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Sample records for hg arc lamp

  1. Hg-Arc Lamp, Pulse Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    References 1. "Pulsed Mercury Capillary Lamps .,"P. Dal Pozzo, R. Polloni, and 0. Svelto , J. Appi. Phys. 6, 342 (1975). * 2. "Pulsed High-Pressure Mercury...Capillary Lamps .. ,P. Dal Pozzo, R. Polloni, * and 0. Svelto , J. Appi. Phys. 6, 381 (1975). 3. "Characteristics of the Radiation Pulses of Very-High

  2. High pressure neon arc lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  3. Modelling of Ar-Hg Electrodeless Lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨深; 石挺; 刘洋; 陈育明

    2012-01-01

    A self-consistent model of high-frequency electrodeless lamps with internM coils is developed. Radial distributions of the plasma parameters are obtained. Mercury lines with wavelength of 435.8 nm and 365 nm are measured to testify the model. Based on the model, the population of resonance state 63p1 of mercury in dependence on the argon pressure and driving frequency is calculated. It is shown that the population of 63p1 of mercury is larger when the argon pressure is between 26.6 Pa and 53.2 Pa. Meanwhile the driving frequency has little influence on the population of 63P1.

  4. Photodegradation of petroleum under Na and Hg lamps by EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Eduardo di; Melo, Fernando Alves de; Turini, Marilene; Campos, Ariana de [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), PR (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Full text: The environment has become frequent victim of the action of pollutants. This situation has been stimulating several scientific works in the attempt to monitor the self-defence of the environment and minimise the effects caused by these pollutants. The petroleum and its derived, among the several substances that attack the environment, occupy a distinction place in the pollution picture. In the present work, we studied the photodegradation of the Arabian Light and Brazilian (Campos Basin- RJ) oils. Sample of theses oils were irradiated by different time periods in a reactor equipped with Na and Hg vapour lamps, whose emission spectra have different features. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were subjected to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) analysis in a BRUKER (ESP-300) equipment, which operates in the X band (9 GHz) at room temperature. The EPR spectra showed similar features to the two oils. The EPR spectra are composed of a intense signal (one line) with g (spectroscopic factor) about two relative to free radicals and groups of eight lines correspondent to vanadyl porphyrinic compounds (VO{sup 2+}). The parameters of spin Hamiltonian were determined to the two detected paramagnetic species. The two oils irradiated by Na and Hg lamps showed variations in the values of g and {delta}H (linewidth) of the paramagnetic species. The changes in the parameters are the most significant in Brazilian petroleum samples irradiated by Hg lamp. The modifications in the linewidth of free radicals of the Arabian Light petroleum have the same tendency to the two utilised lamps. (author)

  5. Emission Spectra of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.

    2000-12-01

    A study of emission spectra of a gas-discharge plasma produced in a HgBr/HgCl excimer lamp, which is filled with multicomponent working mixtures at atmospheric pressure (HgBr2 and HgCl2 with additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon), are reported. A gas-discharge plasma was produced by high-frequency (pulses ˜100 ns long with a repetition rate of up to 2000 Hz) barrier and surface discharges, which took place simultaneously. Emission of HgBr* and HgCl* excimer molecules, the second positive system of molecular oxygen, and helium and xenon lines in the UV, visible, and IR spectral regions was observed. The strongest emission of HgBr* and HgCl* molecules (the emission intensities were in the ratio 10:1) was observed in the HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixture. Regularities in spectral and integrated characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  6. Temporal Characteristics of Emission of Working Mixtures of a HgBr/HgCl Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Guĭvan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.; Polyak, A. V.; Zubrilin, N. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2001-12-01

    Results of a study of temporal characteristics of the emission of gas-discharge plasma of atmospheric pressure in multicomponent mixtures (mercury dibromide and dichloride with helium and additions of molecular nitrogen and xenon) of working media of HgBr/HgCl excimer lamps are presented. Gas-discharge plasma was produced and components of the working mixture were excited by high-frequency barrier and surface discharges occurring simultaneously. The repetition rate of the pumping pulse and its duration are 1000 Hz and ˜100 ns, respectively. It is found that the amplitude and the length of emission pulses and their trailing edge are modified in HgBr2: HgCl2: Xe: He and HgBr2: HgCl2: N2: He mixtures when xenon and molecular nitrogen are added, as compared to a HgBr2: HgCl2: He mixture. Regularities observed in temporal characteristics of gas-discharge plasma emission are discussed.

  7. Change of the arc attachment mode and its effect on the lifetime in automotive high intensity discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexejev, Alexander; Flesch, Peter; Mentel, Jürgen; Awakowicz, Peter

    2016-10-01

    In modern cars, the new generation Hg-free high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, the so called xenon lamps, take an important role. The long lifetime of these lamps is achieved by doping the tungsten electrodes with thorium. Thorium forms a dipole layer on the electrode surface, thus reducing the work function of tungsten. However, thoriating the electrodes is also an issue of trade and transport regulation, so a substitute is looked into. This work shows the influence of the arc attachment mode on the lifetime of the lamps. The mode of the arc attachment changes during the run-up phase of automotive HID lamps after a characteristic time period depending, i.e., on the filling of the lamps, which is dominated by scandium. It will be shown that this characteristic time period for the change of the attachment mode determines the long term performance of Hg-free xenon lamps. Measurements attributing the mode change to the scandium density in the filling are presented. The emitter effect of scandium will be suggested to be the reason of the mode change.

  8. Laser Applications and Other Topics in Quantum Electronics: Coaxial HgI excimer lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. N.; Polyak, A. V.; Guivan, N. N.; Zubrilin, N. G.; Shimon, Lyudvik L.

    2002-02-01

    The emission of coaxial HgI excimer lamps pumped by a repetitively pulsed barrier discharge is experimentally studied. The stable operation of the excimer lamps was demonstrated at pump-pulse repetition rates from 0.5 to 12 kHz, and the average emission power attained of 0.6 W at 444 nm. It was found that upon an addition of 0.8% of xenon to the mixture of helium and mercury diiodide, the pulse and average emission powers increased by 30%. The emission power reduced by 5% after 2.5 × 106 pulses. An interpretation of the results of optimising the excimer lamp characteristics is given.

  9. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  10. Qualitative model of the operating mechanism of the protective coating for low pressure Hg lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnochub, A V [DECO Ltd, PO Box 40, 141701 Dolgoprudnyi (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A I [LIT Technology Ltd, Krasnobogatyrskaya 44, 107076 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-07

    Interaction between the plasma and protective coating on the inner side of low pressure mercury lamp bulbs is considered. Under the assumption that the main way of decreasing the transmission of the bulb wall is the implantation of Hg ions within the fused quartz and formation of complexes [HgO] therein, a qualitative model of the attenuation mechanism is offered. The influence of the characteristics of a coating (thickness, close-packed structures, the lattice parameter, mass of atoms) on the transmission of the bulb walls is analysed. On the basis of the suggested model, estimates of the change in minimum transmission of bulb walls were made for lamps with and without protective coating. It is shown that in spite of approximations, the proposed model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  11. Temperature rise induced in Si by continuous xenon arc lamp radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietoila, A.; Gold, R. B.; Gibbons, J. F.

    1982-02-01

    It is shown that practical beam annealing of silicon can be accomplished with a high intensity arc lamp. The use of a one-dimensional, steady-state solution for temperature is justified. The Kirchhoff transform is utilized to include the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity. Surface temperatures produced by a xenon arc lamp are calculated for 300- and 375-μm thick silicon samples, using substrate temperatures of 350 and 500 °C. It is shown that substantial reduction of the radiation intensity required for a given surface temperature can be obtained by placing a quartz wafer between the silicon sample and the heat sink.

  12. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride. [DOE patent application; mercury arc lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.

    1981-09-03

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  13. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölz, K; Lietard, J; Somoza, M M

    2017-01-03

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p-type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications. These UV LEDs exceed the spectral radiance of mercury lamps even at the intense I-line at 365 nm. Here we present the successful exchange of a high-pressure mercury arc lamp for a new generation UV LED as a light source in photolithographic chemistry and its use in the fabrication of high-density DNA microarrays. We show that the improved light radiance and efficiency of these LEDs offer substantial practical, economic and ecological advantages, including faster synthesis, lower hardware costs, very long lifetime, an >85-fold reduction in electricity consumption and the elimination of mercury waste and contamination.

  14. A comparison of the economics of materials processing with solar furnaces and high-intensity arc lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    The cost and performance of treating materials with a solar furnace were compared to similar treatment with high-intensity electric-arc lamps. Qualitative results indicate that because of the long focal length of the solar furnace, it is capable of performing much dirtier materials processing tasks than the arc lamp. Quantitative results indicate that if the furnace is located in a good solar region, the solar furnace can beat the economics of the lamp by as much as a factor of three under certain operating scenarios. In other scenarios, the lamp is more cost effective. The scenario that appears most promising for the furnace is batch processing that employs flux levels near 500 W/sq cm or greater. At lower flux levels, or in assembly-line-type processing tasks, the arc lamp is preferred.

  15. Emission spectra from direct current and microwave powered Hg lamps at very high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamady, M.; Lister, G. G.; Stafford, L.

    2013-11-01

    Discharge lamps containing mercury at pressures above 100 bar are commercially used in data projectors and television projector systems. Due to their small size, these lamps are difficult to investigate experimentally, but spectral measurements, combined with radiation transport calculations, have provided useful information on the visible spectrum. However, classical spectral line broadening theory is inadequate to describe the UV portion of the spectrum, so self-consistent modelling of these discharges is not possible at present. This paper discusses the differences between discharges containing electrodes and discharges sustained by a microwave (mw) electromagnetic field, on the basis of the experimentally measured temperature profile in an electroded discharge, and a temperature profile computed from a 1D power balance model for a microwave discharge. A model based on the ray-tracing method is employed to simulate the radiation transport in these lamps. The model has been validated by comparing the emission spectrum from dc discharge lamps with those obtained experimentally. The output flux, luminous flux, luminous efficacy, the correlated colour temperature, the chromaticity coordinates and photometric curves of the lamp were then obtained. These results were also compared with those of a theoretically calculated temperature profile for the same lamp, excited by microwave power in the TM010 mode.

  16. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  17. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  18. Direct electron-impact mechanism of excitation of mercury monobromide in a double-pulse dielectric-barrier-discharge HgBr lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsyuk, V. V.; Izmailov, I. A.; Naumov, V. V.; Kochelap, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    In a nonequlibrium plasma of a gas-discharge HgBr lamp, the terminal electronic state of the HgBr(B-X) radiative transition with a peak wavelength of 502 nm remains populated for a relatively long time and is repeatedly excited to the B state in collisions with plasma electrons. This transfer of the HgBr molecules from the ground state X to the excited state B is the main mechanism of formation of the light-emitting molecules especially when the lamp is excited by double current pulses. According to our simulations, due to the electron-induced transitions between HgBr(X) and HgBr(B), the output characteristics of the DBD lamp operating in a double-pulse regime are better than those of the lamp operating in a single-pulse regime. In the considered case, the peak power is calculated to increase by a factor of about 2 and the lamp efficiency increases by about 50%.

  19. Expansion of power and technological capabilities of installations for light-beam welding during impulse supply of arc xenon lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, M.I.; Nikiforov, G.D.; Mamaev, V.S. (Moskovskij Aviatsionnyj Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1982-07-01

    Plates made both of the 20 carbon steels 1.2x10/sup -3/ m thick and of the 12Kh18N10T corrosion-resistant steels 0.7x10/sup -3/ m thick were welded under continuous design operation of a lamp (I=150 A; U=35.5 V) and pulsed operation with maximum overload in order to compare technological capabilities of the installation during continuous and impulse supply of an arc xenon lamp. The welding was carried out in the chamber filled with argon. The welding speed was chosen based upon the condition of the weld width equality both under continuous and pulsed operations. The welding speed increases more than twice during the welding under pulsed operation. The welding speed constituted 1.47x10/sup -3/ m/s during the 20 steel under continuous operation and 3.19x10/sup -3/ m/s under pulsed operation. The welding speed constituted 2.77x10/sup -3/ and 6.25x10/sup -3/ m/s, respectively, for welding of the 12Kh18N10T steel. A possibility of application of impulse supply of arc xenon lamps of continuous operation for the improvement of output power parameters of installations for light beam welding is found out. The impulse supply of arc xenon lamps in the installations for light beam welding permits to increase both the radiation flux density in a heating spot and welding efficiency more than twice.

  20. Absolute intensity, high resolution spectrum of the Vortek arc lamp and its spectral match to Nd:YAG bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, L.E.; Pertica, A.J.

    1989-12-28

    A high resolution (1{angstrom}), absolute intensity spectrum from 300 to 900 nm was obtained for a high average power (100 kWe) argon arc-lamp. The high average power is obtained due to innovative technology that cools the inside surface of the lamp envelope by means of a spiraling water jet. The optical output between 200 and 2000 nm was measured by using a calibrated pyroelectric detector and glass color filters, and accounted for 54% of the electrical input. The argon arc-lamp radiated 35% of the electrical power input in the 400 to 900 nm spectral region when a cerium doped quartz envelope was used; furthermore, 37% of this optical power was emitted as line output between 730 and 830 nm, a region well tuned to Nd{sup 3+}:YAG absorption bands. Lower resolution spectra and fluorescence/transmission measurements of YAG samples were obtained for mixtures of Ar/Kr and Ar/Xe with up to 14% by volume of the heavier species. When the Ar/14%-Kr mixture was used, increased absorption (115%) and net fluorescence (120%) were measured relative to the pure argon arc-lamp. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Evaluation of erythemal UV effective irradiance from UV lamp exposure and the application in shield metal arc welding processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Tsao, Ta-Ho; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2008-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause potential effects such as erythema in skin. For UV-induced erythema (sunburn), the action spectrum from the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was adopted. Erythemal UV effects from UVR lamp exposure were investigated with commercial spectroradiometry devices in this research. Three kinds of portable UV germicidal lamps with broadband UVA (BB UVA, 350-400 nm), broadband UVB (BB UVB, 280-350 nm), and narrowband UVC (NB UVC, 254 nm) wavelengths served as the UVR emission sources. An action spectrum expresses the effectiveness of radiation for assessing the hazard of UVR in the erythemal action spectrum from 250-400 nm. The UV Index (UVI) is an irradiance scale computed by multiplying the CIE erythemal irradiance integral in milliwatts per square meter by 0.04 m mW. A comprehensive approach to detecting erythemal UVR magnitude was developed to monitor the effective exposure from UV lamps. The erythemal UVR measurement was established and the exposure assessment was applied to monitor erythemal UVR magnitude from shield metal arc welding (SMAW) processing. From this study, the erythemal UVR exposures were assessed and evaluated with environmental solar simulation of the UVI exposure.

  2. Engineering of a highly efficient Xe₂*-excilamp (xenon excimer lamp, λmax=172 nm, η=40%) and qualitative comparison to a low-pressure mercury lamp (LP-Hg, λ=185/254 nm) for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gharabli, Samer; Engeßer, Patrick; Gera, Diana; Klein, Sandra; Oppenländer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Excilamps are mercury-free gas-discharge sources of non-coherent VUV or UV radiation with high radiant power and a long lifetime. The most efficient excilamp that is currently available on the market is a VUV xenon excilamp system (Xe2(*)-excimer lamp, λ(max) = 172 nm) with a stated radiant efficiency η of 40% at an electrical input power P(el) of 20 W, 50 W or 100 W. In this paper, the use of this highly efficient Xe2(*)-excilamp (P(el) = 20 W) for water treatment is demonstrated using a recirculating laboratory photoreactor system with negative radiation geometry. The efficiency in the 172 nm initiated bleaching of aqueous solutions of Rhodamine B is compared to that initiated by a common low-pressure mercury (LP-Hg) lamp (185 nm, TNN 15/32). The dependence of the pseudo zero order rate constant k´ of decolorization of RhB on the flow rate and on the initial concentration of RhB was investigated. Both lamps exhibited dependences of k´ on the initial concentration of RhB, which represents a typical saturation kinetical behavior. The saturation kinetics was very prominent in the case of the Xe2(*)-excilamp. Also, the Xe2(*)-excilamp treatment exhibited a significant influence on the flow rate of the RhB aqueous solution, which was not the case during the LP-Hg lamp initiated bleaching of RhB. The results of this paper demonstrate that Xe2(*)-excilamps can be used for VUV-initiated water purification. However, to reach the maximum efficacy of the Xe2(*)-excilamp for photo-initiated water purification further engineering optimization of the photoreactor concept is necessary.

  3. Analysis of thermal stresses induced in silicon during xenon arc lamp flash annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentini, G. G.; Correra, L.

    1983-04-01

    Evaluation of thermal stresses induced on silicon wafers during flash annealing with incoherent light from a xenon lamp has been performed. The thermally induced stresses have been computed taking into account that the slip planes, in silicon crystal, are {111} and the slip directions in the plane are . The computed stresses have been compared with the yield stress of the material, to determine the threshold of damage introduction by the annealing process. For the light flash durations shorter than 500 μsec, a preheating of the sample is necessary to obtain a good annealing of a 1000 Å implanted layer without defects introduction. A relationship among flash duration, preheating temperature and flash energy density has been established allowing the identification of the best annealing conditions. The computed results have been compared with experimental annealing data obtained on silicon, phosphorus implanted at 10 keV, 1.5×1015 at/cm2 and irradiated with an original flash annealing system set up in our laboratory.

  4. Type the title of your paper here Effect of the focused light from the xenon arc lamp on the surface tension of the molten enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleutdinov, A. D.; Ghyngazov, S. A.; Mylnikova, T. S.; Aleutdinov, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of exposure to the focused light from the xenon arc lamp on the surface tension of molten enamels was studied with a designed light beam setup as compared to that observed in conventional heating in a resistance furnace. The objects under investigation were enamels No. 261, UES-200 and UES-300. The power density of the light beam was varied in the range of (30-80) W/cm2. When exposed to light, the surface tension is shown to be an order of magnitude lower than that obtained in conventional furnace heating.

  5. Resonant two-photon ionization of phenol in methylene chloride doped solid argon using 248 nm KrF laser and 254 nm Hg lamp radiation, a comparative study. The UV/VIS absorption spectrum of phenol radical cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesper, Karl; Diehl, Frank; Simon, Jens Georg Günther; Specht, Harald; Schweig, Armin

    1991-06-01

    Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) of phenol (PhOH) has been successfully achieved in methylene chloride (CH 2Cl 2) doped solid argon using a KrF laser and a Hg resonance lamp. The result constitutes the first-time TPI of a typically organic molecule in this medium using an excimer laser as well as the first-time spectroscopic identification of PhOH +•. A qualitative model is proposed which is consistent with both the unexpected photostability of PhOH +• and the incomplete running of the TPI process in the applied medium.

  6. Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D. M.; Novović, I.; Vilotić, D.; Ignjatović, Lj.

    2007-09-01

    The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

  7. Characterization of a 6 kW high-flux solar simulator with an array of xenon arc lamps capable of concentrations of nearly 5000 suns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Robert; Bush, Evan; Loutzenhiser, Peter, E-mail: peter.loutzenhiser@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Haueter, Philipp [Haueter Engineering Gmbh, Rombach 5022 (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    A systematic methodology for characterizing a novel and newly fabricated high-flux solar simulator is presented. The high-flux solar simulator consists of seven xenon short-arc lamps mounted in truncated ellipsoidal reflectors. Characterization of spatial radiative heat flux distribution was performed using calorimetric measurements of heat flow coupled with CCD camera imaging of a Lambertian target mounted in the focal plane. The calorimetric measurements and images of the Lambertian target were obtained in two separate runs under identical conditions. Detailed modeling in the high-flux solar simulator was accomplished using Monte Carlo ray tracing to capture radiative heat transport. A least-squares regression model was used on the Monte Carlo radiative heat transfer analysis with the experimental data to account for manufacturing defects. The Monte Carlo ray tracing was calibrated by regressing modeled radiative heat flux as a function of specular error and electric power to radiation conversion onto measured radiative heat flux from experimental results. Specular error and electric power to radiation conversion efficiency were 5.92 ± 0.05 mrad and 0.537 ± 0.004, respectively. An average radiative heat flux with 95% errors bounds of 4880 ± 223 kW ⋅ m{sup −2} was measured over a 40 mm diameter with a cavity-type calorimeter with an apparent absorptivity of 0.994. The Monte Carlo ray-tracing resulted in an average radiative heat flux of 893.3 kW ⋅ m{sup −2} for a single lamp, comparable to the measured radiative heat fluxes with 95% error bounds of 892.5 ± 105.3 kW ⋅ m{sup −2} from calorimetry.

  8. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  9. Intelligent Controller of Digital High Intensity Discharge Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium, low-pressure sodium and less commonly, xenon short-arc lamps. The light-producing element of these lamp types is a well-stabilized arc discharge contained within a refractory envelope (arc tube) with wall loading in excess of 3 W/cm (19.4 W/in.). Compared to fluorescent and incandescent lamps, HID lamps produce a much larger quantity of light in a relatively small package. With tests made by the National Quality Supervision and

  10. Electrical and Optical Characteristics of Electrodeless Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chang-quan; ZHANG Gui-xin; DONG Jin-yang; SHAO Ming-song; WANG Xin-xin; WANG Zan-ji

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the methods to enhance the efficacy of electrodeless lamp,volt-ampere characteristics,illuminance and emission spectrum have been investigated in home-built electrodeless lamp experimental system with an electrodeless lamp in shape like QL 85 lamp.The results show that lamp current increases as lamp voltage increases in non-discharge,the current decreases first and then increases as the voltage increases in discharge.The illuminance of electrodeless lamp increases linearly with discharge power increasing,and it decreases linearly with power decreasing.The emission spectrum is different for different bulb and lighting time.The spectrum of Ar 811.5 nm,76.5 nm,750.4 nm and Hg 313.2 nm decrease with lighting time.While the intensity of Hg 407.8 nm increases with lighting time.

  11. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  12. X-ray Absorption Imaging of High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Using Monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J.; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Adler, Helmar G.

    2002-10-01

    We will report results from the imaging of Hg vapor in high-intensity discharge lamps using synchrotron radiation and digital detectors. These measurements extend previous work on x-ray absorption imaging in arc lamps using an x-ray tube and a passive phosphor image plate detector^i. The large x-ray flux obtained from the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) combined with the electronic gating capabilities of an intensified charge-coupled device detector have allowed us to obtain time-resolved Hg distributions with high spatial resolution. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation improves the accuracy over what can be obtained with quasi-continuum radiation from an x-ray tube source. ^iJ. J. Curry, M. Sakai, and J. E. Lawler, Journal of Applied Physics 84, 3066 (1998).

  13. Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  14. Aperture lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.

    2003-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes means for containing a light emitting fill, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill; means for exciting the fill to cause the fill to emit light; and means for reflecting some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length. Another discharge lamp includes an envelope; a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope; a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light; and a reflective ceramic structure disposed around the envelope and defining an light emitting opening, wherein the structure comprises a sintered body built up directly on the envelope and made from a combination of alumina and silica.

  15. A pulse generator for xenon lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Janata, E

    2002-01-01

    A pulse generator is described, which enhances the analyzing light emitted from a xenon lamp as used in kinetic photospectrometry experiments. The lamp current is increased to 600 A for a duration of 3 ms; the current is constant within +-0.2% during a time interval of 2 ms. Because of instabilities of the lamp arc during pulsing, the use of the enhanced light source is limited to measuring times up to 500 mu s. The enhancement in light intensity depends on the wavelength and amounts to more than 400-fold in the UV-region.

  16. A pulse generator for xenon lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, E.

    2002-10-01

    A pulse generator is described, which enhances the analyzing light emitted from a xenon lamp as used in kinetic photospectrometry experiments. The lamp current is increased to 600 A for a duration of 3 ms; the current is constant within ±0.2% during a time interval of 2 ms. Because of instabilities of the lamp arc during pulsing, the use of the enhanced light source is limited to measuring times up to 500 μs. The enhancement in light intensity depends on the wavelength and amounts to more than 400-fold in the UV-region.

  17. LED lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  18. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable

  19. Finite element estimation of acoustical response functions in HID lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Bernd; Wolff, Marcus [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Production, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Berliner Tor 21, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Hirsch, John; Antonis, Piet [Philips Lighting BV, Lightlabs, Mathildelaan 1, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bhosle, Sounil [Universite de Toulouse (United States); Barrientos, Ricardo Valdivia, E-mail: bernd.baumann@haw-hamburg.d [National Nuclear Research Institute, Highway Mexico-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, CP 52750 (Mexico)

    2009-11-21

    High intensity discharge lamps can experience flickering and even destruction when operated at high frequency alternating current. The cause of these problems has been identified as acoustic resonances inside the lamp's arc tube. Here, a finite element approach for the calculation of the acoustic response function is described. The developed model does not include the plasma dynamics.

  20. Precision performance lamp technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  1. Comparative study of the action of two different types of bleaching agents activated by two different types of irradiation fonts: xenon plasma arc lamp and 960 nm diode laser; Avaliacao da cor e estudo comparativo da acao de dois tipos diferentes de agentes clareadores ativados pelo laser de diodo e lampada xenonio plasmatica, na superficie do esmalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walverde, Debora Ayala

    2001-07-01

    This in vitro study compares two different types of tooth bleaching agents stimulated with two different irradiation fonts. These fonts accelerate the action of the bleaching agents upon the enamel surface by heating up the materials. We used the xenon plasma arc lamp and a 960 nm fiber-coupled diode laser to irradiate the two materials containing 35% of hydrogen peroxide (Opus White and Opalescence extra). The color of the teeth was measured with a spectrophotometer using the CIELAB color system that gives the numeric values of L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *}. (author)

  2. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  3. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable

  4. COS Wavecal Lamp Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Alan

    2011-10-01

    As part of the recovery of COS following its 4/40/12 suspend event, we want to test the lamp that was on at the time of the anomaly to verify that it is behaving nominally before proceeding with FUV recovery activities.1} The LINE1 lamp current will be set to MEDIUM {as it was for 12715 visit 11, last exposure}.2} The LINE1 lamp will be turned ON.3} Wait 10 minutes.4} The LINE1 lamp will be turned OFF.

  5. Excimer lamp stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Saburoh; Tanaka, Takao; Ihara, Satoshi; Yamabe, Chobei

    2000-06-01

    For the laser stereo-lithography, a XeCl excimer lamp with cylindrical tube has been adopted to achieve a lower cost type UV light source. Because of excellent high output efficiency, it is possible to be down sizing of a power supplier and a lamp head and to be air-cooling. And moreover to extract the maximum output power and efficiency, we applied an optical fiber system for its lithography optics. With this excimer lamp the maximum UV emission per pulse 25 (mu) J at 100 Hz and the maximum average power 10 mW at 1000 Hz were obtained.

  6. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... current test procedures do not fully account for standby mode and off mode energy consumption, DOE amend... amends the current procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts to reduce measurement variation and testing... ``ballast lamp efficiency'' and ``ballast arc efficiency'' as more accurate conveyors of the basis of the...

  7. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  8. Lamp enables measurement of oxygen concentration in presence of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, F. J.; Moorhead, J. E.; Paige, W. S.

    1967-01-01

    Open-electrode ultraviolet source lamp radiates sufficient energy at 1800 angstroms and 1470 angstroms for use in a double-beam, duel-wavelength oxygen sensor. The lamp is filled with xenon at a pressure of 100 mm of Hg.

