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Sample records for hg body burden

  1. Body burden of Hg in different bio-samples of mothers in Shenyang city, China.

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    Min-Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, P<0.001. Frequency of fish consumption more than or equal to 3 times per week during pregnancy was suggested as a significant risk factor of prenatal Hg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, P<0.05. This study provides evidence about Hg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China.

  2. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: the impact of dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Sedairi, Al Anoud

    2011-07-15

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine (μg/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter (μg/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N=106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N=76), with means of 3.763 μg/g creatinine versus 3.457 μg/g creatinine, respectively (P=0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P=0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 μg/g (N=97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 μg/g (N=74) for those without amalgam fillings (P=0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 μg/g, N=61) versus those with (0.163 μg/g, N=101), the relationship was not significant (P=0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (Pdental amalgam fillings (P=0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and/or nephrotoxic effects of such an increased Hg on children should be a cause of concern, and further investigation is warranted. Our

  3. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: The impact of dental amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, Iman, E-mail: iman@kfshrc.edu.sa [Biological and Medical Research Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sedairi, Al anoud [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box: 24452, Riyadh 11495 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine ({mu}g/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter ({mu}g/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N = 106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N = 76), with means of 3.763 {mu}g/g creatinine versus 3.457 {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P = 0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P = 0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 {mu}g/g (N = 97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 {mu}g/g (N = 74) for those without amalgam fillings (P = 0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 {mu}g/g, N = 61) versus those with (0.163 {mu}g/g, N = 101), the relationship was not significant (P = 0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (P < 0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse relationship was seen between NHg levels and dental amalgam fillings (P = 0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and

  4. Interaction of ethanol and mercury body burden in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with mercury in the body resulting in increased exhalation of the metal was studied in the mouse. A persistent elimination of the metal in the breath was demonstrated after single, sublethal (<1 mgHg/Kg body weight) exposures to mercury vapor (Hg/sup 0/) or mercury II chloride (HgCl/sub 2/). The amount of mercury exhaled per unit time was enhanced by oral or parenteral administration of ethanol solutions. These modifications were investigated in dose-response studies in which the drug was administered in doses ranging from 0.2g to 5.5g/Kg to mice pretreated with mercury. The EC/sub 50/ for blood ethanol with respect to mercury exhalation was determined to be approximately 200 mg/dl corresponding to an output rate of approximately 0.1% of the simultaneous body burden in 30 min several days after mercury. A hypothesis that mercury expired by these animals was proportional to the body burden after mercury administration was addressed in experiments whereby mice given one of several doses of mercuric chloride (0.16 to 500 ..mu..g/Kg) were monitored for pulmonary mercury elimination for a fifteen day period. The high correlation obtained between the amount of mercury exhaled in a standard time period and the body burden by group indicated that breath sampling could be applied as an indicator of the mercury body burden which may not be limited to the mouse.

  5. Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

  6. Body burdens: an integrated approach to health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, J. R.; Dauzvardis, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Monitoring, modeling, and laboratory data are being integrated with physiological data in order to assess the impact of the release of environmental contaminants on the human receptor. The methodology described in this paper is intended primarily for use as a screening method to identify relative health risks. Comparison of body burdens and critical organ burdens can identify the relative contribution from different sources of exposure, exposure pathways, and routes of entry. These two burdens may be used in conjunction with monitoring data and environmental modeling techniques to assess the relative risk of effluent releases from natural and industrial sources or from different effluent control technologies or waste disposal methods. The relative impact of different levels of regional economic growth or regulatory plans can also be assessed. Body burdens may also serve to indicate where effluent control efforts will be most successful in reducing impacts on humans. The example projects the relative contributions to body burdens of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury and lead resulting from background air and water quality, effluent releases from a coal-fired steam electric power plant, and from diet.

  7. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  8. National Status and Trends: Contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish from Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Chugach communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta...

  9. Particle-hole configuration interaction and many-body perturbation theory: application to Hg+

    CERN Document Server

    Berengut, J C

    2016-01-01

    The combination of configuration interaction and many-body perturbation theory methods (CI+MBPT) is extended to non-perturbatively include configurations with electron holes below the designated Fermi level, allowing us to treat systems where holes play an important role. For example, the method can treat valence-hole systems like Ir$^{17+}$, particle-hole excitations in noble gases, and difficult transitions such as the $6s \\rightarrow 5d^{-1}6s^2$ optical clock transition in Hg$^+$. We take the latter system as our test case for the method and obtain very good accuracy (~1%) for the low-lying transition energies. The $\\alpha$-dependence of these transitions is calculated and used to reinterpret the existing best laboratory limits on the time-dependence of the fine-structure constant.

  10. Clinical outcomes with a systolic blood pressure lower than 120 mmHg in older patients with high disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Palacios, Carlos R; Haugen, Eric N; Thompson, Amanda M; Rasmussen, Richard W; Goracke, Nathan; Goyal, Pankaj

    2016-10-01

    The target blood pressure in older patients is controversial. Recent studies provided clinical evidence supporting a target systolic blood pressure 50 years at high risk of cardiovascular events. Retrospective study of 380 consecutive patients ≥60 years with stages 1-5 pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease seen between January 2013 and November 2015. The outcomes of a systolic blood pressure blood pressure blood pressure ≥120 mmHg. Forty-three patients died during the follow up (11.3%). Patients with a systolic blood pressure risk of death: 21 (30.9%) vs 22 (7%). Primary cause of death: Cardiovascular: 11 (25.6%), infectious 9 (20.9%), cancer 5 (11.6%), renal failure 6 (13.9%), COPD/pulmonary fibrosis 2 (4.6%), end stage liver disease 3 (6.9%), traumatic brain injury 1 (2.3%), gastrointestinal hemorrhage 4 (9.3%), complications of diabetes 1 (2.3%), unknown 1 (2.3%). After adjusting for confounding factors, a systolic blood pressure blood pressure. A systolic blood pressure below 120 mmHg in older patients with high disease burden was associated with adverse outcomes. Individualization of blood pressure therapy to each specific patient is warranted.

  11. Body lipids and pesticide burdens of migrant blue-winged teal

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Mitchell, C.A.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Blue-winged Teal were collected before and after their migration to wintering grounds in Latin America. Pesticide burdens, body weights, and lipid levels of carcasses were determined. Only DDE and dieldrin were detected in a small proportion of the samples and then at concentrations far below known-effect levels. Residue loads, because of their infrequency, were not significantly correlated with overall body weight and percent lipid. Body weights among most age and sex classes did not differ in either fall or spring, nor did percent lipid in any instance. However, body weights and lipid levels were significantly correlated; as body weight increased so did percent lipid. Thus, the extreme variability in body weight appears to be a function of the amount of fat present and not overall body size, age, or sex.

  12. Bioassay program: determination of I-131 body burden among radiation workers and nuclear medicine laboratory technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, E.B.; Napenas, D.; San Jose, V.; Juan, N.

    The body burden of I-131 was determined among the radiation workers of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) who are directly involved in I-131 processing and nuclear laboratory technicians of University of Santo Tomas and Veterans Hospital, who handle and dispense I-131 to patients. The routine monitoring was done by urine analysis. The untreated urine samples were counted directly for 4000 seconds using Nal(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to an ND66 microcomputer-based multichannel analyzer. Urine samples of radiation workers of PAEC who are not involved in I-131 processing and non-radiation workers were also assayed for comparison. For radiation workers of PAEC who are directly involved in processing I-131, the estimated body burden of I-131 ranged from <0.055 to 8.53 uCi (282 urine samples). These values were higher than those observed for radiation workers not involved in the handling or processing of I-131 with estimated body burden of I-131 ranging from <0.055 to 0.52 uCi (48 urine samples) or than those observed from non-radiation workers (<0.055 uCi). The maximum permissible burden of I-131 is 0.7 uCi.

  13. Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Korchazhkina, Olga; Job, Deborah; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Crome, Peter

    2006-09-01

    There are unexplained links between human exposure to aluminium and the incidence, progression and aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. The null hypothesis which underlies any link is that there would be no Alzheimer's disease in the effective absence of a body burden of aluminium. To test this the latter would have to be reduced to and retained at a level that was commensurate with an Alzheimer's disease-free population. In the absence of recent human interference in the biogeochemical cycle of aluminium the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium has acted as a geochemical control of the biological availability of aluminium. This same mechanism might now be applied to both the removal of aluminium from the body and the reduced entry of aluminium into the body while ensuring that essential metals, such as iron, are unaffected. Based upon the premise that urinary aluminium is the best non-invasive estimate of body burden of aluminium patients with Alzheimer's disease were asked to drink 1.5 L of a silicic acid-rich mineral water each day for five days and, by comparison of their urinary excretion of aluminium pre-and post this simple procedure, the influence upon their body burden of aluminium was determined. Drinking the mineral water increased significantly (Paluminium (86.0 +/- 24.3 to 62.2 +/- 23.2 nmol/mmol creatinine). The latter was achieved without any significant (P>0.05) influence upon the urinary excretion of iron (20.7 +/- 9.5 to 21.7 +/- 13.8 nmol/mmol creatinine). The reduction in urinary aluminium supported the future longer-term use of silicic acid as non-invasive therapy for reducing the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Neonatal and maternal body burdens of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in mice: gestational exposure and lactational transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, K.D.; Andrews, J.E.

    1985-04-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a ubiquitous lipophilic pollutant, was readily transferred in the milk of lactating dams to their suckling neonates. Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated during gestation, and the body burdens of HCB in the neonates and the dams were determined during lactation. Also, neonates from dams treated with HCB during gestation were cross-fostered at birth to dams treated with corn oil during gestation. The body burdens of HCB were greater in the neonates exposed to HCB by lactational transfer than the neonates exposed only by gestational transfer. In many tissues, the concentration of HCB in the pups from full litter was similar to that in pups from litters reduced to two pups per litter. Lactational transfer of HCB from the dams to the pups was a major route of excretion in that 95% of HCB was depleted during 20 days of lactation. HCB depletion was similar in dams with whole litters, and those with litters reduced to two pups.

  15. Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and methyl mercury in Hg accumulation and toxicity in weanling and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Li, Wen-Kai; Hou, Wei-Yu; Luo, Ya; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Li, Cen; Wei, Li-Xin; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-15

    Mercury sulfides are used in Ayurvedic medicines, Tibetan medicines, and Chinese medicines for thousands of years and are still used today. Cinnabar (α-HgS) and metacinnabar (β-HgS) are different from mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (MeHg) in their disposition and toxicity. Whether such scenario applies to weanling and aged animals is not known. To address this question, weanling (21d) and aged (450d) rats were orally given Zuotai (54% β-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgS (α-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgCl2 (34.6mg/kg), or MeHg (MeHgCl, 3.2mg/kg) for 7days. Accumulation of Hg in kidney and liver, and the toxicity-sensitive gene expressions were examined. Animal body weight gain was decreased by HgCl2 and to a lesser extent by MeHg, but unaltered after Zuotai and HgS. HgCl2 and MeHg produced dramatic tissue Hg accumulation, increased kidney (kim-1 and Ngal) and liver (Ho-1) injury-sensitive gene expressions, but such changes are absent or mild after Zuotai and HgS. Aged rats were more susceptible than weanling rats to Hg toxicity. To examine roles of transporters in Hg accumulation, transporter gene expressions were examined. The expression of renal uptake transporters Oat1, Oct2, and Oatp4c1 and hepatic Oatp2 was decreased, while the expression of renal efflux transporter Mrp2, Mrp4 and Mdr1b was increased following HgCl2 and MeHg, but unaffected by Zuotai and HgS. Thus, Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and MeHg in producing tissue Hg accumulation and toxicity, and aged rats are more susceptible than weanling rats. Transporter expression could be adaptive means to reduce tissue Hg burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-07-01

    As China is one of the countries facing the most serious pollution and human exposure effects of e-waste in the world, much of the population there is exposed to potentially hazardous substances due to informal e-waste recycling processes. This report reviews recent studies on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g. dietary intake, inhalation, and soil/dust ingestion) and human body burden markers (e.g. placenta, umbilical cord blood, breast milk, blood, hair, and urine) and assesses the evidence for the association between such e-waste exposure and the human body burden in China. The results suggest that residents in the e-waste exposure areas, located mainly in the three traditional e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, and Qingyuan), are faced with a potential higher daily intake of these pollutants than residents in the control areas, especially via food ingestion. Moreover, pollutants (PBBs, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and heavy metals) from the e-waste recycling processes were all detectable in the tissue samples at high levels, showing that they had entered residents' bodies through the environment and dietary exposure. Children and neonates are the groups most sensitive to the human body effects of e-waste exposure. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste, including 7 types of human body burden. Although the data suggest that exposure to e-waste is harmful to health, better designed epidemiological investigations in vulnerable populations, especially neonates and children, are needed to confirm these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative assessment of whole-body tumor burden in adult patients with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Scott R; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Esparza, Sonia; Merker, Vanessa L; Munn, Lance L; Muzikansky, Alona; Askenazi, Manor; Nguyen, Rosa; Wenzel, Ralph; Mautner, Victor F

    2012-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis are at risk for multiple nerve sheath tumors and premature mortality. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has limited ability to assess disease burden accurately. The aim of this study was to establish an international cohort of patients with quantified whole-body internal tumor burden and to correlate tumor burden with clinical features of disease. We determined the number, volume, and distribution of internal nerve sheath tumors in patients using whole-body MRI (WBMRI) and three-dimensional computerized volumetry. We quantified the distribution of tumor volume across body regions and used unsupervised cluster analysis to group patients based on tumor distribution. We correlated the presence and volume of internal tumors with disease-related and demographic factors. WBMRI identified 1286 tumors in 145/247 patients (59%). Schwannomatosis patients had the highest prevalence of tumors (P = 0.03), but NF1 patients had the highest median tumor volume (P = 0.02). Tumor volume was unevenly distributed across body regions with overrepresentation of the head/neck and pelvis. Risk factors for internal nerve sheath tumors included decreasing numbers of café-au-lait macules in NF1 patients (P = 0.003) and history of skeletal abnormalities in NF2 patients (P = 0.09). Risk factors for higher tumor volume included female gender (P = 0.05) and increasing subcutaneous neurofibromas (P = 0.03) in NF1 patients, absence of cutaneous schwannomas in NF2 patients (P = 0.06), and increasing age in schwannomatosis patients (p = 0.10). WBMRI provides a comprehensive phenotype of neurofibromatosis patients, identifies distinct anatomic subgroups, and provides the basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with unique disease manifestations.

  18. Influence of parasitism in controlling the health, reproduction and PAH body burden of petroleum seep mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Eric N.; Barber, Robert D.; Kennicutt, Mahlon C., II; Ford, Susan E.

    1999-12-01

    Petroleum seep mussels are often exposed to high hydrocarbon concentrations in their natural habitat and, thus, offer the opportunity to examine the relationship between parasitism, disease and contaminant exposure under natural conditions. This is the first report on the histopathology of cold-seep mussels. Seep mussels were collected by submersible from four primary sites in the Gulf of Mexico, lease blocks Green Canyon (GC) 184, GC-234, GC-233, and Garden Banks 425 in 550-650 m water depth. Five types of parasites were identified in section: (1) gill "rosettes" of unknown affinity associated with the gill bacteriocytes, (2) gill "inclusions" similar to chlamydia/rickettsia inclusions, (3) extracellular gill ciliates, (4) body "inclusions" that also resemble chlamydial/rickettsial inclusions, and (5) Bucephalus-like trematodes. Comparison to shallow-water mytilids demonstrates that: (1) both have similar parasite faunas; (2) seep mytilids are relatively heavily parasitized; and (3) infection intensities are extremely high in comparison to shallow-water mytilids for Bucephalus and chlamydia/rickettsia. In this study, the lowest prevalence for chlamydia/rickettsia was 67%. Prevalences of 100% were recorded from three populations. Bucephalus prevalence was ⩾70% in three of 10 populations. The parasite fauna was highly variable between populations. Some important parasites were not observed in some primary sites. Even within primary sites, some important parasites were not observed in some populations. Bucephalus may exert a significant influence on seep mussel population dynamics. Forty percent of the populations in this study are severely reproductively compromised by Bucephalus infection. Only a fraction of petroleum seep mussel populations are maintaining the entire beta-level population structure of this species. Variation in two parasites, gill ciliates and Bucephalus, explained most of the variation in PAH body burden between mussel populations. PAHs are

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants: environmental contamination, human body burden and potential adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Giordano, Gennaro; Tagliaferri, Sara; Caglieri, Andrea; Mutti, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants, widely used in a variety of consumer products. In the past several years, PBDEs have become widespread environmental pollutants, and have been detected in water, soil, air, animals and human tissues. Exposure occurs in particular through the diet and the indoor environment. Infants and toddlers have the highest body burden, due to exposure via maternal milk and through house dust. Tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs are the congeners most commonly found in humans. Recent concerns on possible adverse health effects of PBDEs are focusing on their potential endocrine disrupting effects and on developmental neurotoxicity.

  20. Body burden of metals and persistent organic pollutants among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Goncharov, Alexey B; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-09-01

    Inuit living in the Arctic are exposed to elevated levels of environmental contaminants primarily due to long-range atmospheric transport. Blood sampling and contaminant biomonitoring was conducted as part of the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey in 2007-2008. The body burden of metals (e.g. Cd, Pb) and persistent organic pollutants (e.g. PCBs, DDT & DDE, toxaphene, chlordane, PBDEs) were measured for Inuit participants (n=2172) from 36 communities in Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, in Canada. The geometric mean of blood concentrations for Cd, Pb, PCBs, DDE & DDT, toxaphene, and chlordane were higher than those in the Canadian general population. A total of 9% of study participants exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for Pb, 11% of participants exceeded the trigger guideline of 5μgL(-1) for Cd, and 1% exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for PCBs. Also, 3% of women of child-bearing age exceeded blood Pb of 100μgL(-1) while 28% of women of child-bearing age exceeded 5μgL(-1) of PCBs. This work showed that most Inuit Health Survey participants were below blood contaminant guidelines set by Health Canada but that metal and POP body burdens commonly exceed exposures observed in the general population of Canada.

  1. Dioxin body burden in women with long term residency near and away from major chemical industries in Teesside, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless-Mulloli, T.; Howel, D. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Edwards, R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Paepke, O. [ergo Forschungs Gesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany); Hermann, T.

    2004-09-15

    Retrospective exposure assessment poses a major challenge for environmental epidemiology studies. Body burden measures may act as markers for long-term exposure if biomarkers can be found with sufficiently long half lives in the human body. Some studies of human exposures have reported data from exposures over several years and before and after sources started production, however none have investigated the usefulness of such approach when exposure is estimated over more than a decade. Whilst for the general population food intake forms the major source of long term dioxin exposures other occupational and environmental sources can contribute to elevated body burdens. The UK has rich data sets for dioxin levels in food, but no body burden data are yet available for a general population sample. We tested the hypothesis that women with long term residence close to an industrial complex have a higher body burden and a distinct pattern of dioxins, furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We estimated exposure by recording residential history and food intakes and compared this information with body burden measurements as proxy for all forms of exposure.

  2. Food contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Belgium. Effects on the body burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Larebeke, N; Covaci, A; Schepens, P; Hens, L

    2002-11-01

    The core paper of this debate shows that persistent organic pollutant residues of the 12 chemicals targeted for a phase out under the Stockholm Convention are present in almost all categories of food in the US food supply. For dioxins, the study does not use measured data, but is based upon potential dioxin residues in selected food items. Polychlorinated biphenyls are not included in the study. In this paper we discuss selected data of polychlorinated biphenyl and dioxin concentrations in Belgian food. Some of these exposures are chronic, others are attributable to incidents. Both result in high body burdens in Belgium. The paper also compares the current concentrations in food with the recent standards launched by the EU for dioxins in food, and discusses whether these values adequately protect European citizens.

  3. Simultaneous determination of Hg(II) and alkylated Hg, Pb, and Sn species in human body fluids using SPME-GC/MS-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunemann, L.; Hajimiragha, H.; Begerow, J. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    A GC/MS-MS method for the determination of Hg(II) and alkylated Hg, Pb, and Sn species in human urine is described. Separation and identification of the metal species are performed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with an ion-trap mass spectrometer with electron impact ionization in the tandem-MS mode. For sample preparation a very promising technique was applied that is based on a derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate followed by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME). Operation of the used ion trap in the tandem-MS mode yields in improved detection limits because of a signal-to-noise ratio that is at least one order of magnitude better than in the MS mode. The detection limits in real matrices like urine are between 7 and 22 ng/L for all species investigated. Urinary levels of inorganic Hg in non-occupationally exposed persons with and without dental amalgam were found to be between 0.1 and 1.4 {mu}g/L. A reference material (``ClinRep, Level I``) was used for quality assurance. Compared to the coupling of GC with ICP-MS (``inorganic`` MS), the advantage of the proposed method using an ``organic`` MS is that (i) the species can be directly identified via their precursor and daughter ions and (ii) analysis can be performed with a commercially available hyphenated technique at moderate costs and needs no lab-made interfacing. Moreover, it offers a real multi-element/multi-species capability with low detection limits and a minimum of sample preparation. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  4. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  5. Body burden of cadmium and its related factors: A large-scale survey in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Shen; Cheng, Xi-Yu; Li, Hao; Jia, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Jie-Ying; Luo, Hui-Fang; Wang, Zi-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan, E-mail: chen_zhinan56@163.com

    2015-04-01

    A survey of more than 6000 participants from four distinct non-polluted and polluted regions in China was conducted to evaluate the body burden of cadmium (Cd) on the Chinese populations using urinary Cd (UCd) as a biomarker. The findings revealed that the UCd level was 1.24 μg/g creatinine (μg/g cr) for the sample population from non-polluted Shanghai, and the UCd levels exceeded 5 μg/g cr, which is the health-based exposure limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1.1% of people. The mean UCd levels in moderately polluted (Hubei and Liaoning) and highly polluted areas (Guizhou) were 4.69 μg/g cr, 3.62 μg/g cr and 6.08 μg/g cr, respectively, and these levels were 2.9 to 4.9 times the levels observed in Shanghai. Notably, the UCd levels exceeded the recently updated human biomonitoring II values (i.e., intervention or “action level”) in 44.8%–87.9% of people from these areas compared to only 5.1%–21.4% of people in Shanghai. The corresponding prevalence of elevated UCd levels (> WHO threshold, 5 μg/g cr) was also significantly higher (30.7% to 63.8% vs. 1.1%), which indicates that elevated Cd-induced health risks to residents in these areas. Age and region were significant determinants for UCd levels in a population, whereas gender did not significantly influence UCd. - Highlights: • We performed a Cd exposure survey that involved more than 6000 Chinese subjects. • The body burden of Cd in most of subjects of non-polluted Shanghai is relatively safe. • The UCd levels were much higher in the subjects from polluted areas than from Shanghai. • The UCd levels in the population from Guizhou substantially exceeded the safety limit. • Age and region were significant determinants of UCd.

  6. Survival, reproduction, and arsenic body burdens in Chironomus riparius exposed to arsenate and phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogren, Christina L., E-mail: christina.mogren@email.ucr.edu [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kiparski, Guntram R. von; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of arsenic (As) contamination in surface waters worldwide, little is known about how As alone and in the presence of other chemicals affects aquatic insects. Larvae of Chironomus riparius were exposed in a laboratory investigation to factorial combinations of 0, 0.13, 2.0, 5.3, and 13 {mu}mol As l{sup -1} and 0, 0.15, and 15 {mu}mol PO{sub 4} l{sup -1} throughout development from first instar to pupal emergence. The time between male and female emergence increased from 1.8 {+-} 0.17 days to 2.9 {+-} 0.34 days with exposure at higher As levels. The highest As exposure also decreased the number of eggs per egg mass, which may affect population maintenance. For these parameters, there was no effect from PO{sub 4}, and no interaction between As and PO{sub 4}. Total As determination of larval and adult tissues was conducted using Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (HGAAS) and revealed concentrations ranging from 2.48 {+-} 0.363 to 30.5 {+-} 0.473 {mu}g/g and 1.03 {+-} 0.286 to 8.97 {+-} 0.662 {mu}g/g, respectively, indicating elimination of approximately 72% of total As body burdens between the fourth instar and adult stages. There was no effect of PO{sub 4}, indicating PO{sub 4} does not alter uptake of As in C. riparius. The potential for movement of As to terrestrial systems exists, though trophic transfer may be more likely during the aquatic larval stage. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how sublethal concentrations of As and P affect C. riparius. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly increased the time between male and female emergence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly decreased the number of eggs per egg mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fourth instar larvae eliminate 72% of As body burdens before the adult stage.

  7. Refinements on the age-dependent half-life model for estimating child body burdens of polychlorodibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerger, Brent D; Leung, Hon-Wing; Scott, Paul K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-04-01

    We modified our prior age-dependent half-life model to characterize the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens associated with dietary and environmental exposure to polychlorodibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Several exposure scenarios were evaluated. Infants were assumed to be either breast-fed or formula-fed from birth to 6 months of age. They then received intakes of PCDD/Fs through age 7 from foods based on weighted means estimates [JECFA, 2001. Joint FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives. Fifty-seventh meeting, Rome, June 5-14 , 2001, pp. 24-40], and with or without exposures (ingestion and dermal) to urban residential soils at 1ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). A one-compartment (adipose volume) toxicokinetic model for TCDD described by Kreuzer [Kreuzer, P.F., Csanady, Gy.A., et al., 1997. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and congeners in infants. A toxicokinetic model of human lifetime body burden by TCDD with special emphasis on its uptake by nutrition. Arch. Toxicol. 71, 383-400] was expanded to include the key non-TCDD congeners in human breast milk and adipose tissues, and two model parameter refinements were examined: (1) use of updated and more detailed age-correlated body fat mass data [CDC, 2000. Centers for Disease Control. CDC Growth Charts: United States. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Number 314, December 2000]; (2) use of breast milk PCDD/F concentration data from sampling completed in 2000-2003 [Wittsiepe, J., Fürst, P., et al., 2004. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers. Organohalogen Compd. 66, 2865-2872]. The updated body fat mass data nearly halved the predicted peak body burden for breast-feeding and lowered the time-weighted average (TWA) body burdens from ages 0-7 by 30-40% for breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Combined use of the updated breast milk PCDD/F concentration and body fat

  8. Use of the lethal body burden in the risk quantification of field sediments: influence of temperature and salinity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, A.P.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene that is additionally required within an organism for lethality, after long-term exposure to sediments, is evaluated as an endpoint for risk assessment. This additionally required body burden for lethality after 2 months of exposure to sediments from differ

  9. Chlorinated pesticide and PCB analysis of earthworms for determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, D.A.; Turton, D.; Rury, P. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A study of target chlorinated pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake in Red Wiggler (Eisenia foetida) earthworms for the determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors was performed to provide site-specific data for an extensive ecological risk assessment. Earthworms and contaminated site soil (both prior to and following earthworm exposure) were analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCB Aroclors, and target metals. While the target metal analysis was straightforward, the pesticide and PCB analyses were complicated due to the number and concentration of site contaminants, as well as interferences from the biological matrix. This study provided valuable information on: integration of analytical chemistry in an ecological risk assessment; available options for extraction, cleanup, and analysis; selection of optimum analytical methodologies to meet data quality objectives (DQOs); interpretation of soil and tissue analytical results; and understanding of the potential error and uncertainty in the analyses. By coordinating risk assessment needs and expectations with the analytical laboratory capabilities and by maintaining a flexible analysis program, the study provided analytical data capable of meeting the DQOs and overall risk assessment objectives.

  10. High body burdens of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in California women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreas, Myrto; She, Jianwen; Brown, F Reber; Winkler, Jennifer; Windham, Gayle; Rogers, Evan; Zhao, Guomao; Bhatia, Rajiv; Charles, M Judith

    2003-01-01

    Following our first report on elevated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in California women, we expanded our investigation to include diverse groups of local women. We analyzed additional adipose and serum samples collected in the late 1990s from San Francisco Bay Area women participating in a breast cancer study and in a reproductive study, respectively. Adipose samples (n = 32) were analyzed by low-resolution mass spectrometry in negative-ion chemical ionization mode, whereas serum samples (n = 50) were analyzed by dual-column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The results confirmed our earlier findings. Concentrations of 2,2,4,4 -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in contemporary California women ranged between 5 and 510 ng/g lipid, with a median (16.5 ng/g lipid) 3-10 times higher than those reported from Europe. In contrast, PBDEs were not measurable in any of 420 archived serum samples collected in the 1960s from San Francisco Bay Area women participating in a study of child development. BDE-47 concentrations did not increase with age or with concentrations of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-153), suggesting other routes of exposure in addition to diet. Rising body burdens of endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as PBDEs may pose a potential public health threat. PMID:12842770

  11. Tracking contributions to human body burden of environmental chemicals by correlating environmental measurements with biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Moo Shin

    Full Text Available The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and food, and the biological half-life of a compound, on the resulting correlations between biomarker and environmental measurements. For two hypothetical compounds whose half-lives are on the order of days for one and years for the other, we generate synthetic daily environmental concentrations and food exposures with different day-to-day and population variability as well as different amounts of home- and food-based exposure. Assuming that the total intake results only from home-based exposure and food ingestion, we estimate time-dependent biomarker concentrations using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Box plots of modeled R2 values indicate that although the R2 correlation between wipe and biological (e.g., serum measurements is within the same range for the two compounds, the relative contribution of the home exposure to the total exposure could differ by up to 20%, thus providing the relative indication of their contribution to body burden. The novel method introduced in this paper provides insights for evaluating scenarios or experiments where sample, exposure, and compound variability must be weighed in order to interpret associations between exposure data.

  12. Effects of aqueous and dietary preexposure and resulting body burden on silver biokinetics in the green mussel Perma viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dalin; Blackmore, Graham; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2003-03-01

    To determine whether preexposure of green mussel Perna viridis to Ag influenced metal uptake kinetics we compared various physiological indicators of metal uptake kinetics between the control mussels and mussels preexposed to Ag in both diet and water at different levels (up to 5 weeks). In all preexposed mussels, the assimilation of Ag increased by 1.1-3.0 times with increasing Ag body concentration (0.651-19.3 microg g(-1)) as compared with the controls (Ag body concentration of 0.311-0.479 microg g(-1)), whereas the efflux rate constants decreased by 45-88%. There was no significant increase in Ag associated with the metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) fraction following exposure of the mussels to Ag through either the dissolved or food phase. The clearance rates were little affected or depressed byAg preexposure, and the relationship between the Ag influx rate from the dissolved phase and the Ag preexposure was somewhat complicated. The influx rate decreased with increasing Ag body burden at <2.5 microg g(-1), above which it increased with increasing Ag body burden. Our results indicate that the mussels may modify physiological processes to ambient chronic Ag exposure, consequently accumulating more Ag. Ag body concentration in these mussels may therefore increase disproportionally in response to increasing Ag concentration in the ambient environments. Ag preexposure and resulting body burden should be considered carefully when interpreting the observed Ag concentration in biomonitoring animals to evaluate the Ag pollution in seawater.

  13. Fluvial geomorphology and aquatic-to-terrestrial Hg export are weakly coupled in small urban streams of Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Boaz, Lindsey E.; Hossler, Katie

    2016-04-01

    Although mercury (Hg) contamination is common in stream ecosystems, mechanisms governing bioavailability and bioaccumulation in fluvial systems remain poorly resolved as compared to lentic systems. In particular, streams in urbanized catchments are subject to fluvial geomorphic alterations that may contribute to Hg distribution, bioaccumulation, and export across the aquatic-to-terrestrial boundary. In 12 streams of urban Columbus, Ohio, we investigated the influence of fluvial geomorphic characteristics related to channel geometry, streamflow, and sediment size and distribution on (1) Hg concentrations in sediment and body burdens in benthic larval and adult emergent aquatic insects and (2) aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transfer to common riparian spiders of the families Pisauridae and Tetragnathidae via changes in aquatic insect Hg body burdens as well as in aquatic insect density and community composition. Hydrogeomorphic characteristics were weakly related to Hg body burdens in emergent insects (channel geometry) and tetragnathid spiders (streamflow), but not to Hg concentrations in sediment or benthic insects. Streamflow characteristics were also related to emergent insect density, while wider channels were associated with benthic insect community shifts toward smaller-bodied and more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironomidae). Thus, our results provide initial evidence that fluvial geomorphology may influence aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant Hg transfer through the collective effects on emergent insect body burdens as well as on aquatic insect community composition and abundance.

  14. Tumor segmentation of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: tumor burden correlates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffler, Michael A.; Xi, Yin; Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Le, Lu Q. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Segmentation of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to assess the feasibility, quantitate the total tumor volume (tumor burden) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and examine associations with demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features. A consecutive series of patients with NF1 underwent WBMRI and were reviewed for tumors. Tumors were segmented using a semiautomated software-based tool. Tumors were classified as superficial or deep and discrete or plexiform. Segmentation times were recorded. Segmentation yielded the quantity and tumor burden of superficial, internal and plexiform tumors. Correlations between segmentation data and demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features were examined. Fifteen patients were evaluated (42.3 ± 13.6 years, 10 female, 5 male). Segmentation times were a median of 30 min and yielded 2,328 tumors (1,582 superficial, 746 internal and 23 plexiform). One tumor was malignant. Tumor counts ranged from 14 to 397. Tumor burden ranged from 6.95 cm3 to 571 cm3. Individual tumor volume ranged from 0.0120 cm3 to 298 cm3. Significant correlation was found between the total volume of superficial tumors and height (ρ = 0.5966, p < 0.02). Male patients had higher overall tumor burdens (p < 0.05) and higher superficial tumor burden (p < 0.03). Patients with negative family history had more tumors (p < 0.05). Segmentation of WBMRI in patients with NF1 is feasible and elucidates meaningful relationships among disease phenotype, anthropomorphic and demographic features. (orig.)

  15. Screening for 137Cs body burden due to the Chernobyl accident in Korosten City, Zhitomir, Ukraine: 1996-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Naomi; Sekitani, Yui; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Gutevich, Alexander; Daniliuk, Valery; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    During the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident on 26 April 1986, large amounts of radionuclides were released and spread to vast areas. Inhabitants residing around CNPP have been exposed to external and internal irradiation due to the long half-life of (137)Cs (30 years). In this study, we screened for internal whole-body (137)Cs concentration using a whole-body counter in the Zhitomir state of Ukraine. The total number of participants was 144,972 (96,149 females and 48,823 males). The median body burden of (137)Cs per body weight decreased from 1996 to 2008. In particular, after 2003, more than half of subjects had internal exposure doses below the detectable level. A weak seasonal effect was found in measurement data from 1997 to 1999, but no such effects were observed in later years. We also calculated annual dose for each year and confirmed that doses have been decreasing gradually. In particular, after 2003, the annual effective dose decreased to 0.1 mSv y(-1) for 95% of the participants. Only two persons were found to have received more than 5 mSv y(-1) since 2007. Although the health effects of (137)Cs body burden due to the Chernobyl accident remain uncertain, further screening is needed to monitor the health status and to allay the anxiety of inhabitants in the contaminated areas around CNPP.

  16. Radioactive 131Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive131 iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071–0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008–0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016–0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8–8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44–286 MBq (1.2–7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1–27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P radioactive iodine. There was no correlation between administered activity and retained body burden at 48 h or 72 h. PMID:27651735

  17. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Jandacek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC. While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants.

  18. Relationship between whole-body tumor burden, clinical phenotype, and quality of life in patients with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, Vanessa L; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Muzikansky, Alona; Nguyen, Rosa; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R

    2014-06-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis share a predisposition to develop multiple nerve sheath tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with NF1 and NF2 have reduced quality of life (QOL), but no studies have examined the relationship between whole-body tumor burden and QOL in these patients. We administered a QOL questionnaire (the SF-36) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS) to a previously described cohort of adult neurofibromatosis patients undergoing whole-body MRI. One-sample t-tests were used to compare norm-based SF-36 scores to weighted population means. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analyses controlling for demographic and disease-specific clinical variable were used to relate whole-body tumor volume to QOL scales. Two hundred forty-five patients (142 NF1, 53 NF2, 50 schwannomatosis) completed the study. Subjects showed deficits in selected subscales of the SF-36 compared to adjusted general population means. In bivariate analysis, increased tumor volume was significantly associated with pain in schwannomatosis patients, as measured by the SF-36 bodily pain subscale (rho = -0.287, P = 0.04) and VAS (rho = 0.34, P = 0.02). Regression models for NF2 patients showed a positive relationship between tumor burden and increased pain, as measured by the SF-36 (P = 0.008). Patients with NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis suffer from reduced QOL, although only pain shows a clear relationship to patient's overall tumor burden. These findings suggest that internal tumor volume is not a primary contributor to QOL and emphasize the need for comprehensive treatment approaches that go beyond tumor-focused therapies such as surgery by including psychosocial interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmfrid, Ingela; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Wingren, Gun; Berglund, Marika

    2015-03-01

    There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg

  20. Effects of dietary methylmercury on growth performance and tissue burden in juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (A. transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Won; De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Seunghyung; Bai, Sungchul C; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2011-10-01

    Triplicate groups of juvenile green and white sturgeon (30 ± 2 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary methylmercury (MeHg, 0 (control), 25, 50, and 100mg MeHg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to determine and compare the effects on growth performance and mercury (Hg) tissue burden in the two sturgeon species. Mortality, growth performance as measured by percent body weight increase per day, hepatosomatic index, proximate composition of whole body, and Hg burden in the whole body, gill, heart, liver, kidney, and white muscle were determined to assess the adverse growth effects and bioaccumulation of dietary MeHg in sturgeon. Significantly higher mortality and lower growth rate (pwhite sturgeon fed the MeHg diets compared to the controls. Green sturgeon fed the MeHg diets exhibited earlier and more severe adverse effects compared to white sturgeon. Mercury accumulated in all tissues in a dose-dependent manner regardless of species, and the highest Hg concentrations were found in the kidneys of both species. Dietary MeHg had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the whole body proximate compositions of either sturgeon species. In conclusion, green sturgeon was more susceptible to dietary MeHg toxicity than white sturgeon in our 8-week growth experiment based on the higher mortality and lower growth rate and body energy contents.

  1. Identification of threshold body burdens of metals for the protection of the aquatic ecological status using two benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, Lieven; De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny

    2016-03-01

    In this study accumulated concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in two benthic invertebrate taxa, Chironomus sp. and Tubificidae are related to ecological responses expressed as changes in macro invertebrate communities. In addition critical body burdens were estimated above which ecological quality was always lower than a certain threshold. Data from existing studies on bioaccumulation of the metals in both taxa were combined with different biological water quality indices. For all metal-endpoint combinations threshold values could be calculated above which ecological quality was always low. Safe threshold body burdens could be estimated for both species for all metals although the data set was more extended for Chrionomus sp. with estimated threshold values being 65, 3.2, 10, 57, 6.5, 73 and 490 μg/g dw for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. This study demonstrated that metal accumulation in resistant species such as chironomids and tubificid worms have the potential to be used as predictors of ecological effects in aquatic ecosystems. However, the estimated threshold values have to be validated and supported by more lines of evidence before they can be used by regulators.

  2. Stress and Burden among Caregivers of Patients with Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda N.; Zarit, Steven; Taylor, Angela; Galvin, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with Lewy body dementia (LBD) may present a unique set of symptoms and challenges to family caregivers compared with other types of dementia. Prominent difficulties include motor impairment, activities of daily living (ADLs) disability, recurrent behavioral and emotional problems (BEPs), and diagnostic difficulties. These…

  3. Can body burden in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite indicate seasonal variation in cadmium concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eduardo Teixeira; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2005-10-01

    Two three-month sampling programs measuring Cd in the environment and a biomonitor ( Balanus amphitrite) were undertaken in the austral winter of 2002 and summer of 2004 in Ross Creek, North Queensland, Australia. The objective was to test whether the burden of Cd in the biomonitor responded to any variation in the dissolved and particulate phase Cd concentrations in Ross Creek, caused by rainfall variation. The barnacles from the most Cd contaminated site were exposed to a total Cd concentration twice that in winter (93.6 ng L -1) than in summer (45.6 ng L -1). However, no significant variation was identified for the Cd concentration in the biomonitor between winter (8.4 mg kg -1) and summer (7.4 mg kg -1). A budget analysis based on a bioenergetic kinetic model indicated that Cd flux from food contributes >80% to the Cd concentration in B. amphitrite. A sensitivity analysis showed that physiological characteristics of the biomonitor are the key parameters controlling Cd accumulation in B. amphitrite, rather than the metal concentration in the dissolved or particulate phases. These two model's outcomes suggest that a tight coupling between Cd in the biomonitor and its availability in the environment does not occur.

  4. The contribution of protein binding in the liver to the body burden of dibenzo-p-docins and dibenzo-p-furans: Analysis by means of PBPK modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker MJ; Fiolet DCM; Cuijpers CEJ; LBM

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study "Physiologically Based PharmacoKinetic" (PBPK) modeling was used to estimate the amount of dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans in mother's milk. This amount is considered to reflect the total amount of dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans in the body (body burden). In the PB

  5. Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Graham; Renehan, Prof Andrew G; Stevens, Gretchen A; Ezzati, Prof Majid; Ferlay, Jacques; Miranda, J. Jaime; Romieu, Isabelle; Dikshit, Rajesh; Forman, David; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Excess body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of cancer. To inform public health policyand future research, we estimated the global burden of cancer attributable to excess BMI. Methods Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were derived using relative risks and BMI estimates in adults by age, sex and country. Assuming a10-year lag-period, PAFs were calculated using BMI estimates in 2002. GLOBOCAN2012 was used to compute numbers of new cancer cases attributable to excess BMI. In an alternative scenario, we computed the proportion of potentially avoidable cancers assuming that populations maintained their BMI-level observed in 1982. Secondary analyses were performed to test the model and estimate the impactof hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and smoking. Findings Worldwide, we estimated that 481,000 or 3·6% of all new cancer cases in 2012 were attributable to excess BMI. PAFs were greater in women compared with men (5·4% versus 1·9%). The burden was concentrated in countries with very high and high human development index (HDI, PAF: 5·3% and 4·8%) compared with countries with moderate and low HDI (PAF: 1·6% and 1·0%). Corpus uteri, post-menopausal breast and colon cancers accounted for approximately two-thirds (64%) of excess BMI attributable cancers. One fourth (~118,000) of all cases related to excess BMI in 2012 could be attributed to the rising BMI since 1982. Interpretation These findings further underpin the need for a global effort to abate the rising trends in population-level excess weight. Assuming that the relationship between excess BMI and cancer is causal and the current pattern of population weight gain continues, this will likely augment the future burden of cancer. Funding World Cancer Research Fund, Marie Currie Fellowship, the National Health and Medical Research Council Australia and US NIH. PMID:25467404

  6. Lake levels and water quality in comparison to fish mercury body burdens, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kissane, Claire; LeDuc, Jamie F.

    2017-01-18

    Within Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota, lake levels are controlled by a series of dams to support a variety of uses. Previous research indicates a link between these artificially maintained water levels, referred to as rule curves, and mercury concentrations in fish owing to the drying and rewetting of wetlands and other nearshore areas, which may release methylmercury into the water when inundated. The U.S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and University of Wisconsin-La Crosse cooperated in a study to assess the importance of lake-level fluctuation and other factors affecting mercury concentrations in Perca flavescens (yellow perch) in the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. For this study, mercury body burdens were determined for young-of-the-year yellow perch collected from the large lakes within Voyageurs National Park during 2013–15. These mercury body burdens were compared to lake levels and water-quality constituents from the same period.Field properties and profiles of lake water quality indicated that Sand Point, Little Vermilion, and Crane Lakes were anoxic at times near the lake bottom sediments, where sulfate-reducing bacteria may convert mercury to methylmercury. The median dissolved sulfate concentration was highest in Crane Lake, the median total organic carbon concentration was highest in Sand Point Lake, and the median total phosphorus concentration was highest in Kabetogama Lake, all of which is consistent with previous research. All lakes had median chlorophyll a concentrations of 3.6 micrograms per liter or less with the exception of Kabetogama Lake, where the median concentrations were 4.3 micrograms per liter for the midlake sites and 7.1 micrograms per liter and 9.0 micrograms per liter for the nearshore sites.Mercury concentrations in sampled fish varied widely between years and among lakes, from 14.7 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Kabetogama Lake in 2015 to 178 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Crane Lake in

  7. Insights from mercury stable isotopes into factors affecting the internal body burden of methylmercury in frequent fish consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miling Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methylmercury (MeHg exposure can cause adverse health effects in children and adults and is predominantly from seafood consumption in the United States (U.S.. Here we examine evidence for differences in MeHg uptake and metabolism in U.S. individuals who consume three or more fish meals per week. We hypothesized based on prior research that some individuals have enhanced capacity to demethylate ingested MeHg and this will be reflected by a greater than typically observed δ202Hg offset in their hair relative to consumed fish (∼2 ‰. We used self-reported seafood intake data to identify individuals with hair Hg concentrations that agree extremely well with reported ingestion and those that do not. Approximately one-third of individuals in our survey population had hair Hg levels below the lower bound of probabilistic exposure modeling based on dietary intake data. The Δ199Hg values measured in the hair of a subset of individuals with the highest and lowest discrepancies between modeled and measured exposures are consistent with self-reported fish intake, validating the reliability of their dietary recall information. The δ202Hg offset between fish and human hair is similar for low- and high-discrepancy individuals, suggesting enhanced in vivo demethylation does not explain some individuals with hair Hg levels equivalent to non-fish consumers (0.10 ug/g. Using the probabilistic exposure model, we find dietary MeHg absorption efficiencies required to explain hair Hg levels in these high-discrepancy individuals are on average lower than 14% (range: 1%–72%. Exposure modeling for MeHg typically assumes a range of 91–97% and our results emphasize much greater inter-individual variability in this value.

  8. Therese Frey Steffen (Hg.: Körpergrenzen / Body Boundaries. Köln u.a.: Böhlau Verlag 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Schumacher

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Auflösungen, Fixierungen und (Re-Adressierungen verschiedenster den Körper betreffender Grenzen und deren Auswirkungen werden in den auch disziplinäre Abgrenzungen überwindenden Artikeln des Züricher Graduiertenkollegs „Körper, Selbsttechnologien: Entgrenzungen und Begrenzungen“ beleuchtet. Im Mittelpunkt dieses Schwerpunktheftes der Zeitschrift figurationen stehen politische sowie ethische Implikationen von Grenzgestaltungen – von der innerpsychischen bis zur geographischen Grenze. Als Quellenmaterial dienen den acht Autorinnen dabei größtenteils mediale Repräsentationen des Grenztopos.The papers of the Zurich research group “Body, Technologies of the Self: Dissolutions and Limitations”, which also overcome disciplinary boundaries, examine dissolutions, fixations, and (re- addressings of various body-related boundaries as well as their effects. Political and ethical implications of the formation of boundaries – from the inner psychological to the geographical boundary – are at the center of this issue of the journal figurationen. The eight authors mainly use media representations of the boundary topos as source material.

  9. Lower late-life body-mass index is associated with higher cortical amyloid burden in clinically normal elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David C.; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower body-mass index (BMI) in late life has been associated with an increased risk of dementia, and weight loss has been associated with more rapid decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. Objective To explore the association between BMI and cortical amyloid burden in clinically normal (CN) elderly at risk for AD dementia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were completed using baseline data from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, consisting of 280 community-dwelling CN older adults aged 62–90. Assessments included medical histories and physical exam, Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid imaging, and apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APOE4) genotyping. For the primary analysis, a general linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of BMI with PiB retention. Covariates included age, sex, years of education, and APOE4 carrier status. Secondary analyses were performed for BMI subdivisions (normal, overweight, obese), APOE4 carriers, and BMI × APOE4 interaction. Results In the primary analysis, greater PiB retention was associated with lower BMI (β=−0.14, p=0.02). In the secondary analyses, APOE4 carrier status (β=−0.27, p=0.02) and normal BMI (β=−0.25, p=0.01), as opposed to overweight or obese BMI, were associated with greater PiB retention. The BMI × APOE4 interaction was also significant (β=−0.14, p=0.04). Conclusions This finding offers new insight into the role of BMI at the preclinical stage of AD, wherein lower BMI late in life is associated with greater cortical amyloid burden. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism behind this association, especially in those with lower BMI who are APOE4 carriers. PMID:27340843

  10. Comparison of organochlorine chemical body burdens of female breast cancer cases with cancer free women in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil--Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Petreas, M.X.; Caleffi, M.; Barbosa, F.S.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study collected preliminary data to examine known and suspected breast cancer risk factors among women living in rural and urban areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by questionnaire. In addition, the body burden levels of a panel of organochlorines was measured in a small clinic-based prospective sample.

  11. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. German, E-mail: grodriguez@pas.azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Sariego, Cristina [Servicio de Espectrometria de Masas, SCT' s, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria s/n, 33006, Oviedo (Spain); Valencia, Victoriano [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  12. Body burden of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants on freshwater invertebrates: Method development and application in the Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, Pedro A; Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Huber, Thomas; Nagy, Claudia; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2016-07-01

    While environmental risk assessment is typically based on toxicant concentrations in water and/or sediment, awareness is increasing that internal concentrations or body burdens are the key to understand adverse effects in organisms. In order to link environmental micropollutants as causes of observed effects, there is an increasing demand for methods to analyse these chemicals in organisms. Here, a multi-target screening method based on pulverised liquid extraction (PuLE) and a modified QuEChERS approach with an additional hexane phase was developed. It is capable to extract and quantify organic micropollutants of diverse chemical classes in freshwater invertebrates. The method was tested on gammarids from the Danube River (within the Joint Danube Survey 3) and target compounds were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, a non-target screening using high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) was conducted. A total of 17 pollutants were detected and/or quantified in gammarids at low concentrations. Pesticide concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 6.52 ng g(-1) (wet weight), those of wastewater-derived pollutants from 0.1 to 2.83 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The presence of wastewater-derived pollutants was prominent at all spots sampled. Using non-target screening, we could successfully identify several chlorinated compounds. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants in invertebrates of the Danube River.

  13. Dioxin/polychlorinated biphenyl body burden, diabetes and endometriosis: findings in a population-based study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, Sébastien; Mairesse, Hélène; Heilier, Jean-François; De Burbure, Claire; Focant, Jean-François; Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin; Bernard, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants widely distributed in the food chain, which is the main source of human exposure. Their effects on human health at background exposure levels are still poorly understood. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between these pollutants and diabetes. We report here the results of a population-based study in Belgium on 257 (142 women and 115 men) environmentally exposed subjects, including 10 cases of endometriosis and nine cases of diabetes. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs or dioxins), four coplanar PCBs (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] nos 77, 81, 126 and 169) and 12 PCB markers (IUPAC nos 3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, 206 and 209) were quantified in serum fat from fasting blood samples in order to estimate the body burden of these pollutants. Whilst no difference was found between women with endometriosis and their controls, diabetic patients had significantly increased serum levels of dioxins, coplanar PCBs and the 12 PCB markers. After adjustment for age and other covariates, serum total toxic equivalent activity (sum of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) and 12 PCB marker concentrations in diabetics were 62% (p = 0.0005) and 39% (p = 0.0067) higher, respectively, than in controls. The risk of diabetes was significantly increased in subjects in the top decile for adjusted concentrations of dioxins (odds ratio 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-21.7), coplanar PCBs (odds ratio 13.3, 95% CI 3.31-53.2) or 12 PCB markers (odds ratio 7.6, 95% CI 1.58-36.3). These findings warrant further studies to assess the significance of the associations between diabetes and environmental exposure to polychlorinated pollutants.

