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Sample records for hg emission flux

  1. Soil surface Hg emission flux in coalfield in Wuda, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Liang, Handong; Liang, Ming; Chen, Yang; Zhou, Yi

    2018-03-30

    Hg emission flux from various land covers, such as forests, wetlands, and urban areas, have been investigated. China has the largest area of coalfield in the world, but data of Hg flux of coalfields, especially, those with coal fires, are seriously limited. In this study, Hg fluxes of a coalfield were measured using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) method, coupled with a Lumex multifunctional Hg analyzer RA-915+ (Lumex Ltd., Russia). The results show that the Hg flux in Wuda coalfield ranged from 4 to 318 ng m -2  h -1 , and the average value for different areas varied, e.g., coal-fire area 99 and 177 ng m -2  h -1 ; no coal-fire area 19 and 32 ng m -2  h -1 ; and backfilling area 53 ng m -2  h -1 . Hg continued to be emitted from an underground coal seam, even if there were no phenomena, such as vents, cracks, and smog, of coal fire on the soil surface. This phenomenon occurred in all area types, i.e., coal-fire area, no coal-fire area, and backfilling area, which is universal in Wuda coalfield. Considering that many coalfields in northern China are similar to Wuda coalfield, they may be large sources of atmospheric Hg. The correlations of Hg emission flux with influence factors, such as sunlight intensity, soil surface temperature, and atmospheric Hg content, were also investigated for Wuda coalfield. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. Fluorescence emissions from mixtures of Hg with the noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Fluorescence emissions from mixtures of Hg with high pressure Xe, Kr, and Ar (approx.1 torr Hg, 10 3 --10 4 torr noble gas) have been studied using a short-pulse relativistic electron beam as an excitation source. Hg--noble gas molecular bands were observed on the red sides of the Hg lines (1849 and 2537 A) as well as on the red sides of the Hg visible lines (7 3 S 1 →6 3 P 0 , 1 , 2 ). Temporal histories and production efficiencies of the molecular emissions were determined and a model was formulated for the time histories of the HgXe 2600 A bands. Possible applications to high power laser systems are discussed

  3. Terahertz emission from CdHgTe/HgTe quantum wells with an inverted band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyev, Yu. B., E-mail: Yu.Vasilyev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Vasilyeva, G. Yu.; Ivánov, Yu. L.; Zakhar’in, A. O.; Andrianov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Vorobiev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A. [Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Grigoriev, M. N. [Ustinov Baltic State Technical University “VOENMEKh” (Russian Federation); Antonov, A. V.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The terahertz electroluminescence from Cd{sub 0.7}Hg{sub 0.3}Te/HgTe quantum wells with an inverted band structure in lateral electric fields is experimentally detected and studied. The emission-spectrum maximum for wells 6.5 and 7 nm wide is near 6 meV which corresponds to interband optical transitions. The emission is explained by state depletion in the valence band and conduction band filling due to Zener tunneling, which is confirmed by power-law current–voltage characteristics.

  4. Sedimentary mercury (Hg) in the marginal seas adjacent to Chinese high-Hg emissions: Source-to-sink, mass inventory, and accumulation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Lim, Dhongil; Jung, Dohyun; Kang, Jeongwon; Jung, Hoisoo; Woo, Hanjun; Jeong, Kapsik; Xu, Zhaokai

    2018-03-01

    We comprehensively investigated sedimentary Hg in Yellow and East China Seas (YECSs), which constitute potentially important depocenters for large anthropogenic Hg emissions from mainland China. A large dataset of Al-TOC-Hg concentrations led to an in-depth understanding of sedimentary Hg in the entire YECSs, including distribution and its determinants, source-to-sink, background levels, inventory in flux and budget, and accumulation history. Especially, the net atmospheric Hg flux to the sediments was estimated to be 1.3 × 10 -5  g/m 2 /yr, which corresponded reasonably well to that calculated using a box model. About 21.2 tons of atmospheric Hg (approximately 4% of the total anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emissions from China) were buried annually in the YECS basin. This result implies that most of atmospheric Hg from China is transferred to the surface of the Pacific (including the East/Japan Sea and South China Sea) by the westerlies and, consequently, can play a critical role in open-sea aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR 75.83 - Calculation of Hg mass emissions and heat input rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of Hg mass emissions and... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Hg Mass Emission Provisions § 75.83 Calculation of Hg mass emissions and heat input rate. The owner or operator shall calculate Hg mass emissions...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4154 - Compliance with Hg budget emissions limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with Hg budget emissions... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4154 Compliance with Hg budget emissions limitation. (a) Allowance transfer deadline. The Hg allowances are available...

  7. A preliminary study of the Hg flux from selected Ohio watersheds to Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgibbon, T.O.; Berry Lyons, W.; Gardner, Christopher B.; Carey, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    New measurements of riverine dissolved and particulate Hg fluxes into Lake Erie from 12 northern Ohio watersheds have been determined from samples collected in April 2002 and analyzed using ultra-clean techniques with cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total Hg concentrations ranged through 2.5-18.5 ng L -1 , with a mean of 10.4 ng L -1 with most Hg in particulate form. Dissolved Hg concentrations ranged through 0.8-4.3 ng L -1 , with a mean of 2.5 ng L -1 . Highest total Hg concentrations were observed in western rivers with primarily agricultural land use and eastern rivers with mixed land use in their watersheds. Total suspended solid concentrations ranged through 10-180 mg L -1 with particulate Hg concentrations ranging through 47-170 ng g -1 , with a mean of 99 ng g -1 . Particulate Hg was similar to published data for central Lake Erie bottom sediments but much lower than for bottom sediments in western Lake Erie. Total Hg concentrations were positively correlated with suspended sediment concentrations and negatively with dissolved NO 3 - concentrations. The total estimated annual Hg fluxes from these rivers into Lake Erie is estimated to be 85 kg, but because only one event was sampled during high flow conditions, this may be an overestimate. This is much lower than previous published estimates of riverine Hg input into Lake Erie

  8. Chemical doping and improved flux pinning in Hg-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishio, K.; Shimoyama, J.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kitazawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical doping of a small amount (0.02∼0.3) of rhenium (Re) ion into HgBa 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O y (n=1∼4) has been studied. The flux pinning strength in these Hg-based superconductors is significantly enhanced compared to the undoped parent materials. Neutron diffraction analysis of representative samples (n=3) revealed that Re partially substitutes the Hg-site with octahedrally fully coordinated oxygen atoms, giving rise to the stabilization of Hg(Re)O layer and reduction of this blocking layer thickness. Associated with the expected hybridization of Re-5d and O-2p orbitals and possible metallization of the Hg(Re)O layer, the improved flux pinning behavior is considered to be caused by the decrease of the electromagnetic anisotropy and the enhanced interlayer superconducting coupling strength

  9. Internal friction of flux motion in Hg-system high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, W.; Zhu, J.S.; Shao, H.M.; Li, J.; Wang, Y.N.

    1996-01-01

    The internal friction(IF) and modulus as functions of temperature were measured for several Hg-system high-Tc superconductors(Hg1201, Hg1223, Hg1223 doped with Fe and Pb), under the applied magnetic field, with vibrating reed technique. An IF peak associated with flux motion can be found below Tc for all samples. The temperature of the IF peak increases with reducing vibrating amplitude. This amplitude dependence of IF indicates that the flux motion is characterized by nonlinear behavior. No apparent shift of IF peak position can be detected by varying the frequency in the range from 10 2 Hz to 10 3 Hz. Furthermore, the IF peak height satisfies a scaling law Q -1 ∝ω -n . This may be originated from phase transition of flux line lattice(FLL) rather than a thermally activated diffusion process. (orig.)

  10. 40 CFR 75.81 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Hg Mass Emission Provisions § 75.81 Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level. The owner or operator of the...

  11. 40 CFR 75.82 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at common and multiple stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Hg Mass Emission Provisions § 75.82 Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at common and multiple stacks. (a) Unit...

  12. 40 CFR 75.15 - Special provisions for measuring Hg mass emissions using the excepted sorbent trap monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for measuring Hg... EMISSION MONITORING Monitoring Provisions § 75.15 Special provisions for measuring Hg mass emissions using... Federal Hg mass emission reduction program that adopts the provisions of subpart I of this part, if the...

  13. Absolute cross sections for emission of 284.7-nm (Hg II) and 479.7-nm (Hg III) radiation in electron--mercury-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.; Taylor, P.O.; Dunn, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Crossed beams of electrons and Hg + ions have been used to measure absolute cross sections for emission of 284.7-nm radiation, resulting from excitation of a predominantly ground-state Hg + target to the 7s 2 S 1 / 2 state. Values range from 3 x 10 -17 cm 2 near threshold, where the cross section is strongly peaked, to 1.3 x 10 -18 cm 2 at 280 eV. Also reported are some measurements of emission of 479.7-nm (Hg III) radiation, resulting from electron impact on both Hg + and Hg ++ targets. Cross sections range from approximately 5 x 10 -19 to 5 x 10 -20 cm 2 , and in the case of electron-Hg ++ collisions, are more than an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by an available semiclassical binary-encounter calculation

  14. Identification of radio emission from the Io flux tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Many theories and observations suggest that Jovian decametric radio emission is generated in flux tubes that pass close to Io's orbit. However, comparison of theory and observation is hindered by lack of knowledge as to which specific flux tube is responsible for a particular emission. In this note, emission from the instantaneous Io flux tube is identified. This makes possible a mapping of emissions onto the causative flux tubes for a significant range of Jovian longitudes (240 0 --360 0 )

  15. Consumption of NADPH for 2-HG Synthesis Increases Pentose Phosphate Pathway Flux and Sensitizes Cells to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Gelman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1 occur in multiple types of human cancer. Here, we show that these mutations significantly disrupt NADPH homeostasis by consuming NADPH for 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG synthesis. Cells respond to 2-HG synthesis, but not exogenous administration of 2-HG, by increasing pentose phosphate pathway (PPP flux. We show that 2-HG production competes with reductive biosynthesis and the buffering of oxidative stress, processes that also require NADPH. IDH1 mutants have a decreased capacity to synthesize palmitate and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that, even when NADPH is limiting, IDH1 mutants continue to synthesize 2-HG at the expense of other NADPH-requiring pathways that are essential for cell viability. Thus, rather than attempting to decrease 2-HG synthesis in the clinic, the consumption of NADPH by mutant IDH1 may be exploited as a metabolic weakness that sensitizes tumor cells to ionizing radiation, a commonly used anti-cancer therapy. : Using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS and stable isotope tracing, Gelman et al. find that 2-HG production in cells with IDH1 mutations leads to increased pentose phosphate pathway activity to generate NADPH. Production of 2-HG competes with other NADPH-dependent pathways and sensitizes cells to redox stress. Keywords: 2-hydroxyglutarate, cancer metabolism, LC/MS, metabolomcis, pentose phosphate pathway, redox regulation

  16. Enhanced Hg{sup 2+} removal and Hg{sup 0} re-emission control from wet fuel gas desulfurization liquors with additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingmei Tang; Jiang Xu; Rongjie Lu; Jingjing Wo; Xinhua Xu [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0}. The present study employed three agents: Na{sub 2}S, 2,4,6-trimercaptotiazine, trisodium salt nonahydrate (TMT) and sodium dithiocarbamate (DTCR) to precipitate aqueous Hg{sup 2+} in simulated desulfurization solutions. The effects of the precipitator's dosing quantity, the initial pH value, the reaction temperature, the concentrations of Cl{sup -} and other metal ions (e.g. Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}) on Hg{sup 2+} removal were studied. A linear relationship was observed between Hg{sup 2+} removal efficiency and the increasing precipitator's doses along with initial pH. The addition of chloride and metal ions impaired the Hg{sup 2+} removal from solutions due to the complexation of Cl{sup -} and Hg{sup 2+} as well as the chelating competition between Hg{sup 2+} and other metal ions. Based on a comprehensive comparison of the treatment effects, DTCR was found to be the most effective precipitating agent. Moreover, all the precipitating agents were potent enough to inhibit Hg{sup 2+} reduction as well as Hg{sup 0} re-emission from FGD liquors. More than 90% Hg{sup 2+} was captured by precipitating agents while Hg{sup 2+} reduction efficiency decreased from 54% to just less than 3%. The additives could efficiently control the secondary Hg{sup 0} pollution from FGD liquors. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Trans-boundary movement of mercury in the Northeast Asian region predicted by CAMQ-Hg from anthropogenic emissions distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin-Ho; Roy, Debananda; Oh, Joo-Sung; Back, Seung-Ki; Jang, Ha-Na; Kim, Seong-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Chong Bum; Han, Young-Ji

    2018-05-01

    The percentage contribution of trans-boundary mercury (Hg) from China at different locations in South Korea was estimated from Hg anthropogenic emission distributions using the Hg dispersion model, CMAQ-Hg. This investigation quantifies the trans-boundary Hg emissions as contribution ratios. In addition, the long-range transportation frequency is also calculated, to verify inflow cases from China. The seasonal distribution of the Hg contribution ratio was found to be highest in winter (40%), followed by fall (16%). Seasonal observations of Hg inflow frequencies were estimated as 40%, 25%, 21%, and 4% in winter, fall, summer, and spring, respectively, at the same location. Such results would be produced by the wind generally blowing from the west and north-west with a speed of 5.0 m/s and 4.5 m/s, respectively, during winter and fall, around the study area. This study made an effort to quantify the trans-boundary Hg transport and to plot Hg anthropogenic emissions distribution in the region.

  18. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents.

  19. EURISOL-DS Multi-MWatt Hg Target: Neutron flux and fission rate calculations for the MAFF configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Romanets, Y; Vaz, P; Herrera-Martinez, A; Kadi, Y; Kharoua, C; Lettry, J; Lindroos, M

    The EURISOL (The EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) project aims at producing high intensity radioactive ion beams produced by neutron induced fission on a fissile target (235U) surrounding a liquid mercury converter. A proton beam of 1 GeV and 4 MW impinges on the Hg converter generating by spallation reactions high neutron fluxes. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA were used to assess the neutronics performance of the system which geometry, inspired from the MAFF concept, allows a versatile manipulation of the fission targets. The objective of the study was to optimize the geometry of the system and the materials used in the fuel and reflector elements of the system, in order to achieve the highest possible fission rate.

  20. Atmospheric emissions of F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb from coal-fired power and heat generation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Guijian; Kang, Yu; Wu, Bin; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhou, Chuncai; Wu, Dun

    2013-02-01

    Coal is one of the major energy resources in China, with nearly half of produced Chinese coal used for power and heat generation. The large use of coal for power and heat generation in China may result in significant atmospheric emissions of toxic volatile trace elements (i.e. F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb). For the purpose of estimating the atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power and heat generation in China, a simple method based on coal consumption, concentration and emission factor of trace element was adopted to calculate the gaseous emissions of elements F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb. Results indicate that about 162161, 236, 637, 172, and 33 t F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb, respectively, were introduced into atmosphere from coal combustion by power and heat generation in China in 2009. The atmospheric emissions of F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb by power and heat generation increased from 2005 to 2009 with increasing coal consumptions. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Is X-ray emissivity constant on magnetic flux surfaces?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granetz, R.S.; Borras, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the elongations and shifts of internal magnetic flux surfaces can be used to determine the q profile in elongated tokamak plasmas. X-ray tomography is thought to be a reasonable technique for independently measuring internal flux surface shapes, because it is widely believed that X-ray emissivity should be constant on a magnetic flux surface. In the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, the X-ray tomography diagnostic system consists of four arrays of 38 chords each. A comparison of reconstructed X-ray contours with magnetic flux surfaces shows a small but consistent discrepancy in the radial profile of elongation. Numerous computational tests have been performed to verify these findings, including tests of the sensitivity to calibration and viewing geometry errors, the accuracy of the tomography reconstruction algorithms, and other subtler effects. We conclude that the discrepancy between the X-ray contours and the magnetic flux surfaces is real, leading to the conclusion that X-ray emissivity is not exactly constant on a flux surface. (orig.)

  2. The sea-air exchange of mercury (Hg) in the marine boundary layer of the Augusta basin (southern Italy): concentrations and evasion flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E; Sproveri, M; Barra, M; Bitetto, M; Bonsignore, M; Calabrese, S; Di Stefano, V; Oliveri, E; Parello, F; Mazzola, S

    2013-11-01

    The first attempt to systematically investigate the atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the MBL of the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, Italy) has been undertaken. In the past the basin was the receptor for Hg from an intense industrial activity which contaminated the bottom sediments of the Bay, making this area a potential source of pollution for the surrounding Mediterranean. Three oceanographic cruises have been thus performed in the basin during the winter and summer 2011/2012, where we estimated averaged Hgatm concentrations of about 1.5±0.4 (range 0.9-3.1) and 2.1±0.98 (range 1.1-3.1) ng m(-3) for the two seasons, respectively. These data are somewhat higher than the background Hg atm value measured over the land (range 1.1±0.3 ng m(-3)) at downtown Augusta, while are similar to those detected in other polluted regions elsewhere. Hg evasion fluxes estimated at the sea/air interface over the Bay range from 3.6±0.3 (unpolluted site) to 72±0.1 (polluted site of the basin) ng m(-2) h(-1). By extending these measurements to the entire area of the Augusta basin (~23.5 km(2)), we calculated a total sea-air Hg evasion flux of about 9.7±0.1 g d(-1) (~0.004 tyr(-1)), accounting for ~0.0002% of the global Hg oceanic evasion (2000 tyr(-1)). The new proposed data set offers a unique and original study on the potential outflow of Hg from the sea-air interface at the basin, and it represents an important step for a better comprehension of the processes occurring in the marine biogeochemical cycle of this element. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gaseous mercury fluxes from the forest floor of the Adirondacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Holsen, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    The flux of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from the forest floor of the Adirondack Mountains in New York (USA) was measured numerous times throughout 2005 and 2006 using a polycarbonate dynamic flux chamber (DFC). The Hg flux ranged between -2.5 and 27.2 ng m -2 h -1 and was positively correlated with temperature and solar radiation. The measured Hg emission flux was highest in spring, and summer, and lowest in winter. During leaf-off periods, the Hg emission flux was highly dependent on solar radiation and less dependent on temperature. During leaf-on periods, the Hg emission flux was fairly constant because the forest canopy was shading the forest floor. Two empirical models were developed to estimate yearly Hg 0 emissions, one for the leaf-off period and one for the leaf-on period. Using the U.S. EPA's CASTNET meteorological data, the cumulative estimated emission flux was approx. 7.0 μg Hg 0 m -2 year -1 . - Empirical models based on the Hg emission measurements from the forest floor of the Adirondacks indicate the estimated emission flux was approx. 7.0 μg Hg 0 m -2 year -1 in 2006

  4. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  5. Long-wavelength stimulated emission and carrier lifetimes in HgCdTe-based waveguide structures with quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumyantsev, V. V., E-mail: rumyantsev@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Fadeev, M. A.; Morozov, S. V.; Dubinov, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Kadykov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Tuzov, I. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (NNSU) (Russian Federation); Dvoretskii, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Teppe, F. [Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C) (France)

    2016-12-15

    The interband photoconductivity and photoluminescence in narrow-gap HgCdTe-based waveguide structures with quantum wells (QWs) (designed for long-wavelength stimulated emission under optical pumping) are investigated. The photoconductivity relaxation times in n-type structures reach several microseconds, due to which stimulated emission at a wavelength of 10.2 μm occurs at a low threshold pump intensity (~100 W/cm{sup 2}) at 20 K. In the p-type structures obtained by annealing (to increase the mercury vacancy concentration), even spontaneous emission from the QWs is not detected because of a dramatic decrease in the carrier lifetime with respect to Shockley–Read–Hall nonradiative recombination.

  6. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  7. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  8. Explosive emission as a process involving a plasma flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Investigating the character of an intense emission in electric discharges, G.A. Mesyats has discovered in 1966 the phenomenon of explosive emission. This Phenomenon consists in heating of some cathode region under the influence of discharge currents. As a result, a plasm of a high conductivity is formed near the cathode, and the discharge current passes through this plasm during its existence. This phenomenon is studied in detail from different standpoints. Below we consider one more aspect of this phenomenon by using its analogy with a plasm which results fran irradiation of a surface. Estimates for a copper cathode will be made. A schematic character of the phenomenon under consideration is as follows. An electric field near a cathode creates an electric current. which is concentrated bi a small region of the cathode and heat it. Evaporating atoms with admixture of electrons and ions form a flux which is transformed to a fully ionized plasma under the influence of external fields. This plasm has a high conductivity and provides passing of electric currents of a high intensity. Note that for simplicity we omit different peculiarities of this phenomenon because here a plasma flux is of interest as a conductive matter

  9. A 320 Year Ice-Core Record of Atmospheric Hg Pollution in the Altai, Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrikh, Stella; Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2017-10-17

    Anthropogenic emissions of the toxic heavy metal mercury (Hg) have substantially increased atmospheric Hg levels during the 20th century compared to preindustrial times. However, on a regional scale, atmospheric Hg concentration or deposition trends vary to such an extent during the industrial period that the consequences of recent Asian emissions on atmospheric Hg levels are still unclear. Here we present a 320 year Hg deposition history for Central Asia, based on a continuous high-resolution ice-core Hg record from the Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai, covering the time period 1680-2001. Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes start rising above background levels at the beginning of the 19th century due to emissions from gold/silver mining and Hg production. A steep increase occurs after the 1940s culminating during the 1970s, at the same time as the maximum Hg use in consumer products in Europe and North America. After a distinct decrease in the 1980s, Hg levels in the 1990s and beginning of the 2000s return to their maximum values, which we attribute to increased Hg emissions from Asia. Thus, rising Hg emissions from coal combustion and artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Asian countries determine recent atmospheric Hg levels in Central Asia, counteracting emission reductions due to control measures in Europe and North America.

  10. Spatially resolved SO2 flux emissions from Mt Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitetto, M.; Delle Donne, D.; Tamburello, G.; Battaglia, A.; Coltelli, M.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.; Sciotto, M.; Aiuppa, A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on a systematic record of SO2 flux emissions from individual vents of Etna volcano (Sicily), which we obtained using a permanent UV camera network. Observations were carried out in summer 2014, a period encompassing two eruptive episodes of the New South East Crater (NSEC) and a fissure‐fed eruption in the upper Valle del Bove. We demonstrate that our vent‐resolved SO2 flux time series allow capturing shifts in activity from one vent to another and contribute to our understanding of Etna's shallow plumbing system structure. We find that the fissure eruption contributed ~50,000 t of SO2 or ~30% of the SO2 emitted by the volcano during the 5 July to 10 August eruptive interval. Activity from this eruptive vent gradually vanished on 10 August, marking a switch of degassing toward the NSEC. Onset of degassing at the NSEC was a precursory to explosive paroxysmal activity on 11–15 August. PMID:27773952

  11. EPA’s Hg Gas Traceability Approach for Source Emissions Measurement and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solicited presentation (special topic) at the International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant on how EPA establishes the NIST traceability of reference materials used to support regulatory mercury emissions measurements.

  12. GNAQPMS-Hg v1.0, a global nested atmospheric mercury transport model: model description, evaluation and application to trans-boundary transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. S.; Wang, Z. F.; Li, J.; Tang, X.; Ge, B. Z.; Wu, X. L.; Wild, O.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant and can be transported over the whole globe due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. For the purpose of assessing Hg hemispheric transport and better characterizing regional Hg pollution, a global nested atmospheric Hg transport model (GNAQPMS-Hg - Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System for Hg) has been developed. In GNAQPMS-Hg, the gas- and aqueous-phase Hg chemistry representing the transformation among three forms of Hg: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), divalent mercury (Hg(II)), and primary particulate mercury (Hg(P)) are calculated. A detailed description of the model, including mercury emissions, gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, and dry and wet deposition is given in this study. Worldwide observations including extensive data in China have been collected for model evaluation. Comparison results show that the model reasonably simulates the global mercury budget and the spatiotemporal variation of surface mercury concentrations and deposition. Overall, model predictions of annual total gaseous mercury (TGM) and wet deposition agree with observations within a factor of 2, and within a factor of 5 for oxidized mercury and dry deposition. The model performs significantly better in North America and Europe than in East Asia. This can probably be attributed to the large uncertainties in emission inventories, coarse model resolution and to the inconsistency between the simulation and observation periods in East Asia. Compared to the global simulation, the nested simulation shows improved skill at capturing the high spatial variability of surface Hg concentrations and deposition over East Asia. In particular, the root mean square error (RMSE) of simulated Hg wet deposition over East Asia is reduced by 24 % in the nested simulation. Model sensitivity studies indicate that Chinese primary anthropogenic emissions account for 30 and 62 % of surface mercury concentrations and deposition over China, respectively

  13. Long wavelength stimulated emission up to 9.5 μm from HgCdTe quantum well heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, S. V.; Rumyantsev, V. V., E-mail: rumyantsev@ipmras.ru; Dubinov, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Antonov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kadykov, A. M. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB, Université Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Mikhailov, N. N. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Dvoretskii, S. A. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-29

    Stimulated emission from waveguide HgCdTe structures with several quantum wells inside waveguide core is demonstrated at wavelengths up to 9.5 μm. Photoluminescence line narrowing down to kT energy, as well as superlinear rise in its intensity evidence the onset of the stimulated emission, which takes place under optical pumping with intensity as small as ∼0.1 kW/cm{sup 2} at 18 K and 1 kW/cm{sup 2} at 80 K. One can conclude that HgCdTe structures potential for long-wavelength lasers is not exhausted.

  14. Stimulated emission at 2.8 μm from Hg-based quantum well structures grown by photoassisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, N.C.; Yang, Z.; Han, J.W.; Cook, J.W. Jr.; Schetzina, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    We report the first observation of stimulated emission from Hg-based quantum well structures in which the active region is a HgCdTe superlattice. The laser structures were grown on (100) CdZnTe substrates by photoassisted molecular beam epitaxy. Cleaved laser cavities were optically pumped using the 1.06 μm output from a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. Stimulated emission cavity modes were seen at cw laser power densities as low as 3.4 kW/cm 2 and at temperatures ≥60 K

  15. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckley, Chris S., E-mail: eckley.chris@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region-10, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Tate, Mike T. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Lin, Che-Jen [Center for Advances on Water and Air quality, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Gustin, Mae [Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Dent, Stephen [CDM Smith, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Eagles-Smith, Collin [US Geological Survey, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Lutz, Michelle A. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Wickland, Kimberly P. [US Geological Survey Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Wang, Bronwen [US Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Gray, John E. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Edwards, Grant C. [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Krabbenhoft, Dave P. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Smith, David B. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Soil-air Hg fluxes are an important component of the

  16. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckley, Chris S.; Tate, Mike T.; Lin, Che-Jen; Gustin, Mae; Dent, Stephen; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Lutz, Michelle A.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Wang, Bronwen; Gray, John E.; Edwards, Grant C.; Krabbenhoft, Dave P.; Smith, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Soil-air Hg fluxes are an important component of the

  17. Methane Flux of Amazonian Peatland Ecosystems: Large Ecosystem Fluxes with Substantial Contribution from Palm (maritia Flexuosa) STEM Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haren, J. L. M.; Cadillo-Quiroz, H.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions through plants have long been known in wetlands. However, most measurements have focused on stem tops and leaves. Recently, measurements at the lower parts of stems have shown that stem emissions can exceed soil CH4 emissions in Asian peatlands (Pangala et al. 2013). The addition of stem fluxes to soil fluxes for total ecosystem fluxes has the potential to bridge the discrepancy between modeled to measured and bottom-up to top-down flux estimates. Our measurements in peatlands of Peru show that especially Mauritia flexuosa, a palm species, can emit very large quantities of CH4, although most trees emitted at least some CH4. We used flexible stem chambers to adapt to stems of any size above 5cm in diameter. The chambers were sampled in closed loop with a Gasmet DX4015 for flux measurements, which lasted ~5 minutes after flushing with ambient air. We found that M. flexuosa stem fluxes decrease with height along the stem and were positively correlated with soil fluxes. Most likely CH4 is transported up the stem with the xylem water. Measured M. flexuosa stem fluxes below 1.5m averaged 11.2±1.5 mg-C m-2 h-1 (±95% CI) with a maximum of 123±3.5 mg-C m-2 h-1 (±SE), whereas soil fluxes averaged 6.7±1.7 mg-C m-2 h-1 (±95% CI) with a maximum of 31.6±0.4 mg-C m-2 h-1 (±SE). Significant CH4 fluxes were measured up to 5 m height along the stems. Combined with the high density of ~150 M. flexuosa individuals per hectare in these peatlands and the consistent diameter of ~30cm, the high flux rates add ~20% to the soil flux. With anywhere between 1 and 5 billion M. flexuosa stems across Amazon basin wetlands, stem fluxes from this palm species could represent a major addition to the overall Amazon basin CH4 flux.

  18. Hg{sup 2+}-induced self-assembly of a naphthalimide derivative by selective 'turn-on' monomer/excimer emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanichacheva, Nantanit, E-mail: wanichacheva.nantanit@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Prapawattanapol, Narupon [Petrochemistry and Polymer Science Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Sanghiran Lee, Vannajan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Grudpan, Kate [Department of Chemistry, Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, and Center of Excellence in Innovation for Analytical Science and Technology, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Petsom, Amorn [Research Centre for Bioorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2013-02-15

    A novel fluorescent sensor bearing two naphthalimide fluorophores based on 2-(3-(2-aminoethylsulfanyl)propylsulfanyl)ethanamine, 1, was readily synthesized for the recognition of Hg{sup 2+}. The sensitive and selective binding behaviors of 1 were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Sensor 1 selectively binds Hg{sup 2+} by exhibiting OFF-ON fluorescence enhancement behaviors of the monomer and excimer bands. The sensor provides excellent Hg{sup 2+}-selectivity in the presence of high concentrations of competitive ions, particularly Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} as well as Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Li{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}, with an available detection limit of 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M or 42 ppb. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multidentate sulfide-containing ligand bounded to naphthalimide as new Hg{sup 2+} sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensor is prepared by a straightforward two-step synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensor shows high sensitivity and selectivity to Hg{sup 2+} with detection limit of 42 ppb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg{sup 2+}-binding is indicated by fluorescence enhancement Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensor 'turns-on' both monomeric and excimer emissions by the addition of Hg{sup 2+}.

  19. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  20. Surface-Air Mercury Fluxes Across Western North America: A Synthesis of Spatial Trends and Controlling Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, C.; Tate, M.; Lin, C. J.; Gustin, M. S.; Dent, S.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Lutz, M.; Wickland, K.; Wang, B.; Gray, J.; Edwards, G. C.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Smith, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This presentation focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere.

  1. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, Chris S.; Tate, Michael T.; Lin, Che-Jen; Gustin, Mae S.; Dent, Stephen; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Lutz, Michelle A; Wickland, Kimberly; Wang, Bronwen; Gray, John E.; Edwards, Grant; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere.

  2. A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy dual-mode plasma spectrometer for measurements of environmentally important trace heavy metals: Initial test with elemental Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang, Chuji

    2012-09-01

    A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode plasma spectrometer is described. A compact, low-power, atmospheric argon microwave plasma torch (MPT) is utilized as the emission source when the spectrometer is operating in the OES mode. The same MPT serves as the atomization source for ringdown measurements in the CRDS mode. Initial demonstration of the instrument is carried out by observing OES of multiple elements including mercury (Hg) in the OES mode and by measuring absolute concentrations of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 in the CRDS mode, in which a palm-size diode laser operating at a single wavelength 405 nm is incorporated in the spectrometer as the light source. In the OES mode, the detection limit for Hg is determined to be 44 parts per 109 (ppb). A strong radiation trapping effect on emission measurements of Hg at 254 nm is observed when the Hg solution concentration is higher than 50 parts per 106 (ppm). The radiation trapping effect suggests that two different transition lines of Hg at 253.65 nm and 365.01 nm be selected for emission measurements in lower (50 ppm), respectively. In the CRDS mode, the detection limit of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 is achieved to be 2.24 parts per 1012 (ppt) when the plasma is operating at 150 W with sample gas flow rate of 480 mL min-1; the detection limit corresponds to 50 ppm in Hg sample solution. Advantage of this novel spectrometer has two-fold, it has a large measurement dynamic range, from a few ppt to hundreds ppm and the CRDS mode can serve as calibration for the OES mode as well as high sensitivity measurements. Measurements of seven other elements, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, and Sr, using the OES mode are also carried out with detection limits of 1100, 33, 30, 144, 576, 94, and 2 ppb, respectively. Matrix effect in the presence of other elements on Hg measurements has been found to increase the detection limit to 131 ppb. These elements in lower

  3. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Luo, Yao; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Zhiqi; Hao, Jiming; Duan, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exchange between forests and the atmosphere plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global emission of Hg from natural source has large uncertainty, partly due to the lack of chronical and valid field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces in China, the most important contributor to global atmospheric Hg. In this study, the micrometeorological method (MM) was used to continuously observe gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over forest canopy at a mildly polluted site (Qianyanzhou, QYZ) and a moderately polluted site (Huitong, HT, near a large Hg mine) in subtropical south China for a full year from January to December in 2014. The GEM flux measurements over forest canopy in QYZ and HT showed net emission with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively. Daily variations of GEM fluxes showed an increasing emission with the increasing air temperature and solar radiation in the daytime to a peak at 13:00, and decreasing emission thereafter, even as a GEM sink or balance at night. High temperature and low air Hg concentration resulted in the high Hg emission in summer. Low temperature in winter and Hg absorption by plant in spring resulted in low Hg emission, or even adsorption in the two seasons. GEM fluxes were positively correlated with air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation, while it is negatively correlated with air humidity and atmospheric GEM concentration. The lower emission fluxes of GEM at the moderately polluted site (HT) when compared with that in the mildly polluted site (QYZ) may result from a much higher adsorption fluxes at night in spite of a similar or higher emission fluxes during daytime. This shows that the higher atmospheric GEM concentration at HT restricted the forest GEM emission. Great attention should be paid to forests as a crucial increasing Hg emission source with the decreasing atmospheric GEM concentration in polluted areas because of Hg

  4. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  5. Determination of Hg{sup 2+} by on-line separation and pre-concentration with atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Zhen [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Zheng, E-mail: wangzheng@mail.sic.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • A modified SBA-15 mesoporous silica (SH-SBA-15) was synthesized as a sorbent. • On-line SPE combined with SCGD-AES based on FIA was used to detect Hg{sup 2+} firstly. • A simple, low-cost Hg{sup 2+} analysis in a complex matrix was established. • The sensitive detection of Hg{sup 2+} was achieved with a detection limit of 0.75 μg L{sup −1}. - Abstract: A simple and sensitive method to determine Hg{sup 2+} was developed by combining solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry (SCGD-AES) with flow injection (FI) based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). We synthesized L-cysteine-modified mesoporous silica and packed it in an SPE microcolumn, which was experimentally determined to possess a good mercury adsorption capacity. An enrichment factor of 42 was achieved under optimized Hg{sup 2+} elution conditions, namely, an FI flow rate of 2.0 mL min{sup −1} and an eluent comprised of 10% thiourea in 0.2 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3}. The detection limit of FI–SCGD-AES was determined to be 0.75 μg L{sup −1}, and the precision of the 11 replicate Hg{sup 2+} measurements was 0.86% at a concentration of 100 μg L{sup −1}. The proposed method was validated by determining Hg{sup 2+} in certified reference materials such as human hair (GBW09101b) and stream sediment (GBW07310)

  6. OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR ACQUISITION OF FUGITIVE EMISSION FLUX DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant emission from unconfined sources is an increasingly important environmental issue. The U.S. EPA has developed a gorund-based optical remote sensing method that enables direct measurement of fugitive emission flux from large area sources. Open-path Fourier transfor...

  7. Two emissive-magnetic composite platforms for Hg(II) sensing and removal: The combination of magnetic core, silica molecular sieve and rhodamine chemosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hanping; Liu, Zhongshou

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a composite sensing platform for Hg(II) optical sensing and removal was designed and reported. A core-shell structure was adopted, using magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the core, silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell, respectively. Two rhodamine derivatives were synthesized as chemosensor and covalently immobilized into MCM-41 tunnels. Corresponding composite samples were characterized with SEM/TEM images, XRD analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, which confirmed their core-shell structure. Their emission was increased by Hg(II), showing emission turn on effect. High selectivity, linear working curves and recyclability were obtained from these composite samples.

  8. Simultaneous coastal measurements of ozone deposition fluxes and iodine-mediated particle emission fluxes with subsequent CCN formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Whitehead

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first observations of simultaneous ozone deposition fluxes and ultrafine particle emission fluxes over an extensive infra-littoral zone. Fluxes were measured by the eddy covariance technique at the Station Biologique de Roscoff, on the coast of Brittany, north-west France. This site overlooks a very wide (3 km littoral zone controlled by very deep tides (9.6 m exposing extensive macroalgae beds available for significant iodine mediated photochemical production of ultrafine particles. The aspect at the Station Biologique de Roscoff provides an extensive and relatively flat, uniform fetch within which micrometeorological techniques may be utilized to study links between ozone deposition to macroalgae (and sea water and ultrafine particle production.

    Ozone deposition to seawater at high tide was significantly slower (vd[O3]=0.302±0.095 mm s−1 than low tidal deposition. A statistically significant difference in the deposition velocities to macroalgae at low tide was observed between night time (vd[O3]=1.00±0.10 mm s−1 and daytime (vd[O3]=2.05±0.16 mm s−1 when ultrafine particle formation results in apparent particle emission. Very high emission fluxes of ultrafine particles were observed during daytime periods at low tides ranging from 50 000 particles cm−2 s−1 to greater than 200 000 particles cm−2 s−1 during some of the lowest tides. These emission fluxes exhibited a significant relationship with particle number concentrations comparable with previous observations at another location. Apparent particle growth rates were estimated to be in the range 17–150 nm h−1 for particles in the size range 3–10 nm. Under certain conditions, particle growth may be inferred to continue to greater than 120 nm over tens

  9. Determination of Hg(2+) by on-line separation and pre-concentration with atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Zheng

    2014-10-03

    A simple and sensitive method to determine Hg(2+) was developed by combining solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry (SCGD-AES) with flow injection (FI) based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). We synthesized l-cysteine-modified mesoporous silica and packed it in an SPE microcolumn, which was experimentally determined to possess a good mercury adsorption capacity. An enrichment factor of 42 was achieved under optimized Hg(2+) elution conditions, namely, an FI flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1) and an eluent comprised of 10% thiourea in 0.2 mol L(-1) HNO3. The detection limit of FI-SCGD-AES was determined to be 0.75 μg L(-1), and the precision of the 11 replicate Hg(2+) measurements was 0.86% at a concentration of 100 μg L(-1). The proposed method was validated by determining Hg(2+) in certified reference materials such as human hair (GBW09101b) and stream sediment (GBW07310). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    The most important long-lived greenhouse gas (LLGHG) emitted during combustion of fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2), however also traces of the LLGHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are released, the quantities of which depend largely on the conditions of the combustion process. Emission factors determine the mass of LLGHGs emitted per energy used (or kilometre driven for cars) and are key inputs for bottom-up emission modelling. Emission factors for CH4 are typically determined in the laboratory or on a test stand for a given combustion system using a small number of samples (vehicles, furnaces), yet associated with larger uncertainties when scaled to entire fleets. We propose an alternative, different approach - Can integrated emission factors be independently determined using direct micrometeorological flux measurements over an urban surface? If so, do emission factors determined from flux measurements (top-down) agree with up-scaled emission factors of relevant combustion systems (heating, vehicles) in the source area of the flux measurement? Direct flux measurements of CH4 were carried out between February and May, 2012 over a relatively densely populated, urban surface in Vancouver, Canada by means of eddy covariance (EC). The EC-system consisted of an ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific Inc.) and two open-path infrared gas analyzers (Li7500 and Li7700, Licor Inc.) on a tower at 30m above the surface. The source area of the EC system is characterised by a relative homogeneous morphometry (5.3m average building height), but spatially and temporally varying emission sources, including two major intersecting arterial roads (70.000 cars drive through the 50% source area per day) and seasonal heating in predominantly single-family houses (natural gas). An inverse dispersion model (turbulent source area model), validated against large eddy simulations (LES) of the urban roughness sublayer, allows the determination of the spatial area that

  11. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal-halide lamps: Radially resolved atomic state distribution functions of Dy and Hg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimalasuriya, T.; Flikweert, A.J.; Stoffels, W.W.; Haverlag, M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Pupat, N.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Absolute line intensity measurements are performed on a metal-halide lamp. Several transitions of atomic and ionic Dy and atomic Hg are measured at different radial positions from which we obtain absolute atomic and ionic Dy intensity profiles. From these profiles we construct the radially resolved

  12. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toluene and benzene are used for assessing the ability to measure disjunct eddy covariance (DEC fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS on aircraft. Statistically significant correlation between vertical wind speed and mixing ratios suggests that airborne VOC eddy covariance (EC flux measurements using PTR-MS are feasible. City-median midday toluene and benzene fluxes are calculated to be on the order of 14.1±4.0 mg/m2/h and 4.7±2.3 mg/m2/h, respectively. For comparison the adjusted CAM2004 emission inventory estimates toluene fluxes of 10 mg/m2/h along the footprint of the flight-track. Wavelet analysis of instantaneous toluene and benzene measurements during city overpasses is tested as a tool to assess surface emission heterogeneity. High toluene to benzene flux ratios above an industrial district (e.g. 10–15 g/g including the International airport (e.g. 3–5 g/g and a mean flux (concentration ratio of 3.2±0.5 g/g (3.9±0.3 g/g across Mexico City indicate that evaporative fuel and industrial emissions play an important role for the prevalence of aromatic compounds. Based on a tracer model, which was constrained by BTEX (BTEX– Benzene/Toluene/Ethylbenzene/m, p, o-Xylenes compound concentration ratios, the fuel marker methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE and the biomass burning marker acetonitrile (CH3CN, we show that a combination of industrial, evaporative fuel, and exhaust emissions account for >87% of all BTEX sources. Our observations suggest that biomass burning emissions play a minor role for the abundance of BTEX compounds in the MCMA (2–13%.

  13. Eddy covariance VOC emission and deposition fluxes above grassland using PTR-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Ruuskanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eddy covariance (EC is the preferable technique for flux measurements since it is the only direct flux determination method. It requires a continuum of high time resolution measurements (e.g. 5–20 Hz. For volatile organic compounds (VOC soft ionization via proton transfer reaction has proven to be a quantitative method for real time mass spectrometry; here we use a proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF for 10 Hz EC measurements of full mass spectra up to m/z 315. The mass resolution of the PTR-TOF enabled the identification of chemical formulas and separation of oxygenated and hydrocarbon species exhibiting the same nominal mass. We determined 481 ion mass peaks from ambient air concentration above a managed, temperate mountain grassland in Neustift, Stubai Valley, Austria. During harvesting we found significant fluxes of 18 compounds distributed over 43 ions, including protonated parent compounds, as well as their isotopes and fragments and VOC-H+ – water clusters. The dominant BVOC fluxes were methanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, hexenal and other C6 leaf wound compounds, acetone, acetic acid, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes.

    The smallest reliable fluxes we determined were less than 0.1 nmol m−2 s−1, as in the case of sesquiterpene emissions from freshly cut grass. Terpenoids, including mono- and sesquiterpenes, were also deposited to the grassland before and after the harvesting. During cutting, total VOC emission fluxes up to 200 nmolC m−2 s−1 were measured. Methanol emissions accounted for half of the emissions of oxygenated VOCs and a third of the carbon of all measured VOC emissions during harvesting.

  14. Non-Controlled Biogenic Emission of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 from Lazareto's Landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, D.; Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2002-12-01

    Landfills are important sources of contaminant gases to the surrounding environment and a significant amount of them could be released to the atmosphere through the surface environment in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission of landfill gases. CH4 and CO2 are major components in landfill gases and other gas species are only present in minor amounts. Trace compounds include both inorganic and a large number of volatile organic components. The goal of this study is to evaluate the non-controlled biogenic emission of inorganic toxic gases from Lazareto's landfill. Which is located in the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, with a population of about 150,000, and is used as a Palm tree park. Lazareto's landfill has an extension of 0.22 Km2 and it is not operative since 1980. A non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of 281 sampling sites was carried out from February tod March, 2002. Surface CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according with the accumulation chamber method. Surface CO2 efflux ranged from negligible values up to 30,600 gm-2d-1. At each sampling site, surface landfill gas samples were collected at 40 cm depth using a metallic soil probe. These gas samples were analyzed within 24 hours for major and inorganic toxic gas species by means of microGC and specific electrochemical sensors. The highest concentrations of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 were 3, 20, 2,227, 0.010 ppmV, respectively. Non-controlled biogenic emission rate of CO, H2S, NH3, and Hg0 were estimated by multiplying the observed surface CO2 efflux times (Inorganic Toxic Gas)i/CO2 weight ratio at each sampling site, respectively. The highest surface inorganic toxic gas efllux rates were 699 gm-2d-1 for NH3, 81, 431 and 4 mgm-2d-1 for CO, H2S and Hg0, respectively. Taking into consideration the spatial distribution of the inorganic toxic gas efflux values as well as the extension of the landfill, the non-controlled biogenic emission of CO, H2S, NH3

  15. The Boston Methane Project: Mapping Surface Emissions to Inform Atmospheric Estimation of Urban Methane Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N.; Crosson, E.; Down, A.; Hutyra, L.; Jackson, R. B.; McKain, K.; Rella, C.; Raciti, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Lost and unaccounted natural gas can amount to over 6% of Massachusetts' total annual greenhouse gas inventory (expressed as equivalent CO2 tonnage). An unknown portion of this loss is due to natural gas leaks in pipeline distribution systems. The objective of the Boston Methane Project is to estimate the overall leak rate from natural gas systems in metropolitan Boston, and to compare this flux with fluxes from the other primary methane emissions sources. Companion talks at this meeting describe the atmospheric measurement and modeling framework, and chemical and isotopic tracers that can partition total atmospheric methane flux into natural gas and non-natural gas components. This talk focuses on estimation of surface emissions that inform the atmospheric modeling and partitioning. These surface emissions include over 3,300 pipeline natural gas leaks in Boston. For the state of Massachusetts as a whole, the amount of natural gas reported as lost and unaccounted for by utility companies was greater than estimated landfill emissions by an order of magnitude. Moreover, these landfill emissions were overwhelmingly located outside of metro Boston, while gas leaks are concentrated in exactly the opposite pattern, increasing from suburban Boston toward the urban core. Work is in progress to estimate spatial distribution of methane emissions from wetlands and sewer systems. We conclude with a description of how these spatial data sets will be combined and represented for application in atmospheric modeling.

  16. Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds from gorse (Ulex europaeus): Diurnal emission fluxes at Kelling Heath, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.-L.; Boissard, C.; Juan, A. J.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    1997-08-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission fluxes from Gorse (Ulex europaeus) were measured during May 30-31, 1995 at Kelling Heath in eastern England by using bag enclosure and gradient methods simultaneously. The enclosure measurements were made from branches at different stages of physiological development (flowering, after flowering, and mixed). Isoprene was found to represent 90% of the total VOC emissions, and its emission rates fluctuated from 6 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 in the early morning to about 9700 ng(g dwt)-1 h-1 at midday. Averaged emission rates standardized to 20°C were 1625, 2120, and 3700 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 for the new grown, "mixed," and flowering branch, respectively. Trans-ocimene and α-pinene were the main monoterpenes emitted and represented, on average, 47.6% and 36.9% of the total monoterpenes. Other monoterpenes, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene and γ-terpinene, were positively identified but together represented less than 1.5% of the total VOC emissions from gorse. Maximum isoprene concentrations in air at the site were measured around midday at 2 m (174 parts per trillion by volume, or pptv) and 6 m (149 pptv), and minimum concentrations were measured during the night (8 pptv at both heights). Mean daytime α-pinene air concentrations of 141 and 60 pptv at 2 and 6 m height were determined, but trans-ocimene concentrations were less than the analytical detection limit (4 pptv), suggesting rapid chemical removal of this compound from air. The isoprene fluxes calculated by the micrometeorological gradient method showed a pattern similar to that of those calculated by the enclosure method, with isoprene emission rates maximum at midday (100 μg m-2 h-1) and not detectable during the nighttime. Assessment of the fraction of the site covered by gorse plants enabled an extrapolation of emission fluxes from the enclosure measurements. When averaged over the 2 day experiment, isoprene fluxes of 29.8 and 27.8 μg m-2 h-1 were obtained from

  17. Mid-Infrared Emission Features in the ISM: Feature-to-Features Flux Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, N. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Using a limited, but representative sample of sources in the ISM of our Galaxy with published spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory, we analyze flux ratios between the major mid-IR emission features (EFs) centered around 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 mu, respectively.

  18. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, M.; Mitchell, C.P.J.; Eckley, C.S.; Eggert, S.L.; Kolka, R.K.; Sebestyen, S.D.; Swain, E.B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil–air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown. We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg emissions from the forest floor were monitored after two forest harvesting prescriptions, a traditional clear-cut and a clearcut followed by biomass harvest, and compared to an un-harvested reference plot. Gaseous Hg emissions were measured in quadruplicate at four different times between March and November 2012 using Teflon dynamic flux chambers. We also applied enriched Hg isotope tracers and separately monitored their emission in triplicate at the same times as ambient measurements. Clearcut followed by biomass harvesting increased ambient Hg emissions the most. While significant intra-site spatial variability was observed, Hg emissions from the biomass harvested plot (180 ± 170 ng m −2 d −1 ) were significantly greater than both the traditional clearcut plot (− 40 ± 60 ng m −2 d −1 ) and the un-harvested reference plot (− 180 ± 115 ng m −2 d −1 ) during July. This difference was likely a result of enhanced Hg 2+ photoreduction due to canopy removal and less shading from downed woody debris in the biomass harvested plot. Gaseous Hg emissions from more recently deposited Hg, as presumably representative of isotope tracer measurements, were not significantly influenced by harvesting. Most of the Hg tracer applied to the forest floor became sequestered within the ground vegetation and debris, leaf litter, and soil. We observed a dramatic lessening of tracer Hg emissions to near detection levels within 6 months. As post-clearcutting residues are increasingly used as a fuel or fiber resource, our observations suggest that gaseous Hg emissions from forest soils will increase, although it

  19. The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX: A test-bed for developing urban greenhouse gas emission measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Davis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX is to develop, evaluate and improve methods for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from cities. INFLUX’s scientific objectives are to quantify CO2 and CH4 emission rates at 1 km2 resolution with a 10% or better accuracy and precision, to determine whole-city emissions with similar skill, and to achieve high (weekly or finer temporal resolution at both spatial resolutions. The experiment employs atmospheric GHG measurements from both towers and aircraft, atmospheric transport observations and models, and activity-based inventory products to quantify urban GHG emissions. Multiple, independent methods for estimating urban emissions are a central facet of our experimental design. INFLUX was initiated in 2010 and measurements and analyses are ongoing. To date we have quantified urban atmospheric GHG enhancements using aircraft and towers with measurements collected over multiple years, and have estimated whole-city CO2 and CH4 emissions using aircraft and tower GHG measurements, and inventory methods. Significant differences exist across methods; these differences have not yet been resolved; research to reduce uncertainties and reconcile these differences is underway. Sectorally- and spatially-resolved flux estimates, and detection of changes of fluxes over time, are also active research topics. Major challenges include developing methods for distinguishing anthropogenic from biogenic CO2 fluxes, improving our ability to interpret atmospheric GHG measurements close to urban GHG sources and across a broader range of atmospheric stability conditions, and quantifying uncertainties in inventory data products. INFLUX data and tools are intended to serve as an open resource and test bed for future investigations. Well-documented, public archival of data and methods is under development in support of this objective.

  20. New technique for quantification of elemental hg in mine wastes and its implications for mercury evasion into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, A.D.; Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234 K) results in its transformation to crystalline ??-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77 K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Airborne Ethane Observations in the Barnett Shale: Quantification of Ethane Flux and Attribution of Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mackenzie L; Kort, Eric A; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I

    2015-07-07

    We present high time resolution airborne ethane (C2H6) and methane (CH4) measurements made in March and October 2013 as part of the Barnett Coordinated Campaign over the Barnett Shale formation in Texas. Ethane fluxes are quantified using a downwind flight strategy, a first demonstration of this approach for C2H6. Additionally, ethane-to-methane emissions ratios (C2H6:CH4) of point sources were observationally determined from simultaneous airborne C2H6 and CH4 measurements during a survey flight over the source region. Distinct C2H6:CH4 × 100% molar ratios of 0.0%, 1.8%, and 9.6%, indicative of microbial, low-C2H6 fossil, and high-C2H6 fossil sources, respectively, emerged in observations over the emissions source region of the Barnett Shale. Ethane-to-methane correlations were used in conjunction with C2H6 and CH4 fluxes to quantify the fraction of CH4 emissions derived from fossil and microbial sources. On the basis of two analyses, we find 71-85% of the observed methane emissions quantified in the Barnett Shale are derived from fossil sources. The average ethane flux observed from the studied region of the Barnett Shale was 6.6 ± 0.2 × 10(3) kg hr(-1) and consistent across six days in spring and fall of 2013.