  9. Integrity Monitoring of Mercury Discharge Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury discharge lamps are critical in many trapped ion frequency standard applications. An integrity monitoring system can be implemented using end-of-life signatures observed in operational mercury discharge lamps, making it possible to forecast imminent failure and to take action to mitigate the consequences (such as switching to a redundant system). Mercury lamps are used as a source of 194-nm ultraviolet radiation for optical pumping and state selection of mercury trapped ion frequency standards. Lamps are typically fabricated using 202Hg distilled into high-purity quartz, or other 194-nm transmitting material (e.g., sapphire). A buffer gas is also placed into the bulb, typically a noble gas such as argon, neon, or krypton. The bulbs are driven by strong RF fields oscillating at .200 MHz. The lamp output may age over time by two internal mechanisms: (1) the darkening of the bulb that attenuates light transmission and (2) the loss of mercury due to migration or chemical interactions with the bulb surface. During fabrication, excess mercury is placed into a bulb, so that the loss rate is compensated with new mercury emanating from a cool tip or adjacent reservoir. The light output is nearly constant or varies slightly at a constant rate for many months/years until the mercury source is depleted. At this point, the vapor pressure abruptly falls and the total light output and atomic clock SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) decrease. After several days to weeks, the light levels decrease to a point where the atomic clock SNR is no longer sufficient to stay in lock, or the lamp self-extinguishes. This signature has been observed in four separate end-of-life lamp failures while operating in the Deep Space Network (DSN). A simple integrator circuit can observe and document steady-state lamp behavior. When the light levels drop over a predetermined time interval by a specified amount (e.g., 20 percent), an alarm is set. For critical operational applications, such as the DSN

  10. Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  11. Lamps and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Cayless, MA; Marsden, A M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of lighting. Covering the physics of light production, light sources, circuits and a wide variety of lighting applications, it is both suitable as a detailed textbook and as thoroughly practical guide for practising lighting engineers. This fourth edition of Lamps and Lighting has been completely updated with new chapters on the latest lamp technology and applications. The editors ahve called upon a wide range of expertise and as a result many sections have been broadened to include both European and US practice.The book begins with

  12. LRO-Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Observations of the GRAIL Impact Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hurley, D. M.; Gladstone, G. R.; Hayne, P. O.; Paige, D. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Colaprete, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Miles, P. F.; Grava, C.; Throop, H.; Feldman, P. D.; Hendrix, A. R.; Pryor, W. R.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Parker, J. W.; Stern, S. A.

    2013-10-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) UV spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was positioned to directly view the expanding gas plumes from the two GRAIL spacecraft impacts on 17 December 2012. LAMP detected resonantly scattered emissions from Hg and H atoms in the sunlit regions of these plumes. The spectral, spatial, and light-curve analyses used in these gas detections are consistent with previous LAMP observations of the LCROSS impact into the permanently shadowed region of Cabeus crater. LAMP's detection of atomic H by Lyman-α emission at the Moon (a first) was facilitated by pointing at the nightside surface to eliminate sky background noise. Volatile transport of Hg and H species is known to concentrate them near the poles, and in the context of LRO-Diviner temperature measurements of these high-latitude (75.6° N) impact sites the LAMP detections address this process.

  13. Lamp for sunshine simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    the plurality of light sources in response to the intensity of light sensed by the light sensor and the time provided by the time keeping unit, characterized in that the lamp emits blue light for a selected time period, wherein the blue light has a luminous flux ranging from 50 lux to 200 lux and, preferably...

  14. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  15. The fundus slit lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellrich, Marcus-Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Fundus biomicroscopy with the slit lamp as it is practiced widely nowadays was not established until the 1980-es with the introduction of the Volk lenses +90 and +60D. Thereafter little progress has been made in retinal imaging with the slit lamp. It is the aim of this paper to fully exploit the potential of a video slit lamp for fundus documentation by using easily accessible additions. Suitable still images are easily retrieved from videorecordings of slit lamp examinations. The effects of changements in the slit lamp itself (slit beam and apertures) and its examination equipment (converging lenses from +40 to +90D) on quality and spectrum of fundus images are demonstrated. Imaging software is applied for reconstruction of larger fundus areas in a mosaic pattern (Hugin®) and to perform the flicker test in order to visualize changes in the same fundus area at different points of time (Power Point®). The three lenses +90/+60/+40D are a good choice for imaging the whole spectrum of retinal diseases. Displacement of the oblique slit light can be used to assess changes in the surface profile of the inner retina which occurs e.g. in macular holes or pigment epithelial detachment. The mosaic function in its easiest form (one strip macula adapted to one strip with the optic disc) provides an overview of the posterior pole comparable to a fundus camera's image. A reconstruction of larger fundus areas is feasible for imaging in vitreoretinal surgery or occlusive vessel disease. The flicker test is a fine tool for monitoring progressive glaucoma by changes in the optic disc, and it is also a valuable diagnostic tool in macular disease. Nearly all retinal diseases can be imaged with the slit lamp - irrespective whether they affect the posterior pole, mainly the optic nerve or the macula, the whole retina or only its periphery. Even a basic fundus controlled perimetry is possible. Therefore fundus videography with the slit lamp is a worthwhile approach especially for the

  16. TELEGRAPHS TO INCANDESCENT LAMPS: A SEQUENTIAL PROCESS OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Malone

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a sequential process of technological innovation in the emergence of the electrical industry in the United States from 1830 to 1880. Successive inventions that realize the commercial possibilities of electricity provided the foundation for an industry where technical knowledge, invention and diffusion were ultimately consolidated within the managerial structure of new firms. The genesis of the industry is traced, sequentially, through the development of the telegraph, arc light and incandescent lamp. Exploring the origins of the telegraph and incandescent lamp reveals a process where a series of inventions and firms result from successful efforts touse scientific principles to create new commodities and markets.

  17. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. (a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by... specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively....

  18. Physics of Incandescent Lamp Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Paul; King, John

    2008-01-01

    Incandescent lamps with tungsten filaments have been in use for about a century while being gradually replaced by fluorescent lamps; in another generation both will quite probably be largely replaced by light-emitting diodes. Incandescent lamps (simply called lamps in what follows) burn out after a lifetime that depends mostly on the temperature of the filament and hence the applied voltage. A full-term project (about 100 hours) on lamp burnout was carried out by two students in 1965 and has been briefly described. Many aspects of the physics of lamps have been dealt with in articles that have appeared in this journal, in the American Journal of Physics, and in Physics Education.2,3

  19. High brightness microwave lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  20. Process of [sup 196]Hg enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Mellor, C.E.

    1993-04-27

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of [sup 196]Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  1. Process of .sup.196 Hg enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Mellor, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of .sup.196 Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  2. Cold starting of fluorescent lamps - part II: experiments on glow times and electrode damaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Reinhard; Paul, Irina; Hilscher, Achim; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we present experiments on cold start and the resulting electrode damaging (reducing lamp life) of AC driven fluorescent lamps. The crucial parameter is the glow time, determined from time resolved measurements of lamp voltage and current. The relation between the energy consumed during glow phase and the glow time is studied. It turns out that there is no common threshold of energy until the glow-to-arc transition takes place, but strong energy input into the lamp yields short glow times. The transient behaviour from the glow to the arc regime is investigated and the stable operation points of the arc discharge are determined, yielding an arc discharge voltage-current characteristics of the lamp type investigated. The electrode damage is investigated as a function of the open source voltage and the ballast resistance. Subsequent cold starts lead to an increase of the glow time due to electrode damaging, i.e., the electrode damage accumulates. Different regeneration procedures and their effectiveness are compared. Regeneration burning turns out to be more effective than heating up the electrode. A criterion for avoiding high electrode damage is obtained, indicating that the average power during glow time should exceed 20 W.

  3. Pulsed UV lamp performance and comparison with UV mercury lamps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaefer, Raymond; Grapperhaus, Michael; Schaefer, Ian; Linden, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed lamps based on electric discharges in xenon are of interest for water treatment because they are free of mercury, have instant-on capability, and may provide enhanced effects due to the high...

  4. Phase out of incandescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Since early 2007 almost all OECD and many non-OECD governments have announced policies aimed at phasing-out incandescent lighting within their jurisdictions. This study considers the implications of these policy developments in terms of demand for regulatory compliant lamps and the capacity and motivation of the lamp industry to produce efficient lighting products in sufficient volume to meet future demand. To assess these issues, it reviews the historic international screw-based lamp market, describes the status of international phase-out policies and presents projections of anticipated market responses to regulatory requirements to determine future demand for CFLs.

  5. Anu Lamp / [vestelnud Kalju Orro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2007-01-01

    Lavakunstikooli sisseastumisest, õppimisest, õpetajatest ja õpetamisest. Anu Lamp õppis Lavakunstikoolis 10. lennus (1978-1982). Osalenud samas lavakõne õppejõuna 18.-23. lennu ja erialaõppejõuna 20. lennu töös

  6. Anu Lamp / [vestelnud Kalju Orro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2007-01-01

    Lavakunstikooli sisseastumisest, õppimisest, õpetajatest ja õpetamisest. Anu Lamp õppis Lavakunstikoolis 10. lennus (1978-1982). Osalenud samas lavakõne õppejõuna 18.-23. lennu ja erialaõppejõuna 20. lennu töös

  7. 49 CFR 393.25 - Requirements for lamps other than head lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lamps and Front- and Rear-Turn Signal Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles 2032 mm or More in Overall Width... Width, March 2000; J588—Turn Signal Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm in Overall Width... additional lamps) shall be steady-burning with the exception of turn signal lamps; hazard warning signal...

  8. Cathodic arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  9. Backcoupling of acoustic streaming on the temperature field inside high-intensity discharge lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Operating high-intensity discharge lamps in the high frequency range (20-300 kHz) provides energy-saving and cost reduction potentials. However, commercially available lamp drivers do not make use of this operating strategy because light intensity fluctuations and even lamp destruction are possible. The reason for the fluctuating discharge arc are acoustic resonances in this frequency range that are excited in the arc tube. The acoustic resonances in turn generate a fluid flow that is caused by the acoustic streaming effect. Here, we present a 3D multiphysics model to determine the influence of acoustic streaming on the temperature field in the vicinity of an acoustic eigenfrequency. In that case a transition from stable to instable behavior occurs. The model is able to predict when light flicker can be expected. The results are in very good accordance with accompanying experiments.

  10. Cathodic arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Andre

    2003-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas stand out due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bia...

  11. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). III. A novel tungsten-triggered MDEL device emitting VUV and UVC radiation for use in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Miura, Takashi; Kajitani, Masatsugu; Serpone, Nick

    2008-03-01

    Exposure to low doses of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) and to the hormonal 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide, an environmental endocrine disruptor, can have serious health consequences such as the induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma (LaChapelle et al., Reprod. Toxicol., 2007, 23, 20; Murray et al., Reprod. Toxicol., 2007, 23, 383). To the extent that these toxins are present in wastewaters (Donald et al., Sci. Total Environ. 1999, 231, 173; Brotons et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 1994, 103, 608; Olea et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 1996, 104, 298; Biles et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. 1997, 45, 3541; Markey et al., J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2003, 83, 235), we examined their oxidative destruction in aqueous media by a novel light source. A tungsten-triggered microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (W-MDEL) was fabricated for possible use in wastewater treatment using vacuum UV-transparent quartz in which a tungsten trigger, also embedded in quartz, was attached to the MDEL to aid in the self-ignition of the lamp on irradiation at low microwave power levels. The quantity of mercury gas in the W-MDEL was optimized by monitoring the continuous radiation and peak intensities of the emitted light in the vacuum UV (VUV) and UVC regions. The usefulness of the W-MDEL device was assessed through the degradation of 2,4-D and BPA in air-equilibrated aqueous media and in oxygen-saturated aqueous media. Enhanced degradation of these two xenoestrogenic toxins was achieved by increasing the number of W-MDEL devices while keeping constant the microwave radiation feeding each W-MDEL lamp. This novel lamp provides an additional light source in the photooxidation of environmental contaminants without the need for a metal-oxide photocatalyst. Under our conditions, process dynamics using the W-MDEL light source are greater than with the more conventional photochemical methods that employ low-pressure Hg arc electrode lamps in synthetic

  12. Chemical thermodynamics of Hg1201 and Hg1223 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadashi

    1998-03-01

    The decomposition equilibrium of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was studied using a thermomicrobalance. A thermodynamic diagram representing the stability domains of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was constructed. Using the diagram, it was shown that Hg1201 is metastable at 800°C and that Hg1223 is stable at 660°C due to the formation of an atmosphere of mercury vapor and oxygen formed by the decomposition of excess HgO. Chemical analysis revealed that the valence of Hg is +2 regardless of the oxygen content. The dependence of Tc on the oxygen content was also studied.

  13. Phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Kang; Wang, Xiuying; Liu, Qinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A large proportion of the output of quartz infrared heat lamps is emitted as infrared radiation (IR). Retinal damage induced by IR-A and visible light on arc welders has been reported. However, case reports of retinal damage caused by quartz infrared heat lamps are rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamps. Patient concerns: We report a female with a 1-month history of progressive blurred vision and dysmorphopsia in her right eye after improper staring at the tubes of a quartz infrared heater. Her best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/32. Optical coherence tomography revealed a defect from the ellipsoid zone to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruch's complex layer with a diameter of 360mmat its widest. P1 amplitudes in the two central concentric rings were reduced as assessed by multifocal electroretinography. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with phototoxic maculopathy. Interventions: The patient was advised to cease all exposure to the infrared heater and was treated with peribulbar injections of methylprednisolone, oral Pancreatic Kininogenase, and oral Mecobalamin. Outcomes: Ten months later, her BCVA improved to 20/20. All examination results returned to normal except for a small residual defect in the interdigitation zone and RPE/Bruch's complex layer in her optical coherence tomography. Lessons: Light emitted by quartz infrared heat lamps may cause damage to the retina through photothermal and photochemical means. The public is insufficiently aware of the hazard potential of infrared heat lamps and other IR-A sources on human retina. PMID:28099337

  14. On electrode erosion in fluorescent lamps during instant start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadrath, S.

    2006-09-15

    A fluorescent lamp driven with an 'instant start electronic control gear' starts in a glow mode. In the glow mode, which lasts typically for tens of milliseconds, the cathode fall exceeds hundreds of volts. This causes high energy ion bombardment of the electrode which heats the electrode, and induces a transition from glow to arc mode. In the arc mode the electrode emits thermionically and the cathode fall drops to the 12 - 15 V range. Unfortunately, the high energy ion bombardment during the glow mode leads also to intense sputtering of electrode material, including tungsten as well as emitter. Thus, instant started fluorescent lamps often suffer from early failures due to coil fracture. Therefore, the investigation of tungsten erosion during instant start is necessary and was the main goal of this work. The density of neutral atomic tungsten is determined by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and optical emission spectroscopy measurements (OES). Investigations are performed on a low-pressure argon dc discharge and on commercial fluorescent lamps. To include the entire temperature profile along the electrode the diffuse and spot operation modes of the dc lamp are studied experimentally and theoretically. The measured dependencies of the cathode temperature along the coil on the discharge and heating parameters are compared with the calculated results. For the first time the tungsten erosion during instant start of commercial fluorescent lamps was experimentally investigated in this work. The erosion process could be related to sputtering. A reconstruction of the temporal evolution of the absolute tungsten population density of the ground state during the glow mode was presented. The sputtered tungsten density increases immediately with the ignition, reaches a maximum where the discharge contracts at the end of the glow mode, and decreases some milliseconds before the glow-to-arc transition takes place. The maximum tungsten density was observed within a

  15. Thermal analysis of a linear infrared lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of an infrared lamp is presented based on radiant heat transfer theory. The analysis is performed on a specific type of linear lamp which has a coiled tungsten filament surrounded by a fused quartz envelope. The purpose of the study was to model the lamp thermally, not electrically, to arrive at a better understanding of the operation of the lamp.

  16. 49 CFR 234.221 - Lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lamp voltage. 234.221 Section 234.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.221 Lamp voltage. The voltage at each lamp shall...

  17. 30 CFR 57.17010 - Electric lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric lamps. 57.17010 Section 57.17010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....17010 Electric lamps. Individual electric lamps shall be carried for illumination by all...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5500 - Infrared lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infrared lamp. 890.5500 Section 890.5500 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5500 Infrared lamp. (a) Identification. An infrared lamp is a device intended for medical purposes that emits energy at...

  19. AMO Physics of Metal-Halide High-Intensity-Discharge Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J. E.

    2003-05-01

    Metal Halide High Intensity Discharge (MH-HID) lamps are widely used today, and are being studied for continued development, because of their superior color and efficacy [1]. MH-HID lamps are high pressure (many bar) mercury arc lamps with metal halide additives such as ScI3 or rare earth iodides. These additive salts evaporate at arc tube temperatures, the salt molecules dissociate in the arc, and the metal atoms and ions radiate strongly from the arc core to produce a pleasing white light with an excellent color temperature and color rendering index. Transition metals (e.g. Sc) and rare earth metals (e.g. Dy) have rich visible spectra. Although the plasma in these lamps is in local thermodynamic equilibrium, it is by no means easy to model due to huge temperature gradients, plasma segregation of additives, free convection cells, complex radiation transport, and other effects. Diagnostic experiments, especially in the lamps with translucent poly-crystalline alumina arc tubes [1], are equally challenging. Recent progress in the development of X-ray and optical-UV diagnostic experiments using synchrotron radiation will be summarized [2,3,4]. A possibility for combining these diagnostics to get a first look at the molecules and molecular radicals in the mantle of the arc will be described. The spectra of the metal halide molecules and radicals are almost completely unknown, but the formation of these species in the mantle is thought to protect the arc tube from chemical attack by reactive metal atoms. Recent progress toward the development of a quantitative microscopic understanding of infrared losses from the arc will be reported. [1] W. J. van den Hoek, A. G. Jack, & G. M. J. F. Luijks 2001, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 6th Ed. (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH) [2] J. J. Curry, M. Sakai, and J. E. Lawler, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3066 (1998) [3] J. J. Curry, H. Adler, S. D. Shastri, and J. E. Lawler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1974 (2001) [4] G. A. Bonvallet, D. J

  20. Materials for incandescent and fluorescent lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Knud Aage

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the materials systems used for incandescent lamps as well as a brief introduction to the systems used for fluorescent lamps. The materials used for incandescent lamps are doped tungsten used for the filaments, metals and alloys used for terminal and support posts......, lead wires and internal reflectors and screens as well as glasses for the envelope. The physics of bulbs and changes in bulbs during use are elucidated. The cost and energy savings and environmental benefits by replacement of incandescent lamps by fluorescent lamps are presented....

  1. Harmonics Monitoring Survey on LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Ahmed Akila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps are being increasingly used in many applications. These LED lamps operate using a driver, which is a switching device. Hence, LED lamps will be a source of harmonics in the power system. These harmonics if not well treated, may cause severe performance and operational problems. In this paper, harmonics (amplitude and phase angles generated by both LED lamps and conventional fluorescent lamps will be studied practically. Then they will be analyzed and evaluated. Compared to each other harmonics generated by both LED and conventional florescent lamps, self mitigation may occur based on the phase angle of these harmonics. All data will be measured using power analyzer and will be done on a sample of actual lamps.

  2. Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M

    2013-01-01

    The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

  3. Silver-Headed Figurine Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The main role of this lamp isto show Changyou playing withsnakes.Changyou were peoplefrom the Zhongshan Empirewho are quoted in a historicalsource as being good at singing,dancing and composing music.The figure in this piece looksunusual and is dressed oddly.His hair is in a feminine-styledbun;he is wearing two pieces ofclothing inside and a deep red,wide-sleeved and belted gownover the top.This mode of dress

  4. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  5. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam, E-mail: knchoi@inu.ac.kr; Rho, Hee Hyuk, E-mail: rdoubleh0902@inu.ac.kr [Dept. of Information and Telecommunication Engineering Incheon National University Incheon 22012 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17 J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  6. Modeling Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  7. 77 FR 4203 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps, General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Fluorescent Lamps, General Service Incandescent Lamps, and Incandescent Reflector Lamps AGENCY: Office of... the test procedures for general service fluorescent lamps (GSFLs), general service incandescent lamps (GSILs), and incandescent reflector lamps (IRLs). That proposed rulemaking serves as the basis for...

  8. Lamp with a truncated reflector cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel

    2013-10-15

    A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.

  9. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  10. Kr-KCl exciplex lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenovskii, M. S.; Riives, R. B.; Kel'Man, V. A.; Zhmenyak, Yu. V.; Shpenik, Yu. O.

    2009-07-01

    A new source of UV radiation (excilamp) based on Kr-KCl vapor-gas mixture excited by a longitudinal high-voltage pulsed-periodic discharge is created. The emission spectrum and time characteristic of the discharge radiation are studied. The B → X transition in the KrCl* excimer molecule (λ = 222 nm) is found to dominate in the radiation spectrum of the source. The dependence of the pulse output power of the lamp on various factors is investigated, and the mechanism of B state formation in the excimer molecule is discussed.

  11. The miners' safety lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, Fathi

    2010-11-15

    As the Industrial Revolution began in the eighteenth century in the United Kingdom, a number of innovations were introduced including the miner's safety lamp. The miner's lamp was invented in 1816 by Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829) and independently by George Stephenson (1781-1848). The use of the newly invented safety lamp was introduced during the shift from a wood-burning to a coal-burning economy. Coal mining was dangerous, due to the presence of methane in many coal seams. In the past miners going underground with an oil lamp or a torch ran the risk of igniting the methane and causing an explosion. The new lamp consisted of a flame surrounded by a cylinder of metallic gauze, which allowed air to penetrate through and feed the flame. The heat of the flame was dissipated by the metal and as such, prevented explosive gases outside the lamp from igniting. The lamp was immortalized by memorial statues, stamps and some monuments. In 1910 a battery-operated electric lamp was introduced replacing the Stephenson's lamp.

  12. Investigation of Passive Filter for LED Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwono, Edi; Facta, Mochammad; Handoko, Susatyo

    2017-04-01

    Light Emitting Diode lamp or LED lamp is one of the energy saving lamps nowadays widely used by consumers. However, LED lamp has contained harmonics caused by the rectifier circuit inside the lamp. Harmonics cause a quality problem in power system. As the harmonics present in current or voltage, the waveforms are distorted. Harmonics can lead to overheating in magnetic core of electrical equipments. In this paper, several tests are carried out to investigate the harmonic content of voltage and currents, and also the level of light intensity of the two brands of LED lamps. Measurements in this study are conducted by using HIOKI Power Quality Analyzer 3197. The test results show that the total harmonic distortion or THD of voltage on various brands of LED lamps did not exceed 5% as in compliance to the limit of IEEE standard 519-1992. The largest harmonic voltage is 2.9%, while maximum harmonic current for tested brands of LED lamp is 170.6%. The use of low pass filter in the form of LC filter was proposed. Based on experimental results, the application of LC filter at input side of LED lamp has successfully reduced THD current in the range of 85%-88%.

  13. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of...

  14. Energy saving lamps; Les lampes a economie d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Energy saving lamps correspond to folded fluorescent tubes with a bulb-shape. This brochure presents all technical aspects of energy saving lamps: lighting efficiency and lifetime, available models, advantages and quality labelling, collection and processing of used lamps, quality criteria, costs and performances. (J.S.)

  15. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  16. Automatic solar lamp intensity control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverone, H.; Mandell, N.

    1968-01-01

    System that substitutes solar cells directly in the path of the radiation incident on the test volume and uses a dc bridge-null system was developed. The solar cell is affixed to a heat sink mounted on each of three arms for each solar lamp. Control of the radiation from the solar lamps is automatic.

  17. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) assemble via distinct modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Kazue; Tomabechi, Yuri; Ikeda, Mariko; Ehara, Haruhiko; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Podyma-Inoue, Katarzyna A; Rajapakshe, Anupama R; Watabe, Tetsuro; Shirouzu, Mikako; Hara-Yokoyama, Miki

    2016-10-21

    Lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) have a large, heavily glycosylated luminal domain composed of two subdomains, and are the most abundant protein components in lysosome membranes. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 have distinct functions, and the presence of both proteins together is required for the essential regulation of autophagy to avoid embryonic lethality. However, the structural aspects of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 have not been elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that the subdomains of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 adopt the unique β-prism fold, similar to the domain structure of the dendritic cell-specific-LAMP (DC-LAMP, LAMP-3), confirming the conserved aspect of this family of lysosome-associated membrane proteins. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of the N-domain truncation of LAMP-1 or LAMP-2 on the assembly of LAMPs, based on immunoprecipitation experiments. We found that the N-domain of LAMP-1 is necessary, whereas that of LAMP-2 is repressive, for the organization of a multimeric assembly of LAMPs. Accordingly, the present study suggests for the first time that the assembly modes of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are different, which may underlie their distinct functions.

  18. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  19. Mercury accumulation in hydrothermal vent mollusks from the southern Tonga Arc, southwestern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seyong; Kim, Se-Joo; Ju, Se-Jong; Pak, Sang-Joon; Son, Seung-Kyu; Yang, Jisook; Han, Seunghee

    2015-05-01

    We provide the mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) levels of the plume water, sulfide ore, sediment, and mollusks located at the hydrothermal vent fields of the southern Tonga Arc, where active volcanism and intense seismic activity occur frequently. Our objectives were: (1) to address the potential release of Hg from hydrothermal fluids and (2) to examine the distribution of Hg and MMHg levels in hydrothermal mollusks (mussels and snails) harboring chemotrophic bacteria. While high concentrations of Hg in the sediment and Hg, As, and Sb in the sulfide ore indicates that their source is likely hydrothermal fluids, the MMHg concentration in the sediment was orders of magnitude lower than the Hg (<0.001%). It suggests that Hg methylation may have not been favorable in the vent field sediment. In addition, Hg concentrations in the mollusks were much higher (10-100 times) than in other hydrothermal vent environments, indicating that organisms located at the Tonga Arc are exposed to exceedingly high Hg levels. While Hg concentration was higher in the gills and digestive glands than in the mantles and residues of snails and mussels, the MMHg concentrations in the gills and digestive glands were orders of magnitude lower (0.004-0.04%) than Hg concentrations. In summary, our results suggest that the release of Hg from the hydrothermal vent fields of the Tonga Arc and subsequent bioaccumulation are substantial, but not for MMHg.

  20. LED lamp power management system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  1. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  2. K-Rb Laser Pump Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    grown by the CzochralsKI method . 3.3 Crystal Orientation: The growth axis of the boules shall be approximately 600 from the C crystal axis ([1901...Filling Procedures Various methods of introducing the alkali metals and inert starting gas into lamps had been used on prior programs. Most lamps were... Czochralski sapphire but is made from much purer starting mater- ial (lower in Na 2 0 content) and is routinely subjected to careful visual inspection to

  3. Study on Segmented Reflector Lamp Design Based on Error Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic principle and design m ethod for light distribution of car lamp, introduces an important development: h igh efficient and flexible car lamp with reflecting light distribution-segmente d reflector (multi-patch) car lamp, and puts out a design method for segmented reflector based on error analysis. Unlike classical car lamp with refractive lig ht distribution, the method of reflecting light distribution gives car lamp desi gn more flexibility. In the case of guarantying the li...

  4. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Fluorescent lamps are the most widely used artificial light source today, responsible for approximately 70% of the lumens delivered to our living spaces globally. The technology was originally commercialized in the 1930's, and manufacturers have been steadily improving the efficacy of these lamps over the years through modifications to the phosphors, cathodes, fill-gas, operating frequency, tube diameter and other design attributes. The most efficient commercially available fluorescent lamp is the 25 Watt T5 lamp. This lamp operates at 114-116 lumens per watt while also providing good color rendering and more than 20,000 hours of operating life. Industry experts interviewed indicated that while this lamp is the most efficient in the market today, there is still a further 10 to 14% of potential improvements that may be introduced to the market over the next 2 to 5 years. These improvements include further developments in phosphors, fill-gas, cathode coatings and ultraviolet (UV) reflective glass coatings. The commercialization of these technology improvements will combine to bring about efficacy improvements that will push the technology up to a maximum 125 to 130 lumens per watt. One critical issue raised by researchers that may present a barrier to the realization of these improvements is the fact that technology investment in fluorescent lamps is being reduced in order to prioritize research into light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Thus, it is uncertain whether these potential efficacy improvements will be developed, patented and commercialized. The emphasis for premium efficacy will continue to focus on T5 lamps, which are expected to continue to be marketed along with the T8 lamp. Industry experts highlighted the fact that an advantage of the T5 lamp is the fact that it is 40% smaller and yet provides an equivalent lumen output to that of a T8 or T12 lamp. Due to its smaller form factor, the T5 lamp

  5. Antenna induced hot restrike of a ceramic metal halide lamp recorded by high-speed photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, P.; Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.; Ruhrmann, C.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J.