  14. The effects of behavioral and psychological symptoms on caregiver burden in frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, and Alzheimer's disease: clinical experience in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuling; Jin, Yi; Shi, Zhihong; Huo, Ya Ruth; Guan, Yalin; Liu, Mengyuan; Liu, Shuai; Ji, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Caregivers of individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body dementia (DLB), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), experience high levels of psychological and physical stress, likely due to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study is the first to simultaneously evaluate the effects of BPSD on caregiver burden in these three types of dementia. A total of 214 dementia patients, including probable FTD (n = 82), DLB (n = 22), and AD (n = 110), as well as their primary caregivers, were assessed using psychological inventories and cognitive evaluation. The FTD group was further divided into the three established clinical variants: behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 51), non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA, n = 15), and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, n = 16). Cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Clock Drawing Test, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), respectively. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI). FTD patients had higher NPI and ZBI scores than DLB and AD patients, whose scores were similar. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors influencing caregiver burden for each group were: FTD: total NPI scores, agitation, and aberrant motor behavior; bvFTD: total NPI scores; DLB: total NPI scores; and AD: total NPI scores, onset age, apathy, and ADL. Caregivers of bvFTD patients had the highest levels of burden, which were significantly greater than for caregivers of nfvPPA, svPPA, DLB, and AD patients. BPSD was highly correlated with emotional burden in caregivers of FTD, DLB, and AD patients. The highest burden was observed in bvFTD caregivers.

  15. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windham, Gayle C., E-mail: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov [CA Department of Public Health, DEODC, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg. P, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Sjodin, Andreas [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Lum, Raymond [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Biro, Frank M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hiatt, Robert A. [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kushi, Lawrence H. [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had

  16. Probabilistic intake assessment and body burden estimation of dioxin-like substances in background conditions and during a short food contamination episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, B; De Henauw, S; Dewettinck, K; Talloen, W; Goeyens, L; De Backer, G; Willems, J L

    2002-07-01

    The objective was to perform a dioxin body burden estimate based on a probabilistic intake assessment of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs because of the so-called 1999 'Belgian dioxin incident'. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to combine detailed 7-day food intake data on the individual level from a sample of 14-18-year-old adolescents with 'background' and 'incident-related' food contamination data. In background conditions, 3% of the adolescents had an intake dioxin-like contaminants, while fish constituted the main source at the higher percentiles of intake. During the dioxin incident, the estimated median dioxin intake showed a moderate increase. At the 99th percentile, the highest intake level, and the 95% upper bound uncertainty level, peak body burden-23.73 ng TEQ kg(-1) bw-remained below body burdens that in the experimental animal or in man are accompanied by a population-based observable increase in the incidence of adverse effects. The 1999 Belgian dioxin incident most likely did not affect public health in Belgium in a measurable way, although exceptions remain possible on the individual level.

  17. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  18. Thyroid endocrine status of wild European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in the Loire (France). Relationships with organic contaminant body burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, M; Marchand, J; Zalouk-Vergnoux, A; Kamari, A; Moreau, B; Blanchet-Letrouvé, I; Le Bizec, B; Mouneyrac, C; Poirier, L

    2016-04-15

    In teleost fish, thyroid function is involved in various critical physiological processes. Given the complexity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, a large number of genes and proteins can be the potential target of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, in yellow and silver European eels (Anguilla anguilla), potential effects of EDCs on thyroid status by analyzing the associations between EDC body burdens and thyroid hormones (THs). In yellow individuals, greater free T3/T4 ratios (FT3/FT4) and lower plasma FT4 levels were associated with greater concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as highlighted by significant correlations with many congeners. Few positive relationships with alkylphenols were noticed. In contrast, silver eels usually exhibited less significant correlations between THs and contaminant loads. Expression of a series of genes involved in the HPT axis was also investigated in the silver individuals. Concerning mRNA expression in silver females, some main correlations were noticed: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHβ) gene expression was significantly correlated to numerous PCBs, and hepatic mRNA levels of deiodinase 2 (Deio 2) were negatively correlated to 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHF) and 2-naphtol (2-OHNa). Thyroid receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels exhibited weak negative correlations with some PBDEs in silver females and males. Hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA levels were detected in all silver males but at lower levels than in silver females. In males, Vtg mRNA levels were positively associated to FT4/TT4. In silver females, strong positive correlations were found between congeners of PCBs, PBDEs and PFAS suggesting potential estrogenic effects. Overall, the observed results indicate that several organic contaminants, mainly dl-, ndl-PCBs and PBDEs, could be associated with changes in thyroid homeostasis in these fish, via direct or indirect

  19. Allele Frequencies of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Body Burden of Heavy Metals in the Korean Population and Their Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Sun; Hwang, Myung Sil; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the body burden of heavy metals in Koreans, to provide Korean allele frequencies of selected SNPs, and to assess the difference in allele frequencies with other ethnicities. The candidate-gene approach method and genome-wide association screening were used to select SNPs related to the body burden of heavy metals. Genotyping analysis of the final 192 SNPs selected was performed on 1,483 subjects using the VeraCode Goldengate assay. Allele frequencies differences and genetic differentiations between the Korean population and Chinese (CHB), Japanese (JPT), Caucasian (CEU), and African (YIR) populations were tested by Fisher's exact test and fixation index (F ST), respectively. The Korean population was genetically similar to the CHB and JPT populations (F ST frequencies between the Korean and CEU and YIR populations were observed in 99 SNPs (60.7%) and 120 SNPs (73.6%), respectively. Ten (6.1%) and 26 (16.0%) SNPs had genetic differentiation (F ST > 0.05) among the Korean-CEU and Korean-YIR comparisons, respectively. The SNP with the largest F ST value between the Korean and African populations was cystathionine-β-synthase rs234709 (F ST: KOR-YIR, 0.309; KOR-CEU, 0.064). Our study suggests that interethnic differences exist in SNPs associated with heavy metals of Koreans, and it should be considered in future studies that address ethnic differences in heavy-metal concentrations in the body and genetic susceptibility to the body burden of heavy metals.

  20. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed.

  1. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  2. The relationship between metabolic syndrome, its components, and the whole-body atherosclerotic disease burden as measured by computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigna, Giovanni; Napoli, Alessandro; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Marincola, Beatrice Cavallo; Monticolo, Roberto; Catalano, Carlo; Iuliano, Luigi; Arca, Marcello

    2011-04-01

    Quantify the whole-body atherosclerotic disease in asymptomatic subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to assess the contribution of the syndrome and its components to the atherosclerotic burden. Sixty-five subjects with and 51 without ATPIII-defined MetS underwent a 64-slice computed tomography angiography (CTA). Plaques causing >0% stenosis in coronary or extra-coronary arteries were classified as positive. The prevalence of plaques in coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries as well as their severity did not differ between groups. Conversely, it was seen an almost 3-fold increased likelihood (OR=2.70; 95% CI 1.30-5.57; P<0.001) of atherosclerosis in any district across categories of MetS components (0-1 vs. 2-3 vs. 4-5). Hypertriglyceridemia (P<0.05) and high blood glucose (P<0.05) were independent predictors of the atherosclerotic burden. Atherosclerotic burden as revealed by 64-TCA appears to be more strongly associated with the number of MetS-related factors than to the clinical diagnosis of MetS itself. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The development of a spatially explicit model to estimate radiocaesium body burdens in raccoons (Procyon lotor) for ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Karen F. [University of South Carolina, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States) and University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States) and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)]. E-mail: kfgaines@usd.edu; Boring, C. Shane [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Porter, Dwayne E. [University of South Carolina, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    A spatially explicit model of raccoon (Procyon lotor) distribution for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina was developed using data from a raccoon radio-telemetry study and visualized within a Geographic Information System (GIS). An inductive approach was employed to develop three sub-models using the ecological requirements of raccoons studied in the following habitats: (1) man-made reservoirs (2) bottomland hardwood/riverine systems, and (3) isolated wetland systems. Logistic regression was used to derive probabilistic resource selection functions using habitat compositional data and landscape metrics. The final distribution model provides a spatially explicit probability (likelihood of being in an area) surface for male raccoons. The model is a stand-alone tool consisting of algorithms independent of the specific GIS data layers to which they were derived. The model was then used to predict contaminant burdens in raccoons inhabiting a riverine system contaminated with radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs). The predicted {sup 137}Cs burdens were less than if one would assume homogeneous use of the contaminated areas. This modelling effort provides a template for DOE managed lands and other large government facilities to establish a framework for site-specific ecological assessments that use wildlife species as endpoints.

  4. Plutonium and the risk of cancer. A comparative analysis of Pu-body burdens due to releases from nuclear plants (Chelyabinsk-65, Gomel area) and global fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohryakov, V F; Syslova, C G; Skryabin, A M

    1994-03-01

    Results of the analysis of dynamic body burdens of Pu in adult inhabitants of Chelyabinsk-65 (not occupationally exposed) and different areas of the Gomel region are presented for 1990-1991. The data are based on radiochemical analyses of Pu in human organs and tissues. Comparison with the published data on global Pu and our data for human autopsies (Ufa, Russia) revealed that estimates of Pubody burdens in Chelyabinsk-65 residents were up to 30 times higher than global levels and depended on the period of residence in town. The Pu body contents of Gomel citizens 4-5 years after the Chernobyl accident are on average 3-4 times higher than the global levels. Activity of Pu-238 in various organs constitutes 4.7-26.0% (on the average 13.5 +/- 5.0%) of the total alpha-activity of Pu-238 and Pu-239, 240. The expected number of cancers induced by incorporated plutonium is approximately the same for the two population groups despite their different sizes and does not differ from the global level by more than one order of magnitude.

  5. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g{sup −1} lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g{sup −1} lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g{sup −1} lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants

  6. Gastrointestinal nematode burden in working equids from humid tropical areas of central Veracruz, Mexico, and its relationship with body condition and haematological values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdéz-Cruz, Maura Pilar; Hernández-Gil, Mariano; Galindo-Rodríguez, Leticia; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel

    2013-02-01

    The east coast of Veracruz, Mexico, has an important equine population used for working in rural production systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to calculate the prevalence of tropical working equids (donkeys, mules and horses) infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) and the GINs involved, and (2) to measure the body condition score (BCS) and haematological values for each working equid and its relationship with faecal worm egg count (EPG). One hundred and forty working equids were randomly selected from five different villages along the central coast of the state of Veracruz and faecal and blood samples were obtained from each animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were determined using the McMaster technique. Packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count were measured from each blood sample. Prevalence of infected equids was higher than 90 %. Mules had the highest median faecal worm egg counts (875 EPG), followed by horses and donkeys with 400 EPG. There was no correlation between EPG and BCS or haematological values (p > 0.05). Results suggest that despite the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equids involved in this trial are not being seriously affected. This study provides information which might help in designing future strategies to control nematode infections in working equids in the Mexican tropics; more emphasis should be placed on other inputs (nutrition perhaps), with individual anthelminthic treatment to those animals with the highest EPG or when signs present themselves.

  7. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, p0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑PCBs (r=0.60, pe-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to abnormal changes in hormone levels.

  8. [The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in residents' human breast milk from Beijing in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yin-ping; Li, Jing-guang; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

    2013-06-01

    To investigate contamination levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human breast milk from Beijing residents, and evaluate the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of general population. A total of 110 human milk samples were collected from 11 regions in Beijing in 2007. After 11 pooled samples were made, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in breast milk pooled samples were measured by a high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRCG-HRMS) with isotope dilution. For congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human breast milk from Beijing, the highest content of congeners was octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-118, and PCB-105 with the median of 20.6 pg/g fat, 4.07 ng/g fat and 1.63 ng/g fat, respectively. The concentration median of total dioxins in 11 pooled human milk samples from Beijing was 7.4 pg TEQ/g fat. The highest was 13.5 pg TEQ/g fat from Tongzhou, and the lowest was 4.3 pg TEQ/g fat from Pinggu. The contamination level of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk from Beijing is relatively low. However, with the rapid industrialization in China, the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs will be likely to rise. Thus, further studies should be conducted to continuously monitor the trend of contamination level.

  9. Low-level parasitic worm burdens may reduce body condition in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, R J; Corbishley, H; Pilkington, J G; Albon, S D

    2006-10-01

    Regulation of ungulate populations by parasites relies on establishing a density-dependent relationship between infection and vital demographic rates which may act through the effect of parasites on body condition. We examine evidence for parasite impacts in 285 red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvested during 1991 and 1992 on the Isle of Rum. In the abomasa, prevalence of nematodes was 100% and the most abundant genus observed were Ostertagia species, however, mean intensity of infection was low (less than 1000) relative to other studies. Additional species, also present in low numbers, included Nematodirus spp., Capillaria spp., Cooperia spp., Monieza expanza, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis. Lungworm (Dictyocaulus spp.) and tissue worm (Elaphostronygylus cervi) larvae were also observed in faecal samples. There was no evidence for acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes. Despite low levels of infection, both adult male and female deer showed significant negative correlation between indices of condition (kidney fat index, dressed carcass weight and larder weight) and intensity of Ostertagia spp. infection. However, there was no evidence that pregnancy rate in females was related to intensity of infection. For calves, there was no relationship between body condition and intensity of infection. The apparent subclinical effects of low-level parasite infection on red deer performance could alternatively be due to animals in poorer nutritional state being more susceptible to infection. Either way the results suggest that further studies of wild populations are justified, in particular where high local host densities exist or alternative ungulate hosts are present, and, where experimental treatments are tractable.

  10. Increased body mass index in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona; Conway, Richard; Cunnane, Gaye; O'Shea, Finbar D

    2012-12-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise. In AS, the effect of obesity on disease characteristics and exercise perceptions is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of obesity in AS, to assess the attitudes of patients toward exercise and to evaluate the effect of obesity on symptoms and disease activity. Demographic data and disease characteristics were collected from 46 patients with AS. Disease activity, symptomatology, and functional disability were examined using standard AS questionnaires. BMI was calculated. Comorbidity was analyzed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients' attitudes toward exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). We compared the disease characteristics, perceptions regarding exercise, and functional limitations in those who were overweight to those who had a normal BMI. The mean BMI in the group was 27.4; 67.5% of subjects were overweight or obese. There was a statistically significant difference between those who were overweight and those with a normal BMI regarding their perceptions of exercise (EBBS 124.7 vs 136.6, respectively), functional limitation (Bath AS Functional Index 4.7 vs 2.5, Health Assessment Questionnaire 0.88 vs 0.26), and disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index 4.8 vs 2.9). There was no difference between the groups in terms of their comorbid conditions or other demographic variables. The majority of patients in this AS cohort were overweight. They had a greater burden of symptoms, worse perceptions regarding the benefits of exercise, and enhanced awareness of their barriers to exercising. This is of particular concern in a disease where exercise plays a crucial role.

  11. Nina Degele, Sigrid Schmitz, Marion Mangelsdorf, Elke Gramespacher (Hg.: Gendered Bodies in Motion. Opladen u.a.: Budrich UniPress 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ganser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dieser gelungene Band – Ergebnis einer Fachtagung im Bereich Gender Studies an der Universität Freiburg und zugleich Jubiläumsband anlässlich des zehnjährigen Bestehens der Freiburger Koordinierungsstelle Gender Studies – beleuchtet den Nexus Körper und Geschlecht als dynamische Figuration an der Schnittstelle unterschiedlicher Wissenschaftsdiskurse. Die Autor/-innen stellen sich der interdisziplinären Herausforderung eines Dialogs zwischen Natur- und Technikwissenschaften einerseits und Gesellschafts- und Kulturwissenschaften andererseits, wenn auch mit z. T. unterschiedlichem Erfolg. Der Band bietet seinen Leser/-innen einen spannenden Einblick in die Dynamik körperlicher Signifikationen und vergesellschaftlichter Materialitäten und eröffnet vielfältige, innovative Forschungsperspektiven im Bereich der body studies.This successful volume – result of a symposium in the field of Gender Studies at the University of Freiburg and at the same time anniversary edition in celebration of the ten year existence of the Freiburg coordination site for Gender Studies – examines the nexus body and gender as a dynamic figuration at the intersection of various scientific discourses. The authors face the interdisciplinary challenge of a dialogue between natural and technical sciences as well as social and cultural studies, even though with in parts varying success. This volume offers exciting insights into the dynamics of bodily significations and socialized materialities to its readers, while opening manifold innovative perspectives in the field of body studies.

  12. Chemical thermodynamics of Hg1201 and Hg1223 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadashi

    1998-03-01

    The decomposition equilibrium of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was studied using a thermomicrobalance. A thermodynamic diagram representing the stability domains of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was constructed. Using the diagram, it was shown that Hg1201 is metastable at 800°C and that Hg1223 is stable at 660°C due to the formation of an atmosphere of mercury vapor and oxygen formed by the decomposition of excess HgO. Chemical analysis revealed that the valence of Hg is +2 regardless of the oxygen content. The dependence of Tc on the oxygen content was also studied.

  13. Common carotid intima media thickness and ankle-brachial pressure index correlate with local but not global atheroma burden: a cross sectional study using whole body magnetic resonance angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Weir-McCall

    Full Text Available Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA.50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR. The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50-70%, 3 = 70-99%, 4 = vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated.The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045, however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01 with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β -0.39, p = 0.012, which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45, while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β -0.45 p = 0.005.ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. However this is

  14. Investigation of the cumulative body burden of estrogen-3,4-quinone in breast cancer patients and controls using albumin adducts as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che; Chen, Dar-Ren; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Yu, Wen-Fa; Lin, Ching-Chiuan; Ko, Mao-Huei; Juan, Chang-Hsin; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2013-04-26

    Both 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q) are reactive metabolites of estrogen. Elevation of E2-3,4-Q to E2-2,3-Q ratio is thought to be an important indicator of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Our current study compared the cumulative body burden of these estrogen quinones in serum samples taken from Taiwanese women with breast cancer (n=152) vs healthy controls (n=75) by using albumin (Alb) adducts as biomarkers. Results clearly demonstrated the presence of cysteinyl adducts of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in all study population at levels ranging from 61.7-1330 to 66.6-1,590 pmol/g, respectively. Correlation coefficient between E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb was 0.610 for controls and 0.767 for breast cancer patients (pQ-2-S-Alb was inversely proportional to BMI with about 25% increase in E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb per 5 kg/m(2) decrease in BMI (pQ-2-S-Alb in breast cancer patients were ∼5-fold greater than in those of controls (pQ may play a role in the development of breast cancer.

  15. Evaluation and development of soil values for the pathway 'soil to plant'. Significance of mercury evaporation for the burden of plants; Ueberpruefung und Fortentwicklung der Bodenwerte fuer den Boden-Pflanze-Pfad. Teilbericht 2: Evaporation von Quecksilber aus kontaminierten Boeden und deren Bedeutung fuer die Hg-Aufnahme von Kulturpflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, K.; Gaeth, S.

    2001-10-01

    In cooperation with the Ad-hoc working group 'Transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant' of the Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft Bodenschutz (LABO) the significance of mercury evaporation for the deduction of threshold values in respect of the impact via the pathway soil to plant was investigated. Mercury contamination of food- and feeding stuff plants was examined with special emphasis. For these purposes a lab experiment including three different soils with varying initial mercury load (background level, geogenic and anthropogenic contamination) and two different plant species (parsley and spinach) was carried out under defined conditions in closed lysimeters. Mercury uptake via the roots was minimised since the plants grew in isolated customary substrate which showed a low concentration of mercury. Thus, only the surrounding soil evaporated mercury. The concentrations of mercury in the plants in the background level treatment (0.1 mg Hg/kg dry soil) were 0.15 mg/kg dry matter (spinach). The treatment with anthropogenic contaminated soil (111 mg Hg/kg dry soil) resulted in concentrations in the two plants of 2.0 and 2.6 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. A comparable order of magnitude was achieved in the geogenic contaminated treatment (34 mg Hg/kg dry soil) with 2.1 mg/kg dry matter (spinach) and 0.44 mg/kg dry matter (parsley). Experiments conducted with radioactive {sup 203}Hg showed in each case Hg-tracer in the leaves, in the stem and in the roots, indicating a translocation within the plant from leaf to root. By means of a comprehensive literature study the state of the art for Hg-evaporation and Hg-uptake of plants was compiled. Comparing the experimental results with data derived from literature, the Hg-concentrations found are confirmed by results of other authors. (orig.) [German] In fachlicher Zusammenarbeit mit der Ad-hoc-Arbeitsgruppe 'Schwermetalltransfer Boden/Pflanze' der Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft Bodenschutz (LABO) wurde fuer die

  16. Comparison of Two Mercury Contaminated Surface Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. C.; Southworth, G. R.; Turner, R. R.; Jensen, R.

    2008-12-01

    Due to the methyl mercury (MeHg) burden in fish tissues, the Virginia Department of Health and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have posted fish advisories for the South River, VA and the East Fork Poplar Creek, TN (EFPC), respectively. This presentation will compare and contrast the hydrogeochemical characteristics of these two industrially contaminated water bodies. Both streams share broad similarities in terms of their general chemistry and underlying geology. Nevertheless, patterns of waterborne mercury (Hg) and, importantly, MeHg concentration are different. For example, in the South River both Hg and MeHg concentrations increase with increasing distance downstream from the industrial site of mercury origin whereas in EFPC Hg decreases while MeHg increases with increasing distance downstream. Although both sites are the focus of concerted research efforts to identify effective remediation, the underlying mechanisms that drive the patterns within each system and therefore account for the differences between them are poorly understood. We intend for this presentation to provide a context within which attendees can frame their discussion of the challenges inherent to studying the biogeochemical cycling of Hg in general and at contaminated sites in particular where effective remedies can be elusive.

  17. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  18. Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J.H. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females. The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher’s Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD to produce a score for “Total Disruptive Behavior” and subscale scores for “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles.

  19. Subcellular localization of several heavy metals of Hg,Cd and Pb in human liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chunying; ZHANG Peiqun; CHAI Zhifang

    2005-01-01

    Liver, as an important metabolic and detoxicological organ of human body, can be used as a good bioindicator for evaluating body burden of environmental pollutants. Its elemental contents and their chemical forms are closely related to the status of human health and disease. In this paper, the liver samples collected from normal subjects were separated to different subcellular fractions of nuclei, mitochondria, lysosome, microsome and cytosol by differential centrifugation. Then their concentrations of heavy metals of As, Pb, Cd, and Hg were determined by atomic absorption and atomic fluorescent spectroscopy. Our results show no significant difference with literature ones when comparing their gross concentrations. In the case of their subcellular distribution, the Hg concentrations are higher in mitochondrial, microsomal and cytosolic fractions; the Cd concentrations are higher in cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, while As highest in nuclear fraction. The highest concentration of Pb is found in microsomal fraction with similarity to Fe. Mercury in liver is mainly in the form of inorganic, and methylmercury ranged from 9% to 50% with the average value of 20.9%(13.3%. These results indicate that the cellular distribution and the accumulated target organelles are quite different among these heavy metals, which suggest their various pathways and toxic mechanism in vivo.

  20. An in vivo animal study assessing long-term changes in hypothalamic cytokines following perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture based on Arctic maternal body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Nanqin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographic distribution of environmental toxins is generally not uniform, with certain northern regions showing a particularly high concentration of pesticides, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. For instance, Northern Canadians are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, organochlorine pesticides (OCs and methylmercury (MeHg, primarily through country foods. Previous studies have reported associations between neuronal pathology and exposure to such toxins. The present investigation assessed whether perinatal exposure (gestation and lactation of rats to a chemical mixture (27 constituents comprised of PCBs, OCs and MeHg based on Arctic maternal exposure profiles at concentrations near human exposure levels, would affect brain levels of several inflammatory cytokines Methods Rats were dosed during gestation and lactation and cytokine levels were measured in the brains of offspring at five months of age. Hypothalamic cytokine protein levels were measured with a suspension-based array system and differences were determined using ANOVA and post hoc statistical tests. Results The early life PCB treatment alone significantly elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in rats at five months of age to a degree comparable to that of the entire chemical mixture. Similarly, the full mixture (and to a lesser degree PCBs alone elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1b, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. The full mixture of chemicals also moderately increased (in an additive fashion hypothalamic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Challenge with bacterial endotoxin at adulthood generally increased hypothalamic levels to such a degree that differences between the perinatally treated chemical groups were no longer detectable. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure at critical

  1. Exceptional Response to Nivolumab and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in Neuroendocrine Cervical Carcinoma with High Tumor Mutational Burden: Management Considerations from the Center For Personalized Cancer Therapy at UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Andrew; Kim, Sangwoo Shawn; Kato, Shumei; Sanders, Philip D; Patel, Sandip Pravin; Sanghvi, Parag; Weihe, Elizabeth; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2017-06-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is an ultra-rare malignancy with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has rapidly developed into an emerging standard of care for several common disease types. Interestingly, in preclinical and retrospective clinical data, radiation therapy has been demonstrated to synergize with checkpoint inhibitors. Here we report a patient with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory neuroendocrine carcinoma who presented with partial bowel obstruction due to a large tumor burden. Genomic analysis demonstrated a high number of alterations on liquid biopsy (circulating tumor DNA [ctDNA]), which prompted treatment with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) combined with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody. Tissue rebiopsy and comprehensive genomic profiling confirmed high tumor mutational burden and a mismatch repair gene defect. The patient manifested near-complete systemic resolution of disease, ongoing at 10+ months. We discuss the novel treatment modality of SBRT combined with a checkpoint inhibitor and the implications of molecular profiling and tumor mutational burden as potential predictors of response. High-grade, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is an ultra-rare malignancy that carries a grim prognosis.Next-generation sequencing may reveal key mutations in MSH2 genes amongst others. MSH2 mutations target the DNA mismatch repair process and can predispose patients to malignancies with high mutational burdens.Immunotherapy combined with radiation therapy can elicit a significant response, both within and outside the field of radiation. The latter is termed the "abscopal" effect, perhaps mediated by radiation-induced cross presentation of tumor antigens resulting in immune activation.Sequencing of blood-derived ctDNA showed a high number of alterations, and tissue sequencing confirmed a high tumor mutational burden as a consequence of a mismatch repair gene defect

  2. Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

  3. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  4. Food preferences and Hg distribution in Chelonia mydas assessed by stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M F; Lacerda, L D; Rezende, C E; Franco, M A L; Almeida, M G; Macêdo, G R; Pires, T T; Rostán, G; Lopez, G G

    2015-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic pollutant that poses in risk several marine animals, including green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Green turtles are globally endangered sea turtle species that occurs in Brazilian coastal waters as a number of life stage classes (i.e., foraging juveniles and nesting adults). We assessed total Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures ((13)C and (15)N) in muscle, kidney, liver and scute of juvenile green turtles and their food items from two foraging grounds with different urban and industrial development. We found similar food preferences in specimens from both areas but variable Hg levels in tissues reflecting the influence of local Hg backgrounds in food items. Some juvenile green turtles from the highly industrialized foraging ground presented liver Hg levels among the highest ever reported for this species. Our results suggest that juvenile foraging green turtles are exposed to Hg burdens from locally anthropogenic activities in coastal areas.

  5. Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Assessment of Whole-Body Metabolic Tumor Burden Using F-18-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available To determine the metabolically active whole-body tumor volume (WB-MTV on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 using a three-dimensional (3D segmentation and computerized volumetry technique, and to compare PET WB-MTV between patients with benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs.Thirty-six NF1 patients (18 patients with malignant PNSTs and 18 age- and sex-matched controls with benign PNSTs were examined by F-18-FDG PET/CT. WB-MTV, whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WB-TLG and a set of semi-quantitative imaging-based parameters were analyzed both on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis.On a per-lesion basis, malignant PNSTs demonstrated both a significantly higher MTV and TLG than benign PNSTs (p < 0.0001. On a per-patient basis, WB-MTV and WB-TLG were significantly higher in patients with malignant PNSTs compared to patients with benign PNSTs (p < 0.001. ROC analysis showed that MTV and TLG could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.WB-MTV and WB-TLG may identify malignant change and may have the potential to provide a basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with metabolically active disease manifestations. Further evaluation will determine the potential clinical impact of these PET-based parameters in NF1.

  6. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury ( sup 203 Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimy, M.J.; Takahashi, Y.; Lorscheider, F.L. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-04-01

    In humans, the continuous release of Hg vapor from dental amalgam tooth restorations is markedly increased for prolonged periods after chewing. The present study establishes a time-course distribution for amalgam Hg in body tissues of adult and fetal sheep. Under general anesthesia, five pregnant ewes had twelve occlusal amalgam fillings containing radioactive 203Hg placed in teeth at 112 days gestation. Blood, amniotic fluid, feces, and urine specimens were collected at 1- to 3-day intervals for 16 days. From days 16-140 after amalgam placement (16-41 days for fetal lambs), tissue specimens were analyzed for radioactivity, and total Hg concentrations were calculated. Results demonstrate that Hg from dental amalgam will appear in maternal and fetal blood and amniotic fluid within 2 days after placement of amalgam tooth restorations. Excretion of some of this Hg will also commence within 2 days. All tissues examined displayed Hg accumulation. Highest concentrations of Hg from amalgam in the adult occurred in kidney and liver, whereas in the fetus the highest amalgam Hg concentrations appeared in liver and pituitary gland. The placenta progressively concentrated Hg as gestation advanced to term, and milk concentration of amalgam Hg postpartum provides a potential source of Hg exposure to the newborn. It is concluded that accumulation of amalgam Hg progresses in maternal and fetal tissues to a steady state with advancing gestation and is maintained. Dental amalgam usage as a tooth restorative material in pregnant women and children should be reconsidered.

  7. The Upside to Hg-DOM Associations for Water Quality: Removal of Hg from Solution Using Coagulaion with Metal-Based Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, Y.; Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Horwath, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the potential use of metal-based coagulants to remove dissolved mercury (Hg) from natural waters and provides information regarding the importance of Hg associations with the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction and metal hydroxides. Previous research indicated coagulants were not effective at removing Hg from solution; however those studies used high concentrations of Hg, which did not reflect naturally occurring concentrations of Hg. Filtered water collected from an agricultural drain in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) was treated with three industrial-grade coagulants (ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and polyaluminum chloride) to determine their efficacy in removing both inroganic (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) from the water column. The Delta suffers from elevated surface water Hg concentrations and as a result is listed as an imparied water body. Coagulants removed up to 85% of DOM from solution. In the absence of DOM, all three coagulants released IHg into solution, however in the presence of DOM the coagulants removed up to 97% of IHg and 80% of MeHg. Results suggest that the removal of Hg is mediated by DOM-coagulant interactions. There was a preferential association of IHg with the more aromatic, higher molecular weight fraction of DOM but no such relationship was found for MeHg. This study offers new fundamental insights regarding large-scale removal of Hg at environmentally relevant concentrations. Research using isotopically labeled Hg is providing insight into whether coagulation can remove recently added Hg (e.g. atmospheric deposition) from solution and whether once formed, the floc can remove additional Hg from the water column.

  8. Simultaneous determination of the Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, nearly microscopic, nanoliter-volume aquatic organisms (Hyalella azteca) by rhenium-cup in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and axially viewed ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrea T.; Badiei, Hamid R.; Karanassios, Vassili [University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Evans, J. Catherine [University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    The Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, up to 7-day-old aquatic organisms (Hyalella aztecabenthic amphipod) with an average volume of approximately 100 nL was determined simultaneously by using rhenium-cup (Re-cup) in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system. The direct elemental analysis capabilities of this system (i.e., no sample digestion) reduced sample preparation time, eliminated contamination concerns from the digestion reagent and, owing to its detection limits (e.g., in the low pg range for Cd and Zn), vit enabled simultaneous determinations of Cd and Zn in individual, neonate and young juvenile specimens barely visible to the unaided eye (e.g., nearly microscopic). As for calibration, liquid standards and the standard additions method were tested. Both methods gave comparable results, thus indicating that in this case liquid standards can be employed for calibration, and in the process making use of the standard additions method unnecessary. Overall, the ITV-ICP-AES approach by-passed the time-consuming acid digestions, eliminated the potential for contamination from the digestion reagents, improved considerably the speed of acquisition of analytical information and enabled simultaneous determinations of two elements using individual biological specimens. (orig.)

  9. Obesity associated noncommunicable disease burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala Banjare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing rapid transition in health sector for under nutrition and over nutrition. Obesity is a challenging epidemic and increased Body Mass Index (BMI influences on almost all body systems leading to development of non-communicable diseases. Chronic but slow growing non-infectious pathology of body organization give upsurge onset of non-communicable disorders. Obesity related Non-communicable diseases (NCDs leads to millions of deaths all around the world, rapidly becoming economic burden worldwide. Pathophysiology and extend of obesity is responsible for ill effects of health. In obesity Low grade Inflammation and antioxidant disproportion plays vital role in development of NCDs. Effective health education, professional counselling from public health authorities, free health care, and social insurance can be effective in controlling growing non communicable disease globally. The present analysis attempts to study association of obesity with different NCDs in terms of prevalence and underlying mechanisms.

  10. The Global Cancer Burden

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast describes the global burden of cancer and efforts by CDC and others to reduce that burden.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  11. Hg SOIL GAS AND Hg SOIL DISTRIBUTION AROUND FORMER „ZRINSKI“ MINE ON MT. MEDVEDNICA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jug

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the field and laboratory researches, statistical analyses and graphical displays of the results of Hg soil gas and Hg soil distribution in the area around former mining site „Zrinski“ on Mt. Medvednica. The values of overall Hg concentrations in the soil gas show lognormal distribution, and their spatial distribution outlines the connection with the present Pb-Ag-Zn mineralization and confirms anthropogenic origin of uneven landscape relief (waste rock clusters. Regression analysis of the dependence between Hg contents in the soil gas and the distance from the mine entrance (correlation coefficient r also points to the considerable spatial dependence. Hg soil contents show as well distribution similar to lognormal, and there is a slight correlation when compared with Hg soil gas content. Concentrations are mostly within background values, except in the immediate vicinity of the mine entrance where the values are significantly higher due to the mineralization influence concentrated in the waste-rock clusters. Soil pollution caused by mercury is of local character with the spreading tendency to the south-west because of the dominant relief influence. Mercury found in the soil of the research location derives from the present mineral body and former mining activities, while possible anthropogenic atmospheric inputs from remote sources can not be proven on the basic of conducted research studies (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  13. Chemical thermodynamics of the Hg1212 phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo

    1997-02-01

    The single phase of Hg1212 was synthesized by the simple oxide method using starting materials containing HgO 16% in excess. Stability regions of Hg1212 and pure HgO were determined by measuring the decomposition temperature as a function of oxygen partial pressure, and thermodynamic diagrams showing the stability domains of HgO and Hg1212 were constructed. The thermodynamical condition of formation of Hg1212 was discussed using the diagrams. It was found by chemical analysis that the valence of Hg is always 2 + and the valence of Ce changes with the oxygen content. TC (zero) changed from 122 to 118 K when the oxygen content was increased from 6.10 to 6.22.

  14. "The Burden of Pregnancy"; heavier for the heaviest? The changes in Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessed by the 15D instrument during pregnancy and postpartum in different body mass index groups: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahrakorpi, Niina; Koivusalo, Saila B; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G; Kautiainen, Hannu; Roine, Risto P

    2017-03-01

    Only little information is available on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its changes during the course of a normal pregnancy. We studied changes in HRQoL in a pregnant population during pregnancy and until 1 year postpartum in different body mass index (BMI) groups. Seven hundred and fifty pregnant women attending the first ultrasound examination before gestational week 14 were invited to participate in a longitudinal, communal-based survey. The participants were divided into three groups according to their BMI; <25, 25-29.9, and ≥30 kg/m(2) . The women were asked to fill in questionnaires assessing HRQoL (15D), depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale, EPDS), medical, obstetric and socioeconomic status at baseline. HRQoL and EPDS were re-assessed at 30 weeks of gestation, and 6 weeks, 3 and 12 months postpartum. Of the invited 750 mothers, 325 (43%) returned the questionnaires and at least one follow-up questionnaire. At baseline, mean 15D scores decreased with increasing BMI but the difference was not statistically significant when adjusted for age, educational attainment, parity or EPDS-scores (0.929, 0.921 and 0.916, p = 0.16). During the course of pregnancy, the HRQoL of all women decreased but this decrease was significantly greater in the obese group (-0.088; 95% CI -0.110 to -0.065) than in the other groups [-0.054 (95% CI -0.062 to -0.045) and -0.051 (95% CI -0.068 to -0.033), p = 0.019]. Within 3 months postpartum the mean HRQoL recovered in all BMI groups to baseline levels, irrespective of the mode of delivery or pregnancy-related complications. The burden of pregnancy is heavier for the heaviest. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  16. Mercury bioaccumulation in dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera): examination of life stages and body regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland-Nicks, Amy; Hillier, Kirk Neil; Avery, Trevor S; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2014-09-01

    Dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) are an important component of both aquatic and terrestrial food webs and are vectors for methylmercury (MeHg) biomagnification. Variations in mercury content with life stage and body regions may affect the relative transfer of mercury to aquatic or terrestrial food webs; however, there has been little research on this subject. Also, little is known about mercury bioaccumulation in different body regions of dragonflies. To address these knowledge gaps, dragonfly naiads, adults, and exuviae were collected at 2 lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and mercury concentrations in different life stages and body regions were quantified. Mean whole body concentrations of MeHg were substantial in naiads (232 ± 112 ng g(-1) dry wt, n = 66), emerging adults (236 ± 50 ng g(-1) dry wt, n = 10), and mature adults (231 ± 74 ng g(-1) dry wt, n = 20). Mean MeHg concentrations in exuviae (5.6 ± 4.3 ng g(-1), n = 32) were 40-fold lower than in naiads and adults. Emerging adults had 2-fold to 2.5-fold higher Hg(II) concentrations than naiads, mature adults, and exuviae. In body regions of both naiads and adults, some abdomens contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg(II) than heads or thoraces, and this trend was consistent across families. Across families, Aeshnidae had significantly higher concentrations of MeHg and total Hg than Gomphidae and Libellulidae, but not higher than Cordulidae. The Hg(II) concentrations were lower in Aeshnidae and Libellulidae than in Gomphidae and Cordulidae. Shedding of exuviae presents a possible mechanism for mercury detoxification, but mercury concentrations and burdens in exuviae are low in comparison with naiads and adults. Dragonfly adults retain a high potential for transferring substantial amounts of MeHg to their predators.

  17. Hg transfer from contaminated soils to plants and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Henriques, B.; Reis, A.T.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the transfer of mercury (Hg) from soil to crops is crucial due to Hg toxicity and Hg occurrence in terrestrial systems. Previous research has shown that available Hg in soils contributes to plant Hg levels. Plant Hg concentrations are related to soil conditions and plant characteristic

  18. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  19. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  20. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and MeHg in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from amphipod and worm prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Jessica; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2011-08-15

    Elevated metal levels in fish are a concern for the fish themselves, their predators, and possibly humans who consume contaminated seafood. Metal bioaccumulation models often rely on assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals and loss rate constants after dietary exposure (k(ef)s). These models can be used to better understand processes regulating metal accumulation and can be used to make site-specific predictions of metal concentrations in animal tissues. Fish often consume a varied diet, and prey choice can influence these two parameters. We investigated the trophic transfer of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and methylmercury (MeHg) from a benthic amphipod (Leptocheirus plumulosus) and an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) to killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) using gamma-emitting radioisotopes. Except for MeHg, AEs varied between prey type. AEs were highest for MeHg (92%) and lowest for Cd (2.9-4.5%) and Cr (0.2-4%). Hg(II) showed the largest AE difference between prey type (14% amphipods, 24% worms). For Cd and Hg(II) k(ef)s were higher after consuming amphipods than consuming worms. Tissue distribution data shows that Cd and Hg(II) were mainly associated with the intestine, whereas As and MeHg were transported throughout the body. Calculated trophic transfer factors (TTFs) suggest that MeHg is likely to biomagnify at this trophic step at all ingestion rates, whereas As, Cd, Cr, and Hg(II) will not. Data collected in this study and others indicate that using one prey item to calculate AE and k(ef) could lead to an over- or underestimation of these parameters.

  1. Worldwide burden of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaikrit Bhutani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a pandemic of major public health importance cannot be disputed. While the IDF data does emphasis the importance of diabetes as a global public health problem, it does not place in perspective the ranking of diabetes as compared to other diseases and illnesses. The GBD data highlight this fact in multiple ways. The disease and its complications or comorbid conditions rank high in the list of risk factors, and causes of death. This communication describes the global burden of diabetes especially south-east Asia and the statistical sequelae of the disease.

  2. Global burden of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, José Luis; Tan, Wan; Soriano, Joan B

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that the world population will reach a record 7.3 billion in 2015, and the high burden of chronic conditions associated with ageing and smoking will increase further. Respiratory diseases in general receive little attention and funding in comparison with other major causes of global morbidity and mortality. In particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and will remain a challenge for clinicians within the 21st century. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, since its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality create formidable challenges for health-care systems. This review emphasizes the magnitude of the COPD problem from a clinician's standpoint by drawing extensively from the new findings of the Global Burden of Disease study. Updated, distilled information on the population distribution of COPD is useful for the clinician to help provide an appreciation of the relative impact of COPD in daily practice compared with other chronic conditions, and to allocate minimum resources in anticipation of future needs in care. Despite recent trends in reduction of COPD standardized mortality rates and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in a number of Western countries, the overarching demographic impact of ageing in an ever-expanding world population, joined with other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution in Asia, will ensure that COPD will continue to pose an ever-increasing problem well into the 21st century.

  3. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness.

  4. Emission Spectra of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.

    2000-12-01

    A study of emission spectra of a gas-discharge plasma produced in a HgBr/HgCl excimer lamp, which is filled with multicomponent working mixtures at atmospheric pressure (HgBr2 and HgCl2 with additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon), are reported. A gas-discharge plasma was produced by high-frequency (pulses ˜100 ns long with a repetition rate of up to 2000 Hz) barrier and surface discharges, which took place simultaneously. Emission of HgBr* and HgCl* excimer molecules, the second positive system of molecular oxygen, and helium and xenon lines in the UV, visible, and IR spectral regions was observed. The strongest emission of HgBr* and HgCl* molecules (the emission intensities were in the ratio 10:1) was observed in the HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixture. Regularities in spectral and integrated characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  5. HgTe-CdTe SUPERLATTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D; Mcgill, T.

    1984-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of the electronic properties of HgTe-CdTe superlattices. The band gap as a function of layer thickness, effective masses normal to the layer plane and tunneling length are compared to the corresponding (Hg, Cd)Te alloys. We find that the superlattice possesses a number of properties that may make it superior to the corresponding alloy as an infrared material.

  6. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qun-feng; WANG Cheng-yun; WANG Da-hui; SUN Guan; XU Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed.

  7. 46 CFR 53.05-1 - Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG... requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401). (a) The pressure relief valve requirements and the safety valve requirements for steam boilers must be as indicated in HG-400 and HG-401 of section IV...

  8. Investigation of Hg uptake and transport between paddy soil and rice seeds combining Hg isotopic composition and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human consumption of rice constitutes a potential toxicological risk in mercury (Hg polluted areas such as Hg mining regions in China. It is recognized to be an important source of Hg for the local human diet considering the efficient bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg in rice seed. To assess Hg sources and uptake pathways to the rice plants, Hg speciation and isotopic composition were investigated in rice seeds and their corresponding paddy soils from different locations within the Wanshan Hg mining area (Guizhou Province, China. A large variation of Hg speciation is observed in rice seeds and paddy soils irrespective of the sampling location. Mass dependent fractionation (MDF of Hg in rice seeds differs by up to ∼4.0 ‰ in δ202Hg values, while mass independent fractionation (MIF of Hg isotopes remains constant (Δ199Hg ∼ 0‰. Hg isotopic composition in rice seeds covaries with that of paddy soils but exhibits lighter isotopic signature (δ202Hg. Such isotopic offset is mainly attributed to plant uptake and translocation processes. Also, seeds containing higher MeHg (MeHg/total Hg > 50% have significantly heavier Hg isotopes suggesting that MeHg uptake and transport to the seed in such rice plants is facilitated compared to inorganic Hg.

  9. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  10. Local probing of Hg neighboorhood in HgBa$_{2}$CuO$_{4+\\delta}$

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Loureiro, S M; Toulemonde, P; Le Floc'h, S; Bordet, P; Capponi, J J; Gatt, R; Tröger, W; Ctortecka, B; Butz, T; Haas, H; Marques, J G; Soares, J C

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients (EFG) on mercury sites of the Hg1201 high-TC superconductors were measured with the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique. In Hg1201 samples where PAC detects higher oxygen content the EFGs have decreased to lower values indicating an elongation of the Hg-apical oxygen dumb-bell. On the same samples the asymmetry parameter of the EFG becomes non-zero below 100 K, showing that the charge distribution near the Hg-apical oxygen chain becomes non-axially symmetric at low temperature.

  11. Complexation of Hg with phytochelatins is important for plant Hg tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Millán, Rocío; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Leduc, Danika L; Andrews, Joy C; Abadía, Javier; Hernández, Luís E

    2011-05-01

    Three-week-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and maize (Zea mays) were exposed for 7 d to 30 µm of mercury (HgCl(2) ) to characterize the Hg speciation in root, with no symptoms of being poisoned. The largest pool (99%) was associated with the particulate fraction, whereas the soluble fraction (SF) accounted for a minor proportion (phytochelatins (PCs) in root SF, which was particularly varied in alfalfa (eight ligands and five stoichiometries), a species that also accumulated homophytochelatins. Spatial localization of Hg in alfalfa roots by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy showed that most of the Hg co-localized with sulphur in the vascular cylinder. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fingerprint fitting revealed that Hg was bound in vivo to organic-S compounds, i.e. biomolecules containing cysteine. Albeit a minor proportion of total Hg, Hg-PCs complexes in the SF might be important for tolerance to Hg, as was found with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants cad2-1 (with low glutathione content) and cad1-3 (unable to synthesize PCs) in comparison with wild type plants. Interestingly, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight analysis showed that none of these mutants accumulated Hg-biothiol complexes.

  12. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Schoeller, M; Savanov, I; Arlt, R; Castelli, F; Curto, G Lo; Briquet, M; Dall, T H

    2012-01-01

    The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. We re-analyse available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD19400, using FORS2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We downloaded from the ESO archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudina...

  13. HgCdTe barrier infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, new strategies to achieve high-operating temperature (HOT) detectors have been proposed, including barrier structures such as nBn devices, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage (cascade) infrared detectors. The ability to tune the positions of the conduction and valence band edges independently in a broken-gap type-II superlattices is especially helpful in the design of unipolar barriers. This idea has been also implemented in HgCdTe ternary material system. However, the implementation of this detector structure in HgCdTe material system is not straightforward due to the existence of a valence band discontinuity (barrier) at the absorber-barrier interface. In this paper we present status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with emphasis on technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown HgCdTe barrier detectors achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. From the perspective of device fabrication their important technological advantage results from less stringent surface passivation requirements and tolerance to threading dislocations.

  14. In vitro studies evaluating leaching of mercury from mine waste calcine using simulated human body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Higueras, Pablo L.; Crock, James G.; Lowers, Heather A.; Witten, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) studies were carried out on samples of mercury (Hg) mine-waste calcine (roasted Hg ore) by leaching with simulated human body fluids. The objective was to estimate potential human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne calcine particulates and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing calcines. Mine waste calcines collected from Hg mines at Almadén, Spain, and Terlingua, Texas, contain Hg sulfide, elemental Hg, and soluble Hg compounds, which constitute primary ore or compounds formed during Hg retorting. Elevated leachate Hg concentrations were found during calcine leaching using a simulated gastric fluid (as much as 6200 μg of Hg leached/g sample). Elevated Hg concentrations were also found in calcine leachates using a simulated lung fluid (as much as 9200 μg of Hg leached/g), serum-based fluid (as much as 1600 μg of Hg leached/g), and water of pH 5 (as much as 880 μg of Hg leached/g). The leaching capacity of Hg is controlled by calcine mineralogy; thus, calcines containing soluble Hg compounds contain higher leachate Hg concentrations. Results indicate that ingestion or inhalation of Hg mine-waste calcine may lead to increased Hg concentrations in the human body, especially through the ingestion pathway.

  15. Complexation of Hg with phytochelatins is important for plant Hg tolerance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CARRASCO‐GIL, SANDRA; ÁLVAREZ‐FERNÁNDEZ, ANA; SOBRINO‐PLATA, JUAN; MILLÁN, ROCÍO; CARPENA‐RUIZ, RAMÓN O; LEDUC, DANIKA L; ANDREWS, JOY C; ABADÍA, JAVIER; HERNÁNDEZ, LUÍS E

    2011-01-01

    Three‐week‐old alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ), barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) and maize ( Zea mays ) were exposed for 7 d to 30  µ m of mercury (HgCl 2 ) to characterize the Hg speciation in root, with no symptoms of being poisoned...

  16. Temporal Characteristics of Emission of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.; Polyak, A. V.; Zubrilin, N. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2001-12-01

    Results of a study of temporal characteristics of the emission of gas-discharge plasma of atmospheric pressure in multicomponent mixtures (mercury dibromide and dichloride with helium and additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon) of working media of HgBr/HgCl excimer lamps are presented. Gas-discharge plasma was produced and components of the working mixture were excited by high-frequency barrier and surface discharges occurring simultaneously. The repetition rate of the pumping pulse and its duration are 1000 Hz and ˜100 ns, respectively. It is found that the amplitude and the length of emission pulses and their trailing edge are modified in HgBr2: HgCl2: Xe: He and HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixtures when xenon and molecular nitrogen are added, as compared to a HgBr2: HgCl2: He mixture. Regularities observed in temporal characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  17. Ground-state potential energy curves of LiHg, NaHg, and KHg revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Linda; Hotop, Hartmut; Meyer, Wilfried

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of large-scale CCSD(T) calculations on the potential energy curves for the ground states of LiHg, NaHg, and KHg. In these calculations, the Hg20+ core is simulated by a pseudopotential which has been adjusted to reproduce experimental excitation and ionization energies of the Hg atom at the coupled-cluster level. Moreover, we apply a weighted multiproperty fitting procedure to determine reliable potentials for LiHg, NaHg, and KHg which reproduce the available experimental results. In the case of LiHg, this best-fit potential is based solely on experimental data and its agreement with our calculated potential supports our computational procedure. For NaHg and KHg the experimental data had to be complemented by theoretical results in order to fix a best-fit potential. Our potentials and those proposed previously are evaluated by comparing calculated scattering cross sections and vibrational energy levels with the available experimental data.

  18. Quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The nucleus {sup 192}Hg plays a pivotal role for superdeformation in the mass 190 region, since calculations of single-particle levels show large shell-gaps for the superdeformed (SD) shape at N = 112 and Z = 80. As a result, {sup 192}Hg is referred to as the doubly magic SD nucleus for the A = 190 region. In previous studies, only one superdeformed band was observed in this nucleus, and this fact was cited as indirect evidence that large shell gaps do indeed exist at the proposed particle numbers.

  19. Electric field gradients in Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved by compar......We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved...

  20. Lattice dynamical properties of MnTe, HgTe and their mixed semiconductor MnHg1−Te

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Kushwaha

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, the phonon dispersion relations, phonon density of states and Debye characteristics of mixed semiconductor MnHg1−Te and the end members MnTe and HgTe using three-body shell model were studied. The model involves 11 disposable parameters and incorporates the effect of the short-range repulsive interactions up to and including the second nearest neighbours, in addition to the long-range Coulombic interactions in the framework of the rigid-shell model with both the ions polarizable. The comparisons of the theoretical results with the available experimental results were in good agreement.

