Pb geochronology. The increase in the mass sediment accumulation rates was rapid (range: 0.5-0.94 g cm-2 a-1), and the Hg fluxes ranged between 76 and 116 ng cm-2 a-1 during the last three decades. The reduction in both Hg concentrations and flux during the last decade may be due to the adoption of contamination control policies. Our results support the notion that the Hg fluxes determined from the sediment cores reveal the effects of anthropogenic influences from the areas around Deep Bay.

  9. Stability studies of Hg implanted YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, J P; Wahl, U; Marques, J G; Alves, E; Amaral, V S; Lourenço, A A; Galindo, V; Von Papen, T; Senateur, J P; Weiss, F; Vantomme, A; Langouche, G; Melo, A A; Da Silva, M F A; Soares, J C; Sousa, J B

    1999-01-01

    High quality YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$ (YBCO) superconducting thin films were implanted with the radioactive $^{197m}$Hg (T$_{1/2}$ = 24 h) isotope to low fluences of 10$^{13}$ atoms/cm$^{2}$ and 60 keV energy. The lattice location and stability of the implanted Hg were studied combining the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) and Emission Channeling (EC) techniques. We show that Hg can be introduced into the YBCO lattice by ion implantation into unique regular sites. The EC data show that Hg is located on a highly symmetric site on the YBCO lattice, while the PAC data suggests that Hg occupies the Cu(1) site. Annealing studies were performed under vacuum and O$_{2}$ atmosphere and show that Hg starts to diffuse only above 653 K.

  10. Food preferences and Hg distribution in Chelonia mydas assessed by stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M F; Lacerda, L D; Rezende, C E; Franco, M A L; Almeida, M G; Macêdo, G R; Pires, T T; Rostán, G; Lopez, G G

    2015-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic pollutant that poses in risk several marine animals, including green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Green turtles are globally endangered sea turtle species that occurs in Brazilian coastal waters as a number of life stage classes (i.e., foraging juveniles and nesting adults). We assessed total Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures ((13)C and (15)N) in muscle, kidney, liver and scute of juvenile green turtles and their food items from two foraging grounds with different urban and industrial development. We found similar food preferences in specimens from both areas but variable Hg levels in tissues reflecting the influence of local Hg backgrounds in food items. Some juvenile green turtles from the highly industrialized foraging ground presented liver Hg levels among the highest ever reported for this species. Our results suggest that juvenile foraging green turtles are exposed to Hg burdens from locally anthropogenic activities in coastal areas.

  11. To Madagascar and back: long-distance, return migration across open ocean by a pregnant female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, J S E; Humphries, N E; Clarke, C R; Sims, D W

    2015-12-01

    A large, pregnant, female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas was tracked migrating from Seychelles across open ocean to south-east Madagascar, c. 2000 km away, and back again. In Madagascar, the shark spent a prolonged period shallower than 5 m, consistent with entering estuarine habitat to pup, and upon return to Seychelles the shark was slender and no longer gravid. This represents an unprecedented return migration across the open ocean for a C. leucas and highlights the need for international collaboration to manage the regional C. leucas population sustainably.

  12. Some health physics aspects of working with 203Hg in university research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, M; Westin, A; Barfuss, D W

    2001-02-01

    The radioisotope 203Hg is used in university toxicology research experiments. When our commercial vendor ceased the production of the high specific activity 203Hg we required, an alternative source was sought. Other commercial sources were investigated without success leaving the synthesis of this radioisotope to us. This paper outlines the method we used to synthesize 203Hg and provides a summary of our results to date and a discussion of our experiences.

  13. Viscosity Relaxation in Molten HgZnTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, James K.

    2002-01-01

    Because of its narrow electronic band-gap, HgZnTe solid solutions have been proposed as effective detectors for infrared radiation. To produce the best single crystals of these materials for this application, knowledge of the phase diagram that governs the freezing of the liquid is essential. Besides the phase diagram, however, some information concerning the thermophysical properties of the melt, such as viscosity, density, specific heat, and enthalpy of mixing, can also be useful. Of these thermophysical properties, the viscosity is perhaps of the most interest scientifically. Measurements using the oscillating cup method have shown that the isothermal melt requires tens of hours of equilibration time before a steady value of the viscosity can be achieved. Over this equilibration time, which depends upon temperature, the viscosity can increase by as much as a factor of two before reaching a steady state. We suggest that this relaxation phenomenon may be due to a slight polymerization of Te atoms in the melt. To account for the time dependence of the viscosity in the HgZnTe melt, we propose that the liquid acts as a solvent that favors the formation of Te atom chains. We suggest that as the melt is cooled from a high temperature to the temperature for measurement of the viscosity, a free radical polymerization of Te atoms begins. To estimate this average molecular weight, we use a simple free radical polymerization mechanism, including a depolymerization step, to calculate the time dependence to the concentration of each Te polymer molecular weight fraction. From these molecular weight fractions, we compute the weight average molecular weight of the distribution. Using the semi-empirical relation between average molecular weight and viscosity, we obtain a formula for the time dependence of the viscosity of the melt. Upon examining this formula, we find that the viscosity achieves a steady value when a balance is achieved between the rate of formation of the chains