  2. Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Julie; Asrar, Ghassem R; West, Tristram O

    2017-09-29

    Livestock play an important role in carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Recent research suggests that existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the US, such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions factors, are too low. This may be due to outdated information used to develop these emissions factors. In this study, we update information for cattle and swine by region, based on reported recent changes in animal body mass, feed quality and quantity, milk productivity, and management of animals and manure. We then use this updated information to calculate new livestock methane emissions factors for enteric fermentation in cattle, and for manure management in cattle and swine. Using the new emissions factors, we estimate global livestock emissions of 119.1 ± 18.2 Tg methane in 2011; this quantity is 11% greater than that obtained using the IPCC 2006 emissions factors, encompassing an 8.4% increase in enteric fermentation methane, a 36.7% increase in manure management methane, and notable variability among regions and sources. For example, revised manure management methane emissions for 2011 in the US increased by 71.8%. For years through 2013, we present (a) annual livestock methane emissions, (b) complete annual livestock carbon budgets, including carbon dioxide emissions, and (c) spatial distributions of livestock methane and other carbon fluxes, downscaled to 0.05 × 0.05 degree resolution. Our revised bottom-up estimates of global livestock methane emissions are comparable to recently reported top-down global estimates for recent years, and account for a significant part of the increase in annual methane emissions since 2007. Our results suggest that livestock methane emissions, while not the dominant overall source of global methane emissions, may be a major contributor to the observed annual emissions increases over the 2000s to 2010s. Differences at regional and local scales may help

  3. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  4. Sensitivity of upper atmospheric emissions calculations to solar/stellar UV flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthelemy Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar UV (UltraViolet flux, especially the EUV (Extreme UltraViolet and FUV (Far UltraViolet components, is one of the main energetic inputs for planetary upper atmospheres. It drives various processes such as ionization, or dissociation which give rise to upper atmospheric emissions, especially in the UV and visible. These emissions are one of the main ways to investigate the upper atmospheres of planets. However, the uncertainties in the flux measurement or modeling can lead to biased estimates of fundamental atmospheric parameters, such as concentrations or temperatures in the atmospheres. We explore the various problems that can be identified regarding the uncertainties in solar/stellar UV flux by considering three examples. The worst case appears when the solar reflection component is dominant in the recorded spectrum as is seen for outer solar system measurements from HST (Hubble Space Telescope. We also show that the estimation of some particular line parameters (intensity and shape, especially Lyman α, is crucial, and that both total intensity and line profile are useful. In the case of exoplanets, the problem is quite critical since the UV flux of their parent stars is often very poorly known.

  5. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be

  6. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiregat, P.A.; Houtepen, A.J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can

  7. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  8. Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.

  9. Historical deposition and fluxes of mercury in Narraguinnep Reservoir, southwestern Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, John E.; Fey, David L.; Holmes, Charles W.; Lasorsa, Brenda K.

    2005-01-01

    Narraguinnep Reservoir has been identified as containing fish with elevated Hg concentrations and has been posted with an advisory recommending against consumption of fish. There are presently no point sources of significant Hg contamination to this reservoir or its supply waters. To evaluate potential historical Hg sources and deposition of Hg to Narraguinnep Reservoir, the authors measured Hg concentrations in sediment cores collected from this reservoir. The cores were dated by the 137 Cs method and these dates were further refined by relating water supply basin hydrological records with core sedimentology. Rates of historical Hg flux were calculated (ng/cm 2 /a) based on the Hg concentrations in the cores, sediment bulk densities, and sedimentation rates. The flux of Hg found in Narraguinnep Reservoir increased by approximately a factor of 2 after about 1970. The 3 most likely sources of Hg to Narraguinnep Reservoir are surrounding bedrocks, upstream inactive Au-Ag mines, and several coal-fired electric power plants in the Four Corners region. Patterns of Hg flux do not support dominant Hg derivation from surrounding bedrocks or upstream mining sources. There are 14 coal-fired power plants within 320 km of Narraguinnep Reservoir that produce over 80 x 10 6 MWH of power and about 1640 kg-Hg/a are released through stack emissions, contributing significant Hg to the surrounding environment. Two of the largest power plants, located within 80 km of the reservoir, emit about 950 kg-Hg/a. Spatial and temporal patterns of Hg fluxes for sediment cores collected from Narraguinnep Reservoir suggest that the most likely source of Hg to this reservoir is from atmospheric emissions from the coal-fired electric power plants, the largest of which began operation in this region in the late-1960s and early 1970s

  10. Mercury fluxes from air/surface interfaces in paddy field and dry land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jinshan [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, No. 216, Tiansheng Street, Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wang Dingyong, E-mail: dywang@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, No. 216, Tiansheng Street, Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China)] [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Chongqing 400716 (China); Liu Xiao; Zhang Yutong [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, No. 216, Tiansheng Street, Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} It was found that agricultural fields are important local atmospheric Hg sources in the region. {yields} The Hg emissions from dry cornfield were higher than those from the flooded rice paddy, higher mercury emissions in the warm season than the cold season, and during daytime than at night. {yields} Mercury evasion is strongly related to solar radiation which is important in the emission of Hg at both sites. - Abstract: In order to provide insight into the characteristics of Hg exchange in soil/water-air surface from cropland (including paddy field and dry land), Hg fluxes were measured in Chengjiang. Mercury fluxes were measured using the dynamic flux chamber method, coupled with a Lumex (registered) multifunctional Hg analyzer RA-915{sup +} (Lumex Ltd., Russia). The Hg fluxes from paddy field and dry land were alternatively measured every 30 min. Data were collected for 24-48 h once per month for 5 months. Mercury fluxes in both fields were synchronously measured under the same conditions to compare Hg emissions between paddy field and dry land over diurnal and seasonal periods and find out what factors affect Hg emission on each surface. These results indicated that air Hg concentrations at the monitoring site was double the value observed at the global background sites in Europe and North America. The Hg release fluxes were 46.5 {+-} 22.8 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1} in the warm season, 15.5 {+-} 18.8 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1} in the cold season for dry land, and 23.8 {+-} 15.6 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1} in the warm season, 6.3 {+-} 11.9 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1} in the cold season for paddy field. Solar radiation is important in the emission of Hg over both sites. Hg exchange at the soil/air and water/air interfaces showed temporal variations. The amount of Hg emission from dry land was higher than that from the paddy field, and the emission in daytime was higher than that at night. Moreover, Hg emissions from land covered by crops, was lower

  11. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    . FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  12. Relation between gamma-ray emission, radio bursts, and proton fluxes from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomichev, V.V.; Chertok, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Data on solar gamma-ray flares, including 24 flares with gamma-ray lines, recorded up to June 1982, are analyzed. It is shown that from the point of view of radio emission the differences between flares with and without gamma-ray lines has a purely quantitative character: the former are accompanied by the most intense microwave bursts. Meter type II bursts are not a distinctive feature of flares with gamma-ray lines. Pulsed flares, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma-ray lines, are not accompanied by significant proton fluxes at the earth. On the whole, contrary to the popular opinion in the literature, flares with gamma-ray lines do not display a deficit of proton flux in interplanetary space in comparison with similar flares without gamma-ray lines. The results of quantitative diagnostics of proton flares based on radio bursts are not at variance with the presence of flares without detectable gamma-ray emission in lines but with a pronounced increase in the proton flux at the earth. 23 references

  13. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs (a)(1...

  14. Isoprene emission rates and fluxes measured above a Mediterranean oak ( Quercus pubescens) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, V.; Dumergues, L.; Bouchou, P.; Torres, L.; Lopez, A.

    2005-03-01

    The present work, carried out as part of the European fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions project (ESCOMPTE), brings a new contribution to the inventory of the main natural hydrocarbons sources that are liable to participate in the production of ozone. The measurement campaign was conducted in Montmeyan, a site close to Marseilles (France), with the aim of quantifying the terpenic emission pattern and the behaviour of Quercus pubescens, an important Mediterranean tree species. Biogenic emissions by Q. pubescens were determined by the enclosure of an intact branch of this tree in a Teflon cuvette. The total monoterpenic emission rates thus recorded were found to reach maximum values ranged between 40 and 350 μg g Dry Weight-1 h -1. Emissions were correlated strongly with leaf temperature and Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR). The fluxes were also determined by extrapolating the results of the enclosure method and by using aerodynamic gradient method. They reach around 73 mg m -2 h -1 with the first method and 55 mg m -2 h -1 with the second one. The obtained values fit with a maximal ratio of 2.

  15. CO and H2 uptake and emissions by soil: variability of fluxes and their isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Maria Elena; Chen, Qianjie; Ferrero Lopez, Noelia; Röckmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In order to study the uptake and release of H2 and CO by soil, we performed long term, high frequency measurements with an automatic soil chamber at two sites in the Netherlands (Cabauw - grassland, and Speuld - forest). The measurements were performed over different seasons and cover in total a cumulated interval of about one year. These measurements allow determining separately, for each species, the two distinct fluxes i.e. uptake and release, and investigating their temporal variability and dependencies on environmental variables. Additional experiments were performed for determining the isotopic signatures of the H2 and CO uptake and release by soil. Flask samples were filled from the soil chamber, and then analyzed in the laboratory for the stable isotopic composition of H2 (δD) and CO (δ13C and δ18O). We find that both uptake and release are present at all times, regardless of the direction of the net flux. The emissions are significant for both species and at Cabauw, there are times and places where emissions outweigh the soil uptake. For each species, the two fluxes have different behavior and dependence on external variables, which indicates that they have different origins. The isotope results also support that, for both H2 and CO, uptake and emission occur simultaneously. We were able to determine separately the isotopic effects of the two fluxes. For both H2 and CO, soil uptake is associated with a small positive fractionation (the lighter molecule is taken up faster). The soil uptake fractionation (α = kheavy/klight) was 0.945 ± 0.004 for H2; for CO, the fractionation was 0.992 for 13C and 0.985 for 18O. The isotopic composition of the H2 emitted from the grassland was -530 ± 40 ‰, less depleted that what is expected from the isotopic equilibrium of H2 with water. For CO, the isotopic composition of the soil emission is depleted in 13C compared to atmospheric CO, and lower than the average isotopic composition of plant or soil organic matter.

  16. Mercury in stream water at five Czech catchments across a Hg and S deposition gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, James B.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, Filip; Krám, Pavel; Matoušková, Šárka; Tesař, Miroslav; Hojdová, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Czech Republic was heavily industrialized in the second half of the 20th century but the associated emissions of Hg and S from coal burning were significantly reduced since the 1990s. We studied dissolved (filtered) stream water mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at five catchments with contrasting Hg and S deposition histories in the Bohemian part of the Czech Republic. The median filtered Hg concentrations of stream water samples collected in hydrological years 2012 and 2013 from the five sites varied by an order of magnitude from 1.3 to 18.0 ng L− 1. The Hg concentrations at individual catchments were strongly correlated with DOC concentrations r from 0.64 to 0.93 and with discharge r from 0.48 to 0.75. Annual export fluxes of filtered Hg from individual catchments ranged from 0.11 to 13.3 μg m− 2 yr− 1 and were highest at sites with the highest DOC export fluxes. However, the amount of Hg exported per unit DOC varied widely; the mean Hg/DOC ratio in stream water at the individual sites ranged from 0.28 to 0.90 ng mg− 1. The highest stream Hg/DOC ratios occurred at sites Pluhův Bor and Jezeří which both are in the heavily polluted Black Triangle area. Stream Hg/DOC was inversely related to mineral and total soil pool Hg/C across the five sites. We explain this pattern by greater soil Hg retention due to inhibition of soil organic matter decomposition at the sites with low stream Hg/DOC and/or by precipitation of a metacinnabar (HgS) phase. Thus mobilization of Hg into streams from forest soils likely depends on combined effects of organic matter decomposition dynamics and HgS-like phase precipitation, which were both affected by Hg and S deposition histories.

  17. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg exchange between forests and the atmosphere plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global emission of Hg from natural source has large uncertainty, partly due to the lack of chronical and valid field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces in China, the most important contributor to global atmospheric Hg. In this study, the micrometeorological method (MM was used to continuously observe gaseous elemental mercury (GEM fluxes over forest canopy at a mildly polluted site (Qianyanzhou, QYZ and a moderately polluted site (Huitong, HT, near a large Hg mine in subtropical south China for a full year from January to December in 2014. The GEM flux measurements over forest canopy in QYZ and HT showed net emission with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m−2 h−1, respectively. Daily variations of GEM fluxes showed an increasing emission with the increasing air temperature and solar radiation in the daytime to a peak at 13:00, and decreasing emission thereafter, even as a GEM sink or balance at night. High temperature and low air Hg concentration resulted in the high Hg emission in summer. Low temperature in winter and Hg absorption by plant in spring resulted in low Hg emission, or even adsorption in the two seasons. GEM fluxes were positively correlated with air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation, while it is negatively correlated with air humidity and atmospheric GEM concentration. The lower emission fluxes of GEM at the moderately polluted site (HT when compared with that in the mildly polluted site (QYZ may result from a much higher adsorption fluxes at night in spite of a similar or higher emission fluxes during daytime. This shows that the higher atmospheric GEM concentration at HT restricted the forest GEM emission. Great attention should be paid to forests as a crucial increasing Hg emission source with the decreasing atmospheric GEM concentration

  18. M sub shell X-ray emission cross section measurements for Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Th and U at 8 and 10 keV synchrotron photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Gupta, Sheenu; Tiwari, M.K.; Mittal, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First time M sub shell fluorescence cross section measurements at 8 and 10 keV photons. • Comparison with theoretical evaluations from different model data for parameters. • Explained the large deviations from the trend of parameters with atomic number Z. • A specific pattern of cross sections with Z is predicted in the region, 78 ⩽ Z ⩽ 92. • Confirmation of prediction requires more experiment in these Z and energy region. -- Abstract: M sub shell X-ray emission cross sections of Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Th and U at 8 and 10 keV photon energies have been determined with linearly polarized photon beam from Indus-2 synchrotron source. The measured cross sections have been reported for the first time and were used to check the available theoretical Dirac–Hartree–Slater (DHS) and Dirac–Fock (DF) values reported in literature and also the presently derived Non Relativistic Hartree–Slater (NRHS), DF and DHS values for M ξ , M δ , M α , M β , M γ , M m1 and M m2 group of X-rays

  19. Mass transfer inside a flux hood for the sampling of gaseous emissions from liquid surfaces - Experimental assessment and emission rate rescaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ademir A.; Lucernoni, Federico; Santos, Jane M.; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Le-Minh, Nhat; Stuetz, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    This study assesses the mass transfer of compounds inside the US EPA flux hood, one of the enclosure devices most commonly employed for the direct measurement of atmospheric emissions from liquid surfaces in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Experiments comprised the evaporation of water and the volatilisation of a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Special attention was given to the evaluation of the mass transfer coefficients in the microenvironment created by the flux hood and the effects of concentration build up in the hood's headspace. The VOCs emission rates and the water evaporation rates generally increased with the sweep air flow rate, as did the mass transfer coefficients for all compounds. The emission of compounds whose volatilisation is significantly influenced by the gas phase was greatly affected by concentration build up, whereas this effect was not significant for liquid phase-controlled compounds. The gas-film mass transfer coefficient (kG) estimated inside the US EPA flux hood was of the same order as the respective kG reported in the literature for wind tunnel-type devices, but the emission rates measured by the flux hood can be expected to be lower, due to the concentration build-up. Compared against an emission model for the passive surfaces in WWTPs, the mass transfer of acetic acid (representing a gas phase-dominated compound) inside the US EPA flux hood was equivalent to conditions of wind speeds at 10 m height (U10) of 0.27, 0.51 and 0.99 m s-1, respectively, for sweep air flow rates of 2, 5 and 10 L min-1. On the other hand, for higher wind speeds, the emission rates of gas phase-controlled compounds obtained with the flux hood can be considerably underestimated: for instance, at U10 = 5 m s-1, the emission rates of acetic acid inside the flux hood would be approximately 23, 12 and 6 times lower than the emission rates in the field, for sweep air flow rates of 2, 5 and 10 L min-1, respectively. A procedure is presented in

  20. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  1. Gaseous elemental mercury emissions and CO2 respiration rates in terrestrial soils under controlled aerobic and anaerobic laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrist, Daniel; Fain, Xavier; Berger, Carsen

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in terrestrial soils are linked to the presence of organic carbon (C). Carbon pools are highly dynamic and subject to mineralization processes, but little is known about the fate of Hg during decomposition. This study evaluated relationships between gaseous Hg emissions from soils and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) respiration under controlled laboratory conditions to assess potential losses of Hg to the atmosphere during C mineralization. Results showed a linear correlation (r 2 = 0.49) between Hg and CO 2 emissions in 41 soil samples, an effect unlikely to be caused by temperature, radiation, different Hg contents, or soil moisture. Stoichiometric comparisons of Hg/C ratios of emissions and underlying soil substrates suggest that 3% of soil Hg was subject to evasion. Even minute emissions of Hg upon mineralization, however, may be important on a global scale given the large Hg pools sequestered in terrestrial soils and C stocks. We induced changes in CO 2 respiration rates and observed Hg flux responses, including inducement of anaerobic conditions by changing chamber air supply from N 2 /O 2 (80% and 20%, respectively) to pure N 2 . Unexpectedly, Hg emissions almost quadrupled after O 2 deprivation while oxidative mineralization (i.e., CO 2 emissions) was greatly reduced. This Hg flux response to anaerobic conditions was lacking when repeated with sterilized soils, possibly due to involvement of microbial reduction of Hg 2+ by anaerobes or indirect abiotic effects such as alterations in soil redox conditions. This study provides experimental evidence that Hg volatilization, and possibly Hg 2+ reduction, is related to O 2 availability in soils from two Sierra Nevada forests. If this result is confirmed in soils from other areas, the implication is that Hg volatilization from terrestrial soils is partially controlled by soil aeration and that low soil O 2 levels and possibly low soil redox potentials lead to increased Hg volatilization from soils.

  2. A Novel Approach to Estimating Nitrous Oxide Emissions during Wetting Events from Single-Timepoint Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Needelman, Brian A; Cavigelli, Michel A; Yarwood, Stephanie A; Maul, Jude E; Bagley, Gwendolyn A; Mirsky, Steven B

    2017-03-01

    Precipitation and irrigation induce pulses of NO emissions in agricultural soils, but the magnitude, duration, and timing of these pulses remain uncertain. This uncertainty makes it difficult to accurately extrapolate emissions from unmeasured time periods between chamber sampling events. Therefore, we developed a modeling protocol to predict NO emissions from data collected daily for 7 d after wetting events. Within a cover crop-based corn ( L.) production system in Beltsville, MD, we conducted the 7-d time series during four time periods representing a range of corn growth stages in 2013 and 2014. Treatments included mixtures and monocultures of grass and legume cover crops that were fertilized with pelletized poultry litter or urea-ammonium nitrate solution (9-276 kg N ha). Most fluxes did not exhibit the expected exponential decay over time (82%); therefore, cumulative emissions were calculated using trapezoidal integration over 7 d after the wetting event. Cumulative 7-d emissions were well correlated with single point gas fluxes on the second day after a wetting event using a generalized linear mixed model (ln[emissions] = 0.809∙ln[flux] + 2.47). Soil chemical covariates before or after a wetting event were weakly associated with cumulative emissions. The ratio of dissolved organic C to total inorganic N was negatively correlated with cumulative emissions ( = 0.23-0.29), whereas nitrate was positively correlated with cumulative emissions ( = 0.23-0.33). Our model is an innovative approach that is calibrated using site-specific time series data, which may then be used to estimate short-term NO emissions after wetting events using only a single flux measurement. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: ?NIST Traceability ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the true concentrations of Hg0 and HgCl2 reference gases produced from high quality, NIST-traceable, commercial Hg0 and HgCl2 generators. This presentation will also discuss the availability of HCl and Hg0 compressed reference gas standards as a result of EPA's recently approved Alternative Methods 114 and 118. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) and oxidized mercury (HgCl2) reference standards are integral to the use of mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (Hg CEMS) for regulatory compliance emissions monitoring. However, a quantitative disparity of approximately 7-10% has been observed between commercial Hg0 and HgCl2 reference gases which currently limits the use of (HgCl2) reference gas standards. Resolving this disparity would enable the expanded use of (HgCl2) reference gas standards for regulatory compliance purposes.

  4. The role of ENSO in determining the emission, the speciation and the resulting fate of Hg from Biomass Burning, a lesson from the recent past

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Cinnirella, S.; Carbone, F.; Sprovieri, F.; Pirrone, N.

    2017-12-01

    The burning of vegetation is an environmental process that impacts the chemical composition of troposphere on a global scale, and has significant consequences on atmospheric pollution and climate. ENSO influences the alternating patterns of drier and wetter periods in almost all continents, therefore causing a rise in, and varying the timing of, fire activity in numerous regions and ecosystems (Le Page et al). A large amount of legacy Hg is currently buffered in different environmental compartments, including soil and vegetation, due to past and current anthropogenic processes and activities. Biomass Burning (BB) is a major source of atmospheric Hg, and a main driver in recycling this legacy Hg which is eventually re-deposited over land and oceans. Hg from BB is emitted mainly as Hg(0)(g), but a large fraction (up to 30% and more) is released as Hg bound to particulate matter, Hg(p), which is more likely to be deposited close to the fire activity (De Simone et al). Thus, speciation is one of the most important factors in determining the redistribution of Hg, and of the subsequent geographical distribution of its atmospheric deposition. Although the drivers controlling speciation remain uncertain, there is evidence that it depends on burn characteristics and fuel moisture content, which depends on the climatological characteristics of the regions where BB occurs (Obrist et al). The areas where atmospheric Hg is deposited depends ultimately on atmospheric transport, transformation and precipitation patterns, hence the fate of Hg emitted from BB is determined by a complex series of interacting processes and mechanisms, which begin with the release of Hg and continue until deposition. Many of these processes are influenced by ENSO. This modeling study analyses the deposition of Hg from BB using different satellite imagery based products, spanning a number of years, characterized by different ENSO regimes, to evaluate how it impacts BB, the speciation of emitted Hg, and

  5. First space-based derivation of the global atmospheric methanol emission fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stavrakou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides improved methanol emission estimates on the global scale, in particular for the largest methanol source, the terrestrial biosphere, and for biomass burning. To this purpose, one complete year of spaceborne measurements of tropospheric methanol columns retrieved for the first time by the thermal infrared sensor IASI aboard the MetOp satellite are compared with distributions calculated by the IMAGESv2 global chemistry-transport model. Two model simulations are performed using a priori biogenic methanol emissions either from the new MEGANv2.1 emission model, which is fully described in this work and is based on net ecosystem flux measurements, or from a previous parameterization based on net primary production by Jacob et al. (2005. A significantly better model performance in terms of both amplitude and seasonality is achieved through the use of MEGANv2.1 in most world regions, with respect to IASI data, and to surface- and air-based methanol measurements, even though important discrepancies over several regions are still present. As a second step of this study, we combine the MEGANv2.1 and the IASI column abundances over continents in an inverse modelling scheme based on the adjoint of the IMAGESv2 model to generate an improved global methanol emission source. The global optimized source totals 187 Tg yr−1 with a contribution of 100 Tg yr−1 from plants, only slightly lower than the a priori MEGANv2.1 value of 105 Tg yr−1. Large decreases with respect to the MEGANv2.1 biogenic source are inferred over Amazonia (up to 55 % and Indonesia (up to 58 %, whereas more moderate reductions are recorded in the Eastern US (20–25 % and Central Africa (25–35 %. On the other hand, the biogenic source is found to strongly increase in the arid and semi-arid regions of Central Asia (up to a factor of 5 and Western US (factor of 2, probably due to a source of methanol specific to these ecosystems which

  6. An updated climatology of surface dimethlysulfide concentrations and emission fluxes in the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, A.; Bell, T. G.; Simó, R.; Vallina, S. M.; Ballabrera-Poy, J.; Kettle, A. J.; Dachs, J.; Bopp, L.; Saltzman, E. S.; Stefels, J.; Johnson, J. E.; Liss, P. S.

    2011-03-01

    The potentially significant role of the biogenic trace gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) in determining the Earth's radiation budget makes it necessary to accurately reproduce seawater DMS distribution and quantify its global flux across the sea/air interface. Following a threefold increase of data (from 15,000 to over 47,000) in the global surface ocean DMS database over the last decade, new global monthly climatologies of surface ocean DMS concentration and sea-to-air emission flux are presented as updates of those constructed 10 years ago. Interpolation/extrapolation techniques were applied to project the discrete concentration data onto a first guess field based on Longhurst's biogeographic provinces. Further objective analysis allowed us to obtain the final monthly maps. The new climatology projects DMS concentrations typically in the range of 1-7 nM, with higher levels occurring in the high latitudes, and with a general trend toward increasing concentration in summer. The increased size and distribution of the observations in the DMS database have produced in the new climatology substantially lower DMS concentrations in the polar latitudes and generally higher DMS concentrations in regions that were severely undersampled 10 years ago, such as the southern Indian Ocean. Using the new DMS concentration climatology in conjunction with state-of-the-art parameterizations for the sea/air gas transfer velocity and climatological wind fields, we estimate that 28.1 (17.6-34.4) Tg of sulfur are transferred from the oceans into the atmosphere annually in the form of DMS. This represents a global emission increase of 17% with respect to the equivalent calculation using the previous climatology. This new DMS climatology represents a valuable tool for atmospheric chemistry, climate, and Earth System models.

  7. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  8. Methanol emissions from maize: Ontogenetic dependence to varying light conditions and guttation as an additional factor constraining the flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar, A.; Schoon, N.; Digrado, A.; Bachy, A.; Delaplace, P.; du Jardin, P.; Fauconnier, M.-L.; Aubinet, M.; Heinesch, B.; Amelynck, C.

    2017-03-01

    Because of its high abundance and long lifetime compared to other volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Even though agricultural crops are believed to be a large source of methanol, emission inventories from those crop ecosystems are still scarce and little information is available concerning the driving mechanisms for methanol production and emission at different developmental stages of the plants/leaves. This study focuses on methanol emissions from Zea mays L. (maize), which is vastly cultivated throughout the world. Flux measurements have been performed on young plants, almost fully grown leaves and fully grown leaves, enclosed in dynamic flow-through enclosures in a temperature and light-controlled environmental chamber. Strong differences in the response of methanol emissions to variations in PPFD (Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density) were noticed between the young plants, almost fully grown and fully grown leaves. Moreover, young maize plants showed strong emission peaks following light/dark transitions, for which guttation can be put forward as a hypothetical pathway. Young plants' average daily methanol fluxes exceeded by a factor of 17 those of almost fully grown and fully grown leaves when expressed per leaf area. Absolute flux values were found to be smaller than those reported in the literature, but in fair agreement with recent ecosystem scale flux measurements above a maize field of the same variety as used in this study. The flux measurements in the current study were used to evaluate the dynamic biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission model of Niinemets and Reichstein. The modelled and measured fluxes from almost fully grown leaves were found to agree best when a temperature and light dependent methanol production function was applied. However, this production function turned out not to be suitable for modelling the observed emissions from the young plants

  9. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  10. South American smoke coverage and flux estimations from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE') system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Westphal, D. L.; Christopher, S. A.; Prins, E. M.; Gasso, S.; Reid, E.; Theisen, M.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hunter, J.; Eck, T.

    2002-05-01

    The Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE') project is a joint Navy, NOAA, NASA and university project to integrate satellite products with numerical aerosol models to produce a real time fire and emissions inventory. At the center of the program is the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF ABBA) which provides real-time fire products and the NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System to model smoke transport. In this presentation we give a brief overview of the system and methods, but emphasize new estimations of smoke coverage and emission fluxes from the South American continent. Temporal and smoke patterns compare reasonably well with AERONET and MODIS aerosol optical depth products for the 2000 and 2001 fire seasons. Fluxes are computed by relating NAAPS output fields and MODIS optical depth maps with modeled wind fields. Smoke emissions and transport fluxes out of the continent can then be estimated by perturbing the modeled emissions to gain agreement with the satellite and wind products. Regional smoke emissions are also presented for grass and forest burning.

  11. Eddy covariance flux measurements of gaseous elemental mercury using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Ashley M; Moore, Christopher W; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Kljun, Natascha; Obrist, Daniel

    2015-02-03

    A newly developed pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations at high temporal resolution (25 Hz) was used to successfully conduct the first eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of GEM. GEM is the main gaseous atmospheric form, and quantification of bidirectional exchange between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere is important because gas exchange is important on a global scale. For example, surface GEM emissions from natural sources, legacy emissions, and re-emission of previously deposited anthropogenic pollution may exceed direct primary anthropogenic emissions. Using the EC technique for flux measurements requires subsecond measurements, which so far has not been feasible because of the slow time response of available instrumentation. The CRDS system measured GEM fluxes, which were compared to fluxes measured with the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) and a dynamic flux chamber (DFC). Measurements took place near Reno, NV, in September and October 2012 encompassing natural, low-mercury (Hg) background soils and Hg-enriched soils. During nine days of measurements with deployment of Hg-enriched soil in boxes within 60 m upwind of the EC tower, the covariance of GEM concentration and vertical wind speed was measured, showing that EC fluxes over an Hg-enriched area were detectable. During three separate days of flux measurements over background soils (without Hg-enriched soils), no covariance was detected, indicating fluxes below the detection limit. When fluxes were measurable, they strongly correlated with wind direction; the highest fluxes occurred when winds originated from the Hg-enriched area. Comparisons among the three methods showed good agreement in direction (e.g., emission or deposition) and magnitude, especially when measured fluxes originated within the Hg-enriched soil area. EC fluxes averaged 849 ng m(-2) h(-1), compared to DFC fluxes of 1105 ng m(-2) h(-1) and MBR fluxes

  12. New Constraints on Terrestrial Surface-Atmosphere Fluxes of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Using a Global Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnan, Yannick; Le Dantec, Théo; Moore, Christopher W; Edwards, Grant C; Obrist, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    Despite 30 years of study, gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) exchange magnitude and controls between terrestrial surfaces and the atmosphere still remain uncertain. We compiled data from 132 studies, including 1290 reported fluxes from more than 200,000 individual measurements, into a database to statistically examine flux magnitudes and controls. We found that fluxes were unevenly distributed, both spatially and temporally, with strong biases toward Hg-enriched sites, daytime and summertime measurements. Fluxes at Hg-enriched sites were positively correlated with substrate concentrations, but this was absent at background sites. Median fluxes over litter- and snow-covered soils were lower than over bare soils, and chamber measurements showed higher emission compared to micrometeorological measurements. Due to low spatial extent, estimated emissions from Hg-enriched areas (217 Mg·a(-1)) were lower than previous estimates. Globally, areas with enhanced atmospheric Hg(0) levels (particularly East Asia) showed an emerging importance of Hg(0) emissions accounting for half of the total global emissions estimated at 607 Mg·a(-1), although with a large uncertainty range (-513 to 1353 Mg·a(-1) [range of 37.5th and 62.5th percentiles]). The largest uncertainties in Hg(0) fluxes stem from forests (-513 to 1353 Mg·a(-1) [range of 37.5th and 62.5th percentiles]), largely driven by a shortage of whole-ecosystem fluxes and uncertain contributions of leaf-atmosphere exchanges, questioning to what degree ecosystems are net sinks or sources of atmospheric Hg(0).

  13. Tracing aquatic bioavailable Hg in three different regions of China using fish Hg isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Bin; Hua, Xiu-Bing; Liu, Hong-Wei; Yu, Ben; Mao, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Ding-Yong; Yin, Yong-Guang; Hu, Li-Gang; Shi, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2018-04-15

    To trace the most concerned bioavailable mercury (Hg) in aquatic environment, fish samples were collected from three typical regions in China, including 3 rivers and 1 lake in the Tibetan Plateau (TP, a high altitude background region with strong solar radiation), the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, the largest artificial freshwater reservoir in China), and the Chinese Bohai Sea (CBS, a heavily human-impacted semi-enclosed sea). The Hg isotopic compositions in fish muscles were analyzed. The results showed that anthropogenic emissions were the main sources of Hg in fish from TGR and CBS because of the observed negative δ 202 Hg and positive Δ 199 Hg in these two regions (TGR, δ 202 Hg: - 0.72 to - 0.29‰, Δ 199 Hg: 0.15 - 0.52‰; CBS, δ 202 Hg: - 2.09 to - 0.86‰, Δ 199 Hg: 0.07 - 0.52‰). The relatively higher δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg (δ 202 Hg: - 0.37 - 0.08‰, Δ 199 Hg: 0.50 - 1.89‰) in fish from TP suggested the insignificant disturbance from local anthropogenic activities. The larger slopes of Δ 199 Hg/Δ 201 Hg in fish from TGR (1.29 ± 0.14, 1SD) and TP (1.25 ± 0.06, 1SD) indicated methylmercury (MeHg) was produced and photo-reduced in the water column before incorporation into the fish. In contrast, the photoreduction of Hg 2+ was the main process in CBS (slope of Δ 199 Hg/Δ 201 Hg: 1.06 ± 0.06, 1SD). According to the fingerprint data of Hg isotopes, the most important source for aquatic bioavailable Hg in TP should be the long-range transported Hg, contrasting to the anthropogenic originated MeHg from surface sediments and runoffs in TGR and inorganic Hg from continental inputs in CBS. Therefore, the isotopic signatures of Hg in fish can provide novel clues in tracing sources and behaviors of bioavailable Hg in aquatic systems, which are critical for further understanding the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural network analysis on the effect of heat fluxes on greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes) that potentially affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from swine waste lagoon. GHG concentrations (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide) were monitored using a photoacous...

  15. Fate factors and emission flux estimates for emerging contaminants in surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa T. Trinh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and wastewater products are emerging environmental concerns for manifold reasons, including the potential of some compounds found in these products for endocrine disruption at a very low chronic exposure level. The environmental occurrences and sources of these contaminants in the water, soil, sediment and biota in European nations and the United States are well documented. This work reports a screening-level emission and fate assessment of thirty compounds, listed in the National Reconnaissance of the United States Geological Survey (USGS, 1999–2000 as the most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams and rivers. Estimations of the surface water fate factors were based on Level II and Level III multimedia fugacity models for a 1000 km2 model environment, the size of a typical county in the eastern United States. The compounds are categorized into three groups based upon the sensitivity of their predicted surface water fate factors to uncertainties in their physicochemical property values and the landscape parameters. The environmental fate factors, mass distributions, and loss pathways of all of the compounds are strongly affected by their assumed modes of entry into the environment. It is observed that for thirteen of the thirty organic wastewater contaminants most commonly detected in surface waters, conventional treatment strategies may be ineffective for their removal from wastewater effluents. The surface water fate factors predicted by the fugacity models were used in conjunction with the surface water concentrations measured in the USGS reconnaissance to obtain emission flux estimates for the compounds into U.S. streams and rivers. These include estimated fluxes of 6.8 × 10−5 to 0.30 kg/h km2 for the biomarker coprostanol; 1.7 × 10−5 to 6.5 × 10−5 kg/h km2 for the insect repellent N,N-diethyltoluamide; and 4.3 × 10−6 to 3.1 × 10−5 kg/h km2 for

  16. Effect of density distribution of cathode emission on the flux character in a strong-current electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matora, I.M.; Merkulov, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect is considered of two kinds of a dependence of the emission density from the electric field voltage on the emitter surface of a strong-current electron gun (the Schottky law and the ''3/2'' law) upon the choice of a form for the meridional cross section of this emitter at the condition of electron flux laminarity. A calculation example is given for electron gun with close to laminar flow assuming the validity of the Schottky law. The results of calculation of varying the laminar flux character are given which appears when varying parameters of the gun at the voltage 500 kV and current 250 A

  17. Comparison of real-time BTEX flux measurements to reported emission inventories in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, R.; Robertson, A.; Murphy, S. M.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Zimmerle, D.; Bell, C.

    2017-12-01

    Other Test Method 33a (OTM-33a) is an EPA-developed near-source measurement technique that utilizes a Gaussian plume inversion to calculate the flux of a point source 20 to 200 meters away. In 2014, the University of Wyoming mobile laboratory—equipped with a Picarro methane analyzer and an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer—measured methane and BTEX fluxes from oil and gas operations in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB), Wyoming. In this study, OTM-33a BTEX flux measurements are compared to BTEX emissions reported by operators in the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WY-DEQ) emission inventory. On average, OTM-33a measured BTEX fluxes are almost twice as high as those reported in the emission inventory. To further constrain errors in the OTM-33a method, methane test releases were performed at the Colorado State University Methane Emissions Test and Evaluation Center (METEC) in June of 2017. The METEC facility contains decommissioned oil and gas equipment arranged in realistic well pad layouts. Each piece of equipment has a multitude of possible emission points. A Gaussian fit of measurement error from these 29 test releases indicate the median OTM-33a measurement quantified 55% of the metered flowrate. BTEX results from the UGRB campaign and inventory analysis will be presented, along with a discussion of errors associated with the OTM-33a measurement technique. Real-time BTEX and methane mixing ratios at the measurement locations (which show a lack of correlation between VOC and methane sources in 20% of sites sampled) will also be discussed.

  18. Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments Risks Complications Impact Take a Poll If HG continued past mid-pregnancy , did you experience complications ... Understanding Hyperemesis | Overview About Hyperemesis Gravidarum Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a severe form of nausea and vomiting ...

  19. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg in the Yellow Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Ci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Yellow Sea, surrounded by East China and the Korea Peninsula, is a potentially important receptor for anthropogenic mercury (Hg emissions from East Asia. However, there is little documentation about the distribution and cycle of Hg in this marine system. During the cruise covering the Yellow Sea in July 2010, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0 in the atmosphere, total Hg (THg, reactive Hg (RHg and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, largely Hg(0 in the waters were measured aboard the R/V Kexue III. The mean (±SD concentration of GEM over the entire cruise was 2.61 ± 0.50 ng m−3 (range: 1.68 to 4.34 ng m−3, which were generally higher than other open oceans. The spatial distribution of GEM generally reflected a clear gradient with high levels near the coast of East China and low levels in open waters, suggesting the significant atmospheric Hg outflow from East China. The mean concentration of THg in the surface waters was 1.69 ± 0.35 ng l−1 and the RHg accounted for a considerable fraction of THg (RHg: 1.08 ± 0.28 ng l−1, %RHg/THg = 63.9%. The mean concentration of DGM in the surface waters was 63.9 ± 13.7 pg l−1 and always suggested the supersaturation of Hg(0 in the surface waters with respect to Hg(0 in the atmosphere (the degree of saturation: 7.8 ± 2.3 with a range of 3.6–14.0. The mean Hg(0 flux at the air-sea interface was estimated to be 18.3 ± 11.8 ng m−2 h−1 based on a two-layer exchange model. The high wind speed and DGM levels induced the extremely high Hg(0 emission rates. Measurements at three stations showed no clear vertical patterns of DGM, RHg and THg in the water column. Overall, the elevated Hg levels in the Yellow Sea compared with other open oceans suggested that the human activity has influenced the oceanic Hg cycle downwind of East Asia.

  20. Distinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The terrestrial biosphere has experienced dramatic changes in recent decades. Estimates of historical trends in land carbon fluxes remain uncertain because long-term observations are limited on the global scale. Here, we use the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model to estimate decadal trends in land carbon fluxes and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and to identify the key drivers for these changes during 1982-2011. Driven with hourly meteorology from WFDEI (WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data), the model simulates an increasing trend of 297 Tg C a-2 in gross primary productivity (GPP) and 185 Tg C a-2 in the net primary productivity (NPP). CO2 fertilization is the main driver for the flux changes in forest ecosystems, while meteorology dominates the changes in grasslands and shrublands. Warming boosts summer GPP and NPP at high latitudes, while drought dampens carbon uptake in tropical regions. North of 30° N, increasing temperatures induce a substantial extension of 0.22 day a-1 for the growing season; however, this phenological change alone does not promote regional carbon uptake and BVOC emissions. Nevertheless, increases of LAI at peak season accounts for ~ 25 % of the trends in GPP and isoprene emissions at the northern lands. The net land sink shows statistically insignificant increases of only 3 Tg C a-2 globally because of simultaneous increases in soil respiration. In contrast, driven with alternative meteorology from MERRA (Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis), the model predicts significant increases of 59 Tg C a-2 in the land sink due to strengthened uptake in the Amazon. Global BVOC emissions are calculated using two schemes. With the photosynthesis-dependent scheme, the model predicts increases of 0.4 Tg C a-2 in isoprene emissions, which are mainly attributed to warming trends because CO2 fertilization and inhibition effects offset each other. Using the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases

  1. Distinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past 3 decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The terrestrial biosphere has experienced dramatic changes in recent decades. Estimates of historical trends in land carbon fluxes remain uncertain because long-term observations are limited on the global scale. Here, we use the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model to estimate decadal trends in land carbon fluxes and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and to identify the key drivers for these changes during 1982-2011. Driven by hourly meteorology from WFDEI (WATCH forcing data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data), the model simulates an increasing trend of 297 Tg C a-2 in gross primary productivity (GPP) and 185 Tg C a-2 in the net primary productivity (NPP). CO2 fertilization is the main driver for the flux changes in forest ecosystems, while meteorology dominates the changes in grasslands and shrublands. Warming boosts summer GPP and NPP at high latitudes, while drought dampens carbon uptake in tropical regions. North of 30° N, increasing temperatures induce a substantial extension of 0.22 day a-1 for the growing season; however, this phenological change alone does not promote regional carbon uptake and BVOC emissions. Nevertheless, increases of leaf area index at peak season accounts for ~ 25 % of the trends in GPP and isoprene emissions at the northern lands. The net land sink shows statistically insignificant increases of only 3 Tg C a-2 globally because of simultaneous increases in soil respiration. Global BVOC emissions are calculated using two schemes. With the photosynthesis-dependent scheme, the model predicts increases of 0.4 Tg C a-2 in isoprene emissions, which are mainly attributed to warming trends because CO2 fertilization and inhibition effects offset each other. Using the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) scheme, the YIBs model simulates global reductions of 1.1 Tg C a-2 in isoprene and 0.04 Tg C a-2 in monoterpene emissions in response to the CO2 inhibition effects. Land use

  2. Combining tracer flux ratio methodology with low-flying aircraft measurements to estimate dairy farm CH4 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daube, C.; Conley, S.; Faloona, I. C.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Roscioli, J. R.; Morris, M.; Curry, J.; Arndt, C.; Herndon, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Livestock activity, enteric fermentation of feed and anaerobic digestion of waste, contributes significantly to the methane budget of the United States (EPA, 2016). Studies question the reported magnitude of these methane sources (Miller et. al., 2013), calling for more detailed research of agricultural animals (Hristov, 2014). Tracer flux ratio is an attractive experimental method to bring to this problem because it does not rely on estimates of atmospheric dispersion. Collection of data occurred during one week at two dairy farms in central California (June, 2016). Each farm varied in size, layout, head count, and general operation. The tracer flux ratio method involves releasing ethane on-site with a known flow rate to serve as a tracer gas. Downwind mixed enhancements in ethane (from the tracer) and methane (from the dairy) were measured, and their ratio used to infer the unknown methane emission rate from the farm. An instrumented van drove transects downwind of each farm on public roads while tracer gases were released on-site, employing the tracer flux ratio methodology to assess simultaneous methane and tracer gas plumes. Flying circles around each farm, a small instrumented aircraft made measurements to perform a mass balance evaluation of methane gas. In the course of these two different methane quantification techniques, we were able to validate yet a third method: tracer flux ratio measured via aircraft. Ground-based tracer release rates were applied to the aircraft-observed methane-to-ethane ratios, yielding whole-site methane emission rates. Never before has the tracer flux ratio method been executed with aircraft measurements. Estimates from this new application closely resemble results from the standard ground-based technique to within their respective uncertainties. Incorporating this new dimension to the tracer flux ratio methodology provides additional context for local plume dynamics and validation of both ground and flight-based data.

  3. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P.; Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) from anthropogenic sources are the primary driver of observed increases in the atmospheric CO2 burden, and hence global warming. Quantification of the magnitude of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is vital to improving our understanding of the global and regional carbon cycle, and independent evaluation of reported emissions is essential to the success of any emission reduction efforts. The urban scale is of particular interest, because ~75% CO2ff is emitted from urban regions, and cities are leading the way in attempts to reduce emissions. Measurements of 14CO2 can be used to determine CO2ff, yet existing 14C measurement techniques require laborious laboratory analysis and measurements are often insufficient for inferring an urban emission flux. This presentation will focus on how 14CO2 measurements can be combined with those of more easily measured ancillary tracers to obtain high resolution CO2ff mixing ratio estimates and then infer the emission flux. A pilot study over Sacramento, California showed strong correlations between CO2ff and carbon monoxide (CO) and demonstrated an ability to quantify the urban flux, albeit with large uncertainties. The Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX) aims to develop and assess methods to quantify urban greenhouse gas emissions. Indianapolis was chosen as an ideal test case because it has relatively straightforward meteorology; a contained, isolated, urban region; and substantial and well-known fossil fuel CO2 emissions. INFLUX incorporates atmospheric measurements of a suite of gases and isotopes including 14C from light aircraft and from a network of existing tall towers surrounding the Indianapolis urban area. The recently added CO2ff content is calculated from measurements of 14C in CO2, and then convolved with atmospheric transport models and ancillary data to estimate the urban CO2ff emission flux. Significant innovations in sample collection include: collection of hourly averaged samples to

  4. Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock play an important role in carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Recent research suggests that existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the U.S., such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions factors, are too low. Thi...

  5. Analysis of HgI2 and PbI2 crystals and detectors by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and ion backscattering spectroscopy (IBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench, G.S.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.; James, R.B.; David, D.C.; Burger, A.; Van Den Berg, L.

    1993-03-01

    The Ion Micro-Analysis Group (IMAG) in Livermore conducts quantitative trace elemental analysis with PIXE and depth profiling with IBS using an MeV ion microbeam. The system has the capability to produce two-dimensional trace element and IBS images. PIXE analyses have been conducted on HgI 2 and PbI 2 crystals and detector materials in order to identify and quantify near surface trace contaminants. IBS measurements have been conducted to investigate elemental depth distributions in various materials. The results of measurements on several different samples are reported and a discussion of factors affecting quantitative in vacuo microanalysis of these materials is presented

  6. Natural gas facility methane emissions: measurements by tracer flux ratio in two US natural gas producing basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara I. Yacovitch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emission rates from a sample of natural gas facilities across industry sectors were quantified using the dual tracer flux ratio methodology. Measurements were conducted in study areas within the Fayetteville shale play, Arkansas (FV, Sept–Oct 2015, 53 facilities, and the Denver-Julesburg basin, Colorado, (DJ, Nov 2014, 21 facilities. Distributions of methane emission rates at facilities by type are computed and statistically compared with results that cover broader geographic regions in the US (Allen et al., 2013, Mitchell et al., 2015. DJ gathering station emission rates (kg CH4 hr–1 are lower, while FV gathering and production sites are statistically indistinguishable as compared to these multi-basin results. However, FV gathering station throughput-normalized emissions are statistically lower than multi-basin results (0.19% vs. 0.44%. This implies that the FV gathering sector is emitting less per unit of gas throughput than would be expected from the multi-basin distribution alone. The most common emission rate (i.e. mode of the distribution for facilities in this study is 40 kg CH4 hr–1 for FV gathering stations, 1.0 kg CH4 hr–1 for FV production pads, and 11 kg CH4 hr–1 for DJ gathering stations. The importance of study design is discussed, including the benefits of site access and data sharing with industry and of a scientist dedicated to measurement coordination and site choice under evolving wind conditions.

  7. Tracing the link between plant volatile organic compound emissions and CO2 fluxes and by stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation exerts a large influence on the atmosphere through the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the emission and uptake of the greenhouse gas CO2. Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as photosynthetic carbon uptake, respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. Moreover, vegetation-atmosphere CO2 exchange is associated with a large isotopic imprint due to photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and 13C-fractionation during respiratory CO2 release1. The latter has been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate the linkage between VOC emissions, CO2 fluxes and associated isotope effects based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS). We utilized positionally specific 13C-labeled pyruvate branch feeding experiments in the mediterranean shrub (Halimium halimifolium) to trace the partitioning of C1, C2, and C3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into VOCs versus CO2 emissions in the light and in the dark. In the light, we found high emission rates of a large array of VOC including volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, sulfides, and nitrogen containing VOCs. These observations suggest that in the light, H. halimifolium dedicates a high carbon flux through secondary biosynthetic pathways including the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass, mevalonic acid, MEP/DOXP, shikimic acid, and

  8. Year-Round Carbon Fluxes in a Subarctic Landscape Show the Importance of Lake Emissions According to Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammet, M.; Crill, P. M.; Friborg, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lakes are increasingly recognized as important components of the global terrestrial carbon budget. Northern lakes are especially of interest due to a high density of open-water ecosystems in Northern latitudes and a potential increase in lake areal extent where permafrost is thawing. A better understanding of lake-atmosphere interactions requires long-term and direct measurement of surface fluxes. This is rarely achieved in Northern landscapes where seasonally ice-covered lakes are mostly studied during the open water season, and measurement methods do not always allow an integration of all gas transport pathways to the atmosphere. We present here ecosystem-scale data from Stordalen (68°20'N, 19°03'E), a thawing permafrost peatland in subarctic Sweden, where an eddy covariance system is used in an innovative way to quantify the importance of methane (CH4) emissions from a shallow lake. After more than a year of surface flux monitoring, it is found that spring is a crucial season for lake-atmosphere CH4 exchange. Despite its shallow depth, more than half of annual CH4 emissions from the lake were recorded at ice-out, suggesting significant winter CH4 production in lake sediments. Lake water dynamics seemed to drive the observed spring release rates. In contrast, summer methane emissions in Stordalen were dominated by the minerotrophic fens. This underlines the importance of considering the full annual budget when assessing the carbon source strength of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Carbon dioxide fluxes were also monitored and will be briefly discussed, as well as the significance of northern lakes spring burst for global atmospheric CH4 budget.

  9. Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Julie; Asrar, Ghassem R.; West, Tristram O.

    2017-09-29

    Background: Livestock play an important role in carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Recent research suggests that existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the US, such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions factors, are too low. This may be due to outdated information used to develop these emissions factors. In this study, we update information for cattle and swine by region, based on reported recent changes in animal body mass, feed quality and quantity, milk productivity, and management of animals and manure. We then use this updated information to calculate new livestock methane emissions factors for enteric fermentation in cattle, and for manure management in cattle and swine.

  10. A DETAILED STUDY OF SPITZER-IRAC EMISSION IN HERBIG-HARO OBJECTS. I. MORPHOLOGY AND FLUX RATIOS OF SHOCKED EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Chen, How-Huan; Lee, Hsu-Tai; Koh, Haegon

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of Spitzer-IRAC images obtained toward six Herbig-Haro objects (HH 54/211/212, L 1157/1448, and BHR 71). Our analysis includes (1) comparisons of morphology between the four IRAC bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm) and H 2 1-0 S(1) at 2.12 μm for three out of six objects, (2) measurements of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at selected positions, and (3) comparisons of these results with calculations of thermal H 2 emission at LTE (207 lines in four bands) and non-LTE (32-45 lines, depending on the particle for collisions). We show that the morphologies observed at 3.6 and 4.5 μm are similar to each other and to H 2 1-0 S(1). This is well explained by thermal H 2 emission at non-LTE if the dissociation rate is significantly larger than 0.002-0.02, allowing thermal collisions to be dominated by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the 5.8 and 8.0 μm emission shows different morphologies from the others in some regions. This emission appears to be more enhanced at the wakes in bow shocks, or less enhanced in patchy structures in the jet. These tendencies are explained by the fact that thermal H 2 emission in the 5.8 and 8.0 μm band is enhanced in regions at lower densities and temperatures. Throughout, the observed similarities and differences in morphology between four bands and 1-0 S(1) are well explained by thermal H 2 emission. The observed SEDs are categorized into type-A, those in which the flux monotonically increases with wavelength, and type-B, those with excess emission at 4.5 μm. The type-A SEDs are explained by thermal H 2 emission, in particular with simple shock models with a power-law cooling function (Λ ∝ T s ). Our calculations suggest that the type-B SEDs require extra contaminating emission in the 4.5 μm band. The CO vibrational emission is the most promising candidate, and the other contaminants discussed to date (H I, [Fe II], fluorescent H 2 , and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) are not likely to explain the

  11. Ground-Based Remote Sensing and Imaging of Volcanic Gases and Quantitative Determination of Multi-Species Emission Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Platt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical structure and the spatial evolution of volcanic plumes are of great interest since they influence the Earth’s atmospheric composition and the climate. Equally important is the monitoring of the abundance and emission patterns of volcanic gases, which gives insight into processes in the Earth’s interior that are difficult to access otherwise. Here, we review spectroscopic approaches (from ultra-violet to thermal infra-red to determine multi-species emissions and to quantify gas fluxes. Particular attention is given to the emerging field of plume imaging and quantitative image interpretation. Here UV SO2 cameras paved the way but several other promising techniques are under study and development. We also give a brief summary of a series of initial applications of fast imaging techniques for volcanological research.

  12. Direct contribution of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) to benthic fluxes, nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide emission in a farmed sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David T.; Nizzoli, Daniele; Fano, Elisa A.; Viaroli, Pierluigi

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) on N-cycle processes, and oxygen and nutrient fluxes in a farmed sediment was investigated using a multiple core incubation approach and parallel incubations of individual clams. Clam population/biomass density varied ∼8-fold between cores and all sediment-water column solute (O2. N2, N2O, NH4+, NOX and DIN) fluxes and benthic process (N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification) rates were strongly and significantly correlated with clam density/biomass. Isolated clams exhibited high rates of respiration, N-excretion, nitrification and denitrification of 2050 ± 70, 395 ± 49, 201 ± 42 and 235 ± 40 nmol individual-1 h-1, respectively. The direct contribution of the clams and their associated microbiota to benthic processes was estimated by multiplying the per individual rates by the number of clams in each incubated core. The clams on average directly accounted for 64-133% of total rates of sediment oxygen demand, N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification, indicating that they regulated processes primarily through their own metabolic activity and that of bacteria that colonise them. Clams and the farmed sediments were significant sources of the greenhouse gas N2O, but this was primarily due to their high nitrification and denitrification rates, rather than high specific N2O yields, as N2O emissions represented farmed sediments had a high denitrification efficiency of 67 ± 10%, but this ecosystem service came at the environmental cost of increased N-regeneration and N2O emission rates. The measured N2O emissions indicate that bivalve aquaculture may be a significant source of N2O. It is therefore recommended that N2O emissions should be included in the impact assessments of current and future bivalve-farming projects.