  1. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  2. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  3. MBE Growth and Characterization of Hg Based Compounds and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-03

    The molecular beam epitaxy ( MBE ) growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride (Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te) alloys and type III HgTe/Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te heterostructures has...been discussed, including similarities and differences between the (0 0 1) and (1 1 2)Beta orientations. Furthermore, the MBE growth of HgTe-based

  4. Phenylselenolate Mercury Alkyl Compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt: Molecular Structures, Protolytic Hg-C Bond Cleavage and Phenylselenolate Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Quinlivan, Patrick J; Rong, Yi; Parkin, Gerard

    2016-01-08

    The phenylselenolate mercury alkyl compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt, have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, thereby demonstrating that both compounds are monomeric with approximately linear coordination geometries; the mercury centers do, nevertheless, exhibit secondary Hg•••Se intermolecular interactions that serve to increase the coordination number in the solid state. The ethyl derivative, PhSeHgEt, undergoes facile protolytic cleavage of the Hg-C bond to release ethane at room temperature, whereas PhSeHgMe exhibits little reactivity under similar conditions. Interestingly, the cleavage of the Hg-C bond of PhSeHgEt is also more facile than that of the thiolate analogue, PhSHgEt, which demonstrates that coordination by selenium promotes protolytic cleavage of the mercury-carbon bond. The phenylselenolate compounds PhSeHgR (R = Me, Et) also undergo degenerate exchange reactions with, for example, PhSHgR and RHgCl. In each case, the alkyl groups preserve coupling to the (199)Hg nuclei, thereby indicating that the exchange process involves metathesis of the Hg-SePh/Hg-X groups rather than metathesis of the Hg-R/Hg-R groups.

  5. The application of 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy to define the biological chemistry of HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranzo, Olga; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Ryu, Seung-baek;

    2007-01-01

    H values and at peptide/HgII ratios of 3:1 with an unusual trigonal thiolate coordination mode. The resulting HgII complexes are good water-soluble models for HgII binding to the protein MerR. We have carried out a parallel study using 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy...... to characterize the distinct species that are generated under different pH conditions and peptide TRI L9C/HgII ratios. These studies prove for the first time the formation of [Hg{(TRI L9C)2-(TRI L9C H)}], a dithiolate-HgII complex in the hydrophobic interior of the three-stranded coiled coil (TRI L9C)3. 199Hg NMR...... and 199mHg PAC data demonstrate that this dithiolate-HgII complex is different from the dithiolate [Hg(TRI L9C)2], and that the presence of third -helix, containing a protonated cysteine, breaks the symmetry of the coordination environment present in the complex [Hg(TRI L9C)2]. As the pH is raised...

  6. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; Gonzalez, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have fai...

  7. Hg-contaminated terrestrial spiders pose a potential risk to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Gretchen L; Powell, Cleveland H; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that can have adverse effects on wildlife. Because MeHg is produced by bacteria in aquatic ecosystems, studies of MeHg contamination of food webs historically have focused on aquatic organisms. However, recent studies have shown that terrestrial organisms such as songbirds can be contaminated with MeHg by feeding on MeHg-contaminated spiders. In the present study, the authors examined the risk that MeHg-contaminated terrestrial long-jawed orb weaver spiders (Tetragnatha sp.) pose to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA). Methylmercury concentrations in spiders were significantly different in river, wetland, and open-water habitats. The authors calculated spider-based wildlife values (the minimum spider MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) to assess exposure risks for arachnivorous birds. Methylmercury concentrations in spiders exceeded wildlife values for Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) nestlings, with the highest risk in the river habitat. The present study indicates that MeHg concentrations in terrestrial spiders vary with habitat and can pose a threat to small-bodied nestling birds that consume large amounts of spiders at Caddo Lake. This MeHg threat to songbirds may not be unique to Caddo Lake and may extend throughout the southeastern United States. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. Caregiver burden in dependent elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauricio Ocampo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the frequency and the associated factors with the presence of care burden imposed by dependent elderly of Buenaventura, Valle; Colombia. Design: A pilot cross-sectional study. Patients and methods: Between March and May of 2006, data were collected on 35 over 60 years old patients who live in the community of Buenaventura, with a score in the Barthel index Results: The mean age and the standard deviation of the patient group was 78.9±10 years. There was a larger proportion of women (68.5%. In the care givers, the regular age and the standard deviation was 49.4±18.8 years, where 91% were women. It was found that for 54.2% of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 40% of them had a minimum burden and the others a greater burden. Bivariate analysis between the care giver’s burden and the number of chronic disease, the score on the minimental test, elderly depression and the family APGAR, resulted in statistic association (p Conclusions: There is an association between aged people, dependent in basic common day activities related with physical aspects, and care giver’s burden. Being the caregivers mostly family members, further studies must be focused on identifying and realizing interventions to prevent or limit the decrease of declining mental health and loss of life quality and the consequent increase of the care giver’s burden.

  9. Burden in the main caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Yonte Huete

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective is to determine the degree of burden in the main caregivers of dependent patients, to analyse the profile of informal caregivers and dependent patients. Their claims and help received with caring, the influence of mental deteriorate and duration of care giving regarding the burden of caregivers.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study amongst 50 caregivers and dependents. We used descriptive statistics and correlational studies. Results: 86 % of caregivers were women, middle aged, son/daughter of the dependent, married, with basic studies, no work outside the home, the average time in the role of caregiver was 16,96 hours a day and 2,1 free hours a day. 64 % of them received family support and 68 % wish to receive economic aid. It was found that for 38 % of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 34 % of them had a minimum burden and 28 % a greater burden.Conclusion: There are some caregivers with moderate or great burden. Our caregiver wishes to receive economic help. Our research shows that the decrease of mental health and the years of evolution do not have a significant statistically influence on caregivers. It is necessary prioritize the interventions and its recipients, provide solutions for caregivers with a greater burden, trying to keep away “caregiver syndrome”.

  10. The influence of Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5 on the absorption and excretion of methylmercury (MeHg) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Takuya; Yasutake, Akira; Kumamoto, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Isao; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Ando, Yotaro

    2010-02-01

    Chlorella (Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5), previously identified as Chlorella vulgaris CK-5, is a unicellular green algae that has for many years been used as a nutritional supplement. In order to investigate the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) detoxification by Chlorella, we examined the absorption and excretion of MeHg in mice. Female C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into three groups of five, and were housed in metabolism cages. Mice were orally administered MeHg chloride at doses of 5 mg (4 mg Hg)/kg body weight with or without 100 mg/mouse of P. beyerinckii powder (BP), and were assigned to either a MeHg group or MeHg + BP group, accordingly. Twenty-four hr after oral administration, feces and urine were collected, and blood, liver, and kidney samples were obtained. Total mercury contents in the samples obtained were determined using an atomic absorption method. The amounts of Hg excreted in feces and urine of the MeHg + BP group were increased nearly 1.9 and 2.2-fold compared with those of the MeHg group. On the other hand, blood and organ Hg levels were not significantly different between two groups. These results suggest that the intake of BP may induce the excretion of Hg both in feces and urine, although it does not affect MeHg absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of BP on the tissue mercury accumulation may become evident in a long-term experiment.

  11. Relationship Between Soil Properties and Different Fractions of Soil Hg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis methods were used to study the relationship between soil properties and the distribution of different soil Hg fractions with nine representative soils from Chongqing, China. Results showed that clay (< 2 m) could increase water-soluble Hg (r = 0.700*). Soil organic matter (OM) could enhance the increase of elemental Hg (r = 0.674*). The higher the base saturation percentage (BSP), the more the residual Hg (r = 0.684*). Organic Hg, the sum of acid-soluble organic Hg. and alkali-soluble Hg, was positively affected by silt (2~20μm) but negatively affected by pH, with the direct path coefficients amounting to 1.0487 and 0.5121, respectively. The positive effect of OM and negative effect of BSP on organic Hg were the most significant, with the direct path coefficients being 0.7614 and -0.8527, respectively. The indirect effect of clay (< 2 μm) via BSP (path coefficient = 0.4186) was the highest, showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay (< 2 μm) on acid-soluble organic Hg was BSP. Since the available Hg fraction, water-soluble Hg, was positively affected by soil clay content, and the quite immobile and not bioavailable residual Hg by soil BSP, suitable reduction of clay content and increase of BSP would be of much help to reduce the Hg availability and Hg activity in Hg-contaminated soils.

  12. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  13. Optimisation of a high-resolution whole-body MR angiography protocol with parallel imaging and biphasic administration of a single bolus of Gd-BOPTA: preliminary experience in the systemic evaluation of atherosclerotic burden in patients referred for endovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, A; Anzidei, M; Marincola, B Cavallo; Zaccagna, F; Geiger, D; Di Paolo, P L; Zini, C; Catalano, C; Passariello, R

    2009-06-01

    This study was performed to validate a high-resolution whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) protocol with parallel imaging and biphasic administration of a single bolus of contrast agent in the preliminary assessment of systemic atherosclerotic burden in patients referred for endovascular procedures. Forty patients referred for endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic disease of the carotid arteries (n=23), peripheral vessels (n=14) or aorta (n=3) on the basis of previous clinical and diagnostic examinations underwent high-resolution whole-body MRA at 1.5 T with 3D spoiled gradient recalled echo (GRE) sequences, featuring parallel imaging acquisition technique with x2 acceleration factor. Sixty-eight surface coil elements and a four-station imaging protocol were employed. Biphasic intravenous administration of a paramagnetic contrast agent [gadolinium benzyloxyproprionic-tetraacetic acid (Gd-BOPTA)] was performed with the following protocol: 10 ml at a speed of 1 ml/s followed by further 10 ml at a speed of 0.5 ml/s. For image analysis, the arterial system was divided into 42 segments for evaluation. The presence or absence of atherosclerotic lesions was evaluated by two observers in consensus; segments were classified as having clinically significant disease (>or=50% stenosis or an aneurysmal dilatation) or no significant disease (<50% stenosis). The presence of stenoocclusive disease, determined at all segments, was compared with findings on digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which were interpreted by a third independent reader. Sensitivity, specificity and concordance of whole-body MRA findings with DSA were calculated, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed for all vascular territories. A total of 1,680 arterial segments was evaluated; 138 (8.3%) were affected by atherosclerotic alterations. Carotid lesions were confirmed in 23 patients (34 segments), involvement of peripheral vessels in 14 (57 segments) and abdominal

  14. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  15. Socioeconomic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    who were working or in school (n = 120), 72 provided work/school absenteeism data, resulting in an estimated 20 days missing from work/school on average per year; 51% (n = 84) indicated that HAE has hindered their career/educational advancement. CONCLUSION: HAE poses a considerable burden on patients...... and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks....

  16. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J. [Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing, Department of Chemical Engineering, 230 Ross Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90{sup o}C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8mol kg{sub H{sub 2}O}{sup -1}. The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25{sup o}C and 1atm are 0.1634V for 0.100m, 0.1077V for 1.00m, and 0.0976V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0wt.% NaOH at 80{sup o}C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75{sup o}C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations. (author)

  17. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90 °C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8 mol k gH2O-1 . The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25 °C and 1 atm are 0.1634 V for 0.100m, 0.1077 V for 1.00m, and 0.0976 V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751 V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916 V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0 wt.% NaOH at 80 °C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75 °C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations.

  18. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapanje, A. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)], E-mail: ales.lapanje@bf.uni-lj.si; Drobne, D. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nolde, N. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Department of Environmental Sciences, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Valant, J. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muscet, B. [Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Leser, V. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, M. [Institute of Public Health, Prvomajska 1, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Slomskov trg 15, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 {mu}g Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant.

  19. The burden of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alistair

    2000-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) imposes a severe burden upon patients and their carers. In particular, family carers of AD patients face extreme hardship and distress that represents a major but often hidden burden on healthcare systems. Carers often experience clinically significant alterations in physical and mental health, particularly depression. A number of individual features of the dementia syndrome that are known to be particularly burdensome to carers include the degree of cognitive impairment, amount of help required with activities of daily living, personality changes and the presence of psychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances. The neuropsychiatric features of AD patients can adversely impact the relationship between the patient and caregiver generating feelings of strain, burden and social isolation. Individual characteristics of the caregiver including personality, gender, degree of formal and informal support and physical and mental health, as well as attributional style ('coping style') and expressed emotion (critical or hostile attitudes), also dictate carer burden. As informal caregivers play such a crucial role in the care of AD patients, appropriate management strategies that incorporate interventions which address the specific burdens of the individual caregiver are essential. Reducing the burden of care can be achieved by the combination of a number of individual and general measures, including education, respite and emotion-focused interventions. These measures, accompanied by non-pharmacological strategies, are extremely important in the total care of the AD patient, with the emphasis on maintaining people in the community as long as possible.

  20. MBE HgCdTe heterostructure detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Joel N.; Wu, Owen K.

    1990-01-01

    HgCdTe has been the mainstay for medium (3 to 5 micron) and long (10 to 14 micron) wavelength infrared detectors in recent years. Conventional growth and processing techniques are continuing to improve the material. However, the additional ability to tailor composition and placement of doped layers on the tens of angstroms scale using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) provides the opportunity for new device physics and concepts to be utilized. MBE-based device structures to be discussed here can be grouped into two categories: tailored conventional structures and quantum structures. The tailored conventional structures are improvements on familiar devices, but make use of the ability to create layers of varying composition, and thus band gap, at will. The heterostructure junction can be positioned independently of doping p-n junctions. This allows the small band gap region in which the absorption occurs to be separated from a larger band gap region in which the electric field is large and where unwanted tunneling can occur. Data from hybrid MBE/liquid phase epitaxy (LPE)/bulk structures are given. Quantum structures include the HgTe-CdTe superlattice, in which the band gap and transport can be controlled by alternating thin layers (tens of angstroms thick) of HgTe and CdTe. The superlattice has been shown to exhibit behavior which is non-alloy like, including very high hole mobilities, two-dimensional structure in the absorption coefficient, resonant tunneling, and anisotropic transport.

  1. Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (Sb (Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 μg/L for As and 5.6 μg/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052–0.56 μg/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 μg/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 μg/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 μg/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

  2. Hg Vetical Transference in Soil—Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOYIJUN; MOUSUSEN; 等

    1998-01-01

    Hg vertial transference in soil-water system was studied by analyzing Hg vertical ditribution in soil column after adding Hg and one of the two leacheates,deionzied water or acid rain,into soil column.The results indicated that Hg was hardly transferable in puple soil.About 86%-88% of the total soil Hg was distributed in the top layer (0-2cm) and to Hg was detected in the leakage when the purple soil column was leached by deionized water and simulated acid rain.But Hg was more movalbe in yellow soil with only about 20%-22% of the total soil Hg distributed in the top layer (0-2cm),and about 17%-25% washed out from the soil column by deionized water and simulted acid rain,Incremant in soil bulk density colud reduce Hg leaching,thus the more the Hg kept in soil,the less the Hg leached into underground water,Deionized water and acid rain almost played the same role in leaching Hg.Bentioint was most effecient in preventing Hg from vertcal transferring in the soil coulumn.

  3. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...... audits to be a net burden. Furthermore, based on DeAngelo's (1981) initial audit pricing model and legislators' claim that joint audits are an unnecessary economic burden to the companies we predict and find discounts (of around 25%) in audit fees in companies that change to single audits. The primary...

  4. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons.

  5. Process of [sup 196]Hg enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Mellor, C.E.

    1993-04-27

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of [sup 196]Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  6. Process of .sup.196 Hg enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Mellor, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of .sup.196 Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  7. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  8. Of Variability, or its Absence, in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2003-01-01

    Current models and observations of variability in HgMn stars disagree. We present here the models that argue for pulsating HgMn stars with properties similar to those of Slowly Pulsating B Stars. The lack of observed variable HgMn stars suggests that some physical process is missing from the models. Some possibilities are discussed.

  9. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Karin Dam; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    ; there was little or no evidence of increasing or decreasing cost trends. Increased awareness of the detrimental effects of AR and/or AA on patients' HRQL and its considerable cost burden might encourage early diagnosis and treatment, in order to minimize the disease burden and ensure beneficial and cost-effective...... the disease-specific rhinitis quality of life questionnaire or generic instruments (SF-36 and SF-12). Summary estimates obtained by meta-analysis showed that HRQL in patients with perennial HDM allergy was significantly worse than that of patients with seasonal pollen allergy, when measured by both disease...

  10. Indigenous identity: burden or liberation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people, or is it a prom......With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people...

  11. Anti-aggregation-based spectrometric detection of Hg(II) at physiological pH using gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeshwari, A.; Karthiga, D.; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com

    2016-10-01

    An efficient detection method for Hg (II) ions at physiological pH (pH 7.4) was developed using tween 20-modified gold nanorods (NRs) in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). Thiol groups (-SH) at the end of DTT have a higher affinity towards gold atoms, and they can covalently interact with gold NRs and leads to their aggregation. The addition of Hg(II) ions prevents the aggregation of gold NRs due to the covalent bond formation between the -SH group of DTT and Hg(II) ions in the buffer system. The changes in the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of gold NRs were characterized using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The absorption intensity peak of gold NRs at 679 nm was observed to reduce after interaction with DTT, and the absorption intensity was noted to increase by increasing the concentration of Hg(II) ions. The TEM analysis confirms the morphological changes of gold NRs before and after addition of Hg(II) ions in the presence of DTT. Further, the aggregation and disaggregation of gold NRs were confirmed by particle size and zeta potential analysis. The developed method shows an excellent linearity (y = 0.001 x + 0.794) for the graph plotted between the absorption ratio and Hg(II) concentration (1 to 100 pM) under the optimized conditions. The limit of detection was noted to be 0.42 pM in the buffer system. The developed method was tested in simulated body fluid, and it was found to have a good recovery rate. - Highlights: • Tween-20 modified gold NRs used as a probe for Hg(II) at physiological pH. • TEM, particle size and surface charge analysis confirm the aggregation and • disaggregation of NRs • The sensitivity of the probe for Hg(II) ions detection was 0.42 pM. • Hg(II) estimation in simulated body fluids with good recovery.

  12. HgZnTe-based detectors for LWIR NASA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elizabeth A.; Kalisher, Murray H.

    1990-01-01

    The initial goal was to grow and characterize HgZnTe and determine if it indeed had the advantageous properties that were predicted. Researchers grew both bulk and liquid phase epitaxial HgZnTe. It was determined that HgZnTe had the following properties: (1) microhardness at least 50 percent greater than HgCdTe of equivalent bandgap; (2) Hg annealing rates of at least 2 to 4 times longer than HgCdTe; and (3) higher Hg vacancy formation energies. This early work did not focus on one specific composition (x-value) of HgZnTe since NASA was interested in HgZnTe's potential for a variety of applications. Since the beginning of 1989, researchers have been concentrating, however, on the liquid phase growth of very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) HgZnTe (cutoff approx. equals 17 microns at 65K) to address the requirements of the Earth Observing System (EOS). Since there are no device models to predict the advantages in reliability one can gain with increased microhardness, surface stability, etc., one must fabricate HgZnTe detectors and assess their relative bake stability (accelerated life test behavior) compared with HgCdTe devices fabricated in the same manner. Researchers chose to fabricate HIT detectors as a development vehicle for this program because high performance in the VLWIR has been demonstrated with HgCdTe HIT detectors and the HgCdTe HIT process should be applicable to HgZnTe. HIT detectors have a significant advantage for satellite applications since these devices dissipate much less power than conventional photoconductors to achieve the same responsivity.

  13. Fully relativistic coupled cluster and DFT study of electric field gradients at Hg in 199Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the magnitude and interplay of relativistic and electron correlation effects on the electric field gradient (EFG) at the position of Hg in linear and bent HgL2 (L=CH3, Cl, Br, I) and trigonal planar [HgCl3]- complexes using four-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) and non...

  14. The Chevrel phase HgMo6S8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Potel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of HgMo6S8, mercury(II hexamolybdenum octasulfide, is based on (Mo6S8S6 cluster units (overline{3} symmetry interconnected through interunit Mo—S bonds. The Hg2+ cations occupy large voids between the different cluster units and are covalently bonded to two S atoms. The Hg atoms and one S atom lie on sites with crystallographic overline{3} and 3 symmetry, respectively. Refinement of the occupancy factor of the Hg atom led to the composition Hg0.973 (3Mo6S8.

  15. Comparison of mercury burdens in chronically debilitated and healthy loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Rusty D; Keller, Jennifer M; Harms, Craig A; Segars, Al L; Cluse, Wendy M; Godfrey, Matthew H; Lee, A Michelle; Peden-Adams, Margie; Thorvalson, Kelly; Dodd, Mark; Norton, Terry

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the incidence of debilitated loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) strandings in the southeastern United States has been observed in recent years. These turtles are characterized by emaciation and heavy burdens of external and internal parasites, and bacterial infections, but the underlying cause of their condition is unknown. To investigate further the causes of these strandings, a health assessment was performed on stranded, debilitated loggerhead turtles, and contaminant concentrations in various tissues were compared to those from healthy turtles. This portion of the study investigated the potential role of mercury (Hg) toxicity in the debilitated condition described above. Hematocrit, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, calcium, lymphocyte counts, heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, sodium, and chloride were altered in debilitated loggerheads relative to healthy animals. However, none of the aforementioned health indicators correlated with Hg concentrations in either red blood cells (RBCs) or plasma. The Hg concentration in RBCs was 129+/-72 (mean+/-standard deviation) times higher than in plasma, causing a significant dilution of Hg in whole blood due to extreme anemia. Mercury concentrations in RBCs (73.7+/-21.2 ng/g) and scutes (455+/-57 ng/g) from debilitated turtles were similar to or lower than those reported for healthy animals, indicating no elevation in Hg exposure before and during the progression of this condition. These findings suggest that Hg toxicity does not play a role in the debilitated loggerhead condition observed in the southeastern United States.

  16. Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

  17. Mass Independent Fractionation of Hg Isotopes Preserved in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, A. M.; Bergquist, B. A.; Kah, L. C.; Ono, S.; Ghosh, S.; Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a photochemically active, redox-sensitive, chalcophilic metal with complex biogeochemistry that displays a wide range of mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent (MIF) stable isotopic fractionation. In the past decade, Hg isotopes have emerged as important tracers of both the sources and cycling of Hg in the modern environment. However, their utility as environmental proxies in ancient rocks remains largely unexplored. The potential of Hg isotopes to inform Precambrian environments derives from the observation that Hg isotopes with odd atomic mass numbers (199Hg and 201Hg) undergo large MIF by the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) and smaller MIF through the nuclear volume effect (NVE). Small MIF produced via NVE has been observed for numerous transformations and is characterized by MIF ratios (Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg) of about 1.6. Large Hg-MIF driven by MIE has been observed during photochemical transformations and is characterized by Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratios between 1 and 1.3. This MIF signal is sensitive to a range of environmental conditions, including the amount and type of solar radiation, the presence and type of complexing organic ligands, and the Hg/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ratio. Thus, it is hoped that Hg-MIF signals may indirectly record changes in atmospheric composition or seawater chemistry if preserved in marine sedimentary records. Previous work has clearly demonstrated that Hg-MIF signals are preserved in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine shales and massive sulfide deposits. Here, we present evidence that such signals are also preserved in marine shales of mid-Proterozoic age, including the ~1.3 Ga Sulky formation (Dismal Lakes Group, NW Arctic), the ~1.45 Ga Greyson Shale (Belt Basin, Montana), and the ~1.5 Ga Katalsy formation (Kypry Group, Eastern European Platform). We observe that the Greyson shale and shales within the Sulky formation yield negative Hg-MIF with Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratios close to 1 and that Kaltasy group sediments

  18. Superdeformation studies in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformation in the A {approximately} 190 region was first observed in {sup 191}Hg from an experiment performed at ATLAS using the Argonne Notre Dame {gamma}-ray facility. We recently revisited the study of superdeformation in this nucleus using Gammasphere and the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n) and {sup 174}Yb({sup 22}Ne,5n) reactions at 172 and 120 MeV in order to populate and measure states in the second well. The goal of the experiment was to identify new bands in the data, and thus allow us to gain understanding on the relative placement of single particle orbitals near the N = 112 SD shell gap. From an analysis of the data, the three previously identified SD bands were extended, and their feeding into the yrast states delineated. Two new SD bands were observed and preliminary evidence for a third new band was obtained as well.

  19. Relationship Between Soil Properties and Different Fractions of Soil Hg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUHONGTAO; YUGUIFEN; 等

    2001-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis methods were used to study the relationship between soil properties and the distribution of different soil Hg fractions with nine representative soils from Chongqing,China,Results showed that clay(<2m) could increase water-soluble Hg(r=0.700*).Soil organic matter (OM) could enhance the increase of elemental Hg(r=0.674*),The higher the base saturation percentage (BSP) ,the more the residual Hg(R=0.684*) .Organic Hg,the sum of said-soluble organic He and alkali-soluble Hg,was positively affected by silt(2-20μm)but negatively affected by pH,with the direct path coefficients amounting to 1.0487 and 0.5121,respectively .The positive effect of OM and negative effect of BSP on organic Hg were the most significant ,with the direct path coefficients being 0.7614 and -0.8527,respectively. The indirect effect of clay(<2μm) iva BSP (path coefficient=0.4186) was the highest,showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay(<2μm) via BSP (path coefficient=0.4186) was the highest,showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay(<2μm) on acid-soluble organic Hw was BSP.since the available Hg fraction,water-soluble Hg,was positively affected by soil clay content,and the quite immobile and not bioavailable residual Hg by soil BSP,suitable reduction of clay content and increase of BSP would be of much help to reduce the Hg availability and Hg activity in Hg-contaminated soils.

  20. The Burden of Musculoskeletal Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Clémence Palazzo; Jean-François Ravaud; Agathe Papelard; Philippe Ravaud; Serge Poiraudeau

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the burden of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs), these conditions probably deserve more attention from public health authorities in several countries including developed ones. We assessed their contribution to disability. METHODS: Data on disabilities associated with RMDs were extracted from the national 2008-2009 Disability-Health Survey of 29,931 subjects representative of the population in France. We used the core set of disability categories for RMDs of the ...

  1. Burden of Osteoporosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Abolhassani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. In addition to morbidity, osteoporotic fractures also increase mortality risk in affected patients. Enough evidence is not available to indicate that, like western countries, osteoporosis is a public health problem in Iran. Therefore EMRC planned to estimate the burden of osteoporotic fractures in year 2001 based on existing sources of data. The EMRC study on bone density, the MOH study on unintentional injuries, and international literature on mortality risk following osteoporotic fractures were the main sources of information used for this study. To estimate burden of osteoporotic fractures, the prevalence of osteoporosis, the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, and the relative risk of mortality following these fractures were approximated. The mean duration of disability following major osteoporotic fractures was estimated through epidemiologic modeling. Assumptions on the disability weights of morbid conditions resulting from osteoporotic fractures were made through comparing these conditions with similar ones in Global Burden of Disease Study. Based on mortality and incidence rates, mean durations of disability, and disability weights; the DALYs indicator was calculated for Spine, Hip, and Forearm fractures. In women hip, spine, and forearm fractures were responsible for 15880, 1269, and 121 mortality- and morbidity-related lost years of life respectively. Similar figures in men were 16495, 2225, and 37 years. Collectively osteoporosis deprived Iranian population from 36026 healthy years of life (18757 in men and 17270 in women in 2001. Higher burden of osteoporosis in men, mainly results from higher risk of mortality following fractures in male sex. The national study on unintentional injuries indicates that the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Iranian population is much less than other populations. Higher bone mineral density and other probable differences between Iranians

  2. Overlooking Informal Dementia Caregivers' Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Oliver; Klotsche, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) need early caregiver support. Caregivers often have poor health, but usually do not have time to seek medical advice for their own conditions. Patients' physicians, who are frequently the sole medical practitioner caregivers contact regularly, have an important function in recognizing family caregivers' burdens. The current study investigated to what extent medical practitioners recognized family caregivers' problems. In a two-staged survey in neurology outpatient care, caregivers of patients with mild or moderate AD were enrolled and assessed by physicians regarding their physical and mental burden, as well as need for help and advice about AD. Subsequently, caregivers' mental health was evaluated in a comprehensive diagnostic interview by blinded psychologists. Overall, 73.7% of caregivers had at least one somatic condition and 43.7% had clinically relevant depressive symptoms (of these, 37.5% met criteria for major depression). The findings suggest that the burden of a substantial proportion of affected family caregivers is overlooked. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(4):167-174.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Thiazole derivative-modified upconversion nanoparticles for Hg2+ detection in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Xiaowang; Zhang, Yuhai; Marks, Robert; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Qichun

    2015-12-01

    Mercury ion (Hg2+) is an extremely toxic ion, which will accumulate in human bodies and cause severe nervous system damage. Therefore, the sensitive and efficient monitoring of Hg2+ in human bodies is of great importance. Upconversion nanoparticle (UCNPs) based nano probes exhibit no autofluorescence, deep penetration depth and chemical stability in biological samples, as well as a large anti-stokes shift. In this study, we have developed thiazole-derivative-functionalized UCNPs, and employed an upconversion emission intensity ratio of 540 nm to 803 nm (I540/I803) as a ratiometric signal to detect Hg2+ in living cells showing excellent photo stability and high selectivity. Our nano probe was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The low cytotoxicity of our probe was confirmed by an MTT assay and the UCL test in HeLa cells was carried out by confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrated that organic-dye-functionalized UCNPs should be a good strategy for detecting toxic metal ions when studying cellular biosystems.Mercury ion (Hg2+) is an extremely toxic ion, which will accumulate in human bodies and cause severe nervous system damage. Therefore, the sensitive and efficient monitoring of Hg2+ in human bodies is of great importance. Upconversion nanoparticle (UCNPs) based nano probes exhibit no autofluorescence, deep penetration depth and chemical stability in biological samples, as well as a large anti-stokes shift. In this study, we have developed thiazole-derivative-functionalized UCNPs, and employed an upconversion emission intensity ratio of 540 nm to 803 nm (I540/I803) as a ratiometric signal to detect Hg2+ in living cells showing excellent photo stability and high selectivity. Our nano probe was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The low cytotoxicity of our probe was confirmed by an MTT assay and the UCL test in HeLa cells was carried out by

  4. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Marcelo, E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rocha, Joao B.T., E-mail: jbtrocha@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  5. Modeling interactions of Hg(II) and bauxitic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Rohan; Tobschall, Heinz J; Bandara, Atula

    2007-11-01

    The adsorptive interactions of Hg(II) with gibbsite-rich soils (hereafter SOIL-g) were modeled by 1-pK surface complexation theory using charge distribution multi-site ion competition model (CD MUSIC) incorporating basic Stern layer model (BSM) to account for electrostatic effects. The model calibrations were performed for the experimental data of synthetic gibbsite-Hg(II) adsorption. When [NaNO(3)] > or = 0.01M, the Hg(II) adsorption density values, of gibbsite, Gamma(Hg(II)), showed a negligible variation with ionic strength. However, Gamma(Hg(II)) values show a marked variation with the [Cl(-)]. When [Cl(-)] > or = 0.01M, the Gamma(Hg(II)) values showed a significant reduction with the pH. The Hg(II) adsorption behavior in NaNO(3) was modeled assuming homogeneous solid surface. The introduction of high affinity sites, i.e., >Al(s)OH at a low concentration (typically about 0.045 sites nm(-2)) is required to model Hg(II) adsorption in NaCl. According to IR spectroscopic data, the bauxitic soil (SOIL-g) is characterized by gibbsite and bayerite. These mineral phases were not treated discretely in modeling of Hg(II) and soil interactions. The CD MUSIC/BSM model combination can be used to model Hg(II) adsorption on bauxitic soil. The role of organic matter seems to play a role on Hg(II) binding when pH>8. The Hg(II) adsorption in the presence of excess Cl(-) ions required the selection of high affinity sites in modeling.

  6. Lithography process for patterning HgI2 photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark J.; James, Ralph B.; Hermon, Haim

    2004-11-23

    A photolithographic process forms patterns on HgI.sub.2 surfaces and defines metal sublimation masks and electrodes to substantially improve device performance by increasing the realizable design space. Techniques for smoothing HgI.sub.2 surfaces and for producing trenches in HgI.sub.2 are provided. A sublimation process is described which produces etched-trench devices with enhanced electron-transport-only behavior.

  7. Epitaxial growth of HgTe by a MOVPE process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, S.J.C.; Mullin, J.B.; Royle, A. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (UK))

    1982-03-01

    Epitaxial layers of HgTe have been grown onto insulating CdTe substrates by the pyrolysis of (C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/Te in the presence of Hg vapour using a H/sub 2/ flow system. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and conductivity measurements have shown that the electrical properties of the layers are comparable with good quality bulk HgTe.

  8. Optimizing the protection against the physiological burden of CBRN clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers can wear chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing to be protected against warfare agents. The disadvantage of that clothing is that higher protection introduces higher physiological burden. Therefore an optimum between comfort and protection must be found. Models of all relevant processes were created to find this optimum. The airflow profile around a cylinder with clothing-representing a dressed human body part-was modelled. This flow profile was used for calculating the agent vapour breakthrough through the clothing and for calculating the deposition of agents onto the skin (as indicators for protection). The flow profile was also used for calculating the temperature profile around the body part and the relative humidity underneath and in the clothing (as representative for physiological burden). As a result a tool was created, which can be used to identify the optimum properties of CBRN protective clothing, depending on the intended mission of the soldiers.

  9. Investigating the burden of parasitic zoonotic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Although the global burden for most parasitic zoonoses is not yet known, it is clear that collectively parasitic zoonoses have a similar human disease burden to any one of the big three human infectious diseases: malaria, tuberculosis or HIV. In addition many also have a substantial animal health and economic burden.

  10. Experiments with a New 201Hg+ Ion Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, E. A.; Taghavi-Larigani, S.; Lea, S. N.; Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we describe a new clock based on 201Hg+. All previous mercury ion clocks have been based on 199Hg+. We have recently completed construction of the 201Hg+ clock and will describe modifications to the design of our existing 199Hg+ clocks to accommodate the new isotope. We will also describe initial spectroscopic measurements of the hyperfine manifold, and possible future experiments. One experiment could place a limit on variations in the strong interaction fundamental constant ratio mq/ΛQCD.REFID="9789812838223_0043FN001">

  11. PENCEMARAN LOGAM BERAT MERKURI (Hg PADA AIRTANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Triadi Putranto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The earth consists largely of water because the land area is smaller than the ocean. Human beings on this earthcan not escape the need for water. Water is the main requirement for the process of life on the earth.Relatively clean water that is coveted by men, whether for purposes of daily life, for industrial purposes, for thecleanliness of city sanitation, as well as for agricultural purposes and so forth. Heavy metal pollution is a veryserious issue to be handled, because of adverse environmental and ecosystem in general. Heavy metallic elementis the element which has a density of more than 5 gr/cm3. Hg has a density of 13.55 gr/cm3. Disaster is anoutbreak of Minamata mercury poisoning in people who eat fish contaminated by mercury in Minamata Japan,and this event is known as Minamata Disease. Efforts to tackle the heavy metal pollution can actually be doneusing a chemical process or by microorganism such as microbes and bacteria.

  12. Hg-coordination studies of oligopeptides containing cysteine, histidine and tyrosine by $^{199m}$Hg-TDPAC

    CERN Document Server

    Ctortecka, B; Mallion, S; Butz, T; Hoffmann, R

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of histidine- and tyrosine- containing peptide chains with Hg(II), the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of /sup 199m/Hg in the Hg complexes of the oligopeptides alanyl-alanyl-histidyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAHAA-NH /sub 2/) and alanyl-alanyl-tyrosyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAYAA-NH/sub 2/) was determined by time differential perturbed angular correlation and is compared with previous data on alanyl-alanyl-cysteyl-alanyl- alanyl (AACAA-OH). The /sup 199m/Hg-NQIs depend on the oligopeptide to Hg(II) stoichiometry and indicate that two-fold and four-fold coordinations occur for the bound Hg(II). (12 refs).

  13. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The...

  14. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following the...

  15. The Humanistic and Economic Burden of Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Natalia M; Villa, Kathleen F; Black, Jed; Chervin, Ronald D; Witt, Edward A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of narcolepsy--with respect to psychiatric comorbidities, Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), direct costs for healthcare resource utilization, and indirect costs for reported work loss-through comparison of patients to matched controls. This analysis was conducted on data from the 2011, 2012, and 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS; 2011 NHWS n = 75,000, 2012 NHWS n = 71,157, and 2013 NHWS n = 75,000). Patients who reported a narcolepsy diagnosis (n = 437) were matched 1:2 with controls (n = 874) on age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use, exercise, and physical comorbidity. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to assess whether the narcolepsy and control groups differed on psychiatric comorbidities, HRQoL, labor force participation, work productivity, and healthcare resource utilization. Patients with narcolepsy, in comparison to matched controls, reported substantially (two to four times) greater psychiatric comorbidity, HRQoL impairment, prevalence of long-term disability, absenteeism, and presenteeism, and greater resource use in the past 6 mo as indicated by higher mean number of hospitalizations, emergency department visits, traditional healthcare professional visits, neurologist visits, and psychiatrist visits (each p narcolepsy diagnosis is associated with substantial adverse impact on mental health, HRQoL, and key economic burdens that include work impairment, resource use, and both direct and indirect costs. Although this study is cross-sectional, the results highlight the magnitude of the potential opportunity to improve mental health, lower costs, and augment work-related productivity through effective assessment and treatment of narcolepsy. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  16. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  17. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...

  18. DMPS (DIMAVAL) as a challenge test to assess the mercury and arsenic body/kidney load in humans and as a treatment of mercury toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aposhian, H.V.; Maiorino, R.M.; Aposhian, M.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hurlbut, K.M. [Rocky Mountain Poison Control Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Mercury is an element which, with its compounds, is hazardous and is found in hazardous wastes. In Order to develop suitable diagnostic and therapeutic agents for mercury exposure, we have sought alternative test systems. We have used the chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS, DIMAVAL{reg_sign}) for estimating the body burden of mercury in normal humans and in dental personnel in a developing country, and for detoxifying humans with mercurous chloride exposure. Use of the DMPS-mercury challenge test has shown that two-thirds of the mercury excreted in the urine of volunteers with dental amalgams appears to be derived from the mercury vapor released from their amalgams. The DMPS challenge test (300 mg, by mouth, after an 11 hr fast) was useful for monitoring dental personnel for mercury vapor exposure. The DMPS challenge test was given to 11 factory workers who make a skin lotion that contains mercurous chloride, 8 users of the skin lotion, and 9 controls. The increases in urinary Hg resulting from the DMPS challenge were 45, 87, and 38-fold, respectively. The results demonstrate that in humans exposed to mercurous chloride, the DMPS-mercury challenge test is of value for a more realistic estimation of mobilizable Hg. DMPS should be considered for use to determine mercury body burdens and to treat humans exposed to mercury and its compounds via exposure to hazardous wastes. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. SO2/Hg removal from flue gas by dry FGD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fan; Wang Hongmei; Zhang Fan; Zhu Jinwei; Tian Gang; Liu Yu; Mao Jixian

    2012-01-01

    To study the mechanism of SO2 and Hg removal from flue gas,an experimental packed bed reactor was designed to simulate the dry FGD,where a mixture of lime and fly ash in ratio 1∶3 w/w was used as the SO2 and Hg sorbent,and steam at temperature of 100 ℃ was applied for activation of the sorbent,while the activation time set to 20 min.The experimental factors including the SO2/Hg sorbent characteristics,50% breakthrough time for SO2/Hg removal,sorbent packed bed depth and reaction temperature were investigated.The experimental results show that after steam activation,the BET specific surface area and specific pore volume increased from 37.8 to 45.5 m2/g and from 0.42 to 0.51 cm3/g,respectively.With activation of the sorbent by steam,the 50% breakthrough times of SO2 and Hg removal increased from 34 to 42 min and from 23 to 45 min,respectively.When the packed bed depth was increased from 5 to 25 mm,the 50% breakthrough times for Hg and SO2 removal increased from 12 to 52 min and from 6 to 47 min,respectively.With the increase of the reaction temperature,the 50% breakthrough of SO2/Hg removal decreased accordingly.Steam activation can efficiently improve SO2/Hg removal simultaneously.

  20. Projected Hg dietary exposure of 3 bird species nesting on a contaminated floodplain (South River, Virginia, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincheng; Newman, Michael C

    2013-04-01

    Dietary Hg exposure was modeled for Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), Eastern song sparrow (Melospiza melodia), and Eastern screech owl (Otus asio) nesting on the contaminated South River floodplain (Virginia, USA). Parameterization of Monte-Carlo models required formal expert elicitation to define bird body weight and feeding ecology characteristics because specific information was either unavailable in the published literature or too difficult to collect reliably by field survey. Mercury concentrations and weights for candidate food items were obtained directly by field survey. Simulations predicted the probability that an adult bird during breeding season would ingest specific amounts of Hg during daily foraging and the probability that the average Hg ingestion rate for the breeding season of an adult bird would exceed published rates reported to cause harm to other birds (>100 ng total Hg/g body weight per day). Despite the extensive floodplain contamination, the probabilities that these species' average ingestion rates exceeded the threshold value were all <0.01. Sensitivity analysis indicated that overall food ingestion rate was the most important factor determining projected Hg ingestion rates. Expert elicitation was useful in providing sufficiently reliable information for Monte-Carlo simulation.

  1. Differential gene expression associated with dietary methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Basu, Niladri; Goetz, Giles; Jiang, Nan; Hutz, Reinhold J.; Tonellato, Peter J.; Carvan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate conserved biomarkers that could be used in most species of teleost fish at most life-stages. We investigated the effects of sublethal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on developing rainbow trout and zebrafish. Juvenile rainbow trout and young adult zebrafish were fed food with MeHg added at 0, 0.5, 5 and 50 ppm. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to measure whole body total Hg levels, and pathologic analysis was performed to identify MeHg-induced toxicity. Fish at six weeks were sampled from each group for microarray analysis using RNA from whole fish. MeHg-exposed trout and zebrafish did not show overt signs of toxicity or pathology, nor were significant differences seen in mortality, length, mass, or condition factor. The accumulation of MeHg in trout and zebrafish exhibited dose- and time-dependent patterns during six weeks, and zebrafish exhibited greater assimilation of total Hg than rainbow trout. The dysregulated genes in MeHg-treated fish have multiple functional annotations, such as iron ion homeostasis, glutathione transferase activity, regulation of muscle contraction, troponin I binding and calcium-dependent protein binding. Genes were selected as biomarker candidates based on their microarray data and their expression was evaluated by QPCR. Unfortunately, these genes are not good consistent biomarkers for both rainbow trout and zebrafish from QPCR evaluation using individual fish. Our conclusion is that biomarker analysis for aquatic toxicant assessment using fish needs to be based on tissue-, sex- and species-specific consideration. PMID:23529582

  2. Determination of MeHg sources to fish in the St. Louis River, MN, USA, using Hg stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes region has become a prevalent concern due to elevated methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish. While atmospheric deposition of Hg is ubiquitous, releases from legacy point-sources give rise to numerous Areas of Concern (AOCs) across the Great ...

  3. Tracing anthropogenic Hg and Pb input using stable Hg and Pb isotope ratios in sediments of the central Portuguese Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil-Holmens, M.; Blum, J.; Canário, J.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Trancoso, M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Johnson, M.; Branco, V.; Cesário, R.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Boer, W.; Melo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Three short marine sediment cores from the Cascais Submarine Canyon (CSC; cores 252-32 and 252-35) and the Estremadura Spur (core 252-16) on the central Portuguese Margin were analysed for Hg, Pb, Al, and Mn concentrations, and both Pb and Hg stable isotope compositions, in order to reconstruct tren

  4. Burden of stroke in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-02-01

    Stroke is one of the top five leading causes of death and one of the top 10 causes for hospitalization in Malaysia. Stroke is also in the top five diseases with the greatest burden of disease, based on disability-adjusted life years. However, prospective studies on stroke in Malaysia are limited. To date, neither the prevalence of stroke nor its incidence nationally has been recorded. Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke. The mean age of stroke patients in Malaysia is between 54.5 and 62.6 years. Traditional medicine is commonly practiced. With the increasing number of stroke cases annually, more government and nongovernment organizations should be involved in primary and secondary prevention strategies.

  5. Evaluation of Burden Descent Model for Burden Distribution in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping ZHOU; Peng-yu SHI; Yan-po SONG; Kai-le TANG; Dong FU; Chenn QZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models for burden descending process have been applied to obtain whole burden structures in blast furnace,whereas the accuracy of those burden descent models has not been sufficiently investigated.Special evaluation method based on timeline burden profiles was established to quantitatively evaluate the error between ex-perimental and modeled burden structures.Four existing burden descent models were utilized to describe the burden structure of a 1/20 scaled warm blast furnace.Input modeling conditions including initial burden profile,descending volumes in each time interval,and normalized descending velocity distribution were determined via special image pro-cessing technology.Modeled burden structures were evaluated combined with the published experimental data.It is found that all the models caught the main profile of the burden structure.Furthermore,the improved nonuniform de-scent model (Model IV)shows the highest level of precision especially when burden descends with unstable velocity distribution tendency.Meanwhile,the traditional nonuniform descent model (Model III)may also be desirable to model the burden descending process when the burden descending velocity presents a linear tendency.Finally,the uni-form descent model (Model I)might be the first option for roughly predicting burden structure.

  6. The global burden of cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  7. The global burden of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-03-01

    To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4-4.3) and an estimated 87,000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91,000 people (uncertainty range: 28,000 to 142,000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera.

  8. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  9. An investigation for the HgCdTe cleaning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Yi; Wang, Nili; Zhao, Shuiping; Liu, Shi-Jia; Li, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    A new cleaning process for HgCdTe was designed - which used the improved SC-1,SC-2 and Br2- C2H5OH solutions as the main cleaning fluid and applied mega sound waves in the cleaning process. By analyzing the test results carried out on the HgCdTe surface, it was found that the material of HgCdTe for the application of new cleaning process was better than the one for the application of conventional cleaning process in the minority carrier lifetime, residual organic contamination, responsivity and specific detectivity.

  10. Doping and Diffusion in HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    In’i, -InT. Te - 1.8 ( - 3 .5 )h ( + 2.9 - 6/) TeT1’- Tej . 4 Hg rich HgCdTe Hg - 1.8 + 1.2 + 1.4 - 2p H - ’g, - H g j.. ’TI - tetrahedral position...A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 11.81 (1988). B. D. Patterson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 60, 69 (1988). 60 V. A. Singh , C. Weigel, J. W. Corbett, and L. M

  11. Frontal Function, Disability and Caregiver Burden in Elderly Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers of patients with late-life major depressive disorder experience a significant level of general caregiver burden. Disability in patients is possibly one of the origins of caregiver burden. Frontal lobe dysfunction might be the source of disability. This study investigated if frontal lobe dysfunction (body level of patients with late-life major depressive disorder was associated with their disability (individual level, and if it led to a high level of caregiver burden (societal level. Thirty-four unselected pairs of caregivers and their family members with late-life major depressive disorder were recruited. Frontal Assessment Battery and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL were used to assess patients' frontal function and disability, and Caregiver Burden Inventory was used to measure caregiver burden. Frontal Assessment Battery correlated with TIADL (r= −0.47; p<0.006. TIADL score was also associated with two subscales of the Caregiver Burden Inventory: social (r = 0.38, p=0.026 and time-dependent (r= 0.37, p= 0.033. This study supported the hypothesis that frontal lobe dysfunction in elderly patients with depression is associated with their disability in instrumental activities of daily living. Disability is related to social and time-dependent aspects of caregiver burden. Further studies to examine proposed cognitive interventions are suggested to reduce patient disability and caregiver burden.

  12. Uptake of HgCl{sub 2} and MeHgCl in an insect cell line (Aedes albopictus C6/36)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeckman, B.; Cornelis, R.; Rzeznik, U.; Raes, H. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The authors studied the uptake mechanism of mercuric chloride (Hg) and methylmercuric chloride (MeHg) in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells. The uptake kinetics, together with the effect of temperature and a metabolic inhibitor (2,4-dinitrophenol) on the mercury accumulation, were examined. Both amounts of internalized Hg and MeHg increased linearly with the extracellular concentration. Initially, the influx rate was high for both metal species but MeHg was found to accumulate seven times faster than Hg. At longer exposure times it leveled off for Hg, while for MeHg, the intracellular concentration decreased. Hg toxicity was not significantly influenced by elevated temperatures; in contrast there was a marked decrease of the LC{sub 50/24 h} value for MeHg. On the other hand, Hg accumulation was temperature dependent but MeHg was not. The different toxicity and uptake rate of both mercury compounds can be explained in terms of membrane permeability and target site. For Hg the main target seems to be the plasma membrane, while MeHg readily crosses this barrier and reacts with intracellular targets. 2,4-Dinitrophenol had no effect on the accumulation of Hg but that of MeHg was doubled.

  13. The global burden of melanoma: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Karimkhani (Chante); A. Green (A.); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); Weinstock, M.A.; R.P. Dellavalle (Robert P.); M. Naghavi (Morteza); Fitzmaurice, C.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite recent improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment, vast differences in melanoma burden still exist between populations. Comparative data can highlight these differences and lead to focused efforts to reduce the burden of melanoma. Objectives: To assess

  14. Results Of Hg Speciation Testing On DWPF SMECT-1, SMECT-3, And SMECT-5 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The thirteenth shipment of samples was designated to include Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 736 and 738 samples. Triplicate samples of each material were prepared for this shipment. Each replicate was analyzed for seven Hg species: total Hg, total soluble (dissolved) Hg, elemental Hg [Hg(0)], ionic (inorganic) Hg [Hg(I) and Hg(II)], methyl Hg [CH3Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], ethyl Hg [CH3CH2-Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], and dimethyl Hg [(CH3)2Hg]. The difference between the total Hg and total soluble Hg measurements gives the particulate Hg concentration, i.e. Hg adsorbed to the surface of particulate matter in the sample but without resolution of the specific adsorbed species. The average concentrations of Hg species in the aqueous samples derived from Eurofins reported data corrected for dilutions performed by SRNL are tabulated.

  15. Quantum Calorimeters Based on HgCdTe Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's next generation of x-ray observation missions require x-ray calorimeters with superior energy resolution. Semimetallic HgTe has already proven itself as an...

  16. Enrichment of Pb, Hg and Cr in cultured carp otolith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... record the pollution condition at the sampling time. ... aquatic organisms are aquatic algae, zooplankton .... element cannot show that Hg concentration in otolith ..... from Atlantic croaker along an estuarine pollution gradient.

  17. Quantum Calorimeters Based on HgCdTe Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's next generation of x-ray observation missions require x-ray calorimeters with superior energy resolution. Semimetallic HgTe has already proven itself as an...

  18. Properties of Light Hg, Pb and Po Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Muntian, I

    2003-01-01

    Quality of mass description for three different theoretical mass models is studied. Masses and deformations for Po, Pb and Hg isotopes are compared with experimental data. Gap in the proton single particle energy spectrum is discussed.

  19. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  20. Interaction of Hg Atom with Bare Si(111) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-Jun; LIU Ying

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the interaction between Hg atom and bare Si(111) surface, three types of silicon cluster models of Si4H7, Si7H10 and Si16H20 together with their Hg complexes were studied by using hybrid (U)B3LYP density functional theory method. Optimized geometries and energies for Hg atom on different adsorption sites indicate that: 1) the binding energies at different adsorption sites are small (ranging from ~3 to 8 kJ/mol dependent on the adsorption sites), suggesting a weak interaction between Hg atom and silicon surface; 2) the most favorable adsorption site is the on top (T) site. By analyzing their natural bonding orbitals, the possible reason of this difference is suggested.