  14. Employing mated females as recipients for transfer of cloned dog embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that co-transferring parthenogenetic embryos could improve the pregnancy success rate with cloned embryos in mammals. As an alternative to co-transferring parthenotes, in dogs we employed recipient females that possessed in vivo-fertilised embryos as a result of mating to determine whether mated bitches could be suitable recipients for cloned embryos. The effect of using mated recipients on implantation and pregnancy rates of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos was also determined. Cloned embryos were transferred into the oviducts of naturally synchronous females that had mated with male dogs before ovulation. The pregnancy rate appeared to be similar between mated recipients (50%) and non-mated recipients (28.57%; P>0.05). However, the delivery rate of cloned pups was significantly higher in mated recipients than non-mated recipients (10.53 vs 2.38%; Pdogs can be used as recipients for cloned embryos.

  15. Protein restriction during gestation alters histone modifications at the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) promoter region and induces GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle of female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shasha; Rollet, Michelle; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2012-09-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is an intrauterine factor that results in alteration of the offspring genome and associates with disease risk in the offspring. We investigated the impact of a maternal low-protein (LP) diet on the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in offspring skeletal muscle. GLUT4 is an insulin-regulated glucose transporter involved in insulin sensitivity and carbohydrate metabolism in muscle cells. We observed sex-dependent GLUT4 mRNA expression and increased GLUT4 protein content in female pup skeletal muscle with maternal LP. Analysis of transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of increased skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression in offspring rats revealed the regulatory mechanisms involved. The protein level of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which has been known as an activator of GLUT4 transcription via the ability to carry out specific binding to the GLUT4 MEF2 binding sequence, increased in female pups whose mothers were fed a LP diet. Modifications of chromatin structure, including acetylated histone H3, acetylated histone H4 and di-methylated histone H3 at lysine 4, were detected at a significantly increased level at the GLUT4 promoter region in female pup muscle following a maternal LP diet. Glycogen content was also detected as up-regulated, accompanied by increased glycogen synthase in LP female offspring muscle. These results document that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces GLUT4 expression in female offspring skeletal muscle but not in males, which may indicate sex-dependent adaptation of glucose metabolism to a maternal LP diet.

  16. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  17. Cardiovascular responses to an isometric handgrip exercise in females with prehypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertensive individuals are known to exhibit greater increases in blood pressure during an isometric handgrip exercise (IHE than their normotensive counterparts. Aim: This study tests the hypothesis that, compared to normotensive individuals, prehypertensive individuals exhibit an exaggerated response to IHE. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of IHE were compared in matched prehypertensive vs. normotensive healthy African-American females. Six healthy young adult African-American female university students were screened in a physician′s office for blood pressure in the range of prehypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP 120-139 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP 80-89 mmHg. Six young adult African-American women were also recruited to serve as a healthy normotensive control group with SBP ≤119 mmHg and DBP ≤79 mmHg. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 peak measured during a progressive exercise test. Results: During the handgrip exercise, the prehypertensive group exhibited greater increases in SBP (from 139 ± 6 to 205 ± 11 mmHg, +48% than the controls (from 132 ± 3 to 145 ± 3 mmHg, +10%; intergroup difference P < 0.001. The prehypertensive group also exhibited greater increases in DBP (from 77 ± 2 to 112 ± 5 mmHg, +46% compared to the controls (from 72 ± 3 to 78 ± 4 mmHg, +8%; intergroup difference P < 0.001. The increase in systemic vascular resistance was also greater in the prehypertensive group (from 1713 ± 91 to 2807 ± 370 dyne.s.cm -5 , +64% than in the controls (from 1668 ± 80 to 1812 ± 169 dyne.s.cm -5 , +9%; intergroup difference P < 0.05. Conclusion: These results suggest that blood pressure measurements performed during IHE may be a useful screening tool in evaluating prehypertensive individuals for antihypertensive treatments.