    2016-03-01

    inner tube wall. The high-speed photos show that the ignition process is very similar in lamps with Hg or Xe as buffer gas.

  6. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  7. Microhollow Cathode Discharge Excimer Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, K. H.

    1999-11-01

    character. Reducing the diameter of the cathode hole in a hollow cathode discharge geometry to values on the order of 100 μm has allowed us to extend the pressure range of stable, direct current hollow cathode gas discharges up to atmospheric pressure. The large concentration of high-energy electrons generated in the cathode fall, in combination with the high neutral gas density favors three-body processes such as excimer formation. Excimer emission in xenon discharges peaking at 172 nm, was observed with efficiencies between 6% and 9% at pressures of several hundred Torr. Typical forward voltages are 200 V at dc currents up to 8 mA. Pulsed operation allowed us to extend the current range to 80 mA with corresponding linear increase in optical power. Spatially resolved measurements showed that the source of the excimer radiation at atmospheric pressure and currents of less than 8 mA is confined to the cathode opening. The radiative emittance at 8 mA and atmospheric pressure is approximately 20 W/cm^2. With reduced pressure and increased current, respectively, the excimer source extends into the area outside the cathode hole. Besides in xenon, excimer emission in argon at a peak wavelength of 128 nm has been recorded. In addition to operating the discharge in rare gases, we have also explored its use as rare gas-halide excimer source. In a gas mixture containing 1% ArF we were able to generate stable dc discharges in flowing gas at pressures ranging from 100 Torr to atmospheric pressure. The spectra of the high-pressure ArF discharges are dominated by excimer radiation peaking at 193 nm. The excimer emission of a single ArF discharge at 700 Torr was measured as 150 mW at an efficiency of 3%. Parallel operation of these discharges by means of a resistive anode, which has recently been demonstrated for argon discharges, offers the possibility to use microhollow cathode discharge arrays as dc-excimer lamps, with estimated power densities exceeding 10 W/cm^2. abstract

  8. The gas phase emitter effect of lanthanum within ceramic metal halide lamps and its dependence on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.; Groeger, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J. [Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Denissen, C.; Suijker, J. [Philips Lighting, Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, NL-5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-08-07

    The gas phase emitter effect increases the lamp lifetime by lowering the work function and, with it, the temperature of the tungsten electrodes of metal halide lamps especially for lamps in ceramic vessels due to their high rare earth pressures. It is generated by a monolayer on the electrode surface of electropositive atoms of certain emitter elements, which are inserted into the lamp bulb by metal iodide salts. They are vaporized, dissociated, ionized, and deposited by an emitter ion current onto the electrode surface within the cathodic phase of lamp operation with a switched-dc or ac-current. The gas phase emitter effect of La and the influence of Na on the emitter effect of La are studied by spatially and phase-resolved pyrometric measurements of the electrode tip temperature, La atom, and ion densities by optical emission spectroscopy as well as optical broadband absorption spectroscopy and arc attachment images by short time photography. An addition of Na to the lamp filling increases the La vapor pressure within the lamp considerably, resulting in an improved gas phase emitter effect of La. Furthermore, the La vapor pressure is raised by a heating of the cold spot. In this way, conditions depending on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency are identified, at which the temperature of the electrodes becomes a minimum.

  9. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one

  10. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one

  11. Basics of lava-lamp convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyüre, Balázs; Jánosi, Imre M.

    2009-10-01

    Laboratory experiments are reported in an immiscible two-fluid system, where thermal convection is initiated by heating at the bottom and cooling at the top. The lava-lamp regime is characterized by a robust periodic exchange process where warm blobs rise from the bottom, attach to the top surface for a while, then cold blobs sink down again. Immiscibility allows to reach real steady (dynamical equilibrium) states which can be sustained for several days. Two modes of lava-lamp convection could be identified by recording and evaluating temperature time series at the bottom and at the top of the container: a “slow” mode is determined by an effective heat transport speed at a given temperature gradient, while a second mode of constant periodicity is viscosity limited. Contrasting of laboratory and geophysical observations yields the conclusion that the frequently suggested lava-lamp analogy fails for the accepted models of mantle convection.

  12. SBC Internal Lamp P-flat Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R. J.; Chiaberge, M.; Bohlin, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a Cycle 23 calibration program to monitor the status of the SBC P-flat. We find random pixel to pixel changes to be small, with only 2% of pixels having changed by more than 3. There are coherent changes that we measure to be above the poisson errors, in some regions as high as 4% peak to peak. We recommend that the ACS team obtain new observations in order to create a new P-flat. We also measured the degradation of the deuterium lamp used to create internal flats. The brightness of the lamp is currently 65% of its initial level, the degradation being dependent on lifetime usage.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  14. Computer-based sensing and visualizing of metal transfer mode in gas metal arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Maoai; Wu Chuansong; Lü Yunfei

    2008-01-01

    Using Xenon lamp lights to overcome the strong interference from the welding arc, a computer-based system is developed to sense and visualize the metal transfer in GMAW. This system combines through-the-arc sensing of the welding current and arc voltage with high speed imaging of the metal transfer. It can simultaneously display the metal transfer processes and waveforms of electrical welding parameters in real-time The metal transfer videos and waveforms of electrical welding parameters can be recorded. Metal transfers under various welding conditions have been investigated with the system developed.

  15. Blackbody Radiation from an Incandescent Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we propose an activity aimed at introductory students to help them understand the Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien's displacement laws. It only requires simple materials that are available at any school: an incandescent lamp, a variable dc energy supply, and a computer to run an interactive simulation of the blackbody spectrum.…

  16. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  17. 49 CFR 230.56 - Water glass lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water glass lamps. 230.56 Section 230.56... Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.56 Water glass lamps. All water glasses must be supplied with a suitable lamp properly located to enable the engine crew to easily see the water in the glass. Injectors...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4630 - Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders. 878.4630 Section 878.4630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic...

  19. 47 CFR 17.54 - Rated lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rated lamp voltage. 17.54 Section 17.54... voltage. To insure the necessary lumen output by obstruction lights, the rated voltage of incandescent lamps used shall correspond to be within 3 percent higher than the voltage across the lamp socket...

  20. LAMP-2: a control step for phagosome and autophagosome maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saftig, P.; Beertsen, W.; Eskelinen, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The two structurally related, major lysosomal membrane proteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 were for a long time regarded as crucial for the protection of the lysosomal membrane from the hostile lumenal environment. However, recent studies on the effects of single and combined LAMP-deficiency in mice reveal a

  1. 30 CFR 75.1703 - Portable electric lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable electric lamps. 75.1703 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1703 Portable electric lamps. Persons underground shall use only permissible electric lamps approved by the Secretary for...

  2. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  3. Nano RE Energy-saving Lamp To Be Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Revealed from Science Technology Bureau of Ha ErbinDongli District, nano RE energy-saving lamp, which belongs toNational "863 Plan" projects, will be launched to the marketat the beginning of next year. Rare earths are raw materialsfor nano energy-saving lamp. When they are roasted intonano powder, with some additives such as magnesium,powder for lamp will be produced. Compared with presentenergy-saving lamp, nano lamp will save energy by 30%, withservice life of 30,000 - 50,000 hours. Luminosity of the new...

  4. [Remote Slit Lamp Microscope Consultation System Based on Web].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfa; Zhuo, Yong; Liu, Zuguo; Chen, Yanping

    2015-11-01

    To realize the remote operation of the slit lamp microscope for department of ophthalmology consultation, and visual display the real-time status of remote slit lamp microscope, a remote slit lamp microscope consultation system based on B/S structure is designed and implemented. Through framing the slit lamp microscope on the website system, the realtime acquisition and transmission of remote control and image data is realized. The three dimensional model of the slit lamp microscope is established and rendered on the web by using WebGL technology. The practical application results can well show the real-time interactive of the remote consultation system.

  5. Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alok Srivatava

    2007-03-31

    This is the Final Report of the Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program is to develop novel hybrid phosphors by coating commercially available lamp phosphors with highly stable wide band-gap nanocrystalline phosphors (NCP). The prime technical approach is the development of NCP quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) and ultra-violet (UV) emitting phosphors with quantum efficiencies exceeding that of the conventional phosphors at 185 nm. The novel hybrid phosphors will increase the efficiency of the fluorescent lamps by up to 32%, enabling total energy savings of 0.26 quads, the reduction in the U.S. energy bill by $6.5 billion and the reduction of the annual carbon emission by 4.1 billion kilogram. Our work started by investigating through modeling calculations the requirement for the particle size of the NCP. Our work to develop suitable nanocrystalline phosphors started with the known oxide quantum splitting and UV emitting phosphors. We demonstrated several synthesis techniques for the production of high quality nanocrystalline materials that crystallizes in the desired phase and with the desired particle size. In collaboration with our subcontractor we demonstrated the feasibility for the manufacture of NC phosphors. We also demonstrated novel techniques of coating the NCP on the surface of micron sized phosphors. Our chief achievement pertains to the successful testing of the coated hybrid phosphor systems in linear fluorescent lamps. In linear fluorescent lamp tests, we have demonstrated up to 7% increase in the efficacy of hybrid phosphors over the conventional (uncoated) phosphors. We have also demonstrated the improvement in the lumen maintenance of the coated phosphors. A hybrid phosphor system based on the commercial red emitting phosphor, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} did not show the anticipated improvement in lamp efficacy. We explored the reasons for this observation

  6. LED lamp color control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  7. Opportunity and challenge of RE lamps (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zengqi; Wang Xinlin; Song Hongfang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅳ. Development trend of phosphors and proposals 1. Development trend of phosphors From the new developing trend of phosphors for lamps at home and abroad, it is necessary to improve the luminescent efficiency, color rendering, luminous flux maintenance and secondary characteristics of rare earth phosphors and keep consistence of those properties. Research, development, production and application of rare earth phosphors for lamps should not be limited to trichromatic phosphors but be ex-panded to the new generation multi-component rare earth trichromatic phosphors. Multi-primary phospho-rs with the band of red, orange, green, blue and blue green in different systems should be developed. Expe-riences on complexes like compound vitamin or rare earth compound fertilizer can be used for a reference.

  8. LAMP Joining between Ceramic and Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Nishimoto, Kouji; Katayama, Seiji

    Joining of dissimilar materials is necessary and important from a manufacturing viewpoint. Therefore, the authors have developed a new laser direct joining method between a metal and a plastic which is named Laser Assisted Metal and Plastic (LAMP) joining method. In this research, LAMP joining was applied to join silicon nitride Si3N4 ceramic and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) engineering plastic, although metal was replaced by ceramic. The tensile shear strength of obtained joints was 3100 N at the maximum, which was strong enough to elongate a PET base plate of 2 mm in thickness and 30 mm in width. Moreover, transmission electron microscopes (TEM) observation demonstrates that the ceramic and the plastic are tightly bonded on atomic or molecular sized level.

  9. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian; Kipling, Kent

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  10. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  11. Chemical thermodynamics of the Hg1212 phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo

    1997-02-01

    The single phase of Hg1212 was synthesized by the simple oxide method using starting materials containing HgO 16% in excess. Stability regions of Hg1212 and pure HgO were determined by measuring the decomposition temperature as a function of oxygen partial pressure, and thermodynamic diagrams showing the stability domains of HgO and Hg1212 were constructed. The thermodynamical condition of formation of Hg1212 was discussed using the diagrams. It was found by chemical analysis that the valence of Hg is always 2 + and the valence of Ce changes with the oxygen content. TC (zero) changed from 122 to 118 K when the oxygen content was increased from 6.10 to 6.22.

  12. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  13. Welding arc plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  14. Manufacturing of high performance, low cost dual mirror lamp reflector modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li

    The Lamp Reflector Module (LRM) is a key component in every micro display projection system, which has played a dominant role in the large-screen display market today. The goal of this research is to (1) improve the Dual Mirror prototype's light output performance, (2) investigate the underlying principles of its slow output deterioration so as to help develop effective and efficient LRM thermal management for maximized lifetime performance, and (3) improve/enable low cost mass LRM manufacturing for the projection display market. The first part of this research addresses the prototype's low output problem. More sophisticated 3D Optical Ray Tracing (ORT) models were generated to provide the output prediction depending on the arc gap, system collection etendue, etc. It was concluded that upgrading the manufacturing processes, particularly the reflector shape, surface and cold mirror coating, could effectively improve the output performance. Additionally, these theoretical models are shown to be used to design a LRM with 16% output gain for the consumer Rear Projection display market. The second part of this research focuses on the issue of lifetime performance. The electrode, arc attachment and envelope evolution were monitored by camera systems. The upgraded ORT models confirmed the arc length insensitivity property of the Dual Mirror LRM being one of the major reasons for its longer native lifetime. The third part of this research focuses on issues related to the entire LRM manufacturing. A series of quality control tools were developed to help implement manufacturing process optimization. LRMs made with the upgraded manufacturing processes showed about 25% output gain over the previous prototypes. Based on the imaging property of the Dual Mirror LRM, a lower cost lamp reflector alignment method, called cold alignment, was developed. In this method, the etendue efficiency is maintained and a slower degrading and more stable lifetime output performance are achieved

  15. WSTF electrical arc projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Larry

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of these projects include the following: validate method used to screen wire insulation with arc tracking characteristics; determine damage resistance to arc as a function of source voltage and insulation thickness; investigate propagation characteristics of Kapton at low voltages; and investigate pyrolytic properties of polyimide insulated (Kapton) wire for low voltage (less than 35 VDC) applications. Supporting diagrams and tables are presented.

  16. Optics designs for an innovative LED lamp family system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Herbert; Muschaweck, Julius; Hadrath, Stefan; Kudaev, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    On the general lighting market of LED lamps for professional applications there are still mainly products for single purpose solutions existing. There is a lack of standardised lamp systems like they are common for conventional lighting technologies. Therefore, an LED lamp family system was studied using high power LED with the objective to entirely substitute standard conventional lamp families in general lighting applications in the professional market segment. This comprises the realization of sets of lamp types with compact and linear shapes as well as with light distribution characteristics ranging from diffuse to extreme collimation and exceptionally high candle power. Innovative secondary optics concepts are discussed which allow both, the design of lamps with non-bulky shape and to obtain sufficient colour mixing when using multicolour LED combinations in order to achieve a very high colour rendering quality.

  17. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate ( LAMP -1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie...AND SUBTITLE LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate ( LAMP -1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0132 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The LAMP -1 study is

  18. Sa uurisid ekspressionismi 1960ndatel ja 70ndatel... / Ene Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Ene

    2005-01-01

    2004. a. ilmunud raamatu "Ekspressionism" eest Eesti Kultuurkapitali suure kunstipreemia (100000 kr.) saanud Ene Lamp ekspressionismi tähenduse muutumiset, ekspressionismi rollist eesti kunstis, oma tulevikuplaanidest

  19. Promoting Literacy and Protection with Solar Lamps in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Farrell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By distributing solar lamps to vulnerable rural women in Yemen, we promoted enrollment in literacy programs, as well as reading among their children. We saw a number of secondary benefits as well: safer households where dangerous kerosene lamps were used less frequently in the evening; a number of livelihood activities - cooking, husbandry, handicrafts - continued safely into evening hours; children found it easier to work on their homework using the solar powered lamps; and children found it easier and safer to walk in dark, rural streets in the evening with the solar lamps slung around their necks.

  20. The effectiveness of side marker lamps: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeuwes, J; Alferdinck, J W

    1997-03-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of small amber lamps mounted near the front and rear on each side of a passenger car-so called side marker lamps-on visual detection and recognition of passenger cars in complex nighttime environments. It was determined whether cars equipped with side marker lamps are detected and recognized earlier and more accurately than cars without side marker lamps. Subjects were presented with slides of natural nighttime scenes in which a car, either with or without side marker lamps, viewed from its side, approaching from a side street, was either present or not. Subjects determined as fast as possible whether a car was present or not. Reaction time measures (speed and accuracy) indicated that both under clear and fog visibility conditions, a car equipped with side marker lamps was detected and recognized earlier and more accurately than a car without side marker lamps. The results indicate that side marker lamps increase both lateral conspicuity and recognizability suggesting that side marker lamps may be effective in reducing the number of nighttime angle collisions.

  1. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-08-08

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

  2. Sa uurisid ekspressionismi 1960ndatel ja 70ndatel... / Ene Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Ene

    2005-01-01

    2004. a. ilmunud raamatu "Ekspressionism" eest Eesti Kultuurkapitali suure kunstipreemia (100000 kr.) saanud Ene Lamp ekspressionismi tähenduse muutumiset, ekspressionismi rollist eesti kunstis, oma tulevikuplaanidest

  3. Fundamental Research on Rare Gas Fluorescent Pulsed Discharge Lamps for Mercuryless Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi; Kurokawa, Hisayoshi; Aono, Masaharu

    1998-10-01

    The characteristics of xenon-neon fluorescent discharge lamps with inner electrodes, and of xenon fluorescent discharge lamps with both inner electrodes and external electrodes were investigated at the pulsed operation. In the case of the inner electrodes type, when the partial pressure of neon is high, the ignition voltage is low because of the Penning effect. Then, the high mixing ratio of neon is desirable to lower the ignition voltage. However, the luminance of the phosphor increases as the mixing ratio of xenon increases. Therefore, in order to get high luminance, xenon should be fill at high mixing ratio. If only xenon is filled in a lamp with inner electrodes, the cathode is bomberd and damaged by the large mass of xenon ions. Consequently, the most suitable mixing ratio of xenon and neon or some other buffer gases should be found for inner electrode type. When the lamp filled only with xenon is operated by external electrodes, the afterglow emission of the phosphor increases as the pressure of xenon increases. These increases following the increase in xenon pressure seem to be caused by the UV light of xenon excimers. However, the starting voltage becomes higher at high xenon pressure. So, the external electrode type requires the optimization of some conditions such as electrodes, pulse frequency, etc.

  4. Modelling the Dynamic Interaction Power System Lamp - Application to High Pressure Mercury Gas Discharge Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIANE, M.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behaviour of a plant constituted by an electrical power system and a gas discharge lamp, this latter, increasingly used in street lighting, remains a nonlinear load element. Various approaches are used to represent it, one is the approximation of the discharge represented by a hot "channel", which verifies the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium [LTE] or the polynomial form of the conductance variation. A calculation procedure, based on "channel" approximation of the high pressure mercury (HPM gas-discharge lamp, is developed to determine the physical and electric magnitudes, which characterize the dynamic behavior of the couple "lamp-electrical power system". The evolution of the lamp properties when principal parameters of the discharge (pressure of mercury, voltage supply, frequency are varying were studied and analyzed. We show the concordance between simulation, calculations and measurements for electric, energetic or irradiative characteristics. The model reproduces well the evolution of properties of the supply when principal parameters of the discharge vary.

  5. Axi-symmetrical flow reactor for .sup.196 Hg photochemical enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved photochemical reactor useful for the isotopic enrichment of a predetermined isotope of mercury, especially, .sup.196 Hg. Specifically, two axi-symmetrical flow reactors were constructed according to the teachings of the present invention. These reactors improve the mixing of the reactants during the photochemical enrichment process, affording higher yields of the desired .sup.196 Hg product. Measurements of the variation of yield (Y) and enrichment factor (E) along the flow axis of these reactors indicates very substantial improvement in process uniformity compared to previously used photochemical reactor systems. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the photoreactor system was built such that the reactor chamber was removable from the system without disturbing the location of either the photochemical lamp or the filter employed therewith.

  6. Axi-symmetrical flow reactor for [sup 196]Hg photochemical enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1991-04-30

    The present invention is directed to an improved photochemical reactor useful for the isotopic enrichment of a predetermined isotope of mercury, especially, [sup 196]Hg. Specifically, two axi-symmetrical flow reactors were constructed according to the teachings of the present invention. These reactors improve the mixing of the reactants during the photochemical enrichment process, affording higher yields of the desired [sup 196]Hg product. Measurements of the variation of yield (Y) and enrichment factor (E) along the flow axis of these reactors indicates very substantial improvement in process uniformity compared to previously used photochemical reactor systems. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the photoreactor system was built such that the reactor chamber was removable from the system without disturbing the location of either the photochemical lamp or the filter employed therewith. 10 figures.

  7. Circular-Arc Cartograms

    CERN Document Server

    Kämper, Jan-Hinrich; Nöllenburg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present a new circular-arc cartogram model in which countries are drawn with circular arcs instead of straight-line segments. Given a geographic map and values associated with each country in the map, the cartogram is a new map in which the areas of the countries represent the corresponding values. In the circular-arc cartogram model straight-line segments can be replaced with circular arcs in order to achieve the desired areas, while the corners of the polygons defining each country remain fixed. The countries in circular-arc cartograms have the aesthetically pleasing appearance of clouds or snowflakes, depending on whether their edges are bent outwards or inwards. This makes is easy to determine whether a country has grown or shrunk, just by its overall shape. We show that determining whether a given map and area-values can be realized with a circular-arc cartogram is an NP-hard problem. Next we describe a heuristic method for constructing circular-arc cartograms, which uses a max-flow computation on the...

  8. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  9. LED lamps in shipboard lighting systems: Aspects of electromagnetic compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beley V. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the development of different types of light sources and their energy characteristics have been described in the paper. Analysis of regulatory documents has been given. The results of experimental studies of a number of modern LED lamps have been described. Investigation has been made for a number of LED lamps produced by Philips, Xavax and Melitec. The experimental data have been obtained with the complex of devices: the dual-channel oscilloscope (GDS-71042, the power quality analyzer (Fluke-434 and the multi-function device EcoLight-01 (light-, pulse- and luminance meter. It has been shown that operation of LED lamps is characterized by emission of higher current harmonics and reactive power consumption, which depends on the type and design of the lamp driver. It has been found that the value of luminance created by LED lamps in case of acceptable (for ships prolonged deviation of voltage (–10 % is reduced by 3 %; in case of permissible short-term voltage deviation (–20 % luminance is reduced by 7 %. For incandescent lamps this indicator is characterized by a decrease in luminance by 40 % and 60 %, respectively. Despite the low sensitivity to voltage changes (in comparison with other types of lamps, the operation of LED lamps is also associated with the appearance of flicker. Absence of limitations for fluctuations of the light flux in shipboard lighting systems and imperfection of methods for determining the flicker make it difficult to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lamps. Therefore due to reliability, environmental friendliness, energy efficiency and lumen maintenance LED lamps have prospects for introduction into shipboard lighting systems. However, to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lighting systems it is necessary to conduct a detailed study of energy characteristics of LED lamps and to develop appropriate regulatory requirements and technical solutions.

  10. Pulsed plasma arc cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙; 白钢; 李振民; 张赋升; 杨思乾

    2004-01-01

    A prototype of Pulsed Plasma Arc Cladding system was developed, in which single power source supplies both transferred plasma arc (TPA) and non-transferred plasma arc (N-TPA). Both plasmas work in turn in a high frequency controlled by an IGBT connecting nozzle and workpiece. The working frequency of IGBT ranges from 50 ~ 7000Hz, in which the plasmas can work in turn smoothly. Higher than 500 Hz of working frequency is suggested for promotion of cladding quality and protection of IGBT. Drag phenomenon of TPA intensifies as the frequency goes up, which tends to increase the current proportion of TPA and suppress N-TPA. The occupation ratio of IGBT can be regulated from 5% ~ 95%, which balances the power supplies of both plasmas. An occupation ratio higher than 50% gives adequate proportion of arc current for N-TPA to preheat powder.

  11. Filtered cathodic arc source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  12. Thermal design for the high-power LED lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Xiaogai; Chen Wei; Zhang Jiyong, E-mail: tianxiaogai@sina.com [NVC Lighting Technology Corporation Research and Development Center (Shanghai), Shanghai 201112 (China)

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes different kinds of heat sinks on the market for high power LED lamps. Analysis is made on the thermal model of LED, PCB and heat sink separately with a simplified mode provided. Two examples of simulation are illustrated as a demonstration for the thermal simulation as guidance for LED lamp design. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  14. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  15. Lighting Lamps: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to lighting lamps, and specifically to the incandescent lamp. A brief narrative on the subject is included in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  16. 77 FR 40843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    .... 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108, Lamps, reflective devices, and... to vertical aim, luminance of signaling and marking lamps, masking of front turn signals,...

  17. Hg transfer from contaminated soils to plants and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Henriques, B.; Reis, A.T.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the transfer of mercury (Hg) from soil to crops is crucial due to Hg toxicity and Hg occurrence in terrestrial systems. Previous research has shown that available Hg in soils contributes to plant Hg levels. Plant Hg concentrations are related to soil conditions and plant characteristic

  18. A high power lamp-pumped LNA laser with thermally tuned etalon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoff, C. G.; Essabaa, S.; Brissaud, I.; Arianer, J.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes arc-lamp pumped, tunable, continuous-wave LNA laser with improved output efficiency, suitable for optical pumping of helium. Using thermal tuning of intracavity etalons instead of angle tuning reduces losses caused by walk-off effects and provides continuous frequency scanning without a significant decrease in laser power. We obtain an output power of 4 W in a linewidth of 2.5 GHz with the laser wavelength tuned to the 1.083 μm absorption line of metastable helium. This result represents a fourfold gain in efficiency compared with conventional tuning by tilting. The laser provides efficient polarization of helium by optical pumping in various applications, such as nuclear spin polarization of 3He and spin-polarized electron sources.

  19. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work.

  20. Calibration and temperature profile of a tungsten filament lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Izarra, Charles [Groupe de Recherche sur l' Energetique des Milieux Ionises, UMR6606 Universite d' Orleans, CNRS, Faculte des Sciences, Site de Bourges, rue Gaston Berger, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges Cedex (France); Gitton, Jean-Michel, E-mail: Charles.De_Izarra@univ-orleans.f [College Littre, 10 rue Littre, Bourges (France)

    2010-07-15

    The goal of this work proposed for undergraduate students and teachers is the calibration of a tungsten filament lamp from electric measurements that are both simple and precise, allowing to determine the temperature of tungsten filament as a function of the current intensity. This calibration procedure was first applied to a conventional filament lamp (lamp used in automotive lighting) and then tested on a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. The calibration procedure developed was checked by determining the calibration point of the tungsten ribbon lamp with an accuracy of 2%. In addition, for low current intensity, it was observed that the temperature of the filament was not uniform; an explanation is proposed by considering a simple heat transfer model.

  1. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  2. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Nathan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barkay, Tamar [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reinfelder, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  3. Modeling the breakdown and glow phases during ignition of HID lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liland, K.B.; Peres, I.; Pitchford, L.C.; Boeuf, J.P. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    HID lamps are often ignited by one or more short, high voltage pulses (trigger pulses) superimposed on the low frequency, generator voltage. The authors have developed a self-consistent, fluid model of transient glow discharges to study the breakdown and glow phases in HID lamps from the time of the application of the trigger pulse(s) to the time when there is a fully-developed, quasi-steady state glow discharge. The transition to the thermionic arc is not considered here. Using this model they have investigated the influence of the height, width and number of trigger pulses on the generator voltage required to achieve a steady-state glow discharge. The model used is one-dimensional, and the fundamental variables are the charged particle densities and the potential as functions of distance between the electrodes and time. The minimum voltage needed to initiate a glow discharge, V{sub g}, decreases with increasing current during the trigger pulse and reaches a minimum which is a few volts above the steady-state glow voltage. Results in discharges in argon and argon/mercury mixtures will be presented showing the dependence of V{sub g} on the trigger pulse and on other discharge conditions (gas mixture, external circuit, ...). The calculated, steady-state glow current-voltage characteristic will also be presented.