  13. 196Hg and 202Hg isotopic ratios in chondrites: revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Additional evidence for an isotopically anomalous Hg fraction in unequilibrated meteorites has been obtained using neutron activation to produce 196 Hg and 202 Hg followed by stepwise heating to extract the Hg. In the latest experiments Allende matrix samples released the anomalous Hg but various high-temperature inclusions did not. Nucleogenetic processes are suggested as the probable cause of the anomaly. (Auth.)

  14. An updated climatology of surface dimethlysulfide concentrations and emission fluxes in the global ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lana, A.; Bell, T. G.; Simo, R.; Vallina, S. M.; Ballabrera-Poy, J.; Kettle, A. J.; Dachs, J.; Bopp, L.; Saltzman, E. S.; Stefels, J.; Johnson, J. E.; Liss, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    The potentially significant role of the biogenic trace gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) in determining the Earth's radiation budget makes it necessary to accurately reproduce seawater DMS distribution and quantify its global flux across the sea/air interface. Following a threefold increase of data (from

  15. Technical Note: Drifting vs. anchored flux chambers for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from running waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorke, A.; Bodmer, P.; Noss, C.; Alshboul, Z.; Koschorreck, M.; Somlai, C.; Bastviken, D.; Flury, S.; McGinnis, D. F.; Maeck, A.; Müller, D.; Premke, K.

    2015-09-01

    Stream networks were recently discovered as major but poorly constrained natural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources. A fundamental problem is that several measurement approaches have been used without cross comparisons. Flux chambers represent a potentially powerful methodological approach if robust and reliable ways to use chambers on running water can be defined. Here we compare the use of anchored and freely drifting chambers on various streams having different flow velocities. The study clearly shows that (1) drifting chambers have a very small impact on the water turbulence under the chamber and thus generate more reliable fluxes, (2) anchored chambers enhance turbulence under the chambers and thus elevate fluxes, (3) the bias of the anchored chambers greatly depends on chamber design and sampling conditions, and (4) there is a promising method to reduce the bias from anchored chambers by using a flexible plastic foil seal to the water surface rather than having rigid chamber walls penetrating into the water. Altogether, these results provide novel guidance on how to apply flux chambers in running water, which will have important consequences for measurements to constrain the global GHG balances.

  16. Technical note: drifting versus anchored flux chambers for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from running waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorke, A.; Bodmer, P.; Noss, C.; Alshboul, Z.; Koschorreck, M.; Somlai-Haase, C.; Bastviken, D.; Flury, S.; McGinnis, D. F.; Maeck, A.; Müller, D.; Premke, K.

    2015-12-01

    Stream networks have recently been discovered to be major but poorly constrained natural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources. A fundamental problem is that several measurement approaches have been used without cross-comparisons. Flux chambers represent a potentially powerful methodological approach if robust and reliable ways to use chambers on running water can be defined. Here we compare the use of anchored and freely drifting chambers on various streams with different flow velocities. The study clearly shows that (1) anchored chambers enhance turbulence under the chambers and thus elevate fluxes, (2) drifting chambers have a very small impact on the water turbulence under the chamber and thus generate more reliable fluxes, (3) the bias of the anchored chambers greatly depends on chamber design and sampling conditions, and (4) there is a promising method to reduce the bias from anchored chambers by using a flexible plastic foil collar to seal the chambers to the water surface, rather than having rigid chamber walls penetrating into the water. Altogether, these results provide novel guidance on how to apply flux chambers in running water, which will have important consequences for measurements to constrain the global GHG balances.

  17. CMS: CO2 Signals Estimated for Fossil Fuel Emissions and Biosphere Flux, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimated CO2 emission signals for 16 regions (air quality basins) in California, USA, during the individual months of November 2010 and May...

  18. Relationships between Hg Air-surface exchange, Soil Moisture and Precipitation at a Background Vegetated Site in South-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsween, K.; Edwards, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite many decades of research, the controlling mechanisms of mercury (Hg) air-surface exhange are still poorly understood. Particularly in Australian ecosystems where there are few anthropogenic inputs. A clear understanding of these mechanisms is vital for accurate representation in the global Hg models, particularly regarding re-emission. Water is known to have a considerable influence on Hg exchange within a terrestrial ecosystem. Precipitation has been found to cause spikes is Hg emissions during the initial stages of rain event. While, Soil moisture content is known to enhance fluxes between 15 and 30% Volumetric soil water (VSW), above which fluxes become suppressed. Few field experiments exist to verify these dominantly laboratory or controlled experiments. Here we present work looking at Hg fluxes over an 8-month period at a vegetated background site. The aim of this study is to identify how changes to precipitation intensity and duration, coupled with variable soil moisture content may influence Hg flux across seasons. As well as the influence of other meteorological variables. Experimentation was undertaken using aerodynamic gradient micrometeorological flux method, avoiding disruption to the surface, soil moisture probes and rain gauge measurements to monitor alterations to substrate conditions. Meteorological and air chemistry variables were also measured concurrently throughout the duration of the study. During the study period, South-Eastern Australia experienced several intense east coast low storm systems during the Autumn and Spring months and an unusually dry winter. VSW rarely reached above 30% even following the intense rainfall experienced during the east coast lows. The generally dry conditions throughout winter resulted in an initial spike in Hg emissions when rainfall occurred. Fluxes decreased shortly after the rain began but remained slightly elevated. Given the reduced net radiation and cooler temperatures experienced during the winter

  19. Fluxes of oxidised and reduced nitrogen above a mixed coniferous forest exposed to various nitrogen emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neirynck, J. [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium)]. E-mail: johan.neirynck@inbo.be; Kowalski, A.S. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicida, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Calle Fuentenueva, SP-18071 Granada (Spain); Carrara, A. [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Technologico, Calle Charles H. Darwin 14, SP-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Genouw, G. [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Berghmans, P. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Ceulemans, R. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Antwerp) (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    Concentrations of nitrogen gases (NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HONO and HNO{sub 3}) and particles (pNH{sub 4} and pNO{sub 3}) were measured over a mixed coniferous forest impacted by high nitrogen loads. Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) represented the main nitrogen form, followed by nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}). A combination of gradient method (NH{sub 3} and NO {sub x} ) and resistance modelling techniques (HNO{sub 3}, HONO, pNH{sub 4} and pNO{sub 3}) was used to calculate dry deposition of nitrogen compounds. Net flux of NH{sub 3} amounted to -64 ng N m{sup -2} s{sup -1} over the measuring period. Net fluxes of NO {sub x} were upward (8.5 ng N m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) with highest emission in the morning. Fluxes of other gases or aerosols substantially contributed to dry deposition. Total nitrogen deposition was estimated at -48 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and consisted for almost 80% of NH {sub x} . Comparison of throughfall nitrogen with total deposition suggested substantial uptake of reduced N ({+-}15 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) within the canopy. - Reduced nitrogen was found to be the main contributor to total deposition which was predominantly governed by dry deposition.

  20. Fluxes of oxidised and reduced nitrogen above a mixed coniferous forest exposed to various nitrogen emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirynck, J.; Kowalski, A.S.; Carrara, A.; Genouw, G.; Berghmans, P.; Ceulemans, R.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen gases (NH 3 , NO 2 , NO, HONO and HNO 3 ) and particles (pNH 4 and pNO 3 ) were measured over a mixed coniferous forest impacted by high nitrogen loads. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) represented the main nitrogen form, followed by nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ). A combination of gradient method (NH 3 and NO x ) and resistance modelling techniques (HNO 3 , HONO, pNH 4 and pNO 3 ) was used to calculate dry deposition of nitrogen compounds. Net flux of NH 3 amounted to -64 ng N m -2 s -1 over the measuring period. Net fluxes of NO x were upward (8.5 ng N m -2 s -1 ) with highest emission in the morning. Fluxes of other gases or aerosols substantially contributed to dry deposition. Total nitrogen deposition was estimated at -48 kg N ha -1 yr -1 and consisted for almost 80% of NH x . Comparison of throughfall nitrogen with total deposition suggested substantial uptake of reduced N (±15 kg N ha -1 yr -1 ) within the canopy. - Reduced nitrogen was found to be the main contributor to total deposition which was predominantly governed by dry deposition

  1. Mitigation of gaseous Mercury Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Hg-Oxidation Pathways in Presence of Fly Ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    Roč. 206, JAN 15 ( 2018 ), s. 276-283 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * emission * waste incineration Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  2. Mitigation of gaseous Mercury Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Hg-Oxidation Pathways in Presence of Fly Ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 206, JAN 15 (2018), s. 276-283 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * emission * waste incineration Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  3. Impact of D2O/H2O Solvent Exchange on the Emission of HgTe and CdTe Quantum Dots: Polaron and Energy Transfer Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiannan; Kershaw, Stephen V; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Zhovtiuk, Olga; Reckmeier, Claas; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail I; Rogach, Andrey L

    2016-04-26

    We have studied light emission kinetics and analyzed carrier recombination channels in HgTe quantum dots that were initially grown in H2O. When the solvent is replaced by D2O, the nonradiative recombination rate changes highlight the role of the vibrational degrees of freedom in the medium surrounding the dots, including both solvent and ligands. The contributing energy loss mechanisms have been evaluated by developing quantitative models for the nonradiative recombination via (i) polaron states formed by strong coupling of ligand vibration modes to a surface trap state (nonresonant channel) and (ii) resonant energy transfer to vibration modes in the solvent. We conclude that channel (i) is more important than (ii) for HgTe dots in either solution. When some of these modes are removed from the relevant spectral range by the H2O to D2O replacement, the polaron effect becomes weaker and the nonradiative lifetime increases. Comparisons with CdTe quantum dots (QDs) served as a reference where the resonant energy loss (ii) a priori was not a factor, also confirmed by our experiments. The solvent exchange (H2O to D2O), however, is found to slightly increase the overall quantum yield of CdTe samples, probably by increasing the fraction of bright dots in the ensemble. The fundamental study reported here can serve as the foundation for the design and optimization principles of narrow bandgap quantum dots aimed at applications in long wavelength colloidal materials for infrared light emitting diodes and photodetectors.

  4. Eddy flux and leaf level measurements of biogeni VOC emissions from Mopane woodland of Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenberg, J.P.; Guenter, A.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Hewwit, C.N.; James, A.E.; Owen, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions were measured in a mopane woodland near Maun, Botswana in January–February 2001 as part of SAFARI 2000. This landscape is comprised of more than 95% of one woody plant species, Colophospermum mopane (Caesalpinaceae). Mopane woodlands extend over a

  5. Improved passive flux samplers for measuring ammonia emissions from animal houses, part 1: Basic principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, R.; Hol, J.M.G.; Wagemans, M.J.M.; Phillips, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    At present, precise, expensive and laborious methods with a high resolution in time are needed, to determine ammonia emission rates from animal houses. The high costs for equipment, maintenance and labour limit the number of sites that can be measured. This study examines a new, simpler concept for

  6. A Portable, Low-Power Analyzer and Automated Soil Flux Chamber System for Measuring Wetland GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Kim-Hak, David; McArthur, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    Preservation and restoration of wetlands has the potential to help sequester large amounts of carbon due to the naturally high primary productivity and slow turnover of stored soil carbon. However, the anoxic environmental conditions present in wetland soils are also the largest natural contributor to global methane emissions. While it is well known that wetlands are net carbon sinks over long time scales, given the high global warming potential of methane, the short-term balances between C uptake and storage and loss as CO2 and CH4 need to be carefully considered when evaluating the climate effects of land-use change. It is relatively difficult to measure methane emissions from wetlands with currently available techniques given the temporally and spatially sporadic nature of the processes involved (methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ebullition, etc.). For example, using manual soil flux chambers can often only capture a portion of either the spatial or temporal variability, and often have other disadvantages associated with soil atmosphere disturbance during deployment in these relatively compressible wetland soils. Automated chamber systems offer the advantage of collecting high-resolution time series of gaseous fluxes while reducing some human and method induced biases. Additionally, new laser-based analyzers that can be used in situ alongside automated chambers offer a greater minimum detectable flux than can be achieved using alternative methods such as Gas Chromatography. Until recently these types of automated measurements were limited to areas that had good power coverage, as laser based systems were power intensive and could not easily be supplemented with power from field-available sources such as solar. Recent advances in laser technology has reduced the power needed and made these systems less power intensive and more field portable in the process. Here we present data using an automated chamber system coupled to a portable laser based greenhouse gas

  7. A study of capillary discharge lamps in Ar-Hg and Xe-Hg mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisova, N; Gavare, Z; Revalde, G; Skudra, Ja; Veilande, R

    2011-01-01

    Low-pressure capillary discharge lamps in Ar-Hg and Xe-Hg mixtures are studied. The discharge size is 0.5 mm (500 μm) in radius. According to the literature, such types of plasma sources are classified as microplasmas. The studies include spectrally resolved optical measurements, tomographic reconstructions and numerical simulations using the collisional-radiative model for an Ar-Hg plasma. We discuss the problems of theoretical modelling and experimental diagnostics of microplasma sources. It is shown that the conventional collisional-radiative model, based on the assumption that transportation of atoms in the highly excited states can be neglected, has limitations in modelling a capillary discharge in an Ar-Hg mixture. It is found that diffusion of highly excited mercury atoms to the wall influences the emission properties of the capillary discharge. We have concluded that applications of the emission tomography method to microplasmas require a special analysis in each particular case.

  8. 40 CFR 60.4110 - Authorization and Responsibilities of Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hg designated representative. 60.4110 Section 60.4110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4110 Authorization and Responsibilities of Hg designated representative...

  9. Inverse constraints for emission fluxes of atmospheric tracers estimated from concentration measurements and Lagrangian transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Patra, Prabir; Breivik, Knut

    2015-04-01

    Lagrangian transport models based on times series of Eulerian fields provide a computationally affordable way of achieving very high resolution for limited areas and time periods. This makes them especially suitable for the analysis of point-wise measurements of atmospheric tracers. We present an application illustrated with examples of greenhouse gases from anthropogenic emissions in urban areas and biogenic emissions in Japan and of pollutants in the Arctic. We asses the algorithmic complexity of the numerical implementation as well as the use of non-procedural techniques such as Object-Oriented programming. We discuss aspects related to the quantification of uncertainty from prior information in the presence of model error and limited number of observations. The case of non-linear constraints is explored using direct numerical optimisation methods.

  10. On the secular decrease of radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A at frequency 927 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyajkin, E.N.; Razin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Relative measurements of the radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A were made at the frequency 927 MHz to investigate the secular decrease of their intensity. Experiments were fulfilled in October-December 1977 at the 10-meter radio telescope of the radioastronomical station Staraya Pustyn' (NIRFI). The radio galaxied of Cygnus A, Virgo A and Orion Nebula were taken as the comparison sources. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of absolute measurements carried out in October 1962 permits to state that during 15 years the radio emission flux density of Cassiopeia A decreased by (14.2+-0.6)% (the average annual decrease amounts to (0.95+-O.04)%) and the radio emission flux density of Taurus A decreased by (2.7+-0.1)% (the annual decrease is (0.18+-0.01)%)

  11. Response of Soil Biogeochemistry to Freeze-thaw Cycles: Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emission and Nutrient Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Parsons, C. T.; Smeaton, C. M.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2014-12-01

    Freeze-thaw is an abiotic stress applied to soils and is a natural process at medium to high latitudes. Freezing and thawing processes influence not only the physical properties of soil, but also the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms. Fungi and bacteria play a crucial role in soil organic matter degradation and the production of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Production and consumption of these atmospheric trace gases are the result of biological processes such as photosynthesis, aerobic respiration (CO2), methanogenesis, methanotrophy (CH4), nitrification and denitrification (N2O). To enhance our understanding of the effects of freeze-thaw cycles on soil biogeochemical transformations and fluxes, a highly instrumented soil column experiment was designed to realistically simulate freeze-thaw dynamics under controlled conditions. Pore waters collected periodically from different depths of the column and solid-phase analyses on core material obtained at the initial and end of the experiment highlighted striking geochemical cycling. CO2, CH4 and N2O production at different depths within the column were quantified from dissolved gas concentrations in pore water. Subsequent emissions from the soil surface were determined by direct measurement in the head space. Pulsed CO2 emission to the headspace was observed at the onset of thawing, however, the magnitude of the pulse decreased with each subsequent freeze-thaw cycle indicating depletion of a "freeze-thaw accessible" carbon pool. Pulsed CO2 emission was due to a combination of physical release of gases dissolved in porewater and entrapped below the frozen zone and changing microbial respiration in response to electron acceptor variability (O2, NO3-, SO42-). In this presentation, we focus on soil-specific physical, chemical, microbial factors (e.g. redox conditions, respiration, fermentation) and the mechanisms that drive GHG emission and nutrient cycling in soils under freeze-thaw cycles.

  12. Meson emissions from quark-gluon plasma through formation and fission of chromoelectric flux tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.; Banerjee, B.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1983-06-01

    In the present work we study a facet of the plasma evolution, the formation and radiation of mesons at the surface of hog plasma. The surface meson radiation would play two important roles. First, it may carry some information about the pre-freezeout stage of the plasma evolution. Second, it causes a pressure decrease at the surface that works against the expansion. In the extreme, the plasma may extinct very rapidly by the surface meson radiation without collective expansion. It is very unclear how the incident quark degrees of freedom is converted into mesonic degrees of freedom and how the color confinement works in such a process. We have studied the problem by fully employing the chromoelectric flux tube model. We found that their parametrization is quite unsatisfactory and is actually incompatible with a dynamical description of color confinement. We briefly recapitulate our treatments and findings

  13. Discrepancies between soft x-ray emissivity contours and magnetic flux surfaces in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, M.C.; Granetz, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The soft x-ray diagnostic system of Alcator C-Mod, equipped with 152 detectors distributed in four arrays, is used to obtain iso-emissivity surfaces. These surfaces have been characterized by giving their elongation and relative shift from the centre of the tokamak as functions of plasma radius. Flux surfaces, provided by magnetic diagnostics, have also been described with elongation and shift. Results from the comparison of the two sets of geometric parameters obtained from magnetic and x-ray diagnostics are presented. We find that, whereas the shifts obtained from these two diagnostic methods are always in good agreement, the corresponding elongation curves show different patterns. An agreement between elongations better than 2% is only found in a range of about 2 cm in minor radius. On the other hand, the elongations can differ by 10% towards the plasma edge and the plasma centre. Error bars for the x-ray diagnostic are obtained by propagating the effect of ± 1% random errors at the detector signals, and can amount to ± 1-2% of the estimated values near the edge and the centre of the plasma. The estimated uncertainties in the determination of elongation from magnetic flux surfaces are of the order of 4%. A series of tests and simulations performed to verify the accuracy of the X-ray diagnostic system is presented. The discrepancies found could imply the existence of asymmetries in impurity concentration. (Author)

  14. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. F. Acton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m−2 h−1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m−2 h−1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006. A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  15. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe F.; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Tillmann, Ralf; Tomlinson, Sam J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Gianelle, Damiano; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m-2 h-1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m-2 h-1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  16. The development and trial of an unmanned aerial system for the measurement of methane flux from landfill and greenhouse gas emission hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Grant; Hollingsworth, Peter; Kabbabe, Khristopher; Pitt, Joseph R; Mead, Mohammed I; Illingworth, Samuel; Roberts, Gareth; Bourn, Mark; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J

    2018-01-09

    This paper describes the development of a new sampling and measurement method to infer methane flux using proxy measurements of CO 2 concentration and wind data recorded by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The flux method described and trialed here is appropriate to the spatial scale of landfill sites and analogous greenhouse gas emission hotspots, making it an important new method for low-cost and rapid case study quantification of fluxes from currently uncertain (but highly important) greenhouse gas sources. We present a case study using these UAS-based measurements to derive instantaneous methane fluxes from a test landfill site in the north of England using a mass balance model tailored for UAS sampling and co-emitted CO 2 concentration as a methane-emission proxy. Methane flux (and flux uncertainty) during two trials on 27 November 2014 and 5 March 2015, were found to be 0.140 kg s -1 (±61% at 1σ), and 0.050 kg s -1 (±54% at 1σ), respectively. Uncertainty contributing to the flux was dominated by ambient variability in the background (inflow) concentration (>40%) and wind speed (>10%); with instrumental error contributing only ∼1-2%. The approach described represents an important advance concerning the challenging problem of greenhouse gas hotspot flux calculation, and offers transferability to a wide range of analogous environments. This new measurement solution could add to a toolkit of approaches to better validate source-specific greenhouse emissions inventories - an important new requirement of the UNFCCC COP21 (Paris) climate change agreement. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara; Mazzolai; Lanzillotta; Nucaro; Pirrone

    2000-10-02

    Emissions from volcanoes, fumaroles and solfataras as well as contributions from widespread geological anomalies could represent an important source of mercury released to the atmosphere in the Mediterranean basin. Volcanoes located in this area (Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano) are the most active in Europe; therefore, it is extremely important to know their mercury contributions to the regional atmospheric budget. Two main methods are used for the evaluation of volcanic mercury flux: a direct determination of the flux (by measuring in the plume) and an indirect one derived from the determination of the Hg/SO2 (or Hg/S) ratio value, as SO2 emissions are constantly monitored by volcanologists. An attempt to estimate mercury flux from the Vulcano volcano and to establish the Hg/S ratio value has been made along three field campaigns carried out in October 1998, in February and May 1999 sampling several fumaroles. Traditional sampling methods were used to collect both total Hg and S. The average Hg/S ratio value resulted to be 1.2 x 10(-7). From the Hg/S value we derived the Hg/SO2 value, and by assuming that all the volcanoes located in this area have the same Hg/SO2 ratio, mercury emissions from Vulcano and Stromboli were estimated to be in the range 1.3-5.5 kg/year and 7.3-76.6 kg/year respectively, while for Etna mercury flux ranged from 61.8 to 536.5 kg/year. Data reported in literature appear to be overestimated (Fitzgerald WF. Mercury emission from volcanos. In: 4th International conference on mercury as a global pollutant, August 4-8 1996, Hamburg, Germany), volcanic mercury emission does not constitute the main natural source of the metal.

  18. HgSe(Te)-HgHal2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'ko, V.V.; Khudolij, V.A.; Voroshilov, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    Using the methods of differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses the character of chemical interaction in the systems HgTe(Se)-HgHal 2 , where Hal is Cl, Br, I, is investigated. Formation of compounds Hg 3 Se 2 Hal 2 , Hg 3 Te 2 Hal 2 , Hg 3 TeCl 4 and Hg 3 TeBr 4 in these systems is established. The phase diagrams of the studied systems are presented. The parameters of elementary cells of the compounds with the unknown structure, as well as their unknown physicochemical properties, are determined

  19. Isoprene emission potentials from European oak forests derived from canopy flux measurements: an assessment of uncertainties and inter-algorithm variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic emission algorithms predict that oak forests account for ∼ 70 % of the total European isoprene budget. Yet the isoprene emission potentials (IEPs that underpin these model estimates are calculated from a very limited number of leaf-level observations and hence are highly uncertain. Increasingly, micrometeorological techniques such as eddy covariance are used to measure whole-canopy fluxes directly, from which isoprene emission potentials can be calculated. Here, we review five observational datasets of isoprene fluxes from a range of oak forests in the UK, Italy and France. We outline procedures to correct the measured net fluxes for losses from deposition and chemical flux divergence, which were found to be on the order of 5–8 and 4–5 %, respectively. The corrected observational data were used to derive isoprene emission potentials at each site in a two-step process. Firstly, six commonly used emission algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an average isoprene emission potential was calculated for each site with an associated uncertainty. We used these data to assess how the derived emission potentials change depending upon the specific emission algorithm used and, importantly, on the particular approach adopted to derive an average site-specific emission potential. Our results show that isoprene emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 depending on the specific algorithm used and whether or not it is used in a big-leaf or canopy environment (CE model format. When using the same algorithm, the calculated average isoprene emission potential was found to vary by as much as 34 % depending on how the average was derived. Using a consistent approach with version 2.1 of the Model for Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN, we derive new ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials for the five measurement sites: Alice Holt, UK (10 500 ± 2500

  20. Isoprene emission potentials from European oak forests derived from canopy flux measurements: an assessment of uncertainties and inter-algorithm variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Ben; Cash, James; Acton, W. Joe F.; Valach, Amy C.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Fares, Silvano; Goded, Ignacio; Gruening, Carsten; House, Emily; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Gros, Valérie; Schafers, Richard; Thomas, Rick; Broadmeadow, Mark; Nemitz, Eiko

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic emission algorithms predict that oak forests account for ˜ 70 % of the total European isoprene budget. Yet the isoprene emission potentials (IEPs) that underpin these model estimates are calculated from a very limited number of leaf-level observations and hence are highly uncertain. Increasingly, micrometeorological techniques such as eddy covariance are used to measure whole-canopy fluxes directly, from which isoprene emission potentials can be calculated. Here, we review five observational datasets of isoprene fluxes from a range of oak forests in the UK, Italy and France. We outline procedures to correct the measured net fluxes for losses from deposition and chemical flux divergence, which were found to be on the order of 5-8 and 4-5 %, respectively. The corrected observational data were used to derive isoprene emission potentials at each site in a two-step process. Firstly, six commonly used emission algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an average isoprene emission potential was calculated for each site with an associated uncertainty. We used these data to assess how the derived emission potentials change depending upon the specific emission algorithm used and, importantly, on the particular approach adopted to derive an average site-specific emission potential. Our results show that isoprene emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 depending on the specific algorithm used and whether or not it is used in a big-leaf or canopy environment (CE) model format. When using the same algorithm, the calculated average isoprene emission potential was found to vary by as much as 34 % depending on how the average was derived. Using a consistent approach with version 2.1 of the Model for Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), we derive new ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials for the five measurement sites: Alice Holt, UK (10 500 ± 2500 µg m-2 h-1); Bosco Fontana, Italy (1610

  1. Use of new threshold detector 199Hg(n,n')/sup 199m/Hg for neutron spectrum unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear data for the 199 Hg(n,n')/sup 199m/Hg reaction are reviewed and the data are used for neutron spectrum unfolding. The neutron spectrum of the YAYOI glory-hole is unfolded by SAND II with 10 nuclear reactions including the 199 Hg(n,n')/sup 199m/Hg reaction. The ratio of the measured reaction rate to the calculated reaction rate is about 1:1.1 for the guess spectrum. The 199 Hg(n,n')/sup 199m/Hg, 115 In(n,n')/sup 115m/In, 103 Rh(n,n')/sup 103m/Rh reactions should be useful threshold detectors for the neutron dosimetry with low level fast neutron flux

  2. High-energy x-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    2014-01-01

    of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A–E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps Te...

  3. Correlation between Balmer α emission and hydrogen flux through a superpermeable niobium membrane in a low-pressure multicusp plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneteau, A.M.; Notkin, M.E.; Livshits, A.I.; Bacal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to correlate hydrogen or deuterium flux through super permeable membranes with incident hydrogen or deuterium atom flux from the plasma. To this aim a hydrogen or deuterium plasma is created in a hybrid multicusp plasma source. We investigate Balmer α emission from the multicusp plasma and the output pressure behind a superpermeable niobium membrane immersed in the plasma.The output pressure is proportional to the flux of atoms and ions arriving on the membrane. We find that both output pressure and excited atoms emission satisfy plasma parameters relations. It is thus verified that plasma-driven superpermeation of hydrogen is due essentially to neutral atoms from the plasma incident to the membrane

  4. Hg(+) Frequency Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we review the development of Hg(+) microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3 x 10(exp -14)/nu(sub tau) when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3 x 10(exp 15) was used a the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a Hg-202 discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped Hg(+)-199 clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg(+) ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At approx. 10(exp -12), the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10(exp -14) or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, alpha = e(exp 2)/2(pi)hc, at the level of 10(exp -20)/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  5. Surface emission determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from a closed industrial waste landfill using a self-designed static flux chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E; Perales, J F; Roca, F J; Guardino, X

    2014-02-01

    Closed landfills can be a source of VOC and odorous nuisances to their atmospheric surroundings. A self-designed cylindrical air flux chamber was used to measure VOC surface emissions in a closed industrial landfill located in Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. The two main objectives of the study were the evaluation of the performance of the chamber setup in typical measurement conditions and the determination of the emission rates of 60 different VOC from that industrial landfill, generating a valuable database that can be useful in future studies related to industrial landfill management. Triplicate samples were taken in five selected sampling points. VOC were sampled dynamically using multi-sorbent bed tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen 569) connected to SKC AirCheck 2000 pumps. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled with a capillary gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry detector. The emission rates of sixty VOC were calculated for each sampling point in an effort to characterize surface emissions. To calculate average, minimum and maximum emission values for each VOC, the results were analyzed by three different methods: Global, Kriging and Tributary area. Global and Tributary area methodologies presented similar values, with total VOC emissions of 237 ± 48 and 222 ± 46 g day(-1), respectively; however, Kriging values were lower, 77 ± 17 gd ay(-1). The main contributors to the total emission rate were aldehydes (nonanal and decanal), acetic acid, ketones (acetone), aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Most aromatic hydrocarbon (except benzene, naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes) and aldehyde emission rates exhibited strong correlations with the rest of VOC of their family, indicating a possible common source of these compounds. B:T ratio obtained from the emission rates of the studied landfill suggested that the factors that regulate aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in the landfill emissions are different from the ones

  6. Gaseous elemental mercury emissions and CO{sub 2} respiration rates in terrestrial soils under controlled aerobic and anaerobic laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrist, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.obrist@dri.edu [Desert Research Institute, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada, 89512 (United States); Fain, Xavier; Berger, Carsen [Desert Research Institute, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada, 89512 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in terrestrial soils are linked to the presence of organic carbon (C). Carbon pools are highly dynamic and subject to mineralization processes, but little is known about the fate of Hg during decomposition. This study evaluated relationships between gaseous Hg emissions from soils and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) respiration under controlled laboratory conditions to assess potential losses of Hg to the atmosphere during C mineralization. Results showed a linear correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.49) between Hg and CO{sub 2} emissions in 41 soil samples, an effect unlikely to be caused by temperature, radiation, different Hg contents, or soil moisture. Stoichiometric comparisons of Hg/C ratios of emissions and underlying soil substrates suggest that 3% of soil Hg was subject to evasion. Even minute emissions of Hg upon mineralization, however, may be important on a global scale given the large Hg pools sequestered in terrestrial soils and C stocks. We induced changes in CO{sub 2} respiration rates and observed Hg flux responses, including inducement of anaerobic conditions by changing chamber air supply from N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (80% and 20%, respectively) to pure N{sub 2}. Unexpectedly, Hg emissions almost quadrupled after O{sub 2} deprivation while oxidative mineralization (i.e., CO{sub 2} emissions) was greatly reduced. This Hg flux response to anaerobic conditions was lacking when repeated with sterilized soils, possibly due to involvement of microbial reduction of Hg{sup 2+} by anaerobes or indirect abiotic effects such as alterations in soil redox conditions. This study provides experimental evidence that Hg volatilization, and possibly Hg{sup 2+} reduction, is related to O{sub 2} availability in soils from two Sierra Nevada forests. If this result is confirmed in soils from other areas, the implication is that Hg volatilization from terrestrial soils is partially controlled by soil aeration and that low soil O{sub 2} levels and possibly low soil redox

  7. Sorghum production under future climate in the Southwestern USA: model projections of yield, greenhouse gas emissions and soil C fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Ghimire, R.; Hartman, M. D.; Marsalis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Large tracts of semi-arid land in the Southwestern USA are relatively less important for food production than the US Corn Belt, and represent a promising area for expansion of biofuel/bioproduct crops. However, high temperatures, low available water and high solar radiation in the SW represent a challenge to suitable feedstock development, and future climate change scenarios predict that portions of the SW will experience increased temperature and temporal shifts in precipitation distribution. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a valuable forage crop with promise as a biofuel feedstock, given its high biomass under semi-arid conditions, relatively lower N fertilizer requirements compared to corn, and salinity tolerance. To evaluate the environmental impact of expanded sorghum cultivation under future climate in the SW USA, we used the DayCent model in concert with a suite of downscaled future weather projections to predict biogeochemical consequences (greenhouse gas flux and impacts on soil carbon) of sorghum cultivation in New Mexico. The model showed good correspondence with yield data from field trials including both dryland and irrigated sorghum (measured vs. modeled; r2 = 0.75). Simulation experiments tested the effect of dryland production versus irrigation, low N versus high N inputs and delayed fertilizer application. Nitrogen application timing and irrigation impacted yield and N2O emissions less than N rate and climate. Across N and irrigation treatments, future climate simulations resulted in 6% increased yield and 20% lower N2O emissions compared to current climate. Soil C pools declined under future climate. The greatest declines in soil C were from low N input sorghum simulations, regardless of irrigation (>20% declines in SOM in both cases), and requires further evaluation to determine if changing future climate is driving these declines, or if they are a function of prolonged sorghum-fallow rotations in the model. The relatively small gain in yield for

  8. Methylation of Hg downstream from the Bonanza Hg mine, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Hines, Mark E.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Thoms, Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Speciation of Hg and conversion to methyl-Hg were evaluated in stream sediment, stream water, and aquatic snails collected downstream from the Bonanza Hg mine, Oregon. Total production from the Bonanza mine was >1360t of Hg, during mining from the late 1800s to 1960, ranking it as an intermediate sized Hg mine on an international scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, transport, and methylation of Hg downstream from a Hg mine in a coastal temperate climatic zone. Data shown here for methyl-Hg, a neurotoxin hazardous to humans, are the first reported for sediment and water from this area. Stream sediment collected from Foster Creek flowing downstream from the Bonanza mine contained elevated Hg concentrations that ranged from 590 to 71,000ng/g, all of which (except the most distal sample) exceeded the probable effect concentration (PEC) of 1060ng/g, the Hg concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in stream sediment collected from Foster Creek varied from 11 to 62ng/g and were highly elevated compared to regional baseline concentrations (0.11-0.82ng/g) established in this study. Methyl-Hg concentrations in stream sediment collected in this study showed a significant correlation with total organic C (TOC, R2=0.62), generally indicating increased methyl-Hg formation with increasing TOC in sediment. Isotopic-tracer methods indicated that several samples of Foster Creek sediment exhibited high rates of Hg-methylation. Concentrations of Hg in water collected downstream from the mine varied from 17 to 270ng/L and were also elevated compared to baselines, but all were below the 770ng/L Hg standard recommended by the USEPA to protect against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the water collected from Foster Creek ranged from 0.17 to 1.8ng/L, which were elevated compared to regional baseline sites upstream and downstream

  9. Study of the odd mass transition nuclei: 185Hg, 187Hg, 189Hg and 183Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerrouki, A.

    1979-01-01

    The radioactive decay of 185 Tl, 186 Tl, 187 Tl has been studied on the isotope separator Isocele II working on line with the Orsay synchrocyclotron from Au( 3 He,xn) reactions: the emitted α lines have been measured and the main γ lines belonging to the 187 Tl→ 187 Hg decay have been identified. The 185 Hg, 187 Hg, 189 Hg high spin states have been studied using the following (HI,xn) reactions obtained on the Strasbourg MP Tandem: 168 Er( 24 Mg,xn) 187 Hg, 188 Hg, 166 Er( 24 Mg,xn) 185 Hg, 186 Hg, 157 Gd( 32 S,xn) 184 Hg, 185 Hg, 158 Gd( 32 S,5n) 185 Hg and 175 Lu( 19 F,5n) 189 Hg. The excitation functions are indicated and a high spin level scheme of 189 Hg is proposed: it is compared to the 'quasiparticle + triaxial rotor' model predictions. A level scheme of 183 Ir is proposed from the data collected at Isolde II (CERN) by Dr. SCHUCK: it is analysed within the framework of the same theoretical model used above [fr

  10. Measurement of non-enteric emission fluxes of volatile fatty acids from a California dairy by solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis, Phillip; Sorenson, Mark; Beene, Matt; Krauter, Charles; Shamp, Brian; Hasson, Alam S.

    Dairies are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in California's San Joaquin Valley; a region that experiences high ozone levels during summer. Short-chain carboxylic acids, or volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are believed to make up a large fraction of VOC emissions from these facilities, although there are few studies to substantiate this. In this work, a method using a flux chamber coupled to solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fibers followed by analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was developed to quantify emissions of six VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid) from non-enteric sources. The technique was then used to quantify VFA fluxes from a small dairy located on the campus of California State University Fresno. Both animal feed and animal waste are found to be major sources of VFAs, with acetic acid contributing 70-90% of emissions from the sources tested. Measured total acid fluxes during spring (with an average temperature of 20 °C) were 1.84 ± 0.01, 1.06 ± 0.08, (1.3 ± 0.5) × 10 -2, (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 -2 and (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10 -2 g m -2 h -1 from silage, total mixed rations, flushing lane, open lot and lagoon sources, respectively. VFA emissions from the sources tested total 390 ± 80 g h -1. The data indicate high fluxes of VFAs from dairy facilities, but differences in the design and operation of dairies in the San Joaquin Valley as well as seasonal variations mean that additional measurements must be made to accurately determine emissions inventories for the region.

  11. A comparison of ground-based and aircraft-based methane emission flux estimates in a western oil and natural gas production basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snare, Dustin A.

    Recent increases in oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs has brought with it an increase of methane emissions. Estimating methane emissions from oil and gas production is complex due to differences in equipment designs, maintenance, and variable product composition. Site access to oil and gas production equipment can be difficult and time consuming, making remote assessment of emissions vital to understanding local point source emissions. This work presents measurements of methane leakage made from a new ground-based mobile laboratory and a research aircraft around oil and gas fields in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Wyoming in 2014. It was recently shown that the application of the Point Source Gaussian (PSG) method, utilizing atmospheric dispersion tables developed by US EPA (Appendix B), is an effective way to accurately measure methane flux from a ground-based location downwind of a source without the use of a tracer (Brantley et al., 2014). Aircraft measurements of methane enhancement regions downwind of oil and natural gas production and Planetary Boundary Layer observations are utilized to obtain a flux for the entire UGRB. Methane emissions are compared to volumes of natural gas produced to derive a leakage rate from production operations for individual production sites and basin-wide production. Ground-based flux estimates derive a leakage rate of 0.14 - 0.78 % (95 % confidence interval) per site with a mass-weighted average (MWA) of 0.20 % for all sites. Aircraft-based flux estimates derive a MWA leakage rate of 0.54 - 0.91 % for the UGRB.

  12. Polarized radio outbursts in BL Lacertae. I. Polarized emission from a compact jet. II. The flux and polarization of a piston-driven shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aller, H.D.; Aller, M.F.; Hughes, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    A second highly polarized burst in BL Lacertae observed in 1983 which has very similar properties to the earlier burst in 1981-82 is described, and it is shown that in both bursts the electric vector of the polarized emission is nearly parallel to the observed extended structure. A weak shock, moving relativistically close to the line of sight, appears to be a very effective means of producing the observed behavior. A simple model is developed to represent the outbursts as due to a piston-driven shock which exhibits polarized emission due to compression of the otherwise random magnetic field of a collimated flow. It is shown that the general features of total flux, polarized flux, and polarization position angle as a function of frequency and time can be understood in terms of such a model. 34 references

  13. A review of global environmental mercury processes in response to human and natural perturbations: Changes of emissions, climate, and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Kirk, Jane L; Zhang, Lei; Sunderland, Elsie M; Jiskra, Martin; Selin, Noelle E

    2018-03-01

    most terrestrial environments now are considered net sinks of atmospheric Hg due to substantial Hg uptake by plants. Litterfall deposition by plants is now estimated at 1020-1230 Mg/year globally. Stable isotope analysis and direct flux measurements provide evidence that in many ecosystems Hg 0 deposition via plant inputs dominates, accounting for 57-94% of Hg in soils. Of global aquatic Hg releases, around 50% are estimated to occur in China and India, where Hg drains into the West Pacific and North Indian Oceans. A first inventory of global freshwater Hg suggests that inland freshwater Hg releases may be dominated by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM; approximately 880 Mg/year), industrial and wastewater releases (220 Mg/year), and terrestrial mobilization (170-300 Mg/year). For pelagic ocean regions, the dominant source of Hg is atmospheric deposition; an exception is the Arctic Ocean, where riverine and coastal erosion is likely the dominant source. Ocean water Hg concentrations in the North Atlantic appear to have declined during the last several decades but have increased since the mid-1980s in the Pacific due to enhanced atmospheric deposition from the Asian continent. Finally, we provide examples of ongoing and anticipated changes in Hg cycling due to emission, climate, and land use changes. It is anticipated that future emissions changes will be strongly dependent on ASGM, as well as energy use scenarios and technology requirements implemented under the Minamata Convention. We predict that land use and climate change impacts on Hg cycling will be large and inherently linked to changes in ecosystem function and global atmospheric and ocean circulations. Our ability to predict multiple and simultaneous changes in future Hg global cycling and human exposure is rapidly developing but requires further enhancement.

  14. Collective structures in 185Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, C.; Hildingsson, L.; Perrin, N.; Sergolle, H.; Hannachi, F.; Bastin, G.; Porquet, M.G.; Thibaud, J.P.; Beck, F.A.; Merdinger, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Excited states of 185 Hg have been investigated via the 161 Dy ( 28 Si, 4n) reaction at 145 MeV. In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy studies have been performed with the ''Chateau de Cristal'' 4π-multidetector array. Level scheme of 185 Hg has been established. Shape coexistence, still present in 185 Hg like in the neighbouring Hg isotopes, manifests itself through a weakly populated decoupled band built on the 13/2+ isomer and three strongly-coupled bands built on the prolate 1/2-[521], 7/2-[514], and 9/2+[624] Nilsson states

  15. Radiopharmaceuticals for Assessment of Altered Metabolism and Biometal Fluxes in Brain Aging and Alzheimer's Disease with Positron Emission Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Peng, Fangyu

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are changes of brain metabolism and biometal fluxes due to brain aging, which may play a role in pathogenesis of AD. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a versatile tool for tracking alteration of metabolism and biometal fluxes due to brain aging and AD. Age-dependent changes in cerebral glucose metabolism can be tracked with PET using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG), a radiolabeled glucose analogue, as a radiotracer. Based on different patterns of altered cerebral glucose metabolism, 18F-FDG PET was clinically used for differential diagnosis of AD and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD). There are continued efforts to develop additional radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers for assessment of age-dependent changes of various metabolic pathways and biometal fluxes due to brain aging and AD with PET. Elucidation of age-dependent changes of brain metabolism and altered biometal fluxes is not only significant for a better mechanistic understanding of brain aging and the pathophysiology of AD, but also significant for identification of new targets for the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of AD.

  16. Variation Process of Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes due to Interaction With Chorus and EMIC Rising-tone Emissions Localized in Longitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Y.; Omura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using results of test particle simulations of a large number of electrons interacting with a pair of chorus emissions, we create Green's functions to model the electron distribution function after all of the possible interactions with the waves [Omura et al., 2015]. Assuming that the waves are generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dawn side, we repeat taking the convolution integral of the Green's function with the distribution function of the electrons injected into the generation region of the localized waves. From numerical and theoretical analyses, we find that electron acceleration process only takes place efficiently below 4 MeV. Because extremely relativistic electrons go through the wave generation region rapidly due to grad-B0 and curvature drift, they don't have enough interaction time to be accelerated. In setting up the electrons after all interaction with chorus emissions as initial electron distribution function, we also compute the loss process of radiation belt electron fluxes due to interaction with EMIC rising-tone emissions generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dusk side [Kubota and Omura,2017]. References: (1) Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562, doi:10.1002/2015JA021563. (2) Kubota, Y., and Y. Omura (2017), Rapid precipitation of radiation belt electrons induced by EMIC rising tone emissions localized in longitude inside and outside the plasmapause, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 293-309, doi:10.1002/2016JA023267.

  17. Just passing through --- high Hg deposition to Puerto Rico forest moves quickly off the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J. B.; Willenbring, J. K.; Kaste, J. M.; Occhi, M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) in wet deposition at the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico, averages 28 μg m-2 yr-1, higher than any site in the USA Mercury Deposition Network. Despite the high deposition, Hg content of soils, vegetation, and biota are below global averages. The low Hg content of watershed surfaces, coupled with exceptionally high stream total Hg flux, suggest that most of the Hg passes through the watershed with minimal retention. We assessed Hg dynamics in two adjacent watersheds, Rio Icacos underlain by quartz diorite, and Rio Mameyes underlain by volcaniclastic rocks. At both sites, high-flow Hg concentrations approached 100 ng L-1, dominated by particulate Hg. In order to assess the apparent pass-through nature of Hg in this tropical forest, we measured 7Be and 10Be isotopes from natural, cosmogenic fallout adsorbed on stream suspended particles to constrain the Hg age /residence time and source (atmospheric vs. geogenic or legacy Hg from 19th century gold mining). Ubiquitous 7Be (half-life 53 days) and relatively high 7Be/10Be ratios on suspended particles suggest that stream Hg was dominated by erosion from exposed surfaces, supporting a short residence time. The low watershed retention of the high Hg throughput limits adverse biological effects in this tropical ecosystem.

  18. 46 CFR 53.10-3 - Inspection and tests (modifies HG-500 through HG-540).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and tests (modifies HG-500 through HG-540... tests (modifies HG-500 through HG-540). (a) The inspections required by HG-500 through HG-540 must be performed by the “Authorized Inspector” as defined in HG-515 of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  19. High Resolution Atmospheric Inversion of Urban CO2 Emissions During the Dormant Season of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L.; Deng, Aijun; Richardson, Scott J.; Cambaliza, Maria O.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Gaudet, Brian; Gurney, Kevin R.; Huang, Jianhua; O'Keefe, Darragh; hide

    2016-01-01

    Urban emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) represent more than 70% of the global fossil fuel GHG emissions. Unless mitigation strategies are successfully implemented, the increase in urban GHG emissions is almost inevitable as large metropolitan areas are projected to grow twice as fast as the world population in the coming 15 years. Monitoring these emissions becomes a critical need as their contribution to the global carbon budget increases rapidly. In this study, we developed the first comprehensive monitoring systems of CO2 emissions at high resolution using a dense network of CO2 atmospheric measurements over the city of Indianapolis. The inversion system was evaluated over a 8-month period and showed an increase compared to the Hestia CO2 emission estimate, a state-of-the-art building-level emission product, with a 20% increase in the total emissions over the area (from 4.5 to 5.7 Metric Megatons of Carbon +/- 0.23 Metric Megatons of Carbon). However, several key parameters of the inverse system need to be addressed to carefully characterize the spatial distribution of the emissions and the aggregated total emissions.We found that spatial structures in prior emission errors, mostly undetermined, affect significantly the spatial pattern in the inverse solution, as well as the carbon budget over the urban area. Several other parameters of the inversion were sufficiently constrained by additional observations such as the characterization of the GHG boundary inflow and the introduction of hourly transport model errors estimated from the meteorological assimilation system. Finally, we estimated the uncertainties associated with remaining systematic errors and undetermined parameters using an ensemble of inversions. The total CO2 emissions for the Indianapolis urban area based on the ensemble mean and quartiles are 5.26 - 5.91 Metric Megatons of Carbon, i.e. a statistically significant difference compared to the prior total emissions of 4.1 to 4.5 Metric Megatons of

  20. Methane eddy covariance flux measurements from a low flying aircraft: Bridging the scale gap between local and regional emissions estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayres, D. S.; Dobosy, R.; Dumas, E. J.; Kochendorfer, J.; Wilkerson, J.; Anderson, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic contains a large reservoir of organic matter stored in permafrost and clathrates. Varying geology and hydrology across the Arctic, even on small scales, can cause large variability in surface carbon fluxes and partitioning between methane and carbon dioxide. This makes upscaling from point source measurements such as small flux towers or chambers difficult. Ground based measurements can yield high temporal resolution and detailed information about a specific location, but due to the inaccessibility of most of the Arctic to date have only made measurements at very few sites. In August 2013, a small aircraft, flying low over the surface (5-30 m), and carrying an air turbulence probe and spectroscopic instruments to measure methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, water vapor and their isotopologues, flew over the North Slope of Alaska. During the six flights multiple comparisons were made with a ground based Eddy Covariance tower as well as three region surveys flights of fluxes over three areas each approximately 2500 km2. We present analysis using the Flux Fragment Method and surface landscape classification maps to relate the fluxes to different surface land types. We show examples of how we use the aircraft data to upscale from a eddy covariance tower and map spatial variability across different ecotopes.

  1. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  2. Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.; Baer, D. S.; Owano, T. G.; Provencal, R. A.; Gupta, M.; Parsotam, V.; Graves, P.; Goldstein, A.; Guha, A.

    2010-12-01

    Development and Deployment of Mobile Emissions Laboratory for Continuous Long-Term Unattended Measurements of Greenhouse Gases, Fluxes, Isotopes and Pollutants A. Gardner(1), D. Baer (1), T. Owano (1), R. Provencal (1), V. Parsotam (1), P. Graves (1), M. Gupta (1), Allen Goldstein (2), Abhinav Guha (2) (1) Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, CA 94041-1529 (2) Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California at Berkeley Quantifying the Urban Fossil Fuel Plume: Convergence of top-down and bottom-up approaches (Session A54). We report on the design, development and deployment of a novel Mobile Emissions Laboratory, consisting of innovative laser-based gas analyzers, for rapid measurements of multiple greenhouse gases and pollutants. Designed for real-time mobile and stationery emissions monitoring, the Mobile Emissions Laboratory was deployed at several locations during 2010, including CalNEX 2010, Caldecott Tunnel (Oakland, CA), and Altamont Landfill (Livermore, CA), to record real-time continuous measurements of isotopic CO2 (δ13C, CO2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and isotopic water vapor (H2O; δ18O, δ2H). The commercial gas analyzers are based on novel cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The portable analyzers provide measurements in real time, require about 150 watts (each) of power and do not need liquid nitrogen to operate. These instruments have been applied in the field for applications that require high data rates (for eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., for chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that can be 10-1000 times higher than typical ambient levels) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Mobile Emissions Laboratory, which contains onboard batteries for long-term unattended measurements without access to mains power, can provide regulatory agencies, monitoring stations

  3. Design and synthesis of BODIPY-clickate based Hg(2+) sensors: the effect of triazole binding mode with Hg(2+) on signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamalai, Mani; Kedaria, Dhaval; Vasita, Rajesh; Mori, Shigeki; Gupta, Iti

    2016-02-14

    BODIPY-clickates, F1 and F2, for the detection of Hg(2+) have been designed, synthesized and characterized. Both F1 and F2 showed hyperchromic shifts in the UV-visible spectra in response to increasing Hg(2+) concentrations. Hg(2+) ion binding caused perturbation of the emission quenching process and chelation induced enhanced bathochromic emission of F1 and F2 to 620 nm and 660 nm, respectively. Job's plot clearly indicated that the binding ratio of F1 and F2 with Hg(2+) was 1 : 1. The NMR titration of BODIPY-clickates with Hg(2+) confirmed that aromatic amines and triazoles were involved in the binding event. Furthermore, HRMS data of F1-Hg(2+) and F2-Hg(2+) supported the formation of mercury complexes of BODIPY-clickates. The dissociation constant for the interaction between fluorescent probes F1 and F2 with Hg(2+) was found to be 24.4 ± 5.1 μM and 22.0 ± 3.9 μM, respectively. The Hg(2+) ion induced fluorescence enhancement was almost stable in a pH range of 5 to 8. Having less toxicity to live cells, both the probes were successfully used to map the Hg(2+) ions in live A549 cells.

  4. Diminished Mercury Emission From Water Surfaces by Duckweed (Lemna minor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, J. L.; Peters, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    Aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (generally referred to as duckweeds) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and decreases the amount of exposed water surface. These two factors would be expected to reduce mercury emission by limiting a) direct photoreduction of Hg(II), b) indirect reduction via coupled DOC photooxidation-Hg(II) reduction, and c) gas diffusion across the water-air interface. Conversely, previous studies have demonstrated transpiration of Hg(0) by plants, so it is therefore possible that the floating vegetative mat would enhance emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether duckweed limits mercury flux to the atmosphere by shading and the formation of a physical barrier to diffusion, or whether it enhances emission from aquatic systems via transpiration of Hg(0). Deionized water was amended with mercury to achieve a final concentration of approximately 35 ng/L and allowed to equilibrate prior to the experiment. Experiments were conducted in rectangular polystyrene flux chambers with measured UV-B transmittance greater than 60% (spectral cutoff approximately 290 nm). Light was able to penetrate the flux chamber from the sides as well as the top throughout the experiment, limiting the effect of shading by duckweed on the water surface. Flux chambers contained 8L of water with varying percent duckweed cover, and perforated plastic sheeting was used as an abiotic control. Exposures were conducted outside on days with little to no cloud cover. Real time mercury flux was measured using atomic absorption (Mercury Instruments UT-3000). Total solar and ultraviolet radiation, as well as a suite of meteorological parameters, were also measured. Results indicate that duckweed diminishes mercury emission from the water surface

  5. Diffuse CO2 flux emissions from the soil in Las Cañadas caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter; Liuzzo, Marco; Longo, Manfredi; Pecoraino, Giovannella

    2014-05-01

    Starting in April 2004, unusual seismic activity was observed in the interior of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) with much evidence pointing to a reawakening of volcanic activity. During this seismic crisis, several events were felt by the population. Since then, a dense multiparametric monitoring network has been deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). In the framework of this volcanic surveillance project, several geochemical studies have been accomplished. Measurements of diffuse CO2 flux from the soil have been carried out in some zones inside Las Cañadas caldera. This study has been performed during three different field campaigns in November 2012 and June and November 2013. The studied area includes two different zones known as Roques de García and Los Azulejos. Since several authors have reported the existence of fractures and faults all along both structures, the objectives of this work were to find anomalous CO2 fluxes from the soil and preferential degassing areas, identify possible hidden faults and study the origin of gas emanations in order to detect the presence of magmatic sources. More than 600 sampling sites have been measured with the accumulation chamber method in an area of about 1 km2. Soil gas has been sampled in points where high CO2 fluxes were detected for the determination of chemical and isotopic composition. The results of the gas prospection confirm the existence of CO2 degassing in the area. Some anomalous fluxes have been measured along previously inferred volcano-tectonic structures. The highest anomalies were found in Los Azulejos with values up to 1774 g/m2.d. Chemical analysis did not reveal significant concentrations of magmatic or geothermal gases except CO2. The latter showed concentrations at 50 cm depth within the soils up to 48% and a C-isotopic composition between -4.72 and -3.67 o indicating a prevailing magmatic origin.