  1. Cardiac dysfunction in HgCl2-induced nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodrigues, Mónica; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Moura, Cláudia; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2010-03-01

    The experimental model of HgCl(2) injection is characterized by a systemic autoimmune disease which leads to the development of nephrotic syndrome (NS). NS seems to be accompanied by cardiovascular alterations, since patients with NS present an increased incidence in cardiac disease. The aim of our work was to study the effects of HgCl(2)-induced NS on myocardial function and morphometry. Normotensive Brown-Norway rats were injected with HgCl(2) (1 mg/kg, HgCl(2) group; n = 6, subcutaneous) or the vehicle (control group; n = 6, subcutaneous) on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11. The animals were placed in metabolic cages for evaluation of urinary excretion of noradrenaline, sodium, total proteins, albumin and creatinine. Fourteen and 21 days after the first HgCl(2) injection, left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics was evaluated through pressure micromanometers in basal and isovolumetric heartbeats. The heart and gastrocnemius muscle weights and tibial length were also examined. In an additional group of animals cardiac dimensions and ejection fraction were assessed by echocardiography and LV apoptosis and fibrosis were studied. HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, sodium retention and ascites at day 14. These alterations were accompanied by LV hemodynamic changes only in isovolumetric heartbeats. Similarly, on day 21, HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, but no sodium retention or ascites. These animals presented LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in both basal and isovolumetric heartbeats, as well as cardiac atrophy, LV fibrosis and an increase in myocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, HgCl(2)-induced NS is accompanied by LV dysfunction and can be a promising model for studying the link between NS and cardiac disease.

  2. Searching for Line Profile Variability in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S; Knoglinger, P

    2002-01-01

    Spectra of four non-magnetic chemically peculiar late B type stars (HgMn) stars are analysed to detect periodic spectral line variations (LPVs). A procedure developed to study LPVs in Slowly Pulsating B stars has been adopted as pulsational properties of HgMn stars should be expected to be similar. In the preliminary results discussed here no conclusive evidence for periodic LPVs was uncovered. A more sensitive re-analysis of the data is under way.

  3. First observation of excited states in 173Hg93

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, D; Scholey, C; Bianco, L; Capponi, L; Carroll, R J; Darby, I G; Donosa, L; Drummond, M; Ertugral, F; Greenlees, P T; Grahn, T; Hauschild, K; Herzan, A; Jakobsson, U; Jones, P; Joss, D T; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Ketelhut, S; Labiche, M; Leino, M; Lopez-Martens, A; Mullholland, K; Nieminen, P; Peura, P; Rahkila, P; Rinta-Antila, S; Ruotsalainen, P; Sandzelius, M; Saren, J; Saygi, B; Simpson, J; Sorri, J; Thornthwaite, A; Uusitalo, J

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-deficient nucleus 173Hg has been studied following fusion-evaporation reactions. The observation of gamma rays decaying from excited states are reported for the first time and a tentative level scheme is proposed. The proposed level scheme is discussed within the context of the systematics of neighbouring neutron-deficient Hg nuclei. In addition to the gamma-ray spectroscopy, the alpha decay of this nucleus has been measured yielding superior precision to earlier measurements.

  4. Neuropsychiatric Burden in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Ricardo Augusto; Botturi, Andrea; Ciammola, Andrea; Silani, Vincenzo; Prunas, Cecilia; Lucchiari, Claudio; Zugno, Elisa; Caletti, Elisabetta

    2017-06-16

    Huntington's disease is a disorder that results in motor, cognitive, and psychiatric problems. The symptoms often take different forms and the presence of disturbances of the psychic sphere reduces patients' autonomy and quality of life, also impacting patients' social life. It is estimated that a prevalence between 33% and 76% of the main psychiatric syndromes may arise in different phases of the disease, often in atypical form, even 20 years before the onset of chorea and dementia. We present a narrative review of the literature describing the main psychopathological patterns that may be found in Huntington's disease, searching for a related article in the main database sources (Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Medscape). Psychiatric conditions were classified into two main categories: affective and nonaffective disorders/symptoms; and anxiety and neuropsychiatric features such as apathy and irritability. Though the literature is extensive, it is not always convergent, probably due to the high heterogeneity of methods used. We summarize main papers for pathology and sample size, in order to present a synoptic vision of the argument. Since the association between Huntington's disease and psychiatric symptoms was demonstrated, we argue that the prevalent and more invalidating psychiatric components should be recognized as early as possible during the disease course in order to best address psychopharmacological therapy, improve quality of life, and also reduce burden on caregivers.

  5. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part 2. Body burden calculations for identification of depot compartments; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. Teil 2. Die Berechnung der Koerperlast zur Identifikation von Depotkompartimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany); Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background concentrations of eleven elements in tissues and organs of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) obtained from a region (Euroregion Neisse, around the trilateral border region of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic) distinguished by low to intermediate levels of environmental contaminations are given in part I of this work. In order to identify the most important depot compartments for certain elements, a body burden method was applied. Differences of affinity due to sex and age of analyzed rats are discussed, as are the suitability of specific organs and tissues with regard to bioaccumulation measurements concerning metals. The principal depot compartments for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cd, (in adult rats) and Tl are the liver and kidneys, whereas the elements Ni, Sr, Pb (for adult animals) and Ti are more affinitively to bones. Co and Zn displayed a more pronounced affinity towards tissues of the bones and liver. The analysis revealed large differences in Cd and Pb distributions both among young and adult rats, and with respect to sexes. It can be concluded that the distribution of the elements investigated in this study in free-living rats agrees with that in man, except for that of Ni. The above agreement gives proof of the possibility to use depot organs of rats for bioindication which was already mentioned in part I of this work. (Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones and establishment of distribution patterns'). (orig.) [German] Die in Teil I quantifizierten Hintergrundkonzentrationen von 11 Elementen in Geweben und Organen wildlebender Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus einem gering bis maessig belasteten Untersuchungsgebiet (Euroregion Neisse) werden im 2. Teil fuer die Berechnung ihres relativen Beitrags zur Gesamtkoerperbelastung (Koerperlast oder Bodyburden) verwendet, um bevorzugte Depotkompartimente fuer die untersuchten Elemente

  6. Crystal structure of K[Hg(SCN)3] - a redetermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Matthias; Häusler, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The crystal structure of the room-temperature modification of K[Hg(SCN)3], potassium tri-thio-cyanato-mercurate(II), was redetermined based on modern CCD data. In comparison with the previous report [Zhdanov & Sanadze (1952 ▶). Zh. Fiz. Khim. 26, 469-478], reliability factors, standard deviations of lattice parameters and atomic coordinates, as well as anisotropic displacement parameters, were revealed for all atoms. The higher precision and accuracy of the model is, for example, reflected by the Hg-S bond lengths of 2.3954 (11), 2.4481 (8) and 2.7653 (6) Å in comparison with values of 2.24, 2.43 and 2.77 Å. All atoms in the crystal structure are located on mirror planes. The Hg(2+) cation is surrounded by four S atoms in a seesaw shape [S-Hg-S angles range from 94.65 (2) to 154.06 (3)°]. The HgS4 polyhedra share a common S atom, building up chains extending parallel to [010]. All S atoms of the resulting (1) ∞[HgS2/1S2/2] chains are also part of SCN(-) anions that link these chains with the K(+) cations into a three-dimensional network. The K-N bond lengths of the distorted KN7 polyhedra lie between 2.926 (2) and 3.051 (3) Å.

  7. Self-powered sensor for trace Hg2+ detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dan; Deng, Liu; Guo, Shaojun; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-05-15

    A self-powered electrochemical sensor has been facilely designed for sensitive detection of Hg(2+) based on the inhibition of biocatalysis process of enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC) for the first time. The as-prepared one-compartment BFC, which was consisted of alcohol dehydrogenase supported on single-walled carbon nanohorns-based mediator system as the anode and bilirubin oxidase as the cathodic biocatalyst, generated an open circuit potential (V(oc)) of 636 mV and a maximum power density of 137 μW cm(-2). It was interestingly found that the presence of Hg(2+) would affect the performance of the constructed BFC (e.g., V(oc)). Taking advantage of the inhibitive effect of Hg(2+), a novel self-powered Hg(2+) sensor has been developed, which showed a linear range of 1-500 nM (R(2) = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1 nM at room temperature. In addition, this BFC-type sensor exhibited good selectivity for Hg(2+) against other common environmental metal ions, and the feasibility of the method for Hg(2+) detection in actual water samples (i.e., tap, ground, and lake water) was demonstrated with satisfactory results.

  8. Formalising arguments about the burden of persuasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.; Sartor, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an argument-based logic for reasoning about allocations of the burden of persuasion. The logic extends the system of Prakken (2001), which in turn modified the system of Prakken & Sartor (1996) with the possibility to distribute the burden of proof over both sides in an argument

  9. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns the...

  10. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in the...

  11. The global burden of dengue: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); D.S. Shepard (Donald); E.A. Undurraga (Eduardo); Halasa, Y.A. (Yara A); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); Brady, O.J. (Oliver J); Hay, S.I. (Simon I); Bedi, N. (Neeraj); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); T.-W. Chuang (Ting-Wu); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); A. Rafay (Anwar); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); C.J.L. Murray (Christopher)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Dengue is the most common arbovirus infection globally, but its burden is poorly quantified. We estimated dengue mortality, incidence, and burden for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Methods We modelled mortality from vital registration, verbal autopsy, and surveillanc

  12. The global burden of dengue: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); D.S. Shepard (Donald); E.A. Undurraga (Eduardo); Halasa, Y.A. (Yara A); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); Brady, O.J. (Oliver J); Hay, S.I. (Simon I); Bedi, N. (Neeraj); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); T.-W. Chuang (Ting-Wu); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); A. Rafay (Anwar); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); C.J.L. Murray (Christopher)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Dengue is the most common arbovirus infection globally, but its burden is poorly quantified. We estimated dengue mortality, incidence, and burden for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Methods We modelled mortality from vital registration, verbal autopsy, and

  13. Tolerance and hyperaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) by four aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hernández, Jorge Alberto; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; González-Rivas, Nelly; Balderas-Plata, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    In the present investigation, four macrophytes, namely Typha latifolia (L.), Lemna minor (L.), Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, and Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc, were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) hyperaccumulation potential under laboratory conditions. Tolerance analyses were performed for 7 days of exposure at five different treatments of the metals mixture (Cu(+2), Hg(+2), Pb(+2), and Zn(+2)). The production of chlorophyll and carotenoids was determined at the end of each treatment. L. minor revealed to be sensitive, because it did not survive in all the tested concentrations after 72 hours of exposure. E. crassipes and M. aquaticum displayed the highest tolerance to the metals mixture. For the most tolerant species of aquatic macrophytes, The removal kinetics of E. crassipes and M. aquaticum was carried out, using the following mixture of metals: Cu (0.5 mg/L) and Hg, Pb, and Zn 0.25 mg/L. The obtained results revealed that E. crassipes can remove 99.80% of Cu, 97.88% of Pb, 99.53% of Hg, and 94.37% of Zn. M. aquaticum withdraws 95.2% of Cu, 94.28% of Pb, 99.19% of Hg, and 91.91% of Zn. The obtained results suggest that these two species of macrophytes could be used for the phytoremediation of this mixture of heavy metals from the polluted water bodies.

  14. Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea G; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Dranguet, Perrine; Makri, Stamatina; Björn, Erik; Ungureanu, Viorel Gh; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl(-) concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  15. The burden of musculoskeletal conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Palazzo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the burden of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs, these conditions probably deserve more attention from public health authorities in several countries including developed ones. We assessed their contribution to disability. METHODS: Data on disabilities associated with RMDs were extracted from the national 2008-2009 Disability-Health Survey of 29,931 subjects representative of the population in France. We used the core set of disability categories for RMDs of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for analysis. Diagnosis and disabilities were self-reported. We assessed the risk of disability associated with RMDs using odds ratios (ORs and the societal impact of RMDs using the average attributable fraction (AAF. RESULTS: Overall 27.7% (about 17.3 million people (95% CI 26.9-28.4% of the population reported having RMDs. The most prevalent RMDs were low back pain (12.5%, 12.1-13.1 and osteoarthritis (12.3%, 11.8-12.7. People reporting osteoarthritis were more disabled in walking (adjusted OR 1.9, 1.7-2.2 than those without. People reporting inflammatory arthritis were more limited in activities of daily living (from 1.4, 1.2-1.8 for walking to 2.1, 1.5-2.9 for moving around. From a societal perspective, osteoarthritis was the main contributor to activity limitations (AAF 22% for walking difficulties. Changing jobs was mainly attributed to neck pain (AAF 13% and low back pain (11.5%. CONCLUSION: RMDs are highly prevalent and significantly affect activity limitations and participation restrictions. More effort is needed to improve care and research in this field.

  16. Hg $L_{3}$ edge absorption study of the $HgBa_{2}CuO_{4}\\delta$ superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Ziyu, Wu; Bianconi, A

    2001-01-01

    The HgBa/sub 2/CuO/sub 4+ delta / superconductor has been studied by high resolution Hg L/sub 3/ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectrum has been simulated by full multiple-scattering calculations in order to explore the origin of different features in the experimental spectrum. The experimental Hg L/sub 3/-edge spectrum could be well reproduced by considering a cluster of 85 atoms, containing 10 shells, within a radius of about 7 AA from the central Hg atom. The low energy spectral feature in the XANES spectrum is found to be due to a transition from the Hg p states to the electronic states hybridized with higher shell Ba atoms. This implies that the transition features in the Hg L/sub 3/- edge XANES are strongly influenced by medium range order effects unlike the case of L/sub 3/ edge of 3d transition metals where short- range order is enough to describe the main transition features. (25 refs).

  17. Distribution of major health risks: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rodgers

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most analyses of risks to health focus on the total burden of their aggregate effects. The distribution of risk-factor-attributable disease burden, for example by age or exposure level, can inform the selection and targeting of specific interventions and programs, and increase cost-effectiveness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups conducted comprehensive reviews of data on risk-factor exposure and hazard for 14 epidemiological subregions of the world, by age and sex. Age-sex-subregion-population attributable fractions were estimated and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease database. Where possible, exposure levels were assessed as continuous measures, or as multiple categories. The proportion of risk-factor-attributable burden in different population subgroups, defined by age, sex, and exposure level, was estimated. For major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index, and physical inactivity 43%-61% of attributable disease burden occurred between the ages of 15 and 59 y, and 87% of alcohol-attributable burden occurred in this age group. Most of the disease burden for continuous risks occurred in those with only moderately raised levels, not among those with levels above commonly used cut-points, such as those with hypertension or obesity. Of all disease burden attributable to being underweight during childhood, 55% occurred among children 1-3 standard deviations below the reference population median, and the remainder occurred among severely malnourished children, who were three or more standard deviations below median. CONCLUSIONS: Many major global risks are widely spread in a population, rather than restricted to a minority. Population-based strategies that seek to shift the whole distribution of risk factors often have the potential to

  18. Superconducting Hg-Based Mixed Oxides and Oxyfluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, E. V.

    2000-09-01

    Syntheses under high pressure and under controlled mercury and oxygen partial pressures of different members of the HgBa2Can-1CunO2n+2+δ series have been developed. There are two main parameters influencing Tc in this family: width of a perovskite slab (n) and concentration (δ) of the extra oxygen located in the Hg layer. The increase of Tc with n occurs until the third member, while after that it decreases. All the members of the series exhibit similar cupola shaped dependencies of Tc vs. δ. Strongly overdoped high members of the series with n = 3-5 were prepared only using high pressure technique and BaO2 as an internal oxidizer. Neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out for monophase oxygenated HgBa2CuO4F4+δ and fluorinated HgBa2CuO4Fδ samples with different extra oxygen or fluorine content and Tc values. Fluorinated series also exhibits the cupola -like behavior for the Tc vs. δ dependence. NPD showed twice the amount of extra fluorine in comparison with those for the oxygenated Hg-1201 phases with close Tc's. The exchange of the extra oxygen by double amount of fluorine causes shortening of the apical Cu-O distances, while the in-plane ones, as well as Tc, do not vary. The influence of the external pressure on the structure and Tc of Hg-1201 strongly depends on the doping level. The increase of the extra oxygen content on going from underdoped to overdoped state results in the larger compression of the apical Cu-O and Ba-OHg distances while the HgO2 dumbbell as well as the distance between Ba and O from the (CuO2) layers becomes practically pressure independent. These results together with the data for fluorinated materials allow to elucidate the crucial structural features responsible for the Tc variation under high pressure.

  19. The Burden of Schizophrenia on Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Adana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers’ burden in schizophrenia is a complex concept often with negative connotations. The concept refers to the impact of having a schizophrenia patient in the family including emotional, psychological, physical, economic distress and feelings of shame, embarrassment, guilt, and self-blame expe-rienced by the caregivers. There are objective and subjective aspects of care-givers’ burden. The objective burden refers to observed and verifiable impact of the diseased person in the family such as the patients disturbing behaviors, economic difficulties, and loss of income, restricted social activities, distressed household atmosphere, and undesirable influences on physical and mental health of the family members. The subjective burden refers to the extent of emotional distress caused by the objective burden. The data in the pertinent literature suggest an association between caregivers’ burden and sex, ethnicity, culture, caregivers’ health and quality of life, social support, and the symptomatology as presented by the patient. In order to promote mental health of schizophrenia patients along with their caregivers, the mental health workers should strive to find the means of supporting, informing, and cooperating with the family members. Psychosocial interventions designed for families and psychosocial rehabilitations programs designed for schizophrenia patients are effective means of easing caregivers’ burden.

  20. Overcoming phytoremediation limitations. A case study of Hg contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a broad term that comprises several technologies to clean up water and soil. Despite the numerous articles appearing in scientific journals, very few field applications of phytoextraction have been successfully realized. The research here reported on Phytoextraction, the use the plant to "extract" metals from contaminated soil, is focused on implementations to overcome two main drawbacks: the survival of plants in unfavorable environmental conditions (contaminant toxicity, low fertility, etc.) and the often lengthy time it takes to reduce contaminants to the requested level. Moreover, to overcome the imbalance between the technology's potential and its drawbacks, there is growing interest in the use of plants to reduce only the fraction that is the most hazardous to the environment and human health, that is to target the bioavailable fractions of metals in soil. Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping (BCS) would be a remediation approach focused to remove the bioavailable metal fractions. BCS have been used in a mercury contaminated soil from Italian industrial site. Bioavailable fractions were determined by sequential extraction with H2O and NH4Cl.Combined treatments of plant hormone and thioligand to strength Hg uptake by crop plants (Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) were tested. Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution following treatments were compared. Results indicate the plant hormone, cytokinine (CK) foliar treatment, increased evapotranspiration rate in both tested plants. The Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants increased with simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments. B. juncea was the most effective in Hg uptake. Application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 232% in shoots and 39% in roots with respect to control. While H. annuus gave a better response in plant biomass production, the application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to

  1. Spectroscopic variability and magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Savanov, I S; Dall, T; Schoeller, M; Cowley, C R; Briquet, M; Arlt, R

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of exotic abundances, chemical inhomogeneities, and weak magnetic fields on the surface of late B-type primaries in spectroscopic binaries has important implications not only for our understanding of the formation mechanisms of stars with Hg and Mn peculiarities themselves, but also for the general understanding of B-type star formation in binary systems. The origin of the abundance anomalies observed in late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity is still poorly understood. The connection between HgMn peculiarity and membership in binary and multiple systems is supported by our observations during the last decade. The important result achieved in our studies of a large sample of HgMn stars is the finding that most HgMn stars exhibit spectral variability of various chemical elements, proving that the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution on the surface of these stars is a rather common characteristic and not a rare phenomenon. Further, in the studied systems, we found that all components are che...

  2. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  3. Are there tangled magnetic fields on HgMn stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Jeffers, S V; Johns-Krull, C M; Keller, C U; Rodenhuis, M; Snik, F; Stempels, H C; Valenti, J A

    2013-01-01

    Several recent spectrophotometric studies failed to detect significant global magnetic fields in late-B HgMn chemically peculiar stars, but some investigations have suggested the presence of strong unstructured or tangled fields in these objects. We used detailed spectrum synthesis analysis to search for evidence of tangled magnetic fields in high-quality observed spectra of 8 slowly rotating HgMn stars and one normal late-B star. We also evaluated recent sporadic detections of weak longitudinal magnetic fields in HgMn stars based on the moment technique. Our analysis of the Zeeman broadening of magnetically sensitive spectral lines reveals no evidence of tangled magnetic fields in any of the studied HgMn or normal stars. We infer upper limits of 200-700 G for the mean magnetic field modulus -- much smaller than the field strengths implied by studies based on differential magnetic line intensification and quadratic field diagnostics. The new HARPSpol longitudinal field measurements for the extreme HgMn star H...

  4. Plasma S100β is not a useful biomarker for tumor burden in neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Miriam J; Esparza, Sonia; Merker, Vanessa L; Muzikansky, Alona; Bredella, Miriam A; Harris, Gordon J; Kassarjian, Ara; Cai, Wenli; Walker, James A; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R

    2013-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis are characterized by a predisposition to develop multiple neurofibromas and schwannomas. Currently, there is no blood test to estimate tumor burden in patients with these disorders. We explored whether S100β would act as a biomarker of tumor burden in NF since S100β is a classic immunohistochemical marker of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells and a small study showed S100β concentrations correlate with the volume of vestibular schwannomas. We calculated whole-body tumor burden in subjects with NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis using whole-body MRI (WBMRI) and measured the concentration of S100β in plasma using ELISA. We used chi-square tests and Spearman rank correlations to test the relationship between S100β levels and whole-body tumor burden. 127 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study (69 NF1 patients, 28 NF2 patients, and 30 schwannomatosis patients). The median age was 40years, 43% were male, and median whole-body tumor volume was 26.9mL. There was no relationship between the presence of internal tumors and the presence of detectable S100β in blood for the overall group or for individual diagnoses (p>0.05 by chi-square for all comparisons). Similarly, there was no correlation between whole-body tumor volume and S100β concentration for the overall group or for individual diagnoses (p>0.05 by Spearman for all comparisons). Plasma S100β is not a useful biomarker for tumor burden in the neurofibromatoses. Further work is needed to identify a reliable biomarker of tumor burden in NF patients. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystal structure of Hg2SO4 – a redetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of mercury(I sulfate (or mercurous sulfate, Hg2SO4, was re-determined based on modern CCD data. In comparison with the previous determination from Weissenberg film data [Dorm (1969. Acta Chem. Scand. 23, 1607–1615], all atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters, leading to higher precision in terms of bond lengths and angles [e.g. Hg—Hg = 2.5031 (7 compared to 2.500 (3Å]. The structure consists of alternating rows along [001] of Hg22+ dumbbells (generated by inversion symmetry and SO42− tetrahedra (symmetry 2. The dumbbells are linked via short O—Hg—Hg—O bonds to the sulfate tetrahedra into chains extending parallel to [20-1]. More remote O—Hg—Hg—O bonds connect these chains into a three-dimensional framework.

  6. Characterization studies of purified HgI{sub 2} precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. E-mail: Schieber@vms.huji.ac.il; Zuck, A.; Sanguinetti, S.; Montalti, M.; Braiman, M.; Melekhov, L.; Nissenbaum, J.; Grilli, E.; Guzzi, M.; Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L

    1999-06-01

    The ability of HgI{sub 2} powders, used as precursors in mercuric iodide crystal growth, to produce high-quality detectors may be predicted by non-destructive methods like photoluminescence. In fact, it is possible to correlate the presence and the intensity ratio of specific bands in the photoluminescence spectrum of a HgI{sub 2} crystal to its impurity content and stoichiometry. These quantities determine the detector grade that may be achieved using that starting material. Nine different HgI{sub 2} precursors, obtained by different purification methods, have been characterized. The lowest impurity content is achieved via poly-ethylene treatment, which gives also a powder of relatively good stoichiometric quality.

  7. The global burden of typhoid fever

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crump, John A; Luby, Stephen P; Mintz, Eric D

    2004-01-01

    To use new data to make a revised estimate of the global burden of typhoid fever, an accurate understanding of which is necessary to guide public health decisions for disease control and prevention efforts...

  8. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  9. [Experimental Research of Hg (II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions of HgCl2 with Nano-TiO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiong; Zhang, Jin-yang; Wang, Ding-yong; Qin, Cai-qing; Xu, Feng; Luo Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi

    2016-01-15

    Mercury removal from aqueous solutions of HgCl2 was studied by indoor simulation experiments, and the effects of three different diameter of particles of Nano-TiO2 ( Nano-Titanium Dioxide) at different dosage, pH, adsorption time and the initial concentration of Hg2+ on the mercury adsorption from simulated wastewater were investigated. The single factor experiments showed that the optimal conditions were: 7.5 g x L(-1) of 5 nm TiO2 or 2.0 g x L(-1) of 100 nm TiO2, pH 8.0, initial concentration of Hg2+ 15 x mg x L(-1) adsorption time 5 min, and under these conditions the adsorption rates reached 99.5% and 99.3%, relatively. When the content of 25 nm TiO2 was 10 g x L(-1), and the other conditions were pH 8.0, initial concentration of Hg2+ 15 mg x L(-1), adsorption time 60 min, the adsorption rate was 62.8%. The Hg(II) removal effects of the TiO2 particles with different diameters followed the order of 100 nm TiO2 > 5 nm TiO2 > 25 nm TiO2. Component adsorption results showed that the 5 nm TiO2 component adsorption effect was superior to its single adsorption effect, while there was little difference between 100 nm TiO2 component adsorption effect and its single adsorption effect. The results of orthogonal experiments indicated that the influencing factors of the adsorption rate followed the order of pH > the initial concentration of Hg2+ > time > dosage. The optimal experiment scheme was: pH 8.0, a dosage of 100 nm Nano-TiO2 of 2.0 g x L(-1) an initial Hg2+ concentration of 25 mg x L(-1) and adsorption time of 10 min. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum adsorption rate reached 99.9%, at the same time, the equilibrium concentration of Hg(II) was 0.033 mg x L(-1) adsorptive capacity was 26.95 mg x g(-1). The adsorption isotherm was in line with the Langmuir isotherm equation, indicating that the Hg(II) uptake by 100 nm Nano-TiO2 was typical monolayer adsorption.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of alpha- and beta-HgS nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galain, Isabel; María, Pérez Barthaburu; Ivana, Aguiar; Laura, Fornaro

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized HgS nanostructures by the hydrothermal method in order to use them as electron acceptors in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. We employed different mercury sources (HgO and Hg(CH3COO)2) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hexadecanethiol (HDT) as stabilizing/capping agent for controlling size, crystallinity, morphology and stability of the obtained nanostructures. We also used thiourea as sulfur source, and a temperature of 180 °C during 6 h. Synthesized nanostructures were characterized by powder X-Ray Diffraction, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Transmission Electron Microscopy. When PVP acts as stabilizing agent, the mercury source has influence on the size -but not in morphology- of the beta-HgS obtained nansostructures. HDT has control over nanostructures' size and depending on the relation Hg:HDT, we obtained a mixture of alpha and beta HgS which can be advantageous in the application in solar cells, due their absorption in different spectral regions. The smallest nanostructures obtained have a mean diameter of 20 nm when using HDT as capping agent. Also, we deposited the aforementioned nanostructures onto flat glass substrates by the spin coating technique as a first approach of an active layer of a solar cell. The depositions were characterized by atomic force microscopy. We obtained smaller particle deposition and higher particle density -but a lower area coverage (5%) - in samples with HDT as capping agent. This work presents promising results on nanostructures for future application on hybrid solar cells. Further efforts will be focused on the deposition of organic-inorganic layers.

  11. Application of Optimal Sinter Burden Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The application of the optimal sinter burden design in the sinter shop of No.1 Iron-making Plant in Tangshan Iron & Steel Corp was reported. By using burden calculation and simulating production under different situations, it is demonstrated that the technology can provide the relevant information in product quality and cost etc. for decision-makers. The technology has been used to guide production of the Sinter Shop since 2000, and a remarkable achievement has been obtained.

  12. The Psychological Burden of Skin Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgard, Florence J; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of psychological disorders to the burden of skin disease has been poorly explored, and this is a large-scale study to ascertain the association between depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation with various dermatological diagnoses. This international multicenter observational...... with depression and anxiety was highest for patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema, and leg ulcers. These results identify a major additional burden of skin disease and have important clinical implications....

  13. The injury mortality burden in Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Mamady Keita; Yao Hongyan; Zhang Xujun; Xiang Huiyun; Tan Hongzhuan; Hu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The injury mortality burden of Guinea has been rarely addressed. The paper aimed to report patterns of injury mortality burden in Guinea. Methods We retrieved the mortality data from the Guinean Annual Health Statistics Report 2007. The information about underlying cause of deaths was collected based on Guinean hospital discharge data, Hospital Mortuary and City Council Mortuary data. The causes of death are coded in the 9th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9)...

  14. Crystal Growth of Solid Solution HgCdTe Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of homogenous crystals of HgCdTe alloys is complicated by the large separation between their liquidus and solidus temperatures. Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te is representative of several alloys which have electrical and optical properties that can be compositionally tuned for a number of applications. Limitations imposed by gravity during growth and results from growth under reduced conditions are described. The importance of residual accelerations was demonstrated by dramatic differences in compositional distribution observed for different attitudes of the space shuttle that resulted in different steady acceleration components.

  15. Natural Hg isotopic composition of different Hg compounds in mammal tissues as a proxy for in vivo breakdown of toxic methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Vincent; Masbou, Jeremy; Pastukhov, Mikhail V; Epov, Vladimir N; Point, David; Bérail, Sylvain; Becker, Paul R; Sonke, Jeroen E; Amouroux, David

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, specific attention has been paid to total mercury (HgT) stable isotopic composition, especially in natural samples such as aquatic organisms, due to its potential to track the cycle of this toxic element in the environment. Here, we investigated Hg Compound Specific stable Isotopic Composition (CSIC) of natural inorganic Hg (iHg) and methylmercury (MMHg) in various tissues of aquatic mammals (Beluga whale from the Arctic marine environment and seals from the freshwater lake Baikal, Russia). In seals' organs the variation in mass dependent fractionation (MDF, δ(202)Hg) for total Hg was significantly correlated to the respective fraction of iHg and MMHg compounds, with MMHg being enriched by ∼ 3‰ in heavier isotopes relative to iHg. On the other hand, we observe insignificant variation in Hg mass independent isotope fractionation (MIF, Δ(199)Hg) among iHg and MMHg in all organs for the same mammal species and MMHg in prey items. MIF signatures suggest that both MMHg and iHg in aquatic mammals have the same origin (i.e., MMHg from food), and are representative of Hg photochemistry in the water column of the mammal ecosystem. MDF signatures of Hg compounds indicate that MMHg is demethylated in vivo before being stored in the muscle, and the iHg formed is stored in the liver, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, before excretion. Thus, Hg CSIC analysis in mammals can be a powerful tool for tracing the metabolic response to Hg exposure.

  16. Anti-aggregation-based spectrometric detection of Hg(II) at physiological pH using gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshwari, A; Karthiga, D; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-10-01

    An efficient detection method for Hg (II) ions at physiological pH (pH7.4) was developed using tween 20-modified gold nanorods (NRs) in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). Thiol groups (-SH) at the end of DTT have a higher affinity towards gold atoms, and they can covalently interact with gold NRs and leads to their aggregation. The addition of Hg(II) ions prevents the aggregation of gold NRs due to the covalent bond formation between the -SH group of DTT and Hg(II) ions in the buffer system. The changes in the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of gold NRs were characterized using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The absorption intensity peak of gold NRs at 679nm was observed to reduce after interaction with DTT, and the absorption intensity was noted to increase by increasing the concentration of Hg(II) ions. The TEM analysis confirms the morphological changes of gold NRs before and after addition of Hg(II) ions in the presence of DTT. Further, the aggregation and disaggregation of gold NRs were confirmed by particle size and zeta potential analysis. The developed method shows an excellent linearity (y=0.001x+0.794) for the graph plotted between the absorption ratio and Hg(II) concentration (1 to 100pM) under the optimized conditions. The limit of detection was noted to be 0.42pM in the buffer system. The developed method was tested in simulated body fluid, and it was found to have a good recovery rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic burden of colorectal cancer in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ju-Young; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-03-01

    The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention.

  18. Validation of the Burden Index of Caregivers (BIC, a multidimensional short care burden scale from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagiwara Akiko

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We constructed a concise multidimensional care burden scale that reflects circumstances unique to Japan, with a focus on intractable neurological diseases. We surveyed 646 family caregivers of patients with intractable neurological diseases or stroke using 28 preliminary care burden scale items obtained from qualitative research. The results were used to finalize the feeling of care burden scale (BIC: burden index of caregivers, and verify its reliability and validity. Methods The survey was conducted among caregivers providing home health care to patients with intractable neurological diseases (PD [Parkinson's disease], SCD [spinocerebellar degeneration], MSA [multiple system atrophy], and ALS [amyotrophic lateral sclerosis] or CVA (cerebrovascular accident using a mailed, self-administered questionnaire between November, 2003 and May, 2004. Results Response rates for neurological and CVA caregivers were 50% and 67%, respectively, or 646 in total (PD, 279; SCD, 78; MSA, 39; ALS, 30; and CVA, 220. Item and exploratory factor analyses led to a reduction to 11 items, comprising 10 items from the 5 domains of time-dependent burden, emotional burden, existential burden, physical burden, and service-related burden; and 1 item on total burden. Examination of validity showed a moderate correlation between each domain of the BIC and the SF-8 (Health related quality of life scale, Short Form-8, while the correlation coefficient of the overall BIC and CES-D was 0.62. Correlation between the BIC and ZBI, a preexisting care burden scale, was high (r = 0.84, while that with the time spent on providing care was 0.47. The ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient by test-retest reliability was 0.83, and 0.68 to 0.80 by individual domain. Conclusion These results show that the BIC, a new care burden scale comprising 11 items, is highly reliable and valid.

  19. Hubungan Paparan Merkuri (Hg Dengan Kejadian Gangguan Fungsi HatiPada Pekerja Tambang Emas di Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikie Astorina Yunita Dewanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional gold mining activities that using WOA/ amalgamation can cause Hg emissions to the environment. The emissions could raise mercury poisoning in the environment and human. Liver as a major part of the metabolism and accumulation of Hg in the human body, so that Hg could lead to liver damage. In the previous research, Hg exposure in male rats caused hepatotoxicosis. Average blood mercury levels of workers was 53.5 μg/m3. Objective: To determine the association between mercury (Hg exposure and theoccurance of liver dysfunction on gold mine workers at Jendi Village, sub-district Selogiri, Wonogiri District. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, total sample were 41 workers. The data obtained from the results of laboratory tests of blood samples and the results of the interview respondents.Data would be analyzed using biavariate and multivariate statstic test. Results:There was 41.16% of respondents were miners, processors as well as grates, the average of working period was 10 years, work duration 6 hours a  day and 6 days a week. 97.56% of respondents have blood mercury levels above normal (U.S. EPA: 5.8 ppb. Elevated levels of SGOT experienced by 24.4% of respondents , SGPT 17.1% of  respondents and ALP 58.8% of  respondents or as much as 68.3% of respondents having liver disfunction. There was no difference incidence of liver dysfunction seen from the type of work (p value = 0.459, There was no assossiation between  work duration, work period and blood mercury  levels with the incidence of liver disfunction in workers (p value = 0.148; 0.408 and 0.608. There was a relationship between blood mercury levels with SGPT as an indicator of liver dysfunction (p value = 0.042 Conclusion: Overall, the data did not provide strong evidence that mercury exposure associated with incidence of liver disfunction.   Keywords: mercury exposure, liver disfunction, SGOT, SGPT, ALP

  20. Psychological burden of food allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous,varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions.In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food.

  1. Variations in stable isotope fractionation of Hg in food webs of Arctic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Nikolaus; Hintelmann, Holger; Zheng, Wang; Muir, Derek C

    2009-12-15

    Biotic and abiotic fractionation of mercury (Hg) isotopes has recently been shown to occur in aquatic environments. We determined isotope ratios (IRs) of Hg in food webs (zooplankton, chironomids, Arctic char) and sediments of 10 Arctic lakes from four regions and investigated the extent of Hg isotope fractionation. Hg IRs were analyzed by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP/MS). Hg mass independent fractionation (MIF; Delta(199)Hg) and mass dependent fractionation (MDF; delta(202)Hg) were calculated and compared among samples. IRs of Hg in sediment were characterized mainly by MDF and low MIF (Delta(199)Hg -0.37 to 0.74 per thousand). However, all biota showed evidence of MIF, most pronounced in zooplankton (Delta(199)Hg up to 3.40 per thousand) and char (Delta(199)Hg up to 4.87 per thousand). Zooplankton takes up highly fractionated MeHg directly from the water column, while benthic organisms are exposed to sedimentary Hg, which contains less fractionated Hg. As evidenced by delta(13)C measurements, benthic chironomids make up a large proportion of char diet, explaining in part why MIF(char) meteor impact crater lake (Pingualuk) reflects a "pure" atmospheric Hg signature, which is modified only by aqueous in-lake processes. All other lakes are also affected by terrestrial Hg inputs and sediment processes.

  2. 46 CFR 53.01-5 - Scope (modifies HG-100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-5 Scope (modifies HG-100). (a) The regulations in this part apply to steam heating boilers, hot water boilers (which include hot water heating boilers and hot water supply...

  3. Decay from the superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformed bands in {sup 194}H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum {gamma}rays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in {sup 192}Hg. These features include: statistical {gamma}rays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from {gamma}rays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even {sup 191}Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum.

  4. Emission and gain studies of the Tl-Hg excimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilukuri, S.; Nayfeh, M.H.

    1978-11-01

    The pressure and temperature dependence of the Tl-Hg excimer emission in the visible from an rf excited discharge has been studied. The gain of the system in the blue band at 4585 A is probed with an Ar-ion laser. With gain sensitivity limited to 1/2% due to beam steering and defocusing effects, the system has no gain.

  5. Hypotension is 100 mm Hg on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    corroborate the predictive value of admission metabolic acidosis on patient survival. We also were able to show that an SBP of 110 mm Hg after injury was... metabolic acidosis , complications, length of stay, intensive care unit days, and ventilator days all increased. The implication of our result suggested

  6. Experimental study of 199Hg spin anti-relaxation coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhuri, Z; Horras, M; Kirch, K; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Mtchedlishvili, A; Rebreyend, D; Roccia, S; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Zsigmond, G

    2013-01-01

    We report on a comparison of spin relaxation rates in a $^{199}$Hg magnetometer using different wall coatings. A compact mercury magnetometer was built for this purpose. Glass cells coated with fluorinated materials show longer spin coherence times than if coated with their hydrogenated homologues. The longest spin relaxation time of the mercury vapor was measured with a fluorinated paraffin wall coating.

  7. Ion Beam Nanostructuring of HgCdTe Ternary Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Aleksey B.; Savkina, Rada K.; Udovytska, Ruslana S.; Gudymenko, Oleksandr I.; Kladko, Vasyl P.; Korchovyi, Andrii A.

    2017-05-01

    Systematic study of mercury cadmium telluride thin films subjected to the ion beam bombardment was carried out. The evolution of surface morphology of (111) Hg1 - x Cd x Te ( x 0.223) epilayers due to 100 keV B+ and Ag+ ion irradiation was studied by AFM and SEM methods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods were used for the investigation of the chemical compound and structural properties of the surface and subsurface region. It was found that in the range of nanoscale, arrays of holes and mounds on Hg0.777Cd0.223Te (111) surface as well as the polycrystalline Hg1 - x Cd x Te cubic phase with alternative compound ( x 0.20) have been fabricated using 100 keV ion beam irradiation of the basic material. Charge transport investigation with non-stationary impedance spectroscopy method has shown that boron-implanted structures are characterized by capacity-type impedance whereas for silver-implanted structures, an inductive-type impedance (or "negative capacitance") is observed. A hybrid system, which integrates the nanostructured ternary compound (HgCdTe) with metal-oxide (Ag2O) inclusions, was fabricated by Ag+ ion bombardment. The sensitivity of such metal-oxide-semiconductor hybrid structure for sub-THz radiation was detected with NEP 4.5 × 10-8 W/Hz1/2at ν ≈ 140 GHz and 296 K without amplification.

  8. Thermodynamics limits the reactivity of BrHg radical with volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Theodore S.; Schwid, Abraham C.

    2016-08-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere primarily consist of Hg(0), which tends not to enter ecosystems until it is oxidized. Atomic bromine initiates oxidation of Hg(0) via the BrHg intermediate, but the further reactions of BrHg are just beginning to be explored. Here we use quantum chemistry to determine that hydrogen abstraction from hydrocarbons by BrHg is so endothermic as to be irrelevant. Bonds between BrHg and carbon atoms are so weak that BrHg addition to carbon-carbon double bonds atoms will be somewhat ineffective in leading to further reactions.

  9. Isotopic Composition of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (Hg0) at Various Sites in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, A.; Moriya, K.; Yoshinaga, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal, which exists in various chemical forms in the environmental system. In the atmosphere, Hg exists in three forms (Hg0(g), Hg+2(g), and Hg(p)). Hg0(g) is the dominant species of atmospheric Hg, accounting for >95% of the total Hg in the atmosphere. Because Hg0(g) is highly volatile and has limited solubility in water, it cannot be easily removed by wet or dry deposition processes. Therefore, the residence time of Hg0(g) in the atmosphere is relatively long (1 to 2 years), allowing long-range transport from mercury emission source(s). Conversely, Hg+2(g) and Hg(p) are effectively removed from the atmosphere through wet and dry depositions. The determination of mercury source attribution using quantitative data is challenging because Hg0(g) may be deposited on an area upon oxidation to Hg+2(g) and associated with aerosols and particulates to form Hg(p) while the global cycling of Hg0(g). Over the last decade, the development of analytical methods of highly precise Hg isotopic measurements demonstrated mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in environmental samples. For instance, MDF of Hg isotopes is thought to occur during various natural and industrial Hg transformations. MIF of Hg isotopes is observed during abiotic reduction, photochemical and non-photochemical, and physical and chemical processes. Such processes lead to differences in the Hg isotopic composition of different emission sources, both natural and anthropogenic, and atmospheric processes (i.e., transportation, oxidation/reduction, deposition, and reemission). Therefore, Hg isotopic compositions could be used to trace the sources and processes of atmospheric Hg. For securing the reliability and accuracy of atmospheric Hg isotope data, the methods of collection, pretreatment, and isotopic measurement for Hg0(g) were developed to obtain high recovery yield of samples with no Hg isotopic fractionation during each

  10. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input/output processes. In this study, the main controls on Hg methylation rates and total concentrations of MeHg, were investigated at eight sites in Sweden with sediments that had been subjected to local Hg contamination either as Hg(0), or as phenyl-Hg. Sediments were selected to represent a gradient in total Hg concentration, temperature climate, salinity, primary productivity, and organic C content and quality. Most sediments were high in organic matter content due to wood fibre efflux from pulp and paper industry. The pore water was analysed for total Hg, MeHg, DOC, H2S(aq), pH, DOC, Cl and Br. The chemical speciation of Hg(II) and MeHg in pore water was calculated using equilibrium models. Potential methylation and demethylation rates in sediments were determined in incubation experiments at 23° C under N2(g) for 48 h, after addition of isotopically enriched 201Hg(II) and Me204Hg. In all surface (0-20 cm) sediments there was a significant (pproduction overruled degradation and input/output processes of MeHg in surface sediments, and that % MeHg in surface sediments may be used as a proxy for net production of MeHg. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing significant positive relationships between short term (48 h) MeHg production and longer term accumulation of MeHg, across a range of sites with different properties (1). If MeHg was not normalized to total Hg, the relationship was not significant. For sub-sets of brackish waters (pproductivity freshwaters (pproductivity freshwater (p=0.048, n=6), the sum of neutral Hg-sulfides [Hg(SH)20 (aq)] and [HgS0 (aq)] in the sediment pore

  11. Growth, properties and applications of HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, J. L.

    1983-12-01

    This paper provides primarily a review of the methods used to grow HgCdTe with a summary of some of its basic properties and applications. Methods of crystal growth fall generally into three classes: growth from the melt, from solution and from the vapor phase. All three methods have been and are being used to grow HgCdTe. The high vapor pressure of HgCdTe at the melting point, combined with a large segregation coefficient, have effectively limited the use of Czochralski or zone melting techniques, but two melt growth techniques have survived: (1) a variation of Bridgman growth called quench-anneal wherein a dendritic crystal is formed by quenching the melt and is homogenized by solid state recrystallization below the melting point, (2) a variation of freezing from a large volume called slush-growth wherein a melt is held in a temperature gradient for several weeks while a crystal grows. Growth from solution has taken the form of liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on CdTe with the LPE systems including growth from Hg-rich, HgTe-rich and Te-rich solutions and using tipping, vertical dipping, vertical sliding and horizontal sliding. Vapor phase growth is very promising but is not yet in production. Techniques include growth by isothermal close spaced epitaxy in which HgTe is transported isothermally by chemical potential onto CdTe, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in which elements are evaporated in a high vacuum, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in which some of the metal atoms are carried to the substrate bound to organic radicals before being freed by pyrolysis. In all these methods, control of Hg pressure is a major concern. The fundamental properties discussed briefly are those of prime interest to detector manufacturers: energy gap ( Eg), intrinsic carrier concentration ( ni), and electrical activity of dopants. A reasonable fit to the Eg data from ˜ 20 papers is given by Eg = -0.302+1.93x+5.35×10 -4T(1-2x)-0.810x 2+0.832x 3. This gap, combined with k

  12. Formation of PdHg by reaction of palladium thin film contacts deposited onto mercuric iodide ({alpha}-HgI{sub 2}) radiation detector crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medlin, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Van Scyoc, J.M. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Gilbert, T.S. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Schlesinger, T.E. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Boehme, D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Schieber, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Natarajan, M. [TN Technologies, Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); James, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The microstructure and phase distribution of palladium thin films sputter deposited onto {alpha}-HgI{sub 2} for use as electrical contacts in radiation detectors are investigated using electron microscopy. Our results show a limited reaction to form palladium mercuride (PdHg). It is shown that the formation of PdHg via several reaction pathways is thermodynamically feasible. (orig.).

  13. Burden of childhood-onset arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassett Afton L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile arthritis comprises a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases causing erosive arthritis in children, often progressing to disability. These children experience functional impairment due to joint and back pain, heel pain, swelling of joints and morning stiffness, contractures, pain, and anterior uveitis leading to blindness. As children who have juvenile arthritis reach adulthood, they face possible continuing disease activity, medication-associated morbidity, and life-long disability and risk for emotional and social dysfunction. In this article we will review the burden of juvenile arthritis for the patient and society and focus on the following areas: patient disability; visual outcome; other medical complications; physical activity; impact on HRQOL; emotional impact; pain and coping; ambulatory visits, hospitalizations and mortality; economic impact; burden on caregivers; transition issues; educational occupational outcomes, and sexuality. The extent of impact on the various aspects of the patients', families' and society's functioning is clear from the existing literature. Juvenile arthritis imposes a significant burden on different spheres of the patients', caregivers' and family's life. In addition, it imposes a societal burden of significant health care costs and utilization. Juvenile arthritis affects health-related quality of life, physical function and visual outcome of children and impacts functioning in school and home. Effective, well-designed and appropriately tailored interventions are required to improve transitioning to adult care, encourage future vocation/occupation, enhance school function and minimize burden on costs.

  14. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  15. Comparison of the characteristics and mechanisms of Hg(II) sorption by biochars and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Schierz, Ariette; Xu, Nan; Cao, Xinde

    2016-02-01

    Two biochars were produced from bagasse and hickory chips (referred to as BB and HCB, respectively) and evaluated for their sorption ability of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. A commercial activated carbon (AC) which is commonly used for Hg(II) removal was included for comparison. Both biochars showed higher sorption capacities than AC, following the trend of BB>HCB>AC. The sorption of Hg(II) by BB and AC was mainly attributed to the formation of (COO)2Hg(II) and (O)2Hg(II). As a result, the adsorption capacity of Hg(II) by BB decreased 17.6% and 37.6% after COOH and OH were blocked, respectively and that of Hg(II) by AC decreased 6.63% and 62.2% for COOH and OH hindered, respectively. However, blocking the function groups had little effect on the Hg removal by HCB since sorption of Hg(II) by HCB was mainly resulted from the π electrons of CC and CO induced Hg-π binding. Further X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated the possibility of reduction of the Hg(II) to Hg(I) by phenol groups or π electrons during the removal of Hg(II) by both biochars. In conclusion, biochar is more effective than activated carbon in removing Hg(II) and there exists a high potential that biochar can be a substitute of activated carbon for removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  16. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  17. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  18. The unrecognized burden of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaro, Stephen K; Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Mintz, Eric Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Typhoid fever (TF), caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is the most common cause of enteric fever, responsible for an estimated 129,000 deaths and more than 11 million cases annually. Although several reviews have provided global and regional TF disease burden estimates, major gaps in our understanding of TF epidemiology remain. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the gaps in current estimates of TF disease burden and offer suggestions for addressing them, so that affected communities can receive the full potential of disease prevention offered by vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions. Expert commentary: Current disease burden estimates for TF do not capture cases from certain host populations, nor those with atypical presentations of TF, which may lead to substantial underestimation of TF cases and deaths. These knowledge gaps pose major obstacles to the informed use of current and new generation typhoid vaccines.

  19. Treatment Burden of Medicare Beneficiaries With Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Soulos, Pamela R; Tinetti, Mary; Montori, Victor M; Yu, James B; Gross, Cary P

    2016-12-20

    To quantify the burden and complexity associated with treatment of Medicare beneficiaries with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using the SEER-Medicare database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries who were diagnosed with stage I NSCLC from 2007 to 2011 and who were treated with surgery, stereotactic body radiation therapy, or external beam radiation therapy. Main outcome measures were the number of days a patient was in contact with the health care system (encounter days), the number of physicians involved in a patient's care, and the number of medications prescribed. Logistic regression modeled the association between patient characteristics, treatment type, and high treatment burden (defined as ≥ 66 encounter days). On average, 7,955 patients spent 1 in 3 days interacting with the health care system during the initial 60 days of treatment. Patients experienced a median of 44 encounter days with high variability (interquartile range [IQR], 29 to 66) in the 12 months after treatment initiation. The median number of physicians involved was 20 (IQR, 14 to 28), and the median number of medications prescribed was 12 (IQR, 8 to 17). Patients who were treated with surgery had high treatment burden (predicted probability, 21.6%; 95% CI, 20.2 to 23.1) compared with patients who were treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (predicted probability, 16.1%; 95% CI, 12.9 to 19.3), whereas patients who were treated with external beam radiation therapy had the highest burden (predicted probability, 46.8%; 95% CI, 43.3 to 50.2). The treatment burden imposed on patients with early-stage NSCLC was substantial in terms of the number of encounters, physicians involved, and medications prescribed. Because treatment burden varied markedly across patients and treatment types, future work should identify opportunities to understand and ameliorate this burden.