  4. Danon disease: a phenotypic expression of LAMP-2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yukari; Furuta, Akiko; Nishino, Ichizo

    2015-03-01

    Danon disease is an X-linked disorder clinically characterized by the triad of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and intellectual disability. Cardiomyopathy is a severe and life-threatening problem, for which cardiac transplantation is the only therapeutic option. The most striking finding in muscle biopsy samples is small basophilic granules scattered in myofibers, which are in fact small autophagic vacuoles surrounded by membranes with sarcolemmal features characterized by the recruitment of sarcolemmal proteins and acetylcholine esterase and by the presence of basal lamina on its luminal side. The mechanism underlying the formation of these autophagic vacuoles with unique sarcolemmal features (AVSF) still remains a mystery and its origin is unknown. In heart, cardiomyocytes show dramatically increased vacuolation and degenerative features, including myofibrillar disruption and lipofuscin accumulation. In brain, pale granular neurons and neurons with lipofuscin-like granules may be seen. Danon disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the LAMP2 gene, which encodes lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2), a single-spanned transmembrane protein localized in the limiting membranes of lysosomes and late endosomes. Most mutations lead to splicing defects or protein truncation, resulting in a loss of transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic domains, leading to LAMP-2 protein deficiency. LAMP-2 is required for the maturation of autophagosomes by fusion with lysosomes; therefore, LAMP-2 deficiency leads to a failure in macroautophagy. There are three LAMP-2 isoforms, LAMP-2A, -2B, and -2C. Clinical features of Danon disease are thought to be mediated by loss of the LAMP-2B isoform which is the major isoform expressed in muscle. It is also known that LAMP-2 plays a role in chaperone-mediated autophagy and RNA- and DNA-targeting autophagy. However, the precise pathophysiological mechanism through which LAMP-2 deficiency causes Danon disease is still not fully

  5. Automatic multidiagnosis system for slit lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liliane; Chiaradia, Caio; Vieira Messias, Andre M.; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.; Isaac, Flavio; Caetano, Cesar A. C.; Rosa Filho, Andre B.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a system for several automatic diagnose in Slit Lamp in order to provide 04 additional measurements to the biomicroscope: (1) counting of the endothelial cells of donated corneas; (2) automatic keratometry; (3) corneal ulcer evaluation; (4) measurement of linear distances and areas of the ocular image. The system consists in a Slit Lamp, a beam-splitter, some optical components, a CCD detector, a frame grabber and a PC. The optical components attached to the beam-splitter are the same for all the functions, except for 1. For function 1, we have developed an optical system that magnifies the image 290X and a software that counts the cells interactively and automatically. Results are in good agreement with commercial specular microscopes (correlation coefficient is 0,98081). The automatic keratometry function is able to measure cylinders over 30 di and also irregular astigmatisms. The system consists of projecting a light ring at the patient's cornea and the further analysis of the deformation of the ring provides the radius of curvature as well as the axis of the astigmatism. The nominal precision is 0,005 mm for the curvature radius and 2 degree(s) for the axis component. The results are in good agreement with commercial systems (correlation coefficient of 0,99347). For function 3, the ulcer is isolated by the usual clinical ways and the image of the green area is automatically detected by the developed software in order to evaluate the evolution of the disease. Function 4 simply allows the clinician do any linear or area measurement of the ocular image. The system is a low cost multi evaluation equipment and it is being used in a public hospital in Brazil.

  6. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Incandescent A Type and Decorative Lamps and LED Replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingard, R. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myer, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paget, M. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses common omnidirectional incandescent lamps - A-type and small decorative, candelabra-type lamps - and their commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  7. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens

  8. Modeling of Arc Force in Plasma Arc Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhonglin; HU Shengsun; YIN Fengliang; WANG Rui

    2008-01-01

    A three. dimensional mathematical model for the transferred-type argon arc was developed to describe arc force on the anode surface. The software ANSYS was employed to solve the model. The model includes a part of torch and tungsten electrode to achieve m ore reasonable results. The arc temperature and flow fields were derived. And the influences of welding parameters on arc force were also studied. The simulated results show that arc pressure at the anode are dependent on the welding current, plasma gas flow rate and electrode neck-in, while not sensitive to arc length.

  9. MODELING PARAMETERS OF ARC OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Khrestin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim is to build a mathematical model of the electric arc of arc furnace (EAF. The model should clearly show the relationship between the main parameters of the arc. These parameters determine the properties of the arc and the possibility of optimization of melting mode. Methodology. We have built a fairly simple model of the arc, which satisfies the above requirements. The model is designed for the analysis of electromagnetic processes arc of varying length. We have compared the results obtained when testing the model with the results obtained on actual furnaces. Results. During melting in real chipboard under the influence of changes in temperature changes its properties arc plasma. The proposed model takes into account these changes. Adjusting the length of the arc is the main way to regulate the mode of smelting chipboard. The arc length is controlled by the movement of the drive electrode. The model reflects the dynamic changes in the parameters of the arc when changing her length. We got the dynamic current-voltage characteristics (CVC of the arc for the different stages of melting. We got the arc voltage waveform and identified criteria by which possible identified stage of smelting. Originality. In contrast to the previously known models, this model clearly shows the relationship between the main parameters of the arc EAF: arc voltage Ud, amperage arc id and length arc d. Comparison of the simulation results and experimental data obtained from real particleboard showed the adequacy of the constructed model. It was found that character of change of magnitude Md, helps determine the stage of melting. Practical value. It turned out that the model can be used to simulate smelting in EAF any capacity. Thus, when designing the system of control mechanism for moving the electrode, the model takes into account changes in the parameters of the arc and it can significantly reduce electrode material consumption and energy consumption

  10. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  11. Pathogen diagnosis of children sepsis by LAMP technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore a rapid diagnostic method in neonatal sepsis and bacterial meningitis. Methods:The primers were designed and synthesized based on16S rRNA gene of Staphylococcus aureus.Four specimens ofStaphylococcus aureus,16 specimens of coagulase-negativeStaphylococci,2 specimens ofEnterococci,3 specimens ofStreptococcus,1 specimen ofMicrococcus,3 specimens ofEscherichia coli,4 specimens ofKlebsiella pneumoniae,3 specimens ofPseudomonas aeruginosa,2 specimens ofEnterobacter cloacae, and5 specimens of Acinetobacterwere tested by loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) assay.A total of118 clinical specimens of sepsis and non-sepsis were collected and detected with bothLAMP assay and blood culture.Results:By designing primers specific forStaphylococcus aureus, specimens containing different kinds of pathogens were carried out byLAMP assay, and our data showed LAMP technology for the specific detection ofStaphylococcus aureus in samples was successfully established.All clinical specimens of sepsis and non-sepsis were tested by both blood cultures andLAMP, and our data showed that compared wit blood culture method, theLAMP technology showed significantly high detection rate(P <0.01).Conclusions:As a quick and easy detection ofStaphylococcus aureus, theLAMP technology was successfully established, laid the foundation for the diagnosis and treatment of childrenStaphylococcus aureus sepsis, and showed great promotion and application value.

  12. Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

    2011-09-11

    This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

  13. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  14. A new surveillance and response tool: risk map of infected Oncomelania hupensis detected by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) from pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qun-Bo; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kumagai, Takashi; Furushima-Shimogawara, Rieko; Lou, Di; Yang, Kun; Wen, Li-Yong; Lu, Shao-Hong; Ohta, Nobuo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Although schistosomiasis remains a serious health problem worldwide, significant achievements in schistosomiasis control has been made in the People's Republic of China. The disease has been eliminated in five out of 12 endemic provinces, and the prevalence in remaining endemic areas is very low and is heading toward elimination. A rapid and sensitive method for monitoring the distribution of infected Oncomelania hupensis is urgently required. We applied a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting 28S rDNA for the rapid and effective detection of Schistosoma japonicum DNA in infected and prepatent infected O. hupensis snails. The detection limit of the LAMP method was 100 fg of S. japonicum genomic DNA. To promote the application of the approach in the field, the LAMP assay was used to detect infection in pooled samples of field-collected snails. In the pooled sample detection, snails were collected from 28 endemic areas, and 50 snails from each area were pooled based on the maximum pool size estimation, crushed together and DNA was extracted from each pooled sample as template for the LAMP assay. Based on the formula for detection from pooled samples, the proportion of positive pooled samples and the positive proportion of O. hupensis detected by LAMP of Xima village reached 66.67% and 1.33%, while those of Heini, Hongjia, Yangjiang and Huangshan villages were 33.33% and 0.67%, and those of Tuanzhou and Suliao villages were 16.67% and 0.33%, respectively. The remaining 21 monitoring field sites gave negative results. A risk map for the transmission of schistosomiasis was constructed using ArcMap, based on the positive proportion of O. hupensis infected with S. japonicum, as detected by the LAMP assay, which will form a guide for surveillance and response strategies in high risk areas.

  15. Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility is an arc heated facility which simulates the true enthalpy of flight over the Mach number range of about 4.7 to 8 for free-jet...

  16. ARc Welding (Industrial Processing Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARC WELDING , *BIBLIOGRAPHIES), (*ARC WELDS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES), ALUMINUM ALLOYS, TITANIUM ALLOYS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS, METAL PLATES, SPOT WELDING , STEEL...INERT GAS WELDING , MARAGING STEELS, MICROSTRUCTURE, HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, HEAT RESISTANT METALS, WELDABILITY, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, RESISTANCE WELDING

  17. HgTe-CdTe SUPERLATTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D; Mcgill, T.

    1984-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of the electronic properties of HgTe-CdTe superlattices. The band gap as a function of layer thickness, effective masses normal to the layer plane and tunneling length are compared to the corresponding (Hg, Cd)Te alloys. We find that the superlattice possesses a number of properties that may make it superior to the corresponding alloy as an infrared material.

  18. The LAMP instrument at the LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Timur; Castagna, Jean-Charles; Bostedt, Christoph; Xiong, Hui; Ferguson, Ken; Bucher, Maximilian; Berrah, Nora

    2015-05-01

    We have commissioned and used a new instrument at the Linac Coherent Light (LCLS) Source at SLAC National Laboratory called LAMP. It consists of several detectors housed in a double chambered vacuum system. One detection scheme offered relies on the use of a double velocity map imaging (VMI) spectrometer which enables research in the gas phase such as molecular dynamics experiments. The latter are monitored via the detection of electron and ionic fragments resulting from x-ray photo-absorption of x-ray photons. With this new tool, we can record the different fragmentation pathways by measuring multi-particles ion-ion coincidences/multi-particle correlations. We can also simultaneously image the electrons momenta to capture the most detailed x-ray induced reaction in molecules and nano-systems. The other detection scheme offered consists of two imaging detectors of the pnCCD type for diffraction experiments of clusters and bio-specimens. This instrument, available to any users, has the possibility to uncover new mechanisms in physics, chemistry and biology. This work is funded in part by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences under a SISGR grant and funds from the LCLS, funded by DOE-BES.

  19. UV Discharge Lamp on Alcohol Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtaeva, Svetlana; Heneral, Andrij

    2009-10-01

    The non coherent sources of UV radiation based on safe and nontoxic gaseous mixtures have good aspects for different applications. The paper reports about experimental investigations of the high voltage capacitive discharge in alcohol vapor. The time-integrated emission spectra have been studied in the wavelength interval from 200 to 400 nm at alcohol vapor pressure of 1 Torr. In the spectra the most intensive bands were vibrational bands of the CO(b->a) transition with heads at 283.3 (0-0), 297.7 (0-1), 313.4 (0-2), 330.5 (0-3) and 349.3 nm (0-4). The (0-2) band of CO molecules superimposes with (0-0) and (1-1) vibrational bands of the CH(C->X) transition with Q-heads at 314.49 and 315.66 nm on the long wavelength side and with bands of OH radicals with intensity maximums at 308.1 and 309.2 nm (A->X transition) on the short wavelength side. No other radiating species were detected. The emitting surface area of the lamp is 220 cm^2, average output power of the UV radiation is 70 mW and the estimated efficiency is 0.2%. This source of UV radiation can be applied in photochemistry, in medicine, for disinfection of medical tools, in ecology and for purification and disinfection of water from different pathogenic microorganisms.

  20. Cancer morbidity in lamp manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, H S; Haines, T; Bernholz, C; Julian, J A; Verma, D K; Jamieson, E; Walsh, C

    1988-01-01

    A historical prospective study of cancer in lamp manufacturing workers in one plant was conducted. All men and women who worked for a total of at least 6 months and were employed at some time between 1960 and 1975 were included. Work histories were abstracted and subjects were divided according to whether they had worked in the coiling and wire drawing area (CWD). Cancer morbidity from 1964 to 1982 was ascertained via the provincial registry, and was compared with the site-specific incidence in Ontario, adjusting for age, sex and calendar period. Of particular interest were primary breast and gynecological cancers in women. The cancers of a priori concern were significantly increased in women in CWD, but not elsewhere in the plant. The excess was greatest in those with more than 5 yr exposure (in CWD) and more than 15 yr since first working in CWD, with eight cases of breast and gynecological cancers observed in this category compared with 2.67 expected. Only three cancers occurred in men in CWD. Environmental measurements had not been made in the past and little information was available on substances used in the 1940s and 1950s, the period when the women with the highest excess began employment. It is known that methylene chloride and trichlorethylene have been used, but not enough is known about the dates and patterns of use to draw any conclusions about their relationship with the increase in disease.

  1. Ti:sapphire laser with long-pulse lamp pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koselja, Michael P.; Kubelka, Jiri; Kvapil, Jiri

    1992-06-01

    Lamp pumping of Ti:Sapphire has some advantages over laser pumping and represents some interest due to possible applications. The paper will present laser behavior of Ti:Sapphire under very long lamp pulse pumping. Pulse lamp duration (FWHM) was more than 100 times greater than the lifetime of Ti3+. Output energy with no tuning element was achieved greater than 1.5 J with 0.12% electrical-to-optical efficiency. Dimensions of the rod used was 7 mm in diameter and 148 mm in length. The doping level of Ti3+ was 0.09% Ti2O3 in the rod. Tuning characteristics with different tuning elements are also presented. Further development to obtain CW lamp pumping operation will be discussed.

  2. 30 CFR 20.9 - Class 2 lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery shall be of high-grade design and materials, comparable to the specially recommended trailing... section (No. 9, class 2 lamps), as experience and service prove to be necessary in the interests of safety....

  3. Acoustic resonances in HID lamps: model and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, John [Philips Lighting BV, Lightlabs, Mathildelaan 1, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands); Baumann, Bernd; Wolff, Marcus [Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Physical Sensors, Berliner Tor 21, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Bhosle, Sounil [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Valdivia Barrientos, Ricardo, E-mail: john.hirsch@philips.co [National Nuclear Research Institute, Highway Mexico-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, CP 52750 (Mexico)

    2010-06-16

    A finite element model including plasma simulation is used to calculate the amplitude of acoustic resonances in HID lamps in a 2D axisymmetric geometry. Simulation results are presented for different operation parameters and are compared with experimental data.

  4. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  5. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  6. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  7. 76 FR 23506 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... front and rear turn signal lamps, and for multiple lamp stop configurations on motorcycles. Additionally, both petitioners recommended decreasing the inboard visibility for motorcycle turn signal lamps from 45... petition regarding motorcycle turn signal lamp visibility an improvement over the 2004 final rule as it...

  8. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qun-feng; WANG Cheng-yun; WANG Da-hui; SUN Guan; XU Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed.

  9. Variable polarity arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  10. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  11. ALICE: ARC integration

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlik, C; Kleist, J; Peters, A; Saiz, P

    2008-01-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a modu...

  12. ALICE-ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    2008-01-01

    Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data...

  13. Gas tungsten arc welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  14. 600-W lamp pumped CW Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li(李强); Zhimin Wang(王志敏); Zhiyong Wang(王智勇); Zhensheng Yu(于振声); Hong Lei(雷訇); Jiang Guo(郭江); Gang Li(李港); Tiechuan Zuo(左铁钏)

    2003-01-01

    A lamp pumped CW Nd:YAG laser is presented in this paper for the requirement of industrial application.The main factors, which affect output power and beam quality of high power solid-state laser module, are theoretically analyzed. Total electro-optics efficiency of lamp pumped Nd:YAG crystal as high as 4.0% is obtained, and output power is higher than 647 W with beam parameter product 22 mm.mrad.

  15. Management of fluorescent lamps in controlled environment chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Management of fluorescent lights is recommended to (1) maintain uniformity of light intensity over time and (2) permit reproducibility of lighting conditions during experimental replications. At the McGill Phytotron, the lighting intensity can be controlled to desired level because any individual pair of the 40 lamps in each chamber can be set to be 'on' at any particular time. A lamp canopy service history is maintained for each experiment permitting accurate replication of lighting conditions for subsequent replicate trials.

  16. Slit-lamp photography and videography with high magnifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Mao, Xinjie; Ke, Bilian; Yan, Wentao; Liu, Che; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the use of the slit-lamp photography and videography with extremely high magnifications for visualizing structures of the anterior segment of the eye. Methods A Canon 60D digital camera with Movie Crop Function was adapted into a Nikon FS-2 slit-lamp to capture still images and video clips of the structures of the anterior segment of the eye. Images obtained using the slit-lamp were tested for spatial resolution. The cornea of human eyes was imaged with the slit-lamp and the structures were compared with the pictures captured using the ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). The central thickness of the corneal epithelium and total cornea was obtained using the slit-lamp and the results were compared with the thickness obtained using UHR-OCT. Results High-quality ocular images and higher spatial resolutions were obtained by using the slit-lamp with extremely high magnifications and Movie Crop Function, rather than the traditional slit-lamp. The structures and characteristics of the cornea, such as the normal epithelium, abnormal epithelium of corneal intraepithelial neoplasia, LASIK interface, and contact lenses, were clearly visualized using this device. These features were confirmed by comparing the obtained images with those acquired using UHR-OCT. Moreover, the tear film debris on the ocular surface and the corneal nerve in the anterior corneal stroma were also visualized. The thicknesses of the corneal epithelium and total cornea were similar to that measured using UHR-OCT (P photography and videography with extremely high magnifications allows better visualization of the anterior segment structures of the eye, especially of the epithelium, when compared with the traditional slit-lamp. PMID:26020484

  17. Development of Trichromatic Phosphor for Lamp in China(Continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recent developments of fluorescent lamps in China and in the world 1.Energy saving fluorescent lamps with high luminous efficiency and high color rendering To further improve the color rendering and achieve a good combination of luminous efficiency,photochromism,color rendering property and lifespan of narrow-band rare earth trichromatic phosphor,the multi-composition phosphor is prepared by increasing compositions with emission wave length between 480-520nm and over 620nm.

  18. Motion of polar cap arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Moen, J. I.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A statistics of motion of polar cap arcs is conducted by using 5 years of optical data from an all-sky imager at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.73°N, 265.07°E). We identified 743 arcs by using an automated arc detection algorithm and statistically examined their moving velocities as estimated by the method of Hosokawa et al. (2006). The number of the arcs studied is about 5 times larger than that in the previous statistics of polar cap arcs by Valladares et al. (1994); thus, we could expect to obtain more statistically significant results. Polar cap arcs are found to fall into two distinct categories: the By-dependent and By-independent arcs. The motion of the former arcs follows the rule reported by Valladares et al. (1994), who showed that stable polar cap arcs move in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By. About two thirds of the arcs during northward IMF conditions belong to this category. The latter arcs always move poleward irrespective of the sign of the IMF By, which possibly correspond to the poleward moving arcs in the morning side reported by Shiokawa et al. (1997). At least one third of the arcs belong to this category. The By-dependent arcs tend to move faster when the magnitude of the IMF By is larger, suggesting that the transport of open flux by lobe reconnection from one polar cap compartment to the other controls their motion. In contrast, the speed of the By-independent arcs does not correlate with the magnitude of the By. The motions of both the By-dependent and By-independent arcs are most probably caused by the magnetospheric convection. Convection in the region of By-dependent arcs is affected by the IMF By, which indicates that their sources may be on open field lines or in the closed magnetosphere adjacent to the open-closed boundary, whereas By-independent arcs seem to be well on closed field lines. Hence, the magnetospheric source of the two types of arc may be different. This implies that the mechanisms causing the

  19. 46 CFR 53.05-1 - Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety valve requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG... requirements for steam boilers (modifies HG-400 and HG-401). (a) The pressure relief valve requirements and the safety valve requirements for steam boilers must be as indicated in HG-400 and HG-401 of section IV...

  20. Investigation of Hg uptake and transport between paddy soil and rice seeds combining Hg isotopic composition and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human consumption of rice constitutes a potential toxicological risk in mercury (Hg polluted areas such as Hg mining regions in China. It is recognized to be an important source of Hg for the local human diet considering the efficient bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg in rice seed. To assess Hg sources and uptake pathways to the rice plants, Hg speciation and isotopic composition were investigated in rice seeds and their corresponding paddy soils from different locations within the Wanshan Hg mining area (Guizhou Province, China. A large variation of Hg speciation is observed in rice seeds and paddy soils irrespective of the sampling location. Mass dependent fractionation (MDF of Hg in rice seeds differs by up to ∼4.0 ‰ in δ202Hg values, while mass independent fractionation (MIF of Hg isotopes remains constant (Δ199Hg ∼ 0‰. Hg isotopic composition in rice seeds covaries with that of paddy soils but exhibits lighter isotopic signature (δ202Hg. Such isotopic offset is mainly attributed to plant uptake and translocation processes. Also, seeds containing higher MeHg (MeHg/total Hg > 50% have significantly heavier Hg isotopes suggesting that MeHg uptake and transport to the seed in such rice plants is facilitated compared to inorganic Hg.

  1. The miners' safety lamp : a historical essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed the coal miners' safety lamp and the role it played during the industrial revolution which followed innovations in the textile, steam power and iron founding sectors in the late 1700s. In the 1780s, the steam engine went from being used to pump out mines to achieving widespread use in power machines. In addition, coke replaced charcoal in the smelting of iron, which led to an increase in the production of pig iron for use in machinery and construction. With the shift from wood to coal as a source of fuel, a large amount of fuel was required to power a steam engine. With the use of a newly invented safety lamp in the mines, coal mining was viewed as being fairly safe, leading to the coal-burning economy. The article discussed the risks of going underground with an oil lamp or torch. It also discussed how the miner's lamp was immortalized by different artists and depicted in memorial statues and postage stamps in Austria, Spain, Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Luxemburg, New Caledonia, and Romania. By 1910, a battery-operated electric lamp was introduced, gradually replacing the Davy-Stephenson lamp. It was safer and its design provided better lighting. 2 refs.

  2. A program to improve solar blind UV (ultraviolet) flash lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. J.

    1983-10-01

    A study was conducted of UV light sources, particularly Xenon/H2 flash lamps, in an effort to achieve higher efficiencies in the upper end of the solar blind wavelength region for application to UV communication devices. Lamps containing a number of inert gases with and without added H2, were subjected to detailed spectroscopic examination and their UV output efficiencies compared to that of conventional commercially available lamps of similar physical configuration. A highly versatile power supply capable of delivering very short pulses at variable frequency and power level was designed and built for this purpose. It incorporates the capacity of hold off capacitor recharge for specifiable times between pulses in order to minimize premature lamp firing which produces holdover and renders the source useless for Fm or pulse position modulation operation. Modest increases in efficiency were achieved by increasing Xe pressure and operating the lamps at the highest power and voltage levels compatible with the structural strength of the lamp and frequency range selected for operation.

  3. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  4. Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and methyl mercury in Hg accumulation and toxicity in weanling and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Li, Wen-Kai; Hou, Wei-Yu; Luo, Ya; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Li, Cen; Wei, Li-Xin; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-15

    Mercury sulfides are used in Ayurvedic medicines, Tibetan medicines, and Chinese medicines for thousands of years and are still used today. Cinnabar (α-HgS) and metacinnabar (β-HgS) are different from mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (MeHg) in their disposition and toxicity. Whether such scenario applies to weanling and aged animals is not known. To address this question, weanling (21d) and aged (450d) rats were orally given Zuotai (54% β-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgS (α-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgCl2 (34.6mg/kg), or MeHg (MeHgCl, 3.2mg/kg) for 7days. Accumulation of Hg in kidney and liver, and the toxicity-sensitive gene expressions were examined. Animal body weight gain was decreased by HgCl2 and to a lesser extent by MeHg, but unaltered after Zuotai and HgS. HgCl2 and MeHg produced dramatic tissue Hg accumulation, increased kidney (kim-1 and Ngal) and liver (Ho-1) injury-sensitive gene expressions, but such changes are absent or mild after Zuotai and HgS. Aged rats were more susceptible than weanling rats to Hg toxicity. To examine roles of transporters in Hg accumulation, transporter gene expressions were examined. The expression of renal uptake transporters Oat1, Oct2, and Oatp4c1 and hepatic Oatp2 was decreased, while the expression of renal efflux transporter Mrp2, Mrp4 and Mdr1b was increased following HgCl2 and MeHg, but unaffected by Zuotai and HgS. Thus, Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and MeHg in producing tissue Hg accumulation and toxicity, and aged rats are more susceptible than weanling rats. Transporter expression could be adaptive means to reduce tissue Hg burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution on Sky Glow over Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution on Sky Glow...overhead sky glow as a function of distance up to 300 km, from a variety of lamp types, including common gas discharge lamps and several types of LED... lamps . We conclude for both professional, and especially cultural (visual), astronomy, that low-pressure sodium and narrowspectrum amber LED lamps

  6. Local probing of Hg neighboorhood in HgBa$_{2}$CuO$_{4+\\delta}$

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Loureiro, S M; Toulemonde, P; Le Floc'h, S; Bordet, P; Capponi, J J; Gatt, R; Tröger, W; Ctortecka, B; Butz, T; Haas, H; Marques, J G; Soares, J C

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients (EFG) on mercury sites of the Hg1201 high-TC superconductors were measured with the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique. In Hg1201 samples where PAC detects higher oxygen content the EFGs have decreased to lower values indicating an elongation of the Hg-apical oxygen dumb-bell. On the same samples the asymmetry parameter of the EFG becomes non-zero below 100 K, showing that the charge distribution near the Hg-apical oxygen chain becomes non-axially symmetric at low temperature.

  7. Complexation of Hg with phytochelatins is important for plant Hg tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Millán, Rocío; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Leduc, Danika L; Andrews, Joy C; Abadía, Javier; Hernández, Luís E

    2011-05-01

    Three-week-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and maize (Zea mays) were exposed for 7 d to 30 µm of mercury (HgCl(2) ) to characterize the Hg speciation in root, with no symptoms of being poisoned. The largest pool (99%) was associated with the particulate fraction, whereas the soluble fraction (SF) accounted for a minor proportion (phytochelatins (PCs) in root SF, which was particularly varied in alfalfa (eight ligands and five stoichiometries), a species that also accumulated homophytochelatins. Spatial localization of Hg in alfalfa roots by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy showed that most of the Hg co-localized with sulphur in the vascular cylinder. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fingerprint fitting revealed that Hg was bound in vivo to organic-S compounds, i.e. biomolecules containing cysteine. Albeit a minor proportion of total Hg, Hg-PCs complexes in the SF might be important for tolerance to Hg, as was found with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants cad2-1 (with low glutathione content) and cad1-3 (unable to synthesize PCs) in comparison with wild type plants. Interestingly, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight analysis showed that none of these mutants accumulated Hg-biothiol complexes.