  6. Seasonality of dipteran-mediated methylmercury flux from ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Hall, MacGregor N; Polk, D Kirkland; Williams, Edward B; Ortega-Rodriguez, Celeste L; Kennedy, James H

    2018-03-12

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an aquatic contaminant that can be transferred to terrestrial predators by emergent aquatic insects. We assessed the effects of month and pond permanence on dipteran-mediated MeHg flux (calculated as emergent dipteran biomass × dipteran MeHg concentration) in 10 experimental ponds. Emergent dipterans were collected weekly from permanent ponds with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus; n = 5) and semipermanent ponds without fish (n = 5) over a 7-mo period (February-August, 2015). We detected a significant effect of month on MeHg flux from 6 dipteran taxa and aggregate MeHg flux, with the highest MeHg flux from herbivorous/detritivorous chironomid midges and predatory midges in March; biting midges, phantom midges and herbivorous/detritivorous orthoclad midges in April; and mosquitoes in August. Aggregate dipteran-mediated MeHg flux peaked in April and then declined throughout the remainder of the summer. We did not detect a significant main effect of pond permanence or a significant month × pond permanence interaction effect on MeHg flux for any of the taxa examined in the present study or for aggregate MeHg flux. Given their ubiquity in aquatic systems and their importance in food webs at the land-water interface, dipterans are important taxa that should not be overlooked as a part of the Hg cycle. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-6. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  7. Limiting nutrient emission from a cut rose closed system by high-flux irrigation and low nutrient concentrations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Berg, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A two-year project was aimed at decreasing nutrient emission from closed nutrient systems by using high irrigation rates in order to allow lower EC levels in the presence of accumulated Na and Cl. Experimental variables were growing media, irrigation frequencies, EC and NaCl concentrations for cut

  8. Time Variabilities of Solar Wind Ion Fluxes and of X-ray and EUV Emissions from Comet Hyakutake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, M.; Cravens, T.; Lisse, C.; Ipavich, F.; von Steiger, R.; Shah, P.; Armstrong, T.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions from comet C/Hyakutake 1996 B2 made by the Rontgen X-ray satellite (ROSAT) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) revealed a total X-ray luminosity of about 500 MW.

  9. Mercury emissions from flooded soils and sediments in Germany are an underestimated problem: challenges for reliable risk assessments and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinklebe J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by mercury is a world-wide problem. Particularly floodplain ecosystems are frequently affected. One example is the Elbe River in Germany and its catchment areas; large amounts of Hg from a range of anthropogenic and geogenic sources have been accumulated in the soils of these floodplains. They serve as sink for Hg originating from the surface water of adjacent river. Today, the vastly elevated Hg contents of the floodplain soils at the Elbe River often exceed even the action values of the German Soil Conservation Law. This is especially important as Hg polluted areas at the Elbe River achieve several hundred square kilometres. Thus, authorities are coerced by law to conduct an appropriate risk assessment and to implement practical actions to eliminate or reduce environmental problems. A reliable risk assessment particularly with view to organisms (vegetation as green fodder and hay production, grazing and wild animals to avoid the transfer of Hg into the human food chain, requires an authentic determination of Hg fluxes and their dynamics since gaseous emissions from soil to atmosphere are an important pathway of Hg. However, reliable estimates of Hg fluxes from the highly polluted floodplain soils at the Elbe River and its tributaries, and its influencing factors are scarce. For this purpose, we have developed a new method to determine mercury emissions from soils at various sites. Our objectives were i to quantify seasonal variations of total gaseous mercury (TGM fluxes for floodplain soils at the Elbe River, ii to provide insights into physico-chemical processes regulating these TGM fluxes, and iii to quantify the impacts of the controlling factors soil temperature and soil water content on Hg volatilization from a typical contaminated floodplain soil within soil microcosm experiments under various controlled temperature and moisture conditions. Our study provides insight into TGM emissions from highly Hg

  10. Accounting for representativeness errors in the inversion of atmospheric constituent emissions: application to the retrieval of regional carbon monoxide fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Koohkan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A four-dimensional variational data assimilation system (4D-Var is developed to retrieve carbon monoxide (CO fluxes at regional scale, using an air quality network. The air quality stations that monitor CO are proximity stations located close to industrial, urban or traffic sources. The mismatch between the coarsely discretised Eulerian transport model and the observations, inferred to be mainly due to representativeness errors in this context, lead to a bias (average simulated concentrations minus observed concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the concentrations. 4D-Var leads to a mild improvement in the bias because it does not adequately handle the representativeness issue. For this reason, a simple statistical subgrid model is introduced and is coupled to 4D-Var. In addition to CO fluxes, the optimisation seeks to jointly retrieve influence coefficients, which quantify each station's representativeness. The method leads to a much better representation of the CO concentration variability, with a significant improvement of statistical indicators. The resulting increase in the total inventory estimate is close to the one obtained from remote sensing data assimilation. This methodology and experiments suggest that information useful at coarse scales can be better extracted from atmospheric constituent observations strongly impacted by representativeness errors.

  11. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  12. Accounting for Carbon Stocks in Soils and Measuring GHGs Emission Fluxes from Soils: Do We Have the Necessary Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bispo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a key compartment for climate regulation as a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions and as a sink of carbon. Thus, soil carbon sequestration strategies should be considered alongside reduction strategies for other greenhouse gas emissions. Taking this into account, several international and European policies on climate change are now acknowledging the importance of soils, which means that proper, comparable and reliable information is needed to report on carbon stocks and GHGs emissions from soil. It also implies a need for consensus on the adoption and verification of mitigation options that soil can provide. Where consensus is a key aspect, formal standards and guidelines come into play. This paper describes the existing ISO soil quality standards that can be used in this context, and calls for new ones to be developed through (international collaboration. Available standards cover the relevant basic soil parameters including carbon and nitrogen content but do not yet consider the dynamics of those elements. Such methods have to be developed together with guidelines consistent with the scale to be investigated and the specific use of the collected data. We argue that this standardization strategy will improve the reliability of the reporting procedures and results of the different climate models that rely on soil quality data.

  13. A process-based model to estimate gas exchange and monoterpene emission rates in the mediterranean maquis - comparisons between modelled and measured fluxes at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, M.; Matteucci, G.; Fares, S.; Davison, B.

    2009-02-01

    This paper concerns the application of a process-based model (MOCA, Modelling of Carbon Assessment) as an useful tool for estimating gas exchange, and integrating the empirical algorithms for calculation of monoterpene fluxes, in a Mediterranean maquis of central Italy (Castelporziano, Rome). Simulations were carried out for a range of hypothetical but realistic canopies of the evergreen Quercus ilex (holm oak), Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree) and Phillyrea latifolia. More, the dependence on total leaf area and leaf distribution of monoterpene fluxes at the canopy scale has been considered in the algorithms. Simulation of the gas exchange rates showed higher values for P. latifolia and A. unedo (2.39±0.30 and 3.12±0.27 gC m-2 d-1, respectively) with respect to Q. ilex (1.67±0.08 gC m-2 d-1) in the measuring campaign (May-June). Comparisons of the average Gross Primary Production (GPP) values with those measured by eddy covariance were well in accordance (7.98±0.20 and 6.00±1.46 gC m-2 d-1, respectively, in May-June), although some differences (of about 30%) were evident in a point-to-point comparison. These differences could be explained by considering the non uniformity of the measuring site where diurnal winds blown S-SW direction affecting thus calculations of CO2 and water fluxes. The introduction of some structural parameters in the algorithms for monoterpene calculation allowed to simulate monoterpene emission rates and fluxes which were in accord to those measured (6.50±2.25 vs. 9.39±4.5μg g-1DW h-1 for Q. ilex, and 0.63±0.207μg g-1DW h-1 vs. 0.98±0.30μg g-1DW h-1 for P. latifolia). Some constraints of the MOCA model are discussed, but it is demonstrated to be an useful tool to simulate physiological processes and BVOC fluxes in a very complicated plant distributions and environmental conditions, and necessitating also of a low number of input data.

  14. Hg uptake in ureteral obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, J.P.; Bourguignon, M.; Raynaud, C.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of a total obstruction the results obtained with the Hg uptake test, as indeed with other functional tests, inform on the value of the kidney function at the time but have no prognostic value where repair possibilities are concerned. Some preliminary results seem to show however that very soon after the obstacle is removed, by the 10th or 15th day perhaps, quantitative functional tests may once more be used to evaluate the functional prognosis. This would mean that by waiting about two weeks after the disappearance of a total obstruction the Hg uptake test may again be used in all confidence. In order to check this deduction, which is based on slender evidence but which nevertheless has important practical implications, the measurement of the Hg uptake rate during the days following removal of the obstacle appears essential. In long-standing partial obstructions the Hg uptake rate gives an accurate assessment of the functional balance and helps considerably in the choice of therapy [fr

  15. The Study of the Cosmic Gamma-Emission Nonstationary Fluxes Characteristics by the AVS-F Apparatus Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Yu. D.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelsky, A. I.; Kuznetsov, S. N.; Glyanenko, A. S.; Kalmykov, P. A.; Amandzholova, D. B.; Samoylenko, V. T.; Yurov, V. N.; Pavlov, A. V.; Chervyakova, O. I.; Afonina, I. V.

    The AVS-F apparatus (Russian abbreviation for Amplitude-Time Spectrometry of the Sun) is intended for the solar flares' hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission characteristic studies and for the search and detection of the gamma-ray bursts (GRB). At present over 1,100 events with duration more than 2 s without any coordinate relations to Earth Radiation Belts and South Atlantic Anomaly were separated on the results of preliminary analysis of AVS-F experiment database.About 68 % of the identified events were associated with quasistationary equatorial precipitations-15-30 % count rate increases in the low-energy gamma-band of the AVS-F apparatus over its average value obtained by approximation of these parts with polynomials discovered on some equatorial segments in the ranges of geographic latitude of 25∘ up to +30∘. Several short events with duration of 1-16 ms associated with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes were registered during the experiment. These events were detected above the powerful thunderstorm formations.Solar flares with classes stronger than M1.0 according to the GOES classification were about 7 % of the detected events. Solar flares' hard X-rays and γ-emission were mainly observed during the rise or maximum phases of the emission in the soft X-rays band according to the detectors on board the GOES series satellites data and duration of their registration is less than of the soft X-ray bands. According to the preliminary data analysis gamma-emission with energy over 10 MeV was registered during 12 % of the observed flares. The emission in the energy band E ¿ 100 keV was registered during over 60 faint solar flares (of B and C classes according to the GOES and from several ones γ-quanta with energy up to several tens of MeV were observed.Several spectral line complexes were observed in the spectra of some solar flares stronger than M1.0 in the low-energy gamma-range. Registered spectral features were corresponded to α α-lines, annihilation line

  16. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Mazur; C.P.J. Mitchell; C.S. Eckley; S.L. Eggert; R.K. Kolka; S.D. Sebestyen; E.B. Swain

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil-air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown.We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg...

  17. Hg-Xe exciplex formation in mixed Xe/Ar matrices: molecular dynamics and luminescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-García, Rolando; Rojas-Lorenzo, Germán; Crépin, Claudine; Ryan, Maryanne; McCaffrey, John G

    2015-03-19

    Luminescence of Hg((3)P1) atoms trapped in mixed Ar/Xe matrices containing a small amount of Xe is reported. Broad emission bands, strongly red-shifted from absorption are recorded which are assigned to strong complexes formed between the excited mercury Hg* and xenon atoms. Molecular dynamics calculations are performed on simulated Xe/Ar samples doped with Hg to follow the behavior of Hg* in the mixed rare gas matrices leading to exciplex formation. The role of Xe atoms in the first solvation shell (SS1) around Hg was investigated in detail, revealing the formation of two kinds of triatomic exciplexes; namely, Xe-Hg*-Xe and Ar-Hg*-Xe. The first species exists only when two xenon atoms are present in SS1 with specific geometries allowing the formation of a linear or quasi-linear exciplex. In the other geometries, or in the presence of only one Xe in SS1, a linear Ar-Hg*-Xe exciplex is formed. The two kinds of exciplexes have different emission bands, the most red-shifted being that involving two Xe atoms, whose emission is very close to that observed in pure Xe matrices. Simulations give a direct access to the analysis of the experimental absorption, emission, and excitation spectra, together with the dynamics of exciplexes formation.

  18. Equilibrium mercury isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound Hg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiederhold, Jan G.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Daniel, Kelly; Infante, Ivan; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Stable Hg isotope ratios provide a new tool to trace environmental Hg cycling. Thiols (-SH) are the dominant Hg-binding groups in natural organic matter. Here, we report experimental and computational results on equilibrium Hg isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound

  19. 40 CFR 60.4112 - Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in owners and operators. 60.4112 Section 60.4112... Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4112 Changing Hg designated...

  20. 46 CFR 53.12-1 - General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640). 53.12-1... HEATING BOILERS Instruments, Fittings, and Controls (Article 6) § 53.12-1 General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640). (a) The instruments, fittings and controls for heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG...

  1. Using Simple Science to Influence Corporate Responsibility—A Lesson from Mercury (Hg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a powerful neurotoxin with wide environmental distribution. Typical population exposure to Hg comes from fish consumption, with fish being the final ecological endpoint of Hg magnification after a series of biogeochemical processes. The emission of Hg from coal-fired power plants has been strongly implicated as a key source of environmental Hg, and thus the target for various public policy initiatives in the US and abroad. We conducted a study of Hg distribution in surface soils over a broad area of central Indiana (US) to understand the major sources of Hg to local fish, and to assess the potential role of policy compliance in reducing Hg. We found a plume-like distribution pattern for soil Hg, with values exceeding 400 ppb Hg in the heart of the plume, and reducing to background concentration of about 30 ppb outside of the plume. The plume covered hundreds of square kilometers, was centered directly over the downtown area of Indianapolis (a city of roughly 1 million inhabitants), and could be roughly backtracked to a source in the southwest corner of the city, coincident with a large coal-fired utility plant that has the highest reported emissions of Hg in the area. Evidence of this link between a local source of Hg and net Hg deposition, with related implications for Hg runoff to local stream, biomagnification to fish, and fish consumption advisories was reported in regional newspapers and eventually published in scientific journals. But importantly, these findings were used by an NGO (the Beyond Coal campaign by Indiana branch of the Sierra Club) at a critical time to influence a decision by the owner of the power plant of whether to comply with the Hg policy rule by either adding higher technology scrubbing technologies to the plant or simply to convert the plant over to natural gas as the fuel source (a costlier choice upfront). The utility chose the latter option, and with the permanent elimination of Hg emissions, the net measurable effects

  2. Acidification of pig slurry effects on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate leaching, and perennial ryegrass regrowth as estimated by N-urea flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to assess the nitrogen (N use efficiency of acidified pig slurry for regrowth yield and its environmental impacts on perennial ryegrass swards. Methods The pH of digested pig slurry was adjusted to 5.0 or 7.0 by the addition of sulfuric acid and untreated as a control. The pig slurry urea of each treatment was labeled with 15N urea and applied at a rate of 200 kg N/ha immediately after cutting. Soil and herbage samples were collected at 7, 14, and 56 d of regrowth. The flux of pig slurry-N to regrowth yield and soil N mineralization were analyzed, and N losses via NH3, N2O emission and NO3− leaching were also estimated. Results The pH level of the applied slurry did not have a significant effect on herbage yield or N content of herbage at the end of regrowth, whereas the amount of N derived from pig slurry urea (NdfSU was higher in both herbage and soils in pH-controlled plots. The NH4+-N content and the amount of N derived from slurry urea into soil NH4+ fraction (NdfSU-NH4+ was significantly higher in in the pH 5 plot, whereas NO3− and NdfSU-NO3− were lower than in control plots over the entire regrowth period. Nitrification of NH4+-N was delayed in soil amended with acidified slurry. Compared to non-pH-controlled pig slurry (i.e. control plots, application of acidified slurry reduced NH3 emissions by 78.1%, N2O emissions by 78.9% and NO3− leaching by 17.81% over the course of the experiment. Conclusion Our results suggest that pig slurry acidification may represent an effective means of minimizing hazardous environmental impacts without depressing regrowth yield.

  3. Speciation of Hg in lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, Vesna; Horvat, Milena

    2002-01-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as a suitable tool for monitoring the relative levels of atmospheric pollutants. Lichens have neither roots, a waxy cuticle nor stomata: hence, for mineral nutrition they are largely dependent on wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere. Moreover, lichens are perennial and can accumulate elements over long periods of time. Therefore, concentrations of elements in lichens represent the average levels of elements in the atmosphere for a long period of time. The epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes is a good bioindicator of air pollution with total mercury (THg). In addition, it contains small amounts of methylmercury (MeHg + ). The first aim of our work was to test analytical techniques for determination of MeHg in lichens taken from different locations in Idrija and reference locations

  4. High-resolution Hg Chemostratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Chen, J.; Lacerda, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    of Gubbio (Italy) and Stevns Klint (Denmark) where the KTB layer is easily recognizable, and at a near-complete succession exposed at the Bajada del Jagüel locality in the Neuquén Basin, Argentina. These three localities display similar δ13Ccarb trends with markedly negative excursion at the KTB layer. Bulk-rock...... one at Stevns Klint points to a cycle of warm followed by colder climate. At Stevns Klint, Hg contents reach 250 ng g− 1 within the KTB layer (Fiskeler Member) and 45 ng.g− 1 at 1.5 m above that, while within the Scaglia Rossa Formation at Gubbio, three Hg peaks across the KTB are observed, one...

  5. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning and impact on resulting deposition: a modelling assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, ...

  6. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1degrees x 1degrees latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg

  7. Dipole Bands in 196Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, J. J.; Lawrie, E. A.; Newman, R. T.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Smit, F. D.; Msezane, B.; Benatar, M.; Mabala, G. K.; Mutshena, K. P.; Federke, M.; Mullins, S. M.; Ncapayi, N. J.; Vymers, P.

    2011-01-01

    High spin states in 196 Hg have been populated in the 198 Pt(α,6n) reaction at 65 MeV and the level scheme has been extended. A new dipole band has been observed and a previously observed dipole has been confirmed. Excitation energies, spins and parities of these bands were determined from DCO ratio and linear polarization measurements. Possible quasiparticle excitations responsible for these structures are discussed.

  8. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1°×1° latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg emissions and its three main chemical species: elemental gaseous Hg, divalent gaseous Hg, and particle-associated Hg are presented. The main emissions occur in southeast Asia (particularly in China), South Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Eastern United States. These are the regions where coal combustion is the main source of electricity and heat production. Waste incineration adds to these emissions in the Eastern United States. Emissions of total Hg and its three species are quite similar in terms of their (global) spatial distributions. They reflect the worldwide distribution of coal consumption in large power plants, industrial burners, and small combustion units, such as residential and commercial furnaces.

  9. Hg(II) sensing platforms with improved photostability: The combination of rhodamine derived chemosensors and up-conversion nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Mo, Jingang; Lu, Chengwen

    2017-05-15

    This paper reported two nanocomposite sensing platforms for Hg(II) detection with improved photostability, using two rhodamine derivatives as chemosensors and up-conversion nanocrystals as excitation host, respectively. There existed a secondary energy transfer from this excitation host to these chemosensors, which was confirmed by spectral analysis, energy transfer radius calculation and emission decay lifetime comparison. In this case, chemosensor photostability was greatly improved. Further analysis suggested that these chemosensors recognized Hg(II) following a simple binding stoichiometry of 1:1. Hg(II) sensing performance of these sensing platforms was analyzed through their emission spectra upon various Hg(II) concentrations. Emission spectral response, Stern-Volmer equation, emission stability and sensing selectivity were discussed in detail. It was finally concluded that these chemosensors showed emission turn on effect towards Hg(II), with high photostability, good selectivity and linear response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability studies of Hg implanted YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, J P; Wahl, U; Marques, J G; Alves, E; Amaral, V S; Lourenço, A A; Galindo, V; Von Papen, T; Senateur, J P; Weiss, F; Vantomme, A; Langouche, G; Melo, A A; Da Silva, M F A; Soares, J C; Sousa, J B

    1999-01-01

    High quality YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$ (YBCO) superconducting thin films were implanted with the radioactive $^{197m}$Hg (T$_{1/2}$ = 24 h) isotope to low fluences of 10$^{13}$ atoms/cm$^{2}$ and 60 keV energy. The lattice location and stability of the implanted Hg were studied combining the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) and Emission Channeling (EC) techniques. We show that Hg can be introduced into the YBCO lattice by ion implantation into unique regular sites. The EC data show that Hg is located on a highly symmetric site on the YBCO lattice, while the PAC data suggests that Hg occupies the Cu(1) site. Annealing studies were performed under vacuum and O$_{2}$ atmosphere and show that Hg starts to diffuse only above 653 K.

  11. Absence of Hg transpiration by shoot after Hg uptake by roots of six terrestrial plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria; Wang Yaodong; Neuschuetz, Clara

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigated if, and to what extent, six different plant species accumulate, translocate and emit mercury (Hg) into the air. The Hg uptake by roots, distribution of Hg to the shoot and release of Hg via shoots of garden pea, spring wheat, sugar beet, oil-seed rape, white clover and willow were investigated in a transpiration chamber. The airborne Hg was trapped in a Hopcalite trap or a gold trap. Traps and plant materials were analysed for content of Hg by CVAAS. The results show that all plant species were able to take up Hg to a large extent from a nutrient solution containing 200 μg L -1 Hg. However, the Hg translocation to the shoot was low (0.17-2.5%) and the Hg that reached the leaves was trapped and no release of the absorbed Hg to the air was detected. - Mercury translocation to shoots was low

  12. Hg removal and the effects of coexisting metals in forward osmosis and membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Zhang, Dai-Zhou; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the rejection of Hg, Cd, and Pb and the effect of coexisting metals on Hg removal through forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD) in order to establish a more effective water treatment process. The results of our laboratory experiment indicate that more than 97% of the rejection for each metal is achieved through the FO system, and this rejection is the highest among previous studies using membrane filtrations. Moreover, we examine the matrix effect of the coexisting Cd and Pb on the rejection of Hg in the FO system. Hg 2+ rejection increases with increase in the concentration of the coexisting metals. Furthermore, we study the effect of the Hg concentration and the water temperature on rejection of Hg 2+ . Indeed, the rejection of Hg 2+ is achieved above 95% under any condition. However, approximately 1-10 ppb Hg from the feed solution remains in the draw solution due to permeation. Therefore, we use a FO-MD hybrid system. Approximately 100% rejection of Hg 2+ and a stable water flux are achieved. Thus, the FO-MD hybrid system is considered an important alternative to previous studies using membrane filtration for heavy metals removal.

  13. Mercury emission to the atmosphere from municipal solid waste landfills: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Dai, Shijin; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is regarded as an important emission source of atmospheric mercury (Hg), which is associated with potential health and environmental risks, as outlined by the Minamata Convention on Hg. This review presents the current state of knowledge with regards to landfill Hg sources, Hg levels in MSW and cover soils, Hg emission to the atmosphere, available Hg biogeochemical transformations, research methods for Hg emission, and important areas for future research. In addition, strategies for controlling landfill Hg emissions are considered, including reducing the Hg load in landfill and in situ controls. These approaches mainly focus on Hg source reduction, Hg recycling programs, public education, and in situ technology such as timely soil cover, vegetation, and end-of-pipe technology for controlling Hg emission from landfill gas.

  14. Mercury in stream water at five Czech catchments across a Hg and S deposition gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, J.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, F.; Krám, P.; Matoušková, Šárka; Tesař, Miroslav; Hojdová, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 158, November (2015), s. 201-211 ISSN 0375-6742 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/1369 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985874 Keywords : Black Triangle * DOC quality * Filtered Hg * Hg/DOC ratio * Runoff fluxes * Seasonal changes * SUVA Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry; DA - Hydrology ; Limnology (UH-J) Impact factor: 2.147, year: 2015

  15. Pathways of CH3Hg and Hg ingestion in benthic organisms: an enriched isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien F; Bugge, Deenie; Jackson, Brian P; Chen, Celia Y

    2014-05-06

    Mercury is a widespread contaminant in marine food webs, and identifying uptake pathways of mercury species, CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+), into low trophic level organisms is important to understanding its entry into marine food webs. Enriched stable isotope tracers were used to study benthic vs. pelagic pathways of CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) uptake via food to the infaunal estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. Algal cells differentially labeled with isotopically enriched CH3Hg(+) or Hg(2+) were added simultaneously to the sediment and water column of microcosms, and Hg species were monitored in amphipods and in sediment and water compartments. Methylation of Hg(2+) occurred during the course of the experiment, enhancing the uptake of Hg(2+) spikes. Trophic transfer of Hg from algae added to the water column was determined to be the major uptake route for amphipods, suggesting inputs of contaminated organic matter from the pelagic zone are important to mercury bioaccumulation even in organisms living in sediments.

  16. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016: a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1  ×  1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016 and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1 the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers; (2 the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3 the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000–2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data

  17. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016): a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tomohiro; Maksyutov, Shamil; Andres, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC) is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1 × 1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location) and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016) and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1) the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers); (2) the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a) nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b) ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3) the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000-2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data product could play an important

  18. HG ion thruster component testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cathodes, isolators, and vaporizers are critical components in determining the performance and lifetime of mercury ion thrusters. The results of life tests of several of these components are reported. A 30-cm thruster CIV test in a bell jar has successfully accumulated over 26,000 hours. The cathode has undergone 65 restarts during the life test without requiring any appreciable increases in starting power. Recently, all restarts have been achieved with only the 44 volt keeper supply with no change required in the starting power. Another ongoing 30-cm Hg thruster cathode test has successfully passed the 10,000 hour mark. A solid-insert, 8-cm thruster cathode has accumulated over 4,000 hours of thruster operation. All starts have been achieved without the use of a high voltage ignitor. The results of this test indicate that the solid impregnated insert is a viable neutralizer cathode for the 8-cm thruster.

  19. Studies of the 198Hg(d,d') and 198Hg(d,p) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Varela, Alejandra; Garrett, P. E.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Bilstein, V.; Laffoley, A. T.; Maclean, A. D.; Svensson, C. E.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2017-09-01

    Limits on the electric dipole moment (EDM) continue to decrease for 199Hg, the most stringent upper limit for a nuclear EDM to date. The experimental limit on the observed atomic EDM for 199Hg is converted to a limit on the nuclear EDM via a calculation of the Schiff moment, requiring knowledge of the nuclear structure of 199Hg. The E 3 and E 1 strength distributions to the ground state of 199Hg, and E 2 transitions amongst excited states, would be ideal information to further constrain 199Hg Schiff moment theoretical models. The high level density of 199Hg makes those determinations challenging, however the similar information can be obtained from exploring surrounding even-even Hg isotopes. As part of a campaign to study the Hg isotopes near 199Hg, two experiments, 198Hg(d,d') 198Hg and 198Hg(d,p)199Hg reaction were performed using the Q3D spectrograph at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory (MLL) at Garching, Germany. A 22 MeV deuterium beam was used to impinge a 198Hg32S target. The (d,d') reaction allows us to probe the desired E 2 and E 3 matrix elements, while the (d,p) reaction provides information on the neutron single-particle states of 199Hg.

  20. Photochemical reactions between mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic matter decrease Hg bioavailability and methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Wei; Yin, Xiangping; Jubb, Aaron M; Chen, Hongmei; Lu, Xia; Zhang, Weihua; Lin, Hui; Yu, Han-Qing; Liang, Liyuan; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Gu, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) to surface water is one of the dominant sources of Hg in aquatic environments and ultimately drives methylmercury (MeHg) toxin accumulation in fish. It is known that freshly deposited Hg is more readily methylated by microorganisms than aged or preexisting Hg; however the underlying mechanism of this process is unclear. We report that Hg bioavailability is decreased by photochemical reactions between Hg and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water. Photo-irradiation of Hg-DOM complexes results in loss of Sn(II)-reducible (i.e. reactive) Hg and up to an 80% decrease in MeHg production by the methylating bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Loss of reactive Hg proceeded at a faster rate with a decrease in the Hg to DOM ratio and is attributed to the possible formation of mercury sulfide (HgS). These results suggest a new pathway of abiotic photochemical formation of HgS in surface water and provide a mechanism whereby freshly deposited Hg is readily methylated but, over time, progressively becomes less available for microbial uptake and methylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emission inventory; Inventaire des emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Statistics on air pollutant (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonium) emissions, acid equivalent emissions and their evolution since 1990 in the various countries of Europe and the USA, are presented. Emission data from the industrial, agricultural, transportation and power sectors are given, and comparisons are carried out between countries based on Gnp and population, pollution import/export fluxes and compliance to the previous emission reduction objectives

  2. Seasonal and diurnal variations of Hg° over New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Hegarty

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors influencing diurnal to interannual variability in Hg° over New England were investigated using multi-year measurements conducted by AIRMAP at the Thompson Farm (TF coastal site, an inland elevated site at Pac Monadnock (PM, and two month measurements on Appledore Island (AI in the Gulf of Maine. Mixing ratios of Hg° at TF showed distinct seasonality with maxima in March and minima in October. Hg° at AI tracked the trend at TF but with higher minima, while at PM the diurnal and annual cycles were dampened. In winter, Hg° was correlated most strongly with CO and NOy, indicative of anthropogenic emissions as their primary source. Our analysis indicates that Hg° had a regional background level of ~160 fmol/mol in winter, a dry deposition velocity of ~0.20 cm s−1 with a ~16 day lifetime in the coastal boundary layer in summer. The influence of oceanic emissions on ambient Hg° levels was identified using the Hg°-CHBr3 correlation at both TF and AI. Moreover, the lower Hg° levels and steeper decreasing warm season trend at TF (0.5–0.6 fmol/mol d−1 compared to PM (0.2–0.3 fmol/mol d−1 likely reflected the impact of marine halogen chemistry. Large interannual variability in warm season Hg° levels in 2004 versus 2005/2006 may be due to the role of precipitation patterns in influencing surface evasion of Hg°. In contrast, changes in wintertime maximum levels of Hg° were small compared to drastic reductions in CO, CO2, NOy, and SO2 from 2004/2005 to 2006/2007. These trends could be explained by a homogeneous distribution of Hg° over North American in winter due to its long lifetime and/or rapid removal of reactive mercury from anthropogenic sources. We caution that during warmer winters, the Hg°-CO slope possibly reflects Hg° loss relative to changes in CO more than their emission ratio.

  3. Photoionization study of HgAr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, S.H.; Brom, J.M. Jr.; Tzeng, W.; Ng, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Photoionization efficiency data for HgAr + have been obtained in the region of 680--1240 A. The ionization energy of HgAr was determined to be 10.217 +- 0.012 eV. This value allows the calculation of the dissociation energy of HgAr + to be 0.228 +- 0.017 eV. The relative probabilities for the formation of HgAr + via the reactions Ar* x Hg or Hg* x Ar→ HgAr + +e - with Ar* and Hg* prepared in high Rydberg states in the energy range of 10.22--15.79 eV were estimated. Although the radii for the 3d and 5s Rydberg ortitals of Ar have similar values, the probabilities for the formation of HgAr + from Hg x Ar* with Ar* in the 5s[3/2] 0 1 and 5s'[1/2] 0 1 Rydberg states are substantially greater than those when the Ar* excited atoms are in the 3d[1/2] 0 1 , 3s[3/2] 0 1 , and 3d'[3/2] 0 1 Rydberg levels. The ratio for the cross sections for the formation of HgAr + from Hg x Ar* with Ar* formed in the 3d[1/2] 0 1 and 4d[1/2] 0 1 states, as well as that with Ar* prepared in the 5d[1/2] 0 1 and 6d[1/2] 0 1 states, were found to be consistent with the predictions of the previous impact parameter calculations

  4. Quadrupole moments of the 12+ isomers in 188Hg and 190Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Lonnroth, T.; Vajda, S.; Dafni, E.; Schatz, G.

    1984-01-01

    The electric quadrupole interaction of the 12 + isomers in 188 Hg and 190 Hg has been measured in solid Hg. The quadrupole moments deduced, vertical strokeQ[ 188 Hg(12 + )]vertical stroke = 91(11) e fm 2 and vertical strokeQ[ 190 Hg(12 + )]vertical stroke = 117(14) e fm 2 suggest a possible change in γ-deformation due to the rotation alignment of the isub(13/2) quasi-neutrons. The temperature dependence of the electric field gradient tensor in Hg was also determined. (orig.)

  5. New insight into atmospheric mercury emissions from zinc smelters using mass flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingru; Wang, Shuxiao; Hui, Mulin; Wang, Fengyang; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Lei; Luo, Yao

    2015-03-17

    The mercury (Hg) flow paths from three zinc (Zn) smelters indicated that a large quantity of Hg, approximately 38.0-57.0% of the total Hg input, was stored as acid slag in the landfill sites. Approximately 15.0-27.1% of the Hg input was emitted into water or stored as open-dumped slags, and 3.3-14.5% of the Hg input ended in sulfuric acid. Atmospheric Hg emissions, accounting for 1.4-9.6% of the total Hg input, were from both the Zn production and waste disposal processes. Atmospheric Hg emissions from the waste disposal processes accounted for 40.6, 89.6, and 94.6% of the total atmospheric Hg emissions of the three studied smelters, respectively. The Zn production process mainly contributed to oxidized Hg (Hg2+) emissions, whereas the waste disposal process generated mostly elemental Hg (Hg0) emissions. When the emissions from these two processes are considered together, the emission proportion of the Hg2+ mass was 51, 46, and 29% in smelters A, B, and C, respectively. These results indicated that approximately 10.8±5.8 t of atmospheric Hg emissions from the waste disposal process were ignored in recent inventories. Therefore, the total atmospheric Hg emissions from the Zn industry of China should be approximately 50 t.

  6. Hg transfer from contaminated soils to plants and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Henriques, B.; Reis, A.T.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the transfer of mercury (Hg) from soil to crops is crucial due to Hg toxicity and Hg occurrence in terrestrial systems. Previous research has shown that available Hg in soils contributes to plant Hg levels. Plant Hg concentrations are related to soil conditions and plant

  7. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kocman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4–417 μg g−1 and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m−2 h−1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  8. Determination of the Flux-distance Relationship for Pulsars in the Parkes Multibeam Survey: Violation of the Inverse Square Law Gives Support for a New Model of Pulsar Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, John; Sengupta, P.; Middleditch, J.; Graves, T.; Schmidt, A.; Perez, M.; Ardavan, H.; Ardavan, A.; Fasel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of pulsars, it was realized that their unique periodic emissions must be associated with a source that rotates. Despite this insight and forty one years of subsequent effort, a detailed understanding of the pulsar emission mechanism has proved elusive. Here, using data for 983 pulsars taken from the Parkes Multibeam Survey, we show that their fluxes at 1400 MHz (S(1400)) decay with distance d according to a non-standard power-law; we suggest that S(1400) is proportional to 1/d. This distance dependence is revealed by two independent statistical techniques, (i) the Maximum Likelihood Method and (ii) analysis of the distance evolution of the cumulative distribution functions of pulsar flux. Moreover, the derived power law is valid for both millisecond and longer-period pulsars, and is robust against possible errors in the NE2001 method for obtaining pulsar distances from dispersion measure. This observation provides strong support for a mechanism of pulsar emission due to superluminal (faster than light in vacuo) polarization currents. Such superluminal polarization currents have been extensively studied by Bolotovskii, Ginzburg and others, who showed both that they do not violate Special Relativity (since the oppositely-charged particles that make them move relatively slowly) and that they form a bona-fide source term in Maxwell's equations. Subsequently, emission of radiation by superluminal polarization currents was demonstrated in laboratory experiments. By extending these ideas to a superluminal polarization current whose distribution pattern follows a circular orbit, we can explain the 1/d dependence of the flux suggested by our analyses of the observational data. In addition, we show that a model of pulsar emission due to such a rotating superluminal polarization current can predict the the frequency spectrum of nine pulsars over 16 orders of magnitude of frequency quantitatively. This work is supported by the DoE LDRD program at Los

  9. Sensitivity of stream methyl Hg concentrations to environmental change in the Adirondack mountains of New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug Burns; Karen Riva Murray; Elizabeth A. Nystrom; David M. Wolock; Geofrey Millard; Charles T. Driscoll

    2016-01-01

    The Adirondacks of New York have high levels of mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation as demonstrated by a region-wide fish consumption advisory for children and women who may become pregnant. The source of this Hg is atmospheric deposition that originates from regional, continental, and global emissions.

  10. On the mean square displacements (MSD) of Hg and Te in HgTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, Y.; Ramachandran, K.

    1989-01-01

    The mean square displacements (MSD) of Hg and Te in the perfect system of HgTe are worked out in the modified rigid ion model of Plumelle and Vandevyver. Also the MSD of Hg and Te neighbours around anion and cation vacancies in HgTe are worked out giving an active role for the vacancy following the theory of Maradudin et al. The results are compared with experimental values. (author)

  11. Micrometeorological methods for measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Hanson, P.J.; Owens, J.; Myers, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger study involving development and application of field and laboratory methods (micrometeorological, dynamic enclosure chamber, and controlled laboratory chamber methods) to measure the air/surface exchange of Hg vapor, we performed a series of preliminary measurements over contaminated soils. From March--April 1993, we used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method to measure emission rates of mercury over a floodplain contaminated with mercury near Oak Ridge, TN. The mercury emission rates measured from contaminated EFPC soils using the MBR method during early spring show that (1) in all cases, the contaminated soils acted as a source of mercury to the atmosphere with source strengths ranging from 17 to 160 ng m -2 h -1 ; and (2) the strengths of mercury emissions can be greatly influenced by the combined effects of surface soil temperature, residence time of air masses over the source area, and turbulence conditions. The mercury fluxes measured in a controlled flow chamber indicate that contaminated soils can exhibit up to an order of magnitude higher emission rates of Hg under conditions of elevated soil temperature, soil structure disturbance, and high turbulence. Mercury emissions from contaminated soils exceeded emissions from background soils by one to two orders of magnitude

  12. Electric field gradients in Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    &H functional performs best at both 4-component and ZORA levels. We furthermore observe that changes in the largest component of the diagonalised EFG tensor, Vzz, of linear HgCl2 show a slightly stronger dependence than the r-3 scaling upon bond length r(Hg-Cl) alterations. The 4-component/BH&H Vzz value of -9.......26 a.u. for a bent HgCl2 (¿ Cl-Hg-Cl = 120¿) is close to -9.60 a.u. obtained for the linear HgCl2 structure. Thus a point charge model for EFG calculations completely fails in this case. By means of a projection analysis of molecular orbital (MO) contributions to Vzz in terms of the atomic constituents...

  13. Binding of Hg by bacterial extracellular polysaccharide: a possible role in Hg tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kimberly; Guézennec, Jean; Barkay, Tamar

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria employ adaptive mechanisms of mercury (Hg) tolerance to survive in environments containing elevated Hg concentrations. The potential of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production by bacteria as a mechanism of Hg tolerance has not been previously investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine if bacterial EPS sorb Hg, and if so does sorption provide protection against Hg toxicity. Purified EPS with different chemical compositions produced by bacterial isolates from microbial mats in French Polynesian atolls and deep-sea hydrothermal vents were assessed for Hg sorption. The data showed that EPS sorbed up to 82% of Hg from solution, that this sorption was dependent on EPS composition, and that sorption was a saturable mechanism. Hg uptake capacities ranged from 0.005 to 0.454 mmol Hg/g for the different EPS. To determine if EPS production could alter bacterial Hg tolerance, Escherichia coli K-12 strains and their EPS defective mutants were tested by the disc inhibition assay. Mercury inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner with wild-type strains having smaller (~1 mm), but statistically significant, zones of inhibition than various mutants and this difference was related to a 2-fold decline in the amount of EPS produced by the mutants relative to cell biomass. These experiments identified colanic acid and hexosamine as Hg-binding moieties in EPS. Together these data indicate that binding of Hg to EPS affords a low level of resistance to the producing bacteria.

  14. The Open Flux Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.; Liu, Y.; Derosa, M. L.; Yeates, A.; Owens, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

  15. The Open Flux Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Henney, C. J. [Air Force Research Lab/Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Arge, C. N. [Science and Exploration Directorate, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Liu, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Derosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street B/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Yeates, A. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Owens, M. J., E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com [Space and Atmospheric Electricity Group, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-10

    The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

  16. Assessment of winter fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in boreal forest soils of central Alaska estimated by the profile method and the chamber method: a diagnosis of methane emission and implications for the regional carbon budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongwon; Ueyama, Masahito; Harazono, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Tsunogai, Urumu

    2007-01-01

    This research was carried out to estimate the winter fluxes of CO 2 and CH 4 using the concentration profile method and the chamber method in black spruce forest soils in central Alaska during the winter of 2004/5. The average winter fluxes of CO 2 and CH 4 by chamber and profile methods were 0.24 ± 0.06 (SE; standard error) and 0.21 ± 0.06 gCO 2 -C/m2/d, and 21.4 ± 5.6 and 21.4 ± 14 μgCH 4 -C/m2/hr. This suggests that the fluxes estimated by the two methods are not significantly different based on a one-way ANOVA with a 95% confidence level. The hypothesis on the processes of CH 4 transport/production/emission in underlying snow-covered boreal forest soils is proven by the pressure differences between air and in soil at 30 cm depth. The winter CO 2 emission corresponds to 23% of the annual CO 2 emitted from Alaska black spruce forest soils, which resulted in the sum of mainly root respiration and microbial respiration during the winter based on the (delta) 13 CO 2 of -2.25%. The average wintertime emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 were 49 ± 13 gCO 2 -C/m 2 /season and 0.11 ± 0.07 gCH 4 -C/m 2 /season, respectively. This implies that winter emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 are an important part of the annual carbon budget in seasonally snow-covered terrain of typical boreal forest soils

  17. Superconductivity of Hg3NbF6 and Hg3TaF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datars, W.R.; Morgan, K.R.; Gillespie, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Low-temperature ac susceptibility measurements show that two new metallic compounds, Hg 3 TaF 6 and Hg 3 NbF 6 , are superconductors with a critical temperature of 7.0 K. Critical fields are 20% higher in Hg 3 TaF 6 but the temperature dependence of the critical field of the compounds is very similar down to 1.35 K. The critical field extrapolated to T = 0 K is 0.17 T for Hg 3 TaF 6 and 0.13 T for Hg 3 NbF 6

  18. A Neutron Scattering Study of Lattice Dynamics of HgTe and HgSe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepa, H.; Giebultowicz, T.; Buras, B.

    1982-01-01

    The dispersion relations for the acoustic and optic phonons in HgTe and for the acoustic phonons in HgSe were determined by neutron inelastic scattering in three high symmetry directions. The effect of the free-carrier screening of the long-range electric field of LO phonons in HgTe was observed....... The formalism of the rigid ion model is used for numerical calculations of the phonon dispersion relations and the phonon densities of states in HgTe and HgSe....

  19. Potential for negative emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) through coastal peatland re-establishment: Novel insights from high frequency flux data at meter and kilometer scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Bergamaschi, Brian; Anderson, Frank; Knox, Sara; Miller, Robin; Fujii, Roger

    2018-04-01

    High productivity temperate wetlands that accrete peat via belowground biomass (peatlands) may be managed for climate mitigation benefits due to their global distribution and notably negative emissions of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through rapid storage of carbon (C) in anoxic soils. Net emissions of additional greenhouse gases (GHG)—methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)—are more difficult to predict and monitor due to fine-scale temporal and spatial variability, but can potentially reverse the climate mitigation benefits resulting from CO2 uptake. To support management decisions and modeling, we collected continuous 96 hour high frequency GHG flux data for CO2, CH4 and N2O at multiple scales—static chambers (1 Hz) and eddy covariance (10 Hz)—during peak productivity in a well-studied, impounded coastal peatland in California’s Sacramento Delta with high annual rates of C fluxes, sequestering 2065 ± 150 g CO2 m‑2 y‑1 and emitting 64.5 ± 2.4 g CH4 m‑2 y‑1. Chambers (n = 6) showed strong spatial variability along a hydrologic gradient from inlet to interior plots. Daily (24 hour) net CO2 uptake (NEE) was highest near inlet locations and fell dramatically along the flowpath (‑25 to ‑3.8 to +2.64 g CO2 m‑2 d‑1). In contrast, daily net CH4 flux increased along the flowpath (0.39 to 0.62 to 0.88 g CH4 m‑2 d‑1), such that sites of high daily CO2 uptake were sites of low CH4 emission. Distributed, continuous chamber data exposed five novel insights, and at least two important datagaps for wetland GHG management, including: (1) increasing dominance of CH4 ebullition fluxes (15%–32% of total) along the flowpath and (2) net negative N2O flux across all sites as measured during a 4 day period of peak biomass (‑1.7 mg N2O m‑2 d‑1 0.51 g CO2 eq m‑2 d‑1). The net negative emissions of re-established peat-accreting wetlands are notably high, but may be poorly estimated by

  20. Eddy covariance flux measurements confirm extreme CH4 emissions from a Swiss hydropower reservoir and resolve their short-term variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas budgets quantified via land-surface eddy covariance (EC flux sites differ significantly from those obtained via inverse modeling. A possible reason for the discrepancy between methods may be our gap in quantitative knowledge of methane (CH4 fluxes. In this study we carried out EC flux measurements during two intensive campaigns in summer 2008 to quantify methane flux from a hydropower reservoir and link its temporal variability to environmental driving forces: water temperature and pressure changes (atmospheric and due to changes in lake level. Methane fluxes were extremely high and highly variable, but consistently showed gas efflux from the lake when the wind was approaching the EC sensors across the open water, as confirmed by floating chamber flux measurements. The average flux was 3.8 ± 0.4 μg C m−2 s−1 (mean ± SE with a median of 1.4 μg C m−2 s−1, which is quite high even compared to tropical reservoirs. Floating chamber fluxes from four selected days confirmed such high fluxes with 7.4 ± 1.3 μg C m−2 s−1. Fluxes increased exponentially with increasing temperatures, but were decreasing exponentially with increasing atmospheric and/or lake level pressure. A multiple regression using lake surface temperatures (0.1 m depth, temperature at depth (10 m deep in front of the dam, atmospheric pressure, and lake level was able to explain 35.4% of the overall variance. This best fit included each variable averaged over a 9-h moving window, plus the respective short-term residuals thereof. We estimate that an annual average of 3% of the particulate organic matter (POM input via the river is sufficient to sustain these large CH4 fluxes. To compensate the global warming potential associated with the CH4 effluxes from this hydropower reservoir a 1.3 to 3.7 times larger terrestrial area with net carbon dioxide uptake is needed if a European-scale compilation of grasslands, croplands and forests is taken as reference. This

  1. Quadrupole interaction studies of Hg in Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J.C.; Krien, K.; Herzog, P.; Folle, H.R.; Freitag, K.; Reuschenbach, F.; Reuschenbach, M.; Trzcinski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation and nuclear orientation studies of the electric quadrupole interaction for Hg in Sb have been performed. The effective field gradients at room temperature and below 0.05K have been derived. These two values are no indication for an anomalous temperature dependence of the effective field gradient for Hg in Sb. The value of the electric field gradient fits well into the systematics for Hg in other hosts. It is shown that the electronic enhancements of the field gradients are correlated to the valence of the impurities and are rather insensitive to the host properties. (orig./HPOE) [de

  2. 40 CFR 60.4160 - Submission of Hg allowance transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of Hg allowance transfers... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Transfers § 60.4160 Submission of Hg allowance transfers. An Hg authorized account representative seeking recordation of a Hg allowance transfer...

  3. The Hg region: Superdeformation and other shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fernandez, P.B.; Moore, E.F.; Ahmad, I.; Khoo, T.L.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Drigert, M.W.; Ye, D.; Beard, K.B.; Reviol, W.; Bearden, I.; Benet, P.; Daly, P.J.; Grabowski, Z.W.

    1990-01-01

    We shall first summarize the present experimental situation concerning 192 Hg, the nucleus regarded as the analog of 152 Dy 8 for this SD region in that shell gaps are calculated 5 to occur at large deformation for Z=80 and N=112. Proton and neutron excitations out of te 192 Hg core will then be reviewed with particular emphasis on 191 Hg and 193 Tl. The implications of the results for pairing at large deformations and the need to consider other degrees of freedom (such as octupole correlations) will be addressed. The presentation will conclude with a brief discussion on other shapes seen in this region, with a particular emphasis on 191 Hg

  4. HgTe based topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruene, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis summarizes the discovery of topological insulators and highlights the developments on their experimental observations. The work focuses on HgTe. The thesis is structured as follows: - The first chapter of this thesis will give a brief overview on discoveries in the field of topological insulators. It focuses on works relevant to experimental results presented in the following chapters. This includes a short outline of the early predictions and a summary of important results concerning 2-dimensional topological insulators while the final section discusses observations concerning 3-dimensional topological insulators. - The discovery of the quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe marked the first experimental observation of a topological insulator. Chapter 2 focuses on HgTe quantum wells and the quantum spin Hall effect. The growth of high quality HgTe quantum wells was one of the major goals for this work. In a final set of experiments the spin polarization of the edge channels was investigated. Here, we could make use of the advantage that HgTe quantum well structures exhibit a large Rashba spin orbit splitting. - HgTe as a 3-dimensional topological insulator is presented in chapter 3. - Chapters 4-6 serve as in depth overviews of selected works: Chapter 4 presents a detailed overview on the all electrical detection of the spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells. The detection of the spin polarization of the quantum spin Hall effect is shown in chapter 5 and chapter 6 gives a detailed overview on the quantum Hall effect originating from the topological surface state in strained bulk HgTe.

  5. Removal of Hg, As in FGD gypsum by different aqueous ammonia (amines) during CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyi, Tan; Wenhui, Fan; Hongyi, Li; Zixin, Zhang; Yunkun, Zhu

    2017-12-01

    CO 2 sequestration by flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has become a promising FGDG disposal technology due to simultaneous CO 2 emission reduction and FGDG conversion into calcium carbonate. In this paper, another merit of the novel technology, i.e., the removal of toxic elements (e.g., Hg and As) in FGDG, will be addressed for the first time. In three different aqueous ammonia (or amines) media, removal efficiencies of Hg and As in FGDG samples were evaluated during CO 2 sequestration. Higher than 90% and 20% removal efficiencies, respectively, for Hg and As are achieved at 40°C in aqueous ammonia media, but they decrease at elevated temperatures. Ammonia loss takes place at 80°C and pH varies greatly with temperatures in aqueous ammonia. This is disadvantageous for the formation of Hg-ammonia complexes and for the yield of carbonates, which are responsible for Hg or As re-adsorption. The sequential chemical extraction method suggests that the speciation changes of Hg are induced by FGDG carbonation, and that unstable Hg speciation in triethanolamine increases at elevated temperatures.

  6. The influence of snow grain size and impurities on the vertical profiles of actinic flux and associated NOx emissions on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Zatko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We use observations of the absorption properties of black carbon and non-black carbon impurities in near-surface snow collected near the research stations at South Pole and Dome C, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland, combined with a snowpack actinic flux parameterization to estimate the vertical profile and e-folding depth of ultraviolet/near-visible (UV/near-vis actinic flux in the snowpack at each location. We have developed a simple and broadly applicable parameterization to calculate depth and wavelength dependent snowpack actinic flux that can be easily integrated into large-scale (e.g., 3-D models of the atmosphere. The calculated e-folding depths of actinic flux at 305 nm, the peak wavelength of nitrate photolysis in the snowpack, are 8–12 cm near the stations and 15–31 cm away (>11 km from the stations. We find that the e-folding depth is strongly dependent on impurity content and wavelength in the UV/near-vis region, which explains the relatively shallow e-folding depths near stations where local activities lead to higher snow impurity levels. We calculate the lifetime of NOx in the snowpack interstitial air produced by photolysis of snowpack nitrate against wind pumping (τwind pumping from the snowpack, and compare this to the calculated lifetime of NOx against chemical conversion to HNO3 (τchemical to determine whether the NOx produced at a given depth can escape from the snowpack to the overlying atmosphere. Comparison of τwind pumping and τchemical suggests efficient escape of photoproduced NOx in the snowpack to the overlying atmosphere throughout most of the photochemically active zone. Calculated vertical actinic flux profiles and observed snowpack nitrate concentrations are used to estimate the potential flux of NOx from the snowpack. Calculated NOx fluxes of 4.4 × 108–3.8 × 109 molecules cm−2 s−1 in remote polar locations and 3.2–8.2 × 108 molecules cm−2 s−1 near polar stations for January at Dome C and

  7. Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and methyl mercury in Hg accumulation and toxicity in weanling and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Li, Wen-Kai; Hou, Wei-Yu; Luo, Ya; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Li, Cen; Wei, Li-Xin; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-15

    Mercury sulfides are used in Ayurvedic medicines, Tibetan medicines, and Chinese medicines for thousands of years and are still used today. Cinnabar (α-HgS) and metacinnabar (β-HgS) are different from mercury chloride (HgCl 2 ) and methylmercury (MeHg) in their disposition and toxicity. Whether such scenario applies to weanling and aged animals is not known. To address this question, weanling (21d) and aged (450d) rats were orally given Zuotai (54% β-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgS (α-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgCl 2 (34.6mg/kg), or MeHg (MeHgCl, 3.2mg/kg) for 7days. Accumulation of Hg in kidney and liver, and the toxicity-sensitive gene expressions were examined. Animal body weight gain was decreased by HgCl 2 and to a lesser extent by MeHg, but unaltered after Zuotai and HgS. HgCl 2 and MeHg produced dramatic tissue Hg accumulation, increased kidney (kim-1 and Ngal) and liver (Ho-1) injury-sensitive gene expressions, but such changes are absent or mild after Zuotai and HgS. Aged rats were more susceptible than weanling rats to Hg toxicity. To examine roles of transporters in Hg accumulation, transporter gene expressions were examined. The expression of renal uptake transporters Oat1, Oct2, and Oatp4c1 and hepatic Oatp2 was decreased, while the expression of renal efflux transporter Mrp2, Mrp4 and Mdr1b was increased following HgCl 2 and MeHg, but unaffected by Zuotai and HgS. Thus, Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl 2 and MeHg in producing tissue Hg accumulation and toxicity, and aged rats are more susceptible than weanling rats. Transporter expression could be adaptive means to reduce tissue Hg burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of ore processing activity on Hg, As and Sb contamination and fractionation in soils in a former mining site of Monte Amiata ore district (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, Giuseppe; Nannoni, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    A geochemical study was carried out at the former Abbadia San Salvatore (ASS) mining site of the Monte Amiata ore district (Italy). Hg, As and Sb total contents and fractionation using a sequential extraction procedure were determined in soil and mining waste samples. Ore processing activities provided a different contribution to Hg contamination and concentration in soil fractions, influencing its behaviour as volatility and availability. Soils of roasting zone showed the highest Hg contamination levels mainly due to the deposition of Hg released as Hg 0 by furnaces during cinnabar roasting. High Hg contents were also measured in waste from the lower part of mining dump due to the presence of cinnabar. The fractionation pattern suggested that Hg was largely as volatile species in both uncontaminated and contaminated soils and mining waste, and concentrations of these Hg species increased as contamination increased. These findings were in agreement with the fact that the ASS mining site is characterized by high Hg concentrations in the air and the presence of Hg 0 liquid droplets in soil. Volatile Hg species were also prevalent in uncontaminated soils likely because the Monte Amiata region is an area characterized by anomalous fluxes of gaseous Hg from natural and anthropogenic inputs. At the ASS mining site soils were also contaminated by Sb, while As contents were comparable with its local background in soil. In all soil and waste samples Sb and As were preferentially in residual fraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 199Hg Moessbauer measurements on mercury, alloys and Hg-fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.; Kankeleit, E.