  20. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  1. Effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2) on Betta splendens aggressive display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Bruno de Matos; Cavalcante, Caio Neno Silva; dos Santos, Bruno Rodrigues; Gouveia Júnior, Amauri

    2012-03-01

    Mercury chloride (HgCl2) is a toxic mercury salt and a major pollutant, that can be found in soil, water and air, with influences on behavior, physiology and adaptation to the environment. In this study two experiments were designed to examine interactions and effects of HgCl2 on some behavioral patterns of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). In the first experiment we tested the effect of a progressive dose (five 0.04 mg) on aggressive display with exposure to a mirror, whereas in the second experiment we tested the effect of an acute dose (0.2 mg) on the aggressive display with exposure to a mirror. The experiments were performed on 5 consecutive sessions at intervals of 18 hours between sessions. Differences of performance were shown by subjects in the acute and progressive treatments when compared with a control treatment in the majority of behaviors evaluated, namely Floating, Slow Swimming, Wavy Swimming, Emerging, Bend, Square Move and Motor Display Components. Acute treatment was different from control only on Show Body, while the progressive group differed on Resting, Horizontal Display and Appropriate Display Components. Differences between Correlate Display Components and Total were also shown. Both the acute and progressive contamination with HgCl2 decrease the motor activity in the aggressive display, mirror-image test of Betta splendens, mainly on the progressive dose. This implies an impairment on feeding behavior, predator avoidance, reproductive behavior, mate choice and territoriality. These results suggest that in this fish species, the progressive dose has a greater effect on behavior in general and that both the acute and progressive contamination with mercury chloride affect many other aspects of behavior.

  2. High removal efficacy of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) ions from aqueous solution by organoalkoxysilane-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Norasikin; Johari, Khairiraihanna; Song, Shiow-Tien; Kong, Helen; Cheu, Siew-Chin; Mat, Hanapi

    2017-03-01

    An effective organoalkoxysilanes-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass (OS-LWB) adsorbent aiming for high removal towards inorganic and organic mercury (Hg(II) and MeHg(II)) ions was prepared. Organoalkoxysilanes (OS) namely mercaptoproyltriethoxylsilane (MPTES), aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTES), aminoethylaminopropyltriethoxylsilane (AEPTES), bis(triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide (BTESPT), methacrylopropyltrimethoxylsilane (MPS) and ureidopropyltriethoxylsilane (URS) were grafted onto the LWB using the same conditions. The MPTES grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass (MPTES-LWB) showed the highest adsorption capacity towards both mercury ions. The adsorption behavior of inorganic and organic mercury ions (Hg(II) and MeHg(II)) in batch adsorption studies shows that it was independent with pH of the solutions and dependent on initial concentration, temperature and contact time. The maximum adsorption capacity of Hg(II) was greater than MeHg(II) which respectively followed the Temkin and Langmuir models. The kinetic data analysis showed that the adsorptions of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) onto MPTES-LWB were respectively controlled by the physical process of film diffusion and the chemical process of physisorption interactions. The overall mechanism of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) adsorption was a combination of diffusion and chemical interaction mechanisms. Regeneration results were very encouraging especially for the Hg(II); this therefore further demonstrated the potential application of organosilane-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass as low-cost adsorbents for mercury removal process.

  3. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Teresa; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    and impact of HAE types I and II from the patient perspective. The HAE Burden of Illness Study in Europe was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE from the patient perspective via a one-time survey, which included items on clinical characteristics and physical......Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The broad range of consequences of HAE on patients? lives is not well understood. The study objective was to comprehensively characterize the burden of illness...

  4. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh SL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Siew Li Teoh,1 Huey Yi Chong,1 Salina Abdul Aziz,2 Norliza Chemi,2 Abdul Razak Othman,2 Nurzuriana Md Zaki,2 Possatorn Vanichkulpitak,3 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,4–6 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, 4Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 6Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21 Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaIntroduction: Schizophrenia (SCZ is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL. The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient’s identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted.Results: The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million

  5. Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla(HP)-171005 (India); Thakur, Anil [Department of Physics, Govt. P. G. College Solan (HP)-173212 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70}, Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30} and Hg{sub 90}In{sub 10}) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.

  6. Removal of Hg~0 with sodium chlorite solution and mass transfer reaction kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The absorption behavior of Hg0 was studied experimentally by using sodium chlorite solution(NaClO2) as the absorbent in a bubble reactor.Primary influencing factors on removal efficiency of Hg0 such as NaClO2 concentration,pH,reaction temperature and the concentration of Hg0 were investigated.The results indicated that 72.91% of Hg0 removal efficiency could be achieved in acidic NaClO2 solution.The removal mechanism of Hg0 was proposed by analyzing of Hg2+ concentration in ab-sorption solution after reaction and comparing the electrode potentials between NaClO2 species and Hg2+/Hg0.The experimental results of mass transfer-reaction kinetics on oxidation of Hg0 by NaClO2 solution showed that with the increase of NaClO2 concentration and the decrease of pH value,the enhancement factor(E) and ratio of KG(Hg0)/kG(Hg0) increased and the liquid phase mass transfer resistance decreased,which is benefit to the mass transfer adsorption reaction.Although the increase of reaction temperature could improve the enhancement factor(E),but the ratio of KG(Hg0)/kG(Hg0) decreased;as a result,the liquid phase mass transfer resistance increased,therefore,the reaction rate for removal of Hg0 decreased.

  7. 640 X 480 Pace HgCdTe FPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lester J.; Bailey, Robert B.; Cabelli, Scott A.; Cooper, Donald E.; McComas, Gail D.; Vural, Kadri; Tennant, William E.

    1992-12-01

    A hybrid HgCdTe 640 X 480 infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) that meets the sensitivity, resolution, and field-of-view requirements of high-performance medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) imaging systems has been developed. The key technology making this large, high sensitivity device producible is the epitaxial growth of HgCdTe on a CdTe-buffered, sapphire substrate (referred to as PACE, for Producible Alternative to CdTe for Epitaxy; PACE-I refers to sapphire). The device offers TV resolution with excellent sensitivity at temperatures below 120 K. Mean NE(Delta) T as low as 13 mK has been achieved at operating temperatures nonuniformity compensation.

  8. Electrical Conductivity of HgTe at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Su, C.-H.; Scripa, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of HgTe was measured using a rotating magnetic field method from 300 K to the melting point (943 K). A microscopic theory for electrical conduction was used to calculate the expected temperature dependence of the HgTe conductivity. A comparison between the measured and calculated conductivities was used to obtain the estimates of the temperature dependence of Gamma(sub 6)-Gamma(sub 8) energy gap from 300 K to 943 K. The estimated temperature coefficient for the energy gap was comparable to the previous results at lower temperatures (less than or equal to 300 K). A rapid increase in the conductivity just above 300 K and a subsequent decrease at 500 K is attributed to band crossover effects. This paper describes the experimental approach and some of the theoretical calculation details.

  9. Electronic structure of rectangular HgTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Ji

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the single- and few-electron ground-states properties of HgTe topological insulator quantum dots with rectangular hard-wall confining potential using configuration interaction method. For the case of single electron, the edge states is robust against the deformation from a square quantum dot to a rectangular ones, in contrast to the bulk states, the energy gap of the QDs increased due to the coupling of the opposite edge states; for the case of few electrons, the electrons first fill the edge states in the bulk band gap and the addition energy exhibit universal even-odd oscillation due to the shape-independent two-fold degeneracy of the edge states. The size of this edge shell can be controlled by tuning the dot size, shape or the bulk band gap via lateral or vertical electric gating respectively of the HgTe quantum dot.

  10. Epidemiology and burden of alopecia areata: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villasante Fricke AC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra C Villasante Fricke, Mariya MitevaDepartment of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USABackground: Alopecia areata (AA is an autoimmune disorder characterized by patches of non-scarring alopecia affecting scalp and body hair that can be psychologically devastating. AA is clinically heterogenous, and its natural history is unpredictable. There is no preventative therapy or cure.Objective: The objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based systematic review on the epidemiology and the burden of AA.Methods and selection criteria: A search was conducted of the published, peer-reviewed literature via PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Studies published in English within the last 51 years that measured AA’s incidence, prevalence, distribution, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, quality of life, and associated psychiatric and medical comorbidities were included. Two authors assessed studies and extracted the data.Results: The lifetime incidence of AA is approximately 2% worldwide. Both formal population studies found no sex predominance. First onset is most common in the third and fourth decades of life but may occur at any age. An earlier age of first onset corresponds with an increased lifetime risk of extensive disease. Global DALYs for AA were calculated at 1,332,800 in 2010. AA patients are at risk for depression and anxiety, atopy, vitiligo, thyroid disease, and other autoimmune conditions.Conclusion: AA is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder and the second most prevalent hair loss disorder after androgenetic alopecia, and the lifetime risk in the global population is approximately 2%. AA is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and several autoimmune disorders, and an increased global burden of disease.Keywords: hair loss, hair, prevalence, incidence, burden of disease

  11. Hvordan understøttes hg-elevers kompetenceudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, Karin Løvenskjold; Hansen, Jens Ager; Karmark, Ole

    Publikationen handler om, hvordan hg-elever arbejder og dermed lærer og udvikler kvalifikationer og kompetencer i de undervisnings- og arbejdsformer, de indgår i. Indholdet er baseret på observationer af elever i klasseundervisning, gruppearbejde eller individuel arbejde i forlængelse af...... klasseundervisning og af elever i projektarbejde. Observationerne er gennemført på tre jyske handelsskoler....

  12. Decay studies and mass measurements on isobarically pure neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Schweikhard, L C; Savreux, R P; Hager, U D K; Beck, D; Blaum, K

    2007-01-01

    We propose to perform mass measurements followed by $\\beta$- and $\\gamma$-decay studies on isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes, which are very poorly known due to a large contamination at ISOL-facilities with surface-ionised francium. The aim is to study the binding energies of mother Hg and Tl nuclides, as well as the energies, spins and parities of the excited and ground states in the daughter Tl and Pb isotopes. The proposed studies will address a new subsection of the nuclear chart, with Z 126, where only 9 nuclides have been observed so far. Our studies will provide valuable input for mass models and shell-model calculations: they will probe the proton hole-neutron interaction and will allow to refine the matrix elements for the two-body residual interaction. Furthermore, they also give prospects for discovering new isomeric states or even new isotopes, for which the half-lives are predicted in the minute- and second-range.\\\\ To reach the isobaric purity, the experiments will be p...

  13. Analysis of protein expression in developmental toxicity induced by MeHg in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, Susana; Ximénez-Embún, Pilar; Ruppen, Isabel; Schonthaler, Helia B; Ashman, Keith; Madrid, Yolanda; Luque-Garcia, Jose L; Cámara, Carmen

    2012-11-21

    Mercury toxicity and its implications in development are a major concern, due to the major threat to ecosystems and human health that this compound represents. Although some of the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms of interaction between this compound and developing organisms are still not completely understood. To provide further insights into these mechanisms, we carried out a quantitative proteomic study (iTRAQ) using zebrafish larvae exposed to 5 μg L(-1) and 25 μg L(-1) MeHg as a model. In this study, a multidimensional approach combining isoelectric focusing (IEF) and strong cation exchange (SCX) followed by reversed phase liquid chromatography prior to MALDI TOF/TOF analysis was employed, which resulted in a substantial increase in proteome coverage. Among the proteins identified, 71 were found de-regulated by more than 1.5-fold, and implicated in embryonic development, protein synthesis, calcium homeostasis and energy production. Furthermore, morphological and histological analysis of exposed larvae was carried out, reflecting changes such as smaller swim bladder, remaining yolk, bent body axis and accumulation of blood in the heart, among others.

  14. EDTA and urease effects on Hg accumulation by Lepidium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolińska, Beata; Cedzyńska, Krystyna

    2007-11-01

    The phytoextraction process was conducted under laboratory conditions with the use of garden cress plants (Lepidium sativum). The experiment was carried out in a model soil, which was characterized before conducting the process. Inorganic forms of mercury (HgCl(2), HgSO(4), Hg(NO(3))(2)) were used for contamination of the soil. The phytoextraction process was conducted after EDTA application to the soil and after urease application. Also the influence of simultaneous addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and urease into the soil on phytoextraction process was measured. In all variants of phytoextraction process the total mercury concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of garden cress were determined. The result showed that garden cress accumulated mercury from soil. The overall maximum concentration of mercury in its compounds was found in roots of the plant. In all cases, before addition of urease and EDTA, the translocation process and distribution of mercury in the plant tissues were limited. The addition of urease caused an increase of enzyme activity in the soil and at the same time caused an increase of mercury concentration in plant tissues. Application of EDTA increased solubility of mercury and caused an increase of metal accumulation by plants. After simultaneous addition of EDTA and urease into the soil garden cress accumulated about 20% of total mercury concentration in the soil. Most of mercury compounds were accumulated in leaves and stems of the plants (46.0-56.9% of total mercury concentration in the plant tissues).

  15. Barrier formation at graded HgTe/CdTe heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, D.; Asa, G.; Nemirovsky, Y.

    1996-11-01

    Numerical calculations of graded HgTe/CdTe heterojunction (HJ) band diagrams at equilibrium are presented and discussed. The calculations are performed in the entire compositional range (0HJs are examined as a function of the graded region width and the graded region doping profiles. The graded region width and doping profiles were found to be the two main factors that determine whether barriers are formed as well as their shape and magnitude. The calculated results indicate that epitaxial ohmic HgTe contacts to extrinsic CdTe are possible, provided that the graded region is wider than one micron, and that it has the same doping type as the doping of the substrate with equal or higher absolute value. Further numerical calculations take into consideration the possible existence of distributed interface charges in the graded region of the HJ. It is shown that by assuming a classical transport over the potential barrier, the effective graded interface charge can be determined from the zero bias differential resistance of the HJ. Experimental transport measurements of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown HgTe/p-CdTe graded HJs show a varying degree of rectification, indicating variations in the graded interface charge distributions which result from different MOCVD growth conditions.

  16. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzmaurice, C.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Naghavi, M.R.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs),

  17. Periodontal inflamed surface area : quantifying inflammatory burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Abbas, Frank; van der Ploeg, Ids; Spijkervet, Frederik Karst Lucien; Dijkstra, Pieter Ubele; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Currently, a large variety of classifications is used for periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases. None of these classifications quantifies the amount of inflamed periodontal tissue, while this information is needed to assess the inflammatory burden posed by periodontitis. Aim:

  18. 78 FR 42893 - Statement on Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... serve the credit needs of its customers, i.e., America's farmers, ranchers, aquatic producers and... CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Chapter VI RIN 3052-AC88 Statement on Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of intent; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA,...

  19. OPERATOR BURDEN IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging manufacturing process that creates usable machine parts via layer-by-layer joining of a stock material. With this layer-wise approach, high-performance geometries can be created which are impossible with traditional manufacturing methods. Metal AM technology has the potential to significantly reduce the manufacturing burden of developing custom hardware; however, a major consideration in choosing a metal AM system is the required amount of operator involvement (i.e., operator burden) in the manufacturing process. The operator burden not only determines the amount of operator training and specialization required but also the usability of the system in a facility. As operators of several metal AM processes, the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Labs is uniquely poised to provide insight into requirements for operator involvement in each of the three major metal AM processes. The paper covers an overview of each of the three metal AM technologies, focusing on the burden on the operator to complete the build cycle, process the part for final use, and reset the AM equipment for future builds.

  20. Periodontal inflamed surface area : quantifying inflammatory burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Abbas, Frank; van der Ploeg, Ids; Spijkervet, Frederik Karst Lucien; Dijkstra, Pieter Ubele; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Currently, a large variety of classifications is used for periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases. None of these classifications quantifies the amount of inflamed periodontal tissue, while this information is needed to assess the inflammatory burden posed by periodontitis. Aim:

  1. 77 FR 47328 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity). The regulatory process... businesses and the public. Agencies consider low-cost approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility...-regulatory-system . The Department is committed to maintaining a consistent culture of retrospective...

  2. Economic Burden of Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Maximilian; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Nilsson, Peter M; Saha, Sanjib

    2017-04-19

    Background: The rising prevalence of obesity represents an important public health issue. An assessment of its costs may be useful in providing recommendations for policy and decision makers. This systematic review aimed to assess the economic burden of obesity and to identify, measure and describe the different obesity-related diseases included in the selected studies. Methods: A systematic literature search of studies in the English language was carried out in Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science databases to select cost-of-illness studies calculating the cost of obesity in a study population aged ≥18 years with obesity, as defined by a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m², for the whole selected country. The time frame for the analysis was January 2011 to September 2016. Results: The included twenty three studies reported a substantial economic burden of obesity in both developed and developing countries. There was considerable heterogeneity in methodological approaches, target populations, study time frames, and perspectives. This prevents an informative comparison between most of the studies. Specifically, there was great variety in the included obesity-related diseases and complications among the studies. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent obesity in order to save societal resources. Moreover, international consensus is required on standardized methods to calculate the cost of obesity to improve homogeneity and comparability. This aspect should also be considered when including obesity-related diseases.

  3. Phase diagrams and microscopic structures of (Hg,Cd)Te, (Hg,Zn)Te, and (Cd,Zn)Te alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, R. S.; Chen, A.-B.; Sher, A.; Berding, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    A cluster theory based on the quasi-chemical approximation has been applied to study the local correlation bond-length distribution, and phase diagrams of the II-VI pseudobinary alloys Hg(1 - x)Cd(x)Te, Hg(1 - x)Zn(x)Te, and Cd(1 - x)Zn(x)Te. The cluster energy is calculated by letting it relax in some effective alloy medium and then considering the contributions from the strain and chemical energies. Two different models are presented to simulate the alloy medium. While both models show that all three alloys have nearly random distributions, the signs of the local correlation prove to be sensitive to the alloy medium chosen for the energy calculation. Good agreement is found between experiment and the bond lengths and phase diagrams in both models.

  4. Selective Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by hydrolyzed acrylamide-grafted PET films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nazia; Sato, Nobuhiro; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Hidaka, Yoshiki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Selective Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions of Hg(II) and Pb(II) using hydrolyzed acrylamide (AAm)-grafted polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was examined to explore the potential reuse of waste PET materials. Selective recovery of Hg(II) from a mixture of soft acids with similar structure, such as Hg(II) and Pb(II), is important to allow the reuse of recovered Hg(II). An adsorbent for selective Hg(II) adsorption was prepared by γ-ray-induced grafting of AAm onto PET films followed by partial hydrolysis through KOH treatment. The adsorption capacity of the AAm-grafted PET films for Hg(II) ions increased from 15 to 70 mg/g after partial hydrolysis because of the reduction of hydrogen bonding between -CONH2 groups and the corresponding improved access of metal ions to the amide groups. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorbent film showed high selectivity for the adsorption of Hg(II) over Pb(II) throughout the entire initial metal concentration range (100-500 mg/L) and pH range (2.2-5.6) studied. The high selectivity is attributed to the ability of Hg(II) ions to form covalent bonds with the amide groups. The calculated selectivity coefficient for the adsorbent binding Hg(II) over Pb(II) was 19.2 at pH 4.5 with an initial metal concentration of 100 mg/L. Selective Hg(II) adsorption equilibrium data followed the Langmuir model and kinetic data were well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation. The adsorbed Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions were effectively desorbed from the adsorbent film by acid treatment, and the regenerated film showed no marked loss of adsorption capacity upon reuse for selective Hg(II) adsorption.

  5. Enhanced Hg{sup 2+} removal and Hg{sup 0} re-emission control from wet fuel gas desulfurization liquors with additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingmei Tang; Jiang Xu; Rongjie Lu; Jingjing Wo; Xinhua Xu [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0}. The present study employed three agents: Na{sub 2}S, 2,4,6-trimercaptotiazine, trisodium salt nonahydrate (TMT) and sodium dithiocarbamate (DTCR) to precipitate aqueous Hg{sup 2+} in simulated desulfurization solutions. The effects of the precipitator's dosing quantity, the initial pH value, the reaction temperature, the concentrations of Cl{sup -} and other metal ions (e.g. Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}) on Hg{sup 2+} removal were studied. A linear relationship was observed between Hg{sup 2+} removal efficiency and the increasing precipitator's doses along with initial pH. The addition of chloride and metal ions impaired the Hg{sup 2+} removal from solutions due to the complexation of Cl{sup -} and Hg{sup 2+} as well as the chelating competition between Hg{sup 2+} and other metal ions. Based on a comprehensive comparison of the treatment effects, DTCR was found to be the most effective precipitating agent. Moreover, all the precipitating agents were potent enough to inhibit Hg{sup 2+} reduction as well as Hg{sup 0} re-emission from FGD liquors. More than 90% Hg{sup 2+} was captured by precipitating agents while Hg{sup 2+} reduction efficiency decreased from 54% to just less than 3%. The additives could efficiently control the secondary Hg{sup 0} pollution from FGD liquors. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Characterization of HgCdTe and HgCdSe Materials for Third Generation Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    etched HgCdTe photodiode .................................. 13 1.6 (a) Hybrid IR FPA, (b) cross section of structure, (c) indium bumps on Si...to areas of approximately 30 cm2. At this size, the wafers used for growth are unable to accommodate more than two 1024 × 1024 FPAs.3 For more...clear advantages over the other substrates because of its low cost, large wafer size, and a thermal-expansion coefficient that perfectly matches

  7. New μs isomers in the neutron-rich {sup 210}Hg nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardo, A., E-mail: andrea.gottardo@lnl.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro, 35020 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, 35131 (Italy); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro, 35020 (Italy); Benzoni, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano, 20133 (Italy); Gadea, A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de València, València, E-46980 (Spain); Lunardi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, 35131 (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova, 35131 (Italy); Boutachkov, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, D-64291 (Germany); Bruce, A.M. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Brighton, BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Górska, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, D-64291 (Germany); Grebosz, J. [Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Krakow, PL-31-342 (Poland); Pietri, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, D-64291 (Germany); Podolyák, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Pfützner, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, PL-00681 (Poland); Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Weick, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, D-64291 (Germany); Alcántara Núñez, J. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, E-175706 (Spain); and others

    2013-10-01

    Neutron-rich nuclei in the lead region, beyond N=126, have been studied at the FRS-RISING setup at GSI, exploiting the fragmentation of a primary uranium beam. Two isomeric states have been identified in {sup 210}Hg: the 8{sup +} isomer expected from the seniority scheme in the νg{sub 9/2} shell and a second one at low spin and low excitation energy. The decay strength of the 8{sup +} isomer confirms the need of effective three-body forces in the case of neutron-rich lead isotopes. The other unexpected low-lying isomer has been tentatively assigned as a 3{sup −} state, although this is in contrast with theoretical expectations.

  8. Caregiver Burden: Looking Beyond the Unidimensional Total Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sabrina; Chong, Mei Sian; Ali, Noorhazlina; Chan, Mark; Chua, Kia Chong; Lim, Wee Shiong

    2015-01-01

    The Zarit Burden Interview allows caregiver burden to be interpreted from a total score. However, recent studies propose a multidimensional Zarit Burden Interview model. This study aims to determine the agreement between unidimensional (UD) and multidimensional (MD) classification of burden, and differences in predictors among identified groups. We studied 165 dyads of dementia patients and primary caregivers. Caregivers were dichotomized into low-burden and high-burden groups based upon: (1) UD score using quartile cutoffs; and (2) MD model via exploratory cluster analysis. We compared UD versus MD 2×2 classification of burden using κ statistics. Caregivers not showing agreement by either definition were classified as "intermediate" burden. We performed binary logistic regression to ascertain differences in predictive factors. The 2 models showed moderate agreement (κ=0.72, P<0.01), yielding 104 low, 20 intermediate (UD "low burden"/MD "high burden"), and 41 high-burden caregivers. Neuropsychiatric symptoms [odds ratio (OR)=1.27, P=0.003], coresidence (OR=6.32, P=0.040), and decreased caregiving hours (OR=0.99, P=0.018) were associated with intermediate burden, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms (OR=1.21, P=0.001) and adult children caregivers (OR=2.80, P=0.055) were associated with high burden. Our results highlight the differences between UD and MD classification of caregiver burden. Future studies should explore the significance of the noncongruent intermediate group and its predictors.

  9. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Franco, E-mail: baldi@unive.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Faleri, Claudia [Department of Environmental Science ‘G. Sarfatti’, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy); Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Via Romana, 17, University of Florence, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup −1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified

  10. Dielectric properties of nanophase Ag2HgI4 and Ag2HgI4–Al2O3 nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sankara Narayanan Potty; M Abdul Khadar

    2000-10-01

    The dielectric properties of nanophase Ag2HgI4 and Ag2HgI4–Al2O3 nanocomposites at different frequencies have been studied over a temperature range covering the stability range of phase of Ag2HgI4 and beyond the to phase transition temperature. ', tan and a.c. of nanophase Ag2HgI4 and Ag2HgI4–Al2O3 nanocomposites were found to be larger than the reported values for polycrystalline pellets of Ag2HgI4 . The dielectric properties of the nanocomposites were found to be a function of the wt.% of nano alumina. The observed changes are attributed to the grain boundary properties of nanophase materials and to the microsize space charge effects.

  11. On-line method of determining utilization factor in Hg-196 photochemical separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Moskowitz, Philip E.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining the utilization factor [U] in a photochemical mercury enrichment process (.sup.196 Hg) by measuring relative .sup.196 Hg densities using absorption spectroscopy.

  12. Stability and diffusion of Hg implanted YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, J P; Wahl, U; Marques, J G; Alves, E; Amaral, V S; Lourenço, A A; Galindo, V; Von Papen, T; Senateur, J P; Weiss, F; Vantomme, A; Langouche, G; Melo, A A; Da Silva, M F A; Soares, J C; Sousa, J B

    1999-01-01

    The radioactive isotope $^{197m}$Hg was implanted at 60 keV with low fluences (10$^{13}$ ions/cm$^{2}$ ) into YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$ (YBCO) superconducting thin films at ISOLDE/CERN. We report on the Hg dynamics and stability inside the YBCO lattice as a function of annealing temperature up to 890 K in vacuum or O$_{2}$ atmosphere. The perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique was used for probing the Hg behavior at the atomic scale, while by monitoring the sample's activity in situ the Hg outdiffusion was studied. We found that Hg ions occupy unique lattice sites and that Hg should be bound to two apical oxygens. Hg diffusion occurs only for annealing temperatures above 653 K, in vacuum. The Hg migration energy was estimated to be EM = 1.58 $\\pm$ 0.15 eV.

  13. Impacts of forest harvesting on mobilization of Hg and MeHg in drained peatland forests on black schist or felsic bedrock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Starr, Mike; Kantola, Marjatta; Laurén, Ari; Piispanen, Juha; Pietilä, Heidi; Perämäki, Paavo; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuomivirta, Tero; Heikkinen, Juha; Mäkinen, Jari; Nieminen, Tiina M

    2016-04-01

    Forest harvesting, especially when intensified harvesting method as whole-tree harvesting with stump lifting (WTHs) are used, may increase mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) leaching to recipient water courses. The effect can be enhanced if the underlying bedrock and overburden soil contain Hg. The impact of stem-only harvesting (SOH) and WTHs on the concentrations of Hg and MeHg as well as several other variables in the ditch water was studied using a paired catchment approach in eight drained peatland-dominated catchments in Finland (2008-2012). Four of the catchments were on felsic bedrock and four on black schist bedrock containing heavy metals. Although both Hg and MeHg concentrations increased after harvesting in all treated sites according to the randomized intervention analyses (RIAs), there was only a weak indication of a harvest-induced mobilization of Hg and MeHg into the ditches. Furthermore, no clear differences between WTHs and SOH were found, although MeHg showed a nearly significant difference (p = 0.06) between the harvesting regimes. However, there was a clear bedrock effect, since the MeHg concentrations in the ditch water were higher at catchments on black schist than at those on felsic bedrock. The pH, suspended solid matter (SSM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and iron (Fe) concentrations increased after harvest while the sulfate (SO4-S) concentration decreased. The highest abundances of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found on the sites with high MeHg concentrations. The biggest changes in ditch water concentrations occurred first 2 years after harvesting.

  14. Prevention of La3+ on DNA Damage Caused by Hg2+ from Fish Intestines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rare earth elements (REEs) in preventing Hg2+ pollution, using fish intestinal DNA in vitro and study the mechanism of the interactions between Hg2+, La3+, the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+ and DNA by spectroscopy. The interactions between Hg2+, La3+, the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+ and DNA from fish intestine in vitro was investigate by using absorption spectrum and fluorescence emission spectrum. Ultraviolet absorption spectra indicated that the addition of Hg2+, La3+, and the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+ to DNA generated obvious hypochromic effect. Meanwhile, the 205.2 nm peak of DNA blue and the 258.2 nm peak of DNA red shifted. The hypochromic effect and peak shift was caused by these ions in an order of Hg2+>Hg2++La3+>La3+. The fluorescence emission spectra showed that as the addition of Hg2+, La3+, and the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+, the emission peak at about 416.2 nm of DNA did not obviously change, but the fluorescence intensity reduced gradually with the order in treatment was Hg2+>Hg2+ + La3+>La3+. Hg2+, La3+, and the mixture of La3+ and Hg2+ had 1.12, 0.58, and 0.81 binding sites to DNA, the fluorescence quenching of DNA caused by them all attributed to static quenching. The binding constants KA of binding sites were 3.82×104 and 4.22×102 L·mol-1;2.50×104 and 2.95×103 L·mol-1;3.05×104 and 1.00×103 L·mol-1. The results showed that La3+ could relieve destruction caused by Hg2+ on the DNA structure.

  15. The lncRNA MIR31HG regulates p16(INK4A) expression to modulate senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Resano, Marta; Nielsen, Morten M; Maglieri, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    normal conditions, MIR31HG is found in both nucleus and cytoplasm, but following B-RAF expression MIR31HG is located mainly in the cytoplasm. We show that MIR31HG interacts with both INK4A and MIR31HG genomic regions and with Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, and that MIR31HG is required for Pc...

  16. Photodegradation of petroleum under Na and Hg lamps by EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Eduardo di; Melo, Fernando Alves de; Turini, Marilene; Campos, Ariana de [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), PR (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Full text: The environment has become frequent victim of the action of pollutants. This situation has been stimulating several scientific works in the attempt to monitor the self-defence of the environment and minimise the effects caused by these pollutants. The petroleum and its derived, among the several substances that attack the environment, occupy a distinction place in the pollution picture. In the present work, we studied the photodegradation of the Arabian Light and Brazilian (Campos Basin- RJ) oils. Sample of theses oils were irradiated by different time periods in a reactor equipped with Na and Hg vapour lamps, whose emission spectra have different features. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were subjected to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) analysis in a BRUKER (ESP-300) equipment, which operates in the X band (9 GHz) at room temperature. The EPR spectra showed similar features to the two oils. The EPR spectra are composed of a intense signal (one line) with g (spectroscopic factor) about two relative to free radicals and groups of eight lines correspondent to vanadyl porphyrinic compounds (VO{sup 2+}). The parameters of spin Hamiltonian were determined to the two detected paramagnetic species. The two oils irradiated by Na and Hg lamps showed variations in the values of g and {delta}H (linewidth) of the paramagnetic species. The changes in the parameters are the most significant in Brazilian petroleum samples irradiated by Hg lamp. The modifications in the linewidth of free radicals of the Arabian Light petroleum have the same tendency to the two utilised lamps. (author)

  17. Caregiver Burden in Fragile X Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sciolla, Andres F; Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Seritan, Andreea L

    2013-02-01

    Complex caregiving issues occur in multigenerational families carrying the fragile X mutation and premutation. The same family members may care for children or siblings with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and for elderly parents with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Family caregivers experience anxiety, depression, neglect of personal health care needs, employment difficulties, and loss of social support, leading to isolation and further psychiatric consequences. There is growing awareness of caregiver burden with regard to parents of children with FXS, but much less is known about the needs of informal caregivers of patients with FXTAS. In this paper, we review the available literature to date and provide suggestions for further exploration of caregivers' needs. Evidence-based strategies to address these needs are included. Many more research studies exploring caregiver burden in multigenerational fragile X families are needed, as well as studies aimed at investigating interventions and their impact on reduction.

  18. Rising Burden of Obesity in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambady Ramachandran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many Asian countries. These countries also face a grave burden of obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, which develop at a younger age than in Western populations. These disorders are also manifested in childhood. The major causative factors are related to the lifestyle changes occurring due to rapid socioeconomic transition. Asian populations show several differences in genetic factors when compared with the white population, and they also have lower cut points for environmental risk factors. National programmes targeting public awareness, education and improved structural facilities to facilitate healthy lifestyle are the keys to alleviate the economic and health care burden of the obesity-related disorders.

  19. Phase effects in HgTe quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, M.; Buhmann, H.; Becker, C.R.; Molenkamp, L.W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    2007-07-01

    HgTe quantum well structures with high electron mobilities have been used to fabricate quantum interference devices. Aharonov-Bohm oscillations have been studied in the low and high magnetic field regime. In the latter case a decrease of the effective ring radius is observed. Additionally, as a consequence of the strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling within this material, it was possible to observe conductance oscillations which are due to the so-called Aharonov-Casher effect. These quantum interference effects are effectively controlled by the applied magnetic and electric field. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Micromagnetic Sensors and Dirac Fermions in HgTe Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ”Experimentelle Physik” of the University of Würzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micr...

  1. COMPARISON OF CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES IN P-ON-N HgCdTe LWIR PHOTODIODES TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper standard techniques for characterization of HgCdTe liquid phase epitaxial layers (LPE) were presented. The performance of long wavelength p-on-n HgCdTe photodiodes fabricated by arsenic diffusion was described. The correlation between LPE HgCdTe material parameters and properties of the infrared photodiodes was demonstrated.

  2. Hg tolerance and biouptake of an isolated pigmentation yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Wang, Chaogang; Liu, Danxia; He, Ning; Deng, Xu

    2017-01-01

    A pigmented yeast R1 with strong tolerance to Hg2+ was isolated. Phylogenetic identification based on the analysis of 26S rDNA and ITS revealed R1 is a Rhodotorula mucilaginosa species. R1 was able to grow in the presence of 80 mg/L Hg2+, but the lag phase was much prolonged compared to its growth in the absence of Hg2+. The maximum Hg2+ binding capacity of R1 was 69.9 mg/g, and dead cells could bind 15% more Hg2+ than living cells. Presence of organic substances drastically reduced bioavailability of Hg2+ and subsequently decreased Hg2+ removal ratio from aqueous solution, but this adverse effect could be remarkably alleviated by the simultaneous process of cell propagation and Hg2+ biouptake with actively growing R1. Furthermore, among the functional groups involved in Hg2+ binding, carboxyl group contributed the most, followed by amino & hydroxyl group and phosphate group. XPS analysis disclosed the mercury species bound on yeast cells was HgCl2 rather than HgO or Hg0. PMID:28253367

  3. Phytoextraction of HG by parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and its growth responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Asma; Farooq, Umar; Naz, Sadia; Khan, Afsar; Khan, Sara; Sarwar, Rizwana; Mahmood, Qaisar; Alam, Arif; Mirza, Nosheen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of mercury (Hg) on the growth and survival of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) was explored at various treatments. The plants were grown in pots having Hoagland's solution to which various Hg treatments were applied and placed under greenhouse conditions. The treatments were: no metal applied (control) and six doses of Hg as mercuric chloride for 15 days. Linear trend of Hg accumulation was noted in roots, stems, and leaves with increasing Hg treatments. The maximum Hg concentration in root, stem and leaf was 8.92, 8.27, and 7.88 at Hg treatments of 25 mg l(-1), respectively. On the whole, Hg accumulation in different plant parts was in the following order: leaves > stem > roots. Linear trend was also observed for Bioaccumulation Factor (BF) and Translocation Factor (TF) with increasing Hg concentrations in the growth medium. The highest respective BFHg and TFHg values were 9.32 and 2.02 for the Hg treatments of 25 and 50 mg l(-1). In spite of the reduced growth in the presence of Hg, the plant has phytoremediation potential. It is recommended that parsley should not be cultivated in Hg contaminated sites in order to avoid dietary toxicity.

  4. The $^{191,193}$Hg and $^{191,193}$Au positon decays

    CERN Document Server

    Vieu, C; Berg, V; Bourgeois, C

    1976-01-01

    The positron spectra emitted by /sup 191/Hg, /sup 193/Hg and their decay products were analyzed with a Gerholm-Lindskog beta spectrometer automatically operated. From the analysis of the Fermi-Kuri diagrams, the total decay energies of /sup 191,193/Hg and /sup 191,193/Au were deduced.

  5. Administrative burdens and dairy industry competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bremmers, H.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Meulen, van der, GG George

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to assess the effect of regulatory burdens in the European dairy industry on its competitiveness. A theoretical foundation is provided by transaction cost economics and total quality management insights. The effects of legislation on administrative requirements and competitiveness are supposed to be mediated by impacts on innovativeness, company strategy, food safety system availability, as well as the available information & communication capabilities. We will conne...

  6. Marine Corps expeditionary rifle platoon energy burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...

  7. The economic burden of hemodialysis in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Adel Al-Shdaifat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis treatment is a costly procedure that requires specific resources. It has a considerable burden on patients, caregivers, and healthcare system. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden borne by the Ministry of Health (MOH in Jordan, with a focus on direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect cost. Materials and Methods:The study was conducted at MOH hospitals in Jordan, from August to November 2010. A total of 138 patients and 49 caregivers were involved in the study. An economic evaluation study was used to analyze the burden of hemodialysis treatment at MOH, Jordan. Direct medical costs were estimated through micro and macro costing from the provider′s perspective. Patients′ and caregivers′ costs were included to calculate direct non-medical costs. Human capital approach was employed to evaluate the productivity loss for indirect cost and premature death and potential year life loss was used to estimate the premature death cost. Results: The total burden of hemodialysis at MOH, Jordan was USD17.70 million per year. Cost per session was $72 and the annual cost per patient was $9976. Direct medical cost was $7.20 million (41% and direct non-medical cost was $2.02 million (11%. On the other hand, indirect cost (productivity loss was $8.48 million (48%. All 722 patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals consumed 2.7% of MOH budget. Conclusions: Costs of treating and managing patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals in Jordan are substantial. Therefore, efforts should be taken to slow down the progress of renal failure to save resources and a comparative study with other modalities, such as continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation, should be considered.

  8. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Oppeltz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world.

  9. Fear of future terrorism: Associated psychiatric burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, T; Udofia, O; Sheikh, T L; Yusuf, D A

    2017-02-04

    The mental health burden from fear of future terrorism has not been given much research attention compared to the immediate mental distress such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such neglected ongoing mental health morbidity associated with threats of terrorism had been described as pre-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). The study highlighted this phenomenon (PTSS) in Nigeria by examining the catastrophic burden of the fear of future terrorism and associated psychiatric burden among adult population in Kaduna city. Participants were students and staff of Kaduna State University (KASU), Kaduna Polytechnic, and students awaiting admission into Kaduna State University. They responded to the following instruments after obtaining their informed consents: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Terrorism Catastrophising Scale (TCS), and the depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) portion of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The TCS showed that 78.8% of the participants had from moderate to severe clinical distress on fear of terrorism. The TCS has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.721 and also had significant moderate correlation with depression (r=0.278; pterrorism was high and this was relatively related to depression and GAD. This highlighted the need for ongoing monitoring and called for their effective prevention from the identified underlying cognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Caregiver Burden in Epilepsy: Determinants and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Karakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Caregiver burden (CB in epilepsy constitutes an understudied area. Here we attempt to identify the magnitude of this burden, the factors associated with it, and its impact to caregiver quality of life (QOL. Methods. 48 persons with epilepsy (PWE underwent video-EEG monitoring and their caregivers completed questionnaires providing demographic, disease-related, psychiatric, cognitive, sleep, QOL, and burden information. Results. On regression analysis, higher number of antiepileptic drugs, poorer patient neuropsychological performance, lower patient QOL score, and lower caregiver education level were associated with higher CB. Time allocated to patient care approximated but did not attain statistical significance. A moderate inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL physical component summary score and a stronger inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL mental component summary score were seen. Conclusion. In a selected cohort of PWE undergoing video-EEG monitoring, we identified modest degree of CB, comparable to that reported in the literature for other chronic neurological conditions. It is associated with specific patient and caregiver characteristics and has a negative effect on caregiver QOL.

  11. Immunity and the burden of herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Suk; Kwon, Soon Sun; Lee, Jacob; Choi, Su-Mi; Lee, Jin Soo; Eom, Joong Sik; Sohn, Jang Wook; Choeng, Hee Jin

    2014-03-01

    The burden of herpes zoster may be related to patients' immunity, although this has not been studied extensively. This hypothesis was tested in a matched case-control study of patients with herpes zoster who sought treatment at one of seven university hospitals in Korea from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010. Patients diagnosed with herpes zoster were placed into three groups based on their immune status: severely immunocompromised, mild-to-moderately immunocompromised, and normal immunity. Each patient in the severely immunocompromised group was matched with one patient in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised group and one patient in the normal immunity group in the same hospital based on age, sex, and date of herpes zoster onset. A total of 582 patients with herpes zoster were included in the analysis: 194 in each of the three groups. Patients in the severely immunocompromised group had the highest herpes zoster-related hospitalization rate as compared to patients in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised and normal immune groups (P herpes zoster-related medical cost increased significantly with the deterioration of patients' immunity (P herpes zoster burden was observed as the patients' immunity decreased. Therefore, effective measures are necessary to prevent herpes zoster and reduce its burden in severely immunocompromised patients.

  12. Causes and consequences of higher Leishmania infantum burden in patients with kala-azar: a study of 625 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Danielle A; Rolão, Nuno; de Pinho, Flaviane A; Sene, Ingridi; Silva, Jailthon C; Pereira, Teresinha C; Costa, Dorcas L; Costa, Carlos H N

    2017-06-01

    An infected host's Leishmania infantum load in blood is considered to be an estimate of his or her total parasite burden. Therefore, the measurement of blood parasite burden is important in the identification of factors involved in parasite control. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on blood samples from 625 patients with kala-azar consecutively admitted to a reference hospital in Teresina, Brazil. Primers were used to amplify a segment of kDNA using the TaqMan system. Non-parametric statistical tests were applied. The median blood parasite burden was 499.2 amastigote equivalents (AE)/ml. Children <1 year old (yo) had a high parasite burden, which dropped sharply after the first year of life (192.8, AE/ml at 1 < 2 yo) and remained lower until adolescence. Following adolescence, the parasite burden increased with age, peaking among elderly individuals. Men had a higher parasite burden than women. HIV-infected patients had a much higher parasite burden than non-infected patients. The parasite burden of children under 5 years with acute moderate to severe malnourishment (weight-for-age and body mass index z-scores <-2) was almost three times greater than that of better-nourished children. The parasite burden identified in deceased patients was more than twice that of surviving patients; those with a higher risk of death, sepsis, pneumonia and jaundice also had increased parasite burdens. All of these differences were statistically significant at P-values <0.05. These data indicate that the parasite burden in patients with kala-azar was associated with age- and gender-associated factors and with HIV infection status. Acute malnutrition could be either a cause or a consequence of a higher parasite burden. An individual's parasite burden influences his or her clinical profile, disease severity and mortality risk. The best explanation for the presence of a higher parasite burden in individuals with these immunoregulatory conditions and severe disease is

  13. Characterization of Electronic Materials HgZnSe and HgZnTe Using Innovative and Conventional Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanton, George; Kesmodel, Roy; Burden, Judy; Su, Ching-Hua; Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    HgZnSe and HgZnTe are electronic materials of interest for potential IR detector and focal plane array applications due to their improved strength and compositional stability over HgCdTe, but they are difficult to grow on Earth and to fully characterize. Conventional contact methods of characterization, such as Hall and van der Paw, although adequate for many situations are typically labor intensive and not entirely suitable where only very small samples are available. To adequately characterize and compare properties of electronic materials grown in low earth orbit with those grown on Earth, innovative techniques are needed that complement existing methods. This paper describes the implementation and test results of a unique non-contact method of characterizing uniformity, mobility, and carrier concentration together with results from conventional methods applied to HgZnSe and HgZnTe. The innovative method has advantages over conventional contact methods since it circumvents problems of possible contamination from alloying electrical contacts to a sample and also has the capability to map a sample. Non- destructive mapping, the determination of the carrier concentration and mobility at each place on a sample, provides a means to quantitatively compare, at high spatial resolution, effects of microgravity on electronic properties and uniformity of electronic materials grown in low-Earth orbit with Earth grown materials. The mapping technique described here uses a 1mm diameter polarized beam of radiation to probe the sample. Activation of a magnetic field, in which the sample is placed, causes the plane of polarization of the probe beam to rotate. This Faraday rotation is a function of the free carrier concentration and the band parameters of the material. Maps of carrier concentration, mobility, and transmission generated from measurements of the Faraday rotation angles over the temperature range from 300K to 77K will be presented. New information on band parameters

  14. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 49, 1970-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2014. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The...

  15. 20 CFR 726.312 - Burdens of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Money Penalties § 726.312 Burdens of proof. (a) The Director shall bear the burden of proving the... Director has requested the operator to supply information with respect to its size under § 726.303 and the...

  16. Burdens of Proof, Presumptions and Standards of Proof in Criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worku_Y

    This note highlights how issues of burden and standard of proof are ..... proof. The prosecutor is duty bound to convince that the accused has committed .... Burdens of proof and presumptions are intimately related concepts.33 The latter.

  17. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 49, 1970-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2014. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The Tax...

  18. HCN Producing Bacteria Enable Sensing Of Non-Bioavailable Hg Species by the Whole Cell Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, M.; Rijavec, T.; Koron, N.; Lapanje, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria play an important role in Hg transformation reactions. The production of cyanide (HCN) and other secondary metabolites seems to be key elements involved in these transformations. Current hypotheses link the role of HCN production to growth inhibition of nonHCN producing competitor organisms (role of an antimicrobial agent). Our past investigations showed that HCN production did not correlate with antimicrobial activity and since pK value of HCN is very high (pK = 9,21), it can be expected that most of the produced HCN is removed from the microenvironment. This way, the expected inhibitory concentrations can hardly be reached. Accordingly, we proposed a new concept, where the ability of complexation of transient metals by HCN served as a regulation process for the accessibility of micro-elements. In our study, we focused on the presence of HCN producing bacteria and carried it out in the Hg contaminated environment connected to the Idrija Mercury Mine, Slovenia. We characterised the isolates according to the presence of Hg resistance (HgR), level of HCN production and genetic similarities. In laboratory setups, using our merR whole cell based biosensor, we determined the transformation of low bioavailable Hg0 and HgS forms into bioavailable Hg by these HCN producing bacteria. We observed that HgR strains producing HCN had the highest impact on increased Hg bioavailability. In the proposed ecological strategy HgR HCN producing bacteria increase their competitive edge over non-HgR competitors through the increase of Hg toxicity. Due to their activity, Hg is made available to other organisms as well and thus enters into the ecosystem. Finally, using some of the characteristics of bacteria (e.g. Hg resistance genetic elements), we developed a fully automated sensing approach, combining biosensorics and mechatronics, to measure the bioavailability of Hg in situ.

  19. Simulation of Small-Pitch HgCdTe Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Marco; Goano, Michele; Bertazzi, Francesco; Ghione, Giovanni; Schirmacher, Wilhelm; Hanna, Stefan; Figgemeier, Heinrich

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies indicate as an important technological step the development of infrared HgCdTe-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) with sub-wavelength pixel pitch, with the advantage of smaller volume, lower weight, and potentially lower cost. In order to assess the limits of pixel pitch scaling, we present combined three-dimensional optical and electrical simulations of long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe FPAs, with 3 μm, 5 μm, and 10 μm pitch. Numerical simulations predict significant cavity effects, brought by the array periodicity. The optical and electrical contributions to spectral inter-pixel crosstalk are investigated as functions of pixel pitch, by illuminating the FPAs with Gaussian beams focused on the central pixel. Despite the FPAs being planar with 100% pixel duty cycle, our calculations suggest that the total crosstalk with nearest-neighbor pixels could be kept acceptably small also with pixels only 3 μ m wide and a diffraction-limited optical system.

  20. Mercury (Hg) emissions from domestic biomass combustion for space heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Choi, Hyun-Deok; Laing, James R; Cui, Huailue; Zananski, Tiffany J; Chandrasekaran, Sriraam Ramanathan; Rattigan, Oliver V; Holsen, Thomas M

    2011-09-01

    Three mercury (Hg) species (gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and fine particulate-bound mercury (PBM(2.5))) were measured in the stack of a small scale wood combustion chamber at 400°C, in the stack of an advanced wood boiler, and in two areas influenced by wood combustion. The low temperature process (lab-scale) emitted mostly GEM (∼99% when burning wood pellets and ∼95% when burning unprocessed wood). The high temperature wood boiler emitted a greater proportion of oxidized Hg (approximately 65%) than the low temperature system. In field measurements, mean PBM(2.5) concentrations at the rural and urban sites in winter were statistically significantly higher than in warmer seasons and were well correlated with Delta-C concentrations, a wood combustion indictor measured by an aethalometer (UV-absorbable carbon minus black carbon). Overall the results suggest that wood combustion may be an important source of oxidized mercury (mostly in the particulate phase) in northern climates in winter.

  1. Pressure dependent mechanical and thermodynamical properties of Hg0.91Mn0.09Te semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, D.; Sapkale, R.; Dagaonkar, G. J.; Varshney, M.

    2011-02-01

    The mechanical, thermodynamical and elastic properties of Hg0.91Mn0.09Te compound are calculated by formulating an effective interionic interaction potential. This potential consists of the long-range Coulomb, three body force parameter, the Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended upto the second neighbor ions and the van der Waals (vdW) interaction. The estimated values of phase transition pressure have revealed reasonably good agreement with the available experimental data on the phase transition pressure P t = 11.5 GPa and the vast volume discontinuity in pressure-volume (PV) phase diagram indicate the structural phase transition from zincblende (B3) to rock salt (B1) structure. Later on, the Poisson's ratio ν, the ratio R S/B of S (Voigt averaged shear modulus) over B (bulk modulus), elastic anisotropy parameter, elastic wave velocity, average wave velocity and Debye temperature as functions of pressure is calculated. From Poisson's ratio and the ratio R S/B it is inferred that Hg0.91Mn0.09Te is brittle in nature in both B3 phase and B1 phase. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of ductile (brittle) nature of Hg0.91Mn0.09Te compounds and still awaits experimental confirmations.

  2. Tinjauan terhadap tailing mengandung unsur pencemar Arsen (As), Merkuri (Hg), Timbal (Pb), dan Kadmium (Cd) dari sisa pengolahan bijih logam

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Zulkifli Herman

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol1no1.20064aWhen tailing of a mining activity is discharged into either landscape or river body, the pollutan element wastes are possible to disperse within those areas and may cause pollution on environment. The environment pollution hazards of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) probably occurred if tailing with the content of those elements is not handled properly. Particularly in the tropical regions, higher rates of chemical weathering...

  3. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of...

  4. Double burden of disease in the slums of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to provide evidence of a double burden of disease in the slums of Nairobi and to make a case for an integrated health systems approach to tackling this situation. A double burden of disease refers to the coexistence of a high burden of communicable and non-communicable

  5. Inpatient Financial Burden of Atopic Dermatitis in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narla, Shanthi; Hsu, Derek Y; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the inpatient burden of atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to determine the risk factors and financial burden of hospitalizations for AD in the United States. Data were analyzed from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a 20% representative sample of all......, there is a substantial inpatient financial burden of AD in the United States....