  8. Lysosome-associated protein 1 (LAMP-1) and lysosome-associated protein 2 (LAMP-2) in a larger family carrier of Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ester M; do Monte, Semiramis J H; do Nascimento, Fernando F; de Castro, Jose A F; Sousa, Jackeline L M; Filho, Henrique C S A L C; da Silva, Raimundo N; Labilloy, Anatália; Monte Neto, José T; da Silva, Adalberto S

    2014-02-15

    This study investigated the potential relationship between the expression levels of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) 1 and 2 and responses to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in the members of a single family with Fabry disease (FD). LAMP levels were assessed by flow cytometry in leukocytes from 17 FD patients who received an eight-month course of ERT course and 101 healthy individuals. We found that phagocytic cells from the FD patients had higher expression levels of both LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, relative to the levels in phagocytes from the healthy controls (p=0.001). Furthermore, the LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 levels in phagocytes from the FD carriers continuously decreased with ERT administration to reach levels similar to those in healthy controls. We suggest that LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 could be used as additional markers with which to assess ERT effectiveness in FD.

  9. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paget, M. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lingard, R. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines standard fluorescent lamps, the recessed troffers they are commonly used in, and available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps and their application in fluorescent troffers.

  10. Continuous calibration of a vacuum ultraviolet system from 65 to 125 nm by a cascade arc and comparison with the calibrated line radiation of a hollow cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R M; Awakowicz, P

    1997-03-20

    A high-power stationary helium cascade arc has been developed as a standard source for continuum radiation in the VUV spectral range from 65 to 125 nm. The calibration of the VUV system response was based on the calculated and measured continuum radiation of a 2-mmphi pure He arc. Diagnostics of the arc plasma in partial thermal equilibrium yielded the electron density and the temperature that were inserted in the calculations of the continuous radiation. The results were compared with the helium, argon, and krypton radiation lines of a high-current hollow cathode lamp. This lamp was built according to the construction drawings of a hollow cathode, which was calibrated by means of the electron synchrotron radiation at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Berlin.

  11. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Schoeller, M; Savanov, I; Arlt, R; Castelli, F; Curto, G Lo; Briquet, M; Dall, T H

    2012-01-01

    The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. We re-analyse available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD19400, using FORS2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We downloaded from the ESO archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudina...

  12. HgCdTe barrier infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, new strategies to achieve high-operating temperature (HOT) detectors have been proposed, including barrier structures such as nBn devices, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage (cascade) infrared detectors. The ability to tune the positions of the conduction and valence band edges independently in a broken-gap type-II superlattices is especially helpful in the design of unipolar barriers. This idea has been also implemented in HgCdTe ternary material system. However, the implementation of this detector structure in HgCdTe material system is not straightforward due to the existence of a valence band discontinuity (barrier) at the absorber-barrier interface. In this paper we present status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with emphasis on technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown HgCdTe barrier detectors achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. From the perspective of device fabrication their important technological advantage results from less stringent surface passivation requirements and tolerance to threading dislocations.

  13. Comparison of a remote operating slit-lamp microscope system with a conventional slit-lamp microscope system for examination of trabeculectomy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Kenji; Tanabe, Naohiko; Go, Kentaro; Imasawa, Mitsuhiro; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Chiba, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Abe, Keitetsu

    2013-01-01

    To compare 2-dimensional (2D) photo imaging with slit-lamp photo imaging for examination of trabeculectomy eyes, and to compare the accuracy and consistency of examination of trabeculectomy eyes with a remote operating slit-lamp microscope system (referred to as "remote slit lamp" hereafter) and a conventional slit-lamp microscope system (referred to as "slit lamp" hereafter). Thirty-five eyes of 35 patients having a history of trabeculectomy were enrolled in the study that compared 2D photo imaging with slit-lamp photo imaging for the evaluation of trabeculectomy eyes. Five ophthalmologists evaluated the 2D images and the slit-lamp images independently with masking of patient information. Evaluation scores were compared with those provided by a glaucoma specialist using the slit lamp as standard. Fifteen eyes from 15 patients having a history of trabeculectomy were enrolled in the study that investigated the accuracy and consistency of examination of trabeculectomy eyes with a remote slit lamp and a slit lamp. Central anterior chamber depth, bleb height, and bleb extent evaluated by the slit-lamp photo imaging showed significantly higher consistency with the standard than those evaluated by 2D photo imaging (Psystem shows similar potential to the slit-lamp system for the evaluation of trabeculectomy eyes, although the evaluation time is much longer.

  14. Modeling rf breakdown arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Huang, Dazhang; Mahalingam, Sudhakar; Veitzer, Seth

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakdown in 805 MHz rf accelerator cavities in terms of a number of mechanisms. We devide the breakdown process into three stages: (1) we model surface failure using molecular dynamics of fracture caused by electrostatic tensile stress, (2) we model the ionization of neutrals responsible for plasma initiation and plasma growth using a particle in cell code, and (3) we model surface damage by assuming a process similar to unipolar arcing. Although unipolar arcs are strictly defined with equipotential boundaries, we find that the cold, dense plasma in contact with the surface produces very small Debye lengths and very high electric fields over a large area. These high fields produce strong erosion mechanisms, primarily self sputtering, compatible with the crater formation that we see. Results from the plasma simulation are included as a guide to experimental verification of this model.

  15. ALICE - ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic...... Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data...... management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. dCache provides support for several data management tools (among them for xrootd the tools used by AliEn) using the so called "doors". Therefore, we will concentrate on the second...

  16. The ARCS radial collimator

    OpenAIRE

    Stone M.B.; Niedziela J.L.; Overbay M.A.; Abernathy D.L.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed, installed, and commissioned a scattered beam radial collimator for use at the ARCS Wide Angular Range Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source. The collimator has been designed to work effectively for thermal and epithermal neutrons and with a range of sample environments. Other design considerations include the accommodation of working within a high vacuum environment and having the ability to quickly install and remove the collimator from the scattered beam. W...

  17. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo

    2011-07-01

    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  18. Complexation of Hg with phytochelatins is important for plant Hg tolerance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CARRASCO‐GIL, SANDRA; ÁLVAREZ‐FERNÁNDEZ, ANA; SOBRINO‐PLATA, JUAN; MILLÁN, ROCÍO; CARPENA‐RUIZ, RAMÓN O; LEDUC, DANIKA L; ANDREWS, JOY C; ABADÍA, JAVIER; HERNÁNDEZ, LUÍS E

    2011-01-01

    Three‐week‐old alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ), barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) and maize ( Zea mays ) were exposed for 7 d to 30  µ m of mercury (HgCl 2 ) to characterize the Hg speciation in root, with no symptoms of being poisoned...

  19. Ground-state potential energy curves of LiHg, NaHg, and KHg revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Linda; Hotop, Hartmut; Meyer, Wilfried

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of large-scale CCSD(T) calculations on the potential energy curves for the ground states of LiHg, NaHg, and KHg. In these calculations, the Hg20+ core is simulated by a pseudopotential which has been adjusted to reproduce experimental excitation and ionization energies of the Hg atom at the coupled-cluster level. Moreover, we apply a weighted multiproperty fitting procedure to determine reliable potentials for LiHg, NaHg, and KHg which reproduce the available experimental results. In the case of LiHg, this best-fit potential is based solely on experimental data and its agreement with our calculated potential supports our computational procedure. For NaHg and KHg the experimental data had to be complemented by theoretical results in order to fix a best-fit potential. Our potentials and those proposed previously are evaluated by comparing calculated scattering cross sections and vibrational energy levels with the available experimental data.

  20. Arc-preserving subsequences of arc-annotated sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Vladimir Yu

    2011-01-01

    Arc-annotated sequences are useful in representing the structural information of RNA and protein sequences. The longest arc-preserving common subsequence problem has been introduced as a framework for studying the similarity of arc-annotated sequences. In this paper, we consider arc-annotated sequences with various arc structures. We consider the longest arc preserving common subsequence problem. In particular, we show that the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(crossing,chain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(crossing,chain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete for some fixed alphabet $\\Sigma$ such that $|\\Sigma| = 2$. Also we show that if $|\\Sigma| = 1$, then the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete.

  1. Quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The nucleus {sup 192}Hg plays a pivotal role for superdeformation in the mass 190 region, since calculations of single-particle levels show large shell-gaps for the superdeformed (SD) shape at N = 112 and Z = 80. As a result, {sup 192}Hg is referred to as the doubly magic SD nucleus for the A = 190 region. In previous studies, only one superdeformed band was observed in this nucleus, and this fact was cited as indirect evidence that large shell gaps do indeed exist at the proposed particle numbers.

  2. Electric field gradients in Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved by compar......We examine the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches based on the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian (with and without inclusion of spinorbit coupling) for predictions of electric ¿eld gradients (EFGs) at the heavy atom Hg nucleus. This is achieved...

  3. A simple method for panretinal imaging with the slit lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellrich, Marcus-Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Slit lamp biomicroscopy of the retina with a convex lens is a key procedure in clinical practice. The methods presented enable ophthalmologists to adequately image large and peripheral parts of the fundus using a video-slit lamp and freely available stitching software. A routine examination of the fundus with a slit lamp and a +90 D lens is recorded on a video film. Later, sufficiently sharp still images are identified on the video sequence. These still images are imported into a freely available image-processing program (Hugin, for stitching mosaics together digitally) and corresponding points are marked on adjacent still images with some overlap. Using the digital stitching program Hugin panoramic overviews of the retina can be built which can extend to the equator. This allows to image diseases involving the whole retina or its periphery by performing a structured fundus examination with a video-slit lamp. Similar images with a video-slit lamp based on a fundus examination through a hand-held non-contact lens have not been demonstrated before. The methods presented enable those ophthalmologists without high-end imaging equipment to monitor pathological fundus findings. The suggested procedure might even be interesting for retinological departments if peripheral findings are to be documented which might be difficult with fundus cameras.

  4. Optical design of LED-based automotive tail lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domhardt, André; Rohlfing, Udo; Klinger, Karsten; Manz, Karl; Kooß, Dieter; Lemmer, Uli

    2007-09-01

    The application of ultra bright monochromatic and white High-Power-LEDs in the range of automotive lighting systems is now state of the art. These LEDs offer new possibilities in optical design and engineering within different fields of automotive lighting, e.g., tail lamps, signal lamps, headlamps and interior lighting. This contribution describes the process of the optical design of an automotive LED tail lamp based on a practical example. We will elaborate the principal geometric approach, the radiometric conditions and the optical design by using standard and advanced mathematical optimization methods. Special attention will be paid to the following topics: efficient light coupling from the LED into the optical device, adaptation of the illuminance and optimization with respect to the requirements from SAE/ECE regulations. It will be shown that the development of LED-lamps requires the complex interaction of several factors. The challenge for the optical designer is to fulfill the technical demands while also considering the appearance of the final product desired by the customer. Further design specifications emerge from the electrical and thermal layout of the lamp.

  5. Intensity stabilized pulsed analyzing lamp for ultraviolet transient spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jørgen

    1981-12-01

    This report describes an apparatus for increasing the light intensity of a Varian VIX-150 UV xenon lamp. The increase is a factor 100 times greater at 220 nm. The light pulse width can be varied from 1 to 10 ms. The intensity of the light pulse can be controlled in two different modes: (1) the light flux from the lamp is kept constant by means of a parallel close-loop control on a small fraction, 10%, of the radiated flux from the lamp. The intensity variation of a 10-ms light pulse detected by a photomultiplier used for detecting the transient absorption signal can be held constant to within 5%. The accuracy is not limited by the lamp intensifier, but by a lack of precision in optical alignment of the absorption spectrometer; (2) the photomultiplier for the transient absorption signal controls the light intensity. During the first period of the light pulse the photomultiplier signal acts to provide feedback for the lamp intensifier and a constant light level is then obtained. In the subsequent period a hold circuit continues to keep the light level constant. Within the hold period the feedback signal from the photomultiplier is switched off and it continues as the detector for the transient absorption signal. In this mode of operation, a useful light pulse of 1 ms is obtained; the intensity variation is within 3%.

  6. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  7. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  8. MBE Growth and Characterization of Hg Based Compounds and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-03

    The molecular beam epitaxy ( MBE ) growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride (Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te) alloys and type III HgTe/Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te heterostructures has...been discussed, including similarities and differences between the (0 0 1) and (1 1 2)Beta orientations. Furthermore, the MBE growth of HgTe-based

  9. Phenylselenolate Mercury Alkyl Compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt: Molecular Structures, Protolytic Hg-C Bond Cleavage and Phenylselenolate Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Quinlivan, Patrick J; Rong, Yi; Parkin, Gerard

    2016-01-08

    The phenylselenolate mercury alkyl compounds, PhSeHgMe and PhSeHgEt, have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, thereby demonstrating that both compounds are monomeric with approximately linear coordination geometries; the mercury centers do, nevertheless, exhibit secondary Hg•••Se intermolecular interactions that serve to increase the coordination number in the solid state. The ethyl derivative, PhSeHgEt, undergoes facile protolytic cleavage of the Hg-C bond to release ethane at room temperature, whereas PhSeHgMe exhibits little reactivity under similar conditions. Interestingly, the cleavage of the Hg-C bond of PhSeHgEt is also more facile than that of the thiolate analogue, PhSHgEt, which demonstrates that coordination by selenium promotes protolytic cleavage of the mercury-carbon bond. The phenylselenolate compounds PhSeHgR (R = Me, Et) also undergo degenerate exchange reactions with, for example, PhSHgR and RHgCl. In each case, the alkyl groups preserve coupling to the (199)Hg nuclei, thereby indicating that the exchange process involves metathesis of the Hg-SePh/Hg-X groups rather than metathesis of the Hg-R/Hg-R groups.

  10. The application of 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy to define the biological chemistry of HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranzo, Olga; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Ryu, Seung-baek;

    2007-01-01

    H values and at peptide/HgII ratios of 3:1 with an unusual trigonal thiolate coordination mode. The resulting HgII complexes are good water-soluble models for HgII binding to the protein MerR. We have carried out a parallel study using 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy...... to characterize the distinct species that are generated under different pH conditions and peptide TRI L9C/HgII ratios. These studies prove for the first time the formation of [Hg{(TRI L9C)2-(TRI L9C H)}], a dithiolate-HgII complex in the hydrophobic interior of the three-stranded coiled coil (TRI L9C)3. 199Hg NMR...... and 199mHg PAC data demonstrate that this dithiolate-HgII complex is different from the dithiolate [Hg(TRI L9C)2], and that the presence of third -helix, containing a protonated cysteine, breaks the symmetry of the coordination environment present in the complex [Hg(TRI L9C)2]. As the pH is raised...

  11. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  12. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; Gonzalez, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have fai...

  13. Design of White LED Energy-saving Street Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huan-jie; FENG Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An energy-saving light-emitting-diode(LED) street lamp was conducted. Based on the simulation by optical software TracePro, a physical street lamp system including 600 white LEDs was achieved. This system was operated under a constant current of 20mA for each unit, and the electric power consumption of the whole lamp was only 42W. Experimental results demonstrated that the total average illuminance reached 8.8lx and the overall uniformity was 0.370 for a 30-m-long and 10-m-wide test area at a height of 8m, which is fully acceptable for the current standard for sub-main road.

  14. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...

  15. Performance of annular flow sterilizer irradiated by a germicidal lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, T.; Yoneya, M.; Ohashi, H. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted on the UV-inactivation characteristics of Bacillus subtilis spores in an annular-flow sterilizer irradiated by a germicidal lamp located at the center of the inner tube. Experimental results for sterilizer performance in laminar spore-suspension flow were well simulated dynamically and statically by theoretical considerations which incorporated multi-targets with single-hit model for the UV-inactivation kinetic and the diffuse light model for the angle characteristic of lamp, along with due attention to the parabolic velocity distribution and the negligible diffusion of spores. Scale on the outside wall of the inner tube was checked by the use of a cylindrical chemical actinometer. Calculated examples elucidate the reason why careful inspection is needed of UV-inactivation kinetics, angle characteristics of lamp, and fluid mixing to evaluate performance of actual flow UV sterilizers at high extent of inactivation up to the order of 99.999%.

  16. Detection of Acute HIV-1 Infection by RT-LAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna L Rudolph

    Full Text Available A rapid, cost-effective diagnostic test for the detection of acute HIV-1 infection is highly desired. Isothermal amplification techniques, such as reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP, exhibit characteristics that are ideal for the development of a rapid nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT because they are quick, easy to perform and do not require complex, dedicated equipment and laboratory space. In this study, we assessed the ability of the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay to detect acute HIV infection as compared to a representative rapid antibody test and several FDA-approved laboratory-based assays. The HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay detected seroconverting individuals one to three weeks earlier than a rapid HIV antibody test and up to two weeks earlier than a lab-based antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab combo enzyme immunoassay (EIA. RT-LAMP was not as sensitive as a lab-based qualitative RNA assay, which could be attributed to the significantly smaller nucleic acid input volume. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of detecting acute HIV infection using the RT-LAMP assay. The availability of a rapid NAAT, such as the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay, at the point of care (POC or in laboratories that do not have access to large platform NAAT could increase the percentage of individuals who receive an acute HIV infection status or confirmation of their HIV status, while immediately linking them to counseling and medical care. In addition, early knowledge of HIV status could lead to reduced high-risk behavior at a time when individuals are at a higher risk for transmitting the virus.

  17. A new Cassegrain calibration lamp unit for the Blanco Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Points, S. D.; James, D. J.; Tighe, R.; Montané, A.; David, N.; Martínez, M.

    2016-08-01

    The f/8 RC-Cassegrain Focus of the Blanco Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, hosts two new instruments: COSMOS, a multi-object spectrograph in the visible wavelength range (350 - 1030nm), and ARCoIRIS, a NIR cross-dispersed spectrograph featuring 6 spectral orders spanning 0.8 - 2.45μm. Here we describe a calibration lamp unit designed to deliver the required illumination at the telescope focal plane for both instruments. These requirements are: (1) an f/8 beam of light covering a spot of 92mm diameter (or 10 arcmin) for a wavelength range of 0.35μm through 2.5μm and (2) no saturation of flat-field calibrations for the minimal exposure times permitted by each instrument, and (3) few saturated spectral lines when using the wavelength calibration lamps for the instruments. To meet these requirements this unit contains an adjustable quartz halogen lamp for flat-field calibrations, and one hollow cathode lamp and four penray lamps for wavelength calibrations. The wavelength calibration lamps are selected to provide optimal spectral coverage for the instrument mounted and can be used individually or in sets. The device designed is based on an 8-inch diameter integrating sphere, the output of which is optimized to match the f/8 calibration input delivery system which is a refractive system based on fused-silica lenses. We describe the optical design, the opto-mechanical design, the electronic control and give results of the performance of the system.

  18. Correlation methods in cutting arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H, E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.ar [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.

  19. Joan of Arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote-Smith, E; Bayne, L

    1991-01-01

    For centuries, romantics have praised and historians and scientists debated the mystery of Joan of Arc's exceptional achievements. How could an uneducated farmer's daughter, raised in harsh isolation in a remote village in medieval France, have found the strength and resolution to alter the course of history? Hypotheses have ranged from miraculous intervention to creative psychopathy. We suggest, based on her own words and the contemporary descriptions of observers, that the source of her visions and convictions was in part ecstatic epileptic auras and that she joins the host of creative religious thinkers suspected or known to have epilepsy, from St. Paul and Mohammed to Dostoevsky, who have changed western civilization.

  20. The ARCS radial collimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have designed, installed, and commissioned a scattered beam radial collimator for use at the ARCS Wide Angular Range Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source. The collimator has been designed to work effectively for thermal and epithermal neutrons and with a range of sample environments. Other design considerations include the accommodation of working within a high vacuum environment and having the ability to quickly install and remove the collimator from the scattered beam. We present here characterization of the collimator's performance and methodologies for its effective use.

  1. The ARCS radial collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M. B.; Niedziela, J. L.; Overbay, M. A.; Abernathy, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed, installed, and commissioned a scattered beam radial collimator for use at the ARCS Wide Angular Range Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source. The collimator has been designed to work effectively for thermal and epithermal neutrons and with a range of sample environments. Other design considerations include the accommodation of working within a high vacuum environment and having the ability to quickly install and remove the collimator from the scattered beam. We present here characterization of the collimator's performance and methodologies for its effective use.

  2. Starting of HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟强; 王卫; 徐殿国

    2001-01-01

    A complete research of two different starting techniques for HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast is presented while a traditional starting technique based on the series resonant theory which is used widely for fluorescent lamps starting is analyzed in detail. An improved nth harmonic resonant technique is also simulated. Furthermore, a novel starting technique based on a pulse ransformer is proposed, which still offer the automatic switch-off capability. The differences between two starting techniques are explained. The experimental results from a lab prototype are used to verify the design.

  3. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, RD; Howells, John

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  4. Relationship Between Soil Properties and Different Fractions of Soil Hg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis methods were used to study the relationship between soil properties and the distribution of different soil Hg fractions with nine representative soils from Chongqing, China. Results showed that clay (< 2 m) could increase water-soluble Hg (r = 0.700*). Soil organic matter (OM) could enhance the increase of elemental Hg (r = 0.674*). The higher the base saturation percentage (BSP), the more the residual Hg (r = 0.684*). Organic Hg, the sum of acid-soluble organic Hg. and alkali-soluble Hg, was positively affected by silt (2~20μm) but negatively affected by pH, with the direct path coefficients amounting to 1.0487 and 0.5121, respectively. The positive effect of OM and negative effect of BSP on organic Hg were the most significant, with the direct path coefficients being 0.7614 and -0.8527, respectively. The indirect effect of clay (< 2 μm) via BSP (path coefficient = 0.4186) was the highest, showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay (< 2 μm) on acid-soluble organic Hg was BSP. Since the available Hg fraction, water-soluble Hg, was positively affected by soil clay content, and the quite immobile and not bioavailable residual Hg by soil BSP, suitable reduction of clay content and increase of BSP would be of much help to reduce the Hg availability and Hg activity in Hg-contaminated soils.

  5. LAMP-3 (Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein 3) Promotes the Intracellular Proliferation of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Kwan-Sik; Jeon, In-Sook; Choi, Jae-Woon; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Choy, Hyun E; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Choi, Joong-Kook

    2016-07-01

    Lysosomes are cellular organelles containing diverse classes of catabolic enzymes that are implicated in diverse cellular processes including phagocytosis, autophagy, lipid transport, and aging. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are major glycoproteins important for maintaining lysosomal integrity, pH, and catabolism. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are constitutively expressed in Salmonella-infected cells and are recruited to Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs) as well as Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs) that promote the survival and proliferation of the Salmonella. LAMP-3, also known as DC-LAMP/CD208, is a member of the LAMP family of proteins, but its role during Salmonella infection remains unclear. DNA microarray analysis identified LAMP-3 as one of the genes responding to LPS stimulation in THP-1 macrophage cells. Subsequent analyses reveal that LPS and Salmonella induced the expression of LAMP-3 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Confocal Super resolution N-SIM imaging revealed that LAMP-3, like LAMP-2, shifts its localization from the cell surface to alongside Salmonella. Knockdown of LAMP-3 by specific siRNAs decreased the number of Salmonella recovered from the infected cells. Therefore, we conclude that LAMP-3 is induced by Salmonella infection and recruited to the Salmonella pathogen for intracellular proliferation.

  6. LiDAR-Assisted Multi-Source Program (LAMP for Measuring Above Ground Biomass and Forest Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Kauranne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest measurement for purposes like harvesting planning, biomass estimation and mitigating climate change through carbon capture by forests call for increasingly frequent forest measurement campaigns that need to balance cost with accuracy and precision. Often this implies the use of remote sensing based measurement methods. For any remote-sensing based methods to be accurate, they must be validated against field data. We present a method that combines field measurements with two layers of remote sensing data: sampling of forests by airborne laser scanning (LiDAR and Landsat imagery. The Bayesian model-based framework presented here is called Lidar-Assisted Multi-source Programme—or LAMP—for Above Ground Biomass estimation. The method has two variants: LAMP2 which splits the biomass estimation task into two separate stages: forest type stratification from Landsat imagery and mean biomass density estimation of each forest type by LiDAR models calibrated on field plots. LAMP3, on the other hand, estimates first the biomass on a LiDAR sample using models calibrated with field plots and then uses these LiDAR-based models to generate biomass density estimates on thousands of surrogate plots, with which a satellite image based model is calibrated and subsequently used to estimate biomass density on the entire forest area. Both LAMP methods have been applied to a 2 million hectare area in Southern Nepal, the Terai Arc Landscape or TAL to calculate the emission Reference Levels (RLs that are required for the UN REDD+ program that was accepted as part of the Paris Climate Agreement. The uncertainty of these estimates is studied with error variance estimation, cross-validation and Monte Carlo simulation. The relative accuracy of activity data at pixel level was found to be 14 per cent at 95 per cent confidence level and the root mean squared error of biomass estimates to be between 35 and 39 per cent at 1 ha resolution.

  7. 40 CFR 426.120 - Applicability; description of the incandescent lamp envelope manufacturing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incandescent lamp envelope manufacturing subcategory. 426.120 Section 426.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Incandescent Lamp Envelope Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.120 Applicability; description of...

  8. Study on the structures and illumination characteristics of Chinese ancient oil lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Qingxuan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese ancient firelight lighting had a long history in which developed technologies were applied. The paper concerns itself with a study of Chinese ancient firelight lighting lamps, including the structures and illuminating characteristics of ancient oil lamps.

  9. 76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... associated equipment'' listed in Table III of Standard 108. Table III listed lamps such turn signal lamps, reflectors such as reflex reflectors, and associated equipment such as turn signal operating units. Further...

  10. Alternating-Polarity Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Brief reversing polarity of welding current greatly improves quality of welds. NASA technical memorandum recounts progress in art of variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welding, with emphasis on welding of aluminum-alloy tanks. VPPA welders offer important advantages over conventional single-polarity gas/tungsten arc welders.

  11. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J. [Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing, Department of Chemical Engineering, 230 Ross Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90{sup o}C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8mol kg{sub H{sub 2}O}{sup -1}. The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25{sup o}C and 1atm are 0.1634V for 0.100m, 0.1077V for 1.00m, and 0.0976V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0wt.% NaOH at 80{sup o}C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75{sup o}C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations. (author)

  12. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90 °C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8 mol k gH2O-1 . The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25 °C and 1 atm are 0.1634 V for 0.100m, 0.1077 V for 1.00m, and 0.0976 V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751 V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916 V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0 wt.% NaOH at 80 °C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75 °C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations.

  13. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapanje, A. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)], E-mail: ales.lapanje@bf.uni-lj.si; Drobne, D. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nolde, N. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Department of Environmental Sciences, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Valant, J. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muscet, B. [Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Leser, V. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, M. [Institute of Public Health, Prvomajska 1, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Slomskov trg 15, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 {mu}g Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant.

  14. Keeleuuendusest sündis diplomilavastus / Anu Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    24. märtsil esietendus teatris NO99 lavakunstikooli 22. lennu viimane diplomilavastus "Keeleuuenduse lõpmatu kurv". Lavastaja Anu Lamp räägib, kuidas sündis ja kuidas materjal Johannes Aaviku keeleuuendusest lavale jõudis

  15. Anu Lamp õpetab presidendile kõnekunsti peensusi / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitleja Anu Lamp õpetab president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele kaheksa akadeemilise tunni jooksul kõnelemisoskust. Vt. samas: Martti Kass. Presidendi hiiglaslik vastuvõtutelk võtab ilmet. Tartus hakati Vanemuise teatri külje alla hiigeltelki püstitama. Telgis surub president Toomas Hendrik Ilves 24. veebruaril 2007 kutsutud külaliste kätt

  16. Thermal analysis of LED lamps for optimal driver integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perpiñà, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Vellvehi, M.; Jakovenko, J.; Jordà, X.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the thermal influence of a light-emitting diode (LED) driver on a retrofit LED lamp, also reporting on a procedure for its thermal characterization and multiscale modeling. In this analysis, temperature is measured by infrared thermography and monitoring specific locations with th

  17. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  18. Very Fast Temperature Measurement with a Thin Lamp Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Calza, Gratton, L. M.; Lopez-Arias, T.; Oss, S.