    1979-01-01

    The Moessbauer effect on the 158 keV 5/2 - -1/2 - transition in 199 Hg, of the order of 10 ppm, has been studied using the current integration technique. The isomer shift between the Hg(I)- and Hg(II)-fluorides as well as the quadrupole splitting in Hg 2 Pt and Hg 2 F 2 are interpreted in terms of relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater and Molecular Orbital calculations. The following nuclear parameters could be derived: Δ[r 2 ] = (3.2+-1.1) 10 -3 fm 2 and Q(5/2 - ) = (-0.8+-0.4)b. Evidence for an oblate triaxially deformed 199 Hg nucleus is derived from particle plus rotor calculations. (orig.)

  10. Triaxiality in the even-mass Hg isotopes: A discontinuity at 200Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, I.; Spear, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The mass dependence of excitation energies of the 2 + 1 , 2 + 2 , and 4 + 1 states of the even-mass Hg isotopes, and of some related B(E2) values, shows a marked discontinuity at 200 Hg. Analysis of B(E2;0 + 1 →2 + 1 ) values in terms of an extended interacting boson approximation model suggests that this discontinuity is due to a change in the proton and neutron distributions at 200 Hg. Apart from 200 Hg, the data favor γ-soft models rather than the rigid triaxial-rotor model

  11. Distribution of Heavy Metal Content Hg and Cr of Environmental Samples at Surabaya Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    Determination of Hg and Cr content of Surabaya river and coastal environmental samples using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) have been done. The environmental samples were water, sediment, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solmms, Rhizophora stylosa, Johnius (Johnieops) borneensis fish, and Moolgarda delicate fish at 12 locations selected of Surabaya area. Dry powder of sediment and biotic samples and concentrate water samples was irradiated by neutron flux 1.05 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .det -1 during 12 hours. The analytical result showed that the concentration of the heavy metals of river water are smaller than Perda Surabaya City No. 02/2004 for the 4 th level water which are Hg (0.005 ppm) and Cr (1.000 ppm). All locations coastal water samples have Hg and Cr concentrations are higher than Kepmen LH No.51/2004 Hg (0.001 ppm) and Cr (0.005 ppm). The Hg concentration of fish samples have exceeded the threshold according to Kep. Dirjen POM No.03725/B/SK/VII/89 about the maximum concentration of metal pollution in food. The concentration of heavy metals in sediment, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solmms and Rhizophora stylosa are not regulated, so then heavy metals pollution can not be referred to. The concentration of Hg and Cr elements of water samples are smaller than that of biotic and sediment samples. The distribution factor (F d ) is bigger than bioaccumulation factor (F b ). (author)

  12. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  13. Isotopic Hg in an Allende carbon-rich residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    A carbon-rich residue from Allende subjected to stepwise heating yielded two isotopically resolvable types of Hg: one with an (Hg-196)/(Hg-202) concentration ratio the same as terrestrial (monitor) Hg; the other enriched in Hg-196 relative to Hg-202 by about 60 percent. Hg with the 202 isotope enriched relative to 196, as is found in bulk Allende, was not observed. Whether the result of mass fractionation or nucleosynthesis, the distinct types of Hg entered different carrier phases and were not thermally mobilized since the accretion of the Allende parent body.

  14. Isotopic Hg in an Allende carbon-rich residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    A carbon-rich residue from Allende subjected to stepwise heating yielded two isotopically resolvable types of Hg: one with an (Hg-196)/(Hg-202) concentration ratio the same as terrestrial (monitor) Hg; the other enriched in Hg-196 relative to Hg-202 by about 60 percent. Hg with the 202 isotope enriched relative to 196, as is found in bulk Allende, was not observed. Whether the result of mass fractionation or nucleosynthesis, the distinct types of Hg entered different carrier phases and were not thermally mobilized since the accretion of the Allende parent body. 9 refs

  15. Hg concentrations in fish from coastal waters of California and Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jay; Ross, John; Bezalel, Shira; Sim, Lawrence; Bonnema, Autumn; Ichikawa, Gary; Heim, Wes; Schiff, Kenneth C; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    The State of California conducted an extensive and systematic survey of mercury (Hg) in fish from the California coast in 2009 and 2010. The California survey sampled 3483 fish representing 46 species at 68 locations, and demonstrated that methylHg in fish presents a widespread exposure risk to fish consumers. Most of the locations sampled (37 of 68) had a species with an average concentration above 0.3 μg/g wet weight (ww), and 10 locations an average above 1.0 μg/g ww. The recent and robust dataset from California provided a basis for a broader examination of spatial and temporal patterns in fish Hg in coastal waters of Western North America. There is a striking lack of data in publicly accessible databases on Hg and other contaminants in coastal fish. An assessment of the raw data from these databases suggested the presence of relatively high concentrations along the California coast and in Puget Sound, and relatively low concentrations along the coasts of Alaska and Oregon, and the outer coast of Washington. The dataset suggests that Hg concentrations of public health concern can be observed at any location on the coast of Western North America where long-lived predator species are sampled. Output from a linear mixed-effects model resembled the spatial pattern observed for the raw data and suggested, based on the limited dataset, a lack of trend in fish Hg over the nearly 30-year period covered by the dataset. Expanded and continued monitoring, accompanied by rigorous data management procedures, would be of great value in characterizing methylHg exposure, and tracking changes in contamination of coastal fish in response to possible increases in atmospheric Hg emissions in Asia, climate change, and terrestrial Hg control efforts in coastal watersheds.

  16. Mercury stable isotope signatures of world coal deposits and historical coal combustion emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruoyu; Sonke, Jeroen E; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Belkin, Harvey E; Liu, Guijian; Shome, Debasish; Cukrowska, Ewa; Liousse, Catherine; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Streets, David G

    2014-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal combustion contribute approximately half of anthropogenic Hg emissions to the atmosphere. With the implementation of the first legally binding UNEP treaty aimed at reducing anthropogenic Hg emissions, the identification and traceability of Hg emissions from different countries/regions are critically important. Here, we present a comprehensive world coal Hg stable isotope database including 108 new coal samples from major coal-producing deposits in South Africa, China, Europe, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, former USSR, and the U.S. A 4.7‰ range in δ(202)Hg (-3.9 to 0.8‰) and a 1‰ range in Δ(199)Hg (-0.6 to 0.4‰) are observed. Fourteen (p coal Hg emissions tracing. A revised coal combustion Hg isotope fractionation model is presented, and suggests that gaseous elemental coal Hg emissions are enriched in the heavier Hg isotopes relative to oxidized forms of emitted Hg. The model explains to first order the published δ(202)Hg observations on near-field Hg deposition from a power plant and global scale atmospheric gaseous Hg. Yet, model uncertainties appear too large at present to permit straightforward Hg isotope source identification of atmospheric forms of Hg. Finally, global historical (1850-2008) coal Hg isotope emission curves were modeled and indicate modern-day mean δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values for bulk coal emissions of -1.2 ± 0.5‰ (1SD) and 0.05 ± 0.06‰ (1SD).

  17. Investigation of Hg uptake and transport between paddy soil and rice seeds combining Hg isotopic composition and speciation

    OpenAIRE

    C. Feng; Z. Pedrero; P. Li; B. Du; X. Feng; M. Monperrus; E. Tessier; S. Berail; D. Amouroux

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human consumption of rice constitutes a potential toxicological risk in mercury (Hg) polluted areas such as Hg mining regions in China. It is recognized to be an important source of Hg for the local human diet considering the efficient bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in rice seed. To assess Hg sources and uptake pathways to the rice plants, Hg speciation and isotopic composition were investigated in rice seeds and their corresponding paddy soils from different locations withi...

  18. Chemical substitution of Cd ions by Hg in CdSe nanorods and nanodots: Spectroscopic and structural examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikau, Anatol; Artemyev, Mikhail; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor; Baranov, Alexandr V.; Cherevkov, Sergey A.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied cadmium-by-mercury chemical substitution in CdSe nanocrystals. ► Zinc blende CdSe quantum dots can be easily converted to isostructural Cd x Hg 1−x Se. ► Wurtzite CdSe QDs require longer time to convert to a zinc blende Cd x Hg 1−x Se. ► Wurtzite CdSe nanorods transform to nanoheterogeneous luminescent Cd x Hg 1−x Se rods. - Abstract: The chemical substitution of cadmium by mercury in colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanorods has been examined by absorption, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline structure of original CdSe QDs used for Cd/Hg substitution (zinc blende versus wurtzite) shows a strong impact on the optical and structural properties of resultant Cd x Hg 1−x Se nanocrystals. Substitution of Cd by Hg in isostructural zinc blende CdSe QDs converts them to ternary Cd x Hg 1−x Se zinc blende nanocrystals with significant NIR emission. Whereas, the wurtzite CdSe QDs transformed first to ternary nanocrystals with almost no emission followed by slow structural reorganization to a NIR-emitting zinc blende Cd x Hg 1−x Se QDs. CdSe nanorods with intrinsic wurtzite structure show unexpectedly intense NIR emission even at early Cd/Hg substitution stage with PL active zinc blende Cd x Hg 1−x Se regions.

  19. A 3-year continuous record of nitrogen trace gas fluxes from untreated and limed soil of a N-saturated spruce and beech forest ecosystem in Germany: 1. N2O emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papen, Hans; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    1999-08-01

    For 3 years we followed the complete annual cycles of N2O emission rates with 2-hour resolution in spruce and beech plantations of the Höglwald Forest, Bavaria, Germany, in order to gain detailed information about seasonal and interannual variations of N2O emissions. In addition, microbiological process studies were performed for identification of differences in N turnover rates in the soil of a spruce and a beech site and for estimation of the contribution of nitrification and denitrification to the actual N2O emission. Both pronounced seasonal and extreme interannual variations of N2O emissions were identified. During long-term frost periods, while the soil was frozen, and during soil thawing, extremely high N2O emissions occurred, contributing up to 73% to the total annual N2O loss. The enormous N2O releases during the long-term frost period were due to high microbial N turnover rates (tight coupling of ammonification, nitrification, denitrification) in small unfrozen water films of the frozen soil at high concentrations of easily degradable substrates derived from the enormous pool of dead microbial biomass produced during the long-term frost period. Liming of a spruce site resulted in a significant increase in ammonification, nitrification, and N2O emissions as compared with an untreated spruce control site. The beech control site exhibited 4-5 times higher N2O emissions than the spruce control site, indicating that forest type itself is an important modulator of N2O release from soil. At all sites, nitrification contributed ˜70% to the N2O flux, whereas denitrification contributed markedly less (˜30%). There was a significant positive correlation between amount of in situ N input by wet deposition and magnitude of in situ N2O emissions. At the beech site, 10% of the actual N input was released from the soil in form of N2O, whereas at the spruce site the fraction was 0.5%. N2O emission rates were positively correlated with net nitrification rates. The

  20. Total and methyl mercury concentrations and fluxes from small boreal forest catchments in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porvari, Petri; Verta, Matti

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands have higher methyl mercury output than uplands. - Total mercury (TotHg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were studied in runoff from eight small (0.02-1.3 km 2 ) boreal forest catchments (mineral soil and peatland) during 1990-1995. Runoff waters were extremely humic (TOC 7-70 mg l -1 ). TotHg concentrations varied between 0.84 and 24 ng l -1 and MeHg between 0.03 and 3.8 ng l -1 . TotHg fluxes from catchments ranged from 0.92 to 1.8 g km -2 a -1 , and MeHg fluxes from 0.03 to 0.33 g km -2 a -1 . TotHg concentrations and output fluxes measured in runoff water from small forest catchments in Finland were comparable with those measured in other boreal regions. By contrast, MeHg concentrations were generally higher. Estimates for MeHg output fluxes in this study were comparable at sites with forests and wetlands in Sweden and North America, but clearly higher than those measured at upland or agricultural sites in other studies. Peatland catchments released more MeHg than pure mineral soil or mineral soil catchments with minor area of peatland

  1. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntean, Marilena, E-mail: marilena.muntean@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy); Janssens-Maenhout, Greet [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy); Song, Shaojie; Selin, Noelle E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Olivier, Jos G.J. [PBL Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Guizzardi, Diego [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy); Maas, Rob [RIVM National Institute for Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Dentener, Frank [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources in the database. With an average annual growth rate of 1.3% since 1970, EDGARv4 estimates that the global mercury emissions reached 1287 tonnes in 2008. Specifically, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (Hg{sup 0}) accounted for 72% of the global total emissions, while gaseous oxidised mercury (GOM) (Hg{sup 2+}) and particle bound mercury (PBM) (Hg-P) accounted for only 22% and 6%, respectively. The less reactive form, i.e., Hg{sup 0}, has a long atmospheric residence time and can be transported long distances from the emission sources. The artisanal and small-scale gold production, accounted for approximately half of the global Hg{sup 0} emissions in 2008 followed by combustion (29%), cement production (12%) and other metal industry (10%). Given the local-scale impacts of mercury, special attention was given to the spatial distribution showing the emission hot-spots on gridded 0.1° × 0.1° resolution maps using detailed proxy data. The comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry over four decades indicates reductions of 46% and 93%, respectively. Combined, the improved technologies and mitigation measures in these sectors accounted for 401.7 tonnes of avoided mercury emissions in 2008. A comparison shows that EDGARv4 anthropogenic emissions are nearly equivalent to the lower estimates of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)'s mercury emissions inventory for 2005 for most sectors. An evaluation of the EDGARv4 global mercury emission inventory, including mercury speciation, was performed using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D mercury model. The

  2. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntean, Marilena; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Song, Shaojie; Selin, Noelle E.; Olivier, Jos G.J.; Guizzardi, Diego; Maas, Rob; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources in the database. With an average annual growth rate of 1.3% since 1970, EDGARv4 estimates that the global mercury emissions reached 1287 tonnes in 2008. Specifically, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (Hg 0 ) accounted for 72% of the global total emissions, while gaseous oxidised mercury (GOM) (Hg 2+ ) and particle bound mercury (PBM) (Hg-P) accounted for only 22% and 6%, respectively. The less reactive form, i.e., Hg 0 , has a long atmospheric residence time and can be transported long distances from the emission sources. The artisanal and small-scale gold production, accounted for approximately half of the global Hg 0 emissions in 2008 followed by combustion (29%), cement production (12%) and other metal industry (10%). Given the local-scale impacts of mercury, special attention was given to the spatial distribution showing the emission hot-spots on gridded 0.1° × 0.1° resolution maps using detailed proxy data. The comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry over four decades indicates reductions of 46% and 93%, respectively. Combined, the improved technologies and mitigation measures in these sectors accounted for 401.7 tonnes of avoided mercury emissions in 2008. A comparison shows that EDGARv4 anthropogenic emissions are nearly equivalent to the lower estimates of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)'s mercury emissions inventory for 2005 for most sectors. An evaluation of the EDGARv4 global mercury emission inventory, including mercury speciation, was performed using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D mercury model. The model can

  3. Adsorption of Hg on lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the presence, migration mechanisms and trapping of indigneous gases and volatiles on the moon is the objective of this study. The rare gases Ar and Xe and highly volatile Hg 0 and Br 0 (and/or their compounds) have been determined to be present in the lunar regolith. Evidence for these elements in the moon was recently reviewed. Studies of the sorption behavior of Xe on lunar material have been carried out. We report here preliminary results of a study designed to rationalize the behavior of Hg in lunar material

  4. High spin structures in 194Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiades, N.; Vlastou, R.; Serris, M.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Fallon, P.; Riley, M.A.; Clark, R.M.; Hauschild, K.; Wadsworth, R.

    1996-01-01

    High spin states in the isotope 194 Hg were populated using the 150 Nd( 48 Ca,4n) reaction at a beam energy of 213 MeV. The analysis of γ-γ coincidences has revealed two new structures at excitation energies above 6 MeV and at moderate spin. The two structures are a manifestation of the deviation of nucleus from the collective rotation which dominates its lower excitation behaviour. A comparison with similar structures in the neighbouring Hg isotopes is also attempted. (orig.)

  5. Quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The nucleus {sup 192}Hg plays a pivotal role for superdeformation in the mass 190 region, since calculations of single-particle levels show large shell-gaps for the superdeformed (SD) shape at N = 112 and Z = 80. As a result, {sup 192}Hg is referred to as the doubly magic SD nucleus for the A = 190 region. In previous studies, only one superdeformed band was observed in this nucleus, and this fact was cited as indirect evidence that large shell gaps do indeed exist at the proposed particle numbers.

  6. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg Budget...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4111 - Alternate Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate Hg designated representative... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4111 Alternate Hg designated representative. (a) A certificate of representation under § 60.4113...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4114 - Objections concerning Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections concerning Hg designated... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4114 Objections concerning Hg designated representative. (a) Once a complete certificate of...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg allowance allocations. 60.4142... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in MMBtu) used with respect to Hg allowance allocations under...

  10. 46 CFR 53.01-5 - Scope (modifies HG-100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope (modifies HG-100). 53.01-5 Section 53.01-5... General Requirements § 53.01-5 Scope (modifies HG-100). (a) The regulations in this part apply to steam... governing various types of pressure vessels and boilers. (b) Modifies HG-100. The requirements of Part HG of...

  11. Tracing historical trends of Hg in the Mississippi River using Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions in a lake sediment core, Lake Whittington, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Pribil, Michael J.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of mercury (Hg) in a sediment core collected from Lake Whittington, an oxbow lake on the Lower Mississippi River, were used to evaluate historical sources of Hg in the Mississippi River basin. Sediment Hg concentrations in the Lake Whittington core have a large 10-15 y peak centered on the 1960s, with a maximum enrichment factor relative to Hg in the core of 4.8 in 1966. The Hg concentration profile indicates a different Hg source history than seen in most historical reconstructions of Hg loading. The timing of the peak is consistent with large releases of Hg from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), primarily in the late 1950s and 1960s. Mercury was used in a lithiumisotope separation process by ORNL and an estimated 128Mg (megagrams) of Hgwas discharged to a local stream that flows into the Tennessee River and, eventually, the Mississippi River. Mass balance analyses of Hg concentrations and isotopic compositions in the Lake Whittington core fit a binary mixing model with a Hg-rich upstream source contributing about 70% of the Hg to Lake Whittington at the height of the Hg peak in 1966. This upstream Hg source is isotopically similar to Hg isotope compositions of stream sediment collected downstream near ORNL. It is estimated that about one-half of the Hg released from the ORNL potentially reached the LowerMississippi River basin in the 1960s, suggesting considerable downstream transport of Hg. It is also possible that upstream urban and industrial sources contributed some proportion of Hg to Lake Whittington in the 1960s and 1970s.

  12. Review of carbon flux estimates and other greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm cultivation on Tropical peatlands - Identifying the gaps in Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, C.C.; Meer, van der P.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an independent review that clarifies current confusion on carbon dioxide emissions resulting from oil palm cultivation on tropical peatlands in Malaysia, that was brought about by two recent publications. It describes the processes of carbon flow in forests, degraded forests and

  13. Modeling the effect of heat fluxes on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from an anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia and nitrous emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, s...

  14. Beryllium abundances in Hg-Mn stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesgaard, A.M.; Heacox, W.D.; Wolff, S.C.; Borsenberger, J.; Praderie, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Hg-Mn stars show anomalous line strengths of many chemical elements including Be. We have observed the Be ii resonance doublet at lambdalambda 3130, 3131 at 6.7 A mm -1 in 43 Hg-Mn stars and 10 normal stars in the same temperature range with the coude spectrograph of the 2.24 m University of Hawaii telescope at Mauna Kea. Measured equivalent widths of the two lines and/or the blend of the doublet have been compared with predictions from (1) LTE model atmospheres and (2) non-LTE line formation on non-LTE model atmospheres. (For strong Be ii lines, the LTE calculations result in more Be by factors of 2 to 4 than do the non-LTE calculations.) Overabundances of factors of 20--2 x 10 4 relative to solar have been found for 75% of the Hg-Mn stars. The 25% with little or no Be are typically among the cooler Hg-Mn stars, but for the stars with Be excesses, there is only marginal evidence for a correlationi of the size of the overabundance and temperature. It is suggested that diffusion driven by radiation pressure is responsible for the observed Be abundance anomalies

  15. Landfill is an important atmospheric mercury emission source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xinbin; TANG Shunlin; LI Zhonggen; WANG Shaofeng; LIANG Lian

    2004-01-01

    Since municipal wastes contain refuses with high mercury contents, incineration of municipal wastes becomes the major anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission source. In China, landfills are however the main way to dispose of municipal wastes. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in landfill gas of Gaoyan sanitary landfill located in suburb of Guiyang City were monitored using a high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer, and mono-methylmercury (MMHg) and dimethylmercury (DMHg) concentrations in landfill gas were also measured using GC coupled with the cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) method. Meanwhile, the TGM exchange fluxes between exposed waste and air and the soil surface of the landfill and air, were measured using low Hg blank quartz flux chamber coupled with high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer technique. TGM concentrations in landfill gas from half year filling area averaged out at 665.52±291.25 ng/m3, which is comparable with TGM concentrations from flue gas of a small coal combustion boiler in Guiyang. The average MMHg and DMHg concentrations averaged out at 2.06±1.82 ng/m3 and 9.50±5.18 ng/m3, respectively. It is proven that mercury emission is the predominant process at the surfaces of both exposed wastes and soil of landfill. Landfills are not only TGM emission source, but also methylmercury emission source to the ambient air. There are two ways to emit mercury to the air from landfills, one is with the landfill gas through landfill gas duct, and the other through soil/air exchange. The Hg emission processes from landfills are controlled by meteorological parameters.

  16. A thermodynamic stability of bulk and epitaxial CdHgTe, ZnHgTe and MnHgTe solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejbuk, V.G.; Dremlyuzhenko, S.G.; Ostapov, S.Eh.

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamics of Cd 1-x Hg x Te, Zn x Hg 1-x Te and Mg x Hg 1-x Te alloys has been investigated for a delta-lattice parameter model. The phase diagrams obtained show the stability of Cd 1-x Hg x Te, Zn x Hg 1-x Te in the whole range of compositions, alongside with a miscibility gap for Mn x Hg 1-x Te being of 0.35 x Hg 1-x Te/CdTe and Mn x Hg 1-x Te/Cd 0.96 Zn 0.04 Te epitaxial films result in lowering critical temperatures and narrowing the miscibility gap [ru

  17. Detailed Assessment of the Kinetics of Hg-Cell Association, Hg Methylation, and Methylmercury Degradation in Several Desulfovibrio Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew M.; Bullock, Allyson L.; Maizel, Andrew C.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of inorganic Hg [Hg(II)i] association, methylation, and methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation were examined for a group of Desulfovibrio species with and without MeHg production capability. We employed a detailed method for assessing MeHg production in cultures, including careful control of medium chemistry, cell density, and growth phase, plus mass balance of Hg(II)i and MeHg during the assays. We tested the hypothesis that differences in Hg(II)i sorption and/or uptake rates drive observed differences in methylation rates among Desulfovibrio species. Hg(II)i associated rapidly and with high affinity to both methylating and nonmethylating species. MeHg production by Hg-methylating strains was rapid, plateauing after ∼3 h. All MeHg produced was rapidly exported. We also tested the idea that all Desulfovibrio species are capable of Hg(II)i methylation but that rapid demethylation masks its production, but we found this was not the case. Therefore, the underlying reason why MeHg production capability is not universal in the Desulfovibrio is not differences in Hg affinity for cells nor differences in the ability of strains to degrade MeHg. However, Hg methylation rates varied substantially between Hg-methylating Desulfovibrio species even in these controlled experiments and after normalization to cell density. Thus, biological differences may drive cross-species differences in Hg methylation rates. As part of this study, we identified four new Hg methylators (Desulfovibrio aespoeensis, D. alkalitolerans, D. psychrotolerans, and D. sulfodismutans) and four nonmethylating species (Desulfovibrio alcoholivorans, D. tunisiensis, D. carbinoliphilus, and D. piger) in our ongoing effort to generate a library of strains for Hg methylation genomics. PMID:22885751

  18. 46 CFR 53.05-1 - Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401). 53.05-1 Section 53.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401). (a) The pressure relief valve requirements and the...

  19. Hg stable isotope analysis by the double-spike method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Chris; Johnson, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    Recent publications suggest great potential for analysis of Hg stable isotope abundances to elucidate sources and/or chemical processes that control the environmental impact of mercury. We have developed a new MC-ICP-MS method for analysis of mercury isotope ratios using the double-spike approach, in which a solution containing enriched (196)Hg and (204)Hg is mixed with samples and provides a means to correct for instrumental mass bias and most isotopic fractionation that may occur during sample preparation and introduction into the instrument. Large amounts of isotopic fractionation induced by sample preparation and introduction into the instrument (e.g., by batch reactors) are corrected for. This may greatly enhance various Hg pre-concentration methods by correcting for minor fractionation that may occur during preparation and removing the need to demonstrate 100% recovery. Current precision, when ratios are normalized to the daily average, is 0.06 per thousand, 0.06 per thousand, 0.05 per thousand, and 0.05 per thousand (2sigma) for (202)Hg/(198)Hg, (201)Hg/(198)Hg, (200)Hg/(198)Hg, and (199)Hg/(198)Hg, respectively. This is slightly better than previously published methods. Additionally, this precision was attained despite the presence of large amounts of other Hg isotopes (e.g., 5.0% atom percent (198)Hg) in the spike solution; substantially better precision could be achieved if purer (196)Hg were used.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from the energy crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus); the role of photosynthetically active radiation in diurnal N2O flux variation.

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, J.Ben; Ineson, P.; Vallack, Harry W.; Blei, Emanuel; Howarth, Steve; McNamara, Niall P.; Rowe, Rebecca; Williams, Mathew; Toet, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus L.) is an important feedstock for biodiesel; hence, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and particularly fertilizer-derived nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during cultivation must be quantified to assess putative greenhouse gas (GHG) savings, thus creating an urgent and increasing need for such data. Substrates of nitrification [ammonium (NH4)] and denitrification [nitrate (NO3)], the predominant N2O production pathways, were supplied separately and in combinat...

  1. Diurnal fluxes of CO.sub.2./sub. and N.sub.2./sub.O from cattle-impacted soil and implications for emission estimates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Miloslav; Brůček, Petr; Hynšt, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 10 (2010), s. 451-457 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660605; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) 21-1072/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : greenhouse gas * emission estimates * nitrous oxide Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2010

  2. Silver ion modulated CdS quantum dots for highly selective detection of trace Hg{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppa, Yuwapon; Kulchat, Sirinan; Ngamdee, Kessarin; Pradublai, Kaewklao [Materials Chemistry Research Unit, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Tuntulani, Thawatchai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ngeontae, Wittaya, E-mail: wittayange@kku.ac.th [Materials Chemistry Research Unit, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Research Center for Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (EHWM), Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-10-15

    In the present work, water-soluble cysteamine capped-CdS quantum dots (Cys-CdS QDs) modulated with Ag{sup +} were employed as fluorescence sensors for the determination of Hg{sup 2+} ion. The synthesized Cys-CdS QDs exhibit relatively weak fluorescence emission, however, the emission was enhanced exclusively in the presence of Ag{sup +} compared to other metal ions. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of the Ag{sup +} modulated Cys-CdS QDs (Ag{sup +}@Cys-CdS QDs) was significantly quenched in the presence of trace amounts of Hg{sup 2+} due to high-affinity metallophilic interactions between Hg{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +}. Based on this specific interaction, good selectivity towards the detection of Hg{sup 2+} over other metal ions was achieved. To gain the best sensing performance, parameters affecting the Hg{sup 2+} detection sensitivity were studied and optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of Ag{sup +}@Cys-CdS QDs decreased linearly with Hg{sup 2+} concentration in the range of 0.1–3.5 μM, with a limit of detection of around 0.09 μM. The applicability of this sensor was demonstrated by the determination of Hg{sup 2+} in drinking water samples, corresponding well with results of cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

  3. Wet deposition of mercury in Qingdao, a coastal urban city in China: Concentrations, fluxes, and influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lufeng; Li, Yanbin; Liu, Chang; Guo, Lina; Wang, Xiulin

    2018-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant of public concern because of its high toxicity and capability for worldwide distribution via long-range atmospheric transportation. Wet atmospheric deposition is an important source of Hg in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Concentrations of various Hg species in precipitation were monitored from March 2016 to February 2017 in a coastal urban area of Qingdao, and their wet deposition fluxes were estimated. The results showed that the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg), dissolved THg (DTHg), particulate THg (PTHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg), and dissolved and particulate MeHg (DMeHg and PMeHg) in Qingdao's precipitation were 13.6, 1.5, 5.4, 8.2, 0.38, 0.15, and 0.22 ng L-1, respectively, and their annual deposition fluxes were estimated to be 5703.0 (THg), 666.6 (RHg), 2304.0 (DTHg), 3470.4 (PTHg), 161.6 (TMeHg), 64.0 (DMeHg), and 95.7 (PMeHg) ng m-2 y-1, respectively. A relatively high proportion of MeHg in THg was observed in precipitation (3.0 ± 2.6%) possibly due to higher methylation and contributions from an oceanic source to MeHg in the precipitation. Obvious seasonal variations in Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes were observed in the precipitation in Qingdao. Correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses showed that SO2, pH, and NO3- were the controlling factors for THg in precipitation, whereas the MeHg concentration was primarily controlled by the SO2, WS, Cl-, and THg concentrations. PM2.5 and Cl- were the major controlling factors for PMeHg/TMeHg, whereas the TMeHg/THg ratio was mainly influenced by Cl-. The THg and MeHg fluxes were primarily controlled by precipitation, whereas Cl- was also an important factor for the MeHg wet deposition flux. The results of a 72-h backward trajectory analysis in the study region with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model indicated that Hg deposition in Qingdao mainly

  4. A new fluorescent pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate probe: A chemodosimeter to detect Hg2+ in pure aqueous medium and in live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vikram; Srivastava, Priyanka; PrakashVerma, Shiv; Misra, Arvind; Das, Parimal; Singh, Nanhai

    2014-01-01

    A new pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate based fluorescent chemodosimeter, potassium (pyren-1-ylmethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)dithiocarbamate (L1) has been designed and synthesized. The chemodosimeter shows high selectivity and sensitivity (5.2 ppb) for Hg 2+ in pure aqueous medium in which emission intensity was quenched by ≈80% due to the formation of new cyclized species, 1. The probe behaves as a chemodosimeter for Hg 2+ ions and forms Hg 2+ triggered cyclised imidazoline species with approximate detection time of 50 s and exhibits both colorimetric and fluorometric changes on detection of Hg 2+ ion. Color of the probe (L1) changed from green to colorless visible to the naked eye and from green to dark blue upon the addition of Hg 2+ ions under UV light. The Hg 2+ triggered cyclization reaction was confirmed by spectral data analysis and a single crystal structure determination of the cyclised entity 2 obtained from the model compound potassium benzyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl) dithiocarbamate (L2). L1 finds its application for detection of Hg 2+ ions on paper strips, and in BSA (bovine serum albumin) medium. L1 is also applicable for the monitoring of Hg 2+ ion in NIH3T3 live cells. - Highlights: • Efficient chemodosimeter to detect Hg 2+ ions in pure aqueous medium. • Hg 2+ triggered cyclisation and formation of imidazoline species. • Probe exhibit both colorimetric and fluorometric changes • Probe is applicable to detect Hg 2+ in live cells and on cellulose paper strips

  5. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapanje, A.; Drobne, D.; Nolde, N.; Valant, J.; Muscet, B.; Leser, V.; Rupnik, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 μg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant

  6. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J. [Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing, Department of Chemical Engineering, 230 Ross Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90{sup o}C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8mol kg{sub H{sub 2}O}{sup -1}. The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25{sup o}C and 1atm are 0.1634V for 0.100m, 0.1077V for 1.00m, and 0.0976V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0wt.% NaOH at 80{sup o}C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75{sup o}C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations. (author)

  7. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapanje, A. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)], E-mail: ales.lapanje@bf.uni-lj.si; Drobne, D. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nolde, N. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Department of Environmental Sciences, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Valant, J. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muscet, B. [Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Leser, V. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, M. [Institute of Public Health, Prvomajska 1, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Slomskov trg 15, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 {mu}g Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant.

  8. Quantificação de fluxos de mercúrio gasoso na interface solo/atmosfera utilizando câmara de fluxo dinâmica: aplicação na bacia do Rio Negro Quantification of atmosphere - soil mercury fluxes by using a dynamic flux chamber: application at the Negro River basin, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Magarelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous mercury sampling conditions were optimized and a dynamic flux chamber was used to measure the air/surface exchange of mercury in some areas of the Negro river basin with different vegetal coverings. At the two forest sites (flooding and non-flooding, low mercury fluxes were observed: maximum of 3 pmol m-2 h-1 - day and minimum of -1 pmol m-2 h-1 - night. At the deforested site, the mercury fluxes were higher and always positive: maximum of 26 pmol m-2 h-1 - day and 17 pmol m-2 h-1 - night. Our results showed that deforestation could be responsible for significantly increasing soil Hg emissions, mainly because of the high soil temperatures reached at deforested sites.

  9. Electron beam induced Hg desorption and the electronic structure of the Hg depleted surface of Hg1/sub -//sub x/Cd/sub x/Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.K.; Friedman, D.J.; Bertness, K.A.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Wilson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) were used to study the electron beam induced Hg desorption from a cleaved (110)Hg/sub 1-//sub x/Cd/sub x/Te surface and the electronic structure of the Hg depleted surface. Solid state recrystallized Hg/sub 1-//sub x/Cd/sub x/Te single crystals were used. It was found that the electron beam heating dominated the electron beam induced Hg desorption on Hg/sub 1-//sub x/Cd/sub x/Te. At the electron beam energy used, the electron beam heating extended several thousand angstroms deep. However, the Hg depletion saturated after a few monolayers were depleted of Hg atoms. At the initial stage of Hg loss (only 3%), the surface band bends upward (more p type). The ARPES spectrum showed the loss of some E vs k dispersion after 22% Hg atoms were removed from the surface region, and no dispersion was observed after 43% Hg atoms were removed. These results have important implications on the electronic structure of the surfaces and interfaces of which the stoichiometry is altered

  10. A Theoretical Study of the Oxidation of Hg0 to HgBr2 in the Troposphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodsite, M. E.; Plane, J. M C; Skov, H.

    2004-01-01

    The oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to the divalent gaseous mercury dibromide (HgBr2) has been proposed to account for the removal of Hg0 during depletion events in the springtime Arctic. The mechanism of this process is explored in this paper by theoretical calculations of the relevant rate...... coefficients. Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, together with ab initio quantum calculations where required, are used to estimate the following: recombination rate coefficients of Hg with Br, I, and O; the thermal dissociation rate coefficient of HgBr; and the recombination rate coefficients of Hg......Br with Br, I, OH, and O2. A mechanism based on the initial recombination of Hg with Br, followed by the addition of a second radical (Br, I, or OH) in competition with thermal dissociation of HgBr, is able to account for the observed rate of Hg 0 removal, both in Arctic depletion events and at lower...

  11. A highly selective and non-reaction based chemosensor for the detection of Hg2+ ions using a luminescent iridium(III complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shiu-Hin Chan

    Full Text Available We report herein a novel luminescent iridium(III complex with two hydrophobic carbon chains as a non-reaction based chemosensor for the detection of Hg(2+ ions in aqueous solution (<0.002% of organic solvent attributed to the probe solution. Upon the addition of Hg(2+ ions, the emission intensity of the complex was significantly enhanced and this change could be monitored by the naked eye under UV irradiation. The iridium(III complex shows high specificity for Hg(2+ ions over eighteen other cations. The system is capable of detecting micromolar levels of Hg(2+ ions, which is within the range of many chemical systems.

  12. Intracellular Hg(0) Oxidation in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Schaefer, Jeffra K; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Yee, Nathan

    2016-10-03

    The disposal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) wastes in mining and manufacturing areas has caused serious soil and groundwater contamination issues. Under anoxic conditions, certain anaerobic bacteria can oxidize dissolved elemental mercury and convert the oxidized Hg to neurotoxic methylmercury. In this study, we conducted experiments with the Hg-methylating bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 to elucidate the role of cellular thiols in anaerobic Hg(0) oxidation. The concentrations of cell-surface and intracellular thiols were measured, and specific fractions of D. desulfuricans ND132 were examined for Hg(0) oxidation activity and analyzed with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The experimental data indicate that intracellular thiol concentrations are approximately six times higher than those of the cell wall. Cells reacted with a thiol-blocking reagent were severely impaired in Hg(0) oxidation activity. Spheroplasts lacking cell walls rapidly oxidized Hg(0) to Hg(II), while cell wall fragments exhibited low reactivity toward Hg(0). EXAFS analysis of spheroplast samples revealed that multiple different forms of Hg-thiols are produced by the Hg(0) oxidation reaction and that the local coordination environment of the oxidized Hg changes with reaction time. The results of this study indicate that Hg(0) oxidation in D. desulfuricans ND132 is an intracellular process that occurs by reaction with thiol-containing molecules.

  13. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alexander Maxwell

    Full Text Available Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP dynamic flux chamber (DFC in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from -4.47 ng m(-2 hr(-1 to 9.89 ng m(-2 hr(-1. For most sample periods, daytime GEM flux was strongly correlated with solar radiation. The average nighttime GEM flux was slightly negative and was not well correlated with any of the measured meteorological variables. Preliminary, empirical models were developed to estimate GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York. These models suggest that most, if not all, of the Hg deposited with and to snow is reemitted to the atmosphere.

  14. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J Alexander; Holsen, Thomas M; Mondal, Sumona

    2013-01-01

    Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) dynamic flux chamber (DFC) in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg) vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from -4.47 ng m(-2) hr(-1) to 9.89 ng m(-2) hr(-1). For most sample periods, daytime GEM flux was strongly correlated with solar radiation. The average nighttime GEM flux was slightly negative and was not well correlated with any of the measured meteorological variables. Preliminary, empirical models were developed to estimate GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York. These models suggest that most, if not all, of the Hg deposited with and to snow is reemitted to the atmosphere.

  15. Mercury emission and dispersion models from soils contaminated by cinnabar mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Willians; Kocman, David; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena

    2011-12-01

    The laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) and dispersion models were used to investigate the kinetics of mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentration (26-9770 μg g(-1)) surrounding a decommissioned mercury-mining area (Las Cuevas Mine), and a former mercury smelter (Cerco Metalúrgico de Almadenejos), in the Almadén mercury mining district (South Central Spain), were collected. Altogether, 14 samples were analyzed to determine the variation in mercury emission flux (MEF) versus distance from the sources, regulating two major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the fraction of the water-soluble mercury in these samples was determined in order to assess how MEF from soil is related to the mercury in the aqueous soil phase. Measured MEFs ranged from less than 140 to over 10,000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from contaminated soils adjacent to point sources. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. Strong positive effects of both temperature and solar radiation on MEF was observed. Moreover, MEF was found to occur more easily in soils with higher proportions of soluble mercury compared to soils where cinnabar prevails. Based on the calculated Hg emission rates and with the support of geographical information system (GIS) tools and ISC AERMOD software, dispersion models for atmospheric mercury were implemented. In this way, the gaseous mercury plume generated by the soil-originated emissions at different seasons was modeled. Modeling efforts revealed that much higher emissions and larger mercury plumes are generated in dry and warm periods (summer), while the plume is smaller and associated with lower concentrations of atmospheric mercury during colder periods with higher wind activity (fall). Based on the calculated emissions and the model implementation, yearly emissions from

  16. Evidence of Hg-chain formation in HgxTiS2: a 199mHg-TDPAC study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, W.; Butz, T.; Ouvrard, G.

    1993-01-01

    We determined the 199m Hg nuclear quadrupole interaction in the ''misfit'' or ''superstoichiometric'' compound Hg x TiS 2 by time differential perturbed angular correlation. A unique Hg-site with ν Q = 511(1) MHz and η = 0.410(4) was observed, irrespective of the Hg-uptake (2/3 ≤ x ≤ 4/3). We propose a model of Hg-Hg zig-zag chains which accounts for these observations as well as for the X-ray diffraction data. (orig.)

  17. Addition of ash in drained peatland forests in southern Sweden - Forest yield and fluxes of greenhouse gases; Tillfoersel av aska i skog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige - Skogsproduktion och emission av vaexthusgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem Ulf (Skogforsk, Uppsala (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Robert G; Klemedtsson, Leif (Goeteborgs universitet (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of wood-ash application (3.3 and 6.6 tonnes d.w. self-harden crushed wood ash ha-1) in forests on drained peatlands in southern Sweden. Tree growth (three sites) and fluxes of greenhouse gases (one site) were measured in field experiments. In the two experiments (Anderstorp and Bredaryd) in Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris L.) on oligotrophic mires, tree growth increased significantly during the seven-eight year long effect periods after ash application. In an earlier study in Anderstorp, the annual emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from the peat were shown to be unaffected by the ash application. In Skogaryd, a Norway spruce stand (Picea abies L. Karst.) on a minerotrophic mire, the growth was indicated to increase during the five-year effect period. In the same experiment, the previously found reduction in emissions of both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O during the first two years after ash application were no longer significant, although the emissions where lower, for N{sub 2}O only in the high dose ash treatment. CH{sub 4} was unaffected during the whole observed period. During the first five years, application of 3-6 tonnes d.w. crushed wood ash ha-1 in the two studied forests on drained peatlands did not render in an increased Global Warming Potential (GWP), but rather a reduction

  18. Resonance broadening of Hg lines as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J E

    2004-01-01

    The use of width measurements on resonance broadened lines of Hg as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge (HID) lamps is reviewed and further developed in this paper. Optical depths of Hg I lines at 491.6 nm, 577.0 nm, and 1014 nm are computed as a function of temperature to confirm that these lines are optically thin in most HID lamps. The effect of quadratic and quartic radial temperature variation on the width of resonance broadened lines is computed for arc core temperatures from 4000 K to 7000 K. Such variations in temperature, and inverse variations in Hg density, are found to increase the line widths by less than 10% for 'side-on' emission measurements averaged over the arc radius. Theoretical profiles of resonance broadened spectral lines, both radially averaged and as a function of chord offset, are presented. Observations of resonance broadened lines in a metal-halide HID lamp are presented and analysed. It is concluded that the widths of resonance broadened lines provide a convenient and reliable diagnostic for the arc core Hg density but are generally not very sensitive to the radial temperature and Hg density gradient

  19. Selective solid-phase extraction of Hg(II) using silica gel surface - imprinting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.; Geng, T.; Hu, L.

    2008-01-01

    A new ion-imprinted amino-functionalized silica gel sorbent was synthesized by surface-imprinting technique for preconcentration and separation of Hg(II) prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Compared to the traditional solid sorbents and non-imprinted polymer particles, the ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) have higher adsorption capacity and selectivity for Hg(II). The maximum static adsorption capacity of the imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent for Hg(II) was 29.89 mg g -1 and 11.21 mg g -1 , respectively. The highest selectivity coefficient for Hg(II) in the presence of Zn(II) exceeded 230. The detection limit (3σ) of the method was 0.25 μg L -1 . The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.5% for eight replicate determinations of 10 μg of Hg 2+ in 200 mL-in-volume water sample. The procedure was validated by performing the analysis of the certified river sediment sample (GBW 08603, China) using the standard addition method. The developed method was also successfully applied to the determination of trace mercury in Chinese traditional medicine and water samples with satisfactory results. (authors)

  20. Positive gain measurements on the 3350-A continuum band of Hg2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlie, L.A.; Guenther, B.D.; Rathge, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A He-Cd + laser operating at 3250 A and an Ar + laser at 3511 A and 3638 A have been used to probe for gain on both sides of the Hg 2 3350-A (A 3 1/subu/→X 1 Σ/subg/ + ) continuum band in Hg vapor at a pressure of 3.75 atm that was pumped by a 1.5-MeV 600-J 20-ns electron beam. This letter presents the first observation of positive gain on this 3350-A band of Hg 2 . The results indicate that the stimulated emission cross section for this band is larger than any associated photoionization process in the Hg vapor and has a magnitude of approximately 10 -18 cm 2 . Also, raising the temperature of the vapor above its saturation value increases the maximum value and duration of the observed gain, indicating that the population of the upper level of this transition is being fed by a temperature-dependent internal energy reservoir in the Hg

  1. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (HgT, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream HgT. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate HgT during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate HgT in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved HgT concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-HgT complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed HgT becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily HgT loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for HgT loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in HgT dynamics.

  2. Recovery of aquatic insect-mediated methylmercury flux from ponds following drying disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Greenhill, Frank M; Kennedy, James H; Courville, Ashlyn E; Gober, Charlie A A; Lossau, Luke O

    2017-08-01

    Small ponds exist across a permanence gradient, and pond permanence is hypothesized to be a primary determinant of insect community structure and insect-mediated methylmercury (MeHg) flux from ponds to the surrounding terrestrial landscape. The present study describes the first experiment examining the recovery of insect-mediated MeHg flux following a drying disturbance that converted permanent ponds with insectivorous fish to semipermanent ponds without fish. Floating emergence traps were used to collect emergent insects for 10 wk in the spring and summer from 5 ponds with fish (permanent) and 5 ponds that were drained to remove fish, dried, and refilled with water (semipermanent). During the 73-d period after semipermanent ponds were refilled, total MeHg flux from semipermanent ponds was not significantly different than total MeHg flux from permanent ponds, indicating that insect-mediated MeHg flux had rapidly recovered in semipermanent ponds following the drying disturbance. Methylmercury fluxes from dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) and phantom midges (Diptera: Chaoboridae) were significantly greater from newly refilled semipermanent ponds than permanent ponds, but the MeHg fluxes from the other 8 emergent insect taxa did not differ between treatments. The present study demonstrates the impact of drying disturbance and the effect of community structure on the cross-system transport of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1986-1990. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Carbon-13 isotope effects on 199Hg nuclear shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebald, Angelika; Wrackmeyer, Bernd

    1985-01-01

    Secondary 13 C/ 12 C isotope effects on 199 Hg nuclear shielding (Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg)) are of interest because of the unusual shift to high frequency which has been observed for a few alkyl mercury compounds. Continuing interest in the NMR parameters of mercury compounds prompted a search for the values Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg) in a greater variety of organomercurials. This should help to find out about the range of Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg) and to obtain a firmer basis for the discussion of the high-frequency shifts. The data and experimental conditions are given for chemical shifts delta 199 Hg, coupling constants sup(n)J( 199 Hg 13 C) and 13 C/ 12 C isotope shifts Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg) of fourteen 199 Hg organomercury compounds. The results are discussed. (author)

  4. The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system with scarce observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.

    2014-07-01

    photometric fits to very scarce and low-accuracy data. There are a few details that should be considered with the H,G_1,G_2 or H,G_{12} systems with scarce data. The first point is the distribution of errors in the fit. The original H,G system allowed linear regression in the flux space, thus making the estimation computationally easier. The same principle was repeated with the H,G_1,G_2 system. There is, however, a major hidden assumption in the transformation. With regression modeling, the residuals should be distributed symmetrically around zero. If they are normally distributed, even better. We have noticed that, at least with some NEO observations, the residuals in the flux space are far from symmetric, and seem to be much more symmetric in the magnitude space. The result is that the nonlinear fit in magnitude space is far more reliable than the linear fit in the flux space. Since the computers and nonlinear regression algorithms are efficient enough, we conclude that, in many cases, with low-accuracy data the nonlinear fit should be favored. In fact, there are statistical procedures that should be employed with the photometric fit. At the moment, the choice between the three-parameter and two-parameter versions is simply based on subjective decision-making. By checking parameter error and model comparison statistics, the choice could be done objectively. Similarly, the choice between the linear fit in flux space and the nonlinear fit in magnitude space should be based on a statistical test of unbiased residuals. Furthermore, the so-called Box-Cox transform could be employed to find an optimal transformation somewhere between the magnitude and flux spaces. The H,G_1,G_2 system is based on cubic splines, and is therefore a bit more complicated to implement than a system with simpler basis functions. The same applies to a complete program that would automatically choose the best transforms to data, test if two- or three-parameter version of the model should be fitted, and

  5. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  6. 40 CFR 60.4124 - Hg budget permit revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg budget permit revisions. 60.4124... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4124 Hg budget permit revisions. Except as provided in § 60.4123(b), the permitting authority will revise the Hg Budget permit, as necessary, in...

  7. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  8. Observation of superdeformation in 191Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.F.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Chasman, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    The first observation of superdeformation in the A ≅ 190 mass region is reported. A rotational band of 12 transitions with an average energy spacing of 37 keV, an average moment of inertia of 110 ℎ 2 MeV -1 , and an average quadrupole moment of 18 ± 3 eb has been observed in 191 Hg. These results are in excellent agreement with a calculation that predicts an ellipsoidal axis ratio of 1.65:1 for the superdeformed shape in this nucleus. Evidence for another discrete superdeformed band and superdeformed structures in the quasi-continuum was also found in the data. 19 refs., 6 figs

  9. Determination of equilibrium phase composition in the Hg-HgTe-CdTe system by ''dew point'' method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanyukov, A.V.; Krotov, I.I.; Ermakov, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Using the ''dew point'' method a study has been made of the equilibrium composition of the solid and liquid phases in the Hg-HgTe-CdTe system at 404, 435 and 454 deg C. It has been pointed out that crystallization of cadmium-rich solid solutions of Cdsub(x)Hgsub(1-x) Te takes place from a liquid phase with a much higher concentration of Hg. The activity of Hg in the liquid phase increases along the liquidus isotherm in the direction from section Hg-HgTe to section HgCdTe in accordance with the increase of its concentration. An increase in activity of Hg in the solid phase of Cdsub(x)Hgsub(1-x)Te has been noted with the reduction of its concentration

  10. Hg and Pt-metals in meteorite carbon-rich residues - Suggestions for possible host phase for Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon-rich and oxide residual phases have been isolated from Allende and Murchison by acid demineralization for the determination of their Hg, Pt-metal, Cr, Sc, Co, and Fe contents. Experimental procedures used eliminated the possibility of exogenous and endogenous contaminant trace elements from coprecipitating with the residues. Large enrichments of Hg and Pt-metals were found in Allende but not in Murchison residues. Hg-release profiles from stepwise heating experiments suggest a sulfide as the host for Hg. Diffusion calculations for Hg based on these experiments indicate an activation energy of 7-8 kcal/mol, the same as that for Hg in troilite from an iron meteorite. This is further support for a sulfide host phase for Hg. Equilibration of Hg with this phase at approximately 900 K is indicated. Reasons for the presence of Pt-metals in noncosmic relative abundances are explored.