  6. Minority carrier lifetimes in different doped LWIR HgCdTe grown by LPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, GuangYin; Wei, YanFeng; Sun, QuanZhi; Yang, JianRong

    2012-10-01

    The carrier lifetimes of different types of p-type doped HgCdTe(x~0.23) long wavelength infrared (LWIR) epilayers were measured which were Hg-vacancy, Au and arsenic doped ones prepared by Te-rich Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). By comparing the lifetimes of Hg-vacancy and extrinsic doped HgCdTe, we focus on three primary mechanisms limiting the lifetimes in these different p-type HgCdTe samples: radiative recombination, Auger recombination and Schokley-Read- Hall (SRH) Recombination. The recombination mechanism in p-type HgCdTe is the SRH recombination at low temperatures and Auger and radiative recombination at high temperature. It is found that the lifetime of As-doped and Au-doped HgCdTe is far longer than that of Hg-vacancy-doped sample which is caused by the deep energy level of the Hg-vacancy acceptor that is considered as a recombination center in HgCdTe. Also we found lifetime in those p-type doped HgCdTe LWIR epilayers is limited by SRH by comparing the experimental lifetimes with the calculated data. Impurity doping was found to have a main effect on minority carrier lifetime.

  7. Biosorption of Hg(II) onto goethite with extracellular polymeric substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjuan; Pan, Xiangliang; Mu, Shuyong; Zhang, Daoyong; Yang, Xue; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-05-01

    This study characterized the interactions of goethite, EPS from cyanobacterium Chroococcus sp. and Hg(II) using excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra and adsorption isotherms. Three protein-like fluorescence peaks were noted to quench in the presence of Hg(II). The estimated conditional stability constant (logKa) and the binding constant (logKb) of the studied EPS-Hg(II) systems ranged 3.84-4.24 and 6.99-7.69, respectively. The proteins in EPS formed stable complex with Hg(II). The presence of proteins of Chroococcus sp. enhanced the adsorption capacity of Hg(II) on goethite; therefore, the goethite-EPS soil is a larger Hg(II) sink than goethite alone soil. Biosorption significantly affects the mobility of Hg(II) in goethite soils.

  8. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    Decay of rocks, due both to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, can show up in several different forms, such as neoformation of minerals, decohesion of grains and/or crystals, magnification of previous defects, new discontinuities, etc. Intrinsic factors include the type of material, its properties and microstructure, in particular porosity and microporosity. Extrinsic factors relate to atmosphere and usage of the material itself. Rock degradation has several heavy consequences for commercial stones, such as increase of permeability, loss of material, loss of mechanical strength; these consequences are of crucial importance for conservation of historical buildings. Aim of this study is to compare microporosity of some massive commercial stones by means of X ray microtomography, a non destructive technique, and Hg porosimetry. Nine of the most used Spanish limestones and dolostones have been analysed. The lithotypes have been chosen for their homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and for their low porosity; some of them have been widely used in Spain for historical buildings. Different lithotypes have been described in thin section: Ambarino (A) and Beige Serpiente (BS): brecciated dolostone, composed by microcrystalline dolomitic clasts, in a dolomitic and/or calcitic microcrystalline matrix. Amarillo Triana (AT): yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides. Blanco Alconera (BA): a white-pink homogeneous limestone, with veins. Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble, without any fissures and/or fractures. Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone, characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%). Gris Macael (GM): a calcitic marble wiht darker and lighter beds, conferring a strong anisotropy. Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone with white calcitic veins. Travertino Blanco (TB): a massive white calcitic travertine. Prismatic samples of about 2x1x1 cm

  9. Terahertz photoconductivity in GaAs/AlGaAs and HgTe/HgCdTe quantum Hall devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellmach, C.; Bonk, R.; Hirsch, A.; Nachtwei, G. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 2, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Vasilyev, Y.B. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 2, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hein, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Becker, C.R. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    We present measurements of the THz photoconductivity on different quantum Hall systems. GaAs/AlGaAs and HgTe/HgCdTe (MCT) heterostructures with Hall-bar and Corbino geometry are investigated. A recipe for the preparation of metallic Corbino contacts on MCT is shown. The system is excited by the radiation of a p -Ge laser (tunable from 1.7 to 2.5 THz) and the photoresponse (PR) is measured versus the magnetic field B. We observe enhanced PR around integer filling factors (bolometric PR) and cyclotron resonance (CR) effects. Because of the lower effective mass in MCT, the CR in this system appears at a relatively low magnetic field ({approx}2 T). This is appropriate for possible applications. Finally we present time resolved measurements of the PR on the GaAs system. We find relaxation times from about 10 to over 200 ns, which depend on the geometry, the applied source-drain voltage and the on mobility of the sample. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Uptake of Hg2+ by picocyanobacteria in natural water from four Andean lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In lake food webs, planktonic bacteria and algae represent the greatest bioconcentration step for Hg2+ and monomethyl-Hg (MeHg. As they are the most abundant organisms in planktonic trophic webs and also the main food resource for herbivorous plankton, they can mobilize large amounts of Hg to higher trophic levels. In Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina, dissolved organic matter (DOM concentration and character, coupled with photo-reactions, play a central role in the complexation of Hg2+ in the water column and can even regulate the uptake of Hg2+ by planktonic algae. In this investigation we evaluated the DOM character of natural waters (NW from four Andean lakes and studied its influence on the uptake of 197Hg2+ in a strain of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus by using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ by Synechococcus showed different magnitude in NW of lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Morenito and Escondido. Increasing lake DOM concentration reduced the bioavailability of Hg2+ as indicated by the lower uptakes rates found in NW with higher complexity and concentration of the DOM pool. Uptakes of Hg2+ by this picocyanobacteria contrasted among NW from pelagic (surface and bottom and littoral compartments of Lake Escondido which suggest that the entry of this metal may be highly variable even in the same environment. The study of the uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ in a set of dilutions of NW from Lake Escondido demonstrated that the bioavailability of Hg2+ decrease with increasing DOM concentration.

  11. Spatial distribution and accumulation of Hg in soil surrounding a Zn/Pb smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingru; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Long; Liu, Fang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Fengyang

    2014-10-15

    Nonferrous metal smelting is an important atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission source that has significant local and global impacts. To quantify the impact of Hg emission from non-ferrous metal smelter on the surrounding soil, an integrated model parameterizing the processes of smelter emission, air dispersion, atmospheric deposition and Hg accumulation in soil was developed. The concentrations of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) around the smelter and the spatial distribution of Hg in the surrounding soil were measured and compared with the model results. Atmospheric deposition of Hg emitted from the smelter was identified as the main source of Hg accumulation in the surrounding soil. From 1960 to 2011, the smelter emitted approximately 105 t of Hg into the atmosphere, of which 15 t deposited locally and resulted in an increase of Hg concentration in soil from 0.12 to 1.77 mg kg(-1). A detailed examination of wind rose and model data suggested that the area within 1.0-1.5 km northwest and southeast of the smelter was most severely impacted. It was estimated that the smelter operation from 1969 to 1990, when large scale emission controls were not implemented, resulted in 6450 μg m(-2)yr(-1) of Hg net deposition and a model simulated increase of 0.40 mg kg(-1) of Hg accumulation in the soil. During the period from 1991 to 2011, atmospheric Hg emission from the smelter alone increased the average concentration in soil from 0.41 mg kg(-1) to 0.45 mg kg(-1). In the past 50 years, over 86% of Hg emitted from this smelter went into the global pool, indicating the importance of controlling Hg emissions from non-ferrous metal smelters.

  12. Epidemiology and burden of nasal congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael Stewart1, BJ Ferguson2, Len Fromer31Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, USA; 2Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA; 3University of California, Los Angeles; David Geffen School of Medicine Los Angeles, California, USAAbstract: Nasal congestion, which may be described as fullness, obstruction, reduced airflow, or being “stuffed up,” is a commonly encountered symptom in clinical practice. Systematic study of congestion has largely considered it as a component of a disease state. Conditions associated with congestion include nasal polyposis, obstructive sleep apnea, and anatomic variation; however, most information on the burden of congestion comes from studies of allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, diseases of which congestion is the major symptom. Congestion can be caused by other rhinologic conditions, such as non-allergic rhinitis, viral or bacterial rhinitis, and vasomotor rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis affects as much as one quarter of the population worldwide and imposes a significant economic burden. Additionally, allergic rhinitis significantly impairs quality of life; congestion causes allergic rhinitis sufferers decreased daytime productivity at work or school and reduces night-time sleep time and quality. Annually, rhinosinusitis affects tens of millions of Americans and leads to approximately $6 billion in overall health care expenditures; it has been found to be one of the most costly physical conditions for US employers. Given the high prevalence and significant social and economic burden of nasal congestion, this symptom should be a key consideration in treating patients with rhinologic disease, and there continues to be a significant unmet medical need for effective treatment options for this condition.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, congestion, epidemiology, obstruction, rhinosinusitis

  13. National Burden of Eye Diseases in Iran, 1990–2010; findings from the global burden of diseases study 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Hatef

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is reflected in major ophthalmic and blinding diseases in the GBD data for Iran. The burden of macular degeneration is rising, followed by glaucoma. The burden of presbyopia affected individuals past their middle age. The burden of cataract manifested as a slower increase that could be attributable to better access to treatment.

  14. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Bartsch

    Full Text Available Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus.We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization and productivity losses.Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2-5.7 billion in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4-83.4 billion in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children <5 years cost society $39.8 billion, compared to $20.4 billion for all other age groups combined. Costs per norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84-99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons, high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs, while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days.The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large

  15. Burden of ketamine cystitis in Chinese society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kit Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine cystitis, also referred to as ketamine-induced uropathy, is a new clinical syndrome affecting primarily young to middle-aged ketamine abusers and has become a global phenomenon since its first reported series in 2007. A spectrum of urological destructions ranging from mild cystitis to severely contracted bladder, ureteric stricture, upper tract damage, and irreversible renal failure has been reported. This review considers the scope and burden of ketamine cystitis in the Chinese population in Asia, stating the current status of management pathway, and reviews our current understanding on the pathophysiology of ketamine-induced uropathy.

  16. Lifetimes of an excited superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    An excited superdeformed band was identified in {sup 192}Hg and the lifetimes of its levels measured with the Doppler-shift attenuation method from data taken with the Eurogam spectrometer. The band is proposed to be based on the two-quasineutron (v[642]3/2 [512]5/2) configuration, which after a band crossing, becomes the (v[642]3/2 [752]5/2) configuration. The transition quadrupole moment Q{sub t} of the excited band is the same as that of the yrast SD band, within experimental errors. This suggests that the deformation of the SD minimum is robust with respect to quasiparticle excitation, despite the occupation of the deformation-driving v[752]5/2 level (from the j{sub 15/2} shell) after the band crossing.

  17. [HG-AFS determination of selenium in Moringa oleifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-qing; Xiao, Zi-jun

    2007-02-01

    The Se content in Moringa oleifera was studied by hydride generation atom fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) with wet digestion. The effects of the way of digestion, the work condition of apparatus, the reaction medium and acidity, and the reducing agent and masking agent on the determination of Se were investigated. And the operating condition of apparatus was optimized. The results showed that the detection limit of Se in this method was 0.42 ng x mL(-1) in the linear ranger of 0-120 ng x mL(-1), the relative standard deviation was 3.53% (n = 11), and the recovery of the method was 95.2%-104.6%. It was showed that the method was very sensitive, simple, rapid and accurate.

  18. Archaic introjects and the cosmology of H.G. Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, A

    1982-01-01

    The roles of the archaic loving and hating introjects are traced in the early scientific romances and the life work of H.G. Wells. The preambivalent polarization of the early loving introjects of an archaic ego ideal (giving rise to utopian fantasies and, later, to promulgations of a new world state) and the early hostile introjects of an archaic superego (giving rise to fears of death and, later, to fears of cosmic dissolution) is represented in eschatological preoccupations with death, the Last Judgment, heaven and hell. These religious preoccupations are derivatives of wishes for maternal union and bliss on the one hand, and of castration anxiety and fears of personal annihilation on the other. Further transformations of the archaic introjects are traced through an indentification with the role of redeemer, and later, through his scientific studies, to an espousal of T.H. Huxley's teachings of organic evolution and to the development of cosmological themes in his work.

  19. Mercury methylation in paddy soil: source and distribution of mercury species at a Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy plantation is the dominant agricultural land use throughout Asia. Rice paddy fields have been identified as important sites for methylmercury (MeHg) production in the terrestrial ecosystem and a primary pathway of MeHg exposure to humans in mercury (Hg) mining areas. We compared the source and distribution of Hg species in different compartments of the rice paddy during a complete rice-growing season at two different typical Hg-contaminated mining sites in Guizhou province, China: an abandoned site with a high Hg concentration in soil but a low concentration in the atmosphere and a current-day artisanal site with a low concentration in soil but a high concentration in the atmosphere. Our results showed that the flux of new Hg to the ecosystem from irrigation and atmospheric deposition was insignificant relative to the pool of old Hg in soil; the dominant source of MeHg to paddy soil is in situ methylation of inorganic Hg (IHg). Elevated MeHg concentrations and the high proportion of Hg as MeHg in paddy water and the surface soil layer at the artisanal site demonstrated active Hg methylation at this site only. We propose that the in situ production of MeHg in paddy water and surface soil is dependent on elevated Hg in the atmosphere and the consequential deposition of new Hg into a low-pH anoxic geochemical system. The absence of depth-dependent variability in the MeHg concentration in soil cores collected from the abandoned Hg mining site, consistent with the low concentration of Hg in the atmosphere and high pH of the paddy water and irrigation water, suggested that net production of MeHg at this site was limited. We propose that the concentration of Hg in ambient air is an indicator for the risk of MeHg accumulation in paddy rice.

  20. Cognitive profile of amyloid burden and white matter hyperintensities in cognitively normal older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Younger, Alayna P.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Becker, J. Alex; Buckner, Randy L.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid burden and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are two common markers of neurodegeneration present in advanced aging. Each represents a potential early indicator of an age-related neurological disorder that impacts cognition. The presence of amyloid is observed in a substantial subset of cognitively normal older adults, but the literature remains equivocal regarding whether amyloid in nondemented populations is deleterious to cognition. Similarly, WMH are detected in many nondemented older adults and there is a body of evidence indicating that WMH are associated with decreased executive function and other cognitive domains. The current study investigated amyloid burden and WMH in clinically normal older adult humans aged 65 to 86 (N=168) and examined each biomarker’s relation with cognitive domains of episodic memory, executive function, and speed of processing. Factors for each domain were derived from a neuropsychological battery on a theoretical basis without reference to the relation between cognition and the biomarkers. Amyloid burden and WMH were not correlated with one another. Age was associated with lower performance in all cognitive domains, while higher estimated verbal intelligence was associated with higher performance in all domains. Hypothesis-driven tests revealed that amyloid burden and WMH had distinct cognitive profiles, with amyloid burden having a specific influence on episodic memory and WMH being primarily associated with executive function but having broad (but lesser) effects on the other domains. These findings suggest that even prior to clinical impairment, amyloid burden and WMH likely represent neuropathological cascades with distinct etiologies and dissociable influences on cognition. PMID:23152607

  1. Mortality and economic burden of Krasnoyarsk region, Russia, caused by regular tobacco usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyukhov IP

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ivan P Artyukhov,1 Irina L Arshukova,2 Elena A Dobretsova,2 Andrey V Shulmin2 1Department of Health Care Management, 2Department of Public Health and Health Care, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Background: This study assesses mortality and economic burden due to the regular tobacco usage among the population of the Krasnoyarsk region of the Russian Federation. This territory was chosen for the analysis because of two factors: high smoking prevalence in the Krasnoyarsk region (46% among the adult population and premature mortality of the working-age population, which leads to a significant burden to the federal budget of the Russian Federation. Data sources: In our work, three main causes of smoking-related deaths were considered: cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and COPD. The working-age population was investigated (20–72 years old. The databases of mortality and population size of the territorial body of state statistics of the Krasnoyarsk region (data for 2013 were used as the information sources. Methods: Joint application of population-attributable risk and disability-adjusted life years method allowed us to estimate medico-demographic and economic burden due to the tobacco-attributable premature mortality in the investigated population. Results: We found that tobacco use-related economic burden is at least equal to 2% of the gross regional product of the Krasnoyarsk region in 2013. Conclusion: An assessment of economic tobacco use-related burden is important for determining the volume of necessary funding for development of smoking prevention programs, proper estimation of tobacco companies’ taxation, and other measures for controlling tobacco use. Smoking cessation is a priority for prevention of the tobacco-related diseases and reduction of their burden on local economy. Keywords: lung cancer, COPD, cardiovascular disease, disability-adjusted life years, population-attributable risk, smoking

  2. Using Simple Science to Influence Corporate Responsibility—A Lesson from Mercury (Hg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a powerful neurotoxin with wide environmental distribution. Typical population exposure to Hg comes from fish consumption, with fish being the final ecological endpoint of Hg magnification after a series of biogeochemical processes. The emission of Hg from coal-fired power plants has been strongly implicated as a key source of environmental Hg, and thus the target for various public policy initiatives in the US and abroad. We conducted a study of Hg distribution in surface soils over a broad area of central Indiana (US) to understand the major sources of Hg to local fish, and to assess the potential role of policy compliance in reducing Hg. We found a plume-like distribution pattern for soil Hg, with values exceeding 400 ppb Hg in the heart of the plume, and reducing to background concentration of about 30 ppb outside of the plume. The plume covered hundreds of square kilometers, was centered directly over the downtown area of Indianapolis (a city of roughly 1 million inhabitants), and could be roughly backtracked to a source in the southwest corner of the city, coincident with a large coal-fired utility plant that has the highest reported emissions of Hg in the area. Evidence of this link between a local source of Hg and net Hg deposition, with related implications for Hg runoff to local stream, biomagnification to fish, and fish consumption advisories was reported in regional newspapers and eventually published in scientific journals. But importantly, these findings were used by an NGO (the Beyond Coal campaign by Indiana branch of the Sierra Club) at a critical time to influence a decision by the owner of the power plant of whether to comply with the Hg policy rule by either adding higher technology scrubbing technologies to the plant or simply to convert the plant over to natural gas as the fuel source (a costlier choice upfront). The utility chose the latter option, and with the permanent elimination of Hg emissions, the net measurable effects

  3. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  4. Assessing anthropogenic sources of mercury in soil in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhihui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jingfu; Jiang, Taiming; Xiao, Houjun; Li, Yu; Wang, Xun; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-11-01

    Long-term mining and smelting activities brought a series of environmental issues into soils in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China. Several studies have been published on the concentrations of Hg in local soils, but a comprehensive assessment of the mass of Hg in soil induced by anthropogenic activities, as presented in this paper, has not been previously conducted. Three districts of WMMA were chosen as the study areas. We summarized previous published data and sampled 14 typical soil profiles to analyze the spatial and vertical distributions of Hg in soil in the study areas. The regional geologic background, direct and indirect Hg deposition, and Hg-polluted irrigation water were considered as the main sources of Hg contaminations in local soils. Furthermore, the enrichment factor (EF) method was applied to assess the extent of anthropogenic input of Hg to soil. Titanium (Ti) was chosen to be the reference element to calculate the EF. Generally, the elevated values of EF were observed in the upper soil layers and close to mine wastes. The total budget of Hg in soil contributed from anthropogenic sources was estimated to be 1,227 t in arable soil and 75 t in natural soil. Our data showed that arable soil was the major sink of anthropogenic Hg in the study area.

  5. Lupinus albus plants acquire mercury tolerance when inoculated with an Hg-resistant Bradyrhizobium strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Miguel A; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    One strain of Bradyrhizobium canariense (L-7AH) was selected for its metal-resistance and ability to nodulate white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants, from a collection of rhizobial strains previously created from soils of the Almadén mining district (Spain) with varying levels of Hg contamination. Plants were inoculated with either strain L-7AH (Hg-tolerant) or L-3 (Hg-sensitive, used as control), and watered with nutrient solutions supplemented with various concentrations (0-200 μM) of HgCl2 in a growth chamber. L. albus inoculated with L-7AH were able to nodulate even at the highest concentration of Hg while those inoculated with L-3 had virtually no nodules at Hg concentrations above 25 μM. Plants inoculated with L-7AH, but not those with the control strain, were able to accumulate large amounts of Hg in their roots and nodules. Nodulation with L-7AH allowed plants to maintain constant levels of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in their leaves and a high photosynthetic efficiency, whereas in those inoculated with L-3 both pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly as Hg concentration increased. Nitrogenase activity of plants nodulated with L-7AH remained fairly constant at all concentrations of Hg used. Results suggest that this symbiotic pair may be used for rhizoremediation of Hg-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  7. Phenylselenolate Mercury Alkyl Compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt: Molecular Structures, Protolytic Hg–C Bond Cleavage and Phenylselenolate Exchange‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Quinlivan, Patrick J.; Rong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The phenylselenolate mercury alkyl compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt, have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, thereby demonstrating that both compounds are monomeric with approximately linear coordination geometries; the mercury centers do, nevertheless, exhibit secondary Hg•••Se intermolecular interactions that serve to increase the coordination number in the solid state. The ethyl derivative, PhSeHgEt, undergoes facile protolytic cleavage of the Hg–C bond to release ethane at room temperature, whereas PhSeHgMe exhibits little reactivity under similar conditions. Interestingly, the cleavage of the Hg–C bond of PhSeHgEt is also more facile than that of the thiolate analogue, PhSHgEt, which demonstrates that coordination by selenium promotes protolytic cleavage of the mercury-carbon bond. The phenylselenolate compounds PhSeHgR (R = Me, Et) also undergo degenerate exchange reactions with, for example, PhSHgR and RHgCl. In each case, the alkyl groups preserve coupling to the 199Hg nuclei, thereby indicating that the exchange process involves metathesis of the Hg–SePh/Hg–X groups rather than metathesis of the Hg–R/Hg–R groups. PMID:26644634

  8. Chinese Caregiving Burden and the Future Burden of Elder Care in Life-Course Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Heying Jenny

    2002-01-01

    This article uses the life course perspective to combine micro- and macro-levels of analysis of caregiving burdens experienced by Chinese baby-boom cohort and then explores their elder care prospects. Based on survey interviews during 1997 and 1998 with 110 caregivers providing care to dependent parents or parents-in-law, this study finds that…

  9. HgTe/CdHgTe double quantum well with a spectrum of bilayer graphene and peculiarities of its magnetotransport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakunin, M. V.; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Podgornykh, S. M.; Popov, M. R.; Neverov, V. N.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    The quantum Hall effect (QHE) in a HgTe/CdHgTe double quantum well (DQW) with a tunneling-transparent barrier and the energy spectrum resembling the band structure of bilayer graphene has been investigated. An experimental manifestation of a tunnel gap between the states of light carriers seen as a magnetoresistance (MR) peak in the in-plane magnetic field has been discovered. An unusual structure of the QHE has been observed in a sample with hole conductivity: there is a pronounced peak on a plateau with the number i = 2 and the slopes of this anomalous peak correspond to two peaks of the longitudinal MR. On the other hand, a stable 2-1 plateau-plateau transition has been observed in much higher fields with the position of this transition corresponding to a considerably higher hole density than follows from the pattern of the QHE in weak fields. The anomalous peak is interpreted as a reentrant QHE between the 2-1-2 states. The position of the anomalous peak is immune to IR illumination and the tilting angle of the magnetic field, although these factors strongly affect its amplitude. According to comparison with the calculated structure of magnetic levels, the anomalous peak is attributed to crossing of electron-like and hole-like levels in the valence band. The difference between the hole densities found in weak field and from the 2-1 transition in strong fields is attributed to the effects of redistribution of holes between the localized states in sideband maxima of the valence subband and the ones delocalized in the overlapping levels of light holes.

  10. Excitation spectra and ground-state properties from density functional theory for the inverted band-structure systems $\\beta$-HgS, HgSe, and HgTe

    CERN Document Server

    Delin, A

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a systematic density-functional study of the mercury chalcogenide compounds $\\beta$-HgS, HgSe, and HgTe using an all-electron full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO) method. We find that, in the zinc-blende structure, both HgSe and HgTe are semimetals whereas $\\beta$-HgS has a small spin-orbit induced band gap. Our calculated relativistic photoemission and inverse photoemission spectra (PES and IPES, respectively) reproduce very well the most recently measured spectra, as do also our theoretical optical spectra. In contrast to the normal situation, we find that the local density approximation (LDA) to the density functional gives calculated equilibrium volumes in much better agreement with experiment than does the generalized gradient corrected functional (GGA). We also address the problem of treating relativistic $p$ electrons with methods based on a scalar-relativistic basis set, and show that the effect is rather small for the present systems.

  11. Mercury in stream water at five Czech catchments across a Hg and S deposition gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, James B.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, Filip; Krám, Pavel; Matoušková, Šárka; Tesař, Miroslav; Hojdová, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Czech Republic was heavily industrialized in the second half of the 20th century but the associated emissions of Hg and S from coal burning were significantly reduced since the 1990s. We studied dissolved (filtered) stream water mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at five catchments with contrasting Hg and S deposition histories in the Bohemian part of the Czech Republic. The median filtered Hg concentrations of stream water samples collected in hydrological years 2012 and 2013 from the five sites varied by an order of magnitude from 1.3 to 18.0 ng L− 1. The Hg concentrations at individual catchments were strongly correlated with DOC concentrations r from 0.64 to 0.93 and with discharge r from 0.48 to 0.75. Annual export fluxes of filtered Hg from individual catchments ranged from 0.11 to 13.3 μg m− 2 yr− 1 and were highest at sites with the highest DOC export fluxes. However, the amount of Hg exported per unit DOC varied widely; the mean Hg/DOC ratio in stream water at the individual sites ranged from 0.28 to 0.90 ng mg− 1. The highest stream Hg/DOC ratios occurred at sites Pluhův Bor and Jezeří which both are in the heavily polluted Black Triangle area. Stream Hg/DOC was inversely related to mineral and total soil pool Hg/C across the five sites. We explain this pattern by greater soil Hg retention due to inhibition of soil organic matter decomposition at the sites with low stream Hg/DOC and/or by precipitation of a metacinnabar (HgS) phase. Thus mobilization of Hg into streams from forest soils likely depends on combined effects of organic matter decomposition dynamics and HgS-like phase precipitation, which were both affected by Hg and S deposition histories.

  12. Impacts of Activated Carbon Amendment on Hg Methylation, Demethylation and Microbial Activity in Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, C. C.; Ghosh, U.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Soren, A.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.; Brown, S.; Henry, E.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ sorbent amendments are a low-impact approach for remediation of contaminants in sediments, particular in habitats like wetlands that provide important ecosystem services. Laboratory microcosm trials (Gilmour et al. 2013) and early field trials show that activated carbon (AC) can effectively increase partitioning of both inorganic Hg and methylmercury to the solid phase. Sediment-water partitioning can serve as a proxy for Hg and MeHg bioavailability in soils. One consideration in using AC in remediation is its potential impact on organisms. For mercury, a critical consideration is the potential impact on net MeHg accumulation and bioavailability. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of AC on rates of methylmercury production and degradation, and on overall microbial activity, in 4 different Hg-contaminated salt marsh soils. The study was done over 28 days in anaerobic, sulfate-reducing slurries. A double label of enriched mercury isotopes (Me199Hg and inorganic 201Hg) was used to separately follow de novo Me201Hg production and Me199Hg degradation. AC amendments decreased both methylation and demethylation rate constants relative to un-amended controls, but the impact on demethylation was stronger. The addition of 5% (dry weight) regenerated AC to soil slurries drove demethylation rate constants to nearly zero; i.e. MeHg sorption to AC almost totally blocked its degradation. The net impact was increased solid phase MeHg concentrations in some of the soil slurries with the highest methylation rate constants. However, the net impact of AC amendments was to increase MeHg (and inorganic Hg) partitioning to the soil phase and decrease concentrations in the aqueous phase. AC significantly decreased aqueous phase inorganic Hg and MeHg concentrations after 28 days. Overall, the efficacy of AC in reducing aqueous MeHg was highest in the soils with the highest MeHg concentrations. The AC addition did not significantly impact microbial activity, as

  13. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  14. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-08-06

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy

  15. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-08-06

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy

  16. Growth and characterization of HgI2, PbI2 and PbI2:HgI2 layered semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the preparation of a-HgI2 by Physical Vapor Transport and of PbI2 crystals using the Bridgman technique. The results of the growth of HgI2 diluted in PbI2 by the Bridgman technique are shown for the first time, its limit of solubility having been determined at 600 ppm of HgI2 in the PbI2 matrix. Optical absorption, photoluminescence and electrical conductivity measurements show that the crystals prepared are of good crystalline quality.

  17. The economic burden of depression and the cost-effectiveness of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Philip S; Simon, Gregory; Kessler, Ronald C

    2003-01-01

    Cost-of-illness research has shown that depression is associated with an enormous economic burden, in the order of tens of billions of dollars each year in the US alone. The largest component of this economic burden derives from lost work productivity due to depression. A large body of literature indicates that the causes of the economic burden of depression, including impaired work performance, would respond both to improvement in depressive symptomatology and to standard treatments for depression. Despite this, the economic burden of depression persists, partly because of the widespread underuse and poor quality use of otherwise efficacious and tolerable depression treatments. Recent effectiveness studies conducted in primary care have shown that a variety of models, which enhance care of depression through aggressive outreach and improved quality of treatments, are highly effective in clinical terms and in some cases on work performance outcomes as well. Economic analyses accompanying these effectiveness studies have also shown that these quality improvement interventions are cost efficient. Unfortunately, widespread uptake of these enhanced treatment programmes for depression has not occurred in primary care due to barriers at the level of primary care physicians, healthcare systems, and purchasers of healthcare. Further research is needed to overcome these barriers to providing high-quality care for depression and to ultimately reduce the enormous adverse economic impact of depression disorders.

  18. Sediment accumulation and mercury (Hg) flux in Avicennia marina forest of Deep Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Guo, Meixian; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the rate of sediment accumulation and mercury (Hg) flux in Avicennia marina forest of Deep Bay, China, sediment cores were analyzed. The results showed that Hg concentrations were much higher at all depths compared to the background level. A high correlation between Hg and total organic carbon (TOC) indicated their similar anthropogenic origin. Sedimentation rate was estimated to be 1.38 cm a-1 by 210Pb geochronology. The increase in the mass sediment accumulation rates was rapid (range: 0.5-0.94 g cm-2 a-1), and the Hg fluxes ranged between 76 and 116 ng cm-2 a-1 during the last three decades. The reduction in both Hg concentrations and flux during the last decade may be due to the adoption of contamination control policies. Our results support the notion that the Hg fluxes determined from the sediment cores reveal the effects of anthropogenic influences from the areas around Deep Bay.

  19. Stability studies of Hg implanted YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, J P; Wahl, U; Marques, J G; Alves, E; Amaral, V S; Lourenço, A A; Galindo, V; Von Papen, T; Senateur, J P; Weiss, F; Vantomme, A; Langouche, G; Melo, A A; Da Silva, M F A; Soares, J C; Sousa, J B

    1999-01-01

    High quality YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{6+x}$ (YBCO) superconducting thin films were implanted with the radioactive $^{197m}$Hg (T$_{1/2}$ = 24 h) isotope to low fluences of 10$^{13}$ atoms/cm$^{2}$ and 60 keV energy. The lattice location and stability of the implanted Hg were studied combining the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) and Emission Channeling (EC) techniques. We show that Hg can be introduced into the YBCO lattice by ion implantation into unique regular sites. The EC data show that Hg is located on a highly symmetric site on the YBCO lattice, while the PAC data suggests that Hg occupies the Cu(1) site. Annealing studies were performed under vacuum and O$_{2}$ atmosphere and show that Hg starts to diffuse only above 653 K.

  20. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselve...

  1. Some health physics aspects of working with 203Hg in university research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, M; Westin, A; Barfuss, D W

    2001-02-01

    The radioisotope 203Hg is used in university toxicology research experiments. When our commercial vendor ceased the production of the high specific activity 203Hg we required, an alternative source was sought. Other commercial sources were investigated without success leaving the synthesis of this radioisotope to us. This paper outlines the method we used to synthesize 203Hg and provides a summary of our results to date and a discussion of our experiences.

  2. Viscosity Relaxation in Molten HgZnTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, James K.

    2002-01-01

    Because of its narrow electronic band-gap, HgZnTe solid solutions have been proposed as effective detectors for infrared radiation. To produce the best single crystals of these materials for this application, knowledge of the phase diagram that governs the freezing of the liquid is essential. Besides the phase diagram, however, some information concerning the thermophysical properties of the melt, such as viscosity, density, specific heat, and enthalpy of mixing, can also be useful. Of these thermophysical properties, the viscosity is perhaps of the most interest scientifically. Measurements using the oscillating cup method have shown that the isothermal melt requires tens of hours of equilibration time before a steady value of the viscosity can be achieved. Over this equilibration time, which depends upon temperature, the viscosity can increase by as much as a factor of two before reaching a steady state. We suggest that this relaxation phenomenon may be due to a slight polymerization of Te atoms in the melt. To account for the time dependence of the viscosity in the HgZnTe melt, we propose that the liquid acts as a solvent that favors the formation of Te atom chains. We suggest that as the melt is cooled from a high temperature to the temperature for measurement of the viscosity, a free radical polymerization of Te atoms begins. To estimate this average molecular weight, we use a simple free radical polymerization mechanism, including a depolymerization step, to calculate the time dependence to the concentration of each Te polymer molecular weight fraction. From these molecular weight fractions, we compute the weight average molecular weight of the distribution. Using the semi-empirical relation between average molecular weight and viscosity, we obtain a formula for the time dependence of the viscosity of the melt. Upon examining this formula, we find that the viscosity achieves a steady value when a balance is achieved between the rate of formation of the chains

  3. Disability and functional burden of disease because of mental in comparison to somatic disorders in general practice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Linden, U; Schwantes, U

    2015-09-01

    Severity of illness is not only depending on the symptom load, but also on the burden in life. Mental disorders are among those illnesses, which in particular cause suffering to the individual and society. To study burden of disease for mental in comparison to somatic disorders, 2099 patients from 40 general practitioners filled in (a) the Burvill scale which measures acute and chronic illnesses in ten different body systems and (b) the IMET scale which measures impairment in ten different areas of life. Patients were suffering on average from acute and/or chronic illness in 3.5 (SD: 2.0) body systems and 56.6% of patients complained about acute and/or chronic mental disorders. The most significant negative impact on the IMET total score have acute and chronic mental disorders, followed by chronic neurological and musculoskeletal and acute respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, while cardiovascular, metabolic, urogenital, haematological and ear/eye disorders have no greater impact. Acute as well as chronic mental disorders cause impairment across all areas of life and most burden of disease (functional burden of disease 1.69), followed by musculoskeletal disorders (1.62). Mental disorders are among the most frequent health problems with high negative impact across all areas of life. When combining frequency and impairment mental disorders cause most burden of disease in comparison to other illnesses. This should be reflected in the organization of medical care including family medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Reviewing disease burden among rural Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanakumar AV

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The disease burden of rural Indian women is reviewed by utilizing the data from the 'Survey of Causes of Death (rural' annual reports of Registrar General of India supplemented with National family health survey (NFHS-II. The review indicates that bronchitis and asthma are the leading causes while prematurity and heart attacks are second and third respectively. Most of the maternal deaths are concentrated in the age group 20-24 and bleeding is the main cause of maternal death. Tuberculosis of the lungs, malaria and burns are also important causes of death in the early reproductive ages. Rate of suicide, burn, and anaemia diminishes with age. Though nationwide health plans have succeeded in reducing the fatality of women's diseases to a entrain extent, there is however, a great need for improved and effective area-specific health programs to achieve the desired goals.

  5. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  6. The global burden of periodontal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    is a component of the global burden of chronic disease, and chronic disease and periodontal disease have the same essential risk factors. In addition, severe periodontal disease is related to poor oral hygiene and to poor general health (e.g. the presence of diabetes mellitus and other systemic diseases...... periodontal pockets (≥6 mm) varies from 10% to 15% in adult populations. Intercountry and intracountry variations are found in the prevalence of periodontal disease, and these variations relate to socio-environmental conditions, behavioral risk factors, general health status of people (e.g. diabetes and HIV......Chronic diseases are accelerating globally, advancing across all regions and pervading all socioeconomic classes. Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition, physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive use of alcohol and psychosocial stress are the most important risk factors. Periodontal disease...

  7. Epidemiology and Burden of Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Pinto Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is an important component of clinical gastroenterology practice worldwide. Based on the definition, either self-reported or using Rome criteria, chronic constipation can affect from 2% to 27% of the population. Constipation is physically and mentally troublesome for many patients, and can significantly interfere with their daily living and well-being. Although only a proportion of patients with constipation seek medical care, most of them use prescribed or over-the-counter medication to improve their condition. The health care costs of constipation are significant as evidenced by the hundreds of million dollars spent yearly on laxatives alone. Because constipation is more common in older patients and life expectancy is increasing, an increase in the prevalence of constipation is expected in the years to come, with the associated impact on quality of life and socioeconomic burden.

  8. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guto, John Abuga; Bii, Christine C; Denning, David W

    2016-08-31

    Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009. Of Kenya's population of ~40 million, 43% are under 15 years old and approximately 594,660 Kenyan women get >4 episodes Candida vulvovaginitis annually (2,988/100,000). The HIV/AIDS population at risk of opportunistic infections (OI) is 480,000 and the OI estimates include 306,000 patients with oral thrush (768/100,000), 114,000 with oesophageal candidiasis (286/100,000), 11,900 with cryptococcal meningitis (29/100,000) and 17,000 patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (42/100,000). Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis following TB has a prevalence of 10,848 cases (32/100,000). The adult asthma prevalence is 3.1% and assuming 2.5% have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis then 17,696 (44/100,000) are affected.  Invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia and Candida peritonitis are probably uncommon. Tinea capitis infects 9.6% of children in Kenya, while fungal keratitis and otomycoses are difficult to estimate. At any one time, about 7% of the Kenyan population suffers from a significant fungal infection, with recurrent vaginitis and tinea capitis accounting for 82% of the infections. These estimates require further epidemiological studies for validation.

  9. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  10. The burden of cholera in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. METHODS: The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. RESULTS: Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61-182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81% occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4-44 weeks. DISCUSSION: There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high

  11. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  12. Hg removal and the effects of coexisting metals in forward osmosis and membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Zhang, Dai-Zhou; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the rejection of Hg, Cd, and Pb and the effect of coexisting metals on Hg removal through forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD) in order to establish a more effective water treatment process. The results of our laboratory experiment indicate that more than 97% of the rejection for each metal is achieved through the FO system, and this rejection is the highest among previous studies using membrane filtrations. Moreover, we examine the matrix effect of the coexisting Cd and Pb on the rejection of Hg in the FO system. Hg(2+) rejection increases with increase in the concentration of the coexisting metals. Furthermore, we study the effect of the Hg concentration and the water temperature on rejection of Hg(2+). Indeed, the rejection of Hg(2+) is achieved above 95% under any condition. However, approximately 1-10 ppb Hg from the feed solution remains in the draw solution due to permeation. Therefore, we use a FO-MD hybrid system. Approximately 100% rejection of Hg(2+) and a stable water flux are achieved. Thus, the FO-MD hybrid system is considered an important alternative to previous studies using membrane filtration for heavy metals removal.

  13. MBE - growth of capped, strained HgTe, a 3D topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Christopher; Leubner, Philipp; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens [Universitaet Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The discovery of two (2D) and three dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) behavior in HgTe - systems opens a large field for studying magneto transport properties of both. We grow HgTe as a 3D topological insulator by molecular beam epitaxy. Unstrained bulk HgTe is a semimetal but opens a gap of roughly 22 meV when grown fully strained on <001> CdTe substrate due to 0.3 % lattice mismatch and shows magnetotransport properties of a 3D TI. Hall measurements show electron mobilities of around 50.000 cm{sup 2}(V s){sup -1}. To increase electron mobilities, various growth optimizations have been carried out. Firstly we grew an HgCdTe buffer layer between the substrate and bulk HgTe. Different buffer thicknesses were analyzed ex-situ by HRXRD, AFM and standard Hall measurements. Secondly, we added a cap-layer of HgCdTe on top of the bulk HgTe. Doing so, we were able to raise the electron mobility of the bulk HgTe up to one order of magnitude. Time-dependent XPS measurements allowed us to hold the suppressed oxidization of the surface responsible for this effect. Through the advanced material quality we have now more prospects for better understanding of the transport properties in strained HgTe.

  14. Design of a peptidic turn with high affinity for HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara; Habjanic, Jelena; Sezer, Murat

    2012-01-01

    A four amino acid peptide containing the ß-turn template dPro-Pro in the middle and two cysteines (Cys) in the terminal positions (CdPPC) has been synthesized and its mercury(II) coordination properties studied using different spectroscopic methods. The UV-vis, CD, (199m)Hg PAC, and Raman...... spectroscopic studies indicate the binding of Hg(II) to the two Cys, forming the dithiolatemercury(II) complex Hg(CdPPC). Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry corroborates the 1:1 complex formation. A log K = 40.0 was determined for the formation constant of the Hg(CdPPC) complex using competition...

  15. Rezension zu: Emily Teeter (Hg.), Before the pyramids. The origins of Egyptian civilization

    OpenAIRE

    Köpp-Junk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Rezension zu: Emily Teeter (Hg.), Before the Pyramids. The Origins of Egyptian Civilization. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Museum Publications 33 (Chicago 2011)

  16. Effects of salinity and humic acid on the sorption of Hg on Fe and Mn hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Li, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Chan; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Cui, Hao-Jie; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of humic acid (HA) and salinity on adsorption of Hg on the amorphous and crystalline of iron and manganese hydroxides. The results show that the adsorption of Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides was inhibited in marine system due to the formation of stable, nonsorbing aqueous HgCl(2) complexes in solution. Moreover, Cl(-) inhibited the Hg(2+) adsorption more severely on amorphous than crystalline hydroxides. The addition of HA inhibited Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in freshwater system might be attributed to the competition between Hg(2+) and HA on adsorption to Fe and Mn hydroxides. In contrast, the addition of HA promoted Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in the marine system, which might be due to the addition of humic acid resulted in the reaction between Cl(-) and HA, and therefore the reducing of Cl(-) promoted more Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides. In addition, the influence of HA on Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides are more visible for crystalline than amorphous hydroxides.

  17. Local chemical composition of HgBaCaCuO high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alméras, P.; Dell'Orto, T.; Coluzza, C.; Almeida, J.; Margaritondo, G.; Xue, Y. Y.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.

    1994-07-01

    The microchemical composition and the electronic structure of the two superconductors HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ (Hg-1223) and HgBa2Ca1Cu2O6+δ (Hg-1212) were analyzed with the technique of photoemission with high spatial resolution. This enabled primary spectral peaks to be separated from their satellites due to local charging induced by the primary photon beam. Each sample contains superconducting and impurity phases with inhomogeneous spatial distributions. The oxygenation-induced increase in the critical temperature is related to a increase in the Cu-O plane carrier concentration.

  18. HgCdTe detector technology at Kunming Institute of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junhong; Zeng, Gehong

    1996-09-01

    HgCdTe detector and thermal image system laboratories at Kunming Institute of Physics have been carrying the research and development of HgCdTe detectors and thermal imaging systems for a wide range applications for over 20 years. During this period, significant progress has been made in many areas such as HgCdTe material, detector, miniature dewar and cooler to meet the requirements of civil and military operations. This paper describes these activities and present status of HgCdTe technology at Kunming Institute of Physics, and some of the problems we faced and how they were solved.

  19. Combined in-beam electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy of (184,186)Hg

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, M; Rahkila, P; Butler, P A; Larsen, A C; Sandzelius, M; Scholey, C; Carrol, R J; Papadakis, P; Jakobsson, U; Grahn, T; Joss, D T; Watkins, H V; Juutinen, S; Bree, N; Cox, D; Huyse, M; Uusitalo, J; Leino, M; Ruotsalainen, P; Nieminen, P; Srebrny, J; Van Duppen, P; Herzan, A; Greenlees, P T; Julin, R; Herzberg, R D; Hauschild, K; Pakarinen, J; Page, R D; Peura, P; Gaffney, L P; Kowalczyk, M; Rinta-Antila, S; Saren, J; Lopez-Martens, A; Sorri, J; Ketelhut, S

    2011-01-01

    By exploiting the SAGE spectrometer a simultaneous measurement of conversion electrons and gamma rays emitted in the de-excitation of excited levels in the neutron-deficient nuclei (184,186)Hg was performed. The light Hg isotopes under investigation were produced using the 4n channels of the fusion-evaporation reactions of (40)Ar and (148,150)Sm. The measured K- and L-conversion electron ratios confirmed the stretched E2 nature of several transitions of the yrast bands in (184,186)Hg. Additional information on the E0 component of the 2(2)(+) -> 2(1)(+) transition in (186)Hg was obtained.

  20. Shape coexistence in neutron-deficient Hg isotopes studied via lifetime measurements in $^{184,186}$Hg and two-state mixing calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, L P; Page, R.D.; Grahn, T.; Scheck, M.; Butler, P.A.; Bertone, P.F.; Bree, N.; Carroll, R.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chiara, C.J.; Dewald, A.; Filmer, F.; Fransen, C.; Huyse, M.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Joss, D.T.; Julin, R.; Kondev, F.G.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Rigby, S.V.; Rother, W.; Van Duppen, P.; Watkins, H.V.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Zhu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The neutron-deficient mercury isotopes, $^{184,186}$Hg, were studied with the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) method using the Gammasphere array and the K\\"oln Plunger device. The Differential Decay Curve Method (DDCM) was employed to determine the lifetimes of the yrast states in $^{184,186}$Hg. An improvement on previously measured values of yrast states up to $8^{+}$ is presented as well as first values for the $9_{3}$ state in $^{184}$Hg and $10^{+}$ state in $^{186}$Hg. $B(E2)$ values are calculated and compared to a two-state mixing model which utilizes the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model, allowing for extraction of spin-dependent mixing strengths and amplitudes.

  1. Can graphene make better HgCdTe infrared detectors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yanli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We develop a simple and low-cost technique based on chemical vapor deposition from which large-size graphene films with 5-10 graphene layers can be produced reliably and the graphene films can be transferred easily onto HgCdTe (MCT thin wafers at room temperature. The proposed technique does not cause any thermal and mechanical damages to the MCT wafers. It is found that the averaged light transmittance of the graphene film on MCT thin wafer is about 80% in the mid-infrared bandwidth at room temperature and 77 K. Moreover, we find that the electrical conductance of the graphene film on the MCT substrate is about 25 times larger than that of the MCT substrate at room temperature and 77 K. These experimental findings suggest that, from a physics point of view, graphene can be utilized as transparent electrodes as a replacement for metal electrodes while producing better and cheaper MCT infrared detectors.

  2. ROIC for HgCdTe e-APD FPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Junling; Wang, Pan; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Lei; Ding, Ruijun

    2013-08-01

    Ultra-low light imaging and passive/active dual mode imaging require very low noise optical receivers to achieve detection of fast and weak optical signal. HgCdTe electrons initiated avalanche photodiodes (e-APDs) in linear multiplication mode is the detector of choice thanks to its high quantum efficiency, high gain at low bias, high bandwidth and low noise factor. In my work, a passive/active dual mode readout integrated circuit (ROIC) of e-APD focal plane array (FPA) is designed. Unit cell circuit architecture of ROIC includes a capacitance feedback transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) as preamplifier of ROIC, a high voltage protection module, a comparator, a Sample-Hold circuit module, and output driver stage. There is a protection module in every unit cell circuit which can avoid ROIC to be damaged from avalanche breakdown of some diodes of detector. Conventional 5V CMOS process is applied to implement the high voltage protection with the small area rather than Laterally Diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor (LDMOS) in high voltage BCD process in the limited 100um×100um pitch area. In CTIA module, three integration capacitances are included in the CTIA module, two of them are switchable to provide different well capacity and noise. Constraints such as pixel area, stability and power lead us design toward a simple one-stage cascade operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) as pre-amplifier. High voltage protection module can protect ROIC to be damaged because of breakdown of some avalanche diodes.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Symptom Burden in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ping Lei; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Wong, Li Ping; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2017-07-14

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used for cancer- and chemotherapy-related symptoms. Nurses are likely to encounter many CAM users in their practice. The aims of this study were to assess CAM use and examine the symptom burden of CAM and non-CAM users among patients with breast cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy. A CAM use questionnaire and the Side-Effect Burden Scale were administered to 546 patients. Complementary and alternative medicine use was categorized as mind-body practices (MBPs), natural products (NPs), or traditional medicine (TM). We identified 386 CAM users (70.7%) in this study. The CAM users reported a higher marginal mean total symptom burden score (40.39 ± 2.6) than non-CAM users (36.93 ± 3.21), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = .09). Triple-modality (MBP-NP-TM) CAM users had a significantly higher marginal mean total symptom burden score (47.44 ± 4.12) than single-modality (MBP) users (34.09 ± 4.43). The risk of having a high total symptom burden score was 12.9-fold higher among the MBP-NP-TM users than among the MBP users. Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among Malaysian patients who are undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. However, CAM and non-CAM users reported similar symptom burdens, although single-modality use of MBP is likely associated with a lower symptom burden. Nurses should keep abreast of current developments and trends in CAM use. Understanding CAM use and the related symptom burden will allow nurses to initiate open discussion and guide their patients in seeking additional information or referrals for a particular therapy.

  4. A Malaria Ecology Index Predicted Spatial and Temporal Variation of Malaria Burden and Efficacy of Antimalarial Interventions Based on African Serological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Gordon C; Anttila-Hughes, Jesse K

    2017-03-01

    AbstractReducing the global health burden of malaria is complicated by weak reporting systems for infectious diseases and a paucity of vital statistics registration. This limits our ability to predict changes in malaria health burden intensity, target antimalarial resources where needed, and identify malaria impacts in retrospective data. We refined and deployed a temporally and spatially varying Malaria Ecology Index (MEI) incorporating climatological and ecological data to estimate malaria transmission strength and validate it against cross-sectional serology data from 39,875 children from seven sub-Saharan African countries. The MEI is strongly associated with malaria burden; a 1 standard deviation higher MEI is associated with a 50-117% increase in malaria risk and a 3-5 g/dL lower level of Hg. Results show that the relationship between malaria ecology and disease burden is attenuated with sufficient coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). Having both ITNs and IRS reduce the added risk from adverse malaria ecology conditions by half. Readily available climate and ecology data can be used to estimate the spatial and temporal variation in malaria disease burden, providing a feasible alternative to direct surveillance. This will help target resources for malaria programs in the absence of national coverage of active case detection systems, and facilitate malaria research using retrospective health data.

  5. Investigation of magnetoabsorption at different temperatures in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum-well heterostructures in pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V. V.; Kudasov, Yu. B.; Makarov, I. V.; Maslov, D. A.; Surdin, O. M. [Sarov Physical–Technical Institute—National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Zholudev, M. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The magnetoabsorption in magnetic fields as high as 40 T is investigated at T > 77 K in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum-well heterostructures (d{sub QW} ≈ 8 nm). The spectra reveal two lines associated both with intraband transition from the lower Landau level in the conduction band and with interband transition. It is shown that the band structure in these systems changes from inverted to normal with increasing temperature.

  6. Mother-embryo isotope (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) fractionation and mercury (Hg) transfer in aplacental deep-sea sharks : aplacental shark isotope fractionation and hg

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourg, B.; Kiszka, J.; Bustamante, P.

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic values and total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analysed in muscle and liver of mothers and embryos of two aplacental shark species, Squalus megalops and Centrophorus moluccensis. Embryos of the two species had similar or lower isotopic values than their respective mothers, the only exception being for δ13C, which was higher in the liver of C. moluccensis embryos than in their mothers. Hg concentrations were systematically lower in embryos c...