    2012-01-01

    We construct a thermometer exploiting the electric resistance of the filament of a small lamp used in micro-illumination settings. The instrument may guarantee a response time better than 10 ms, i.e. much faster than commercial thermocouples or other quite expensive devices. This makes our thermometer a useful one in several processes which are…

  19. Nonlinear Behavior in High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Bernd; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behaves very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  20. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  1. Modeling of Kr-Xe discharge of excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belasri A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical simulation of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD for Kr-Xe excilamp. The model of the discharge consists of three main modules: a plasma chemistry module, a circuit module and a Boltzmann equation module. The results predict the optimal operating conditions and describe the electrical and chemical properties of the KrXe* excimer lamp.

  2. Photovoltaic Experiment Using Light from a Solar Simulator Lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell experiment utilizing the convenience of a solar simulating type lamp is described. Insight into the solid state aspect of a solar cell is gained by the student in studying the characteristics, and deducing from them cell parameters and efficiency. (Author/CS)

  3. Anu Lamp õpetab presidendile kõnekunsti peensusi / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitleja Anu Lamp õpetab president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele kaheksa akadeemilise tunni jooksul kõnelemisoskust. Vt. samas: Martti Kass. Presidendi hiiglaslik vastuvõtutelk võtab ilmet. Tartus hakati Vanemuise teatri külje alla hiigeltelki püstitama. Telgis surub president Toomas Hendrik Ilves 24. veebruaril 2007 kutsutud külaliste kätt

  4. Flash-lamp-pumped picosecond Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingyuan Zhang; Gang Li; Meng Chen; Guoju Wang; Yonggang Wang; Xiaoyu Ma

    2005-01-01

    @@ A flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier has been developed at 1.06 μm, seeded with 10-ps pulses from a diode-end-pumped and mode-locked Nd:YAG oscillator with homemade semiconductor saturable absorber mirror(SESAM).

  5. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wood's fluorescent lamp. 866.2600 Section 866.2600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... fluorescent materials (e.g., fluorescein pigment produced by certain microorganisms) as an aid in...

  6. Optical properties of lamps with cold emission cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenik, Jerzy; Czerwosz, ElŻbieta; Biernacki, Krzysztof; Rymarczyk, Joanna; Stepińska, Izabela

    2016-12-01

    A luminescent lamp was constructed and tested. Phosphor excited by electrons is the source of light. The source of electrons is field emission cathode. The cathode is covered with nickel-carbon layer containing carbon nanotubes that enhance electron emission from the cathode. Results of luminance measurements are presented. Luminance is high enough for lighting application.

  7. Photovoltaic Experiment Using Light from a Solar Simulator Lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell experiment utilizing the convenience of a solar simulating type lamp is described. Insight into the solid state aspect of a solar cell is gained by the student in studying the characteristics, and deducing from them cell parameters and efficiency. (Author/CS)

  8. Keeleuuendusest sündis diplomilavastus / Anu Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    24. märtsil esietendus teatris NO99 lavakunstikooli 22. lennu viimane diplomilavastus "Keeleuuenduse lõpmatu kurv". Lavastaja Anu Lamp räägib, kuidas sündis ja kuidas materjal Johannes Aaviku keeleuuendusest lavale jõudis

  9. Quadrichromatic white solid state lamp with digital feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskas, Arturas; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Ivanauskas, Felikas; Kurilcik, Genadij; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Krupic, Jevgenij; Rupsys, Andrius; Novickovas, Algirdas; Vitta, Pranciskus; Navickas, Alvydas; Raskauskas, Vytautas; Shur, Michael S.; Gaska, Remis

    2004-01-01

    White light with high color rendering indices can be produced by additive color mixing of emissions from several light-emitting diodes (LEDs) having different primary colors. White Versatile Solid-State Lamps (VSSLs) with variable color temperature, constant-chromaticity dimming, and efficiency/color-rendering trade-off can be developed using pulse-width modulation (PWM) driving technique. However, such lamps exhibit chromaticity shifts caused by different temperature and aging coefficients of the optical output for primary LEDs of different colors. To overcome this drawback, we developed a polychromatic white solid-state lamp with an internal digital feedback. The lamp features a quadrichromatic (red-amber-green-blue) design based on commercially available high-power LEDs. The design is optimized to achieve high values of the general color rendering index (69 to 79 points) in the color-temperature range of 2856 to 6504 K. A computer-controlled driving circuit contains a pulse-width modulator and a photodiode-based meter. The software performs periodical measurement of the radiant flux from primary LEDs of each color and adjusts the widths of the driving pulses. These VSSLs with feedback found application in phototherapy of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

  10. The research of lamp for the growing of green plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunyuan; Feng, Hongnian; Jin, Shangzhong; Gao, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthesis of plants is to absorb the special wavelength of sunlight by the chlorophylls. According to the absorption spectrum of chlorophylls, we managed to make a LED lamp for the growing of green plants, and the relative energy spectrum distribution of the lamp match with the absorbing spectrum of green plants. Because the absorption wavelength range of chlorophylls are respectively 390~420nm, 430~460nm and 650~680nm, we choose different peak wavelength LEDs which are respectively at 400nm, 450nm, 655nm. By calculation, the general energy ratio of the three types of LEDs is 22:46:33, which corresponds to the absorption spectrum of chlorophylls. The illuminance of lamp for the growing of green plants on plants away 0.5 meter is 80lx by measuring. The LEDs lamp can be used to complement light and increase the efficiency of photosynthesis in cloudy, in door or at night. In another word, the photosynthesis is more powerful, and the more carbohydrates are synthesized, supplying enough material and energy for the growing of green plants.

  11. Calibration and Temperature Profile of a Tungsten Filament Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles; Gitton, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work proposed for undergraduate students and teachers is the calibration of a tungsten filament lamp from electric measurements that are both simple and precise, allowing to determine the temperature of tungsten filament as a function of the current intensity. This calibration procedure was first applied to a conventional filament…

  12. Characteristics of Arcs Between Porous Carbon Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Carvou, Erwann; Le Garrec, Jean-Luc; Mitchell, Brian

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Arcs between carbon electrodes present some specific differences compared with metallic arcs. The arc voltage is higher, but does not attain a stable value displaying large fluctuations. Indeed, the arcs are produced by the direct sublimation of the electrodes, without passing through a molten phase. The arc production is also facilitated by both circuit breaking and electric field breakdown. In this paper, arcing has been examined under various conditions (voltage, cu...

  13. The Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution on Sky Glow over Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbuhl, C. B.; Boley, P. A.; Davis, D. R.; Duriscoe, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    Using a wavelength-generalized version of the Garstang (1991) model, we evaluate overhead sky glow as a function of distance up to 300 km, from a variety of lamp types, including common gas discharge lamps and several types of LED lamps. We conclude for both professional, and especially cultural (visual), astronomy, that low-pressure sodium and narrow-spectrum amber LED lamps cause much less sky glow than all broad-spectrum sources.

  14. MBE HgCdTe heterostructure detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Joel N.; Wu, Owen K.

    1990-01-01

    HgCdTe has been the mainstay for medium (3 to 5 micron) and long (10 to 14 micron) wavelength infrared detectors in recent years. Conventional growth and processing techniques are continuing to improve the material. However, the additional ability to tailor composition and placement of doped layers on the tens of angstroms scale using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) provides the opportunity for new device physics and concepts to be utilized. MBE-based device structures to be discussed here can be grouped into two categories: tailored conventional structures and quantum structures. The tailored conventional structures are improvements on familiar devices, but make use of the ability to create layers of varying composition, and thus band gap, at will. The heterostructure junction can be positioned independently of doping p-n junctions. This allows the small band gap region in which the absorption occurs to be separated from a larger band gap region in which the electric field is large and where unwanted tunneling can occur. Data from hybrid MBE/liquid phase epitaxy (LPE)/bulk structures are given. Quantum structures include the HgTe-CdTe superlattice, in which the band gap and transport can be controlled by alternating thin layers (tens of angstroms thick) of HgTe and CdTe. The superlattice has been shown to exhibit behavior which is non-alloy like, including very high hole mobilities, two-dimensional structure in the absorption coefficient, resonant tunneling, and anisotropic transport.

  15. LAMP (Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA) - A technique for biotype discrimination in Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP) can amplify a target DNA sequence at a constant temperature in about 1 hour. LAMP technology has great potential for agricultural applications because of the need for rapid and inexpensive diagnoses. Assays based on LAMP technology are well suited...

  16. 76 FR 48009 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... change the word ``truck'' to ``trucks.'' AAM and Nissan requested that the turn signal truck tractor... Associations and AAM requested that the word ``between'' be added to the turn signal minimum edge to edge... that ``when multiple lamp arrangements or multiple compartment rear turn signal lamps, stop lamps, or...

  17. A Hemispherical-Involute Cavity Receiver for Stirling Engine Powered by a Xenon Arc Solar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Gang; Tang, Da-Wei; Li, Tie; Du, Jing-Long

    2011-05-01

    We develop a solar simulator composed of multiple xenon arc lamps combined with a faceted paraboloidal dish concentrator to drive a Stirling engine in our laboratory for all-weather indoor testing. Experiments and numerical analysis are performed to determine the radiation flux and temperature distributions on the solar receiver surface. Based on the theoretical results, we present a receiver design for a solar Stirling engine with involute tubes closely conforming to the imaginary hemisphere to obtain a substantially uniform temperature field and a high solar-thermal efficiency of 67.1%.

  18. Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (Sb (Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 μg/L for As and 5.6 μg/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052–0.56 μg/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 μg/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 μg/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 μg/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

  19. Hg Vetical Transference in Soil—Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOYIJUN; MOUSUSEN; 等

    1998-01-01

    Hg vertial transference in soil-water system was studied by analyzing Hg vertical ditribution in soil column after adding Hg and one of the two leacheates,deionzied water or acid rain,into soil column.The results indicated that Hg was hardly transferable in puple soil.About 86%-88% of the total soil Hg was distributed in the top layer (0-2cm) and to Hg was detected in the leakage when the purple soil column was leached by deionized water and simulated acid rain.But Hg was more movalbe in yellow soil with only about 20%-22% of the total soil Hg distributed in the top layer (0-2cm),and about 17%-25% washed out from the soil column by deionized water and simulted acid rain,Incremant in soil bulk density colud reduce Hg leaching,thus the more the Hg kept in soil,the less the Hg leached into underground water,Deionized water and acid rain almost played the same role in leaching Hg.Bentioint was most effecient in preventing Hg from vertcal transferring in the soil coulumn.

  20. Arc Interference Behavior during Twin Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjian Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process, the synchronous acquisition system has been established to acquire instantaneous information of arc profile including dynamic arc length variation as well as relative voltage and current signals. The results show that after trailing arc (T-arc is added to the middle arc (M-arc in a stable welding process, the current of M arc remains unchanged while the agitation increases; the voltage of M arc has an obvious increase; the shape of M arc changes, with increasing width, length, and area; the transfer frequency of M arc droplet increases and the droplet itself becomes smaller. The wire extension length of twin arc turns out to be shorter than that of single arc welding.

  1. Studies on photochemical vapor generation of selenium with germicidal low power ultraviolet mercury lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, B.; Menciassi, A.; Onor, M.; Ferrari, C.; Bramanti, E.; D'Ulivo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Photochemical vapor generation (photo-CVG) with flow injection - atomic fluorescence spectrometry was investigated for the determination of selenium, using formic and acetic acids as photochemical reagents. Using a germicidal low power ultraviolet mercury-based lamp, emitting both the 185 and 254 nm Hg lines, mild reaction conditions can be achieved in formic acid medium, where optimal sensitivity was obtained at 0.3-0.5% w/w acid concentrations, whereas the optimal sensitivity could be attained with acetic acid in the range from 12 to 35% w/w. The only volatile Se product identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from formic acid-based photo-CVG was selenium carbonyl. A series of dedicated experiments were performed using photo-CVG and pure dimethylselenide in order to identify reaction pathways contributing to the formation of non-volatile selenium species or to the degradation of volatile selenium species. Under the optimized conditions in formic acid, using 250 μL sample volume, the limits of detection and quantification were 0.10 and 0.35 μg L- 1, respectively. The effect of several interfering species was investigated and the method was tested in the analysis of certified reference materials.

  2. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  3. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  4. Imobilisasi TiO2 ke dalam Resin Penukar Kation dan Aplikasinya sebagai Fotokatalis dalam Proses Fotoreduksi Ion Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyid Ridho

    2017-03-01

    kenaikan fotoreduksi pada ion Hg(II, akan tetapi pada pH yang lebih tinggi dari 4 menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan efektivitas fotoreduksi terhadap ion Hg(II.   Kata kunci : Fotokatalis, TiO2-resin, Ion Hg(II   Abstract To develop TiO2 photoreduction photocatalyst in order to decrease the Hg(II ion concentrate, in this research, it has been done the TiO2-Resin photocatalyst preparation with the characterization and application to Hg(II ion photoreduction process. This preparation was done with ion exchange method which followed by studied calcinations at certain temperature. The preparation has been studied the influence of titanium isopropoxide concentrate toward TiO2-Resin which has been characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction(XRD and Thermografimetry (TGA. In Hg(II ion photoreduction process, it has been studied the influence of photocatalyst mass, the content of TiO2 which immobilized into sulfonated polystyrene (resin, the ion Hg(II concentrate, and the pH influence. The photoreduction process has been done in the closed reactor that equipped by UV lamp, and uses the irradiating a mixture which contents of Hg(II ion solution and TiO2-Resin photocatalyst powder, with the stirring at certain time. The result of photoreduction was calculated based on the difference between the earlier Hg(II ion concentrate and unreduced Hg(II ion. The determining of unreduced Hg(II ion concentrate was done by using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS. The preparation result showed that the higher isopropoxide titanium that was added into sulfonated polystyrene, the higher the content of TiO2 that was formed in TiO2-Resin. the result of photocatalyst test showed that the using using of TiO2-Resin photocatalyst can increase the result of Hg(II ion photoreduction  which the increase is higher than TiO2 powder. The added of photocatalyst by the higher mass, adds the photoreduction effectiveness toward the Hg(II ion. The higher the Hg(II concentrate that added, the

  5. Controllability of arc jet from arc horns with slits. Slit tsuki arc horn no arc jet seigyo tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunabe, K.; Inaba, T.; Fukagawa, H. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)); Kito, Y. (Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-09-20

    To improve the corona discharge characteristics, test preparation was made of hollow rod form horns with slits for the overhead power transmission line use. Two types of horn electrode were prepared. The first horn electrode is of a hollow hemisphere fitted with and divided by slits on its tip. The second horn electrode is the first one which is further fitted with rod form electrode at the center of its tip. In experiment, relation was obtained between the deflection angle of arc jet and arc current, electrode diameter, etc., through an observation of arc jet by high speed camera. Melting loss of electrode was also made clear. The following knowledge was obtained: For the first horn electrode, the deflection angle can be limited to a narrow range by a division with slits, e.g., within 30 degrees under the condition of 5kA in arc current, 4 in number of sectors and 200mm in diameter. For the second horn electrode, the deflection angle can be limited to within 20 degrees under the condition of 5kA in arc current and 4 in number of sectors. The arc current is also limited to below 5kA by an addition of 50mm diameter central electrode. As a conclusion for the first electrode, the arc jet control characteristics excels in the stronger arc current range than 5kA, while for the second electrode, they are effective in the weaker arc current range than 5kA. 6 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Convergent evolution of the arginine deiminase pathway: the ArcD and ArcE arginine/ornithine exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noens, Elke E E; Lolkema, Juke S

    2017-02-01

    The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and yields 1 mol of ATP per mol of L-arginine consumed. The L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger in the pathway takes up L-arginine and excretes L-ornithine from the cytoplasm. Analysis of the genomes of 1281 bacterial species revealed the presence of 124 arc gene clusters encoding the pathway. About half of the clusters contained the gene encoding the well-studied L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger ArcD, while the other half contained a gene, termed here arcE, encoding a membrane protein that is not a homolog of ArcD. The arcE gene product of Streptococcus pneumoniae was shown to take up L-arginine and L-ornithine with affinities of 0.6 and 1 μmol/L, respectively, and to catalyze metabolic energy-independent, electroneutral exchange. ArcE of S. pneumoniae could replace ArcD in the ADI pathway of Lactococcus lactis and provided the cells with a growth advantage. In contrast to ArcD, ArcE catalyzed translocation of the pathway intermediate L-citrulline with high efficiency. A short version of the ADI pathway is proposed for L-citrulline catabolism and the presence of the evolutionary unrelated arcD and arcE genes in different organisms is discussed in the context of the evolution of the ADI pathway.

  7. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Shin, E-mail: kajita.shin@nagoya-u.jp [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tsventoukh, Mikhail M. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Barengolts, Sergey A. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-21

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  8. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  9. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  10. Of Variability, or its Absence, in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2003-01-01

    Current models and observations of variability in HgMn stars disagree. We present here the models that argue for pulsating HgMn stars with properties similar to those of Slowly Pulsating B Stars. The lack of observed variable HgMn stars suggests that some physical process is missing from the models. Some possibilities are discussed.

  11. On arc efficiency in gas tungsten arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Stenbacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the literature on published arc efficiency values for GTAW and, if possible, propose a narrower band. Articles between the years 1955 - 2011 have been found. Published arc efficiency values for GTAW DCEN show to lie on a wide range, between 0.36 to 0.90. Only a few studies covered DCEP - direct current electrode positive and AC current. Specific information about the reproducibility in calorimetric studies as well as in modeling and simulation studies (considering that both random and systematic errors are small was scarce. An estimate of the average arc efficiency value for GTAW DCEN indicates that it should be about 0.77. It indicates anyway that the GTAW process with DCEN is an efficient welding method. The arc efficiency is reduced when the arc length is increased. On the other hand, there are conflicting results in the literature as to the influence of arc current and travel speed.

  12. Perspectives for the recovery of rare earths from end-of-life fluorescent lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Binnemans; PT Jones

    2014-01-01

    This vision paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the three main options for the recycling of rare-earth ele-ments from end-of-life fluorescent lamps:(1) direct re-use of the lamp phosphor mixture;(2) separation of the lamp phosphor mixture into the different phosphor components; (3) recovery of the rare-earth content. An overview is given of commercial activities in Europe in the domain of recycling of materials from end-of-life fluorescent lamps and the recovery of rare earths from these lamps. The collection of end-of-life fluorescent lamps is currently driven by a legal framework that prohibited the release of mercury to the environment. The contaminations of the lamp phosphor powders by mercury and by small glass particles of crushed fluorescent lamps are limiting factors in the recycling process. Research should be directed to an advanced clean-up of the reclaimed lamp phosphor fraction, and in particular to the removal of mercury and glass fragments. The recovery of rare earths from the lamp phosphors could be facilitated by taking advantage of the differences in resistance of the different lamp phosphors by chemical attack by inorganic ac-ids and bases.

  13. Radiation of lamp and optimized experiment using artificial light in the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-ping; David Barber; LI Tao; LI Shu-jiang; LI Xiang

    2008-01-01

    A winter optical experiment by an artificial lamp was conducted in the Amundsen Bay of Arctic Ocean from November of 2007 to January of 2008. The radiation field emitted from an artificial lamp was measured and is introduced in this paper, and the optimized experiment project is discussed. It is demonstrated that the minimum size allowed of the lamp is determined by both the field of view (FOV) of optical instrument and the measuring distance from the lamp. Some problems that might influence on the experiment result often occur for a simple fluorescent lamp,such as instability, spatial nonuniformity, light divergence, effect of lamp temperature, etc. By the analysis of the light radiation, three kind of measures are proposed to control the quality of the experiment, i.e. keeping consistency of lamp size with FOV of instrument, calibrating in situ downwind, and conducting measurement in effective range. Among them, the downwind calibration is the key step to overcome most problems arose by the lamp. The experiment indicated that the reliable results can be obtained only when the optical measurement is coordinated with the radiation field of artificial lamp. The measured radiation property of the lamp was used to advise the field experiment to minimize measuring error. As the experiment by artificial lamp was the first attempt in the Arctic Ocean, the experience given by this paper is a valuable reference to the correlative studies.

  14. MALARIA DIAGNOSIS BY LOOP-MEDIATED ISOTHERMAL AMPLIFICATION (LAMP) IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocker, Ronja; Prompunjai, Yongyut; Chutipongvivate, Salakchit; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP) is a recently developed molecular technique that amplifies nucleic acid under isothermal conditions. For malaria diagnosis, 150 blood samples from consecutive febrile malaria patients, and healthy subjects were screened in Thailand. Each sample was diagnosed by LAMP, microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), using nPCR as the gold standard. Malaria LAMP was performed using Plasmodiumgenus and Plasmodium falciparum specific assays in parallel. For the genus Plasmodium, microscopy showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, while LAMP presented 99% of sensitivity and 93% of specificity. For P. falciparum, microscopy had a sensitivity of 95%, and LAMP of 90%, regarding the specificity; and microscopy presented 93% and LAMP 97% of specificity. The results of the genus-specific LAMP technique were highly consistent with those of nPCR and the sensitivity of P. falciparum detection was only marginally lower.

  15. MALARIA DIAGNOSIS BY LOOP-MEDIATED ISOTHERMAL AMPLIFICATION (LAMP IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronja OCKER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP is a recently developed molecular technique that amplifies nucleic acid under isothermal conditions. For malaria diagnosis, 150 blood samples from consecutive febrile malaria patients, and healthy subjects were screened in Thailand. Each sample was diagnosed by LAMP, microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR, using nPCR as the gold standard. Malaria LAMP was performed using Plasmodiumgenus and Plasmodium falciparum specific assays in parallel. For the genus Plasmodium, microscopy showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, while LAMP presented 99% of sensitivity and 93% of specificity. For P. falciparum, microscopy had a sensitivity of 95%, and LAMP of 90%, regarding the specificity; and microscopy presented 93% and LAMP 97% of specificity. The results of the genus-specific LAMP technique were highly consistent with those of nPCR and the sensitivity of P. falciparum detection was only marginally lower.

  16. STUDY ON THE PRESSURE IN PLASMA ARC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The axial pressure in plasma arc is measured under different conditions. The effects of the parameters, such as welding current, plasma gas flow rate, electrode setback and arc length, on the pressure in plasma arc are investigated and quantitative analyzed to explain the relationship between the quality of weld and the matching of parameters in plasma arc welding process.

  17. Lithospheric reworking at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition of Australia imaged using AusLAMP Magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kate; Heinson, Graham; Thiel, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Seventy-four stations from the long-period Australia-wide AusLAMP (Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project) dataset were used to image the electrical resistivity beneath the Neoproterozoic Ikara-Flinders Ranges and adjacent Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Curnamona Province. Results from 3D inversions using ModEM software show a relatively resistive Ikara-Flinders Ranges, with two parallel arcuate conductors at 20 to 80 km depth in the Nackara Arc. There is a good correlation of diamondiferous kimberlites occurring over conductors, which we interpret as evidence for these conductors to be residing on large lithospheric structures that have been conduits for partial melt and volatile movement in the Jurassic. The Curnamona Province is remarkably conductive for a region that is thought to have a cratonic core, with Delamerian reworking only at its edges. The conductor covers most of the province at depths of 10-40 km, and its presence at lower crustal depths suggests that conductive sediments can not entirely explain it. Fluids associated with subduction may have pervasively modified the crust in the past, resulting in an enrichment of carbon, enhancing the conductivity. Additionally, we conclude that the notion of a single continuous arcuate Flinders Conductivity Anomaly is unlikely and that the anomalous response observed is instead a result of the combined response of three separate anomalies; the Curnamona Province Conductor and the two Nackara Arc Conductors.

  18. LED lamp incorporating remote phosphor with heat dissipation features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Tao; Letoquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric

    2016-11-22

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and a remote planar phosphor carrier having at least one conversion material. The phosphor carrier can be remote to the light sources and mounted to the heat sink so that heat from the phosphor carrier spreads into the heat sink. The phosphor carrier can comprise a thermally conductive transparent material and a phosphor layer, with an LED based light source mounted to the heat sink such that light from the light source passes through the phosphor carrier. At least some of the LED light is converted by the phosphor carrier, with some lamp embodiments emitting a white light combination of LED and phosphor light. The phosphor arranged according to the present invention can operate at lower temperature to thereby operate at greater phosphor conversion efficiency and with reduced heat related damage to the phosphor.

  19. Nitridation in Photon-Assisted Process Using Argon Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshikawa, Kiyohiko; Amari, Kouichi; Ishimura, Sou; Katto, Masahito; Yokotani, Atsushi; Kurosawa, Kou

    2006-05-01

    We attempted silicon nitridation that continuously deposits silicon with monosilane (SiH4) and nitrides the silicon with ammonia (NH3) at a low temperature using a vacuum ultraviolet excimer lamp. We used an argon excimer lamp (λ=126 nm, h ν=9.8 eV) so that SiH4 and NH3 can absorb photons and dissociate. Nitrogen exists only near the film surface at a low temperature, and its concentration increases at a high temperature. This photon-assisted process is very feasible for the nitridation of semiconductor devices and flat panel displays in the near future, because it is a low-temperature and low-damage process.

  20. Retroactive effects of energy-saving lamps; Netzrueckwirkungen von Energiesparlampen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrenberger, G. [Forschungsstiftung Mobilkommunikation c/o ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Klaus, G. [Maxwave AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the repercussions on the power supply network that are caused by energy-saving lamps (ESL). These effects result from the operation of the lamps' electronic ballasts which operate at high frequencies. The most noticeable network repercussions that are caused by the rapid current variations in the ESL are discussed, as are ways of considerably reducing them. As for effects on the grid, the authors state that it is not to be expected that any problematic mains feedback will result in practice, particularly not in the well-dimensioned Swiss electricity grid. The methods used in the analysis and the detailed results obtained are presented in tabular and graphical form and discussed.

  1. Application Analysis of Ad Lamp-box Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yuan; LU Bin

    2014-01-01

    The ad lamp-box controller is designed in consideration that ordinary urban ad lights usually remain lit through the night and a specially assigned staff needs to be on duty to control their switches. It can be automatically controlled with a photo resistance testing the day and night as well as a CD4060 chip controlling the length of time interval between switching the ad lamp-boxes on and off. In this way, both energy and labor can be saved with the controller. It is matching with the target of“constructing a conservation-minded society”in our country and deserves to be promoted in market with its practical signifi-cance.

  2. Unwanted reflections during slit lamp assisted binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is a routine ophthalmic examination procedure. Two different apparatus setups are commonly employed; the head/spectacle mounted designs of Schepens and slit lamp assisted ophthalmoscopy, both typically performed through a fundus lens of high positive power. It can be difficult for clinicians to avoid unwanted back reflections primarily emanating from the fundus lens and the pre-corneal tear film, particularly when initially learning the skills required to perform the examination. In this investigation the illumination system of a slit lamp was modified to include a variety of obscuration designs optically conjugate to surfaces responsible for creating unwanted reflections. The modified apparatus was then used to perform binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy on an artificial eye and on real eyes. Clinicians used questionnaires to score the appearance of reflections. The mean scores were similar across all trials, including the control unmodified trial, indicating general consensus that the modified illumination system provided no substantial effect on the perception of these unwanted reflections.