  11. Hg Storage and Mobility in Tundra Soils of Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C.; Obrist, D.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) can be transported over long distances to remote regions such as the Arctic where it can then deposit and temporarily be stored in soils. This research aims to improve the understanding of terrestrial Hg storage and mobility in the arctic tundra, a large receptor area for atmospheric deposition and a major source of Hg to the Arctic Ocean. We aim to characterize spatial Hg pool sizes across various tundra sites and to quantify the mobility of Hg from thawing tundra soils using laboratory mobility experiments. Active layer and permafrost soil samples were collected in the summer of 2014 and 2015 at the Toolik Field Station in northern Alaska (68° 38' N) and along a 200 km transect extending from Toolik to the Arctic Ocean. Soil samples were analyzed for total Hg concentration, bulk density, and major and trace elements. Hg pool sizes were estimated by scaling up Hg soil concentrations using soil bulk density measurements. Mobility of Hg in tundra soils was quantified by shaking soil samples with ultrapure Milli-Q® water as an extracting solution for 24 and 72 hours. Additionally, meltwater samples were collected for analysis when present. The extracted supernatant was analyzed for total Hg, dissolved organic carbon, cations and anions, redox, and ph. Mobility of Hg from soil was calculated using Hg concentrations determined in solid soil samples and in supernatant of soil solution samples. Results of this study show Hg levels in tundra mineral soils that are 2-5 times higher than those observed at temperate sites closer to pollution sources. Most of the soil Hg was located in mineral horizons where Hg mass accounted for 72% of the total soil pool. Soil Hg pool sizes across the tundra sites were highly variable (166 - 1,365 g ha-1; avg. 419 g ha-1) due to the heterogeneity in soil type, bulk density, depth to frozen layer, and soil Hg concentration. Preliminary results from the laboratory experiment show higher mobility of Hg in mineral

  12. Gradient measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) in the marine boundary layer of the northwest Sea of Japan (East Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchuk, Viktor; Lopatnikov, Evgeny; Astakhov, Anatoly

    2018-06-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) is a prolific and persistent contaminant in the atmosphere. Atmospheric concentrations of Hg 0 were determined from 17 September to 7 October 2015 in the northwest Sea of Japan aboard the Russian research vessel Professor Gagarinsky. Simultaneous measurements of Hg 0 concentrations were performed 2 m and 20 m above the sea surface using automatic Hg 0 analysers RA-915M and RA-915+, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 25.9 ng/m 3 (n = 5207) and from 0.3 to 27.8 ng/m 3 (n = 4415), with medians of 1.7 and 1.6 ng/m 3 , respectively. Elevated Hg 0 was observed during three episodes from 19 to 22 September, likely caused by one or more of the following factors: 1) atmospheric transport of Hg 0 from the west and south-west (from N. Korea, China, and the Yellow Sea region); 2) Hg 0 emission from the sea due to pollution by water from the Tumannaya River; or 3) underwater geological activities. Increased Hg 0 concentration was observed during periods when air masses flowed from the south, and low concentrations were observed when air masses came from the north. A daytime increase of Hg 0 concentrations at a height of 2 m occurred simultaneously with decreasing Hg 0 at a height of 20 m. These diurnal variations suggest that two contrasting processes occur during the daytime in the marine boundary layer (MBL): Hg 0 emission from the sea surface and Hg 0 oxidation in the MBL by active halogens formed by photolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimates of mercury flux into the United States from non-local and global sources : results from a 3-D CTM simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Streets, D.; Kim, M.; Crist, K.; Ohio Univ.

    2008-11-01

    The sensitivity of Hg concentration and deposition in the United States to emissions in China was investigated by using a global chemical transport model: Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART). Two forms of gaseous Hg were included in the model: elemental Hg (HG(0)) and oxidized or reactive Hg (HGO). We simulated three different emission scenarios to evaluate the model's sensitivity. One scenario included no emissions from China, while the others were based on different estimates of Hg emissions in China. The results indicated, in general, that when Hg emissions were included, HG(0) concentrations increased both locally and globally. Increases in Hg concentrations in the United States were greatest during spring and summer, by as much as 7%. Ratios of calculated concentrations of Hg and CO near the source region in eastern Asia agreed well with ratios based on measurements. Increases similar to those observed for HG(0) were also calculated for deposition of HGO. Calculated increases in wet and dry deposition in the United States were 5-7% and 5-9%, respectively. The results indicate that long-range transcontinental transport of Hg has a non-negligible impact on Hg deposition levels in the United States.

  14. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-08-06

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy nanomagnet with a

  15. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-08-06

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy

  16. Collective dynamics in dense Hg vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, D; Inui, M; Matsuda, K; Tamura, K; Baron, A Q R; Tsutsui, S; Tanaka, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic structure factor, S(Q,ο), of dense Hg vapour has been measured by high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering for densities of 3.0, 2.1 and 1.0 g cm -3 corresponding to 0.52, 0.36 and 0.17 times the critical density, respectively, and for momentum transfers between 2.0 and 48 nm -1 . Analysis of the longitudinal current-current correlation function in the framework of generalized hydrodynamics reveals that the frequencies of the collective excitations increase faster with Q than estimated from the macroscopic speed of sound. The ratios of the frequencies were found to be 1.27 at 3.0 g cm -3 , 1.12 at 2.1 g cm -3 and 1.10 at 1.0 g cm -3 . The sound velocity obtained from the present experiments is well reproduced by a wavenumber dependent adiabatic sound velocity, which means that the collective modes remain in the spectra of dense Hg vapour. (letter to the editor)

  17. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions estimated for South Africa during 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masekoameng, K.E.; Leaner, J.; Dabrowski, J. [CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-08-15

    Recent studies suggest an increase in mercury (Hg) emissions to the global environment, particularly as a result of anthropogenic activities. This has prompted many countries to complete Hg emission inventories, based on country-specific Hg sources. In this study, information on annual coal consumption and Hg-containing commodities produced in South Africa, was used to estimate Hg emissions during 2000-2006. Based on the information, the UNEP toolkit was used to estimate the amount of Hg released to air and general waste from each activity; using South Africa specific and toolkit based emission factors. In both atmospheric and solid waste releases, coal-fired power plants were estimated to be the largest contributors of Hg emissions, viz. 27.1 to 38.9 tonnes y{sup -1} in air, and 5.8 to 7.4 tonnes y{sup -1} in waste. Cement production was estimated to be the second largest atmospheric Hg emission contributor (2.2-3.9 tonnes y{sup -1}), while coal gasification was estimated to be the second largest Hg contributor in terms of general waste releases (2.9-4.2 tonnes y{sup -1}). Overall, there was an increase in total atmospheric Hg emissions from all activities, estimated at ca. 34 tonnes in 2000, to 50 tonnes in 2006, with some fluctuations between the years. Similarly, the total Hg emissions released to general waste was estimated to be 9 tonnes in 2000, with an increase to 12 tonnes in 2006.

  18. Fully relativistic coupled cluster and DFT study of electric field gradients at Hg in 199Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the magnitude and interplay of relativistic and electron correlation effects on the electric field gradient (EFG) at the position of Hg in linear and bent HgL2 (L=CH3, Cl, Br, I) and trigonal planar [HgCl3]- complexes using four-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) and non...

  19. Oblate shapes of 200,202,204Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Kleinfeld, A.M.; Lieb, K.P.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the reorientation effect for the first excited 2 + states in 200 , 202 , 204 Hg were performed by exploiting the dependence of the γ-ray yield on Q 2 + for different projectiles. For 200 Hg, a positive quadrupole moment of Q 2 = 0.96 +- 0.11 eb (for negative interference) or Q 2 = 1.11 +- 0.11 eb (for positive interference) was determined indicating an oblate shape. Small positive Q 2 values were also found for 202 Hg and 204 Hg. Nine B(E2) values for excitation of the 2 + , 2 + ' and 4 + states in 196-204 Hg were measured. (orig.) [de

  20. Updated atmospheric speciated mercury emissions from iron and steel production in China during 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and steel production (ISP is one of the significant atmospheric Hg emission sources in China. Atmospheric mercury (Hg emissions from ISP during 2000–2015 were estimated by using a technology-based emission factor method. To support the application of this method, databases of Hg concentrations in raw materials, technology development trends, and Hg removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs were constructed through national sampling and literature review. Hg input to ISP increased from 21.6 t in 2000 to 94.5 t in 2015. In the various types of raw materials, coking coal and iron concentrates contributed 35–46 and 25–32 % of the total Hg input. Atmospheric Hg emissions from ISP increased from 11.5 t in 2000 to 32.7 t in 2015 with a peak of 35.6 t in 2013. Pollution control promoted the increase in average Hg removal efficiency, from 47 % in 2000 to 65 % in 2015. During the study period, sinter/pellet plants and blast furnaces were the largest two emission processes. However, emissions from roasting plants and coke ovens cannot be ignored, which accounted for 22–34 % of ISP's emissions. Overall, Hg speciation shifted from 50/44/6 (gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0/gaseous oxidized Hg (HgII/particulate-bound Hg (Hgp in 2000 to 40/59/1 in 2015, which indicated a higher proportion of Hg deposition around the emission points. Future emissions of ISP were expected to decrease based on the comprehensive consideration crude-steel production, steel scrap utilization, energy saving, and pollution control measures.

  1. Updated atmospheric speciated mercury emissions from iron and steel production in China during 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingru; Gao, Wei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-09-01

    Iron and steel production (ISP) is one of the significant atmospheric Hg emission sources in China. Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions from ISP during 2000-2015 were estimated by using a technology-based emission factor method. To support the application of this method, databases of Hg concentrations in raw materials, technology development trends, and Hg removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs) were constructed through national sampling and literature review. Hg input to ISP increased from 21.6 t in 2000 to 94.5 t in 2015. In the various types of raw materials, coking coal and iron concentrates contributed 35-46 and 25-32 % of the total Hg input. Atmospheric Hg emissions from ISP increased from 11.5 t in 2000 to 32.7 t in 2015 with a peak of 35.6 t in 2013. Pollution control promoted the increase in average Hg removal efficiency, from 47 % in 2000 to 65 % in 2015. During the study period, sinter/pellet plants and blast furnaces were the largest two emission processes. However, emissions from roasting plants and coke ovens cannot be ignored, which accounted for 22-34 % of ISP's emissions. Overall, Hg speciation shifted from 50/44/6 (gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0)/gaseous oxidized Hg (HgII)/particulate-bound Hg (Hgp)) in 2000 to 40/59/1 in 2015, which indicated a higher proportion of Hg deposition around the emission points. Future emissions of ISP were expected to decrease based on the comprehensive consideration crude-steel production, steel scrap utilization, energy saving, and pollution control measures.

  2. Distinct toxicological characteristics and mechanisms of Hg2+ and MeHg in Tetrahymena under low concentration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Bin; Qu, Guang-Bo; Cao, Meng-Xi; Liang, Yong; Hu, Li-Gang; Shi, Jian-Bo; Cai, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2017-12-01

    Inorganic divalent mercury complexes (Hg 2+ ) and monomethylmercury complexes (MeHg) are the main mercury species in aquatic systems and their toxicity to aquatic organisms is of great concern. Tetrahymena is a type of unicellular eukaryotic protozoa located at the bottom of food chain that plays a fundamental role in the biomagnification of mercury. In this work, the dynamic accumulation properties, toxicological characteristics and mechanisms of Hg 2+ and MeHg in five Tetrahymena species were evaluated in detail. The results showed that both Hg 2+ and MeHg were ingested and exhibited inhibitory effects on the proliferation or survival of Tetrahymena species. However, the ingestion rate of MeHg was significantly higher than that of Hg 2+ . The mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of MeHg and Hg 2+ were different, although both chemicals altered mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). MeHg disrupted the integrity of membranes while Hg 2+ had detrimental effects on Tetrahymena as a result of the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the five Tetrahymena species showed different capacities in accumulating Hg 2+ and MeHg, with T. corlissi exhibiting the highest accumulations. The study also found significant growth-promoting effect on T. corlissi under low concentration exposure (0.003 and 0.01μg Hg/mL (15 and 50nM)), suggesting different effect and mechanism that should be more closely examined when assessing the bioaccumulation and toxicity of mercury in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic functions for Ag-Hg and Cu-Hg binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yajun, E-mail: yajunliu@gatech.edu [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Wang, Guan [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Wang, Jiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Chen, Yang [Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Research Department, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); Long, Zhaohui [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic properties of Ag-Hg and Cu-Hg are explored in order to facilitate dental materials design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A self-consistent set of thermodynamic parameters is obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experimental information can be well reproduced by the optimized thermodynamic data. - Abstract: In order to facilitate the computational design of new amalgams for novel dental alloys, the phase equilibria, phase diagrams and thermodynamic functions for Ag-Hg and Cu-Hg binary systems are explored in this work, based on the CALPHAD framework and experimental characterizations. The Gibbs free energies of the solution phases as well as the stoichiometric phases are calculated, with the aid of enthalpies of mixing, activities, enthalpies of formation, and phase equilibrium data. The thermodynamic descriptions provided in this work enable the stabilities of each phase at various temperatures and compositions to be well described, which contribute to the establishment of a general database to design novel metallic dental materials.

  4. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic functions for Ag–Hg and Cu–Hg binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yajun; Wang, Guan; Wang, Jiang; Chen, Yang; Long, Zhaohui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermodynamic properties of Ag–Hg and Cu–Hg are explored in order to facilitate dental materials design. ► A self-consistent set of thermodynamic parameters is obtained. ► The experimental information can be well reproduced by the optimized thermodynamic data. - Abstract: In order to facilitate the computational design of new amalgams for novel dental alloys, the phase equilibria, phase diagrams and thermodynamic functions for Ag–Hg and Cu–Hg binary systems are explored in this work, based on the CALPHAD framework and experimental characterizations. The Gibbs free energies of the solution phases as well as the stoichiometric phases are calculated, with the aid of enthalpies of mixing, activities, enthalpies of formation, and phase equilibrium data. The thermodynamic descriptions provided in this work enable the stabilities of each phase at various temperatures and compositions to be well described, which contribute to the establishment of a general database to design novel metallic dental materials.

  5. Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (water varied from 1.2 to 320 ng/L, all of which were below the 1,000 ng/L Italian drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline recommended to protect against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife. Methyl-Hg concentrations in stream water varied from water samples contained concentrations of As (drinking water guidelines to protect human health (10 μg/L for As and 20 μg/L for Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 μg/L for As and 5.6 μg/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052–0.56 μg/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 μg/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 μg/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 μg/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

  6. Mercury from wildfires: Global emission inventories and sensitivity to 2000-2050 global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Wu, Shiliang; Huang, Yaoxian; Liao, Hong; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the global Hg wildfire emissions for the 2000s and the potential impacts from the 2000-2050 changes in climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions by combining statistical analysis with global data on vegetation type and coverage as well as fire activities. Global Hg wildfire emissions are estimated to be 612 Mg year-1. Africa is the dominant source region (43.8% of global emissions), followed by Eurasia (31%) and South America (16.6%). We find significant perturbations to wildfire emissions of Hg in the context of global change, driven by the projected changes in climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions. 2000-2050 climate change could increase Hg emissions by 14% globally and regionally by 18% for South America, 14% for Africa and 13% for Eurasia. Projected changes in land use by 2050 could decrease the global Hg emissions from wildfires by 13% mainly driven by a decline in African emissions due to significant agricultural land expansion. Future land cover changes could lead to significant increases in Hg emissions over some regions (+32% North America, +14% Africa, +13% Eurasia). Potential enrichment of terrestrial ecosystems in 2050 in response to changes in Hg anthropogenic emissions could increase Hg wildfire emissions globally (+28%) and regionally (+19% North America, +20% South America, +24% Africa, +41% Eurasia). Our results indicate that the future evolution of climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions are all important factors affecting Hg wildfire emissions in the coming decades.

  7. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  8. Combining Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Rapid Recognition of an Hg-Contaminated Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Cheng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of rapid recognition of an Hg-contaminated plant as a soil pollution indicator was investigated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and chemometrics. The stem and leave of a native plant, Miscanthus floridulus (Labill. Warb. (MFLW, were collected from Hg-contaminated areas (n1=125 as well as from regular areas (n2=116. The samples were dried and crushed and the powders were sieved through an 80-mesh sieve. Reference analysis of Hg levels was performed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. The actual Hg contents of contaminated and normal samples were 16.2–30.5 and 0.0–0.1 mg/Kg, respectively. The NIRS measurements of impacted sample powders were collected in the mode of reflectance. The DUPLEX algorithm was utilized to split the NIRS data into representative training and test sets. Different spectral preprocessing methods were performed to remove the unwanted and noncomposition-correlated spectral variations. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA based on the raw, smoothed, second-order derivative (D2, and standard normal variate (SNV data, respectively. The prediction accuracy obtained by PLSDA with each data preprocessing option was 100%, indicating pattern recognition of Hg-contaminated MFLW samples using NIRS data was in perfect consistence with the ICP-AES results. NIRS combined with chemometrics will provide a tool to screen the Hg-contaminated MFLW, which can be potentially used as an indicator of soil pollution.

  9. Meteorological effects on Hg wet deposition in a forested site in the Adirondack region of New York during 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huiting; Ye, Zhuyun; Driscoll, Charles

    2017-11-01

    An analysis of weekly measurement data of mercury (Hg) wet deposition was conducted for Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF), a forest ecosystem in Upstate New York and a biological Hg hotspot, during 2000-2015. Annual accumulated Hg wet deposition flux was found to decrease at a rate of -0.13 μg m-2 yr-1 (2% yr-1) (p = 0.09), and volume weighted mean (VWM) Hg precipitation concentrations at -0.14 ng L-1 yr-1 (2.5% yr-1) (p = 0.00). In examining data by season, no trends were identified for the two variables. It was found that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affected Hg wet deposition predominantly in spring, as did the position of the U.S. East Coast trough in summer, which suggests different dominant mechanisms driving Hg wet deposition in different seasons. The impacts of such large scale circulation processes were facilitated via variations in precipitation amounts. This was manifested in spring 2011 with the strongest positive phase of NAO, resulting in the wettest spring with the largest Hg wet deposition flux, and in summer 2007 with the U.S. East Coast trough positioned the farthest out over the Atlantic Ocean, causing the driest summer with the lowest Hg wet deposition flux of the study period. Extreme precipitation amounts in spring could singularly drive the overall long-term trend in Hg wet deposition whereas in summer other factors could just be as important. Similar mechanisms were thought to control the long term variations of Hg wet deposition and precipitation concentrations in all seasons but summer as indicated in their significant correlation in all but summer. Atmospheric concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particulate borne mercury (PBM) at HWF over 2009-2015 hardly exhibited correlations with Hg wet deposition or precipitation concentrations. Chemical transport model simulations strongly supported efficient scavenging of oxidized Hg by precipitation resulting in the lowest concentration of GOM in the warm season despite the

  10. Metal transfer to plants grown on a dredged sediment: use of radioactive isotope 203Hg and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caille, Nathalie; Vauleon, Clotilde; Leyval, Corinne; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Improperly disposed of dredged sediments contaminated with metals may induce long-term leaching and an increase of metal concentrations in ground waters and vegetal cover plants. The objective of the study was to quantify the sediment-to-plant transfer of Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn with a particular focus on the pathway of Hg and to determine whether the establishment of vegetal cover modifies the metal availability. A pot experiment with rape (Brassica napus), cabbage (Brassica oleraccea) and red fescue (Festuca rubra) was set up using a sediment first spiked with the radioisotope 203 Hg. Zinc concentrations (197-543 mg kg -1 DM) in leaves were higher than Cu concentration (197-543 mg kg -1 DM), Pb concentration (2.3-2.6 mg kg -1 DM) and Hg concentration (0.9-1.7 mg kg -1 DM). Leaves-to-sediment ratios decreased as follows: Zn>Cu>Hg>Pb. According to Ti measurements, metal contamination by dry deposition was less than 1%. Mercury concentration in plant leaves was higher than European and French thresholds. Foliar absorption of volatile Hg was a major pathway for Hg contamination with a root absorption of Hg higher in rape than in cabbage and red fescue. Growth of each species increased Cu solubility. Zinc solubility was increased only in the presence of rape. The highest increase of Cu solubility was observed for red fescue whereas this species largely decreased Zn solubility. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements suggested that Cu solubilisation could result from organic matter or release of natural plant exudates. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measures suggested that the high Zn solubility in the presence of rape could originate from a generation of acidity in rape rhizosphere and a subsequent dissolution of calcium carbonates. Consequently, emission of volatile Hg from contaminated dredged sediments and also the potential increase of metal solubility by a vegetal cover of grass when used in phytostabilisation must be taken into account by decision makers

  11. Metal transfer to plants grown on a dredged sediment: use of radioactive isotope 203Hg and titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Nathalie; Vauleon, Clotilde; Leyval, Corinne; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2005-04-01

    Improperly disposed of dredged sediments contaminated with metals may induce long-term leaching and an increase of metal concentrations in ground waters and vegetal cover plants. The objective of the study was to quantify the sediment-to-plant transfer of Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn with a particular focus on the pathway of Hg and to determine whether the establishment of vegetal cover modifies the metal availability. A pot experiment with rape (Brassica napus), cabbage (Brassica oleraccea) and red fescue (Festuca rubra) was set up using a sediment first spiked with the radioisotope 203Hg. Zinc concentrations (197-543 mg kg(-1) DM) in leaves were higher than Cu concentration (197-543 mg kg(-1) DM), Pb concentration (2.3-2.6 mg kg(-1) DM) and Hg concentration (0.9-1.7 mg kg(-1) DM). Leaves-to-sediment ratios decreased as follows: Zn > Cu > Hg > Pb. According to Ti measurements, metal contamination by dry deposition was less than 1%. Mercury concentration in plant leaves was higher than European and French thresholds. Foliar absorption of volatile Hg was a major pathway for Hg contamination with a root absorption of Hg higher in rape than in cabbage and red fescue. Growth of each species increased Cu solubility. Zinc solubility was increased only in the presence of rape. The highest increase of Cu solubility was observed for red fescue whereas this species largely decreased Zn solubility. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements suggested that Cu solubilisation could result from organic matter or release of natural plant exudates. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measures suggested that the high Zn solubility in the presence of rape could originate from a generation of acidity in rape rhizosphere and a subsequent dissolution of calcium carbonates. Consequently, emission of volatile Hg from contaminated dredged sediments and also the potential increase of metal solubility by a vegetal cover of grass when used in phytostabilisation must be taken into account by decision

  12. Sulfurization of Dissolved Organic Matter Increases Hg-Sulfide-Dissolved Organic Matter Bioavailability to a Hg-Methylating Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew M; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Hajic, Hayley A; Lee, Connie; Msekela, Deborah; Gilmour, Cynthia C

    2017-08-15

    Reactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with aqueous sulfide (termed sulfurization) in anoxic environments can substantially increase DOM's reduced sulfur functional group content. Sulfurization may affect DOM-trace metal interactions, including complexation and metal-containing particle precipitation, aggregation, and dissolution. Using a diverse suite of DOM samples, we found that susceptibility to additional sulfur incorporation via reaction with aqueous sulfide increased with increasing DOM aromatic-, carbonyl-, and carboxyl-C content. The role of DOM sulfurization in enhancing Hg bioavailability for microbial methylation was evaluated under conditions typical of Hg methylation environments (μM sulfide concentrations and low Hg-to-DOM molar ratios). Under the conditions of predicted metacinnabar supersaturation, microbial Hg methylation increased with increasing DOM sulfurization, likely reflecting either effective inhibition of metacinnabar growth and aggregation or the formation of Hg(II)-DOM thiol complexes with high bioavailability. Remarkably, Hg methylation efficiencies with the most sulfurized DOM samples were similar (>85% of total Hg methylated) to that observed in the presence of l-cysteine, a ligand facilitating rapid Hg(II) biouptake and methylation. This suggests that complexes of Hg(II) with DOM thiols have similar bioavailability to Hg(II) complexes with low-molecular-weight thiols. Overall, our results are a demonstration of the importance of DOM sulfurization to trace metal and metalloid (especially mercury) fate in the environment. DOM sulfurization likely represents another link between anthropogenic sulfate enrichment and MeHg production in the environment.

  13. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: NIST Traceability and Comparability (And EPA ALT Methods for Hg and HCl )

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the tru...

  14. Superdeformation studies in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformation in the A {approximately} 190 region was first observed in {sup 191}Hg from an experiment performed at ATLAS using the Argonne Notre Dame {gamma}-ray facility. We recently revisited the study of superdeformation in this nucleus using Gammasphere and the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n) and {sup 174}Yb({sup 22}Ne,5n) reactions at 172 and 120 MeV in order to populate and measure states in the second well. The goal of the experiment was to identify new bands in the data, and thus allow us to gain understanding on the relative placement of single particle orbitals near the N = 112 SD shell gap. From an analysis of the data, the three previously identified SD bands were extended, and their feeding into the yrast states delineated. Two new SD bands were observed and preliminary evidence for a third new band was obtained as well.

  15. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-μm magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm 2 Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely δB∼100 μT, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of δΦ=2.10 -3 Φ 0 , where Φ 0 =h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as δM∼10 2 μ B , with the magnetic moment of a single electron μ B , the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy nanomagnet with a cross-section of (100.20) nm 2 confirms the expected resolution ability

  16. Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 199Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, H.; Lutz, O.; Nolle, A.; Schwenk, A.

    1975-01-01

    199 Hg Fourier Transform NMR studies of various solutions of diverse mercury salts in H 2 O and D 2 O or in the appropriate protonated and deuterated acids are reported for both Hg 2 ++ and Hg ++ . In the different solutions investigated the 199 Hg line positions depend on the concentration of the solution, on the solvents and their isotopic composition and on the temperature of the sample. A ratio of the Larmor frequency of 199 Hg and of 2 H in a Hg(NO 3 ) 2 solution in dilute DNO 3 is given. Using this ratio and the measured chemical shifts, a ratio of the Larmor frequencies of 199 Hg for infinite dilution relative to 2 H in pure D 2 O is given. From this a g 1 -factor for 199 Hg is derived and compared with the g 1 -factor of an optical pumping experiment. The resulting shielding constant is sigma (hydrated 199 Hg ++ versus 199 Hg atom) = -24.32(5) x 10 -4 . This yields an atomic reference scale for all measured NMR line shifts of mercury. (orig.) [de

  17. A comparison of recent methods for modelling mercury fluxes at the air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantozzi L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric pathway of the global mercury flux is known to be the primary source of mercury contamination to most threatened aquatic ecosystems. Notwithstanding, the emission of mercury from surface water to the atmosphere is as much as 50% of total annual emissions of this metal into the atmosphere. In recent years, much effort has been made in theoretical and experimental researches to quantify the total mass flux of mercury to the atmosphere. In this study the most recent atmospheric modelling methods and the information obtained from them are presented and compared using experimental data collected during the Oceanographic Campaign Fenice 2011 (25 October – 8 November 2011, performed on board the Research Vessel (RV Urania of the CNR in the framework of the MEDOCEANOR ongoing program. A strategy for future numerical model development is proposed which is intended to gain a better knowledge of the long-term effects of meteo-climatic drivers on mercury evasional processes, and would provide key information on gaseous Hg exchange rates at the air-water interface.

  18. Bottom-up nutrient and top-down fish impacts on insect-mediated mercury flux from aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Taylor A; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Timmins, Gabrielle N; Nowlin, Weston H

    2013-03-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is one of the most hazardous contaminants in the environment, adversely affecting the health of wildlife and humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that aquatic insects biotransport MeHg and other contaminants to terrestrial consumers, but the factors that regulate the flux of MeHg out of aquatic ecosystems via emergent insects have not been studied. The authors used experimental mesocosms to test the hypothesis that insect emergence and the associated flux of MeHg from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems is affected by both bottom-up nutrient effects and top-down fish consumer effects. In the present study, nutrient addition led to an increase in MeHg flux primarily by enhancing the biomass of emerging insects whose tissues were contaminated with MeHg, whereas fish decreased MeHg flux primarily by reducing the biomass of emerging insects. Furthermore, the authors found that these factors are interdependent such that the effects of nutrients are more pronounced when fish are absent, and the effects of fish are more pronounced when nutrient concentrations are high. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the flux of MeHg from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems is strongly enhanced by bottom-up nutrient effects and diminished by top-down consumer effects. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  19. Note: Simple means for selective removal of the 365 nm line from the Hg spectrum using Dy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Chorkendorff, Ib; Brock-Nannestad, T.

    2011-01-01

    is cheap, robust, and stable towards degradation or bleaching - even under intense irradiation. The absorption spectrum for the Dy-filter is presented along with emission spectra from both low-pressure and high-pressure Hg-lamps to illustrate the utility of the technique under best-case and worst...

  20. The use of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in Great Lakes precipitation as a tool for pollution source attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthropogenic emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals including mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) presents human health and environmental concerns. Although it is known that local and regional sources of these metals contribute to deposition in the Great Lakes region, it ...

  1. Chronologically matched toenail-Hg to hair-Hg ratio: temporal analysis within the Japanese community (U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinners Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toenail-Hg levels are being used as a marker of methylmercury (MeHg exposure in efforts to associate exposure with effects such as cardiovascular disease. There is a need to correlate this marker with more established biomarkers that presently underlie existing dose–response relationships in order to compare these relationships across studies. Methods As part of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study, toenail clippings were collected at three time points over a period of one year amongst females from within the population of Japanese living near Puget Sound in Washington State (US. Variability in temporal intra-individual toenail-Hg levels was examined and chronologically matched hair and toenail samples were compared to more accurately define the toxicokinetic variability of Hg levels observed between the two compartments. Results Mean toenail-Hg values (n=43 for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd visits were 0.60, 0.60 and 0.56 ng/mg. Correlations were as follows: r=0.92 between 1st and 2nd clinic visits, r=0.75 between 1st and 3rd visits and r=0.87 between 2nd and 3rd visits. With few exceptions, toenail-Hg values from any visit were within 50-150% of the individual’s mean toenail-Hg level. Nearly all participants had less than a two-fold change in toenail-Hg levels across the study period. A regression model of the relationship between toenail-Hg and hair-Hg (n = 41 levels representing the same time period of exposure, gave a slope (Hg ng/mg of 2.79 for hair relative to toenail (r=0.954. Conclusions A chronologically matched hair-Hg to toenail-Hg ratio has been identified within a population that consumes fish regularly and in quantity. Intra-individual variation in toenail-Hg levels was less than two-fold and may represent dietary-based fluctuations in body burden for individuals consuming various fish species with different contaminant levels. The chronologically matched ratio will be useful for relating MeHg exposure and

  2. Facile sysnthesis of fluorescent silver nanoclusters as simultaneous detection and remediation for Hg{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan; Li, Biao; Lee, Go Eun; Yang, Sung Ik [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Mercury is one of the most toxic metals to the environment and human life. 1 This metal can cause serious health problems because it easily passes through skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tissues into the human body, which will damage kidney, central nervou s system, and endocrine system. A facile synthetic strategy for the preparation of highly fluorescent AgNCs with red emission (λ em = 671 nm, quantum yield = 3.3%) has been developed. AgNCs showed a high sensitivity and selectivity toward the Hg{sup 2+} ions over other metal ions in spiked tap water. The detection limit was determined to be 1.3 ppb, which met the requirement of the USEPA standards for the maximum allowable level of Hg{sup 2+} in drinking water. AgNCs also showed applicability for remediation of Hg{sup 2+} in polluted water with high removal efficiencies. The employment of AgNCs could be used to monitor and remediate Hg{sup 2+} for the water analysis and purification.

  3. Electronic structure and optical properties of defect chalcopyrite HgGa2Se4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrelian, B. V.; Lavrentyev, A. A.; Vu, Tuan V.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2018-01-01

    We report on studies from an experimental and theoretical viewpoint of the electronic structure of mercury digallium selenide, HgGa2Se4, a very promising optoelectronic material. In particular, the method of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to evaluate binding energies of the constituent element core electrons and the shape of the valence band for pristine and Ar+-ion bombarded surfaces of HgGa2Se4 single crystal. First principles band-structure calculations were performed in the present work using the augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW+lo). These calculations indicate that the Se 4p states are the main contributors at the top and in the upper portion of the valence band with slightly smaller contributions of the Ga 4p states in the upper portion of the band as well. Further, the central portion of the valence band is determined mainly by contributions of the Ga 4s states, and the Hg 5d states are the principal contributors to the bottom of the valence band. These theoretical data are in fair agreement when matching on a common energy scale of the X-ray emission bands giving information on the energy distribution of the Se 4p and Ga 4p states and the XPS valence-band spectrum of the HgGa2Se4 crystal. The principal optical constants are elucidated from the DFT calculations.

  4. New thermal neutron solid-state electronic detector based on HgI2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamud, M.; Burshtein, Z.

    1983-07-01

    We describe the development of a new solid-state electronic neutron detector, based on HgI 2 single crystals. Incident neutrons are absorbed in high neutron absorbing foils, such as cadmium or gadolinium, which are placed in front of a HgI 2 detector. Gamma rays, emitted as a result of the neutron absorbtion, are then absorbed in the HgI 2 , generating free charge carriers, which are collected by the electric field. The advantage of this system lies in it's manufacturing simplicity, low weight and small physical dimensions, compared to gas-filled conventional neutron detectors. The disadvantage is that the system does not discriminate between gamma rays and neutrons. A method to minimize this disadvantage is pointed out. It is as well possible to count neutrons by direct exposure of the HgI 2 to neutrons. The neutron-to-gamma transformation in that case takes place by the material nuclei themselves. This method, however, is impractical due to the interference of delayed radioactivity whose origin are 129 I nuclei. They are generated from 128 I by absorbing a neutron, and decay with a 25 min half lifetime involving gamma emissions. (author)

  5. Facile sysnthesis of fluorescent silver nanoclusters as simultaneous detection and remediation for Hg2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Li, Biao; Lee, Go Eun; Yang, Sung Ik

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic metals to the environment and human life. 1 This metal can cause serious health problems because it easily passes through skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tissues into the human body, which will damage kidney, central nervou s system, and endocrine system. A facile synthetic strategy for the preparation of highly fluorescent AgNCs with red emission (λ em = 671 nm, quantum yield = 3.3%) has been developed. AgNCs showed a high sensitivity and selectivity toward the Hg 2+ ions over other metal ions in spiked tap water. The detection limit was determined to be 1.3 ppb, which met the requirement of the USEPA standards for the maximum allowable level of Hg 2+ in drinking water. AgNCs also showed applicability for remediation of Hg 2+ in polluted water with high removal efficiencies. The employment of AgNCs could be used to monitor and remediate Hg 2+ for the water analysis and purification.

  6. Elastic, dynamical, and electronic properties of LiHg and Li3Hg: First-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Hao, Chun-Mei; Huang, Hong-Mei; Li, Yan-Ling

    2018-04-01

    The elastic, dynamical, and electronic properties of cubic LiHg and Li3Hg were investigated based on first-principles methods. The elastic constants and phonon spectral calculations confirmed the mechanical and dynamical stability of the materials at ambient conditions. The obtained elastic moduli of LiHg are slightly larger than those of Li3Hg. Both LiHg and Li3Hg are ductile materials with strong shear anisotropy as metals with mixed ionic, covalent, and metallic interactions. The calculated Debye temperatures are 223.5 K and 230.6 K for LiHg and Li3Hg, respectively. The calculated phonon frequency of the T2 g mode in Li3Hg is 326.8 cm-1. The p states from the Hg and Li atoms dominate the electronic structure near the Fermi level. These findings may inspire further experimental and theoretical study on the potential technical and engineering applications of similar alkali metal-based intermetallic compounds.

  7. An investigation of mercury sources in the Puyango-Tumbes River: Using stable Hg isotopes to characterize transboundary Hg pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudel, Gary; Miserendino, Rebecca Adler; Veiga, Marcello M; Velasquez-López, P Colon; Lees, Peter S J; Winland-Gaetz, Sean; Davée Guimarães, Jean Remy; Bergquist, Bridget A

    2018-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes along with other trace metals were examined in environmental samples from Ecuador and Peru's shared Puyango-Tumbes River in order to determine the extent to which artisanal- and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador contributes to Hg pollution in the downstream aquatic ecosystem. Prior studies investigated the relationship between ASGM activities and downstream Hg pollution relying primarily on Hg concentration data. In this study, Hg isotopes revealed an isotopically heavy Hg signature with negligible mass independent fractionation (MIF) in downstream sediments, which was consistent with the signature observed in the ASGM source endmember. This signature was traced as far as ∼120 km downstream of Portovelo-Zaruma, demonstrating that Hg stable isotopes can be used as a tool to fingerprint and trace sources of Hg over vast distances in freshwater environments. The success of Hg isotopes as a source tracer in fresh waters is largely due to the particle-reactive nature of Hg. Furthermore, the magnitude and extent of downstream Hg, lead, copper and zinc contamination coupled with the Hg isotopes suggest that it is unlikely that the smaller artisanal-scale activities, which do not use cyanidation, are responsible for the pollution. More likely it is the scale of ores processed and the cyanide leaching, which can release other metals and enhance Hg transport, used during small-scale gold mining that is responsible. Thus, although artisanal- and small-scale gold mining occur in tandem in Portovelo-Zaruma, a distinction should be made between these two activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetospectroscopy of double HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovkun, L. S.; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V., E-mail: antikon@ipmras.ru; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Kadykov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Ruffenach, S.; Consejo, C.; Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221 and UM (France); Orlita, M.; Piot, B.; Potemski, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses (LNCMI-G), CNRS-UJF-UPS-INSA (France); Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The magnetoabsorption spectra in double HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells (QWs) with normal and inverted band structures are investigated. The Landau levels in symmetric QWs with a rectangular potential profile are calculated based on the Kane 8 × 8 model. The presence of a tunnel-transparent barrier is shown to lead to the splitting of states and “doubling” of the main magnetoabsorption lines. At a QW width close to the critical one the presence of band inversion and the emergence of a gapless band structure, similar to bilayer graphene, are shown for a structure with a single QW. The shift of magnetoabsorption lines as the carrier concentration changes due to the persistent photoconductivity effect associated with a change in the potential profile because of trap charge exchange is detected. This opens up the possibility for controlling topological phase transitions in such structures.

  9. Direct determination of Cd, Hg in liver and kidney by prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu tan; Tran Tuan Anh; Nguyen Canh Hai; Le Van Lieu

    2000-01-01

    The development of a method for in-vivo measurement of some elemental concentration in organs making use of prompt gamma activation analysis with the filtered neutron beam at the Dalat reactor is being carried out. In this paper we present primary results in research and development of an IVPGNAA facility at the Dalat reactor. Beside the description of experimental set-up, it consists of determination of thermal neutron flux distribution in phantom, and the evaluation of the detection limit and analytical sensitivity for Cd and Hg in the kidney and the liver. Discussions are given to improve the IVPGNAA facility in the future. (author)

  10. Ruditapes philippinarum and Ruditapes decussatus under Hg environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Cátia; Galvão, Petrus; Longo, Renan; Malm, Olaf; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    The native species Ruditapes decussatus and the invasive species Ruditapes philippinarum have an important ecological role and socio-economic value, from the Atlantic and Mediterranean to the Indo-Pacific region. In the aquatic environment, they are subjected to the presence of different contaminants, such as mercury (Hg) and its methylated form, methylmercury (MeHg). However, few studies have assessed the impacts of Hg on bivalves under environmental conditions, and little is known on bivalve oxidative stress patterns due to Hg contamination. Therefore, this study aims to assess the Hg contamination in sediments as well as the concentration of Hg and MeHg in R. decussatus and R. philippinarum, and to identify the detoxification strategies of both species living in sympatry, in an aquatic system with historical Hg contamination. The risk to human health due to the consumption of clams was also evaluated. The results obtained demonstrated that total Hg concentration found in sediments from the most contaminated area was higher than the maximum levels established by Sediment Quality Guidelines. This study further revealed that the total Hg and MeHg accumulation in both species was strongly correlated with the total Hg contamination of the sediments. Nonetheless, the THg concentration in both species was lower than maximum permissible limits (MPLs) of THg defined by international organizations. R. decussatus and R. philippinarum showed an increase in lipid peroxidation levels along with the increase of THg accumulation by clams. Nevertheless, for both species, no clear trend was obtained regarding the activity of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and biotransformation (glutathione S-transferase) enzymes and metallothioneins with the increase of THg in clams. Overall, the present work demonstrated that both species can be used as sentinel species of contamination and that the consumption of these clams does not constitute a risk for human health.

  11. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Marcelo, E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rocha, Joao B.T., E-mail: jbtrocha@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  12. Advances in Support of the CMAQ Bidirectional Science Option for the Estimation of Ammonia Flux from Agricultural cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proposed Session: Emissions Inventories, Models and processes: Last year a new CMAQ bidirectional option for the estimation of ammonia flux (emission and deposition) was released. This option essentially replaces NEI crop ammonia emissions with emissions calculated dynamically...

  13. Density of liquid Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, D.; Holland, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Negative thermal expansion has been established in liquid Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te for x less than 0.2 employing a pycnometric method. Pure HgTe increases in density from its melting point at 670 C to a maximum value at 750 C, where normal thermal expansion progressively resumes. The dependence of density on temperature for liquid Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te arises almost exclusively from the HgTe portion of the melt, while CdTe acts as a diluent. The temperature corresponding to the maximum density changes slightly with composition, increasing by about 5 C for x = 0.1.

  14. Mass loading of Hg in the Monte Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rimondi V.; Costagliola P.; Gray J. E.; Lattanzi P.; Nannucci M.; Salvadori A.; Vaselli O.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) transport in natural environments is of concern because Hg bioaccumulates in the food web. Particularly methyl-Hg is the form of Hg of major concern as it is highly toxic to humans and is ingested through food consumption, dominantly fish. Quantification of Hg mass loads in watersheds draining Hg mine districts allows (1) the identification of sources of contamination, (2) the evaluation of the effect of Hg on the environment, and (3) the identification of processes affecting Hg ...

  15. Methane flux from boreal peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crill, P.; Bartlett, K.; Roulet, N.

    1992-01-01

    The peatlands in the boreal zone (roughly 45 deg - 60 degN) store a significant reservoir of carbon, much of which is potentially available for exchange with the atmosphere. The anaerobic conditions that cause these soils to accumulate carbon also makes wet, boreal peatlands significant sources of methane to the global troposphere. It is estimated that boreal wetlands contribute approximately 19.5 Tg methane per year. The data available on the magnitude of boreal methane emissions have rapidly accumulated in the past twenty years. This paper offers a short review of the flux measured (with range roughly 1 - 2000 mg methane/m2d), considers environmental controls of the flux and briefly discusses how climate change might affect future fluxes

  16. Sudden change of quadrupole moment between the first 5/2- states of 197Hg and 199Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, P.; Krien, K.; Freitag, M.; Reuschenbach, M.; Walitzki, H.

    1980-01-01

    Low-temperature time differential perturbed angular correlation experiments with the 164 KeV-134 keV cascade of sup(197m)Hg in a zinc matrix give evidence that the hitherto accepted value of the quadrupole moment of the first 5/2 - state of 197 Hg is erroneous. A new value is derived from a time differential perturbed angular correlation experiment with the 374 keV-158 keV cascade of sup(199m)Hg implanted into a Be single crystal and comparison with an analogous experiment for sup(197m)Hg. Taking Q(5/2 - , 199 Hg) = +0.95(7) b we derive Q(5/2 - , 197 Hg) = 0.081(6) b. This change of quadrupole moment is discussed in the framework of the shell model. (orig.)

  17. Crystal structure of the Hg4SiS6 and Hg4SiSe6 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulay, L.D.; Olekseyuk, I.D.; Parasyuk, O.V.

    2002-01-01

    The crystal structures of Hg 4 SiS 6 and Hg 4 SiSe 6 compounds were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction. These compounds crystallize in the monoclinic Cc space group with the lattice parameters a=1.23020(5), b=0.71031(4), c=1.22791(4) nm, β=109.721(3) deg. for Hg 4 SiS 6 and a=1.28110(4), b=0.74034(4), c=1.27471(1) nm, β=109.605(3) deg. for Hg 4 SiSe 6 . Atomic parameters were refined in the isotropic approximation (R I =0.0571 and R I =0.0555 for the Hg 4 SiS 6 and Hg 4 SiSe 6 , respectively)

  18. Hg-coordination studies of oligopeptides containing cysteine, histidine and tyrosine by $^{199m}$Hg-TDPAC

    CERN Document Server

    Ctortecka, B; Mallion, S; Butz, T; Hoffmann, R

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of histidine- and tyrosine- containing peptide chains with Hg(II), the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of /sup 199m/Hg in the Hg complexes of the oligopeptides alanyl-alanyl-histidyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAHAA-NH /sub 2/) and alanyl-alanyl-tyrosyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAYAA-NH/sub 2/) was determined by time differential perturbed angular correlation and is compared with previous data on alanyl-alanyl-cysteyl-alanyl- alanyl (AACAA-OH). The /sup 199m/Hg-NQIs depend on the oligopeptide to Hg(II) stoichiometry and indicate that two-fold and four-fold coordinations occur for the bound Hg(II). (12 refs).

  19. PENCEMARAN LOGAM BERAT MERKURI (Hg PADA AIRTANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Triadi Putranto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The earth consists largely of water because the land area is smaller than the ocean. Human beings on this earthcan not escape the need for water. Water is the main requirement for the process of life on the earth.Relatively clean water that is coveted by men, whether for purposes of daily life, for industrial purposes, for thecleanliness of city sanitation, as well as for agricultural purposes and so forth. Heavy metal pollution is a veryserious issue to be handled, because of adverse environmental and ecosystem in general. Heavy metallic elementis the element which has a density of more than 5 gr/cm3. Hg has a density of 13.55 gr/cm3. Disaster is anoutbreak of Minamata mercury poisoning in people who eat fish contaminated by mercury in Minamata Japan,and this event is known as Minamata Disease. Efforts to tackle the heavy metal pollution can actually be doneusing a chemical process or by microorganism such as microbes and bacteria.

  20. Benthic fluxes of mercury during redox changes in pristine coastal marine sediments from the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koron, Neza [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Faganeli, Jadran [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) is an example of a coastal environment contaminated with mercury (Hg). Contamination is a consequence of nearly 500 years of activity at the Idrija Mine (western Slovenia), which is the second largest Hg mine in the world. Oxygen depletion can be common in the Gulf of Trieste due to late summer stratification of the water column and accumulation of labile organic matter. Since changing redox conditions can have an impact on Hg transformations, we studied the effect of oxygen depletion, in parallel with sulphide, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, on total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) fluxes from sediments. Materials and methods: Pore water concentrations and benthic fluxes of total dissolved Hg and MeHg were studied in situ and in microcosm laboratory experiments using flux chambers encompassing three different stages: oxic, anoxic and reoxidation. Results and discussion: Our experiments showed that in the oxic stage there were small effluxes of MeHg to the water column, which increased in the anoxic stage and dropped rapidly in a subsequent reoxic stage, showing influx. Our results support the hypothesis that MeHg desorption from reduced metal hydroxides under anoxic conditions, and co-precipitation with Fe-oxides and MeHg demethylation in the reoxidation stage, may play a major role in determining MeHg benthic fluxes. For Hg and MeHg, it appears that there is little relationship between their pore water distribution and flux and that of FDOM, i.e. humics. Conclusions: The results indicate that there was no significant difference in Hg and MeHg pore water levels and their benthic fluxes between the contaminated northern and central parts of the Gulf of Trieste and the pristine southern part. This suggests that shallow and stratified coastal marine environments, in general, represent areas with a risk of high benthic release of

  1. The use of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in Great Lakes precipitation as a tool for pollution source attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Laura S., E-mail: lsaylors@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dvonch, J. Timothy [University of Michigan, Air Quality Laboratory, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gratz, Lynne E. [University of Washington-Bothell, 18115 Campus Way NE, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States); Landis, Matthew S. [U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals including mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) present human health and environmental concerns. Although it is known that local and regional sources of these metals contribute to deposition in the Great Lakes region, it is difficult to trace emissions from point sources to impacted sites. Recent studies suggest that metal isotope ratios may be useful for distinguishing between and tracing source emissions. We measured Pb, strontium (Sr), and Hg isotope ratios in daily precipitation samples that were collected at seven sites across the Great Lakes region between 2003 and 2007. Lead isotope ratios ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8062 to 0.8554) suggest that Pb deposition was influenced by coal combustion and processing of Mississippi Valley-Type Pb ore deposits. Regional differences in Sr isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.70859 to 0.71155) are likely related to coal fly ash and soil dust. Mercury isotope ratios (δ{sup 202}Hg = − 1.13 to 0.13‰) also varied among the sites, likely due to regional differences in coal isotopic composition, and fractionation occurring within industrial facilities and in the atmosphere. These data represent the first combined characterization of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotope ratios in precipitation collected across the Great Lakes region. We demonstrate the utility of multiple metal isotope ratios in parallel with traditional trace element multivariate statistical modeling to enable more complete pollution source attribution. - Highlights: • We measured Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in precipitation from the Great Lakes region. • Pb isotopes suggest that deposition was impacted by coal combustion and metal production. • Sr isotope ratios vary regionally, likely due to soil dust and coal fly ash. • Hg isotopes vary due to fractionation occurring within facilities and the atmosphere. • Isotope results support conclusions of previous trace element receptor modeling.

  2. Mercury in the marine boundary layer and seawater of the South China Sea: Concentrations, sea/air flux, and implication for land outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Gan; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Yao, Hen; Liang, Peng; Li, Jun; Sommar, Jonas; Yin, Runsheng; Liu, Na

    2010-03-01

    Using R/V Shiyan 3 as a sampling platform, measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), surface seawater total mercury (THg), methyl mercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were carried out above and in the South China Sea (SCS). Measurements were collected for 2 weeks (10 to 28 August 2007) during an oceanographic expedition, which circumnavigated the northern SCS from Guangzhou (Canton), Hainan Inland, the Philippines, and back to Guangzhou. GEM concentrations over the northern SCS ranged from 1.04 to 6.75 ng m-3 (mean: 2.62 ng m-3, median: 2.24 ng m-3). The spatial distribution of GEM was characterized by elevated concentrations near the coastal sites adjacent to mainland China and lower concentrations at stations in the open sea. Trajectory analysis revealed that high concentrations of GEM were generally related to air masses from south China and the Indochina peninsula, while lower concentrations of GEM were related to air masses from the open sea area, reflecting great Hg emissions from south China and Indochina peninsula. The mean concentrations of THg, MeHg, and DGM in surface seawater were 1.2 ± 0.3 ng L-1, 0.12 ± 0.05 ng L-1, and 36.5 ± 14.9 pg L-1, respectively. In general, THg and MeHg levels in the northern SCS were higher compared to results reported from most other oceans/seas. Elevated THg levels in the study area were likely attributed to significant Hg delivery from surrounding areas of the SCS primarily via atmospheric deposition and riverine input, whereas other sources like in situ production by various biotic and abiotic processes may be important for MeHg. Average sea/air flux of Hg in the study area was estimated using a gas exchange method (4.5 ± 3.4 ng m-2 h-1). This value was comparable to those from other coastal areas and generally higher than those from open sea environments, which may be attributed to the reemission of Hg previously transported to this area.

  3. Performance of Hg1-xCdxTe infrared focal plane array at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Pal, Ravinder

    2017-04-01

    The simulated optical and electrical performance of the infrared HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) for elevated operation temperature is reported. The depleted absorber layer is explored for equilibrium mode of operation up to 160 K. A resonant cavity is created to improve photon-matter interaction and hence, reduces the required absorption volume. The volume of the active region of HgCdTe detector is reduced by 70% in this manner. Dark current density is decreased without compromising the quantum efficiency. The effect of the reduced band filling effect leading to higher absorption coefficient and more efficient utilization of incident flux is employed. High quantum efficiency is achieved in a thin compositionally graded n+/ν/π/p HgCdTe photo-diode. This architecture helps to minimize the requirement of charge handling capacity in the CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) as the operation temperature is increased. Quantum efficiency ˜30% or above is shown to be sufficient for Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) less than 20 mK with the reported design.

  4. Mercury speciation, fluxes, and fate in the volcanically acidified fluids of Copahue volcano, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, T.; Varekamp, J. C.; Andersson, M.; Balcom, P.; Mason, R. P.

    2010-12-01

    The behavior of mercury in volcanic acid springs and acidified rivers is poorly known, despite the potential impact this vector of contamination has on local surface and ground water quality. Mercury was measured in a volcanically acidified river system (pHvolcano, determined from river water flux measurements and Hg concentrations, was modest and varied between the 3/2008 and 3/2009 sampling campaigns resp. from 0.7 to 1.1 moles/year. The Hg:S ratio of the acid fluids was ~10-8, several orders of magnitude lower than that typically found in volcanic plumes and fumaroles. The small Hg flux and low Hg:S values suggest that the system is either inherently Hg-poor or has lost Hg through vapor loss deeper in the hydrothermal system. Support for the latter comes from high Hg concentrations in geothermal vents and mudpots on the flank of the mountain (24 - 55 ppm Hg). Mercury concentrations decreased conservatively downstream in the river as based on Hg/Cl and Hg/SO4. Non-conservative depletion occurs in the less acidic Lake Caviahue, suggesting that mercury is removed from the water column by sorption to organic matter or other phases. Mercury analyses of a short lake sediment core confirm this (Hg = 0.01 to 0.70 ppm). No evidence was found for preferential uptake of mercury by jarosite, schwertmannite, or goethite, although the latter two phases precipitate in the most distal and Hg-depleted section of the fluvial system.

  5. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado Filho, G. M.; Andrade, L. R.; Farina, M.; Malm, O.

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702±318 μg Hg g -1 was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding.

  6. Equilibrium Sorption Studies of Hg (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of swamp arum (Lasimorpha senegalensis) seeds as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Hg (II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated in this study. The influence of initial metal concentration on the percent adsorption of Hg (II) ions onto powdered swamp arum seeds was studied in a batch system ...

  7. Decay out of the yrast superdeformed band in 191Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sien, S.; Reiter, P.; Khoo, T.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Calderin, I.; Dossing, T.; Fischer, S. M.; Garg, U.; Gassmann, D.; Hackman, G.; Hannachi, F.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kharraja, B.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Moore, E. F.; Nisius, D.; Schuck, C.