  18. Hg removal and the effects of coexisting metals in forward osmosis and membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Zhang, Dai-Zhou; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the rejection of Hg, Cd, and Pb and the effect of coexisting metals on Hg removal through forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD) in order to establish a more effective water treatment process. The results of our laboratory experiment indicate that more than 97% of the rejection for each metal is achieved through the FO system, and this rejection is the highest among previous studies using membrane filtrations. Moreover, we examine the matrix effect of the coexisting Cd and Pb on the rejection of Hg in the FO system. Hg(2+) rejection increases with increase in the concentration of the coexisting metals. Furthermore, we study the effect of the Hg concentration and the water temperature on rejection of Hg(2+). Indeed, the rejection of Hg(2+) is achieved above 95% under any condition. However, approximately 1-10 ppb Hg from the feed solution remains in the draw solution due to permeation. Therefore, we use a FO-MD hybrid system. Approximately 100% rejection of Hg(2+) and a stable water flux are achieved. Thus, the FO-MD hybrid system is considered an important alternative to previous studies using membrane filtration for heavy metals removal.

  19. MBE - growth of capped, strained HgTe, a 3D topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Christopher; Leubner, Philipp; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens [Universitaet Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The discovery of two (2D) and three dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) behavior in HgTe - systems opens a large field for studying magneto transport properties of both. We grow HgTe as a 3D topological insulator by molecular beam epitaxy. Unstrained bulk HgTe is a semimetal but opens a gap of roughly 22 meV when grown fully strained on <001> CdTe substrate due to 0.3 % lattice mismatch and shows magnetotransport properties of a 3D TI. Hall measurements show electron mobilities of around 50.000 cm{sup 2}(V s){sup -1}. To increase electron mobilities, various growth optimizations have been carried out. Firstly we grew an HgCdTe buffer layer between the substrate and bulk HgTe. Different buffer thicknesses were analyzed ex-situ by HRXRD, AFM and standard Hall measurements. Secondly, we added a cap-layer of HgCdTe on top of the bulk HgTe. Doing so, we were able to raise the electron mobility of the bulk HgTe up to one order of magnitude. Time-dependent XPS measurements allowed us to hold the suppressed oxidization of the surface responsible for this effect. Through the advanced material quality we have now more prospects for better understanding of the transport properties in strained HgTe.

  20. Design of a peptidic turn with high affinity for HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara; Habjanic, Jelena; Sezer, Murat

    2012-01-01

    A four amino acid peptide containing the ß-turn template dPro-Pro in the middle and two cysteines (Cys) in the terminal positions (CdPPC) has been synthesized and its mercury(II) coordination properties studied using different spectroscopic methods. The UV-vis, CD, (199m)Hg PAC, and Raman...... spectroscopic studies indicate the binding of Hg(II) to the two Cys, forming the dithiolatemercury(II) complex Hg(CdPPC). Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry corroborates the 1:1 complex formation. A log K = 40.0 was determined for the formation constant of the Hg(CdPPC) complex using competition...

  1. Rezension zu: Emily Teeter (Hg.), Before the pyramids. The origins of Egyptian civilization

    OpenAIRE

    Köpp-Junk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Rezension zu: Emily Teeter (Hg.), Before the Pyramids. The Origins of Egyptian Civilization. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Museum Publications 33 (Chicago 2011)

  2. Effects of salinity and humic acid on the sorption of Hg on Fe and Mn hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Li, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Chan; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Cui, Hao-Jie; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of humic acid (HA) and salinity on adsorption of Hg on the amorphous and crystalline of iron and manganese hydroxides. The results show that the adsorption of Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides was inhibited in marine system due to the formation of stable, nonsorbing aqueous HgCl(2) complexes in solution. Moreover, Cl(-) inhibited the Hg(2+) adsorption more severely on amorphous than crystalline hydroxides. The addition of HA inhibited Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in freshwater system might be attributed to the competition between Hg(2+) and HA on adsorption to Fe and Mn hydroxides. In contrast, the addition of HA promoted Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in the marine system, which might be due to the addition of humic acid resulted in the reaction between Cl(-) and HA, and therefore the reducing of Cl(-) promoted more Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides. In addition, the influence of HA on Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides are more visible for crystalline than amorphous hydroxides.