  3. ACS/SBC Internal Lamp P-flat Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Roberto J.; Chiaberge, Marco; Bohlin, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    We report on a Cycle 23 calibration program to monitor the status of the SBC P-flat. We find random pixel to pixel changes to be small, with only ˜2% of pixels having changed by more than 3σ. There are coherent changes that we measure to be above the poisson errors, in some regions as high as 4% peak to peak. We therefore recommend that the ACS team obtain new observations in order to create a new P-flat. We also measured the degradation of the deuterium lamp used to create internal flats. The brightness of the lamp is currently ˜65% of its initial level, the degradation being dependent on lifetime usage.

  4. Environmental friendly high efficient light source plasma lamp - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courret, G.; Calame, L. [Haute Ecole d' ingenierie et de gestion du canton de Vaud, Institut de micro et nano techniques, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Meyer, A. [Solaronix SA, Aubonne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work done on the development of a sulphur-based plasma lamp. In 2007, the capability of a new modulator has been explored. The most important results are discussed. With the production of a 1.2 cm{sup 3} bulb, the way towards the production of a 100 W lamp has been opened. The authors comment that modulation by impulses increases the luminous efficiency in comparison to modulation using a continuous sinusoidal wave. The report deals with the history of the project, the development of the new modulator, the use of rotational effects and the optimisation of the amount of active substances - tellurium and selenium - in the bulb. The electromagnetic coupling system used is described and discussed.

  5. Cooling analysis of a light emitting diode automotive fog lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec Matej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of cooling fins inside of a light emitting diode fog lamp is studied using computational fluid dynamics. Diffusion in heat sink, natural convection and radiation are the main principles of the simulated heat transfer. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the computational fluid dynamics code, including Monte Carlo radiation model and no additional turbulence model was needed. The numerical simulation is tested using the existing lamp geometry and temperature measurements. The agreement is excellent inside of few degrees at all measured points. The main objective of the article is to determine the cooling effect of various heat sink parts. Based on performed simulations, some heat sink parts are found to be very ineffective. The geometry and heat sink modifications are proposed. While radiation influence is significant, compressible effects are found to be minor.

  6. Optimized Design of LED Daylight Lamp Lighting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Da-lei; GUAN Rong-feng; WANG Xing

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of indoor illumination, a LED daylight lamp model was designed, it can replace traditional fluorescent lamp without insteading additional power supply establishment. The optical properties of the model were simulated using optical analysis software. Its luminous efficiency is about 30.4 lm/W, and the illuminance is about 38 lux when the distance is 1.5 m between the center of the model and measured spot. With the theoretically-optimized design of LED model, experiments based on the results of the optimal simulation in the laboratory were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed LED model, it reaches a power factor of about 0.8 at 6 W. The simulation results are very similar with the measured values. It is testified that simulative method is one of the effective tools for LED lighting optical design.

  7. HgZnTe-based detectors for LWIR NASA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elizabeth A.; Kalisher, Murray H.

    1990-01-01

    The initial goal was to grow and characterize HgZnTe and determine if it indeed had the advantageous properties that were predicted. Researchers grew both bulk and liquid phase epitaxial HgZnTe. It was determined that HgZnTe had the following properties: (1) microhardness at least 50 percent greater than HgCdTe of equivalent bandgap; (2) Hg annealing rates of at least 2 to 4 times longer than HgCdTe; and (3) higher Hg vacancy formation energies. This early work did not focus on one specific composition (x-value) of HgZnTe since NASA was interested in HgZnTe's potential for a variety of applications. Since the beginning of 1989, researchers have been concentrating, however, on the liquid phase growth of very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) HgZnTe (cutoff approx. equals 17 microns at 65K) to address the requirements of the Earth Observing System (EOS). Since there are no device models to predict the advantages in reliability one can gain with increased microhardness, surface stability, etc., one must fabricate HgZnTe detectors and assess their relative bake stability (accelerated life test behavior) compared with HgCdTe devices fabricated in the same manner. Researchers chose to fabricate HIT detectors as a development vehicle for this program because high performance in the VLWIR has been demonstrated with HgCdTe HIT detectors and the HgCdTe HIT process should be applicable to HgZnTe. HIT detectors have a significant advantage for satellite applications since these devices dissipate much less power than conventional photoconductors to achieve the same responsivity.

  8. Arc of opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Adam Vai

    2011-07-01

    Born in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the author had a 20 year career in diplomacy, political affairs, and development policy analysis at the Pacific Islands Forum, the United Nations in New York; the Prime Minister's Department in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and in the Foreign Ministry of PNG. He has also been involved in theatre for over a decade in PNG, and participated in a three-month program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut, USA. He is currently the Business Development Manager at the Torres Strait Regional Authority (Commonwealth) on Thursday Island. Since 1975 the Australian government's overseas development policy has supported various sectoral programs in its neighbouring countries, in particular Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The "creative" field has not been prominent in this strategy. While natural resources and the sports sectors have gained much greater attention, in terms of being viable international commercial enterprises, the arts, have remained stagnant. In this paper the need for joint programs genuinely supporting "wellbeing" and promoting social enterprise throughout the "arc of opportunity" is described to harness Melanesian creativity to compete successfully in world-markets, starting with penetration of the largest economy at its door-step: Australia.

  9. 一种高可靠性的氙气灯启动控制电路%A High Reliable Igniter for High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 蔡超峰; 崔光照

    2011-01-01

    Based on the judgment of the start-up status by inspecting the voltage of the tube of the high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, the inverter in the ballast is controlled to implement the work pattern that the HID lamps are fired by DC and supplied by AC, the tube is fired driven by stable DC and avoids the arc blowout owing to the lack of constant voltage when the HID lamps reach polarity switching point of the inverter after its firing. After the success of firing, the HID lamps will be supplied by AC and enter normal work pattern.The DC makes the HID lamps easy to fire and supplying by AC ensures the balance of the tube of the HID lamps.The start-up circuit proposed here possesses the advantages mentioned above. Application of a HID-flashlight indicates that the start-up circuit is high reliable.%通过对氙气灯灯管电压的检测实现灯管启动状态的判决,控制镇流器中的逆变器实现直流启动、交流工作的启动控制模式,保证灯管在稳恒直流驱动下实现点火,避免了氙气灯在点火后遇到逆变器极性切换点,无法提供稳定电压而造成的熄弧,点火成功后控制逆变器采用交流方波驱动,进入正常工作模式.该方案兼有直流驱动易于启动和交流驱动正常工作灯管两端平衡的优点,在氙气手电筒中的应用情况表明,该启动控制电路具有极高的启动可靠性.

  10. Playing with a bulb lamp: RTL measurements and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzo, G.; D'Anna, M.; Pecori, B.

    2016-09-01

    The electric, thermal and optical behaviour of an incandescent lamp was studied by a real time laboratory (RTL) apparatus, using two voltage probes and a light probe. The software STELLA was used to model the phenomena and to analyse the transient behaviour in absence of thermal equilibrium. We show how the Joule-heating effect explains the non-linear current/voltage relation and how the filament thermal capacity affects the phase lag of light peaks with respect to input power peaks.

  11. Effect of LED lamping on the chlorophylls of leaf mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Liang; Zhao, Fuli; Yang, Bowen; Chen, Zuxin; Cai, Ruhai; Chen, Jiansheng

    The absorption coefficients of chloroplast of leaf mustard were measured by a spectrophotometer. The leaves were collected from seven treatments with different lighting. The chlorophyll content was calculated following Arnon equation. LEDs for filling the light source can increase the conduction of plants. Compared with other treatments, Chlorophyll in the leaves got an higher concentration under the lamping of red LEDS to blue LEDS for 7:1 .

  12. Numerical Analysis of Thermo Hydraulic Conditions in Car Fog Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramšak, M.; Žunič, Z.; Škerget, L.; Jurejevčič, T.

    2009-08-01

    In the article a coupled heat transfer in the solid and fluid inside of a car fog lamp is presented using CFD software CFX [1]. All three basic principles of heat transfer are dealt with: conduction, convection and radiation. Two different approaches to radiation modeling are compared. Laminar and turbulent flow modeling are compared since computed Rayleight number indicates transitional flow regime. Results are in good agreement with the measurements.

  13. Fully relativistic coupled cluster and DFT study of electric field gradients at Hg in 199Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the magnitude and interplay of relativistic and electron correlation effects on the electric field gradient (EFG) at the position of Hg in linear and bent HgL2 (L=CH3, Cl, Br, I) and trigonal planar [HgCl3]- complexes using four-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) and non...

  14. The Chevrel phase HgMo6S8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Potel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of HgMo6S8, mercury(II hexamolybdenum octasulfide, is based on (Mo6S8S6 cluster units (overline{3} symmetry interconnected through interunit Mo—S bonds. The Hg2+ cations occupy large voids between the different cluster units and are covalently bonded to two S atoms. The Hg atoms and one S atom lie on sites with crystallographic overline{3} and 3 symmetry, respectively. Refinement of the occupancy factor of the Hg atom led to the composition Hg0.973 (3Mo6S8.

  15. Simulation of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Arslanbekov, R. R.; Kolobov, V. I.

    2004-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the efficiency of excimer lamps can be drastically increased in a pulsed regime. A one-dimensional simulation of pulsed excimer lamps has been performed by Carman and Mildren (2003 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 19) (C&M). However, some computational results of the work of C&M are questionable and need to be revisited. In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in xenon has been simulated for operating conditions similar to those of C&M to better understand plasma dynamics in a pulsed regime. Our simulation results differ considerably from the computational results of C&M. Although these differences do not affect profoundly the plasma macro parameters measured in the C&M experiments, they offer a better understanding of plasma dynamics in pulsed DBDs and form a solid foundation for computational optimization of excimer lamps. It was found that the dynamics of breakdown and the current pulse depend significantly on the initial densities of species after a previous pulse, and so it is important to accurately simulate the plasma evolution in both the afterglow and active stages. It seems possible to modify the power deposition in the plasma by varying external discharge parameters such as the amplitude and the rise time of the applied voltage, and to modify the plasma composition by changing the pulse repetition rate and plasma decay in the afterglow stage.

  16. Simulation of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, E A [St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, A A [St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Arslanbekov, R R [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville (United States); Kolobov, V I [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville (United States)

    2004-11-07

    Recently, it has been shown that the efficiency of excimer lamps can be drastically increased in a pulsed regime. A one-dimensional simulation of pulsed excimer lamps has been performed by Carman and Mildren (2003 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 19) (C and M). However, some computational results of the work of C and M are questionable and need to be revisited. In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in xenon has been simulated for operating conditions similar to those of C and M to better understand plasma dynamics in a pulsed regime. Our simulation results differ considerably from the computational results of C and M. Although these differences do not affect profoundly the plasma macro parameters measured in the C and M experiments, they offer a better understanding of plasma dynamics in pulsed DBDs and form a solid foundation for computational optimization of excimer lamps. It was found that the dynamics of breakdown and the current pulse depend significantly on the initial densities of species after a previous pulse, and so it is important to accurately simulate the plasma evolution in both the afterglow and active stages. It seems possible to modify the power deposition in the plasma by varying external discharge parameters such as the amplitude and the rise time of the applied voltage, and to modify the plasma composition by changing the pulse repetition rate and plasma decay in the afterglow stage.

  17. Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

  18. Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps CALiPER Benchmark Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Paget, Maria L.; Lingard, Robert D.

    2009-01-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program was established in 2006 to investigate the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) based luminaires and replacement lamps. To help users better compare LED products with conventional lighting technologies, CALiPER has also performed benchmark research and testing of traditional (i.e., non-LED) lamps and fixtures. This benchmark report addresses standard 4-foot fluorescent lamps (i.e., T12 and T8) and the 2-foot by 4-foot recessed troffers in which they are commonly used. This report also examines available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps, and their application in fluorescent troffers. The construction and operation of linear fluorescent lamps and troffers are discussed, as well as fluorescent lamp and fixture performance, based on manufacturer data and CALiPER benchmark testing. In addition, the report describes LED replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, and compares their bare lamp and in situ performance with fluorescent benchmarks on a range of standard lighting measures, including power usage, light output and distribution, efficacy, correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index. Potential performance and application issues indicated by CALiPER testing results are also examined.

  19. Mass Independent Fractionation of Hg Isotopes Preserved in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, A. M.; Bergquist, B. A.; Kah, L. C.; Ono, S.; Ghosh, S.; Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a photochemically active, redox-sensitive, chalcophilic metal with complex biogeochemistry that displays a wide range of mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent (MIF) stable isotopic fractionation. In the past decade, Hg isotopes have emerged as important tracers of both the sources and cycling of Hg in the modern environment. However, their utility as environmental proxies in ancient rocks remains largely unexplored. The potential of Hg isotopes to inform Precambrian environments derives from the observation that Hg isotopes with odd atomic mass numbers (199Hg and 201Hg) undergo large MIF by the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) and smaller MIF through the nuclear volume effect (NVE). Small MIF produced via NVE has been observed for numerous transformations and is characterized by MIF ratios (Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg) of about 1.6. Large Hg-MIF driven by MIE has been observed during photochemical transformations and is characterized by Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratios between 1 and 1.3. This MIF signal is sensitive to a range of environmental conditions, including the amount and type of solar radiation, the presence and type of complexing organic ligands, and the Hg/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ratio. Thus, it is hoped that Hg-MIF signals may indirectly record changes in atmospheric composition or seawater chemistry if preserved in marine sedimentary records. Previous work has clearly demonstrated that Hg-MIF signals are preserved in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine shales and massive sulfide deposits. Here, we present evidence that such signals are also preserved in marine shales of mid-Proterozoic age, including the ~1.3 Ga Sulky formation (Dismal Lakes Group, NW Arctic), the ~1.45 Ga Greyson Shale (Belt Basin, Montana), and the ~1.5 Ga Katalsy formation (Kypry Group, Eastern European Platform). We observe that the Greyson shale and shales within the Sulky formation yield negative Hg-MIF with Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratios close to 1 and that Kaltasy group sediments

  20. Comparative Analysis of Lighting Characteristics and Ultraviolet Emissions from Commercial Compact Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mahtab; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Aliabadi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Some characteristics of lighting sources such as color properties and ultraviolet emissions have important roles on visual and non-visual health effects of lighting. This study aimed to investigate the light emissions of some compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and incandescent lamps commercially available to the Iranian consumers. Sixty lamps included 48 single envelope CFLs, and 12 incandescent lamps available in the electrical devices markets (in the west of Iran) were randomly selected from famous manufacturers between 2014 and 2015. Lighting characteristics and ultraviolet (UV) emissions were measured using spectroradiometer and calibrated radiometer, respectively. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16 software. Color-rendering indexes of the studied lamps were above 80, which showed good color properties. The daylight CFLs had more desirable and natural color temperature (near to 5000 0k) compared with the other types of the studied lamps. Occupational exposures for periods up 8 h to UVB from the studied lamps at distances up to 0.25 m were more than the recommended limits. Moreover, public exposures for periods up 16 h to UVB from the studied lamps at any distances up to 2 m were more than the recommended limits. Warm white lamps are suitable for homes usage, while daylight lamps can be used for offices rooms. Occupational exposure to single envelope CFLs near the body at distances of less than 25 cm can result in overexposure to actinic UV. Moreover, CFLs must be used at distances greater than 200 cm for public exposure.

  1. Superdeformation studies in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformation in the A {approximately} 190 region was first observed in {sup 191}Hg from an experiment performed at ATLAS using the Argonne Notre Dame {gamma}-ray facility. We recently revisited the study of superdeformation in this nucleus using Gammasphere and the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n) and {sup 174}Yb({sup 22}Ne,5n) reactions at 172 and 120 MeV in order to populate and measure states in the second well. The goal of the experiment was to identify new bands in the data, and thus allow us to gain understanding on the relative placement of single particle orbitals near the N = 112 SD shell gap. From an analysis of the data, the three previously identified SD bands were extended, and their feeding into the yrast states delineated. Two new SD bands were observed and preliminary evidence for a third new band was obtained as well.

  2. A Hemispherical-Involute Cavity Receiver for Stirling Engine Powered by a Xenon Arc Solar Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-Gang; TANG Da-Wei; LI Tie; DU Jing-Long

    2011-01-01

    @@ We develop a solar simulator composed of multiple xenon arc lamps combined with a faceted paraboloidal dish concentrator to drive a Stirling engine in our laboratory for all-weather indoor testing.Experiments and numerical analysis are performed to determine the radiation flux and temperature distributions on the solar receiver surface.Based on the theoretical results,we present a receiver design for a solar Stirling engine with involute tubes closely conforming to the imaginary hemisphere to obtain a substantially uniform temperature field and a high solarthermal efficiency of 67.1%.%We develop a solar simulator composed of multiple xenon arc lamps combined with a faceted paraboloidal dish concentrator to drive a Stirling engine in our laboratory for all-weather indoor testing. Experiments and numerical analysis are performed to determine the radiation flux and temperature distributions on the solar receiver surface.Based on the theoretical results, we present a receiver design for a solar Stirling engine with involute tubes closely conforming to the imaginary hemisphere to obtain a substantially uniform temperature field and a high solarthermal efficiency of 67.1%.

  3. Relationship Between Soil Properties and Different Fractions of Soil Hg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUHONGTAO; YUGUIFEN; 等

    2001-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis methods were used to study the relationship between soil properties and the distribution of different soil Hg fractions with nine representative soils from Chongqing,China,Results showed that clay(<2m) could increase water-soluble Hg(r=0.700*).Soil organic matter (OM) could enhance the increase of elemental Hg(r=0.674*),The higher the base saturation percentage (BSP) ,the more the residual Hg(R=0.684*) .Organic Hg,the sum of said-soluble organic He and alkali-soluble Hg,was positively affected by silt(2-20μm)but negatively affected by pH,with the direct path coefficients amounting to 1.0487 and 0.5121,respectively .The positive effect of OM and negative effect of BSP on organic Hg were the most significant ,with the direct path coefficients being 0.7614 and -0.8527,respectively. The indirect effect of clay(<2μm) iva BSP (path coefficient=0.4186) was the highest,showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay(<2μm) via BSP (path coefficient=0.4186) was the highest,showing that the real influencing factor in the effect of clay(<2μm) on acid-soluble organic Hw was BSP.since the available Hg fraction,water-soluble Hg,was positively affected by soil clay content,and the quite immobile and not bioavailable residual Hg by soil BSP,suitable reduction of clay content and increase of BSP would be of much help to reduce the Hg availability and Hg activity in Hg-contaminated soils.

  4. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Christensen, Karina; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    , the aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of LAMP-1, a membrane bound protein in lysosomes, in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissue from 23 diffuse astrocytomas, 17 anaplastic astrocytomas and 72 glioblastomas. The LAMP-1 expression was scored and compared...... with both tumor grade and patient survival. Moreover double immunofluorescence stainings with LAMP-1 and the stem cell marker CD133 as well as the macrophage marker CD68 were performed. The results showed that LAMP-1 was expressed in the vast majority of tumors being present in the cytoplasm of single tumor...... cells, cell clusters and in blood vessel endothelial cells. The LAMP-1 expression in glioblastomas was significantly higher than in diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas (pLAMP-1 and patient overall survival was found. Double immunofluorescence staining...

  5. Flat light guides with prismatic elements coupled with a mini aperture fluorescent lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Krzysztof

    2005-09-01

    Flat light guides are modern solution enabling production of luminaries characterised by large area and low height. The amount of the luminous flux, which might penetrate the side-lit flat light waveguide with a predefined thickness depends on the light source's luminance. Special fluorescent lamps equipped with an internal reflector layer were designed for this kind of illumination systems. Such lamps are typically characterised by small aperture along the spine of the lamp. The aperture technology boosts the luminance value within the lamp's aperture to levels even 4 to 5 times higher than the average luminance of a standard fluorescent lamp. The presented article contains a detailed analysis of the impact of the aperture angle size on the coupling efficiency. It was also shown that application of a mini aperture fluorescent lamp influences changes in the luminous intensity curves of prismatic elements, which are most commonly used to direct the luminous flux.

  6. Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included.

  7. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  8. Influence of gas discharge parameters on emissions from a dielectric barrier discharge excited argon excimer lamp

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge excited neutral argon (Ar I) excimer lamp has been developed and characterised. The aim of this study was to develop an excimer lamp operating at atmospheric pressure that can replace mercury lamps and vacuum equipment used in the sterilisation of medical equipment and in the food industry. The effects of discharge gas pressure, flow rate, excitation frequency and pulse width on the intensity of the Ar I vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission at 126 nm and near infra...

  9. CALiPER Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-08-31

    This report looks at the photoelectric performance of the same set of lamps assessed in Report 22, using commercially available transformers and dimmers as well as laboratory power supplies providing either AC or DC. The investigation explores several issues related to the testing and use of MR16 lamps in lighting systems and examines the range of performance that is possible for a given lamp model, based on the system to which it is connected.

  10. Calibration d'une lampe \\`a ruban de tungst\\`ene

    CERN Document Server

    De Izarra, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the work presented is the calibration of a lamp filament of tungsten was from electrical measurements that are simple and precise, and for determining the temperature of tungsten against the current intensity value crossing the lamp.These data are then used to calibrate the lamp in terms of luminance directly used to calibrate sensors such as optical pyrometers or other photometric sensor.

  11. Conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps in India and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia)

    1989-07-01

    We evaluate the conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for managing the rapidly increasing electrical energy and peak demand in India and Brazil. Using very conservative assumptions, we find that the cost of conserved energy using 16 W CFLs is 4 and 6 times less than the long range marginal cost of electricity for the two countries. The cost of avoided peak installed capacity is 6 and 9.5 times less than the cost of new installed capacity for India and Brazil. The analysis is undertaken from the three separate perspectives of the national economies, the consumers, and the utilities. We find that because residential electricity is subsidized, the consumers have little or no incentive to purchase and install the CFLs, unless they too are subsidized. However, the benefits of CFL installation to the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility in almost all cases. As an illustration of a gradual introduction strategy for CFLs, we calculate a scenario where national savings of the order of US $1.2 million per day for India and US $2.5 million per day for Brazil are reached in 10 years by a small and gradual transfer of subsidy from residential electricity to CFLs. We then explore the barriers to immediate large scale introduction of these lamps in the two countries. Specific technical and marketing problems are identified and discussed, which would require solution before such an introduction can be attempted. Lastly, we discuss the range of policy instruments, in addition to a subsidy scheme, that can be used for promoting the diffusion of these lamps in the domestic and commercial sector. 47 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Molecular Mechanism for LAMP1 Recognition by Lassa Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Dvashi, Hadas; Cohen, Nadav; Israeli, Hadar

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lassa virus is a notorious human pathogen that infects many thousands of people each year in West Africa, causing severe viral hemorrhagic fevers and significant mortality. The surface glycoprotein of Lassa virus mediates receptor recognition through its GP1 subunit. Here we report the crystal structure of GP1 from Lassa virus, which is the first representative GP1 structure for Old World arenaviruses. We identify a unique triad of histidines that forms a binding site for LAMP1, a known lysosomal protein recently discovered to be a critical receptor for internalized Lassa virus at acidic pH. We demonstrate that mutation of this histidine triad, which is highly conserved among Old World arenaviruses, impairs LAMP1 recognition. Our biochemical and structural data further suggest that GP1 from Lassa virus may undergo irreversible conformational changes that could serve as an immunological decoy mechanism. Together with a variable region that we identify on the surface of GP1, those could be two distinct mechanisms that Lassa virus utilizes to avoid antibody-based immune response. IMPORTANCE Structural data at atomic resolution for viral proteins is key for understanding their function at the molecular level and can facilitate novel avenues for combating viral infections. Here we used X-ray protein crystallography to decipher the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain (GP1) from Lassa virus. This is a pathogenic virus that causes significant illness and mortality in West Africa. This structure reveals the overall architecture of GP1 domains from the group of viruses known as the Old World arenaviruses. Using this structural information, we elucidated the mechanisms for pH switch and binding of Lassa virus to LAMP1, a recently identified host receptor that is critical for successful infection. Lastly, our structural analysis suggests two novel immune evasion mechanisms that Lassa virus may utilize to escape antibody-based immune response. PMID

  13. Use of germicidal lamps in the disinfection of sanitary wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bilotta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of germicidal lamps in the tertiary treatment of sewage to control pathogens. The performance of the photochemical reactor used in the tests was monitored by microbiological analyses to quantify E. coli (bacteria indicator, C. perfringens (protozoa indicator, coliphages (virus indicator. The experiments were performed with effluent from an UASB reactor installed at the WTP- USP São Carlos campus subjected to an aerated submerged biological filter and a photochemical reactor with radiation UV at 254 nm. The results showed that the indicators coliphages and E. coli showed the least resistance to UV radiation reaching removal from 1.70 to 3.90 log and 1.60 to 5.20 log, respectively. On the other hand, the indicator C. perfringens was more resistant to the effect of germicidal lamps reaching values between 0.0 (no inactivation and 1.30 log. For SST concentrations greater than 100.0 mg.L-1, the effect of the germicidal lamps became less pronounced. However, in practice it was possible to notice significant results in tests with TSS concentrations of 135.0 mg.L-1. The experimental approach proved the usefulness of the combined method for inactivating pathogens commonly found in domestic sewage. Besides meeting the standards established by the Brazilian regulation, the final effluent is in agreement with the guidelines defined by WHO. This allows the reuse of the final effluent for unrestricted irrigation, although complementary examination must be performed.

  14. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Marcelo, E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rocha, Joao B.T., E-mail: jbtrocha@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  15. Modeling interactions of Hg(II) and bauxitic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Rohan; Tobschall, Heinz J; Bandara, Atula

    2007-11-01

    The adsorptive interactions of Hg(II) with gibbsite-rich soils (hereafter SOIL-g) were modeled by 1-pK surface complexation theory using charge distribution multi-site ion competition model (CD MUSIC) incorporating basic Stern layer model (BSM) to account for electrostatic effects. The model calibrations were performed for the experimental data of synthetic gibbsite-Hg(II) adsorption. When [NaNO(3)] > or = 0.01M, the Hg(II) adsorption density values, of gibbsite, Gamma(Hg(II)), showed a negligible variation with ionic strength. However, Gamma(Hg(II)) values show a marked variation with the [Cl(-)]. When [Cl(-)] > or = 0.01M, the Gamma(Hg(II)) values showed a significant reduction with the pH. The Hg(II) adsorption behavior in NaNO(3) was modeled assuming homogeneous solid surface. The introduction of high affinity sites, i.e., >Al(s)OH at a low concentration (typically about 0.045 sites nm(-2)) is required to model Hg(II) adsorption in NaCl. According to IR spectroscopic data, the bauxitic soil (SOIL-g) is characterized by gibbsite and bayerite. These mineral phases were not treated discretely in modeling of Hg(II) and soil interactions. The CD MUSIC/BSM model combination can be used to model Hg(II) adsorption on bauxitic soil. The role of organic matter seems to play a role on Hg(II) binding when pH>8. The Hg(II) adsorption in the presence of excess Cl(-) ions required the selection of high affinity sites in modeling.

  16. Lithography process for patterning HgI2 photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark J.; James, Ralph B.; Hermon, Haim

    2004-11-23

    A photolithographic process forms patterns on HgI.sub.2 surfaces and defines metal sublimation masks and electrodes to substantially improve device performance by increasing the realizable design space. Techniques for smoothing HgI.sub.2 surfaces and for producing trenches in HgI.sub.2 are provided. A sublimation process is described which produces etched-trench devices with enhanced electron-transport-only behavior.

  17. Epitaxial growth of HgTe by a MOVPE process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, S.J.C.; Mullin, J.B.; Royle, A. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (UK))

    1982-03-01

    Epitaxial layers of HgTe have been grown onto insulating CdTe substrates by the pyrolysis of (C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/Te in the presence of Hg vapour using a H/sub 2/ flow system. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and conductivity measurements have shown that the electrical properties of the layers are comparable with good quality bulk HgTe.