    1999-01-01

    The excitation energies and spins of the yrast superdeformed band in 191 Hg have been determined by analyzing the quasicontinuum spectrum connecting the superdeformed and normal-deformed states. The results from this analysis, combined with that given by one-step decay lines, give confident assignments of the spins and energies of the yrast superdeformed band in 191 Hg

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME II. APPENDICES F-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  9. A new fluorescent pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate probe: A chemodosimeter to detect Hg{sup 2+} in pure aqueous medium and in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vikram; Srivastava, Priyanka [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); PrakashVerma, Shiv [Centre for Genetic Disorders, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Misra, Arvind [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Das, Parimal [Centre for Genetic Disorders, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Singh, Nanhai, E-mail: nsinghbhu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)

    2014-10-15

    A new pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate based fluorescent chemodosimeter, potassium (pyren-1-ylmethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)dithiocarbamate (L1) has been designed and synthesized. The chemodosimeter shows high selectivity and sensitivity (5.2 ppb) for Hg{sup 2+} in pure aqueous medium in which emission intensity was quenched by ≈80% due to the formation of new cyclized species, 1. The probe behaves as a chemodosimeter for Hg{sup 2+} ions and forms Hg{sup 2+} triggered cyclised imidazoline species with approximate detection time of 50 s and exhibits both colorimetric and fluorometric changes on detection of Hg{sup 2+} ion. Color of the probe (L1) changed from green to colorless visible to the naked eye and from green to dark blue upon the addition of Hg{sup 2+} ions under UV light. The Hg{sup 2+} triggered cyclization reaction was confirmed by spectral data analysis and a single crystal structure determination of the cyclised entity 2 obtained from the model compound potassium benzyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl) dithiocarbamate (L2). L1 finds its application for detection of Hg{sup 2+} ions on paper strips, and in BSA (bovine serum albumin) medium. L1 is also applicable for the monitoring of Hg{sup 2+} ion in NIH3T3 live cells. - Highlights: • Efficient chemodosimeter to detect Hg{sup 2+} ions in pure aqueous medium. • Hg{sup 2+} triggered cyclisation and formation of imidazoline species. • Probe exhibit both colorimetric and fluorometric changes • Probe is applicable to detect Hg{sup 2+} in live cells and on cellulose paper strips.

  10. Slow Auger Relaxation in HgTe Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnychuk, Christopher; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2018-05-03

    The biexciton lifetimes in HgTe colloidal quantum dots are measured as a function of particle size. Samples produced by two synthetic methods, leading to partially aggregated or well-dispersed particles, exhibit markedly different dynamics. The relaxation characteristics of partially aggregated HgTe inhibit reliable determinations of the Auger lifetime. In well-dispersed HgTe quantum dots, the biexciton lifetime increases approximately linearly with particle volume, confirming trends observed in other systems. The extracted Auger coefficient is three orders of magnitude smaller than that for bulk HgCdTe materials with similar energy gaps. We discuss these findings in the context of understanding Auger relaxation in quantum-confined systems and their relevance to mid-infrared optoelectronic devices based on HgTe colloidal quantum dots.

  11. Regional Variability of Cd, Hg, Pb and C Concentrations in Different Horizons of Swedish Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alriksson, A.

    2001-01-01

    Contents of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and carbon(C) in the O, B and C horizons of podzolized forest soils in Sweden were surveyed. Concentrations and storage of Cd, Hg and Pb in the O and B horizons were high in southern Sweden and gradually decreased towards the north, though with considerable local variability. This pattern reflects the influence of anthropogenic emissions of these metals, as well as the effects of soil-forming processes. Parent till material, as represented by the C horizon concentration of the respective metal, accounted for little of the variation in metal concentration in the O horizon. For Cd and Pb, the correlations were not significant or slightly negative (R 2 = 0.12 and 0.09 respectively) depending on region, while for Hg the correlation was not significant or slightly positive (R 2 = 0.03 and 0.08). Furthermore, parent till material accounted for more of the variation in metal concentrations in the B horizons in the northern part of Sweden than in the middle and southernmost parts, where the concentration of total carbon had more influence. The correlation between the metal concentrations in the B and C horizon was strongest for Pb (R 2 = 0.63 and 0.36 in the two northernmost regions), lower for Cd (R 2 = 0.19 and 0.16) and not significant for Hg. For all soil horizons, total C concentration accounted for much of the variation in Hg concentration in particular (O-horizon R 2 = 0.15-0.69, B horizon R 2 = 0.36-0.50, C horizon R 2 = 0.23-0.50 and ns in one region). Ratios of metal concentrations between the B and C horizons were highest for Hg(maximum value of 30), indicating a relatively larger addition or retention of Hg compared to Cd and Pb (maximum value of 10)in the B horizon. This study indicate that factors other than parent material account for the large scale variation in O horizon concentrations of metals but patterns correspond well with those of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and acidifying substances

  12. Assessing the natural recovery of a lake contaminated with Hg using estimated recovery rates determined by sediment chronologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Matthew J.; Long, David T.; Yohn, Sharon S.

    2010-01-01

    increasing after 1997. The cause of the recent Hg concentrations may be related to influx of contaminated watershed soils or sediments. Estimating the time frame for recovery is challenging in this system because the process of natural recovery seems to have been arrested and deeper, uncontaminated sediments, were not recovered as a basis for reference. However, a recovery to background conditions is likely not achievable since rates of Hg loading to nearby lakes and the current rate of atmospheric deposition are greater than an estimate of background conditions for Deer Lake. Assuming recovery continued after 2000, estimates of the time required for recovery varied based on the system state used to define it (e.g., recent rates of wet Hg deposition or Hg surface concentrations/fluxes from similar systems), but were less than 12 a. However, the recent increasing values of recovery indicators (e.g., Hg concentrations) suggests that these estimates are conservative and will be longer if recovery remains arrested, which may in part be due to the legacy of Hg contamination on the landscape. This study shows that estimates of recovery of highly disturbed lake systems can be made in the absence of within lake reference conditions by using comparisons to reference systems and challenges of estimating ages from atypical 210 Pb activity profiles can be overcome in part using event-based dating techniques.

  13. Assessing the natural recovery of a lake contaminated with Hg using estimated recovery rates determined by sediment chronologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Matthew J. [Michigan State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 206 Natural Science, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Long, David T., E-mail: long@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 206 Natural Science, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Yohn, Sharon S. [Juniata College, Raystown Field Station, Brumbaugh Academic Center, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    their peak, remain elevated, and were increasing after 1997. The cause of the recent Hg concentrations may be related to influx of contaminated watershed soils or sediments. Estimating the time frame for recovery is challenging in this system because the process of natural recovery seems to have been arrested and deeper, uncontaminated sediments, were not recovered as a basis for reference. However, a recovery to background conditions is likely not achievable since rates of Hg loading to nearby lakes and the current rate of atmospheric deposition are greater than an estimate of background conditions for Deer Lake. Assuming recovery continued after 2000, estimates of the time required for recovery varied based on the system state used to define it (e.g., recent rates of wet Hg deposition or Hg surface concentrations/fluxes from similar systems), but were less than 12 a. However, the recent increasing values of recovery indicators (e.g., Hg concentrations) suggests that these estimates are conservative and will be longer if recovery remains arrested, which may in part be due to the legacy of Hg contamination on the landscape. This study shows that estimates of recovery of highly disturbed lake systems can be made in the absence of within lake reference conditions by using comparisons to reference systems and challenges of estimating ages from atypical {sup 210}Pb activity profiles can be overcome in part using event-based dating techniques.

  14. Tracing anthropogenic Hg and Pb input using stable Hg and Pb isotope ratios in sediments of the central Portuguese Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil-Holmens, M.; Blum, J.; Canário, J.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Trancoso, M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Johnson, M.; Branco, V.; Cesário, R.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Boer, W.; Melo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Three short marine sediment cores from the Cascais Submarine Canyon (CSC; cores 252-32 and 252-35) and the Estremadura Spur (core 252-16) on the central Portuguese Margin were analysed for Hg, Pb, Al, and Mn concentrations, and both Pb and Hg stable isotope compositions, in order to reconstruct

  15. Determination of MeHg sources to fish in the St. Louis River, MN, USA, using Hg stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes region has become a prevalent concern due to elevated methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish. While atmospheric deposition of Hg is ubiquitous, releases from legacy point-sources give rise to numerous Areas of Concern (AOCs) across the Great ...

  16. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  17. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  18. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  19. Mercury emissions and stable isotopic compositions at Vulcano Island (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambardi, T.; Sonke, J. E.; Toutain, J. P.; Sortino, F.; Shinohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling and analyses methods for determining the stable isotopic compositions of Hg in an active volcanic system were tested and optimized at the volcanic complex of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 and plume particulate Hg (p)II were obtained at fumaroles F0, F5, F11, and FA. The average total Hg emissions, based on Hg T/SO 2 in condensed fumarolic gases and plumes, range from 2.5 to 10.1 kg y - 1 , in agreement with published values [Ferrara, R., Mazzolai, B., Lanzillotta, E., Nucaro, E., Pirrone, N., 2000. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean Basin. Sci. Total Environ. 259(1-3), 115-121; Aiuppa, A., Bagnato, E., Witt, M.L.I., Mather, T.A., Parello, F., Pyle, D.M., Martin, R.S., 2007. Real-time simultaneous detection of volcanic Hg and SO 2 at La Fossa Crater, Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Sicily). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(L21307).]. Plume Hg (p)II increases with distance from the fumarole vent, at the expense of Hg (g)0 and indicates significant in-plume oxidation and condensation of fumarole Hg (fum)T. Relative to the NIST SRM 3133 Hg standard, the stable isotopic compositions of Hg are δ 202Hg (fum)T = - 0.74‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, δ 202Hg (g)0 = - 1.74‰ ± 0.36 (2SD, n = 1) for plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 at the F0 fumarole, and δ 202Hg (p)II = - 0.11‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for plume particulate Hg (p)II. The enrichment of Hg (p)II in the heavy isotopes and Hg (g)0 in the light isotopes relative to the total condensed fumarolic Hg (fum)T gas complements the speciation data and demonstrates a gas-particle fractionation occurring after the gas expulsion in ambient T° atmosphere. A first order Rayleigh equilibrium condensation isotope fractionation model yields a fractionation factor α cond-gas of 1.00135 ± 0.00058.

  20. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  1. History of atmospheric deposition of Cd, Hg, and Pb in North America: Evidence from lake and peat bog sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Evans, R.D.; Mierle, G.; Kahl, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The precipitation chemistry and lake and peat sediment chemistry of three metals emitted to the atmosphere in significant amounts as a result of anthropogenic activity are reviewed. The three metals, Cd, Hg, and Pb, have contrasting source terms, atmospheric residence times, and chemical mobility. Lake and ombrotrophic peat bog sediments record increases in the concentrations and accumulation rates of the metals for most of temperate North America for the last 100 years. These increases are largely related to the burning of coal, smelting of nonferrous metals, the transportation industry, and the industrial production of chlorine. Modern atmospheric fluxes of Cd in central North America are about 1,000 times background fluxes; accumulation rates for Cd in sediments have increased two to 3 times above background, beginning about 100 years ago. Global scale Hg pollution off the atmosphere is suggested by concentrations in northern hemisphere air that are double the Hg content of southern hemisphere air. Accumulation rates of Hg in sediment have approximately doubled in the last 100 years. However, these rates are approximately an order of magnitude less than those for Cd. Modern increases in Pb concentrations are ubiquitous for all lakes examines thus far in North America. Input is from multiple sources and thus the timing of increased accumulation rates in sediment varies across the continent. Typical modern accumulation rates reach maxima at 20 to 30 mg/sq-m/yr, or 100 times that of Cd and 1,000 times that off Hg. Recent decreases in atmospheric lead are reflected in decreases in the accumulation rate of Pb in both lake and peat bog sediment in eastern North America

  2. Photocatalysis of Hg2+ y Cr6+ in waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alexander; Ortiz, Natalia; Mejia, Gloria; Restrepo, Gloria; Penuela, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    This work was carried out to propose a treatment for the elimination of Hg 2 + and Cr 6 + ions that are present in wastewaters of the CIA and ISA laboratories. These ions are present in waste waters because in these laboratories analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD), are performed in which HgSO 4 and K 2 Cr 2 O 7 are used. COD is a parameter very important to evaluate. In this paper water pollution results of chemical reduction of Hg 2 + and Cr 6 + ions using photo catalysis are reported and the elimination of both ions by using an adsorbent

  3. Annual variation of CH{sub 4} emissions from the middle taiga in West Siberian Lowland (2005-2009): a case of high CH{sub 4} flux and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasakawa, M.; Ito, A.; Machida, T. (Center for Global Environmental Research, National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)), Email: sasakawa.motoki@nies.go.jp; Tsuda, N. (Global Environmental Forum, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo (Japan)); Niwa, Y. (Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan)); Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Arshinov, M. (V.E. Zuev Inst. of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Tomsk (Russian Federation))

    2012-03-15

    We described continuous measurements of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} concentration obtained at two sites placed in the middle taiga, Karasevoe (KRS) and Demyanskoe (DEM), in West Siberian Lowland (WSL) from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} accumulation (DELTACH{sub 4} and DELTACO{sub 2}) during night-time at KRS in June and July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, higher ratios of DELTACH{sub 4}/DELTACO{sub 2} compared with those in other years indicated that a considerably higher CH{sub 4} flux occurred relative to the CO{sub 2} flux. The daily CH{sub 4} flux calculated with the ratio of DELTACH{sub 4}/DELTACO{sub 2} and terrestrial biosphere CO{sub 2} flux from an ecosystem model showed a maximum in July at the both sites. Although anomalously high flux was observed in June and July 2007 at KRS, only a small flux variation was observed at DEM. The high regional CH{sub 4} flux in June and July 2007 at KRS was reproduced using a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT), in response to high water table depth caused by the anomalously high precipitation during the summer of 2007

  4. Annual variation of CH4 emissions from the middle taiga in West Siberian Lowland (2005–2009: a case of high CH4 flux and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sasakawa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We described continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 concentration obtained at two sites placed in the middle taiga, Karasevoe (KRS and Demyanskoe (DEM, in West Siberian Lowland (WSL from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH4 and CO2 accumulation (ΔCH4 and ▵CO2 during night-time at KRS in June and July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, higher ratios of ΔCH4/ΔCO2 compared with those in other years indicated that a considerably higher CH4 flux occurred relative to the CO2 flux. The daily CH4 flux calculated with the ratio of ΔCH4/ΔCO2 and terrestrial biosphere CO2 flux from an ecosystem model showed a maximum in July at the both sites. Although anomalously high flux was observed in June and July 2007 at KRS, only a small flux variation was observed at DEM. The high regional CH4 flux in June and July 2007 at KRS was reproduced using a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT, in response to high water table depth caused by the anomalously high precipitation during the summer of 2007.

  5. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input/output processes. In this study, the main controls on Hg methylation rates and total concentrations of MeHg, were investigated at eight sites in Sweden with sediments that had been subjected to local Hg contamination either as Hg(0), or as phenyl-Hg. Sediments were selected to represent a gradient in total Hg concentration, temperature climate, salinity, primary productivity, and organic C content and quality. Most sediments were high in organic matter content due to wood fibre efflux from pulp and paper industry. The pore water was analysed for total Hg, MeHg, DOC, H2S(aq), pH, DOC, Cl and Br. The chemical speciation of Hg(II) and MeHg in pore water was calculated using equilibrium models. Potential methylation and demethylation rates in sediments were determined in incubation experiments at 23° C under N2(g) for 48 h, after addition of isotopically enriched 201Hg(II) and Me204Hg. In all surface (0-20 cm) sediments there was a significant (pdetermined specific potential methylation rate constant (Km, day-1) and % MeHg (concentrations of MeHg normalized to total Hg) in the sediment. This indicates that MeHg production overruled degradation and input/output processes of MeHg in surface sediments, and that % MeHg in surface sediments may be used as a proxy for net production of MeHg. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing significant positive relationships between short term (48 h) MeHg production and longer term accumulation of MeHg, across a range of sites with different properties (1). If MeHg was not normalized to total Hg, the relationship was not significant. For sub-sets of

  6. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

    2009-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

  7. Observations of atmospheric Hg species and depositions in remote areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng X.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available From September 2007, we conducted continuous measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury (Hg and atmospheric mercury depositions at five remote sites in China. Four of these sites were involved in the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS as ground-based stations. These stations were located in the northwest, southwest, northeast, and east part of China, respectively, which represent the regional atmospheric Hg budgets in different areas of China. The preliminary results showed that mean TGM concentrations were in the range of 1.60 – 2.88 ng m-3, with relatively higher levels observed at sites in Eastern China and Southwestern China and lower levels at sites in Northeastern and Northwestern China. TGM concentrations at remote sites of China were also higher than those reported from background sites in North America and Europe, and this is corresponding very well with the Chinese great anthropogenic Hg emissions. Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bounded mercury (PBM were in the ranges of 3.2 – 7.4 pg m−3 and 19.4 – 43.5 pg m-3, respectively. The preliminary result on precipitation showed mean precipitation THg concentrations were in the range of 2.7 – 18.0 ng L-1.

  8. Transfer in the light Hg isotopes and the U(6/12) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, M.; Grafeuille, S.; Rotbard, G.

    1985-01-01

    It was suggested recently that the level schemes of the odd Hg isotopes with 193 200 Hg, 198 Hg, 196 Hg(p,d) 199 Hg, 197 Hg, 195 Hg. The comparison of the experimental spectroscopic factors with the ones computed using the U(6/12) model shows that, among the three nuclei studied, 195 Hg and 197 Hg can be considered as reasonably described. The agreement in this case with U(6/12) is better in the U(5) limit than in the O(6) limit

  9. A Two-Year Study on Mercury Fluxes from the Soil under Different Vegetation Cover in a Subtropical Region, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the mercury (Hg emission and exchange characteristics at the soil–air interface under different vegetation cover types, the evergreen broad-leaf forest, shrub forest, grass, and bare lands of Simian Mountain National Nature Reserve were selected as the sampling sites. The gaseous elementary mercury (GEM fluxes at the soil–air interface under the four vegetation covers were continuously monitored for two years, and the effect of temperature and solar radiation on GEM fluxes were also investigated. Results showed that the GEM fluxes at the soil–air interface under different vegetation cover types had significant difference (p < 0.05. The bare land had the maximum GEM flux (15.32 ± 10.44 ng·m−2·h−1, followed by grass land (14.73 ± 18.84 ng·m−2·h−1, and shrub forest (12.83 ± 10.22 ng·m−2·h−1, and the evergreen broad-leaf forest had the lowest value (11.23 ± 11.13 ng·m−2·h−1. The GEM fluxes at the soil–air interface under different vegetation cover types showed similar regularity in seasonal variation, which mean that the GEM fluxes in summer were higher than that in winter. In addition, the GEM fluxes at the soil–air interface under the four vegetation covers in Mt. Simian had obvious diurnal variations.

  10. HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode detector arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Initial results on the MWIR e-APD detector arrays with 30 μm pitch fabricated on LPE grown compositionally graded p-HgCdTe epilayers are presented. High dynamic resistance times active area (R0A product 2 × 106 Ω-cm2, low dark current density 4 nA/cm2 and high gain 5500 at -8 V were achieved in the n+-υ-p+ HgCdTe e-APD at 80 K. LPE based HgCdTe e-APD development makes this technology amenable for adoption in the foundries established for the conventional HgCdTe photovoltaic detector arrays without any additional investment.

  11. Superdeformation in the Hg-Tl-Pb region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, E.A.; Becker, J.A.; Yates, S.W.; Wang, T.F.; Kuhnert, A.; Brinkman, M.J.; Cizewski, J.A.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.; Azaiez, F.; Korten, W.; Draper, J.E.

    1990-10-01

    Superdeformation in the Hg-Tl-Pb region is discussed, with concentration on the experimental results. At least twenty-five superdeformed bands are known in this region, providing much new data to test theoretical calculations. 22 refs., 5 figs

  12. HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanio, K.R.; Bean, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors have been fabricated on Si substrates through intermediate CdTe/GaAs layers. Encapsulation of the GaAs between the CdTe and Si prevents unintentional doping of the HgCdTe by Ga and As. Uniform epitaxial GaAs is grown on three inch diameter Si substrates. Detectors on such large area Si substrates will offer hybrid focal plane arrays whose dimensions are not limited by the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the Si signal processor and the substrate for the HgCdTe detector array. The growth of HgCdTe detectors on the Si signal processors for monolithic focal plane arrays is also considered. 40 references

  13. Design principles for HgTe based topological insulator devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Parijat; Kubis, Tillmann; Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    The topological insulator properties of CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum wells are theoretically studied. The CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum well behaves as a topological insulator beyond a critical well width dimension. It is shown that if the barrier (CdTe) and well-region (HgTe) are altered by replacing them with the alloy CdxHg1-xTe of various stoichiometries, the critical width can be changed. The critical quantum well width is shown to depend on temperature, applied stress, growth directions, and external electric fields. Based on these results, a novel device concept is proposed that allows to switch between a normal semiconducting and topological insulator state through application of moderate external electric fields.

  14. A New Trapped Ion Clock Based on Hg-201(+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi-Larigani, S.; Burt, E. A.; Lea, S. N.; Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    There are two stable odd isotopes of mercury with singly ionized hyperfine structure suitable for a microwave clock: Hg-199(+) and Hg-201(+). Virtually all trapped mercury ion clocks to date have used the 199 isotope. We have begun to investigate the viability of a trapped ion clock based on Hg-201(+). We have measured the unperturbed frequency of the (S-2)(sub 1/2) F = 1, m(sub F) = 0 to (S-2)(sub 1/2) F = 2, m(sub F) = 0 clock transition to be 29.9543658211(2) GHz. In this paper we describe initial measurements with Hg-201(+) and new applications to clocks and fundamental physics.

  15. Peculiarity of electron optical orientation in Hg1-xMnxTe and Hg1-xCdxTe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgitseh, E.I.; Ivanov-Omskij, V.I.; Pogorletskij, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    To clarify the effect of exchange interaction of electrons with manganese ions on electron spin relaxation, a study was made on optical orientation in Hg 1-x Mn x Te alloy and Hg 1-x Cd x Te alloys with similar parameters of energy spectrum at 4.2 K. It is shown that exchange interaction in semimagnetic Hg 1-x Mn x Te solutions, caused by the presence of manganese ions, reduced the time of spin relaxation. However, this reduction is not sufficient make optical orientation of electrons not observable

  16. Hubungan Paparan Merkuri (Hg Dengan Kejadian Gangguan Fungsi HatiPada Pekerja Tambang Emas di Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikie Astorina Yunita Dewanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional gold mining activities that using WOA/ amalgamation can cause Hg emissions to the environment. The emissions could raise mercury poisoning in the environment and human. Liver as a major part of the metabolism and accumulation of Hg in the human body, so that Hg could lead to liver damage. In the previous research, Hg exposure in male rats caused hepatotoxicosis. Average blood mercury levels of workers was 53.5 μg/m3. Objective: To determine the association between mercury (Hg exposure and theoccurance of liver dysfunction on gold mine workers at Jendi Village, sub-district Selogiri, Wonogiri District. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, total sample were 41 workers. The data obtained from the results of laboratory tests of blood samples and the results of the interview respondents.Data would be analyzed using biavariate and multivariate statstic test. Results:There was 41.16% of respondents were miners, processors as well as grates, the average of working period was 10 years, work duration 6 hours a  day and 6 days a week. 97.56% of respondents have blood mercury levels above normal (U.S. EPA: 5.8 ppb. Elevated levels of SGOT experienced by 24.4% of respondents , SGPT 17.1% of  respondents and ALP 58.8% of  respondents or as much as 68.3% of respondents having liver disfunction. There was no difference incidence of liver dysfunction seen from the type of work (p value = 0.459, There was no assossiation between  work duration, work period and blood mercury  levels with the incidence of liver disfunction in workers (p value = 0.148; 0.408 and 0.608. There was a relationship between blood mercury levels with SGPT as an indicator of liver dysfunction (p value = 0.042 Conclusion: Overall, the data did not provide strong evidence that mercury exposure associated with incidence of liver disfunction.   Keywords: mercury exposure, liver disfunction, SGOT, SGPT, ALP

  17. Controls on boreal peat combustion and resulting emissions of carbon and mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg, Andrew J.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Thompson, Dan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Warming in the boreal forest region has already led to changes in the fire regime. This may result in increasing fire frequency or severity in peatlands, which could cause these ecosystems to shift from a net sink of carbon (C) to a net source of C to the atmosphere. Similar to C cycling, peatlands serve as a net sink for mercury (Hg), which binds strongly to organic matter and accumulates in peat over time. This stored Hg is also susceptible to re-release to the atmosphere during peat fires. Here we investigate the physical properties that influence depth of burn in experimental peat columns and the resulting emissions of CO, CO2, CH4, and gaseous and particulate Hg. As expected, bulk density and soil moisture content were important controls on depth of burn, CO2 emissions, and CO emissions. However, our results show that CH4 and Hg emissions are insensitive to combustion temperature or fuel moisture content. Emissions during the burning of peat, across a wide range of moisture conditions, were associated with low particulate Hg and high gaseous Hg release. Due to strong correlations between total Hg and CO emissions and because high Hg emissions occurred despite incomplete combustion of total C, our results suggest that Hg release during peat burning is governed by the thermodynamics of Hg reduction more so than by the release of Hg associated with peat combustion. Our measured emissions ratios, particularly for CH4:CO2, are higher than values typically used in the upscaling of boreal forest or peatland fire emissions. These emission ratios have important implications not only for our understanding of smouldering chemistry, but also for potential influences of peat fires on the Earth’s climate system.

  18. PARADIGMA KEJAIDAN PENYAKIT PAJANAN MERKURI (Hg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inswiasri Inswiasri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequence of Diseases of Mercury Poison.This review conducted in order to know sequence of diseases of mercury poison. Using four nodes paradigm is very helpfull to identify agent sources up to occuring diseases. Many activities and mercury compound as an emission, path way of mercury compound from environment to human, inditators of human exposures and symptom of poison or diseases can identify from this paradigm. Many studies have been conducted to identify what happen in every nodes. Environmental pollution by Mercury and mercury compound caused by human activities or naturally. Mercury metal or vapor can enter to human mostly by inhalation, mercury in urine and blood can use as indicator of exposure. Health impact is on central nerveous system. In organic mercury entered to human by inhalation, ingestion or contact to skin. Mercury in urine and blood can use as an indicator of exposure. Health impact is on central nerveous system. Organic mercury especially methyl mercury entered to human mostly by ingestion. Mercury in blood and hair can use as indicator of exposure. Health impact is on central nerveous system and probably cancer. This review can help the researcher further more to study the diseases or symptoms and bioindicator of mercury poison.Keywords: Sequence of disease, poison, mercury

  19. Comparison of nonflare solar soft x ray flux with 10.7-cm radio flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The similarities and differences of the nonflare solar 1- to 8-A X ray flux and the daily 10.7-cm Ottawa solar radio flux are examined. The radio flux is shown to be much less sensitive than the soft X ray flux on the average to the coronal emission of active regions located near or beyond the solar chromospheric limb relative to regions near the center of the solar disk. This is caused by the solar soft X ray emission's being optically thin while much of the 10.7-cm active region emission is from optical depths of tauapprox.1. The radio flux includes a large quiet sun flux which is emitted mostly from the tenuous chromosphere-corona transition region (Tapprox.10 4 --10 6 0 K) and partly from the cooler portions of the quiet corona Tapprox.1.5 x 10 6 0 K. Conversely, the solar soft X ray flux has a very small quiet sun component

  20. Nuclear radiation detected optical pumping of neutron deficient Hg isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.

    1975-01-01

    The extension of the Nuclear Radiation Detected Optical Pumping method to mass-separated samples of isotopes far off stability is presented for a series of light Hg isotopes produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The isotope under investigation is transferred by an automatic transfer system into the optical pumping apparatus. Zeeman scanning of an isotopically pure Hg spectral lamp is used to reach energetic coincidence with the hyperfine structure components of the 6s 2 1 S 0 -6s6p 3 P 1 (lambda = 2537 A) resonance line of the investigated isotope and the Hg lamp. The orientation build up by optical pumping is monitored via the asymmetry or anisotropy of the nuclear radiation. Nuclear spins, magnetic moments, electric quadrupole moments and isotopic shift are obtained for 181 Hg- 191 Hg using the β-asymmetry as detector. The extension of the method using the γ-anisotropy is discussed and measurements on 193 Hg are presented. (orig./HK)

  1. The mercury chromates Hg6Cr2O9 and Hg6Cr2O10-Preparation and crystal structures, and thermal behaviour of Hg6Cr2O9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, Matthias; Stoeger, Berthold

    2006-01-01

    The basic mercury(I) chromate(VI), Hg 6 Cr 2 O 9 (=2Hg 2 CrO 4 .Hg 2 O), has been obtained under hydrothermal conditions (200deg. C, 5 days) in the form of orange needles as a by-product from reacting elemental mercury and K 2 Cr 2 O 7 . Hydrothermal treatment of microcrystalline Hg 6 Cr 2 O 9 in demineralised water at 200deg. C for 3 days led to crystal growth of red crystals of the basic mercury(I, II) chromate(VI), Hg 6 Cr 2 O 10 (=2Hg 2 CrO 4 .2HgO). The crystal structures were solved and refined from single crystal X-ray data sets. Hg 6 Cr 2 O 9 : space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , Z=4, a=7.3573(12), b=8.0336(13), c=20.281(3)A, 3492 structure factors, 109 parameters, R[F 2 >2σ(F 2 )]=0.0371, wR(F 2 all)=0.0517; Hg 6 Cr 2 O 10 : space group Pca2 1 , Z=4, a=11.4745(15), b=9.4359(12), c=10.3517(14)A, 3249 structure factors, 114 parameters, R[F 2 >2σ(F 2 )]=0.0398, wR(F 2 all)=0.0625. Both crystal structures are made up of an intricate mercury-oxygen network, subdivided into single building blocks [O-Hg-Hg-O] for the mercurous compound, and [O-Hg-Hg-O] and [O-Hg-O] for the mixed-valent compound. Hg 6 Cr 2 O 9 contains three different Hg 2 2+ dumbbells, whereas Hg 6 Cr 2 O 10 contains two different Hg 2 2+ dumbbells and two Hg 2+ cations. The Hg I -Hg I distances are characteristic and range between 2.5031(15) and 2.5286(9)A. All Hg 2 2+ groups exhibit an unsymmetrical oxygen environment. The oxygen coordination of the Hg 2+ cations is nearly linear with two tightly bonded O atoms at distances around 2.07A. For both structures, the chromate(VI) anions reside in the vacancies of the Hg-O network and deviate only slightly from the ideal tetrahedral geometry with average Cr-O distances of ca. 1.66A. Upon heating at temperatures above 385deg. C, Hg 6 Cr 2 O 9 decomposes in a four-step mechanism with Cr 2 O 3 as the end-product at temperatures above 620 deg. C

  2. Compton profiles and electronic structure of HgBr{sub 2} and HgI{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, G.; Dashora, Alpa [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, 313001 Rajasthan (India); Sharma, M. [Physics Division, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Jaipur, 302016 Rajasthan (India); Ahuja, B.L. [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, 313001 Rajasthan (India)], E-mail: blahuja@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, we present the first-ever experimental Compton line shapes of HgBr{sub 2} and HgI{sub 2} using {sup 137}Cs Compton spectrometer. To compare our experimental momentum densities, we have computed the Compton profiles using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory within linear combination of atomic orbitals. We have also computed the energy bands and density of states using the linear combination of atomic orbitals and full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. On the basis of equal-valence-electron-density profiles, it is seen that HgI{sub 2} is more covalent than HgBr{sub 2} which is in agreement with the valence charge densities. The experimental isotropic profiles are found to be relatively in better agreement with the Hartree-Fock data. We have also discussed the photoluminescence and detection properties of both the halides.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT. OVERALL STUDY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a detailed emissions measurement campaign that was conducted over a 9-day period within a mercury (Hg) cell chlor-alkali plant in the southeastern United States (U.S.). The principal focus of this study was to measure fugitive (non-ducted) airborne Hg emission...

  4. Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea G; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Dranguet, Perrine; Makri, Stamatina; Björn, Erik; Ungureanu, Viorel Gh; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl(-) concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  5. A ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of Hg2+ based on thymine-Hg2+-thymine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Erhu; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Jiawan; Yu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a simple, selective and reusable electrochemical biosensor for the sensitive detection of mercury ions (Hg(2+)) has been developed based on thymine (T)-rich stem-loop (hairpin) DNA probe and a dual-signaling electrochemical ratiometric strategy. The assay strategy includes both "signal-on" and "signal-off" elements. The thiolated methylene blue (MB)-modified T-rich hairpin DNA capture probe (MB-P) firstly self-assembled on the gold electrode surface via Au-S bond. In the presence of Hg(2+), the ferrocene (Fc)-labeled T-rich DNA probe (Fc-P) hybridized with MB-P via the Hg(2+)-mediated coordination of T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs. As a result, the hairpin MB-P was opened, the MB tags were away from the gold electrode surface and the Fc tags closed to the gold electrode surface. These conformation changes led to the decrease of the oxidation peak current of MB (IMB), accompanied with the increase of that of Fc (IFc). The logarithmic value of IFc/IMB is linear with the logarithm of Hg(2+) concentration in the range from 0.5 nM to 5000 nM, and the detection limit of 0.08 nM is much lower than 10nM (the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limit of Hg(2+) in drinking water). What is more, the developed DNA-based electrochemical biosensor could be regenerated by adding cysteine and Mg(2+). This strategy provides a simple and rapid approach for the detection of Hg(2+), and has promising application in the detection of Hg(2+) in real environmental samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Accumulation of Mercury (Hg) and Methyl Mercury (Me Hg) Concentrations In Selected Marine Biota From Manjung Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisa Abdullah; Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat; Abd Khalik Wood; Masitah Alias

    2015-01-01

    Level of mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (Me Hg) in marine ecosystem has been intensively studied as these toxic substances could be accumulated in the marine biota. This study is focusing on the Hg and Me Hg content in marine biota in Manjung coastal area. This area has high potential being affected by rapid socio-economic development of Manjung area such as heavy industrial activities (coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories), agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge, quarries, housing constructions. It may has a potential risk when released into the atmosphere and dispersed on the surface of water and continue deposited at the bottom of the water and sediment and being absorbed by marine biota. The concentrations of Hg and Me Hg in marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. In this study, five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. The Hg concentrations for dry and rainy season are in the range 65.13-102.12 μg/ kg and 75.75-106.10 μg/ kg respectively, while for MeHg concentrations for dry and rainy seasons are in the range 4.35-6.26 μg/ kg and 5.42-6.46 μg/ kg, respectively. These results are below the limit set by Malaysia Food Act (1983). Generally, marine biota from the Manjung coastal area is safe to consume due to low value of ingestion dose rate and health risk index (HRI) for human health. (author)

  7. Interactions of Hg(ii) with oligonucleotides having thymine-thymine mispairs. Optimization of an impedimetric Hg(ii) sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ajar; She, Zhe; Sharma, Renu; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2017-05-21

    The present work describes the effect of the number of thymine-thymine mispairs in single strand DNA probes on Hg(ii) interactions and further to develop a highly sensitive DNA based impedimetric sensor for Hg(ii) detection. To achieve this goal, the influence of the number of T-T mispairs on the signal response prompted by DNA-Hg(ii) binding interactions was examined on three designed DNA probes: 5'-OH-(CH 2 ) 6 -S-S-(CH 2 ) 6 -AGTCCACACGTTCCTTACGC-3', 5'-OH-(CH 2 ) 6 -S-S-(CH 2 ) 6 -AGTCCACATTTTCCTTTTGC-3', 5'-OH-(CH 2 ) 6 -S-S-(CH 2 ) 6 -AGTCCATTTTTTCCTTTTTT-3' having 2T-T, 4T-T and 6T-T mispairs with identical length, respectively. This study revealed that the number of T-T mispairs plays a critical role in maximizing the signal intensity of DNA-Hg(ii) binding interactions. Based on these results, DNA comprising maximum number of T-T mispairs was further utilized for construction of the Hg(ii) sensor, which exhibited a linear correlation between the change in charge transfer resistance (ΔR CT ) and the concentration of Hg(ii) over the range of 1.0 × 10 -5 M to 1.0 × 10 -10 M with a lower detection limit of 3.2 × 10 -11 M. The selectivity was tested against 12 different metal ions including Hg(ii). The ΔR CT response from Hg(ii) is 3 times higher than the nearest competitor Pb(ii) and approximately 10 times than other ions. The potential application of such a robust and label-free DNA sensor was demonstrated by analyzing environmental samples collected from Lake Ontario.

  8. Phase diagrams of ZnTe-HgTe-Te and ZnTe-CdTe-HgTe-Te systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrukhiv, A.M.; Litvak, A.M.; Mironov, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    ZnTe-HgTe-Te system liquidus surface is investigated and solid solution layers are produced in this system by the method of liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). The theoretical analysis of experimental and theoretical data allows to calculate the diagram of ZnTe-CdTe-HgTe-Te system fusibility. A significant effect of elastic stresses of the epitaxial layer, grown on CdTe substrate, on the process of LPE of solid solutions is established

  9. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  10. Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D. M.; Novović, I.; Vilotić, D.; Ignjatović, Lj.

    2007-09-01

    The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME I. REPORT AND APPENDICES A-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  12. Converting Hg-1212 to Tl-2212 via Tl-Hg cation exchange in combination with Tl cation intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hua; Wu, Judy Z

    2007-01-01

    In a cation exchange process developed recently for epitaxy of HgBa 2 CaCu 2 O 6 (Hg-1212) thin films, TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7 (Tl-1212) or Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 9 (Tl-2212) precursor films were employed as the precursor matrices and Hg-1212 was obtained by replacing Tl cations on the precursor lattice with Hg cations. The reversibility of the cation exchange dictates directly the underlying mechanism. Following our recent success in demonstrating a complete reversibility within '1212' structure, we show the conversion from Hg-1212 to Tl-2212 can be achieved via two steps: conversion from Hg-1212 to Tl-1212 followed by Tl intercalation to form double Tl-O plans in each unit cell. The demonstrated reversibility of the cation exchange process has confirmed the process is a thermal perturbation of weakly bonded cations on the lattice and the direction of the process is determined by the population ratio between the replacing cations and that to be replaced

  13. Intense charge transfer surface based on graphene and thymine-Hg(II)-thymine base pairs for detection of Hg(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Lu, Liping; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-03-15

    In this article, we developed an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor with a high-intensity charge transfer interface for Hg(2+) detection based on Hg(II)-induced DNA hybridization. The sensor was fabricated by the following simple method. First, graphene oxide (GO) was electrochemically reduced onto a glassy carbon electrode through cyclic voltammetry. Then, amino-labeled double-stranded (ds)DNA was assembled on the electrode surface using 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide as a linker between GO and DNA. The other terminal of dsDNA, which was labeled with biotin, was linked to CdSe quantum dots via biotin-avidin interactions. Reduced graphene oxide has excellent electrical conductivity. dsDNA with T-Hg(II)-T base pairs exhibited more facile charge transfer. They both accelerate the electron transfer performance and sensitivity of the sensor. The increased ECL signals were logarithmically linear with the concentration of Hg(II) when Hg(2+) was present in the detection solution. The linear range of the sensor was 10(-11) to 10(-8)mol/L (R=0.9819) with a detection limit of 10(-11)mol/L. This biosensor exhibited satisfactory results when it was used to detect Hg(II) in real water samples. The biosensor with high-intense charge transfer performance is a prospect avenue to pursue more and more sensitive detection method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metal transfer to plants grown on a dredged sediment: use of radioactive isotope {sup 203}Hg and titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, Nathalie [ENSAIA-INRA/INPL, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); CNRSSP, 930 boulevard Lahure, F-59505 Douai (France); Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere organique dans les sols, CNRS, 17 rue Notre-Dame des Pauvres, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vauleon, Clotilde [CNRSSP, 930 boulevard Lahure, F-59505 Douai (France); Leyval, Corinne [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere organique dans les sols, CNRS, 17 rue Notre-Dame des Pauvres, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Morel, Jean-Louis [ENSAIA-INRA/INPL, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: jean-louis.Morel@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr

    2005-04-01

    Improperly disposed of dredged sediments contaminated with metals may induce long-term leaching and an increase of metal concentrations in ground waters and vegetal cover plants. The objective of the study was to quantify the sediment-to-plant transfer of Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn with a particular focus on the pathway of Hg and to determine whether the establishment of vegetal cover modifies the metal availability. A pot experiment with rape (Brassica napus), cabbage (Brassica oleraccea) and red fescue (Festuca rubra) was set up using a sediment first spiked with the radioisotope {sup 203}Hg. Zinc concentrations (197-543 mg kg{sup -1} DM) in leaves were higher than Cu concentration (197-543 mg kg{sup -1} DM), Pb concentration (2.3-2.6 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and Hg concentration (0.9-1.7 mg kg{sup -1} DM). Leaves-to-sediment ratios decreased as follows: Zn>Cu>Hg>Pb. According to Ti measurements, metal contamination by dry deposition was less than 1%. Mercury concentration in plant leaves was higher than European and French thresholds. Foliar absorption of volatile Hg was a major pathway for Hg contamination with a root absorption of Hg higher in rape than in cabbage and red fescue. Growth of each species increased Cu solubility. Zinc solubility was increased only in the presence of rape. The highest increase of Cu solubility was observed for red fescue whereas this species largely decreased Zn solubility. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements suggested that Cu solubilisation could result from organic matter or release of natural plant exudates. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measures suggested that the high Zn solubility in the presence of rape could originate from a generation of acidity in rape rhizosphere and a subsequent dissolution of calcium carbonates. Consequently, emission of volatile Hg from contaminated dredged sediments and also the potential increase of metal solubility by a vegetal cover of grass when used in phytostabilisation must be taken into account

  15. Streamwater fluxes of total mercury and methylmercury into and out of Lake Champlain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanley, James B.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, we sampled for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in inlet streams to Lake Champlain, targeting high flow periods to capture increases in THg and MeHg concentrations with increasing flow. We used these data to model stream THg and MeHg fluxes for Water Years 2001 through 2009. In this mountainous forested basin with a high watershed-to-lake area ratio of 18, fluvial export from the terrestrial watershed was the dominant source of Hg to the lake. Unfiltered THg and MeHg fluxes were dominated by the particulate fraction; about 40% of stream THg was in the filtered ( −2 yr −1 , or about 13% of atmospheric Hg wet and dry deposition to the basin. THg export from the lake represented only about 3% of atmospheric Hg input to the basin. - Highlights: ► We monitored total mercury and methylmercury in major tributaries to Lake Champlain. ► Mercury and methylmercury export was primarily as particulates during high flow. ► Only 13% of atmospheric total mercury input reached the lake via streams. ► Only 3% of atmospheric total mercury input reached the lake outlet. - Eighty-seven percent of total mercury deposition to the Lake Champlain basin is retained in the terrestrial basin; stream export of total and methylmercury to the lake is primarily in the particulate phase.

  16. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: The impact of dental amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, Iman, E-mail: iman@kfshrc.edu.sa [Biological and Medical Research Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sedairi, Al anoud [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box: 24452, Riyadh 11495 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine ({mu}g/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter ({mu}g/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N = 106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N = 76), with means of 3.763 {mu}g/g creatinine versus 3.457 {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P = 0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P = 0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 {mu}g/g (N = 97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 {mu}g/g (N = 74) for those without amalgam fillings (P = 0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 {mu}g/g, N = 61) versus those with (0.163 {mu}g/g, N = 101), the relationship was not significant (P = 0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (P < 0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse relationship was seen between NHg levels and dental amalgam fillings (P = 0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and

  17. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: The impact of dental amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Sedairi, Al anoud

    2011-01-01

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine (μg/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter (μg/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N = 106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N = 76), with means of 3.763 μg/g creatinine versus 3.457 μg/g creatinine, respectively (P = 0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P = 0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 μg/g (N = 97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 μg/g (N = 74) for those without amalgam fillings (P = 0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 μg/g, N = 61) versus those with (0.163 μg/g, N = 101), the relationship was not significant (P = 0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (P < 0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse relationship was seen between NHg levels and dental amalgam fillings (P = 0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and/or nephrotoxic effects of

  18. Overcoming phytoremediation limitations. A case study of Hg contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a broad term that comprises several technologies to clean up water and soil. Despite the numerous articles appearing in scientific journals, very few field applications of phytoextraction have been successfully realized. The research here reported on Phytoextraction, the use the plant to "extract" metals from contaminated soil, is focused on implementations to overcome two main drawbacks: the survival of plants in unfavorable environmental conditions (contaminant toxicity, low fertility, etc.) and the often lengthy time it takes to reduce contaminants to the requested level. Moreover, to overcome the imbalance between the technology's potential and its drawbacks, there is growing interest in the use of plants to reduce only the fraction that is the most hazardous to the environment and human health, that is to target the bioavailable fractions of metals in soil. Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping (BCS) would be a remediation approach focused to remove the bioavailable metal fractions. BCS have been used in a mercury contaminated soil from Italian industrial site. Bioavailable fractions were determined by sequential extraction with H2O and NH4Cl.Combined treatments of plant hormone and thioligand to strength Hg uptake by crop plants (Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) were tested. Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution following treatments were compared. Results indicate the plant hormone, cytokinine (CK) foliar treatment, increased evapotranspiration rate in both tested plants. The Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants increased with simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments. B. juncea was the most effective in Hg uptake. Application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 232% in shoots and 39% in roots with respect to control. While H. annuus gave a better response in plant biomass production, the application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to

  19. Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Thakur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg_1_0In_9_0, Hg_3_0In_7_0_,_. Hg_5_0In_5_0, Hg_7_0In_3_0, and Hg_9_0Pb_1_0) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the local arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.

  20. Mercury Stable Isotopes Discriminate Different Populations of European Seabass and Trace Potential Hg Sources around Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cransveld, Alice; Amouroux, David; Tessier, Emmanuel; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Ozturk, Ayaka A; Bettoso, Nicola; Mieiro, Cláudia L; Bérail, Sylvain; Barre, Julien P G; Sturaro, Nicolas; Schnitzler, Joseph; Das, Krishna

    2017-11-07

    Our study reports the first data on mercury (Hg) isotope composition in marine European fish, for seven distinct populations of the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. The use of δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg values in SIBER enabled us to estimate Hg isotopic niches, successfully discriminating several populations. Recursive-partitioning analyses demonstrated the relevance of Hg stable isotopes as discriminating tools. Hg isotopic values also provided insight on Hg contamination sources for biota in coastal environment. The overall narrow range of δ 202 Hg around Europe was suggested to be related to a global atmospheric contamination while δ 202 Hg at some sites was linked either to background contamination, or with local contamination sources. Δ 199 Hg was related to Hg levels of fish but we also suggest a relation with ecological conditions. Throughout this study, results from the Black Sea population stood out, displaying a Hg cycling similar to fresh water lakes. Our findings bring out the possibility to use Hg isotopes in order to discriminate distinct populations, to explore the Hg cycle on a large scale (Europe) and to distinguish sites contaminated by global versus local Hg source. The interest of using Hg sable isotopes to investigate the whole European Hg cycle is clearly highlighted.

  1. Iminocoumarin-based Hg(II) Ion Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Sun Young; Lee, Su Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyung; Kim, Jong Seung [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mee; Kim, Sung Jin [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); No, Kwang Hyun [Sookmyung Womens Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The design and synthesis of new chemosensors for heavy and transition metal ions (HTM) has been an important subject in the field of supramolecular chemistry due to their fundamental role in biological, environmental, and chemical processes. Particularly, the recognition and detection of Hg{sup 2+} are of growing interest because the Hg{sup 2+} is considered highly noxious elements. Many analytical methods have been applied for this purpose including atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), ion selective electrodes (ISE), and flame photometry. In addition, for the detection of HTM (heavy and transition metal), colorimetric sensors have also gained interest. The colorimetric sensors have considerable advantages over other molecular sensors because they do not require the use of costly equipment such as spectrophotometers, ISE, or cyclic voltameters. So, to develop simple-to-use and naked-eye diagnostic tool, great efforts have been made for the design and synthesis of selective chromogenic sensors for Hg{sup 2+}.

  2. EVALUATION OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling methods that have been promulgated for measuring stack emissions of Hg from coal combustion sources, however, EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The draft ASTM Ontario Hydro Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-b...

  3. A (201)Hg+ Comagnetometer for (199)Hg+ Trapped Ion Space Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Eric A.; Taghavi, Shervin; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for unambiguously measuring the exact magnetic field experienced by trapped mercury ions contained within an atomic clock intended for space applications. In general, atomic clocks are insensitive to external perturbations that would change the frequency at which the clocks operate. On a space platform, these perturbative effects can be much larger than they would be on the ground, especially in dealing with the magnetic field environment. The solution is to use a different isotope of mercury held within the same trap as the clock isotope. The magnetic field can be very accurately measured with a magnetic-field-sensitive atomic transition in the added isotope. Further, this measurement can be made simultaneously with normal clock operation, thereby not degrading clock performance. Instead of using a conventional magnetometer to measure ambient fields, which would necessarily be placed some distance away from the clock atoms, first order field-sensitive atomic transition frequency changes in the atoms themselves determine the variations in the magnetic field. As a result, all ambiguity over the exact field value experienced by the atoms is removed. Atoms used in atomic clocks always have an atomic transition (often referred to as the clock transition) that is sensitive to magnetic fields only in second order, and usually have one or more transitions that are first-order field sensitive. For operating parameters used in the (199)Hg(+) clock, the latter can be five orders of magnitude or more sensitive to field fluctuations than the clock transition, thereby providing an unambiguous probe of the magnetic field strength.

  4. Volcanic Metal Emissions and Implications for Geochemical Cycling and Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Mather, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes emit substantial fluxes of metals to the atmosphere in volcanic gas plumes in the form of aerosol, adsorbed onto silicate particles and even in some cases as gases.. A huge database of metal emissions has been built over the preceding decades, which shows that volcanoes emit highly volatile metals into the atmosphere, such as As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Re, Se, Tl, among others. Understanding the cycling of metals through the Solid Earth system has importance for tackling a wide range of Earth Science problems, e.g. (1) the environmental impacts of metal emissions; (2) the sulfur and metal emissions of volcanic eruptions; (3) the behavior of metals during subduction and slab devolatilization; (4) the influence of redox on metal behavior in subduction zones; (5) the partitioning of metals between magmatic vapor, brines and melts; and (6) the relationships between volcanism and ore deposit formation. It is clear, when comparing the metal composition and flux in the gases and aerosols emitted from volcanoes, that they vary with tectonic setting. These differences allow insights into how the magmatic vapor was generated and how it interacted with melts and sulfides during magma differentiation and decompression. Hotspot volcanoes (e.g. Kilauea, Hawaii; volcanoes in Iceland) outgas a metal suite that mirrors the sulfide liquid-silicate melt partitioning behaviors reconstructed from experiments (as far as they are known), suggesting that the aqueous fluids (that will later be outgassed from the volcano) receive metals directly from oxidation of sulfide liquids during degassing and ascent of magmas towards the surface. At arc volcanoes, the gaseous fluxes of metals are typically much higher; and there are greater enrichments in elements that partition strongly into vapor or brine from silicate melts such as Cu, Au, Zn, Pb, W. We collate and present data on volcanic metal emissions from volcanoes worldwide and review the implications of the data array for metal cycling

  5. Mercury nonstoichiometry of the Hg1-xBa2CuO4+δ superconductor and the P(Hg)-P(O2)-T phase diagram of the Hg-Ba-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyoshin, V.A.; Mikhailova, D.A.; Rudnyi, E.B.; Antipov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    The P(Hg)-P(O 2 )-T phase diagram of the Hg-Ba-Cu-O system for the Ba:Cu=2:1 ratio was experimentally studied and followed by means of the thermodynamic modeling. It was shown that the Hg 1-x Ba 2 CuO 4+δ (Hg-1201) superconductor possesses a significant range of Hg-nonstoichiometry and exists in a certain P(Hg), P(O 2 ) and T range. Mercury nonstoichiometry of Hg-1201 was investigated in the 923≤T≤1095 K; 2.0≤P(Hg)≤8.4 atm; 0.09≤P(O 2 )≤0.86 atm ranges. It was found that the mercury content varies in the range of 0.80-0.94 under these conditions. The Gibbs energy of the Hg-1201 phase was estimated as a function of temperature and mercury concentration. The obtained results allow optimizing the synthesis conditions of Hg-1201 with a given Hg-content including preparation of the Hg-stoichiometric phase

  6. Hg+ ion density in low-pressure Ar-Hg discharge plasma used for liquid crystal display back-lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Miki; Arai, Toshihiko

    1995-01-01

    The positive column of a low-pressure Ar-Hg discharge has been applied as a fluorescent light source for illumination. Many studies on the diagnostics and fundamental mechanisms have been carried out on both the classical fluorescent lamp (d=36 mm) and the compact fluorescent lamp (d=12 mm). On the other hand, a lamp of extremely narrow diameter (usually below 6 mm) has been recently developed for liquid crystal display (LCD) back-lighting and its importance is undoubtedly increasing. Some characteristics or mechanisms of the narrow-diameter lamp may be similar to those of the 36 mm one; however the similarity rule does not hold between them due to the contributions from a stepwise ionization process. Therefore, in order to clarify the excitation mechanism in the narrow-diameter lamp quantitatively, various parameters must be measured directly and some analysis must be done. The Hg + ion density and electron density are important parameters for the purpose of clarifying the excitation mechanism quantitatively. In this work, we have measured the Hg + ion density using the modified absorption method, and the electron density using the probe method in the Ar-Hg discharge of the 4 mm bore tube on bath temperature. Moreover, with combining the modified absorption method and the probe method, the Hg 2 + molecular ion density has been determined

  7. Uptake and clearance of mercury Hg (NO3)2-203Hg by the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.R.; Rodrigues, N.S.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do

    1982-01-01

    Fishes weighing between 20.6 and 536.9 mg were exposed to 25, 50 and 100 μg Hg.l -1 as Hg (NO 3 ) 2 labelled with 203 Hg, for 17 days in plastic aquaria containing 4 litre of soft aerated dechlorinated water. Whole body mercury contents were determined periodically by gamma counting, using a single channel spectrometer and a 3 in X 3 in NaI(Tl) well crystal. The highest bioconcentration of mercury was after 100 h of exposure for all the treatments. A further study on the clearance of mercury nitrate was carried out by transfering fishes to mercury-free water, after a period of 100 h of exposure in solutions of 35 and μg Hg.l -1 . The fishes were not sacrificed after the dose measurment, being returned to the aquaria for further sampling. The rate of clearance was similar for both concentrations. After 120 h exposure to uncontamined water, the fishes excreted the mercury previously absorbed. The correlation coefficient of the experimentals equations were 0.91 and 0.94, respectively, for the treatments 35 and 70 μg Hg.l -1 . Both experiments, uptake and clearance were made at same values of the water physico-chemical parameters (hardness = 36 mg CaCO 3 ; pH=7.2; O.D.=7.0 mg/l; temperature=23 +- 1 0 C). (Author) [pt

  8. AIEgens for dark through-bond energy transfer: design, synthesis, theoretical study and application in ratiometric Hg2+ sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuncong; Zhang, Weijie; Cai, Yuanjing; Kwok, Ryan T K; Hu, Yubing; Lam, Jacky W Y; Gu, Xinggui; He, Zikai; Zhao, Zheng; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Chen, Bin; Gui, Chen; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2017-03-01

    A novel dark through-bond energy transfer (DTBET) strategy is proposed and applied as the design strategy to develop ratiometric Hg 2+ sensors with high performance. Tetraphenylethene ( TPE ) derivatives with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics are selected as dark donors to eliminate emission leakage from the donors. The TBET mechanism has been adopted since it experiences less influence from spectral overlapping than Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), making it more flexible for developing cassettes with large pseudo-Stokes shifts. In this work, energy transfer from the TPE derivatives (dark donor) to a rhodamine moiety (acceptor) was illustrated through photophysical spectroscopic studies and the energy transfer efficiency (ETE) was found to be up to 99%. In the solution state, no emission from the donors was observed and large pseudo-Stokes shifts were achieved (>280 nm), which are beneficial for biological imaging. Theoretical calculations were performed to gain a deeper mechanistic insight into the DTBET process and the structure-property relationship of the DTBET cassettes. Ratiometric Hg 2+ sensors were rationally constructed based on the DTBET mechanism by taking advantage of the intense emission of TPE aggregates. The Hg 2+ sensors exhibited well resolved emission peaks. >6000-fold ratiometric fluorescent enhancement is also achieved and the detection limit was found to be as low as 0.3 ppb. This newly proposed DTBET mechanism could be used to develop novel ratiometric sensors for various analytes and AIEgens with DTBET characteristics will have great potential in various areas including light harvesting materials, environmental science, chemical sensing, biological imaging and diagnostics.