  7. Identifying the sources and processes of mercury in subtropical estuarine and ocean sediments using Hg isotopic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runsheng; Feng, Xinbin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Junjun; Wang, Wenxiong; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-02-03

    The concentrations and isotopic compositions of mercury (Hg) in surface sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed. The data revealed significant differences between the total Hg (THg) in fine-grained sediments collected from the PRE (8-251 μg kg(-1)) and those collected from the SCS (12-83 μg kg(-1)). Large spatial variations in Hg isotopic compositions were observed in the SCS (δ(202)Hg, from -2.82 to -2.10‰; Δ(199)Hg, from +0.21 to +0.45‰) and PRE (δ(202)Hg, from -2.80 to -0.68‰; Δ(199)Hg, from -0.15 to +0.16‰). The large positive Δ(199)Hg in the SCS indicated that a fraction of Hg has undergone Hg(2+) photoreduction processes prior to incorporation into the sediments. The relatively negative Δ(199)Hg values in the PRE indicated that photoreduction of Hg is not the primary route for the removal of Hg from the water column. The riverine input of fine particles played an important role in transporting Hg to the PRE sediments. In the deep ocean bed of the SCS, source-related signatures of Hg isotopes may have been altered by natural geochemical processes (e.g., Hg(2+) photoreduction and preferential adsorption processes). Using Hg isotope compositions, we estimate that river deliveries of Hg from industrial and urban sources and natural soils could be the main inputs of Hg to the PRE. However, the use of Hg isotopes as tracers in source attribution could be limited because of the isotope fractionation by natural processes in the SCS.

  8. The global burden of foodborne parasitic diseases: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Fèvre, Eric M; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Willingham, Arve Lee; Stein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Accurate information on the burden of FBDs is needed to inform policy makers and allocate appropriate resources for food safety control and intervention. Consequently, in 2006 the WHO launched an initiative to estimate the global burden of FBDs in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). This review gives an update of the progress on evaluating the burden of foodborne parasitic diseases that has been generated by this study. Results to date indicate that parasitic diseases that can be transmitted through food make a substantial contribution to the global burden of disease.

  9. A DFT based analysis of adsorption of Hg(2+) ion on chitosan monomer and its citralidene and salicylidene derivatives: Prior to the removal of Hg toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Basila; Rajan, Vijisha K; Mujeeb, V M Abdul; K, Muraleedharan

    2017-03-07

    A Density functional theory based study of adsorption of the toxic metal Hg (II) ion by chitosan monomer and two of its derivatives; citralidene and salicylidene chitosan, has been performed. The effect of structural features on the stability of studied complexes has been analyzed by using Gaussian03 software package. All the possible conformations of these adsorbents were studied using the global minimum geometries. All the adsorbing sites were studied by placing the metal ion on the centroid of the atoms and the stable conformer of the adsorbent-metal ion complex was identified. Interaction between Hg (II) and the adsorbents is found to be electrostatic. Metal ion binding with nitrogen atom is stronger than that with oxygen atoms in all the cases as the charge density of nitrogen is enhanced on Schiff base formation. The advantage of derivatives over chitosan monomer is their stability in acidic media. ΔE value of the complexes are in the order SC-Hg (II)>chitosan-Hg (II)>CC-Hg (II) which indicates that the stability of complexes increases with increase in energy gap. The study reveals that aromatic Schiff base derivatives of chitosan is better for Hg(II) intake than aliphatic derivatives.

  10. Beyond Attributable Burden: Estimating the Avoidable Burden of Disease Associated with Household Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Kuhn

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD studies have transformed global understanding of health risks by producing comprehensive estimates of attributable disease burden, or the current disease that would be eliminated if a risk factor did not exist. Yet many have noted the greater policy significance of avoidable burden, or the future disease that could actually be eliminated if a risk factor were eliminated today. Avoidable risk may be considerably lower than attributable risk if baseline levels of exposure or disease are declining, or if a risk factor carries lagged effects on disease. As global efforts to deliver clean cookstoves accelerate, a temporal estimation of avoidable risk due to household air pollution (HAP becomes increasingly important, particularly in light of the rapid uptake of modern stoves and ongoing epidemiologic transitions in regions like South and Southeast Asia.We estimate the avoidable burden associated with HAP using International Futures (IFs, an integrated forecasting system that has been used to model future global disease burdens and risk factors. Building on GBD and other estimates, we integrated a detailed HAP exposure estimation and exposure-response model into IFs. We then conducted a counterfactual experiment in which HAP exposure is reduced to theoretical minimum levels in 2015. We evaluated avoidable mortality and DALY reductions for the years 2015 to 2024 relative to a Base Case scenario in which only endogenous changes occurred. We present results by cause and region, looking at impacts on acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. We found that just 2.6% of global DALYs would be averted between 2015 and 2024, compared to 4.5% of global DALYs attributed to HAP in the 2010 GBD study, due in large part to the endogenous tendency towards declining traditional stove usage in the IFs base case forecast. The extent of diminished impact was comparable for ALRI and affected NCDs

  11. Burden differentiation of greenhouse gas abatement: Criteria for evaluation and development of burden-sharing rules

    OpenAIRE

    Torvanger, Asbjørn; RINGIUS, Lasse

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses nine criteria for evaluation of potential Burden Sharing Rules (BSRs) in climate policy agreements. Three of the criteria reflect fairness principles while six of them are operational requirements. These criteria are useful for identifying potential BSRs that could be promising in future climate policy negotiations. The two sector approaches, Multi-sector Convergence Approach and Triptych, received the highest score according to the criteria presented in this article. T...

  12. Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Mathers

    Full Text Available Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries, and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented, and of uncertain reliability and comparability. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD study has provided a conceptual and methodological framework to quantify and compare the health of populations using a summary measure of both mortality and disability, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY.This paper describes key features of the Global Burden of Disease analytic approach, which provides a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and a systematic approach to the evaluation of data. The paper describes the evolution of the GBD, starting from the first study for the year 1990, summarizes the methodological improvements incorporated into GBD revisions for the years 2000-2004 carried out by the World Health Organization, and examines priorities and issues for the next major GBD study, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and commencing in 2007.The paper presents an overview of summary results from the Global Burden of Disease study 2002, with a particular focus on the neglected tropical diseases, and also an overview of the comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated 177,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and about 20 million DALYs, or 1.3% of the global burden of disease and injuries. Further research is currently underway to revise and update these estimates.

  13. In vivo formation of natural HgSe nanoparticles in the liver and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the biochemistry of methylmercury (MeHg) that leads to the formation of mercury-selenium (Hg-Se) clusters is a long outstanding challenge that promises to deepen our knowledge of MeHg detoxification and the role SE plays in this process. Here, we show that mercury selenide (HgSe) nanoparticles in the liver and brain of long-finned pilot whales are attached to Se-rich structures and possibly act as a nucleation point for the formation of large Se-Hg clusters, which can grow with age to over 5 µm in size. The detoxification mechanism is fully developed from the early age of the animals, with particulate Hg found already in juvenile tissues. As a consequence of MeHg detoxification, Se-methionine, the selenium pool in the system is depleted in the efforts to maintain essential levels of Se-cysteine. This study provides evidence of so far unreported depletion of bioavailable Se pool, a plausible driving mechanism of demonstrated neurotoxic effects of MeHg in the organism affected by its high dietary intake. We investigated in vivo formation of natural HgSe particles in a pod of stranded long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), with age of the animal and the potency of the environmentally relevant dose of dietary MeHg to disrupt the Se-proteins synthesis. This has been previously investigated despite the substantial indications of the interaction between Hg and Se, and therefore we conducted a multi-method analytical approach on brain and liv

  14. Enhanced circular photogalvanic effect in HgTe quantum wells in the heavily inverted regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Wen; Liu, Jiang-Tao; Huang, Wei; Li, Cheng; Chen, Song-Yan

    2017-01-01

    HgTe-based quantum wells (QWs) possess very strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and have become an ideal platform for the study of fundamental SOI-dependent phenomena and the topological insulator phase. Circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) in HgTe QWs is of great interest because it provides an effective optical access to probe the spin-related information of HgTe systems. However, the complex band structure and large spin splitting of HgTe QWs makes it inadequate to analyze the experimental results of CPGE in HgTe QWs [B. Wittmann et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 095005 (2010), 10.1088/0268-1242/25/9/095005] with reduced band models. Here, based on the realistic eight-band k .p Hamiltonian and combined with the density-matrix formalism, we present a detailed theoretical investigation of CPGE in (001)-oriented Hg0.3Cd0.7Te /HgTe /Hg0.3Cd0.7Te QWs. We find the CPGE currents in HgTe QWs in the heavily inverted regime are significantly enhanced due to the strong distortion of band dispersion at a certain range of the energy spectrum. This enhancement effect could offer an experimental certificate that the HgTe QW is in the heavily inverted phase (usually accompanied with the emergence of two-dimensional topological edge states), and could also be utilized in engineering the high efficiency ellipticity detector of infrared and terahertz radiation [S. N. Danilov et al., J. Appl. Phys. 105, 013106 (2009), 10.1063/1.3056393]. Additionally, within the same theoretical framework, we also investigate the interplay effect of structure inversion asymmetry and bulk inversion asymmetry and the pure spin currents driven by linearly polarized light in HgTe QWs.

  15. Microsolvation of methylmercury: structures, energies, bonding and NMR constants ((199)Hg, (13)C and (17)O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Edison; Maldonado, Alejandro F; Aucar, Gustavo A; David, Jorge; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2016-01-21

    Hartree-Fock (HF) and second order perturbation theory (MP2) calculations within the scalar and full relativistic frames were carried out in order to determine the equilibrium geometries and interaction energies between cationic methylmercury (CH3Hg(+)) and up to three water molecules. A total of nine structures were obtained. Bonding properties were analyzed using the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). The analyses of the topology of electron densities reveal that all structures exhibit a partially covalent HgO interaction between methylmercury and one water molecule. Consideration of additional water molecules suggests that they solvate the (CH3HgOH2)(+) unit. Nuclear magnetic shielding constants σ((199)Hg), σ((13)C) and σ((17)O), as well as indirect spin-spin coupling constants J((199)Hg-(13)C), J((199)Hg-(17)O) and J((13)C-(17)O), were calculated for each one of the geometries. Thermodynamic stability and the values of NMR constants correlate with the ability of the system to directly coordinate oxygen atoms of water molecules to the mercury atom in methylmercury and with the formation of hydrogen bonds among solvating water molecules. Relativistic effects account for 11% on σ((13)C) and 14% on σ((17)O), which is due to the presence of Hg (heavy atom on light atom, HALA effect), while the relativistic effects on σ((199)Hg) are close to 50% (heavy atom on heavy atom itself, HAHA effect). J-coupling constants are highly influenced by relativity when mercury is involved as in J((199)Hg-(13)C) and J((199)Hg-(17)O). On the other hand, our results show that the values of NMR constants for carbon and oxygen, atoms which are connected through mercury (C-HgO), are highly correlated and are greatly influenced by the presence of water molecules. Water molecules introduce additional electronic effects to the relativistic effects due to the mercury atom.

  16. Mechanistic understanding of MeHg-Se antagonism in soil-rice systems: the key role of antagonism in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Dang, Fei; Evans, R. Douglas; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Jiating; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice has great implications for human health. Here, effects of selenium (Se) on MeHg availability to rice are explored by growing rice under soil or foliar fertilization with Se. Results indicate that soil amendment with Se could reduce MeHg levels in soil and grain (maximally 73%). In contrast, foliar fertilization with Se enhanced plant Se levels (3-12 folds) without affecting grain MeHg concentrations. This evidence, along with the distinct distribution of MeHg and Se within the plant, demonstrate for the first time that Se-induced reduction in soil MeHg levels (i.e., MeHg-Se antagonism in soil) rather than MeHg-Se interactions within the plant might be the key process triggering the decreased grain MeHg levels under Se amendment. The reduction in soil MeHg concentrations could be mainly attributed to the formation of Hg-Se complexes (detected by TEM-EDX and XANES) and thus reduced microbial MeHg production. Moreover, selenite and selenate were equally effective in reducing soil MeHg concentrations, possibly because of rapid changes in Se speciation. The dominant role of Se-induced reduction in soil MeHg levels, which has been largely underestimated previously, together with the possible mechanisms advance our mechanistic understanding about MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems.

  17. Body size, body composition, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in NFL players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas W; Vogel, Robert A; Lincoln, Andrew E; Dunn, Reginald E; Tucker, Andrew M

    2010-04-01

    We characterized the size of active National Football League (NFL) players by multiple criteria and analyzed their relation to traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with the objective of further clarifying the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in different player positions. This cross-sectional study was conducted in professional athletic training facilities. The participants were 504 active veteran players from a convenience sample of 12 NFL teams, grouped as interior linemen (IL) or all others (AO). Comparisons were made between the NFL groups and an age-equivalent general population database. The IL group was significantly larger than AO by all size measures. Both groups were significantly larger than the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) group. Mean percent body fat measurements in AO (mean, 13.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.9%-14%) and IL (mean, 25.2%; 95% CI, 24.4%-26%) groups were lower than estimates for the general population. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was higher in IL (mean, 131 mm Hg; 95% CI, 129-133 mm Hg) than AO (mean, 126 mm Hg; 95% CI, 125-127 mm Hg) and greater in both groups compared with the CARDIA group (mean, 112 mm Hg; 95% CI, 111-112 mm Hg). Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were within the normal range for both IL and AO. Interior linemen had significantly lower HDL-C than AO and the CARDIA group. Both NFL groups had significantly lower fasting glucose than CARDIA. Body fat in active NFL players was lower than predicted by standard measures of obesity. Although the players were large, they were in the normal range for most CVD risk factors. Mean BP in the prehypertensive range was found in both NFL position groups, but was significantly higher in IL than in AO. Prehypertension in these athletes warrants vigilance.

  18. HG-AFS Determination of Selenium in Moringa Oleifera%HG-AFS测定辣木中的Se

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国清; 肖仔君

    2007-01-01

    采用湿法消解,HG-AFS法(氢化物发生原子荧光光谱法)对辣木中微量Se含量进行了分析测定,系统地考察了消化方式、仪器工作条件、酸介质、掩蔽剂等因素对测定的影响,确定了最佳测定条件,结果表明:方法的最低检出限为0.42 ng·mL-1,线性范围0~120 ng·mL-1,相对标准偏差(RSI))为3·53%(n=11),回收率为95.2%~104.6%,表明该方法有较高灵敏度,并且简便、快速、准确.

  19. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...

  20. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  1. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  2. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  3. Spins of superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Determination of the spins of SD states is the most important challenge in the study of superdeformation. Knowledge of the spin will provide crucial information on SD bands, in particular on the fascinating phenomenon of bands with identical energies and moments of inertia. Angular distribution coefficients of the {gamma}rays decaying out of the {sup 192}Hg SD band were determined using Eurogam data. These coefficients, as well as the spectral shape and multiplicity of the spectrum, are compared with the results of calculations, thereby providing a check on these calculations. From the measured decay multiplicity and the calculated average spin removed per photon (0.3 h), we deduce the average spin {bar I}{sub decay} removed by the {gamma} rays connecting SD and normal states. The spin I{sub SD} of the SD band from which the decay occurs is given by I{sub SD} = {bar I} decay + {bar I} ND, where {bar I} ND is the average spin removed by the normal yrast states. The state from which the major decay out of the SD band occurs is found to have spin 9.5 {plus_minus} 0.8 h. Since angular momentum is (quantized), this leads to a spin assignment of 9 or 10 h. The latter value is favored since the yrast band in the SD well must have only even spin values. This constitutes the first deduction of spin from data in the mass 150 and 190 regions. The spin of 10 h agrees with the spin which is inferred from a model, using the observed moment of inertia (Im){sup (2)}{omega}.

  4. Nuclear Structure Studies from Hg and Au Alpha Decay Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, J. Tm.; Bingham, C. R.; Hartley, D. J.; Zhang, Jing-Ye; Riedinger, L. L.; Danchev, M.; Kondev, F. G.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Abu Saleem, K. H.; Ahmad, I.; Davids, C. N.; Heinz, A.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Poli, G. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Wiedenhover, I.; Ma, W. C.; Amro, H.; Reviol, W.; Cizewski, J. A.; Smith, M.

    2003-04-01

    Neutron deficient nuclei near the Z = 82 shell gap have been a source of great interest. This region is known to exhibit the phenomena of shape-coexistence and triaxiality. Alpha decay study of these nuclei coupled with gamma-rayspectroscopy data can give a better understanding of their nuclear structure properties. The decay chains of ^173-177Au and ^175-179Hg were studied following the bombardment of ^92,94,96Mo targets with ^84Sr beam from the ATLAS accelerator at the Argonne National Laboratory. The experiment utilized the Gammasphere array in conjunction with the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) for mass identification and a Double-sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSD) that was used to detect the recoiling implants and the alpha particles associated with each nuclide. An array of four Ge detectors and a low-energy photon spectrometer (LEPS) was used at the focal plane of the FMA to detect γ rays in coincidence with the α particles. This information was used to elucidate the α-decay fine structures. Inverse radioactive decay tagging was also useful in assigning certain fine structure α peaks to a particular nuclide. New α decay lines were observed and their energies, and half-lives were measured. These include fine structure lines in the α decays of ^174,176Au and ^173Pt. The decay schemes resulting from the fine structure observations will be presented. The α decay reduced widths are used to suggest spin and parity assignments. The structure of these states will be discussed in the framework of the Nilsson model and alpha decay selection rules. * This work is supported by the Department of Energy through contract numbers DE-FG02-96ER40983 (UT), W-31-109-ENG-38 (ANL), DE-FG02-95ER40939 (MSU), DE-FG05-88ER40406 (WU), and by the National Science Foundation (RU

  5. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis and its contribution to TB burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munguia Guadalupe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health impacts of pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (TB treatment have not been included in assessments of TB burden. Therefore, previous global and national TB burden estimates do not reflect the full consequences of surviving TB. We assessed the burden of TB including pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis in Tarrant County, Texas using Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Methods TB burden was calculated for all culture-confirmed TB patients treated at Tarrant County Public Health between January 2005 and December 2006 using identical methods and life tables as the Global Burden of Disease Study. Years of life-lost were calculated as the difference between life expectancy using standardized life tables and age-at-death from TB. Years lived-with-disability were calculated from age and gender-specific TB disease incidence using published disability weights. Non-fatal health impacts of TB were divided into years lived-with-disability-acute and years lived-with-disability-chronic. Years lived-with-disability-acute was defined as TB burden resulting from illness prior to completion of treatment including the burden from treatment-related side effects. Years lived-with-disability-chronic was defined as TB burden from disability resulting from pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis. Results There were 224 TB cases in the time period, of these 177 were culture confirmed. These 177 subjects lost a total of 1189 DALYs. Of these 1189 DALYs 23% were from years of life-lost, 2% were from years lived-with-disability-acute and 75% were from years lived-with-disability-chronic. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the disease burden from TB is greater than previously estimated. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis was responsible for the majority of the burden. These data demonstrate that successful TB control efforts may reduce the health burden more than previously recognized.

  6. Multi-step analysis of Hg2+ ion inhibition of jack bean urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Barbara; Zaborska, Wiesława; Chudy, Michał

    2004-06-01

    We performed a multi-step analysis of the inhibition of jack bean urease by Hg(2+) ions that included residual activity measurements after incubation of the enzyme with the metal ion, reactivation of Hg(2+)-inhibited urease, protection of urease with thiol reagents prior to incubation with Hg(2+), progress curve analysis, and spectroscopic assay of thiol groups in urease-Hg(2+) complexes with a cysteine selective agent 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). Hg(2+) ions were found to form stable complexes with urease that could rapidly be reversed only by the treatment with dithiotreitol, and not by dilution or dialysis. The residual activity data interpreted in terms of the Hill equation revealed the multisite Hg(2+) inhibition of urease, and along with the DTNB thiol-assay they demonstrated the involvement in the reaction with Hg(2+) of six cysteine residues per enzyme subunit, including the active-site flap cysteine. The molar ratios of the inhibitor and enzyme imply that the inhibition consists of the formation of RSHgX complexes, X being a water molecule or an anion. The time-dependent Hg(2+) inhibitory action on urease determined in the system without enzyme preincubation was best described by slow-binding mechanism with the steady-state inhibition constant K(i) = 1.9 nM (+/-10%).

  7. Progress in MOCVD growth of HgCdTe epilayers for HOT infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebłowski, A.; Gawron, W.; Martyniuk, P.; Stepień, D.; Kolwas, K.; Piotrowski, J.; Madejczyk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Piotrowski, A.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present progress in MOCVD growth of (100) HgCdTe epilayers achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology and Vigo System S.A. It is shown that MOCVD technology is an excellent tool in fabrication of different HgCdTe detector structures with a wide range of composition, donor/acceptor doping and without post grown annealing. Particular progress has been achieved in the growth of (100) HgCdTe epilayers for long wavelength infrared photoconductors operated in HOT conditions. The (100) HgCdTe photoconductor optimized for 13-μm attain detectivity equal to 6.5x109 Jones and therefore outperform its (111) counterpart. The paper also presents technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown (111) HgCdTe barrier detectors. The barrier device performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. The detectivity of HgCdTe detectors is close to the value marked HgCdTe photodiodes. Dark current densities are close to the values given by "Rule 07".

  8. Antioxidative response of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted phytoremediation of Hg contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Szczodrowska, Agnieszka

    2017-09-25

    In this study, Lepidium sativum L. was used in repeated phytoextraction processes to remove Hg from contaminated soil, assisted by combined use of compost and iodide (KI). L. sativum L. is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and has been used in environmental tests. Its short vegetation period and ability to accumulate heavy metals make it suitable for use in repeated phytoextraction. The antioxidant enzymatic system of the plant (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) was analysed, to understand the effects of increasing Hg accumulation and translocation. Phytoextraction was repeated six times to decrease Hg contamination in soil, and the efficiency of each step was assessed. The results indicate that L. sativum L. is able to take up and accumulate Hg from contaminated soil. A corresponding increase in enzymatic antioxidants shows that the plant defence system is activated in response to Hg stress. Using compost and KI increases total Hg accumulation and translocation to the above-ground parts of L. sativum L. Repeating the process decreases Hg contamination in pot experiments in all variants of the process. The combined use of compost and KI during repeated phytoextraction increases the efficiency of Hg removal from contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ANTIMONY HALIDES AND HgX2 (X = Cl, Br AMINE ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NDONGO GUEYE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of HgI2 nanoparticles for films nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthaburu, María Pérez; Galain, Isabel; Mombrú, Maia; Aguiar, Ivana; Olivera, Alvaro; Pereira, Heinkel Bentos; Fornaro, Laura

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of controlling the first steps in HgI2 film growth onto amorphous substrates, we employed HgI2 nanoparticles for nucleation. Hg(NO3)2 and NaI were used for obtaining HgI2 in water with and without citric or oxalic acid as capping agents. These samples were then subjected to a hydrothermal treatment at a constant temperature of 120 ºC during 2 h. All samples were washed, centrifuged and dried. This method presents a facile route for obtaining HgI2 nanoparticles and is easily scalable. HgI2 tetragonal phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles were characterized in their size and morphology by transmission electron microscopy and the capping agent presence was studied by infrared spectroscopy. HgI2 nanoparticles synthesized in octadecene, previously reported, as well as nanoparticles obtained in the present work, were used for nucleation onto amorphous substrates. They were deposited onto floating silica glass by spin coating and the morphology of the layer was studied by atomic force microscopy. The results we obtained are the first involving HgI2 nucleation by spin coating, and are very promising for improving the film growth orientation and therefore the current applications of this material, as well as for opening new ones.

  11. Nested reactor chamber and operation for Hg-196 isotope separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1991-10-08

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for use in [sup 196]Hg separation and its method of operation. Specifically, the present invention is directed to a nested reactor chamber useful for [sup 196]Hg isotope separation reactions avoiding the photon starved condition commonly encountered in coaxial reactor systems. 6 figures.

  12. A measurement of the neutron to {sup 199}Hg magnetic moment ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afach, S. [ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, D-07747 Jena (Germany); Baker, C.A. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Ban, G. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Bison, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bodek, K. [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Burghoff, M. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Chowdhuri, Z.; Daum, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Fertl, M.; Franke, B. [ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue–Langevin, Grenoble (France); Green, K.; Grinten, M.G.D. van der [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Grujic, Z. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Harris, P.G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Heil, W. [Institut für Physik, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Hélaine, V. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Henneck, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); and others

    2014-12-12

    The neutron gyromagnetic ratio has been measured relative to that of the {sup 199}Hg atom with an uncertainty of 0.8 ppm. We employed an apparatus where ultracold neutrons and mercury atoms are stored in the same volume and report the result γ{sub n}/γ{sub Hg}=3.8424574(30)

  13. Frequency Ratio of ${}^{199}$Hg and ${}^{87}$Sr Optical Lattice Clocks beyond the SI Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Ushijima, Ichiro; Takamoto, Masao; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report on a frequency ratio measurement of a ${}^{199}$Hg-based optical lattice clock referencing a ${}^{87}$Sr-based clock. Evaluations of lattice light shift, including atomic-motion-dependent shift, enable us to achieve a total systematic uncertainty of $7.2 \\times 10^{-17}$ for the Hg clock. The frequency ratio is measured to be $\

  14. Influence of Ga and Hg on microstructure and electrochemical corrosion behavior of Mg alloy anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Hg and Ga on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Mg-5%Hg (molar fraction) alloys were investigated by the measurement of polarization curves and galvanostatic test. The microstructure of the alloys and the corroded surface of the specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and emission spectrum analysis. It can be concluded that the addition of 1%Ga (molar fraction) reduces corrosion current density from 26.98 mA/cm2 to 2.34 mA/cm2;while the addition of 1%Hg (molar fraction) increases corrosion current density. The addition of Ga and Hg both promotes the electrochemical activity of the alloys and the influence of Ga is more effective than Hg. Mg-5%Hg-1%Ga alloy has the best electrochemical activity, showing mean potential of-1.992 V. The activation mechanism of the magnesium alloy produced by Hg and Ga was put forward. Magnesium atoms are dissolved in liquid Hg and Ga to form amalgam and undergo severe oxidation at the amalgam/electrolyte interface.

  15. Salt-marsh plants as potential sources of Hg0 into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canário, João; Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; Caetano, Miguel; Hintelmann, Holger; O'Driscoll, Nelson J.

    2017-03-01

    To assess the role of salt-marsh plants on the vegetation-atmospheric Hg0 fluxes, three salt marsh plant species, Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima were selected from a moderately contaminated site in the Tagus estuary during May 2012. Total mercury in stems and leaves for each plant as well as total gaseous mercury and vegetation-air Hg0 fluxes were measured over two continuous days. Mercury fluxes were estimated with a dynamic flux Tedlar® bag coupled to a high-resolution automated mercury analyzer (Tekran 2537A). Other environmental parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity and net solar radiation were also measured aside. H. portulacoides showed the highest total mercury concentrations in stems and leaves and the highest average vegetation-air Hg0 flux (0.48 ± 0.40 ng Hg m-2 h-1). The continuous measurements converged to a daily pattern for all plants, with enhanced fluxes during daylight and lower flux during the night. It is noteworthy that throughout the measurements a negative flux (air-vegetation) was never observed, suggesting the absence of net Hg0 deposition. Based on the above fluxes and the total area occupied by each species we have estimated the total amount of Hg0 emitted from this salt-marsh plants. A daily emission of 1.19 mg Hg d-1 was predicted for the Alcochete marsh and 175 mg Hg d-1 for the entire salt marsh area of the Tagus estuary.

  16. 40 CFR 75.38 - Standard missing data procedures for Hg CEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reduces the concentration of Hg emitted to the atmosphere (including circulating fluidized bed units that... concentration data have been obtained following initial certification, the owner or operator shall provide substitute data for Hg concentration in accordance with the procedures in ( 75.33(b)(1) through (b)(4...

  17. A measurement of the neutron to 199Hg magnetic moment ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Afach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The neutron gyromagnetic ratio has been measured relative to that of the 199Hg atom with an uncertainty of 0.8 ppm. We employed an apparatus where ultracold neutrons and mercury atoms are stored in the same volume and report the result γn/γHg=3.8424574(30.

  18. Tumor burden talks in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: PEGylated liposomes are important drug carriers that can passively target tumor by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect in neoplasm lesions. This study demonstrated that tumor burden determines the tumor uptake, and also the tumor response, in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs in a C26/tk-luc colon carcinoma-bearing mouse model. METHODS: Empty PEGylated liposomes (NanoX and those encapsulated with VNB (NanoVNB were labeled with In-111 to obtain InNanoX and InVNBL in high labeling yield and radiochemical purity (all >90%. BALB/c mice bearing either small (58.4±8.0 mm(3 or large (102.4±22.0 mm(3 C26/tk-luc tumors in the right dorsal flank were intravenously administered with NanoVNB, InNanoX, InVNBL, or NanoX as a control, every 7 days for 3 times. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by body weight loss, tumor growth inhibition (using calipers and bioluminescence imaging and survival fraction. The scintigraphic imaging of tumor mouse was performed during and after treatment. RESULTS: The biodistribution study of InVNBL revealed a clear inverse correlation (r (2 = 0.9336 between the tumor uptake and the tumor mass ranged from 27.6 to 623.9 mg. All three liposomal drugs showed better therapeutic efficacy in small-tumor mice than in large-tumor mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with InVNBL (a combination drug showed the highest tumor growth inhibition rate and survival fraction compared to those treated with NanoVNB (chemodrug only and InNanoX (radionuclide only. Specific tumor targeting and significantly increased tumor uptake after periodical treatment with InVNBL were evidenced by scintigraphic imaging, especially in mice bearing small tumors. CONCLUSION: The significant differences in the outcomes of cancer treatment and molecular imaging between animals bearing small and large tumors revealed that tumor burden is a critical and discriminative factor in cancer therapy using PEGylated liposomal drugs.

  19. Characterizing the epidemiological transition in Mexico: national and subnational burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Stevens

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rates of diseases and injuries and the effects of their risk factors can have substantial subnational heterogeneity, especially in middle-income countries like Mexico. Subnational analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors can improve characterization of the epidemiological transition and identify policy priorities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated deaths and loss of healthy life years (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] in 2004 from a comprehensive list of diseases and injuries, and 16 major risk factors, by sex and age for Mexico and its states. Data sources included the vital statistics, national censuses, health examination surveys, and published epidemiological studies. Mortality statistics were adjusted for underreporting, misreporting of age at death, and for misclassification and incomparability of cause-of-death assignment. Nationally, noncommunicable diseases caused 75% of total deaths and 68% of total DALYs, with another 14% of deaths and 18% of DALYs caused by undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, liver cirrhosis, and road traffic injuries. High body mass index, high blood glucose, and alcohol use were the leading risk factors for disease burden, causing 5.1%, 5.0%, and 7.3% of total burden of disease, respectively. Mexico City had the lowest mortality rates (4.2 per 1,000 and the Southern region the highest (5.0 per 1,000; under-five mortality in the Southern region was nearly twice that of Mexico City. In the Southern region undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases caused 23% of DALYs; in Chiapas, they caused 29% of DALYs. At the same time, the absolute rates of noncommunicable disease and injury burdens were highest in the Southern region (105 DALYs per 1,000 population versus 97 nationally for noncommunicable diseases; 22 versus

  20. Seasonal and diurnal variations of Hg° over New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Hegarty

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors influencing diurnal to interannual variability in Hg° over New England were investigated using multi-year measurements conducted by the AIRMAP program at the Thompson Farm (TF coastal site, an inland elevated site at Pac Monadnock (PM, and one summer of measurements on Appledore Island (AI in the Gulf of Maine. Mixing ratios of Hg° at TF showed distinct seasonality with maxima in March and minima in October. In comparison, Hg° at AI tracked the trend at TF but with higher minima, while at PM the diurnal and annual cycles were dampened. In winter, Hg° was correlated most strongly with CO and NOy, indicative of anthropogenic emissions as their primary source. Our analysis indicates that Hg° had a regional background level of ~160 fmol/mol, a summertime dry deposition velocity of ~0.20 cm s−1, and a ~16 day lifetime in the coastal boundary layer. The influence of oceanic emissions on ambient Hg° levels was identified using the Hg°-CHBr3 correlation at both TF and AI. Moreover, the lower Hg° levels and steeper decreasing warm season trend at TF (0.5–0.6 fmol/mol d−1 compared to PM (0.2–0.3 fmol/mol d−1 likely reflected the impact of marine halogen chemistry. Large interannual variability in warm season Hg° levels in 2004 versus 2005/2006 may be due to the role of precipitation patterns in influencing surface evasion of Hg°. In contrast, changes in wintertime maximum levels of Hg° were small compared to drastic reductions in CO, CO2, NOy, and SO2 from 2004/2005 to 2006/2007. These trends could be explained by a homogeneous surface distribution of Hg° over the North American continent in winter and/or rapid removal of mercury released from anthropogenic sources. We caution that during warmer winters, the Hg°-CO slope possibly reflects the ratio of Hg° loss relative to changes in CO more than their emission ratio.

  1. Mercury methylation and reduction potentials in marine water: An improved methodology using {sup 197}Hg radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koron, Neza [National Institute of Biology, Marine Biology Station, Fornace 41, 6330 Piran (Slovenia); Bratkic, Arne [Department of Environmental Sciences, ' Jozef Stefan' Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio, E-mail: ribeiro@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo km 9.5, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Vahcic, Mitja; Horvat, Milena [Department of Environmental Sciences, ' Jozef Stefan' Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-01-15

    A highly sensitive laboratory methodology for simultaneous determination of methylation and reduction of spiked inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) in marine water labelled with high specific activity radiotracer ({sup 197}Hg prepared from enriched {sup 196}Hg stable isotope) was developed. A conventional extraction protocol for methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) was modified in order to significantly reduce the partitioning of interfering labelled Hg{sup 2+} into the final extract, thus allowing the detection of as little as 0.1% of the Hg{sup 2+} spike transformed to labelled CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}. The efficiency of the modified CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} extraction procedure was assessed by radiolabelled CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} spikes corresponding to concentrations of methylmercury between 0.05 and 4 ng L{sup -1}. The recoveries were 73.0{+-}6.0% and 77.5{+-}3.9% for marine and MilliQ water, respectively. The reduction potential was assessed by purging and trapping the radiolabelled elemental Hg in a permanganate solution. The method allows detection of the reduction of as little as 0.001% of labelled Hg{sup 2+} spiked to natural waters. To our knowledge, the optimised methodology is among the most sensitive available to study the Hg methylation and reduction potential, therefore allowing experiments to be done at spikes close to natural levels (1-10 ng L{sup -1}). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic mercury methylation and reduction in marine water were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High specific activity {sup 197}Hg was used to label Hg{sup 2+} spikes at natural levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methylmercury extraction had 73% efficiency for 0.05-4 ng L{sup -1} levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensibility to assess methylation potentials, below 0.1% of the spike. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensibility also for reduction potentials, as low as 0.001% of the spike.

  2. Seasonal and diurnal variations of Hg° over New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Hegarty

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors influencing diurnal to interannual variability in Hg° over New England were investigated using multi-year measurements conducted by AIRMAP at the Thompson Farm (TF coastal site, an inland elevated site at Pac Monadnock (PM, and two month measurements on Appledore Island (AI in the Gulf of Maine. Mixing ratios of Hg° at TF showed distinct seasonality with maxima in March and minima in October. Hg° at AI tracked the trend at TF but with higher minima, while at PM the diurnal and annual cycles were dampened. In winter, Hg° was correlated most strongly with CO and NOy, indicative of anthropogenic emissions as their primary source. Our analysis indicates that Hg° had a regional background level of ~160 fmol/mol in winter, a dry deposition velocity of ~0.20 cm s−1 with a ~16 day lifetime in the coastal boundary layer in summer. The influence of oceanic emissions on ambient Hg° levels was identified using the Hg°-CHBr3 correlation at both TF and AI. Moreover, the lower Hg° levels and steeper decreasing warm season trend at TF (0.5–0.6 fmol/mol d−1 compared to PM (0.2–0.3 fmol/mol d−1 likely reflected the impact of marine halogen chemistry. Large interannual variability in warm season Hg° levels in 2004 versus 2005/2006 may be due to the role of precipitation patterns in influencing surface evasion of Hg°. In contrast, changes in wintertime maximum levels of Hg° were small compared to drastic reductions in CO, CO2, NOy, and SO2 from 2004/2005 to 2006/2007. These trends could be explained by a homogeneous distribution of Hg° over North American in winter due to its long lifetime and/or rapid removal of reactive mercury from anthropogenic sources. We caution that during warmer winters, the Hg°-CO slope possibly reflects Hg° loss relative to changes in CO more than their emission ratio.

  3. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-21

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  4. The economic burden of sunscreen usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ritika; Leo, Michael S; Ma, Brian; Sivamani, Raja K

    2014-06-15

    Excessive sun exposure is known to be the leading cause of skin cancer. The direct cellular damage inflicted by the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun results in premature aging, DNA damage, and mutations that ultimately lead to skin cancer. Sunscreens are highly recommended to protect against UV radiation. However, little research has been conducted on the economic burden of sunscreen use. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the annual cost of sunscreen under both ideal and actual use conditions while stratifying for the sun protection factor (SPF) and by the name brand or equivalent store brand sunscreen. Pricing data was collected for sunscreens of SPF 30, 50, 70, and 100. For each type of sunscreen, the size and price of the container were recorded. Our results demonstrated that sunscreen prices increased with SPF but purchasing a generic sunscreen resulted in savings of 40%-50%. Our estimates reveal that sunscreens are affordable with annual expenditures ranging from $30.21 to $61.94, depending on brand, for SPF 50 sunscreens used with minimal application density for the average person.

  5. Mortality burden and socioeconomic status in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Y T Po

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dimensions along which mortality is patterned in India remains unclear. We examined the specific contribution of social castes, household income, assets, and monthly per capita consumption to mortality differentials in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional data on 217,363 individuals from 41,554 households from the 2004-2005 India Human Development Survey was analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. Mortality differentials across social castes were attenuated after adjusting for household economic factors such as income and assets. Individuals living in the lowest income and assets quintiles had an increased risk of mortality with odds ratio (OR of 1.66 (95% CI  =  1.23-2.24 in the bottom income quintile and OR of 2.94 (95% CI  =  1.66-5.22 in the bottom asset quintile. Counter-intuitively, individuals living in households with lowest monthly consumption per capita had significantly lower probability of death (OR  =  0.27, 95% CI  =  0.20-0.38. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality burden in India is largely patterned on economic dimensions as opposed to caste dimensions, though caste may play an important role in predicting economic opportunities.

  6. Prediction of Hepatitis C Burden in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimian Zou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of hepatitis C in Canada and to predict the burden that this disease may pose to the Canadian society in the near future, expected numbers of persons at different stages of the disease currently and in the next decade were estimated by simulation using a published hepatitis C natural history model with no treatment effect being applied. Based on the estimate of 240,000 persons who are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus in Canada, the simulation analysis demonstrated that the number of hepatitis C cirrhosis cases would likely increase by 92% from 1998 to the year 2008. It was also projected that the number of liver failures and hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C would increase by 126% and 102%, respectively, in the next decade. The number of liver-related deaths associated with hepatitis C is expected to increase by 126% in 10 years. The medical and social care systems in Canada may not be ready to support these large increases. These results highlight the importance of both the control of disease progression of hepatitis C virus-infected persons and the primary prevention of hepatitis C infections in Canada.

  7. Caregivers' burden in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very prevalent and invalidating disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the burden borne by informal caregivers of patients with COPD. We used the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y Situaciones de Dependencia [EDAD]-2008) to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled individuals with COPD and their caregivers in Spain. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the impact that an increase in dependence would have on the problems for which caregivers provide support, in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social dimensions. A total of 461,884 individuals with one or more disabilities and with COPD were identified, and 220,892 informal caregivers were estimated. Results showed that 35% of informal caregivers had health-related problems due to the caregiving provided; 83% had leisure/social-related problems; and among caregivers of working age, 38% recognized having profession-related problems. The probability of a problem arising was significantly associated with the degree of dependence of the patient receiving care. Caregivers of patients with great dependence showed a 39% higher probability of presenting health-related problems, 27% more professional problems, and 23% more leisure problems compared with those with nondependent patients. The results show the large impact on society in terms of the welfare of informal caregivers of patients with COPD. A higher level of dependence was associated with more severe problems in caregivers, in all dimensions.

  8. E2 and M1 Transition Probabilities in Odd Mass Hg Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, V.; Baecklin, A.; Fogelberg, B.; Malmskog, S.G.

    1969-10-15

    L- and M-subshell ratios have been measured for the 39.5 keV transition in {sup 193}Hg and the 37.1 and 16.2 keV transitions in {sup 195}Hg yielding 0.38 {+-} 0.12 , <0.02 and 0.08 {+-} 0.03 per cent E2, respectively. The half-lives of the 39.5 keV level in {sup 193}Hg and the 53.3 and 37.1 keV levels in {sup 195}Hg have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, yielding values of 0.63 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.03 and <0.05 nsec respectively. A systematic compilation of reduced E2 and M1 transition probabilities in odd mass Pt, Hg and Pb nuclei is given and compared to theoretical predictions.

  9. Magnetically recoverable fluorescence chemosensor for the adsorption and selective detection of Hg2+ in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiang; Li, Gang; Cheng, Zhuhong; Lu, Hong; Gao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    In order to conveniently and effectively detect the heavy metal ion Hg(2+) existing in water, a magnetic fluorescence chemosensor has been strategically prepared by immobilizing a Rhodamine B derivative RhB-tris(2-aminoethyl)amine on Fe3O4@SiO2-Au@PSiO2 composites via gold particles. The adsorption and detection for Hg(2+) ions were investigated with fluorophotometry. This chemosensor shows high sensitivity and high selectivity for Hg(2+) over other metal cations owing to the ring opening of the rhodamine fluorophore selectively induced by Hg(2+). In addition, the presence of Fe3O4 in the sensor also facilitates the magnetic separation of the Fe3O4@SiO2-Au-Hg(2+)@PSiO2 from the solution.

  10. Enhanced removal of Hg(II) from acidic aqueous solution using thiol-functionalized biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Qingwei; Li, Qingzhu; Yang, Zhihui; Wang, Yunyan

    2010-01-01

    Spent grain, the low-cost and abundant biomass produced in the brewing industry, was functionalized with thiol groups to be used as an adsorbent for Hg(II) removal from acidic aqueous solution. The adsorbents were characterized by the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Optimum pH for Hg(II) adsorption onto the thiol-functionalized spent grain (TFSG) was 2.0. The equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption of Hg(II) onto TFSG from acidic aqueous solution were investigated. From the Langmuir isotherm model the maximum adsorption capacity of TFSG for Hg(II) was found to be 221.73 mg g(-1), which was higher than that of most various adsorbents reported in literature. Moreover, the adsorption of Hg(II) onto TFSG followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  11. Hg(0) Removal Using Se(0)-doped Montmorillonite from Selenite(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jooyoup [Univ. of Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Kim, Yongjin [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Potassium methylselenite (KSeO{sub 2}(OCH{sub 3})) was reduced to elemental selenium, Se(0), and then doped onto montmorillonite K 10 (MK10) clay to examine the interaction between elemental mercury (Hg(0)) vapor and Se(0) in an effort to understand the possible heterogeneous reaction of Hg(0) vapor and Se(0) solid. The clay was used as a cost-effective support material for uniform dispersion of Se(0). The Se(0)-doped MK10 showed an excellent reaction performance with Hg(0) under an inert nitrogen gas at 70 and 140 .deg. C in our lab-scale fixed-bed system. However, the precursor, KSeO{sub 2}(OCH{sub 3})-doped MK10 showed a negligible reaction performance with Hg(0), suggesting that the oxidation state of selenium plays a key role in the reaction of Hg(0) vapor and selenium compounds.

  12. Dosage selection of HgCl2 in measuring TFe in iron ore by SnCl2 - HgCl2-K2Cr2O7 volumetry%SnCl2-HgCl2-K2Cr2O7容量法测定铁矿石中TFe时HgCl2用量的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祖忠

    2001-01-01

    To retain many advantages of traditional meth od of measuring TFewith the existence of HgCl2 and reduce the pollution of the environment caused by HgCl2, theory about dosage selection of HgCl2 reduced from 5 ml to 2 ml has been studied and results of experiments have been satisfied.%为了保持应用已久的有汞测铁经典方法中的许多优点而减轻HgCl2对环境的污染的缺点,对方法中HgCl2的用量由5ml[1]减少为2ml进行理论上的探讨,并以试验结果加以论证.

  13. Toxic effects of HgCl2 on the growth and oogonium formation in Oedogonium hatei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of mercuric chloride on the germination and growth of swarmers and subsequent induction of oogonia was studied in Oedogonium hatei Kam. (Oedogoniales, Chorophyceae). HgCl2 within the concentration range of 0.01 to 1.0 mg/l produced a progressive increase in the initiation of germination and reduction in the growth of the alga. The percentage of oogonia formed, and mature oogonia developed, decreased linearly with a rise in the concentrations of HgCl2 employed. The results showed that 1 mg/l HgCl2 was highly toxic to the growth and/or multiplication of zoospores and further development of sexual structures in O. hatei. The germination of zoospores and growth of germlings were so severely affected that induction of oogonia remained completely inhibited at 1 mg/l HgCl2. Moreover, 2 mg/l of HgCl2 was lethal to the asexual zoospores.

  14. The Burden of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Address ... of organic mitral valve disease in the United States (with an ... hypertension is defined as mean PA pressure exceeding 25 mmHg.

  15. Tackling burden in ART: an integrated approach for medical staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boivin, J.; Domar, A.D.; Shapiro, D.B.; Wischmann, T.H.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Discontinuation is a problem in fertility clinics. Many couples discontinue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) without achieving a live birth for reasons other than poor prognosis or the cost of treatment. Discontinuation has been attributed to the burden of treatment. The causes of burden can

  16. Tackling burden in ART: an integrated approach for medical staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boivin, J.; Domar, A.D.; Shapiro, D.B.; Wischmann, T.H.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Discontinuation is a problem in fertility clinics. Many couples discontinue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) without achieving a live birth for reasons other than poor prognosis or the cost of treatment. Discontinuation has been attributed to the burden of treatment. The causes of burden can

  17. Tackling burden in ART: an integrated approach for medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Jacky; Domar, Alice D; Shapiro, Daniel B; Wischmann, Tewes H; Fauser, Bart C J M; Verhaak, Christianne

    2012-04-01

    Discontinuation is a problem in fertility clinics. Many couples discontinue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) without achieving a live birth for reasons other than poor prognosis or the cost of treatment. Discontinuation has been attributed to the burden of treatment. The causes of burden can be broadly classified according to whether they originate in the patient, clinic or treatment. Interventions to alleviate these burdens include provision of comprehensive educational material, screening to identify highly distressed patients, provision of tailored coping tools and improvements in the clinic environment and medical interventions. Practical interventions to reduce the different causes of burden in ART exist, but further development and evaluation of the efficacy of these interventions requires more precise definition of terms and theory. In this paper, we propose a general integrated approach to cover different perspectives in dealing with burden in ART clinics. We firstly describe the integrated approach and present common sources of burden. We then describe interventions that could help reduce the burden in ART. Our paper is aimed at fertility clinic staff because of their day-to-day involvement with patients. However, this discussion should also be relevant to companies that develop treatments and to psychosocial experts. Reducing the burden of treatment should lead to improved outcomes, namely better quality of life during treatment and lower discontinuation rates.

  18. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  19. 43 CFR 4.1307 - Elements; burdens of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion by a preponderance of the evidence as to the elements... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elements; burdens of proof. 4.1307 Section... Review of Proposed Individual Civil Penalty Assessments Under Section 518(f) of the Act § 4.1307 Elements...

  20. Reflections on the global burden of disease 2010 estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byass, Peter; de Courten, Maximilian; Graham, Wendy J;

    2013-01-01

    Peter Byass and colleagues raise questions about the recent, high-profile Global Burden of Disease estimates. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.......Peter Byass and colleagues raise questions about the recent, high-profile Global Burden of Disease estimates. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary....

  1. Tuberculous Pericarditis is Multibacillary and Bacterial Burden Drives High Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotam G. Pasipanodya

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Patients with culture confirmed tuberculous pericarditis have a high bacillary burden, and this bacterial burden drives mortality. Thus proven tuberculosis pericarditis is not a paucibacillary disease. Moreover, the severe immunosuppression suggests limited inflammation. There is a need for the design of a highly bactericidal regimen for this condition.

  2. Family burden in injecting versus noninjecting opioid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substance-dependent person in the family affects almost all aspects of family life that also impact the lives of the significant others and causes enormous burden. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the pattern of burden borne by the family caregivers of patients with opioid-dependence-injecting drug users (IDU and noninjecting drug users (NIDU. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with ICD-10 diagnosed-opioid-dependent subjects (IDU and NIDU, N = 40 in each group and their family caregivers attending a de-addiction centre at a multispecialty teaching hospital in North India. Family Burden interview schedule was used to assess the pattern of burden borne by the family caregivers. Results: The IDU group was characterized by older age, longer duration of substance dependence, greater subjective and objective family burden in all the areas compared to NIDU group, and single status and unemployment were associated with severe objective burden. The family burden was associated neither with age, education, or duration of dependence of the patients, nor with family size, type of caregiver or caregiver′s education in either group. Conclusion: All caregivers reported a moderate or severe burden, which indicates the significance and need for further work in this area.

  3. The burden of proof in dealing with political accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andone, C.; Săftoiu, R.; Neagu, M.-L.; Măda, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain from a pragma-dialectical argumentative perspective the use of the concept of burden of proof in dealing with political accountability. In the first part of the paper, a procedural view of the burden of proof is sketched which is fundamental for understanding its

  4. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  5. Family rituals, financial burden, and mothers' adjustment in pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M Cristina; Alderfer, Melissa A; Kazak, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    The financial burden of childhood cancer may contribute to the distress that parents experience during and after treatment. Inconsistent relationships between financial burden and parental psychological distress highlight the need to identify psychosocial factors that may moderate this relationship. In this study, we aimed to determine if family ritual meaning moderates the relationship between financial burden and anxiety and depression symptoms among mothers of children with cancer. Portuguese mothers of children with cancer on-treatment and off-treatment (N = 244) completed measures of financial burden, anxiety and depression symptoms, and family ritual meaning. Moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Family ritual meaning buffered the effect of financial burden on anxiety, but not on depression symptoms. The relationship between financial burden and anxiety symptoms was not significant when mothers endorsed higher levels of family ritual meaning. Although preliminary, the current findings suggest that high levels of perceived family ritual meaning may constitute a protective factor against the effect of financial burden on mothers' anxiety symptoms. Promoting family ritual meaning might be an effective approach to reducing anxiety symptoms of mothers of children with cancer in the context of financial burden. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The disease burden of congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Jokelainen, Pikka; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2017-01-01

    of 12. CT resulted in a total disease burden of 123 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 100–148), of which 78 (95% UI, 64–94) were due to foetal loss and 2 (95% UI, 1–3) were due to neonatal death; the remaining burden was due to moderate to severe life-long sequelae. A comparison of the estimated...