  3. Local chemical composition of HgBaCaCuO high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alméras, P.; Dell'Orto, T.; Coluzza, C.; Almeida, J.; Margaritondo, G.; Xue, Y. Y.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.

    1994-07-01

    The microchemical composition and the electronic structure of the two superconductors HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ (Hg-1223) and HgBa2Ca1Cu2O6+δ (Hg-1212) were analyzed with the technique of photoemission with high spatial resolution. This enabled primary spectral peaks to be separated from their satellites due to local charging induced by the primary photon beam. Each sample contains superconducting and impurity phases with inhomogeneous spatial distributions. The oxygenation-induced increase in the critical temperature is related to a increase in the Cu-O plane carrier concentration.

  4. HgCdTe detector technology at Kunming Institute of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junhong; Zeng, Gehong

    1996-09-01

    HgCdTe detector and thermal image system laboratories at Kunming Institute of Physics have been carrying the research and development of HgCdTe detectors and thermal imaging systems for a wide range applications for over 20 years. During this period, significant progress has been made in many areas such as HgCdTe material, detector, miniature dewar and cooler to meet the requirements of civil and military operations. This paper describes these activities and present status of HgCdTe technology at Kunming Institute of Physics, and some of the problems we faced and how they were solved.

  5. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  6. Combined in-beam electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy of (184,186)Hg

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, M; Rahkila, P; Butler, P A; Larsen, A C; Sandzelius, M; Scholey, C; Carrol, R J; Papadakis, P; Jakobsson, U; Grahn, T; Joss, D T; Watkins, H V; Juutinen, S; Bree, N; Cox, D; Huyse, M; Uusitalo, J; Leino, M; Ruotsalainen, P; Nieminen, P; Srebrny, J; Van Duppen, P; Herzan, A; Greenlees, P T; Julin, R; Herzberg, R D; Hauschild, K; Pakarinen, J; Page, R D; Peura, P; Gaffney, L P; Kowalczyk, M; Rinta-Antila, S; Saren, J; Lopez-Martens, A; Sorri, J; Ketelhut, S

    2011-01-01

    By exploiting the SAGE spectrometer a simultaneous measurement of conversion electrons and gamma rays emitted in the de-excitation of excited levels in the neutron-deficient nuclei (184,186)Hg was performed. The light Hg isotopes under investigation were produced using the 4n channels of the fusion-evaporation reactions of (40)Ar and (148,150)Sm. The measured K- and L-conversion electron ratios confirmed the stretched E2 nature of several transitions of the yrast bands in (184,186)Hg. Additional information on the E0 component of the 2(2)(+) -> 2(1)(+) transition in (186)Hg was obtained.

  7. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  8. Involvement of the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors on maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Furuya, Yoshiaki; Sawada, Kohei; Asada, Takashi

    2015-01-05

    Several studies have shown that glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors have anxiolytic actions. There are two types of glycine receptor: the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyA) and the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor (GlyB); however, which receptor is the main contributor to the anxiolytic actions of GlyT1 inhibitors is yet to be determined. Here, we clarified which glycine receptor is the main contributor to the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors by using maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) by rat pups as an index of anxiety. We confirmed that administration of the benzodiazepine diazepam or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitaloplam, which are both clinically proven anxiolytics, or the GlyT1 inhibitor SSR504734 (2-chloro-N-[(S)-phenyl[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl] methyl]-3-trifluoromethyl benzamide), decreases USV in rat pups. In addition, we showed that another GlyT1 inhibitor, ALX5407 ((R)-N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3(4'-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine) also decreases USV in rat pups. SSR504734- or ALX5407-induced decreases in USV were dose-dependently reversed by administration of the GlyA antagonist strychnine, whereas the diazepam- or escitalopram-induced decreases in USV were not. Furthermore, GlyT1-induced decreases in USV were not reversed by administration of the GlyB antagonist L-687,414. Together, these results suggest that GlyA activation is the main contributor to the anxiolytic actions of GlyT1 inhibitors and that the anxiolytic actions of diazepam and escitalopram cannot be attributed to GlyA activation. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of the activation of GlyA in the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stomach Temperature Records Reveal Nursing Behaviour and Transition to Solid Food Consumption in an Unweaned Mammal, the Harbour Seal Pup (Phoca vitulina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Caroline C.; Van de Walle, Joanie; Hammill, Mike O.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Beauplet, Gwénaël

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0–40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0–13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19) were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species. PMID:24587327

  10. Stomach temperature records reveal nursing behaviour and transition to solid food consumption in an unweaned mammal, the harbour seal pup (Phoca vitulina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C Sauvé

    Full Text Available Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0-40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0-13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19 were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species.