  9. Natural Hg isotopic composition of different Hg compounds in mammal tissues as a proxy for in vivo breakdown of toxic methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Vincent; Masbou, Jeremy; Pastukhov, Mikhail V; Epov, Vladimir N; Point, David; Bérail, Sylvain; Becker, Paul R; Sonke, Jeroen E; Amouroux, David

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, specific attention has been paid to total mercury (HgT) stable isotopic composition, especially in natural samples such as aquatic organisms, due to its potential to track the cycle of this toxic element in the environment. Here, we investigated Hg Compound Specific stable Isotopic Composition (CSIC) of natural inorganic Hg (iHg) and methylmercury (MMHg) in various tissues of aquatic mammals (Beluga whale from the Arctic marine environment and seals from the freshwater lake Baikal, Russia). In seals' organs the variation in mass dependent fractionation (MDF, δ(202)Hg) for total Hg was significantly correlated to the respective fraction of iHg and MMHg compounds, with MMHg being enriched by ∼ 3‰ in heavier isotopes relative to iHg. On the other hand, we observe insignificant variation in Hg mass independent isotope fractionation (MIF, Δ(199)Hg) among iHg and MMHg in all organs for the same mammal species and MMHg in prey items. MIF signatures suggest that both MMHg and iHg in aquatic mammals have the same origin (i.e., MMHg from food), and are representative of Hg photochemistry in the water column of the mammal ecosystem. MDF signatures of Hg compounds indicate that MMHg is demethylated in vivo before being stored in the muscle, and the iHg formed is stored in the liver, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, before excretion. Thus, Hg CSIC analysis in mammals can be a powerful tool for tracing the metabolic response to Hg exposure.

  10. Incident Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults With Blood Pressure Hg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Booth, John N; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Howard, George; Lackland, Daniel T; O'Brien, Emily C; Oparil, Suzanne; Ravenell, Joseph; Safford, Monika M; Seals, Samantha R; Shimbo, Daichi; Shea, Steven; Spruill, Tanya M; Tanner, Rikki M; Muntner, Paul

    2017-08-29

    Data from before the 2000s indicate that the majority of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occur among US adults with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) ≥140/90 mm Hg. Over the past several decades, BP has declined and hypertension control has improved. We estimated the percentage of incident CVD events that occur at SBP/DBP Hg in a pooled analysis of 3 contemporary US cohorts: the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke), the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) (n=31 856; REGARDS=21 208; MESA=6779; JHS=3869). Baseline study visits were conducted in 2003 to 2007 for REGARDS, 2000 to 2002 for MESA, and 2000 to 2004 for JHS. BP was measured by trained staff using standardized methods. Antihypertensive medication use was self-reported. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined by the first occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, or heart failure. Events were adjudicated in each study. Over a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, 2584 participants had incident CVD events. Overall, 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.9-71.1) of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg; 58.4% (95% CI, 47.7-69.2) and 68.1% (95% CI, 60.1-76.0) among those taking and not taking antihypertensive medication, respectively. The majority of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg among those Hg, 76.6% (95% CI, 75.8-77.5) were eligible for statin treatment, but only 33.2% (95% CI, 32.1-34.3) were taking one, and 19.5% (95% CI, 18.5-20.5) met the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) eligibility criteria and may benefit from a SBP target goal of 120 mm Hg. Although higher BP levels are associated with increased CVD risk, in the modern era, the majority of incident CVD events occur in US adults with SBP/DBP Hg. While absolute risk and cost-effectiveness should be considered, additional CVD risk

  11. Hvordan understøttes hg-elevers kompetenceudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, Karin Løvenskjold; Hansen, Jens Ager; Karmark, Ole

    Publikationen handler om, hvordan hg-elever arbejder og dermed lærer og udvikler kvalifikationer og kompetencer i de undervisnings- og arbejdsformer, de indgår i. Indholdet er baseret på observationer af elever i klasseundervisning, gruppearbejde eller individuel arbejde i forlængelse af klasseun......Publikationen handler om, hvordan hg-elever arbejder og dermed lærer og udvikler kvalifikationer og kompetencer i de undervisnings- og arbejdsformer, de indgår i. Indholdet er baseret på observationer af elever i klasseundervisning, gruppearbejde eller individuel arbejde i forlængelse af...

  12. BIOADSORPSI Hg(II OLEH PATI SAGU TAUT SILANG FOSFAT [Bioadsorption of Hg(II by Crosslinked Sago Starch Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sugiarti2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crosslinked-sago-starch-phosphate (SgP has been successfully synthesized from native sago starch (Sg and Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 in an acidic condition. The compound was designed as bioadsorbent for removing Hg(II inside human digestion tract as shown by in vitro test. The bioadsorption followed pseudo-second order of reaction kinetic and Freundlich equation as chemisorption. As a result, 21% of Hg(II was removed at pH of 6.80 and reached the isothermal equilibrium of the bioadsorption at pH of 5.80 and 8.60 for 29.95% and 31.39%, respectively. The result showed that SgP is more feasible than activated carbon to be used as bioadsorbent in removing Hg(II in human digestion tract as proved by in vitro system.

  13. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S.; Aydin, Adnan; Wong, Ming H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on environmental mercury emissions in Asia and elaborates its probable trend in the future and associated implications given the anticipated socioeconomic outlook and other macro-environmental factors. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg, responsible for over half of the global emission. In the next few decades, a significant increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia is likely owing to rapid economic and industrial development, unless drastic measures are taken. In particular, the dominance of Asia in some Hg-emitting industries, such as coal combustion, steel production and gold mining, provokes a serious environmental concern over their potential contributions of incidental Hg in the region. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of electrical and electronic manufacturing industry as a user and a contributor of Hg in Asia is also worrying. Specifically, disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic wastes represents a phenomenon increasingly encountered in Asia. In addition to escalating anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia, associated environmental and health implications may also exacerbate in the region for the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. high population density). Hence, much effort is still needed to understand the role of Asia in global Hg cycle and associated environmental and health effects in the region

  14. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Coby S C; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Aydin, Adnan; Wong, Ming H

    2006-09-15

    This paper focuses on environmental mercury emissions in Asia and elaborates its probable trend in the future and associated implications given the anticipated socioeconomic outlook and other macro-environmental factors. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg, responsible for over half of the global emission. In the next few decades, a significant increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia is likely owing to rapid economic and industrial development, unless drastic measures are taken. In particular, the dominance of Asia in some Hg-emitting industries, such as coal combustion, steel production and gold mining, provokes a serious environmental concern over their potential contributions of incidental Hg in the region. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of electrical and electronic manufacturing industry as a user and a contributor of Hg in Asia is also worrying. Specifically, disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic wastes represents a phenomenon increasingly encountered in Asia. In addition to escalating anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia, associated environmental and health implications may also exacerbate in the region for the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. high population density). Hence, much effort is still needed to understand the role of Asia in global Hg cycle and associated environmental and health effects in the region.

  15. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux implant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jungkim, S

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of T-Flux implant in nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. METHODS: This clinical interventional case series study included 35 eyes of 35 patients with medically uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux (ETTF) is a technique of nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery, in which after removing deep scleral tissue and un-roofing the canal of Schlemn (CS) the external trabecular tissue is peeled off to enhance the aqueous drainage without opening the anterior chamber. A non-absorbable T-Flux implant (IOL TECH Laboratories, France) was sutured in deep intrascleral space to keep it patent. Snellen\\'s best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy, funduscopy, and optic disc assessment were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3 , 6, and 12 months. Visual field testing was performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: For three eyes, surgery was converted to standard trabeculectomy owing to the perforation of trabeculo-Descemet\\'s membrane and iris prolapse and excluded from the study. The results of the remaining 32 eyes were included in the study. Preoperative IOP (mean +\\/- SD) of 32.88 +\\/- 5.7 mmHg decreased to 15.44 +\\/- 1.6 mmHg after 12 months. Ten eyes (28.6%) had microhyphema that resolved spontaneously; 3 eyes (8.6%) had microperforation without iris prolapse so ETTF was proceeded routinely. The preoperative number of antiglaucoma medications per patient reduced from (mean +\\/- SD) 2.74 +\\/- 0.61 to 0.11 +\\/- 0.32 postoperatively at 12 months. Visual acuity and visual fields remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: ETTF appears to provide significant control of IOP and have low incidence of complications.

  16. Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanxu Zhang,; Daniel J. Jacob,; Hannah M. Horowitz,; Long Chen,; Helen M. Amos,; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Franz Slemr,; Vincent L. St. Louis,; Elsie M. Sunderland,

    2015-01-01

    Observations of elemental mercury (Hg0) at sites in North America and Europe show large decreases (∼1–2% y−1) from 1990 to present. Observations in background northern hemisphere air, including Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) aircraft flights, show weaker decreases (inventories indicating flat or increasing emissions over that period. However, the inventories have three major flaws: (i) they do not account for the decline in atmospheric release of Hg from commercial products; (ii) they are biased in their estimate of artisanal and small-scale gold mining emissions; and (iii) they do not properly account for the change in Hg0/HgII speciation of emissions from coal-fired utilities after implementation of emission controls targeted at SO2 and NOx. We construct an improved global emission inventory for the period 1990 to 2010 accounting for the above factors and find a 20% decrease in total Hg emissions and a 30% decrease in anthropogenic Hgemissions, with much larger decreases in North America and Europe offsetting the effect of increasing emissions in Asia. Implementation of our inventory in a global 3D atmospheric Hg simulation [GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System-Chemistry)] coupled to land and ocean reservoirs reproduces the observed large-scale trends in atmospheric Hg0 concentrations and in HgII wet deposition. The large trends observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of Hg from commercial products as well as the cobenefit from SO2 and NOx emission controls on coal-fired utilities.

  17. 40 CFR 75.38 - Standard missing data procedures for Hg CEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hg CEMS. 75.38 Section 75.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard missing data procedures for Hg CEMS. (a) Once 720 quality assured monitor operating hours of Hg... substitute data for Hg concentration in accordance with the procedures in ( 75.33(b)(1) through (b)(4...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4121 - Submission of Hg budget permit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of Hg budget permit... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4121 Submission of Hg budget permit applications. (a) Duty to apply. The Hg designated representative of any Hg Budget source required to have a...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4122 - Information requirements for Hg budget permit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements for Hg budget... requirements for Hg budget permit applications. A complete Hg Budget permit application shall include the following elements concerning the Hg Budget source for which the application is submitted, in a format...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4152 - Responsibilities of Hg authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of Hg authorized... and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4152 Responsibilities of Hg authorized account representative. Following the establishment of a Hg...

  1. Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities of trace metals in the Tokyo metropolitan area measured with a water surface sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Marumoto, Kohji

    2004-04-01

    Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities (=deposition flux/atmospheric concentration) for trace metals including Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the Tokyo metropolitan area were measured using an improved water surface sampler. Mercury is deposited on the water surface in both gaseous (reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) and particulate (particulate mercury, Hg(p)) forms. The results based on 1 yr observations found that dry deposition plays a significant if not dominant role in trace metal deposition in this urban area, contributing fluxes ranging from 0.46 (Cd) to 3.0 (Zn) times those of concurrent wet deposition fluxes. The deposition velocities were found to be dependent on the deposition of coarse particles larger than approximately 5 microm in diameter on the basis of model calculations. Our analysis suggests that the 84.13% diameter is a more appropriate index for each deposited metal than the 50% diameter in the assumed undersize log-normal distribution, because larger particles are responsible for the flux. The deposition velocities for trace metals other than mercury increased exponentially with an increase in their 84.13% diameters. Using this regression equation, the deposition velocities for Hg(p) were estimated from its 84.13% diameter. The deposition fluxes for Hg(p) calculated from the estimated velocities tended to be close to the mercury fluxes measured with the water surface sampler during the study periods except during summer.

  2. Seasonality of odonate-mediated methylmercury flux from permanent and semipermanent ponds and potential risk to red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edward B; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Kennedy, James H

    2017-10-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an aquatic contaminant that can be transferred to terrestrial predators by emergent aquatic insects such as odonates (damselflies and dragonflies). We assessed the effects of month and pond permanence on odonate-mediated MeHg flux (calculated as emergent odonate biomass × MeHg concentration) in 10 experimental ponds and the potential risk to nestling red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) posed by consuming MeHg-contaminated odonates. Emergent odonates were collected weekly from permanent ponds with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus; n = 5) and semipermanent ponds without fish (n = 5) over an 8-mo period (January-August 2015). The MeHg flux from damselflies, aeshnid dragonflies, and libellulid dragonflies began in March and peaked in April, May, and June, respectively, and then declined throughout the rest of the summer. Odonate-mediated MeHg flux from semipermanent ponds without fish was greater than that from permanent ponds with fish. Nesting of red-winged blackbirds overlapped with peak odonate emergence and odonate-mediated MeHg flux. Because their diet can be dominated by damselflies and dragonflies, we tested the hypothesis that MeHg-contaminated odonates may pose a health risk to nestling red-winged blackbirds. Concentrations of MeHg in odonates exceeded wildlife values (the minimum odonate MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) for nestlings, suggesting that MeHg-contaminated odonates can pose a health risk to nestling red-winged blackbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2833-2837. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  4. Use of L-cysteine for minimization of inorganic Hg loss during thermal neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal neutron irradiation experiments performed with cellulose-based L-cysteine-treated and untreated Hg standards showed Hg losses of 59-81% for untreated standards but only about a 0.2% loss for treated standards. These results and others for multielement standards showed that Hg loss is highly dependent on total mass and placement of materials in the irradiation vessel and that distribution of volatilized Hg was fairly uniform throughout the sample-containing region of the vessel. Polyethylene trapped volatile Hg much more efficiently than cellulose and a multielement standard containing inorganic Se selectively trapped Hg lost from a co-irradiated multielement standard containing Hg. (author)

  5. Study of elemental mercury re-emission through a lab-scale simulated scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Li Wu; Yan Cao; Cheng-Chun He; Zhong-Bing Dong; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2010-08-15

    This paper describes a lab-scale simulated scrubber that was designed and built in the laboratory at Western Kentucky University's Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology. A series of tests on slurries of CaO, CaSO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4}/CaSO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} were carried out to simulate recirculating slurries in different oxidation modes. Elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) re-emission was replicated through the simulated scrubber. The relationship between the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the slurries and the Hg0 re-emissions was evaluated. Elemental mercury re-emission occurred when Hg{sup 2+} that was absorbed in the simulated scrubber was converted to Hg{sup 0}; then, Hg{sup 0} was emitted from the slurry together with the carrier gas. The effects of both the reagents and the operational conditions (including the temperature, pH, and oxygen concentrations in the carrier gas) on the Hg{sup 0} re-emission rates in the simulated scrubber were investigated. The results indicated that as the operational temperature of the scrubber and the pH value of the slurry increased, the Hg{sup 0} concentrations that were emitted from the simulated scrubber increased. The Hg{sup 0} re-emission rates decreased as the O{sub 2} concentration in the carrier gas increased. In addition, the effects of additives to suppress Hg{sup 0} re-emission were evaluated in this paper. Sodium tetrasulfide, TMT 15, NaHS and HI were added to the slurry, while Hg{sup 2+}, which was absorbed in the slurry, was retained in the slurry as mercury precipitates. Therefore, there was a significant capacity for the additives to suppress Hg{sup 0} re-emission. 11 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Notes on the physiology of Hg uptake by the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    The kidney has many functions of which the best known is excretion, and the purpose of most functional exploration methods is to study the excretion capacity. The Hg uptake test explores another function, the uptake of metals and toxic substances. The uptake process involves an active transport through the peritubular membrane and a concentration inside the kidney cell in a bound or insoluble form. Transfer into the tubular lumen, if any, is quantitatively negligible and appears to be due to neither an active nor a passive transfer. This uptake process may be identified in vivo from the shape of the kidney and urine radioactivity curves, even when excretion and uptake are associated, the former curve rising slowly to a plateau while the latter, very low, also appears to reach a plateau. The kidney and urine 197 HgCl 2 radioactivity curves illustrate this process very well. The 197 Hg uptake fraction at the plateau level has been proposed has a kidney function exploration test, this value being related by a highly significant correlation to other quantitative tests such as inuline and PAH clearances, PAH Tm and urine concentration capacity. In rats the 197 HgCl 2 uptake area has been located, by measurements on dissected nephrons, at the pars recta and to a lesser extent the whole of the proximal convolution [fr

  7. Photoluminescence from CdxHg1-xTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, M; Selvig, E; Tonheim, C R; Brendhagen, E; Brudevoll, T; Rheenen, A D van; Steen, H; Nicolas, S; Lorentzen, T; Haakenaasen, R

    2008-01-01

    We present important aspects of photoluminescence (PL) of Cd x Hg 1-x Te in the infrared part of the spectrum where background thermal radiation significantly affects the PL spectrum. We show how the background spectrum can be removed from the data. We also show how the wavelength of the excitation laser affects the relative intensity of the PL peaks from a multi-layer structure. Finally, we present temperature dependent PL of a Cd 0.36 Hg 0.64 Te/Cd 0.61 Hg 0.39 Te multiple quantum well structure grown on a 4 μm thick Cd 0.36 Hg 0.64 Te buffer layer. We attribute the low temperature peak from the buffer layer to impurities. The impurity levels are depopulated as the temperature increases, resulting in a decreased PL peak intensity. Above ∼200 K a band-to-band peak from the buffer layer is observed. The quantum well peak persists up to ∼200 K

  8. Use of HgI2 as gamma radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Morales, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Mercuric Iodide (HgI 2 ) has become one of the most promising room temperature semiconductors for the construction of X and gamma radiation detectors. The classical methods of spectroscopy have not demonstrated to achieve optimum results with HgI 2 detectors, mainly due to its particular carrier transport properties. Several alternative spectroscopic methods developed in the last ten years are presented and commented, selecting for a complete study one of them: 'The Partial Charge Collection Method'. The transport properties of the carriers generated by the radiation in the detector is specially important for understanding the spectroscopic behaviour of the HgI 2 detectors. For a rigorous characterization of this transport, it has been studied a digital technique for the analysis of the electric pulses produced by the radiation. Theoretically, it has been developed a Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation detection and the electronic signal treatment processes with these detectors in the energy range of 60-1300 KeV. These codes are applied to the study of the The Partial Charge Collection Method and its comparison with gaussian methods. Experimentally, this digital techniques is used for the study of the transport properties of thin HgI 2 detectors. Special interest is given to the contribution of the slower carriers, the holes, obtaining some consequent of spectroscopic interest. Finally, it is presented the results obtained with the first detectors grown and mounted in CIEMAT with own technology. (author). 129 ref

  9. Decay from the superdeformed bands in 194Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Superdeformed bands in 194 H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum γrays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in 194 Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in 192 Hg. These features include: statistical γrays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from γrays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in 192,194 Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even 191 Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum

  10. Biosorptive removal of Hg(II) ions by Rhizopus oligosporus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, corn processing wastewater was used as a new low-cost substrate to produce Rhizopus oligosporus. Dried biomass of R. oligosporus was evaluated as a biosorbent for treatment of synthetically contaminated waters with Hg(II) ions. The biosorption process was carried out in a batch process and the effects of ...

  11. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon photoresists for HgCdTe patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, R.E.; DeHart, C.; Wang, L.; Dinan, J.H.; Johnson, J.N.

    1997-07-01

    A process to use a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film as a dry photoresist mask for plasma etching of HgCdTe has been demonstrated. The a-Si:H films were deposited using standard plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with pure silane as the source gas. X-ray photoelectron spectra show that virtually no oxide grows on the surface of an a-Si:H film after 3 hours in air, indicating that it is hydrogen passivated. Ultraviolet light frees hydrogen from the surface and enhances the oxide growth rate. A pattern of 60 micron square pixels was transferred from a contact mask to the surface of an a-Si:H film by ultraviolet enhanced oxidation in air. For the conditions used, the oxide thickness was 0.5--1.0 nm. Hydrogen plasmas were used to develop this pattern by removing the unexposed regions of the film. A hydrogen plasma etch selectivity between oxide and a-Si:H of greater than 500:1 allows patterns as thick as 700 nm to be generated with this very thin oxide. These patterns were transferred into HgCdTe by etching in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. An etch selectivity between a-Si:H and HgCdTe of greater than 4:1 was observed after etching 2,500 nm into the HgCdTe. All of the steps are compatible with processing in vacuum.

  12. Decay from the superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformed bands in {sup 194}H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum {gamma}rays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in {sup 192}Hg. These features include: statistical {gamma}rays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from {gamma}rays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even {sup 191}Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum.

  13. (EFB) for mercury [Hg(II)] removal from aqueous solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... United Nations are coal-burning power plants and waste incinerators. They account for approximately .... of 100 rpm, the barrier between the solid-liquid phases was overcome. Agitation at this speed led ... tance at the boundary layer between solid-liquid phases. Effect of contact time on the uptake of Hg(II) ...

  14. The application of 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy to define the biological chemistry of HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranzo, Olga; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Ryu, Seung-baek

    2007-01-01

    The use of de novo designed peptides is a powerful strategy to elucidate HgII-protein interactions and to gain insight into the chemistry of HgII in biological systems. Cysteine derivatives of the designed -helical peptides of the TRI family [Ac-G-(LaKbAcLdEeEfKg)4-G-NH2] bind HgII at high p...... to characterize the distinct species that are generated under different pH conditions and peptide TRI L9C/HgII ratios. These studies prove for the first time the formation of [Hg{(TRI L9C)2-(TRI L9C H)}], a dithiolate-HgII complex in the hydrophobic interior of the three-stranded coiled coil (TRI L9C)3. 199Hg NMR...

  15. History of HgTe-based photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2010-09-01

    In Poland, the HgCdTe studies began in 1960 at the Institute of Physics, Warsaw University. The material processing laboratory was created by Giriat and later by Dziuba, Gałązka, and others. Bridgman technique with sealed thick wall quartz ampoules was used to grow material suitable for research and experimental devices. Among the first papers published in 1961 and 1963 there were the Polish works devoted to preparation, doping, and electrical properties of HgCdTe. Infrared detector's research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. At the beginning, a modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy has been used for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other HgCdTe devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy were also used. Recently, the fabrication of infrared devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition. At present stage of development, the photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic (PEM) detectors are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, photodiodes offer high performance and very fast response. However, conventional photovoltaic uncooled detectors suffer from low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. The problems have been solved with advanced band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, and monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics. In final part of the paper, the Polish achievements in technology and performance of HgMnTe and HgZnTe photodetectors are presented.

  16. Predicting radio fluxes of extrasolar planets (Griessmeier+, 2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griessmeier, J.M.; Zarka, P.; Spreeuw, H.

    2007-01-01

    Expected radio emission from presently known exoplanets. For each of the currently known exoplanets, we list its estimated magnetic moment, maximum radio emission frequency, plasma frequency in the ambient stellar wind, and radio fluxes according to three different models. (1 data file).

  17. A new disjunct eddy-covariance system for BVOC flux measurements - validation on CO2 and H2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Jarnot, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Striebig, N.; Ferlicoq, M.; Keravec, P.

    2012-12-01

    The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method is an interesting alternative to the conventional eddy covariance (EC) method because it allows the estimation of turbulent fluxes of species for which fast sensors are not available. We have developed and validated a new disjunct sampling system (called MEDEE). This system is built with chemically inert materials. Air samples are taken quickly and alternately in two cylindrical reservoirs, the internal pressures of which are regulated by a moving piston. The MEDEE system was designed to be operated either on the ground or aboard an aircraft. It is also compatible with most analysers since it transfers the air samples at a regulated pressure. To validate the system, DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and latent heat fluxes were performed concurrently during a field campaign. EC fluxes were first compared to simulated DEC (SDEC) fluxes and then to actual DEC fluxes. Both the simulated and actual DEC fluxes showed a good agreement with EC fluxes in terms of correlation. The determination coefficients (R2) were 0.93 and 0.91 for DEC and SDEC latent heat fluxes, respectively. For DEC and SDEC CO2 fluxes R2 was 0.69 in both cases. The conditions of low fluxes experienced during the campaign impaired the comparison of the different techniques especially for CO2 flux measurements. Linear regression analysis showed an 14% underestimation of DEC fluxes for both CO2 and latent heat compared to EC fluxes. A first field campaign, focusing on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, was carried out to measure isoprene fluxes above a downy oak (Quercus Pubescens) forest in the south-east of France. The measured standard emission rate was in the lower range of reported values in earlier studies. Further analysis will be conducted through ground-based and airborne campaigns in the coming years.

  18. Ultra-Low Dark Current HgCdTe Detector in SWIR for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, C.; Boulade, O.; Gravrand, O.; Lobre, C.; Guellec, F.; Sanson, E.; Ballet, P.; Santailler, J. L.; Moreau, V.; Zanatta, J. P.; Fieque, B.; Castelein, P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents recent developments at Commissariat à l'Energie atomique, Laboratoire d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Information infrared laboratory on processing and characterization of p-on- n HgCdTe (MCT) planar infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) in short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral band for the astrophysics applications. These FPAs have been grown using both liquid phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy on a lattice-matched CdZnTe substrate. This technology exhibits lower dark current and lower series resistance in comparison with n-on- p vacancy-doped architecture and is well adapted for low flux detection or high operating temperature. This architecture has been evaluated for space applications in long-wave infrared and very-long-wave infrared spectral bands with cut-off wavelengths from 10 μm up to 17 μm at 78 K and is now evaluated for the SWIR range. The metallurgical nature of the absorbing layer is also examined and both molecular beam epitaxy and liquid phase epitaxy have been investigated. Electro-optical characterizations have been performed on individual photodiodes from test arrays, whereas dark current investigation has been performed with a fully functional readout integrated circuit dedicated to low flux operations.

  19. Probing spin helical surface states in topological HgTe nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, J.; Kozlovsky, R.; Gorini, C.; Liu, M.-H.; Weishäupl, S.; Maier, H.; Fischer, R.; Kozlov, D. A.; Kvon, Z. D.; Mikhailov, N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Richter, K.; Weiss, D.

    2018-01-01

    Nanowires with helical surface states represent key prerequisites for observing and exploiting phase-coherent topological conductance phenomena, such as spin-momentum locked quantum transport or topological superconductivity. We demonstrate in a joint experimental and theoretical study that gated nanowires fabricated from high-mobility strained HgTe, known as a bulk topological insulator, indeed preserve the topological nature of the surface states, that moreover extend phase-coherently across the entire wire geometry. The phase-coherence lengths are enhanced up to 5 μ m when tuning the wires into the bulk gap, so as to single out topological transport. The nanowires exhibit distinct conductance oscillations, both as a function of the flux due to an axial magnetic field and of a gate voltage. The observed h /e -periodic Aharonov-Bohm-type modulations indicate surface-mediated quasiballistic transport. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the scaling of the observed gate-dependent conductance oscillations reveals the topological nature of these surface states. To this end we combined numerical tight-binding calculations of the quantum magnetoconductance with simulations of the electrostatics, accounting for the gate-induced inhomogeneous charge carrier densities around the wires. We find that helical transport prevails even for strongly inhomogeneous gating and is governed by flux-sensitive high-angular momentum surface states that extend around the entire wire circumference.

  20. Annual particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvi, L.; Rannik, Ü.; Mammarella, I.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term eddy covariance particle number flux measurements for the diameter range 6 nm to 5 μm were performed at the SMEAR III station over an urban area in Helsinki, Finland. The heterogeneity of the urban measurement location allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in diff...... stationary combustion sources are also highest. Particle number fluxes were compared with the simultaneously measured CO2 fluxes and similarity in their sources was distinguishable. For CO2, the median emission factor of vehicles was estimated to be 370 g km−1........ The measurement footprint was estimated by the use of both numerical and analytical models. Using the crosswind integrated form of the footprint function, we estimated the emission factor for the mixed vehicle fleet, yielding a median particle number emission factor per vehicle of 3.0×1014 # km−1. Particle fluxes...

  1. Environmental contamination of mercury from Hg-mining areas in Wuchuan, northeastern Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Guangle [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Feng Xinbin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China)]. E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn; Wang Shaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Shang Lihai [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 Guanshui Road, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Total Hg and methyl-Hg were evaluated in mine wastes, soils, water, and vegetations from the Wuchuan Hg-mining areas, Guizhou, China. Mine wastes contain high total Hg concentrations, ranging from 79 to 710 {mu}g g{sup -1}, and methyl-Hg from 0.32 to 3.9 ng g{sup -1}. Total Hg in soil samples range from 0.33 to 320 {mu}g g{sup -1} and methyl-Hg from 0.69 to 20 ng g{sup -1}. Vegetations present a high average total Hg concentration of 260 ng g{sup -1}, which greatly exceeds the maximum Hg concentration of 20 ng g{sup -1} recommended by the Chinese National Standard Agency for food sources. The rice samples contain elevated methyl-Hg concentrations, ranging from 4.2 to 18 ng g{sup -1}. Stream water collected from Hg-mining areas is also contaminated, containing Hg as high as 360 ng l{sup -1}, and methyl-Hg reaches up to 5.7 ng l{sup -1}. Data indicate heavy Hg-contaminations and significant conversion of methyl-Hg in the study areas. - Mercury mining activities in Wuchun, Guizhou, China have resulted in seriously mercury contamination to the local environment.

  2. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jeffra K.; Rocks, Sara S.; Zheng, Wang; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Morel, François M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments. PMID:21555571

  3. Nuclear shape staggering in very neutron deficient Hg isotopes detected by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabkiewicz, P.; Duke, C.; Fischer, H.; Kuehl, T.; Kluge, H.-J.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope shift in the lambda = 2537 A line of the even isotopes 206 Hg, 190 Hg, 188 Hg, 186 Hg, 184 Hg as well as of the I = 13/2 isomers of 191 Hg, 189 Hg, 187 Hg, 185 Hg has been measured by use of a tunable dye laser at the on-line masseparator ISOLDE at CERN. The resulting delta 2 > values follow the line, extrapolated from the chain 205 Hg- 187 Hg which is known to have spherical nuclear shape at the heavy end changing smoothly to slight oblate deformation for the lighter isotopes. Previous measurements of the I = 1/2 groundstates of 181 Hg. 183 Hg and 185 Hg revealed a sharp shape transition to strong deformation. Combined with the new results the following effects can be proved for the first time from the model-independent quantity delta 2 >: 1) the existence of odd even-shape staggering, 2) the coexistence of very different shapes in one and the same nucleus as manifested by the huge isomer shift in 185 Hg, 3) the absence of mixing of the different shapes. (author)

  4. Environmental contamination of mercury from Hg-mining areas in Wuchuan, northeastern Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guangle; Feng Xinbin; Wang Shaofeng; Shang Lihai

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg and methyl-Hg were evaluated in mine wastes, soils, water, and vegetations from the Wuchuan Hg-mining areas, Guizhou, China. Mine wastes contain high total Hg concentrations, ranging from 79 to 710 μg g -1 , and methyl-Hg from 0.32 to 3.9 ng g -1 . Total Hg in soil samples range from 0.33 to 320 μg g -1 and methyl-Hg from 0.69 to 20 ng g -1 . Vegetations present a high average total Hg concentration of 260 ng g -1 , which greatly exceeds the maximum Hg concentration of 20 ng g -1 recommended by the Chinese National Standard Agency for food sources. The rice samples contain elevated methyl-Hg concentrations, ranging from 4.2 to 18 ng g -1 . Stream water collected from Hg-mining areas is also contaminated, containing Hg as high as 360 ng l -1 , and methyl-Hg reaches up to 5.7 ng l -1 . Data indicate heavy Hg-contaminations and significant conversion of methyl-Hg in the study areas. - Mercury mining activities in Wuchun, Guizhou, China have resulted in seriously mercury contamination to the local environment

  5. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  6. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  7. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  8. The simplest representative of a complex series. The Hg-rich amalgam Yb_1_1Hg_5_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambornino, Frank; Hoch, Constantin

    2017-01-01

    Yb_1_1Hg_5_4 is a new member of a series of amalgams with composition close to MHg_5. Its crystal structure was solved and refined on the basis of single crystal data. The structure model was confirmed with a Rietveld refinement. Yb_1_1Hg_5_4 has the first crystal structure in this family in which no disorder effects such as mixed occupation, split positions or superstructure formation is observed. It therefore can be regarded as a parent structure for all other amalgams. The crystal structure of Yb_1_1Hg_5_4 can be derived from the Gd_1_4Ag_5_1 structure type, the aristotype of this family. We give a detailed crystal structure description for Yb_1_1Hg_5_4 and discuss it in the context of the further known crystal structures closely related. A ranking within this structure family can be established by calculating features for the structural complexity for all structures, including the individual disorder phenomena.

  9. The simplest representative of a complex series. The Hg-rich amalgam Yb{sub 11}Hg{sub 54}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambornino, Frank; Hoch, Constantin [LMU Muenchen (Germany). Dept. Chemie

    2017-09-01

    Yb{sub 11}Hg{sub 54} is a new member of a series of amalgams with composition close to MHg{sub 5}. Its crystal structure was solved and refined on the basis of single crystal data. The structure model was confirmed with a Rietveld refinement. Yb{sub 11}Hg{sub 54} has the first crystal structure in this family in which no disorder effects such as mixed occupation, split positions or superstructure formation is observed. It therefore can be regarded as a parent structure for all other amalgams. The crystal structure of Yb{sub 11}Hg{sub 54} can be derived from the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type, the aristotype of this family. We give a detailed crystal structure description for Yb{sub 11}Hg{sub 54} and discuss it in the context of the further known crystal structures closely related. A ranking within this structure family can be established by calculating features for the structural complexity for all structures, including the individual disorder phenomena.

  10. A fluorescent chemosensor for Hg(2+) and Cd(2+) ions in aqueous medium under physiological pH and its applications in imaging living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Shubhra B; Banerjee, Saikat; Sunwoo, Kyoung; Kim, Jong Seung; Bharadwaj, Parimal K

    2015-04-20

    A new BODIPY derivative with 2,2'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(oxy))bis(N,N-bis(pyridine-2-ylmethyl)aniline unit as the metal receptor has been designed and synthesized. The dye selectively detects either Cd(2+) or Hg(2+) ions in the presence of hosts of other biologically important and environmentally relevant metal ions in aqueous medium at physiological pH. Binding of metal ions causes a change in the emission behavior of the dye from weakly fluorescent to highly fluorescent. Confocal microscopic experiments validate that the dye can be used to identify changes in either Hg(2+) or Cd(2+) levels in living cells.

  11. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  12. Influence of defect structure on magnetic and electronic properties of Hg1-x Crx Se and Hg1-x Cox Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorovskij, V.D.; Reshidova, I.Yu.; Puzynya, A.I.; Paranchich, Yu.S.

    1996-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations at superhigh frequencies, electron spin resonance, magnetic susceptibility, relaxation dielectric losses, and galvanomagnetic measurements in the Hg 1-x Cr x Se and Hg 1-x Co x Se single crystal samples are presented. Analysis of the results Hg 1-x Cr x Se and Hg 1-x Co x Se depend on the defect structure of the substance and the type of defects making this structure. The manifestation of critical phenomena in Hg 1-x Cr x Se also depends on the defect structure

  13. Environmental impact of CO2, Rn, Hg degassing from the rupture zones produced by Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake in western Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaocheng; Chen, Zhi; Cui, Yueju

    2016-10-01

    The concentrations and flux of CO2, (222)Radon (Rn), and gaseous elemental mercury (Hg) in soil gas were investigated based on the field measurements in June 2010 at ten sites along the seismic rupture zones produced by the May 12, 2008, Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake in order to assess the environmental impact of degassing of CO2, Rn and Hg. Soil gas concentrations of 344 sampling points were obtained. Seventy measurements of CO2, Rn and Hg flux by the static accumulation chamber method were performed. The results of risk assessment of CO2, Rn and Hg concentration in soil gas showed that (1) the concentration of CO2 in the epicenter of Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake and north end of seismic ruptures had low risk of asphyxia; (2) the concentrations of Rn in the north segment of seismic ruptures had high levels of radon, Maximum was up to level 4, according to Chinese code (GB 50325-2001); (3) the average geoaccumulation index I geo of soil Hg denoted the lack of soil contamination, and maximum values classified the soil gas as moderately to strongly polluted in the epicenter. The investigation of soil gas CO2, Rn and Hg degassing rate indicated that (1) the CO2 in soil gas was characterized by a mean [Formula: see text] of -20.4 ‰ and by a mean CO2 flux of 88.1 g m(-2) day(-1), which were in the range of the typical values for biologic CO2 degassing. The maximum of soil CO2 flux reached values of 399 g m(-2) day(-1) in the epicenter; (2) the soil Rn had higher exhalation in the north segment of seismic ruptures, the maximum reached value of 1976 m Bq m(-2) s(-1); (3) the soil Hg flux was lower, ranging from -2.5 to 18.7 n g m(-2) h(-1) and increased from south to north. The mean flux over the all profiles was 4.2 n g m(-2) h(-1). The total output of CO2 and Hg degassing estimated along seismic ruptures for a survey area of 18.17 km(2) were approximately 0.57 Mt year(-1) and 688.19 g year(-1). It is recommended that land-use planners should

  14. Leaf, branch, stand and landscape scale measurements of volatile organic compound fluxes from U. S. woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Harley, P.; Helmig, D.; Klinger, L.; Vierling, L.; Zimmerman, P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Div.; Geron, C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Natural volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes were measured in three U.S. woodlands. Fluxes from individual leaves and branches were estimated with enclosure techniques and used to initialize and evaluate VOC emission model estimates. Ambient measurements were used to estimate above canopy fluxes for entire stands. A total of 78 VOCs were identified, with hexenol derivatives being the most commonly observed oxygenated compounds. There was also evidence of high rates of isoprene emission and high rates of monoterpenes in some genera of trees. Model predictions of diurnal variations were within + or - 35 per cent of observed flux variations. Fluxes predicted by a recent version of a biogenic emission model were within 10 per cent to 50 per cent of observed fluxes, leading to the conclusion that existing databases can provide isoprene and monoterpene emission rate potentials within acceptable limits for the dominant plant species at these three woodland sites. 21 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. A thermodynamic model of the Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te-iodine transport system. I - Te-saturated source material. II - Source material composition within the homogeneity range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, D.; Wiedemeier, H.

    1987-01-01

    A thermochemical analysis of the Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te-iodine vapor transport system is presented, and theoretical calculations of diffusion-controlled mass transport rates are made. The predicted mass fluxes are compared with experimental data obtained from transport experiments under vertical, stabilizing conditions reported earlier and with results of additional transport experiments conducted during the present study. Experimental mass transport rate studies of the transport system for fixed amount of excess Hg as a function of transport agent pressure are presented. The mass fluxes are determined for the vertical, stabilizing orientation of the density gradient relative to the gravitational vector. In order to compare experimental mass transport rates with computed values, the thermochemical analysis is extended to take the formation of Hg vacancies in the above compound into account along with their effect on the partial pressure of the system.

  16. Immobilization of Hg(II) by Coprecipitation in Sulfate-Cement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Uptake and molecular speciation of dissolved Hg during formation of Al- or Fe-ettringite-type and high-pH phases were investigated in coprecipitation and sorption experiments of sulfate-cement treatments used for soil and sediment remediation. Ettringite and minor gypsum were identified by XRD as primary phases in Al systems, whereas gypsum and ferrihydrite were the main products in Hg–Fe precipitates. Characterization of Hg–Al solids by bulk Hg EXAFS, electron microprobe, and microfocused-XRF mapping indicated coordination of Hg by Cl ligands, multiple Hg and Cl backscattering atoms, and concentration of Hg as small particles. Thermodynamic predictions agreed with experimental observations for bulk phases, but Hg speciation indicated lack of equilibration with the final solution. Results suggest physical encapsulation of Hg as a polynuclear chloromercury(II) salt in ettringite as the primary immobilization mechanism. In Hg–Fe solids, structural characterization indicated Hg coordination by O atoms only and Fe backscattering atoms that is consistent with inner-sphere complexation of Hg(OH)20 coprecipitated with ferrihydrite. Precipitation of ferrihydrite removed Hg from solution, but the resulting solid was sufficiently hydrated to allow equilibration of sorbed Hg species with the aqueous solution. Electron microprobe XRF characterization of sorption samples with low Hg concentration reacted with cement and FeSO4 amendment indicated correlation of Hg and Fe, supporting the interpretation of Hg removal by precipitation of an Fe(III) oxide phase. PMID:22594782

  17. Inter-annual and spatial variability in hillslope runoff and mercury flux during spring snowmelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Kristine M; Mitchell, Carl P J

    2012-08-01

    Spring snowmelt is an important period of mercury (Hg) export from watersheds. Limited research has investigated the potential effects of climate variability on hydrologic and Hg fluxes during spring snowmelt. The purpose of this research was to assess the potential impacts of inter-annual climate variability on Hg mobility in forested uplands, as well as spatial variability in hillslope hydrology and Hg fluxes. We compared hydrological flows, Hg and solute mobility from three adjacent hillslopes in the S7 watershed of the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota during two very different spring snowmelt periods: one following a winter (2009-2010) with severely diminished snow accumulation (snow water equivalent (SWE) = 48 mm) with an early melt, and a second (2010-2011) with significantly greater winter snow accumulation (SWE = 98 mm) with average to late melt timing. Observed inter-annual differences in total Hg (THg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) yields were predominantly flow-driven, as the proportion by which solute yields increased was the same as the increase in runoff. Accounting for inter-annual differences in flow, there was no significant difference in THg and DOC export between the two snowmelt periods. The spring 2010 snowmelt highlighted the important contribution of melting soil frost in the timing of a considerable portion of THg exported from the hillslope, accounting for nearly 30% of the THg mobilized. Differences in slope morphology and soil depths to the confining till layer were important in controlling the large observed spatial variability in hydrological flowpaths, transmissivity feedback responses, and Hg flux trends across the adjacent hillslopes.

  18. Determination of Hg concentration in gases by PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, E.; van Kuijen, W. J. P.; Munnik, F.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Rokita, E.; de Voigt, M. J. A.

    1992-05-01

    A method for determination of the concentration of mercury in the gaseous phase is described. In the first step of the method a stable sulphur-mercury complex is formed. For this purpose sulphur is deposited on a filter and the investigated gas flows through the filter. Millipore filters and the deposition of sulphur from Na2S2O3 * 5H2O solution were found to be most suitable. The amount of Hg absorbed on the filter was determined by PIXE or by NAA in the second step of the method. An optimization of proton energy was performed in the PIXE analysis to obtain the maximal signal-to-background ratio. The detection limit of the method, expressed as the minimal amount of Hg which has to flow through the filter equals to 30 and 2 ng for PIXE and NAA techniques, respectively. Applications of the method are also described.

  19. H.G. Stoker – oor gesag en mag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Stoker

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available H.G. Stoker – on authoroity and power In 1970 the late Prof. H.G. Stoker was appointed honorary professor in the Department of Philosophy at the Rand Afrikaans University. In this capacity, he held a series of lectures on political philosophy. The third lecture of this series was entitled “Authority and power” (“Gesag en mag”. What follows here is nothing but a re-edition of Stoker’s typescript notes, then distributed to his students (and audience. The fact that we as Christians have, together with everybody else been systematically brainwashed by humanism’s idol making of “democracy” and “people’s sovereignity”, lends an extraordinary high degree of relevance to this theme, which Stoker formulates in terms different from what we would expect (in our compromised view to be.

  20. TEM assessment of defects in (CdHg)Te heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson-Jack, S.G.; Jones, I.P.; Williams, D.J.; Astles, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on transmission electron microscopy used to assess the defect contents of the various layers and interfaces in (CdHg)Te heterostructures. Examination of cross sectional specimens of these materials suggests that the density of misfit dislocations at the interfaces is related to the layer thicknesses, and that the high density of dislocations which are generated at the GaAs/CdTe interface are effectively prevented from penetrating into the CdHgTe epilayer by a 3 μm thick buffer layer. The majority of the dislocations in the layers were found to have a Burgers vector b = a/2 left-angle 110 right-angle and either lie approximately parallel or inclined at an angle of ∼ 60 degrees to the interfactial plane

  1. Shape mixing in sup(184,186)Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, C.V.K.

    1976-01-01

    Recent potential energy calculations on even Hg isotopes have shown that sup(184,186)Hg are possibly deformed with two energy minima one each for oblate (β 2 =-0.14) and prolate (β 2 =0.28) shapes. The quasi-rotational levels in these nuclei have been studied by heavy ion reactions at Berley and Chalk River. The salient features of these studies are: a deviation of the energy levels from a rotational sequence for I + →2 + and 2 + →0 + , E2 transition rates from the rotational value with β 2 =0.28. These features of the spectra are explained on the basis of mixing of bands based on the oblate and prolate shapes. The results of a simple band mixing calculation are presented and they reproduce the observed level spacings and B(E2) values. (author)

  2. New features of superdeformed bands in 194Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    A striking difference between superdeformed (SD) nuclei near A = 190 and those in the other regions is the behavior of the dynamic moment of inertia (lm) with the rotational frequency hω. While the (lm) patterns of the SD bands near A = 130 and A = 150 show pronounced variations, the majority of the SD bands near A = 190 display the same large, smooth increase of (lm) within the frequency range 0.15 194 Hg were populated with the reaction 150 Nd( 48 Ca,4n) 194 Hg at a beam energy of 206 MeV. The gamma rays emitted in the reaction were detected with the Gammasphere detector array (32 detectors for this experiment)

  3. Atmospheric emission of mercury due to combustion of steam coal and domestic coal in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2017-08-01

    To study the mercury emission due to the combustion of steam coal and domestic coal in China, we analyzed the mercury contents of coal, fly ash, bottom ash and sluicing water in thermal power plants, steam boilers as well as domestic coal-stoves, in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong and Yunnan Provinces. This study conduct an estimate of the Hg emission rates from steam coal and domestic coal combustion based on the method of mass distribution ratio of fly ash and bottom ash. The results show that the Hg emission rate of coal combustion in thermal power plants is about 50.21% (electrostatic precipitators + wet flue gas desulfurization), and that in heating boilers is about 67.23%, and 92.28% in industrial boilers without flue gas desulphurisation equipment. Furthermore, Hg emission rate is 83.61% due to domestic coal combustion in coal-stoves. The Hg emission amount into the atmosphere from power and heat generation, industrial boilers, domestic coal-stoves and spontaneous combustion of coal gangue is roughly estimated to be 133 ± 4, 100 ± 17, 11 ± 0.1 and 47 ± 26 tons in China in 2014, respectively, and the total Hg emission amount from this paper is estimated at 292 tons. The trends of Hg emission in China from 1991 to 2014 show an accelerating growth after 2002. The proportion of mercury emission due to thermal power, heating generation and industrial energy utilization continuously increased. The atmospheric emission of mercury due to combustion of steam coal, domestic coal and coal gangue accounts nearly 50% in total anthropogenic Hg emissions in China, indicating one of the largest sources of Hg emission in China which should draw more public and scientific attention in the future.

  4. Normal Hg uptake values in children under 4 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    At birth the child's kidney is anatomically and functionally immature and the Hg uptake rate is only a quarter that of an adult. At 12 months this value is already 3/4 that of the adult and the final normal mature values are reached between 3 and 4 years. A curve of normal values for children below 4 years old is proposed, though being based on a small number of measurements only it must be taken as provisional [fr

  5. Cranking model interpretation of weakly coupled bands in Hg isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.

    1982-01-01

    The positive-parity yrast states of the transitional sup(189-198)Hg isotopes are interpreted within the Bengtsson and Frauendorf version of the cranking model. The very sharp backbendings can be explained by small interaction matrix elements between the ground and s-bands. The experimentally observed large aligned angular momenta and the low band-crossing frequencies are well reproduced in the calculations. (orig.)

  6. Gammastrahlung vom Einfang thermischer Neutronen in Hg 199

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, B.P.; Gruber, U.; Koch, H. R.

    1965-01-01

    103 gamma transitions in Hg 200 have been observed. 37 of them were fitted into a level scheme which comprises 17 states. The energy of the one-phonon vibrational stateI=2+ has been determined to be 367.970±0.020 keV, that of the two-phonon vibrational triplet 947.34±0.07 keV, 1029.37±0.05 ke...

  7. Coulomb excitation of 206Hg at relativistic energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tom

    The region of the nuclear chart surrounding the doubly-magic nucleus 208Pb provides a key area to constrain and develop contemporary nuclear structure models. One aspect of particular interest is the transition strength of the first excited 2+ state in even-even nuclei; this work describes the measurement of this value for the case of 206Hg, where the Z=80 line meets the N=126 shell closure. The nuclei of interest were synthesized using relativistic-energy projectile fragmentation at the GSI facility in Germany. They were produced in the fragmentation of a primary 208Pb beam at an energy of 1 GeV per nucleon, and separated and identifed using the Fragment Separator. The secondary beams with an energy of 140 MeV per nucleon were Coulomb excited on a secondary target of 400 mg/cm. 2 gold. Gamma-rays were detected with the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA). The precise scattering angle for Doppler-correction was determined with position information from the Lund-York-Cologne-CAlorimeter(LYCCA). Using the sophisticated tracking algorithm native to AGATA in conjunction with pulse-shape analysis, a precise Doppler-correction is performed on the gamma spectra, and using a complex n-dimensional analysis, the B(E2) value for 206Hg is extracted relative to the known value also measured in 206Pb. A total of 409 million 206Hg particles were measured, and a cross-section of 50 mb was determined for the 2+ state at 1068 keV. The measurement of the B(E2) transition strength was found to be 1.109 W.u. This result is compared to a number of theoretical calculations, including two Gogny forces, and a modified shell model parametrization and is found to be smaller than all calculated estimations, implying that the first excited 2. + state in . {206}Hg is uncollective in nature.

  8. Improved HgCdTe detectors with novel antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sachi R.; Hu, Kelley; Manthripragada, Sridhar; Martineau, Robert J.; Kotecki, C. A.; Peters, F. A.; Burgess, A. S.; Krebs, Danny J.; Mott, David B.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Miles, A.; Nguyen, Trang L.; Shu, Peter K.

    1996-10-01

    The composite infrared spctrometer (CIRS) is an important instrument for the upcoming Cassini mission for sensing infrared (IR) radiation from the Saturanian planetary system. We have delivered a linear, ten element, mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) photoconductive detector array for use on focal plane 3 (FP3), which is responsible for detecting radiation from the 9.1 micrometer to 16.6 micrometer wavelength range. Reliable HgCdTe detectors require robust passivation, a low-stress zinc sulfide (ZnS) anti-reflection (AR) coating with good adhesion, and a proper optical cavity design to smooth out the resonance in the detector spectral response. During the development of CIRS flight array, we have demonstrated the potential of using an in-situ interfacial layer, such as SiN(subscript x), between ZnS and the anodic oxide. Such an interfacial layer drastically improves the adhesion between the ZnS and oxide, without degrading the minority carrier lifetime. We have also demonstrated the feasibility of applying a SiN(subscript x) 'rain coat' layer over the ZnS to prevent moisture and other chemicals from attacking the AR coating, thus improving the long term reliability. This also enables device operation in a hazardous environment. The alumina/epoxy/HgCdTe/oxide/ZnS structure is a complicated multi-cavity optical system. We have developed an extensive device simulation, which enables us to make the optimal choice of individual cavity thickness for minimizing the resonance and maximizing the quantum efficiency. We have also used 0.05 micrometer alumina powder loaded epoxy to minimize the reflections at the epoxy/HgCdTe interface, thus minimizing the resonance.

  9. Total mercury and methylmercury fluxes via emerging insects in recently flooded hydroelectric reservoirs and a natural lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, Alain; Lucotte, Marc; Cloutier, Louise

    1998-01-01

    Total mercury (total Hg) concentrations in emerging aquatic insects ranged from