  7. Dislocation reduction in HgCdTe grown on CdTe/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.

    2016-05-01

    Bulk-grown CdZnTe (Zn = 3%) substrates are the natural choice for HgCdTe epitaxy since it is lattice matched to long wave LW-HgCdTe alloy. However, lack of large area CdZnTe substrates, high production costs, and more importantly, the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between CdZnTe and silicon Read out Integrated Circuits (ROIC) are some of the inherent drawbacks of CdZnTe substrates. Consequently, Hg1-xCdxTe detectors fabricated on silicon substrates are an attractive alternative. Recent developments in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) buffer layer growth technology on Si substrates has revolutionized the HgCdTe research and offered a new dimension to HgCdTe-based IR technology. Si substrates provide advantages in terms of relatively large area (3 to 6-inch diameter is easily obtained) compared to CZT substrate materials, durability during processing, and reliability to thermal cycling. Innovations in Si-based composite substrates made it possible to fabricate very large-format IR arrays that offer higher resolution, low-cost arrays and more dies per wafer. Between Si substrates and HgCdTe has large lattice mismatch of 19%. This leads to dislocation densities of low-107 cm-2 for optimal growth of HgCdTe on silicon-based substrates as compared to the mid-104 cm-2 dislocation density of HgCdTe grown on CdZnTe. This paper present dislocation reduction by two orders of magnitude using thermal cycle anneal under Hg environment on HgCdTe grown on Si substrates and as well as defect reduction in Cd(Se)Te buffer layers grown on Si Substrates.

  8. "Reactive" optical sensor for Hg(2+) and its application in environmental aqueous media and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jiayun; Pan, Dong; Li, Hongwei; Yao, Yunhui; Lyu, Zu; Yang, Liting; Ma, Li-Jun

    2017-03-01

    A new rhodamine B-based "reactive" optical sensor (1) for Hg(2+) was synthesized. Sensor 1 shows a unique colorimetric and fluorescent "turn-on" selectivity to Hg(2+) over 14 other metal ions with a hypersensitivity (detection limits are 27.6 nM (5.5 ppb) and 6.9 nM (1.4 ppb), respectively) in neutral buffer solution. To test its applicability in the environment, sensor 1 was applied to quantify and visualize low levels of Hg(2+) in tap water and river water samples. The results indicate sensor 1 is a highly sensitive fluorescent sensor for Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 1.7 ppb in tap water and river water. Moreover, sensor 1 is a convenient visualizing sensor for low levels of Hg(2+) (0.1 ppm) in water environment (from colorless to light pink). In addition, sensor 1 shows good potential as a fluorescent visualizing sensor for Hg(2+) in fetal bovine serum and living 293T cells. The results indicate that sensor 1 shows good potential as a highly sensitive sensor for the detection of Hg(2+) in environmental and biological samples. Graphical Abstract A new rhodamine B-based "reactive" optical sensor (1) for Hg(2+) was synthesized. 1 shows a unique colorimetric and fluorescent "turn-on" selectivity to Hg(2+) over 14 other metal ions with a hypersensitivity in water environment. And it is a convenient visualizing probe for low levels of Hg(2+) in environment aqueous media, fetal bovine serum and living 293T cells.

  9. MBE Growth and Transfer of HgCdTe Epitaxial Films from InSb Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lyon, T. J.; Rajavel, R. D.; Nosho, B. Z.; Terterian, S.; Beliciu, M. L.; Patterson, P. R.; Chang, D. T.; Boag-O'Brien, M. F.; Holden, B. T.; Jacobs, R. N.; Benson, J. D.

    2010-07-01

    An investigation of the heteroepitaxial growth of HgCdTe films onto InSb(211)B substrates is reported. High-quality HgCdTe(211)B single-crystal films have been successfully deposited onto InSb(211)B substrates and have been characterized with x-ray diffraction rocking curve analysis, etch pit density analysis, and surface void defect mapping. X-ray rocking curve (422) reflection full-width at half-maximum of 60 arcsec has been obtained for 7- μm-thick x = 0.22 HgCdTe epitaxial films, and etch pit densities of 3 × 106 cm-2 to 3 × 107 cm-2 have been observed. A significant reduction in HgCdTe void defect densities to 100 cm-2 to 200 cm-2 has been observed on InSb, including a complete absence of large “void cluster” defects that are often observed for growth on CdZnTe. Wafer bow induced by the growth of HgCdTe on InSb is less than 1 μm for 2-inch-diameter substrates. Significant diffusion of In into HgCdTe is observed for HgCdTe/InSb wafers that are subjected to Hg anneals at 250°C to 300°C. A preliminary investigation of the transfer of HgCdTe films from InSb onto Si substrates has also been undertaken, using an adhesive wafer bonding approach evaluated with scanning acoustic microscopy. The infrared transmission characteristics of the bonding adhesive have been investigated with respect to postgrowth annealing procedures to establish the compatibility of the bonding approach with HgCdTe device processing and detector operation.

  10. Mercury (Hg) in meteorites: variations in abundance, thermal release profile, mass-dependent and mass-independent isotopic fractionation

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Matthias M M; Marty, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the concentration, isotopic composition and thermal release profiles of Mercury (Hg) in a suite of meteorites, including both chondrites and achondrites. We find large variations in Hg concentration between different meteorites (ca. 10 ppb to 14'000 ppb), with the highest concentration orders of magnitude above the expected bulk solar system silicates value. From the presence of several different Hg carrier phases in thermal release profiles (150 to 650 {\\deg}C), we argue that these variations are unlikely to be mainly due to terrestrial contamination. The Hg abundance of meteorites shows no correlation with petrographic type, or mass-dependent fractionation of Hg isotopes. Most carbonaceous chondrites show mass-independent enrichments in the odd-numbered isotopes 199Hg and 201Hg. We show that the enrichments are not nucleosynthetic, as we do not find corresponding nucleosynthetic deficits of 196Hg. Instead, they can partially be explained by Hg evaporation and redeposition during heating of ...

  11. Spectroscopic and electrochemical monitoring of band structure changes during the alloying of CdTe QDs by Hg2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkevych, Olena O.; Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Grobelny, Jaroslaw; Selyshchev, Oleksandr V.; Khalavka, Yuriy B.

    2016-10-01

    The series of ultrasmall thioglycolic acid-stabilized colloidal Cd1-x Hg x Te QDs (with d ≈ 2.3 nm) with different % Hg2+ content were synthesized by an ion-exchange reaction in water solution. The resulting Cd1-x Hg x Te QDs were characterized using UV-vis absorption and photoluminescent optical spectroscopic studies, cyclic voltammetry and scanning transmission electron microscopy. By comparison of the results from different methods we conclude that Hg-alloying occurs in three stages—with the formation of three different types of QDs structures, namely core/shell CdTe/Cd1-x Hg x Te QDs, core/shell/shell CdTe/Cd1-x Hg x Te/CdHg QDs and core/shell Cd1-x Hg x Te/CdHg QDs.

  12. Localization of Hg and Pb in the palps, the digestive gland and the gills in Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) using autometallography and X-ray microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriadis, V.K.; Domouhtsidou, G.P.; Raftopoulou, E

    2003-10-01

    Palps are introduced as a new metal-storing organ in Mytilus galloprovincialis. - The intracellular localization of heavy metals using autometallography (AMG) and X-ray microanalysis was studied in the palps, the digestive gland and the gills of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, after an experimental exposure to 0.1 mg l{sup -1} of Hg and 0.1 mg l{sup -1} of Pb, for 30 and 60 days. In the examined tissues, autometallographical black silver deposits (BSD) were localized mainly in the residual bodies and heterolysosomes of the digestive cells, as well as in the dense bodies of the epithelial cells. Metal deposition after Hg exposure was much more abundant compared to Pb exposure. Using X-ray microanalysis, Hg was traced on the BSD in all examined tissues, while Pb was not traced in these deposits. The results are discussed in comparison to previous results on long-term exposure to the same metals; in addition, the palps are introduced as a new metal storing organ and, finally, the use of X-ray microanalysis under a scanning electron microscope in order to enhance the specificity of AMG is suggested.

  13. Intraocular foreign body removal: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An intraocular foreign body may traumatize the eye mechanically, introduce infection or exert other toxic effects on the intraocular structures. Removal of a metallic intraocular foreign bodies (IOFB use an internal (vitrectomy followed by forceps or internal magnet use or external approach (large electromagnet. Outline of Cases. A 51-year-old man sustained injury of the left eye by a metal foreign body. On admission visual acuity was normal (VOS=1.0 and intraocular tension was within normal limits (TOS=10 mmHg. Nasal scleral entry wound was noticed. Ultrasound of the left eye was done, which confirmed existence of IOFB laying nasally, next to the ciliary body. Extraction of IOFB with a big electric magnet was done. Visual acuity on discharge was the same (VOS=1.0. Another man, aged 30 years, came to the clinic after injury of the left eye by a foreign body. On admission visual acuity was VOS=L+P+ (light and projection, TOS=44 mmHg (higher, traumatic cataract, scleral entry wound, corneal edema, existence of IOFB and initial endophtalmitis. Lensectomia and vitrectomia via pars plana with IOFB extraction were done. Visual acuity on discharge was VOS=5/60 with +6.50 Dsph = 0.3-0.4; TOS=17 mmHg. Conclusion. Magnet removal is indicated in patients when IOFB is laying free in the vitreous body or stopped near the entry wound during injury without other complications. Internal approach - pars plana vitrectomy with forceps removal is used when IOFB is stuck either on the peripheral or posterior part of the retina or if there are some of aforementioned complications.

  14. [Caregivers of individuals with spinal cord injury: caregiver burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Paula Cristina; Rabeh, Soraia Assad Nasbine; Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher; Haas, Vanderlei José

    2013-06-01

    A sectional study that had as its objectives to assess caregiver burden of for caregivers of individuals with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) and its association with sociodemographic variables (age and sex), health status (self-reported illnesses) and caregiver characteristics (care time in years and daily hours of care). Data were collected by consultation of patient files and individual interviews at home using the instrument, Caregiver Burden Scale (CBScale). The results showed that most burden occurred in the domains: environment, disappointment and general strain. Presenting health problem (for all domains of the CBScale) and spending more hours per day in care (in the domain disappointment) represented the variables associated with burden. Studies of a more confirmatory nature than exploratory between the variables studied can be used to measure the burden obtained in this population of caregivers of individuals with TSCI.

  15. The redox processes in Hg-contaminated soils from Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil): implications for the mercury cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmöller, Cláudia C; Durão Júnior, Walter A; de Oliveira, Aline; do Valle, Cláudia M

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of the redox process and chemical speciation of Hg(II) lead to a better understanding of biogeochemical processes controlling the transformation of Hg(II) into toxic and bioaccumulative monomethyl mercury, mainly in areas contaminated with Hg(0). This study investigates the speciation and redox processes of Hg in soil samples from a small area contaminated with Hg(0) as a result of gold mining activities in the rural municipality of Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Soil samples were prepared by adding Hg(0) and HgCl2 separately to dry soil, and the Hg redox process was monitored using thermodesorption coupled to atomic absorption spectrometry. A portion of the Hg(0) added was volatilized (up to 37.4±2.0%) or oxidized (from 36±7% to 88±16%). A correlation with Mn suggests that this oxidation is favored, but many other factors must be evaluated, such as the presence of microorganisms and the types of organic matter present. The interaction of Hg with the matrix is suggested to involve Hg(II)-complexes formed with inorganic and organic sulfur ligands and/or nonspecific adsorption onto oxides of Fe, Al and/or Mn. The kinetics of the oxidation reaction was approximated for two first-order reactions; the faster reaction was attributed to the oxidation of Hg(0)/Hg(I), and the slower reaction corresponded to Hg(I)/Hg(II). The second stage was 43-139 times slower than the first. The samples spiked with Hg(II) showed low volatilization and a shifting of the signal of Hg(II) to lower temperatures. These results show that the extent, rate and type of redox process can be adverse in soils. Descoberto can serve as an example for areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  16. Body Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common body piercing. Other common places to pierce include the eyebrow, nose, tongue, lip, belly button, nipples, and genitals. Some people also pierce their ear cartilage (the hard part of the ...

  17. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    seasonal variation that could be used in management decisions. ... To assess muscle and fat content, the leg was completely separated into meat, bone, ..... The seasonal variation in body condition of mountain reedbuck can be explained by ...

  18. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  19. Mechanism of Hg(II) Immobilization in Sediments by Sulfate-Cement Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Susana; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri; O'Day, Peggy A

    2016-04-01

    Reactive amendments such as Portland and super-sulfate cements offer a promising technology for immobilizing metalloid contaminants such as mercury (Hg) in soils and sediments through sequestration in less bioavailable solid forms. Tidal marsh sediments were reacted with dissolved Hg(II) in synthetic seawater and fresh water solutions, treated with Portland cement and FeSO4 amendment, and aged for up to 90 days. Reacted solids were analyzed with bulk sequential extraction methods and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Hg LIII- and S K-edge. In amended sediments, XRD, SEM and sulfur K-edge XANES indicated formation of gypsum in seawater experiments or ettringite-type (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12(.)26H2O) phases in fresh water experiments, depending on the final solution pH (seawater ∼8.5; freshwater ∼10.5). Analysis of Hg EXAFS spectra showed Cl and Hg ligands in the first- and second-coordination shells at distances characteristic of a polynuclear chloromercury(II) salt, perhaps as a nanoparticulate phase, in both seawater and fresh water experiments. In addition to the chloromercury species, a smaller fraction (∼20-25%) of Hg was bonded to O atoms in fresh water sample spectra, suggesting the presence of a minor sorbed Hg fraction. In the absence of amendment treatment, Hg sorption and resistance to extraction can be accounted for by relatively strong binding by reduced S species present in the marsh sediment detected by S XANES. Thermodynamic calculations predict stable aqueous Hg-Cl species at seawater final pH, but higher final pH in fresh water favors aqueous Hg-hydroxide species. The difference in Hg coordination between aqueous and solid phases suggests that the initial Hg-Cl coordination was stabilized in the cement hydration products and did not re-equilibrate with the bulk solution with aging. Collectively, results suggest physical encapsulation of Hg as a polynuclear

  20. The burden of insomnia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuo Mishima,1 Marco daCosta DiBonaventura,2 Hillary Gross2 1Department of Psychophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan; 2Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA Objectives: Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the current study is to extend this work in Japan to further understand the effect of insomnia on health-related quality of life (hrQOL. Further, another objective is to understand general predictors of hrQOL among patients with insomnia. Methods: Data from the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years or older, were used (N=30,000. All National Health and Wellness Survey respondents were categorized based on the incidence of self-reported insomnia diagnosis and prescription medication usage (clinical insomniacs under treatment versus [vs] good sleepers without insomnia or insomnia symptoms. Comparisons among different groups were made using multiple regression models controlling for demographics and health history. Results: Clinical insomniacs (n=1,018; 3.4% reported significantly worse hrQOL compared with good sleepers (n=20,542 (mental component summary: 34.2 vs 48.0; physical component summary: 48.0 vs 52.8; health utilities: 0.61 vs 0.76; all P<0.05. Health behaviors (smoking, exercise, alcohol use and comorbidities were the strongest predictors of health utilities for clinical insomniacs. For all three clinical insomniac subgroups of interest, those with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric one, those with a psychiatric comorbidity but not a physical one, and those without either a physical or psychiatric comorbidity, large decrements in health utilities were observed for respondents who did

  1. Development of the Assessment of Burden of COPD tool : an integrated tool to measure the burden of COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slok, Annerika H. M.; in 't Veen, Johannes C. C. M.; Chavannes, Niels H.; van der Molen, Thys; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen P. M. H.; Kerstjens, Huib A. B.; Salome, Philippe L.; Holverda, Sebastiaan; Dekhuijzen, P. N. Richard; Schuiten, Denise; Asijee, Guus M.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.

    2014-01-01

    In deciding on the treatment plan for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the burden of COPD as experienced by patients should be the core focus. It is therefore important for daily practice to develop a tool that can both assess the burden of COPD and facilitate communicatio

  2. Development of the assessment of burden of COPD tool: An integrated tool to measure the burden of COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.M. Slok (Annerika); J.C.C.M. in 't Veen (Johannes); N.H. Chavannes (Nicolas); T. van der Molen (Thys); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); H.A.M. Kerstjens (Huib); J. Salomé; S. Holverda (Sebastiaan); P.N.R. Dekhuijzen (Richard); D. Schuiten (Denise); G.M. Asijee (Guus); O.C.P. Schayck (Onno)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn deciding on the treatment plan for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the burden of COPD as experienced by patients should be the core focus. It is therefore important for daily practice to develop a tool that can both assess the burden of COPD and facilitate

  3. Development of the Assessment of Burden of COPD tool: an integrated tool to measure the burden of COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slok, A.H.; Veen, J.C. In 't; Chavannes, N.H.; Molen, T. van der; Molken, M.P. Rutten-van; Kerstjens, H.A.; Salome, P.L.; Holverda, S.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Schuiten, D.; Asijee, G.M.; Schayck, O.C.P. van

    2014-01-01

    In deciding on the treatment plan for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the burden of COPD as experienced by patients should be the core focus. It is therefore important for daily practice to develop a tool that can both assess the burden of COPD and facilitate communicatio

  4. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); A.D. Flaxman (Abraham D); M. Naghavi (Morteza); Fitzmaurice, C. (Christina); T. Vos (Theo); I. Abubakar (Ibrahim); L.J. Abu-Raddad (Laith J); R. Assadi (Reza); N. Bhala (Neeraj); M.R. Cowie (Martin R.); Forouzanfour, M.H. (Mohammad H); M. Groeger (Marketa); Hanafiah, K.M. (Khayriyyah Mohd); K.H. Jacobsen (Kathryn H); James, S.L. (Spencer L); J.H. Maclachlan (Jennifer H); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); N.K. Martin (Natasha); Mokdad, A.A. (Ali A); A.H. Mokdad (Ali H); Murray, C.J.L. (Christopher J L); Plass, D. (Dietrich); S.M. Rana (Saleem M); Rein, D.B. (David B); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J. Sanabria (Juan); Saylan, M. (Mete); S. Shahraz (Saeid); So, S. (Samuel); V.V. Vlassov (Vasiliy Victorovich); E. Weiderpass (Elisabete); S.T. Wiersma (Steven); M. Younis (Mustafa); C. Yu (Chuanhua); El Sayed Zaki, M. (Maysaa); Cooke, G.S. (Graham S)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mort

  5. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); A.D. Flaxman (Abraham D); M. Naghavi (Morteza); Fitzmaurice, C. (Christina); T. Vos (Theo); I. Abubakar (Ibrahim); L.J. Abu-Raddad (Laith J); R. Assadi (Reza); N. Bhala (Neeraj); M.R. Cowie (Martin R.); Forouzanfour, M.H. (Mohammad H); M. Groeger (Marketa); Hanafiah, K.M. (Khayriyyah Mohd); K.H. Jacobsen (Kathryn H); James, S.L. (Spencer L); J.H. Maclachlan (Jennifer H); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); N.K. Martin (Natasha); Mokdad, A.A. (Ali A); A.H. Mokdad (Ali H); Murray, C.J.L. (Christopher J L); Plass, D. (Dietrich); S.M. Rana (Saleem M); Rein, D.B. (David B); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J. Sanabria (Juan); Saylan, M. (Mete); S. Shahraz (Saeid); So, S. (Samuel); V.V. Vlassov (Vasiliy Victorovich); E. Weiderpass (Elisabete); S.T. Wiersma (Steven); M. Younis (Mustafa); C. Yu (Chuanhua); El Sayed Zaki, M. (Maysaa); Cooke, G.S. (Graham S)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and

  6. Caregivers’ burden in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very prevalent and invalidating disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the burden borne by informal caregivers of patients with COPD. Methods We used the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y Situaciones de Dependencia [EDAD]-2008) to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled individuals with COPD and their caregivers in Spain. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the impact that an increase in dependence would have on the problems for which caregivers provide support, in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social dimensions. Results A total of 461,884 individuals with one or more disabilities and with COPD were identified, and 220,892 informal caregivers were estimated. Results showed that 35% of informal caregivers had health-related problems due to the caregiving provided; 83% had leisure/social-related problems; and among caregivers of working age, 38% recognized having profession-related problems. The probability of a problem arising was significantly associated with the degree of dependence of the patient receiving care. Caregivers of patients with great dependence showed a 39% higher probability of presenting health-related problems, 27% more professional problems, and 23% more leisure problems compared with those with nondependent patients. Conclusion The results show the large impact on society in terms of the welfare of informal caregivers of patients with COPD. A higher level of dependence was associated with more severe problems in caregivers, in all dimensions. PMID:25709429

  7. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  8. Understanding the burden of adult female acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghetti, Emil A; Kawata, Ariane K; Daniels, Selena R; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-02-01

    Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. RESULTS highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome.

  9. Genetic Polymorphisms in Glutathione (GSH- Related Genes Affect the Plasmatic Hg/Whole Blood Hg Partitioning and the Distribution between Inorganic and Methylmercury Levels in Plasma Collected from a Fish-Eating Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Ávila Soares de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in glutathione (GSH- related genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GCLM, and GCLC in the distribution of Hg in the blood compartments in humans exposed to methylmercury (MeHg. Subjects (n=88, exposed to MeHg from fish consumption, were enrolled in the study. Hg species in the plasma compartment were determined by LC-ICP-MS, whereas genotyping was performed by PCR assays. Mean total Hg levels in plasma (THgP and whole blood (THgB were 10±4.2 and 37±21, whereas mean evels of plasmatic MeHg (MeHgP, inorganic Hg (IHgP, and HgP/HgB were 4.3±2.9, 5.8±2.3 µg/L, and 0.33±0.15, respectively. GSTM1 and GCLC polymorphisms influence THgP and MeHgP (multivariate analyses, P<0.050. Null homozygotes for GSTM1 showed higher THgP and MeHgP levels compared to subjects with GSTM1 (THgP β=0.22, P=0.035; MeHgP β=0.30, P=0.050 and persons carrying at least one T allele for GCLC had significant higher MeHgP (β=0.59, P=0.046. Also, polymorphic GCLM subjects had lower THgP/THgB than those with the nonvariant genotype. Taken together, data of this study suggest that GSH-related polymorphisms may change the metabolism of MeHg by modifying the distribution of mercury species iin plasma compartment and the HgP/HgB partitioning.

  10. Effect of Elodea nuttallii roots on bacterial communities and MMHg proportion in a Hg polluted sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Regier

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a rooted macrophyte Elodea nuttallii on rhizosphere bacterial communities in Hg contaminated sediments. Specimens of E. nuttallii were exposed to sediments from the Hg contaminated Babeni reservoir (Olt River, Romania in our microcosm. Plants were allowed to grow for two months until they occupied the entirety of the sediments. Total Hg and MMHg were analysed in sediments where an increased MMHg percentage of the total Hg in pore water of rhizosphere sediments was found. E. nuttallii roots also significantly changed the bacterial community structure in rhizosphere sediments compared to bulk sediments. Deltaproteobacteria dominated the rhizosphere bacterial community where members of Geobacteraceae within the Desulfuromonadales and Desulfobacteraceae were identified. Two bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs which were phylogenetically related to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB became abundant in the rhizosphere. We suggest that these phylotypes could be potentially methylating bacteria and might be responsible for the higher MMHg percentage of the total Hg in rhizosphere sediments. However, SRB were not significantly favoured in rhizosphere sediments as shown by qPCR. Our findings support the hypothesis that rooted macrophytes created a microenvironment favorable for Hg methylation. The presence of E. nuttallii in Hg contaminated sediments should therefore not be overlooked.

  11. Effect of Elodea nuttallii roots on bacterial communities and MMHg proportion in a Hg polluted sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Nicole; Frey, Beat; Converse, Brandon; Roden, Eric; Grosse-Honebrink, Alexander; Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Cosio, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a rooted macrophyte Elodea nuttallii on rhizosphere bacterial communities in Hg contaminated sediments. Specimens of E. nuttallii were exposed to sediments from the Hg contaminated Babeni reservoir (Olt River, Romania) in our microcosm. Plants were allowed to grow for two months until they occupied the entirety of the sediments. Total Hg and MMHg were analysed in sediments where an increased MMHg percentage of the total Hg in pore water of rhizosphere sediments was found. E. nuttallii roots also significantly changed the bacterial community structure in rhizosphere sediments compared to bulk sediments. Deltaproteobacteria dominated the rhizosphere bacterial community where members of Geobacteraceae within the Desulfuromonadales and Desulfobacteraceae were identified. Two bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which were phylogenetically related to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) became abundant in the rhizosphere. We suggest that these phylotypes could be potentially methylating bacteria and might be responsible for the higher MMHg percentage of the total Hg in rhizosphere sediments. However, SRB were not significantly favoured in rhizosphere sediments as shown by qPCR. Our findings support the hypothesis that rooted macrophytes created a microenvironment favorable for Hg methylation. The presence of E. nuttallii in Hg contaminated sediments should therefore not be overlooked.

  12. Removal and recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated cotton fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Rongjun; Sun, Changmei; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Chunnuan; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Chunhua; Chen, Hou

    2009-08-15

    Two types of chitosan-coated cotton fibers (SCCH and RCCH) were applied to remove and recover Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the two fibers for Hg(II) were investigated at different temperatures. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetic processes of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) followed the pseudo second-order model at lower temperatures and the pseudo first-order model at higher temperatures. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the adsorption isotherms of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) in the temperature range studied. SCCH and RCCH fibers selectively adsorbed Hg(II) from binary ion systems in the presence of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ag(I). Increased temperature was beneficial to adsorption. The recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was also studied as a function of sample flow rate and volume, concentration and volume of eluent, elution rate, quantity of adsorbents added and concomitant ions. The results showed that the two fibers efficiently enriched and recovered Hg(II) in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals and some heavy metals under optimum conditions. The RCCH fiber exhibited better stability than the SCCH fiber following repeated use.

  13. Kinetics of Hg(II) adsorption and desorption in calcined mussel shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Fernández-Calviño, David; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza

    2010-08-15

    The potential use of calcined mussel shells to purify water contaminated with mercury was evaluated. The Hg(II) adsorption and desorption kinetics were studied in batch-type and stirred-flow chamber experiments. The adsorption/desorption experiments revealed some differences between the batches of shells used. The batch of shells that displayed the greatest capacity to adsorb Hg(II), via a highly irreversible reaction, also contained more Fe and Al than the other batches. The results of the stirred-flow chamber experiments indicated a high degree of irreversibility in the process of Hg(II) adsorption in the mussel shell, and that Hg(II) was rapidly retained. The results of these experiments also revealed that the efficiency of depuration differed depending on the length of time that the system was used: when the system was operated for 55 min, depurating 162 mL of inflowing water g(-1) mussel shell, a 90% reduction in the initial concentration of Hg(II) was obtained; use of the system for 90 min, depurating 265 mL water g(-1) mussel shell, produced a 75% reduction in the initial Hg(II), and use of the system for 162.5 min, depurating 487 mL of water g(-1) mussel shell, resulted in a 50% reduction in the initial Hg(II).

  14. Transition state kinetics of Hg(II) adsorption at gibbsite-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Rohan; Tobschall, Heinz J; Seneviratne, Wasana; Bandara, Atula

    2007-08-25

    Kinetics of adsorption plays a pivotal factor in determining the bio-availability and mobility of Hg(II) in the environment. The kinetics of Hg(II) adsorption on gibbsite was examined as a function of pH, temperature and electrolyte type. Adsorption of Hg(II) was highly non-linear where the rate of Hg(II) retention was rapid initially and was followed by gradual or somewhat slow retention behavior with increasing contact time. The respective rate constants designated as k(1) (S-1: fast step) and k(2) (S-2: slow step). Always k(1) follows the order: k(1)(CIO)(4) >/= k(1)(NO3)(4) > k(1)(Cl). Such a relationship was not observed for the S-2 route. A two-step reaction model with pseudo-first order kinetics successfully described the adsorption rates of Hg(II) on gibbsite. Arrhenius and Erying models determined the thermodynamic parameters at activation states, which correspond to S-1 and S-2 routes. In a given system, always the activation energies showed a decrease with the pH. Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(#)), enthalpy (DeltaH(#)), and entropy (DeltaS(#)) values of activation states were almost similar both in NaClO(4) and NaNO(3) which signal a similar Hg(II) adsorptive mechanism on gibbsite. The configurations of different Hg(II)-surface complexes were elucidated by transmission vibration spectroscopy.

  15. Hg0 removal from flue gas over different zeolites modified by FeCl3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Xu, Wenqing; Wang, Jian; Tong, Li; Zhu, Tingyu

    2015-02-01

    The elemental mercury removal abilities of three different zeolites (NaA, NaX, HZSM-5) impregnated with iron(III) chloride were studied on a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor. X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) analyses were used to investigate the physicochemical properties. Results indicated that the pore structure and active chloride species on the surface of the samples are the key factors for physisorption and oxidation of Hg0, respectively. Relatively high surface area and micropore volume are beneficial to efficient mercury adsorption. The active Cl species generated on the surface of the samples were effective oxidants able to convert elemental mercury (Hg0) into oxidized mercury (Hg2+). The crystallization of NaCl due to the ion exchange effect during the impregnation of NaA and NaX reduced the number of active Cl species on the surface, and restricted the physisorption of Hg0. Therefore, the Hg0 removal efficiencies of the samples were inhibited. The TPD analysis revealed that the species of mercury on the surface of FeCl3-HZSM-5 was mainly in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2), while on FeCl3-NaX and FeCl3-NaA it was mainly mercuric oxide (HgO).

  16. Phytochelatin synthesis in response to Hg uptake in aquatic plants near a chlor-alkali factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turull, Marta; Grmanova, Gabriela; Dago, Àngela; Ariño, Cristina; Díez, Sergi; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2017-06-01

    The effects of mercury (Hg) released from a chlor-alkali factory in aquatic plants along the Ebro River basin (NE Spain) were analysed considering the phytochelatins (PCn) and their isoforms content in these plants. These compounds were analyzed using HPLC with amperometric detection, and the macrophytes species Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriopyllum spicatum were collected in two sampling campaigns, autumn and spring, respectively. To correlate the PCn content in macrophytes with the Hg contamination, analysis of total Hg (THg) content in plants and suspended particulate matter, as well as the dissolved-bioavailable fraction of Hg in water measured by the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique were done. The results confirm the presence of PC2-Ala in extracts of C. demersum and PC2-desGly in M. spicatum, and the concentration of these thiol compounds depends clearly on the distance between the hot spot and the downstream sites: the higher the levels are, the closer the hot spot is. Since most of the Hg is hypothesized to be associated with SPM and transported downstream, our results of the DGT suggest that trace amounts of Hg in water can be released as free metal ions yielding a certain accumulation in plants (reaching the ppb level) that are enough for activation of induction of PCs. A few PCs species have been determined, at different seasons, indicating that they can be used as good indicators of the presence of bioavailable Hg in aquatic media throughout the year.

  17. Identifying Key Proteins in Hg Methylation Pathways of Desulfovibrio by Global Proteomics, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Anne O. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Miller, Susan M. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry; Wall, Judy [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-18

    Elemental mercury, Hg(0) is a contaminant at many DOE sites, especially at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) where the spread of spilled Hg and its effects on microbial populations have been monitored for decades. To explore the microbial interactions with Hg, we have devised a global proteomic approach capable of directly detecting Hg-adducts of proteins. This technique developed in the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, allows us to identify the proteins most vulnerable to acute exposure to organomercurials phenyl- and ethyl-mercury (as surrogates for the highly neurotoxic methyl-Hg) (Polacco, et al, 2011). We have found >300 such proteins in all metabolic functional groups and cellular compartments; most are highly conserved and can serve as markers for acute Hg exposure (Zink, et al. 2016, in preparation). We have also discovered that acute Hg exposure severely disrupts thiol, iron and redox homeostases, and electrolyte balance (LaVoie, et al., 2015) Thus, we proposed to bring these techniques to bear on the central problem of identifying the cellular proteins involved in bacterial uptake and methylation of mercury and its release from the cell.

  18. In Situ Behavioral Response of Common Loons Associated with Elevated Mercury (Hg Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Nocera

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Common Loons (Gavia immer in Nova Scotia, Canada have the highest blood mercury (Hg concentrations of any loon population in North America. Previous studies have shown that exposure to varying levels of Hg in prey is associated with changes in pre-nesting adult behavior. We report here the first association of sublethal blood Hg contamination with changes in behavior of Common Loon young. As Hg levels in their blood rise, the amount of time that chicks spend brooding (by back-riding decreases (P = 0.004 and time spent preening increases (P = 0.003. The sum increase in energy expenditure is not being compensated for with expected increases in feeding rates or begging. We suggest that such altered time-activity budgets may disrupt the energetic balance of young. Our results show that variation in time spent back-riding is associated with changes in fledging rates. Adult behavior did not significantly vary with Hg, but results are suggestive that an association may exist. We also show that monitoring the time-activity budgets of very young chicks can serve to indicate the effects Hg concentrations in their blood. We confirm the hypothesis that loons and other upper trophic level predators could be at risk from elevated levels of bioavailable Hg. This may help to explain the chronically low productivity of such contaminated sites as Kejimkujik and allow for more focused management initiatives.

  19. The longitudinal translocation characters and the influencing factors of Hg, Cd in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yujuan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Combining the methods of simulation test and field survey, the longitudinal distribution and the influencing factors of Hg and Cd in the profile in the typical sewage irrigation area were studied in this paper and the result shows: (1 the content distribution of Hg, Cd in the superficial soil profile was higher than that in the bottom and the content decreased with the increase of the depth, the translocation ability of the Hg, Cd in the garden mould and cinnamon soil were lower than that in the paddy soil and fluve-aquic soil, the longitudinal translocation ability of the Cd in the soil profile was stronger than that of Hg; (2 Hg was accumulated in the different soil and has the highest accumulation rate in the paddy soil and the lowest in the cinnamon soil; the translocation order of the Cd in the different was: garden mould > paddy soil > cinnamon soil > fluve-aquic soil; (3 the concentration of Hg, Cd in the soil leacheate increased with the concentration increase of Hg, Cd in the sewage, the migration rate increased with the roughness of the soil quality and decreased with the increase of pH and soil organic matter.

  20. Hg(II) removal from aqueous solutions by bacillus subtilis biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue Song; Li, Fei Yan; He, Wen; Miao, Hua Hua [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang (China)

    2010-01-15

    The biosorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions using Bacillus subtilis biomass was investigated in this study. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR. Various factors including solution pH, initial concentration of Hg(II), contact time, reaction temperature and ionic strength were taken into account and promising results were obtained. An initial solution pH of 5.0 was most favorable for Hg(II) removal. The kinetic data was also analyzed using pseudo first order and pseudo second order equations. The results suggested that Hg(II) bioadsorption was best represented by the pseudo second order equation. Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms for the present systems were analyzed. The most satisfactory interpretation for the equilibrium data at different temperatures was given by the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. The effect of ionic strength on bioadsorption was significant. Bacillus subtilis biomass could serve as low cost adsorbent to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solutions, especially at lower concentrations of Hg(II) (<20 mg Hg/L). (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Application of the heterogeneous (HG) blankets for controlling the base structure vibration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ashwini; Fuller, C. R.; Carneal, James

    2005-09-01

    This work presents an extensive analysis of the properties of the heterogeneous blankets (HGs) and their effectiveness in controlling the vibration of the base structures. The HG blankets act as a distributed vibration absorbers consisting of mass inhomogeneities inside a layer of porous media (acoustic foam). To asses the effectiveness of these HG blankets in controlling the vibration of the base structure (plate), detailed finite element (FE) models of the foam, the HG blanket, and the plate have been developed. The foam has been dicretized using the eight node hexahedral elements. The HG blanket model consists of the foam model with point masses attached to the nodes of the elements. The structural (plate) domain is discretized using four node rectangular plate elements. Each of the FE models has been individually validated by comparing the numerical results with their respective analytical and experimental results. The structural and the HG blanket FE models were then combined into a larger FE model comprised of a base plate with the HG treatment on its surface. The results from this numerical model have shown that there is a significant reduction in the vibration levels of the base plate due to the HG treatment on it.

  2. Effects of metals doping on the removal of Hg and H2S over ceria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lixia; Zhao, Zhongbei; Zhao, Senpeng; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Baojun; Zhang, Riguang; Li, Debao

    2017-05-01

    The effects of Mn and Fe doping into the CeO2(111) surface on the simultaneous removal of Hg and H2S was investigated, a density functional theory calculation with the on-site Coulomb interaction taken into account was adopted. The adsorptions of Hg-containing species on perfect CeO2(111), Mn/CeO2(111) and Fe/CeO2(111) surfaces were studied, the results showed that Mn and Fe dopants facilitated Hg adsorption, and more charge transferred from Hg atom to the metal doped surfaces; HgS preferred to adsorb on the perfect surface with the dissociated mode, while with the molecular mode on Mn/CeO2(111) and Fe/CeO2(111) surfaces. The reaction mechanism show that the dissociated S by H2S can easily react with Hg leading to the formation of HgS on Mn/CeO2(111) and Fe/CeO2(111) surfaces, which is crucial to capture mercury.

  3. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Peters, Sanne AE; Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (Indonesian population. PMID:27021286

  4. [Using atomic fluorescence spectrometry to study the spatial distribution of As and Hg in orchard soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi-Mei; Lü, Chun-Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Xi-Cun

    2014-02-01

    Aqua regia digestion, double channels-atomic fluorescence spectrometry method was used to determine the concentrations of As and Hg in orchard soils of Qixia City - the main apple production area of Shandong province. Validate The detection limitation, accuracy and precision of the method were validated, the spatial distribution was analyzed, and the characteristics of As and Hg pollution in Qixia orchard soils were assessed. The results showed that the range of As concentration in Qixia soils is between 2.79 and 20.93 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 10.59 mg x kg(-1), the range of Hg concentration in Qixia soil is between 0.01 and 0.79 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 0.12 mg x kg(-1). The variation of As concentration in soils is small, whereas that of Hg concentration is large. Frequency distribution graphics of As and Hg showed that the concentration of As in soils is according with the normal distribution approximately and the concentrations are mostly between 7 and 15 mg x kg(-1), the concentration of Hg in soil isn't according with the normal distribution and the concentrations are mostly between 0.03 and 0.21 mg x kg(-1). The correlations between the concentrations of As or Hg in soils and the nutrient are not significant and there is no significant correlation even between As and Hg. Based on the environmental technical terms for green food production area, the As concentration in orchard soil of Qixia City is at clean level, but there are 4.76% of sample points with Hg pollution index exceeding 1, and this should be attracted the attention of the administrators.

  5. The HgF2 Ionic Switch: A Triumph of Electrostatics against Relativistic Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kelling J; Kretz, William J; Omorodion, Oluwarotimi

    2015-11-16

    A remarkable transition in the chemical bonding in (HgF2)n clusters as a function of n is identified and characterized. HgF2 is a fascinating material. Certain significant consequences of relativistic effects on the structure of the HgF2 molecule, dimer, and trimer disappear in the extended solid. Relativistic effects in Hg ensure that HgX2 molecules (X≡F, Cl, Br, and I) are linear, rigid, and form weakly bound dimers and trimers held together by weak electrostatic and van der Waals-type forces (unlike ZnX2 and CdX2 systems in which the intermonomer contacts are strong polar covalent bonds). For HgF2, the location and nature of an apparent transition from weak interactions in the smallest (HgF2)n clusters to ionic bonding in the (fluorite) HgF2 extended solid has remained a mystery. Computational evidence obtained at the M06-2X, B97D3, and MP2 levels of theory and reported herein indicate that polar covalent bonding in (HgF2)n begins as early as n=5. For n=2 through to n=13, the transition or switch from weak (primarily dipole-dipole-type) intermonomer interactions to a preference for polar covalent bonding occurs within the range 5

  6. Hg concentrations in fish from coastal waters of California and Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jay; Ross, John; Bezalel, Shira; Sim, Lawrence; Bonnema, Autumn; Ichikawa, Gary; Heim, Wes; Schiff, Kenneth C; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The State of California conducted an extensive and systematic survey of mercury (Hg) in fish from the California coast in 2009 and 2010. The California survey sampled 3483 fish representing 46 species at 68 locations, and demonstrated that methylHg in fish presents a widespread exposure risk to fish consumers. Most of the locations sampled (37 of 68) had a species with an average concentration above 0.3 μg/g wet weight (ww), and 10 locations an average above 1.0 μg/g ww. The recent and robust dataset from California provided a basis for a broader examination of spatial and temporal patterns in fish Hg in coastal waters of Western North America. There is a striking lack of data in publicly accessible databases on Hg and other contaminants in coastal fish. An assessment of the raw data from these databases suggested the presence of relatively high concentrations along the California coast and in Puget Sound, and relatively low concentrations along the coasts of Alaska and Oregon, and the outer coast of Washington. The dataset suggests that Hg concentrations of public health concern can be observed at any location on the coast of Western North America where long-lived predator species are sampled. Output from a linear mixed-effects model resembled the spatial pattern observed for the raw data and suggested, based on the limited dataset, a lack of trend in fish Hg over the nearly 30-year period covered by the dataset. Expanded and continued monitoring, accompanied by rigorous data management procedures, would be of great value in characterizing methylHg exposure, and tracking changes in contamination of coastal fish in response to possible increases in atmospheric Hg emissions in Asia, climate change, and terrestrial Hg control efforts in coastal watersheds.

  7. New technique for quantification of elemental Hg in mine wastes and its implications for mercury evasion into the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, Adam D; Kim, Christopher S; Rytuba, James J; Gustin, Mae S; Brown, Gordon E

    2011-01-15

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234 K) results in its transformation to crystalline α-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77 K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range.

  8. New technique for quantification of elemental hg in mine wastes and its implications for mercury evasion into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, A.D.; Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234 K) results in its transformation to crystalline ??-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77 K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. The socioeconomic burden of parasitic zoonoses: global trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Macpherson, Calum N L

    2011-11-24

    Diseases resulting from zoonotic transmission of parasites are common. Humans become infected through food, water, soil and close contact with animals. Most parasitic zoonoses are neglected diseases despite causing a considerable global burden of ill health in humans and having a substantial financial burden on livestock industries. This review aims to bring together the current data available on global burden estimates of parasitic zoonoses and indicate any changes in the trends of these diseases. There is a clear need of such information as interventions to control zoonoses are often in their animal hosts. The costs of such interventions together with animal health issues will drive the cost effectiveness of intervention strategies. What is apparent is that collectively, parasitic zoonoses probably have a similar human disease burden to any one of the big three human infectious diseases: malaria, tuberculosis or HIV in addition to animal health burden. Although the global burden for most parasitic zoonoses is not yet known, the major contributors to the global burden of parasitic zoonoses are toxoplasmosis, food borne trematode infections, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis and zoonotic schistosomosis. In addition, diarrhoea resulting from zoonotic protozoa may have a significant impact.

  10. Family burden, family health and personal mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Edel; Bunting, Brendan P

    2013-03-21

    The economic and moral implications of family burden are well recognised. What is less understood is whether or how family health and family burden relate to personal mental health. This study examines family health and perceived family burden as predictors of personal mental health, taking personal and sociodemographic factors into consideration. Data used was from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (NCS-R), namely the random 30% of participants (N = 3192) to whom the family burden interview was administered. Measures of family burden and mental health were considered for analysis. Binary logistic regressions were used as means of analyses. Perception of family burden was associated with an increased vulnerability to personal mental health problems, as was the presence of mental health difficulties within the family health profile. Which member of the family (kinship) was ill bore no relation to prediction of personal mental health. Personal and socio-demographic factors of sex, age, marital status, education and household income were all predictive of increased vulnerability to mental health problems over the last 12 months. Certain elements of family health profile and its perceived burden on the individuals themselves appears related to risk of personal incidence of mental health problems within the individuals themselves. For moral and economic reasons, further research to understand the dynamics of these relationships is essential to aid developing initiatives to protect and support the mental health and wellbeing of relatives of ill individuals.

  11. Asymmetries of poverty: why global burden of disease valuations underestimate the burden of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H King

    Full Text Available The disability-adjusted life year (DALY initially appeared attractive as a health metric in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD program, as it purports to be a comprehensive health assessment that encompassed premature mortality, morbidity, impairment, and disability. It was originally thought that the DALY would be useful in policy settings, reflecting normative valuations as a standardized unit of ill health. However, the design of the DALY and its use in policy estimates contain inherent flaws that result in systematic undervaluation of the importance of chronic diseases, such as many of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, in world health. The conceptual design of the DALY comes out of a perspective largely focused on the individual risk rather than the ecology of disease, thus failing to acknowledge the implications of context on the burden of disease for the poor. It is nonrepresentative of the impact of poverty on disability, which results in the significant underestimation of disability weights for chronic diseases such as the NTDs. Finally, the application of the DALY in policy estimates does not account for the nonlinear effects of poverty in the cost-utility analysis of disease control, effectively discounting the utility of comprehensively treating NTDs. The present DALY framework needs to be substantially revised if the GBD is to become a valid and useful system for determining health priorities.

  12. Hg(2+) mediated quinazoline ensemble for highly selective recognition of Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Thangaraj; Sivaraman, Gandhi; Chellappa, Duraisamy

    2014-04-05

    A fluorimetric sensor for Hg(2+) ion and Cysteine based on quinazoline platform was designed and synthesized by one step reaction and characterized by using common spectroscopic methods. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations shows that probe behaves as "ON-OFF" fluorescent quenching sensor via electron transfer/heavy atom effect. Receptor was found to exhibit selective fluorescence quenching behavior over the other competitive metal ions, and also the receptor-Hg(2+) ensemble act as an efficient "OFF-ON" sensor for Cysteine. Moreover this sensor has also been successfully applied to detection of Hg(2+) in natural water samples with good recovery.

  13. [AuHg(o-C6H4PPh22I]: A Dinuclear Heterometallic Blue Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. López-de-Luzuriaga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The heteronuclear AuI/HgII complex [AuHg(o-C6H4PPh22I] (1 was prepared by reacting of [Hg(2-C6H4PPh22] with [Au(tht2]ClO4 (1:1 and NaI in excess. The heterometallic compound 1 has been structurally characterized and shows an unusual blue luminescent emission in the solid state. Theoretical calculations suggest that that the origin of the emission arises from the iodide ligand arriving at metal-based orbitals in a Ligand to Metal-Metal Charge Transfer transition.

  14. Electrochemical detection of Hg (II) ions using EDTA-PANI/SWNTs nanocomposite modified SS electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, M. A.; Patil, H. K.; Shirsat, M. D.; Ramanavicius, A.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of Hg (II) ions using EDTA modified polyaniline (PANI) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) nanocomposite (PANI/SWNTs) was performed electrochemically via cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Dodecyl benzene sulphonic next step, PANI/SWNTs nanocomposite was modified acid sodium salt (DBSA) was used as a surfactant during this synthesis to get uniform suspension SWNTs. In the by EDTA solution containing crosslinking agent 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethylamino) propyl) - carbodiimide (EDC) utilizing dip coating technique. The sensitivity of EDTA modified PANI/SWNTs nanocomposite towards Hg (II) ions was investigated. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was applied for the electrochemical detection of Hg (II) ions.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of jack bean urease inhibition by Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Nana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jack bean urease (EC 3.5.1.5 is a metalloenzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. The heavy metal ions are common inhibitors to control the rate of the enzymatic urea hydrolysis, which take the Hg2+ as the representative. Hg2+ affects the enzyme activity causing loss of the biological function of the enzyme, which threatens the survival of many microorganism and plants. However, inhibitory kinetics of urease by the low concentration Hg2+ has not been explored fully. In this study, the inhibitory effect of the low concentration Hg2+ on jack bean urease was investigated in order to elucidate the mechanism of Hg2+ inhibition. Results According to the kinetic parameters for the enzyme obtained from Lineweaver–Burk plot, it is shown that the Km is equal to 4.6±0.3 mM and Vm is equal to 29.8±1.7 μmol NH3/min mg. The results show that the inhibition of jack bean urease by Hg2+ at low concentration is a reversible reaction. Equilibrium constants have been determined for Hg2+ binding with the enzyme or the enzyme-substrate complexes (Ki =0.012 μM. The results show that the Hg2+ is a noncompetitive inhibitor. In addition, the kinetics of enzyme inhibition by the low concentration Hg2+ has been studied using the kinetic method of the substrate reaction. The results suggest that the enzyme first reversibly and quickly binds Hg2+ and then undergoes a slow reversible course to inactivation. Furthermore, the rate constant of the forward reactions (k+0 is much larger than the rate constant of the reverse reactions (k-0. By combining with the fact that the enzyme activity is almost completely lost at high concentration, the enzyme is completely inactivated when the Hg2+ concentration is high enough. Conclusions These results suggest that Hg2+ has great impacts on the urease activity and the established inhibition kinetics model is suitable.

  16. Place of HgI/sub 2/ energy-dispersive x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, A.J.; Huth, G.C.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Kusmiss, J.H.; Barton, J.S.; Szymczyk, J.M.; Schnepple, W.F.; Lynn, R.

    1982-01-01

    After a review of solid-state conduction counters, in general, and of the history of mercuric iodide, in particular, the theory of operation of solid-state energy-dispersive HgI/sub 2/ detectors is dicusssed. The main factors which limit energy resolution in solid-state compound detectors are considered, including statistical fluctuations in charge generation, the window effect, trapping, inhomogeneities in the detector material, and electronic noise. Potential applications of room-temperature HgI/sub 2/ x-ray detectors are listed, and general considerations are discussed for x-ray fluorescence analysis with HgI/sub 2/. Directions of current investigations are given. (LEW)

  17. Hot and Dense Hadron Gas (HG): A New Excluded-volume approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, S K

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a thermodynamically consistent equation of state (EOS), based on excluded-volume approach, for a hot, dense hadron gas (HG). We calculate various thermodynamical quantities of HG and various hadron ratios and compare our model results with the results of other excluded-volume models and experimental data. We also calculate various transport coefficients such as $\\eta/s$ etc. and compare them with other HG model results. Furthermore, we test the validity of our model in getting the rapidity spectra of various hadrons and the effect of flow on them is investigated by matching our predictions with the experimental data.

  18. Abundancias químicas de dos binarias de HgMn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, E. J.; González, J. F.; Collado, A. E.

    We present the results of the abundance analysis of two HgMn single-line binary systems: NGC 2287-106 and NGC 6025-14. The spectroscopic ob- servations have been carried out at the Complejo Astronómico el Leon-cito (CASLEO) with the REOSC spectrograph in cross-dispersion mode, cov- ering the spectral range 3800-5800 ≈. Compared to the Sun, NGC 6025-14 shows great overabundances of Hg, Mn, P, Ga and Xe, while Hg, Mn, Sr, Pt and Zr are overabundant in NGC 2287-106. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Induced superconductivity in the surface state of mercury telluride (HgTe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Luis; Knott, Daniel; Ames, Christopher; Bruene, Christoph; Leubner, Philipp; Oostinga, Jeroen; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W. [Physikalisches Institut (EP3), Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    It has been recently shown that the strained epitaxial growth of bulk HgTe layers opens a band gap in the normally semi-metallic material. This means that strained HgTe meets all prerequisites of a topological insulator, i.e. surface states and an insulating bulk, which does not contribute to transport measurements. The interfaces between topological insulators and superconductors are especially interesting due to the possibility of creation and detection of majorana fermions. Our current work is focussing on investigating contacts between strained HgTe and Nb as a superconducting material. First results show proximity effect and multiple sub gap features which are discussed in detail.

  20. Hg Substitution Effect on Superconductivity and Crystal Structure of MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Jing Cui; Yong-Liang Chen; Ye Yang; Yong Zhang; Cui-Hua Cheng; Yong Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Polycrystalline Mg1-xHgxB2 samples with x=0, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% have been synthe- sized by solid-state reaction. Different from the substitu- tion effect of Al, C, Li, etc. on crystal structure of MgB2, Hg substitution for Mg results in an increase of the lattice constant in both a and c directions. The super- conductivity of MgB2 is also suppressed by Hg substi- tution. The observed suppression of super- conductivity by Hg substitution is discussed in terms of the interband impurity scattering effect in two-band superconductors.