  11. Shape coexistence in neutron-deficient Hg isotopes studied via lifetime measurements in $^{184,186}$Hg and two-state mixing calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, L P; Page, R.D.; Grahn, T.; Scheck, M.; Butler, P.A.; Bertone, P.F.; Bree, N.; Carroll, R.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chiara, C.J.; Dewald, A.; Filmer, F.; Fransen, C.; Huyse, M.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Joss, D.T.; Julin, R.; Kondev, F.G.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Rigby, S.V.; Rother, W.; Van Duppen, P.; Watkins, H.V.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Zhu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The neutron-deficient mercury isotopes, $^{184,186}$Hg, were studied with the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) method using the Gammasphere array and the K\\"oln Plunger device. The Differential Decay Curve Method (DDCM) was employed to determine the lifetimes of the yrast states in $^{184,186}$Hg. An improvement on previously measured values of yrast states up to $8^{+}$ is presented as well as first values for the $9_{3}$ state in $^{184}$Hg and $10^{+}$ state in $^{186}$Hg. $B(E2)$ values are calculated and compared to a two-state mixing model which utilizes the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model, allowing for extraction of spin-dependent mixing strengths and amplitudes.

  12. Can graphene make better HgCdTe infrared detectors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yanli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We develop a simple and low-cost technique based on chemical vapor deposition from which large-size graphene films with 5-10 graphene layers can be produced reliably and the graphene films can be transferred easily onto HgCdTe (MCT thin wafers at room temperature. The proposed technique does not cause any thermal and mechanical damages to the MCT wafers. It is found that the averaged light transmittance of the graphene film on MCT thin wafer is about 80% in the mid-infrared bandwidth at room temperature and 77 K. Moreover, we find that the electrical conductance of the graphene film on the MCT substrate is about 25 times larger than that of the MCT substrate at room temperature and 77 K. These experimental findings suggest that, from a physics point of view, graphene can be utilized as transparent electrodes as a replacement for metal electrodes while producing better and cheaper MCT infrared detectors.

  13. ROIC for HgCdTe e-APD FPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Junling; Wang, Pan; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Lei; Ding, Ruijun

    2013-08-01

    Ultra-low light imaging and passive/active dual mode imaging require very low noise optical receivers to achieve detection of fast and weak optical signal. HgCdTe electrons initiated avalanche photodiodes (e-APDs) in linear multiplication mode is the detector of choice thanks to its high quantum efficiency, high gain at low bias, high bandwidth and low noise factor. In my work, a passive/active dual mode readout integrated circuit (ROIC) of e-APD focal plane array (FPA) is designed. Unit cell circuit architecture of ROIC includes a capacitance feedback transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) as preamplifier of ROIC, a high voltage protection module, a comparator, a Sample-Hold circuit module, and output driver stage. There is a protection module in every unit cell circuit which can avoid ROIC to be damaged from avalanche breakdown of some diodes of detector. Conventional 5V CMOS process is applied to implement the high voltage protection with the small area rather than Laterally Diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor (LDMOS) in high voltage BCD process in the limited 100um×100um pitch area. In CTIA module, three integration capacitances are included in the CTIA module, two of them are switchable to provide different well capacity and noise. Constraints such as pixel area, stability and power lead us design toward a simple one-stage cascade operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) as pre-amplifier. High voltage protection module can protect ROIC to be damaged because of breakdown of some avalanche diodes.

  14. Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars PV Pup, HD 141929, EE Cet and V921 Her by Nonlinear Regression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Karami; R. Mohebi

    2007-12-01

    We use the method introduced by Karami & Mohebi (2007), and Karami & Teimoorinia (2007) which enable us to derive the orbital parameters of the spectroscopic binary stars by the nonlinear least squares of observed . curve fitting (o–c). Using the measured experimental data for radial velocities of the four double-lined spectroscopic binary systems PV Pup, HD 141929, EE Cet and V921 Her, we find both the orbital and the combined spectroscopic elements of these systems. Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained using the method of Lehmann-Filhés.

  15. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation during the Suckling Period on Auditory Neural Conduction in n-3 Fatty Acid-Deficient Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida rahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period

  16. Activation of organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, and medial preoptic area in anticipation of nursing in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Morgado, Elvira; Juárez, Claudia; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Rhythmic feeding in rabbit pups is a natural model to study food entrainment because, similar to rodents under a schedule of food restriction, these animals show food-anticipatory activity (FAA) prior to daily nursing. In rodents, several brain systems, including the orexinergic system, shift their activity to the restricted feeding schedule, and remain active when subjects are hungry. As the lamina terminalis and regions of the preoptic area participate in the control of behavioral arousal, it was hypothesized that these brain regions are also activated during FAA. Thus, the effects of daily milk ingestion on FOS protein expression in the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), and medial preoptic area (MPOA) were examined using immunohistochemistry before and after scheduled time of nursing in nursed and fasted subjects. Additionally, FOS expression was explored in orexin (ORX) cells in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) because of their involvement in arousal and fluid ingestion, respectively. Pups were entrained by daily nursing, as indicated by a significant increase in locomotor behavior before scheduled time of nursing in both nursed and fasted subjects. FOS was significantly higher in the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA at the time of nursing, and decreased 8 h later in nursed pups. In fasted subjects, this effect persisted in the OVLT, whereas in the MnPO and MPOA, values did not drop at 8 h later, but remained at the same level or higher than those at the time of scheduled nursing. In addition, FOS was significantly higher in ORX cells during FAA in nursed pups in comparison with 8 h later, but in fasted subjects it remained high during most fasting time points. Additionally, OVLT, SON, and ORX cells were activated 1.5 h after nursing. We conclude that the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA, but not SON, may participate in FAA, as they show activation before suckling of periodic milk ingestion, and that

  17. The structure and usage of female and male mouse ultrasonic vocalizations reveal only minor differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hammerschmidt

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalizations (USV of mice are increasingly recognized as informative dependent variables in studies using mouse models of human diseases. While pup vocalizations primarily serve to re-establish contact with the mother, adult male "songs" were considered to be courtship signals. Alternatively, mouse USVs may generally function as territorial signals. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we compared the structure and usage of adult male and female USVs in staged resident-intruder encounters. If calls function primarily as courtship signals, males should respond stronger than females, specifically when presented with a female intruder. Refuting this hypothesis, we found that in response to female intruders, females called more than males (228±32 calls/min vs. 71±15 calls/min, and males called more to female than to male intruders (14±7.5 calls/min. There were no significant differences in the acoustic characteristics of the calls given by females and males. To control for the influence of the intruder's behavior on calling, we repeated the experiments using anaesthetized intruders. Again, females produced more calls to female than male intruders (173±17 calls/min vs. 71±15 calls/min, while males called more in response to female than male intruders (39±17 calls/min, and there were no acoustic differences in female and male calls. The vocal activity did not differ significantly with regard to intruder state (awake or anaesthetized, while the acoustic structure exhibited significant differences. Taken together, our findings support the view that calls do not mainly function as courtship signals, although they might serve both a territorial (sex-independent and a courtship function. The comparison of responses to awake vs. anaesthetized intruders suggests that the latter are sufficient to elicit vocal activity. The subtle acoustic differences, however, indicate that the subject differentiates between intruder states.

  18. Investigation of magnetoabsorption at different temperatures in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum-well heterostructures in pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V. V.; Kudasov, Yu. B.; Makarov, I. V.; Maslov, D. A.; Surdin, O. M. [Sarov Physical–Technical Institute—National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Zholudev, M. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The magnetoabsorption in magnetic fields as high as 40 T is investigated at T > 77 K in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum-well heterostructures (d{sub QW} ≈ 8 nm). The spectra reveal two lines associated both with intraband transition from the lower Landau level in the conduction band and with interband transition. It is shown that the band structure in these systems changes from inverted to normal with increasing temperature.

  19. Mother-embryo isotope (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) fractionation and mercury (Hg) transfer in aplacental deep-sea sharks : aplacental shark isotope fractionation and hg

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourg, B.; Kiszka, J.; Bustamante, P.

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic values and total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analysed in muscle and liver of mothers and embryos of two aplacental shark species, Squalus megalops and Centrophorus moluccensis. Embryos of the two species had similar or lower isotopic values than their respective mothers, the only exception being for δ13C, which was higher in the liver of C. moluccensis embryos than in their mothers. Hg concentrations were systematically lower in embryos c...

  20. Female-female cooperation in polygynous oystercatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; van Treuren, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Waders (Charadrii) provide biologists with an astonishing variety of mating systems to study(1). Male and female birds establish breeding units in which behaviour varies from monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, double clutching, lekking and serial monogamy to sex role reversal, and many mixed mating