  18. Another Explanation for Neptune's Ring Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namouni, F.; Porco, C.

    2001-11-01

    Recent HST and Earth-based observations (Dumas et al 1999, Nature 400, 733; Sicardy et al 1999, Nature 400, 731) indicate that Neptune's ring arcs are not located at the corotation resonance with Galatea thought to be responsible for the azimuthal confinement of the arc system (Porco, 1991 Science 253, 995). Although small (5x 10-3od-1), the new observed mean motion offset puts the arcs near the resonance separatrix where the particles' semimajor axes would experience chaotic motion leading to the azimuthal spreading of the arcs within months, thereby calling into question their very existence. We have found a new resonant structure, dependent on the arcs having a small fraction of the mass of Galatea, in which Galatea's 43:42 eccentric corotation resonance, located (in the massless case) ~ 3 km inside the arcs' orbit, is made coincident with the arcs' semimajor axis. The arcs are primarily confined by this resonance, which is stronger ( e Galatea) than the inclined corotation resonance ( I2 Galatea) invoked in the Porco model. Moreover, the coupling of all the resonances in the arcs' neighborhood (eccentric corotation, inclined corotation and Lindblad resonances) modifies the interaction potential, creating smaller structures at the arcs' location. Consequently, this new confinement mechanism can simultaneously explain the arcs' confinement, the general spacing of the arcs, the Fraternité arc length of ~ 10o, and smaller-scale features seen in the arc system. Finally, the possibility of non-massless arcs supports an earlier suggestion by Porco et al (1991, in Neptune and Triton, the University of Arizona Series) that the rapid expected radial migration of the arc system, due to Galatea's secular torques, can be slowed down if the arcs have substantial mass.

  19. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R.; Shur, M. S.

    2010-09-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  20. LRO-LAMP Observations of Lunar Exospheric Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, Cesare; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hurley, Dana M.; Feldman, Paul D.; Gladstone, Randy; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Cook, Jason C.; Stern, Alan; Pryor, Wayne R.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Kaufmann, David E.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s (LRO) UV spectrograph LAMP (Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project) campaign to study the lunar atmosphere. Two kinds of off-nadir maneuvers (lateral rolls and pitches towards and opposite the direction of motion of LRO) were performed to search for resonantly scattering species, increasing the illuminated line-of-sight (and hence the signal from atoms resonantly scattering the solar photons) compared to previously reported LAMP “twilight observations” [Cook & Stern, 2014]. Helium was the only element distinguishable on a daily basis, and we present latitudinal profiles of its line-of-sight column density in December 2013. We compared the helium line-of-sight column densities with solar wind alpha particle fluxes measured from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon’s Interaction with the Sun) twin spacecraft. Our data show a correlation with the solar wind alpha particle flux, confirming that the solar wind is the main source of the lunar helium, but not with a 1:1 relationship. Assuming that the lunar soil is saturated with helium atoms, our results suggest that not all of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium, allowing for a non-negligible fraction (~50 %) to escape as suprathermal helium or simply backscattered from the lunar surface. We also support the finding by Benna et al. [2015] and Hurley et al. [2015], that a non-zero contribution from endogenic helium, coming from radioactive decay of 232Th and 238U within the mantle, is present, and is estimated to be (4.5±1.2) x 106 He atoms cm-2 s-1. Finally, we compare LAMP-derived helium surface density with the one recorded by the mass spectrometer LACE (Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment) deployed on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission, finding good agreement between the two measurements. These LRO off-nadir maneuvers allow LAMP to provide unique coverage of local solar time and

  1. Optimization of lamp arrangement in a closed-conduit UV reactor based on a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Tipu; Ahmad, Zeshan; Cho, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    The choice for the arrangement of the UV lamps in a closed-conduit ultraviolet (CCUV) reactor significantly affects the performance. However, a systematic methodology for the optimal lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor is not well established in the literature. In this research work, we propose a viable systematic methodology for the lamp arrangement based on a genetic algorithm (GA). In addition, we analyze the impacts of the diameter, angle, and symmetry of the lamp arrangement on the reduction equivalent dose (RED). The results are compared based on the simulated RED values and evaluated using the computational fluid dynamics simulations software ANSYS FLUENT. The fluence rate was calculated using commercial software UVCalc3D, and the GA-based lamp arrangement optimization was achieved using MATLAB. The simulation results provide detailed information about the GA-based methodology for the lamp arrangement, the pathogen transport, and the simulated RED values. A significant increase in the RED values was achieved by using the GA-based lamp arrangement methodology. This increase in RED value was highest for the asymmetric lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor. These results demonstrate that the proposed GA-based methodology for symmetric and asymmetric lamp arrangement provides a viable technical solution to the design and optimization of the CCUV reactor.

  2. Estimation of mercury amount in the components of spent U-type lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2016-09-20

    Spent U-type lamps are strongly encouraged to be separately managed in Korea, because U-type lamps are categorized as a household waste and thereby could not be managed properly. Determination of mercury amount in the components of U-type lamp, such as plastics, glass tube and phosphor powder from 3 U-type lamp manufacturers (A, B and C), is carried out to estimate the mercury content in spent U-type lamps. Regardless of lamp manufacturers, the portion of mercury in phosphor powder was higher than 90%, but that in plastics and others was less than 1%. At an air flow rate of 1.0 L/min, the range of the initial mercury concentration in vapor phase for U-type lamp was between 849 and 2076 µg/m(3) from 3 companies. The estimated mercury amount in vapor phase of U-type lamp was in the range from 0.206 mg for company A to 0.593 mg for company B. And the portion of mercury in vapor phase in the total amount of mercury was estimated in the range from 3.0% for company A to 6.7% for company B. Hence, it is desirable to get rid of mercury from phosphor powder in order to perform U-type lamps recycling.

  3. Influence of different illuminations with xenon or microwave sulfur lamp on jointing and tillering of wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The emission of microwave sulfur lamp is mainly composed of visible light. The sulfur lamp, producing little infrared radiation, has high efficiency, long duration of illumination and less energy consumption. In order to probe the agricultural application of the lamp, experiments were carried out with wheat (cv. Yangmai 158) to emphatically study illuminating effects of xenon or sulfur lamp on tillering, jointing and net photosynthetic rate during tillering and jointing periods. Results indicated that there is almost no difference in net photosynthetic rate of wheat leaves growing under different lamps. Xenon lamp significantly advanced the time of jointing, decreased number of tillers, number of total leaves per plant and leaf size, as well as inhibited root growth. In contrast with xenon lamp, sulfur lamp evidently delays the time of heading and grain maturation, increased number of heads per plant, head length, total number of grains per plant, head weight and total grain weight per plant, accordingly significantly increased yield per plant. Strong infrared radiation might be the main cause to influence jointing and tillering. The development characteristics of wheat under sulfur lamp were much similar with those in natural condition.

  4. Analysis of compact and portable goniospectrometer system for test of LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Thorseth, Anders

    2015-01-01

    measurements in a near-field goniophotometer. A collection of six different types of directional and non-directional integrated LED lamps with three samples of each were used as test devices. It is shown that the main uncertainty comes from the inadequate thermal stabilisation of the LED lamps. With pre......-heating relative differences for total luminous flux of ±2,5% were obtained. Reliable photometric data can be obtained for use in market monitoring to identify probable non-compliance LED lamps and hence as an improved method for selecting LED lamps for accredited verification testing....

  5. Automatic detecting method of LED signal lamps on fascia based on color image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoling; Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-10-01

    Instrument display panel is one of the most important parts of automobiles. Automatic detection of LED signal lamps is critical to ensure the reliability of automobile systems. In this paper, an automatic detection method was developed which is composed of three parts in the automatic detection: the shape of LED lamps, the color of LED lamps, and defect spots inside the lamps. More than hundreds of fascias were detected with the automatic detection algorithm. The speed of the algorithm is quite fast and satisfied with the real-time request of the system. Further, the detection result was demonstrated to be stable and accurate.

  6. Challenging loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for molecular detection ofToxoplasma gondii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirzad Fallahi; Zahra Arab Mazar; Mehrdad Ghasemian; Ali Haghighi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare analytical sensitivity and specificity of a newly described DNA amplification technique, LAMP and nested PCR assay targeting the RE and B1 genes for the detection ofToxoplasma gondii (T. gondii)DNA.Methods: The analytical sensitivity of LAMP and nested-PCR was obtained against10-fold serial dilutions ofT. gondii DNA ranging from 1 ng to 0.01 fg. DNA samples of other parasites and human chromosomal DNA were used to determine the specificity of molecular assays.Results:After testing LAMP and nested-PCR in duplicate, the detection limit of RE-LAMP, B1-LAMP, RE-nested PCR and B1-nested PCR assays was one fg, 100 fg, 1 pg and 10 pg ofT. gondii DNA respectively. All the LAMP assays and nested PCRs were 100% specific. The RE-LAMP assay revealed the most sensitivity for the detection ofT. gondii DNA.Conclusions:The obtained results demonstrate that the LAMP technique has a greater sensitivity for detection ofT. gondii. Furthermore, these findings indicate that primers based on the RE are more suitable than those based on the B1 gene. However, the B1-LAMP assay has potential as a diagnostic tool for detection ofT. gondii.

  7. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Plasma Arc Cutting. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    This welding curriculum guide treats two topics in detail: the care of tungsten electrodes and the entire concept of contamination control and the hafnium electrode and its importance in dual-air cutting systems that use compressed shop air for plasma arc cutting activities. The guide contains three units of instruction that cover the following…

  8. Experiments with a New 201Hg+ Ion Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, E. A.; Taghavi-Larigani, S.; Lea, S. N.; Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we describe a new clock based on 201Hg+. All previous mercury ion clocks have been based on 199Hg+. We have recently completed construction of the 201Hg+ clock and will describe modifications to the design of our existing 199Hg+ clocks to accommodate the new isotope. We will also describe initial spectroscopic measurements of the hyperfine manifold, and possible future experiments. One experiment could place a limit on variations in the strong interaction fundamental constant ratio mq/ΛQCD.REFID="9789812838223_0043FN001">

  9. Comparison of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and low-pressure mercury-arc lamps for disinfection of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtes, Kari A; Lowe, Kincaid; Walters, Glenn W; Sobsey, Mark D; Linden, Karl G; Casanova, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 260 nm were evaluated to determine the inactivation kinetics of bacteria, viruses, and spores compared to low-pressure (LP) UV irradiation. Test microbes were Escherichia coli B, a non-enveloped virus (MS-2), and a bacterial spore (Bacillus atrophaeus). For LP UV, 4-log10 reduction doses were: E. coli B, 6.5 mJ/cm(2); MS-2, 59.3 mJ/cm(2); and B. atrophaeus, 30.0 mJ/cm(2). For UV LEDs, the 4-log10 reduction doses were E. coli B, 6.2 mJ/cm(2); MS-2, 58 mJ/cm(2); and B. atrophaeus, 18.7 mJ/cm(2). Microbial inactivation kinetics of the two UV technologies were not significantly different for E. coli B and MS-2, but were different for B. atrophaeus spores. UV LEDs at 260 nm are at least as effective for inactivating microbes in water as conventional LP UV sources and should undergo further development in treatment systems to disinfect drinking water.

  10. PENCEMARAN LOGAM BERAT MERKURI (Hg PADA AIRTANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Triadi Putranto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The earth consists largely of water because the land area is smaller than the ocean. Human beings on this earthcan not escape the need for water. Water is the main requirement for the process of life on the earth.Relatively clean water that is coveted by men, whether for purposes of daily life, for industrial purposes, for thecleanliness of city sanitation, as well as for agricultural purposes and so forth. Heavy metal pollution is a veryserious issue to be handled, because of adverse environmental and ecosystem in general. Heavy metallic elementis the element which has a density of more than 5 gr/cm3. Hg has a density of 13.55 gr/cm3. Disaster is anoutbreak of Minamata mercury poisoning in people who eat fish contaminated by mercury in Minamata Japan,and this event is known as Minamata Disease. Efforts to tackle the heavy metal pollution can actually be doneusing a chemical process or by microorganism such as microbes and bacteria.

  11. Hg-coordination studies of oligopeptides containing cysteine, histidine and tyrosine by $^{199m}$Hg-TDPAC

    CERN Document Server

    Ctortecka, B; Mallion, S; Butz, T; Hoffmann, R

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of histidine- and tyrosine- containing peptide chains with Hg(II), the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of /sup 199m/Hg in the Hg complexes of the oligopeptides alanyl-alanyl-histidyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAHAA-NH /sub 2/) and alanyl-alanyl-tyrosyl-alanyl-alanine-amid (AAYAA-NH/sub 2/) was determined by time differential perturbed angular correlation and is compared with previous data on alanyl-alanyl-cysteyl-alanyl- alanyl (AACAA-OH). The /sup 199m/Hg-NQIs depend on the oligopeptide to Hg(II) stoichiometry and indicate that two-fold and four-fold coordinations occur for the bound Hg(II). (12 refs).

  12. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCullough, Jeffrey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, Joseph C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  13. Rotating Drive for Electrical-Arc Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rotating drive improves quality of holes made by electrical-arc machining. Mechanism (Uni-tek, rotary head, or equivalent) attached to electrical-arc system. Drive rotates electrode as though it were mechanical drill, while an arc disintegrates metal in workpiece, thereby creating hole. Rotating electrode method often used in electric-discharge machining. NASA innovation is application of technique to electrical-arc machining.

  14. Predominant role of neural arc in sympathetic baroreflex resetting of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Yusuke; Kawada, Toru; Shimizu, Shuji; Kamiya, Atsunori; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing controversy over whether neural or peripheral factors are the predominant cause of hypertension. The closed-loop negative feedback operation of the arterial baroreflex hampers understanding of how arterial pressure (AP) is determined through the interaction between neural and peripheral factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: A novel analysis of an isolated open-loop baroreceptor preparation to examine sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) and AP responses to changes in carotid sinus pressure (CSP) in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) was conducted. In the neural arc (CSP-SNA relationship), the midpoint pressure (128.9±3.8 vs. 157.9±8.1 mmHg, P<0.001) and the response range of SNA to CSP (90.5±3.7 vs. 115.4±7.6%/mmHg, P=0.011) were higher in SHR. In the peripheral arc (SNA-AP relationship), slope and intercept did not differ. A baroreflex equilibrium diagram was obtained by depicting neural and peripheral arcs in a pressure-SNA plane with rescaled SNA (% in WKY). The operating-point AP (111.3±4.4 vs. 145.9±5.2 mmHg, P<0.001) and SNA (90.8±3.2 vs. 125.1±6.9% in WKY, P<0.001) were shifted towards a higher level in SHR. The shift of the neural arc towards a higher SNA range indicated a predominant contribution to baroreflex resetting in SHR. Notwithstanding the resetting, the carotid sinus baroreflex in SHR preserved an ability to reduce AP if activated with a high enough pressure.

  15. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  16. Hooded arc ion-source

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The positioning system for the hooded arc ion-source, shown prior to mounting, consists of four excentric shafts to locate the ion-source and central electrodes. It will be placed on the axis of the SC and introduced into the vacuum tank via the air locks visible in the foreground.

  17. Warm storage for arc magmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Mélanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Schmitt, Axel K; Harrison, T Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2016-12-06

    Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the "cold storage" model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored warm. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes.

  18. X-ray-binary spectra in the lamp post model

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, F H; Zdziarski, A A; Madej, J

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Context. The high-energy radiation from black-hole binaries may be due to the reprocessing of a lamp located on the black hole axis, emitting X-rays. The observed spectrum is made of 3 components: the direct spectrum; the thermal bump; and the reflected spectrum made of the Compton hump and the iron-line complex. Aims. We aim at computing accurately the complete reprocessed spectrum (thermal bump + reflected) of black-hole binaries over the entire X-ray band. We also determine the strength of the direct component. Our choice of parameters is adapted to a source showing an important thermal component. Methods. We compute in full GR the illumination of a thin disk by a lamp along the rotation axis. We use the ATM21 radiative transfer code to compute the spectrum emitted along the disk. We ray trace this local spectrum to determine the reprocessed spectrum as observed at infinity. We discuss the dependence of the local and ray-traced spectra on the emission angle and spin. Results. We show the importa...

  19. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15 Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148 nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ≥ 0.004 Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5 pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157 nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds.

  20. Gluing for Raman lidar systems using the lamp mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N

    2014-12-20

    In the context of combined analog and photon counting (PC) data acquisition in a Lidar system, glue coefficients are defined as constants used for converting an analog signal into a virtual PC signal. The coefficients are typically calculated using Lidar profile data taken under clear, nighttime conditions since, in the presence of clouds or high solar background, it is difficult to obtain accurate glue coefficients from Lidar backscattered data. Here we introduce a new method in which we use the lamp mapping technique (LMT) to determine glue coefficients in a manner that does not require atmospheric profiles to be acquired and permits accurate glue coefficients to be calculated when adequate Lidar profile data are not available. The LMT involves scanning a halogen lamp over the aperture of a Lidar receiver telescope such that the optical efficiency of the entire detection system is characterized. The studies shown here involve two Raman lidar systems; the first from Howard University and the second from NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The glue coefficients determined using the LMT and the Lidar backscattered method agreed within 1.2% for the water vapor channel and within 2.5% for the nitrogen channel for both Lidar systems. We believe this to be the first instance of the use of laboratory techniques for determining the glue coefficients for Lidar data analysis.

  1. The establishment of reliability model for LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hao; Lei, Jing; Yao, Wang; Qun, Gao; Hongliang, Ke; Xiaoxun, Wang; Yanchao, Zhang; Qiang, Sun; Zhijun, Xu

    2016-07-01

    In order to verify which of the distributions and established methods of reliability model are more suitable for the analysis of the accelerated aging of LED lamp, three established methods (approximate method, analytical method and two-stage method) of reliability model are used to analyze the experimental data under the condition of the Weibull distribution and Lognormal distribution, in this paper. Ten LED lamps are selected for the accelerated aging experiment and the luminous fluxes are measured at an accelerated aging temperature. AIC information criterion is adopted in the evaluation of the models. The results show that the accuracies of the analytical method and the two-stage method are higher than that of the approximation method, with the widths of confidence intervals of unknown parameters of the reliability model being the smallest for the two-stage method. In a comparison between the two types of distributions, the accuracies are nearly identical. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2015AA03A101, 2013AA03A116), the Cuican Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KZCC-EW-102), and the Jilin Province Science and Technology Development Plan Item (No. 20130206018GX).

  2. High performance LED lamps for the automobile: needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Wolfgang; Vieregge, Thomas; Rode, Martin

    2007-09-01

    Light emitting diodes have been an option in automotive lighting for more than 15 years now. The capacities and colours of LEDs available in the recent past were sufficient to realize interior lighting and rear signalling functions. In the meantime, series applications, such as position or daytime running lights, using white LEDs for signal functions in headlamps, are no longer a rarity. The next step - realizing main lighting functions for series applications - is imminent. LED will offer a multitude of styling options in rear and front lighting, as well as a light colour which differs considerably from that of the previous halogen and xenon headlamp systems. The further advantages of the LED compared with conventional light sources with regard to service life, power efficiency and package space requirements can thus only be sensibly exploited by means of suitable structural and connection techniques. Increasing complexity and installation conditions in an often rough environment are demanding challenge to realize the hardware of LED lamps. In this paper at first the requirements on LEDs and LED modules in automotive exterior lighting will be discussed. Furthermore the status of industrialization and modular concepts for signal lamps and full LED headlamps will be presented. The paper will finish with a discussion of new headlamp active lighting functions like maker light or glare free high beam, implemented in hybrid or with pure LED technology. In the subsequent headlamp integration, from about 2012, freely-addressable LED-Arrays will possibly enable these new types of lighting functions.

  3. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  4. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  5. The structure and singularities of arc complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penner, Robert

    boundary components. The main result of this paper is the determination of those arc complexes Arc(F) that are also spherical. This classification has consequences for Riemann's moduli space via its known identification with an analogous arc complex in the punctured case with no boundary. Namely...

  6. Laboratory experiments on arc deflection and instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.; Karasik, M.

    2000-03-21

    This article describes experiments on arc deflection instability carried out during the past few years at the Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The approach has been that of plasma physicists interested in arcs, but they believe these results may be useful to engineers who are responsible for controlling arc behavior in large electric steel furnaces.

  7. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daech, Alfred F.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  8. Magnification Bias in Gravitational Arc Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caminha, G. B. [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF; Estrada, J. [Fermilab; Makler, M. [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2013-08-29

    The statistics of gravitational arcs in galaxy clusters is a powerful probe of cluster structure and may provide complementary cosmological constraints. Despite recent progresses, discrepancies still remain among modelling and observations of arc abundance, specially regarding the redshift distribution of strong lensing clusters. Besides, fast "semi-analytic" methods still have to incorporate the success obtained with simulations. In this paper we discuss the contribution of the magnification in gravitational arc statistics. Although lensing conserves surface brightness, the magnification increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the arcs, enhancing their detectability. We present an approach to include this and other observational effects in semi-analytic calculations for arc statistics. The cross section for arc formation ({\\sigma}) is computed through a semi-analytic method based on the ratio of the eigenvalues of the magnification tensor. Using this approach we obtained the scaling of {\\sigma} with respect to the magnification, and other parameters, allowing for a fast computation of the cross section. We apply this method to evaluate the expected number of arcs per cluster using an elliptical Navarro--Frenk--White matter distribution. Our results show that the magnification has a strong effect on the arc abundance, enhancing the fraction of arcs, moving the peak of the arc fraction to higher redshifts, and softening its decrease at high redshifts. We argue that the effect of magnification should be included in arc statistics modelling and that it could help to reconcile arcs statistics predictions with the observational data.

  9. Thermal analysis of an arc heater electrode with a rotating arc foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Shepard, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A smoothly rotating arc foot and an arc foot that jumps between multiple sticking points were analyzed using analytic formulations and numerical solution procedures. For each case the temperature distribution for a copper electrode was obtained for the plausible range of operating conditions. It is shown that the smoothly rotating arc foot is an extremely safe mode of operation, whereas the jumping arc foot produces excessively high electrode surface temperatures which are not greatly alleviated by increasing the average rotational frequency of the arc foot. It is suggested to eliminate arc-foot rotation and rely on the distribution of fixed electrodes with stationary arc attachment to avoid electrode failure at high current.

  10. Mercury risk from fluorescent lamps in China: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2012-09-01

    Energy-efficient lighting is one of the key measures for addressing electric power shortages and climate change mitigation, and fluorescent lamps are expected to dominate the lighting market in China over the next several years. This review presents an overview on the emissions and risk of mercury from fluorescent lamps during production and disposal, and discusses measures for reducing the mercury risk through solid waste management and source reduction. Fluorescent lamps produced in China used to contain relatively large amounts of mercury (up to 40 mg per lamp) due to the prevalence of liquid mercury dosing, which also released significant amounts of mercury to the environment. Upgrade of the mercury dosing technologies and manufacturing facilities had significantly reduced the mercury contents in fluorescent lamps, with most of them containing less than 10 or 5mg per lamp now. Occupational hygiene studies showed that mercury emissions occurred during fluorescent lamp production, particularly in the facilities using liquid mercury dosing, which polluted the environmental media at and surrounding the production sites and posed chronic health risk to the workers by causing neuropsychological and motor impairments. It is estimated that spent fluorescent lamps account for approximately 20% of mercury input in the MSW in China. Even though recycling of fluorescent lamps presents an important opportunity to capture the mercury they contain, it is difficult and not cost-effective at reducing the mercury risk under the broader context of mercury pollution control in China. In light of the significant mercury emissions associated with electricity generation in China, we propose that reduction of mercury emissions and risk associated with fluorescent lamps should be achieved primarily through lowering their mercury contents by the manufacturers while recycling programs should focus on elemental mercury-containing waste products instead of fluorescent lamps to recapture

  11. SO2/Hg removal from flue gas by dry FGD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fan; Wang Hongmei; Zhang Fan; Zhu Jinwei; Tian Gang; Liu Yu; Mao Jixian

    2012-01-01

    To study the mechanism of SO2 and Hg removal from flue gas,an experimental packed bed reactor was designed to simulate the dry FGD,where a mixture of lime and fly ash in ratio 1∶3 w/w was used as the SO2 and Hg sorbent,and steam at temperature of 100 ℃ was applied for activation of the sorbent,while the activation time set to 20 min.The experimental factors including the SO2/Hg sorbent characteristics,50% breakthrough time for SO2/Hg removal,sorbent packed bed depth and reaction temperature were investigated.The experimental results show that after steam activation,the BET specific surface area and specific pore volume increased from 37.8 to 45.5 m2/g and from 0.42 to 0.51 cm3/g,respectively.With activation of the sorbent by steam,the 50% breakthrough times of SO2 and Hg removal increased from 34 to 42 min and from 23 to 45 min,respectively.When the packed bed depth was increased from 5 to 25 mm,the 50% breakthrough times for Hg and SO2 removal increased from 12 to 52 min and from 6 to 47 min,respectively.With the increase of the reaction temperature,the 50% breakthrough of SO2/Hg removal decreased accordingly.Steam activation can efficiently improve SO2/Hg removal simultaneously.

  12. The results of nocturnal visual surveys are influenced by lamp properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, B.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted standardized visual searches at night for brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) and geckos, where we alternated between spotlight and floodlight lamps. Floodlights rendered us 25% more snakes and 71% more geckos than did spotlights. We show data on searcher variability and discuss what might affect the relative benefit of different lamp types. ?? 2009 Brill Academic Publishers.

  13. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  14. Humphrey Davy and the Safety Lamp: The Use of Metal Gauze as a Flame Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The "safety lamp" invented by Humphrey Davy in 1815 utilised the cooling effect of metal gauze to prevent the flame of a candle or oil lamp (essential for illumination in mines) from passing through such a screen. It is therefore rendered unable to ignite any potentially explosive mixture of air and methane in the atmosphere surrounding…

  15. A decline of LAMP- 2 predicts ursodeoxycholic acid response in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Guo, Guan-ya; Wang, Jing-bo; Zhou, Xin-min; Yang, Qiong; Han, Zhe-yi; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jing-wen; Cai, Yun; Ren, Xiao-li; Zhou, Xia; Chen, Rui-Rui; Shi, Yong-quan; Han, Ying; Fan, Dai-ming

    2015-04-20

    Biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is variable. We have previously reported that augmented expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2) was correlated with the severity of PBC. This study aimed to determine whether serum LAMP-2 could serve as a predictor of biochemical response to UDCA. The efficiency of serum LAMP-2 to predict biochemical response was assessed after 1 year of UDCA treatment in PBC patients by a retrospective analysis. We found that the basal serum LAMP-2 level was increased in PBC, especially in patients with stage III-IV (p = 0.010) or TBIL > 1 mg/dL (p = 0.014). Baseline serum LAMP-2 was higher in non-responders than that in responders, but the difference was statistically insignificant. However, after UDCA treatment, serum LAMP-2 level decreased prominently in the first 3 months, which was more obvious in responders. Further studies showed that the 35% decline of LAMP-2 after treatment for 3 months could be stated as an indicator of UDCA response with the sensitivity of 62.9% and specificity of 75.0% by Paris criteria. Meanwhile the specificity and sensitivity were identified as 63.5% and 64.1% by Barcelona criteria. Together, a decline in LAMP-2 might help to predict the response to UDCA.

  16. [Study on the discharge properties of xeon flash lamp and experimental measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, You-Quan; Miao, Pei-Liang; He, Feng; Gu, Jian; Zhai, Rui-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Xenon flash lamp is a new type of light source for analytical instrument. The present paper analyzed the discharge process of xenon flash lamp, presented the discharge test system, and conducted experimental measurement of the voltage, current and optical pulse signal in the process of discharge. The results show that in the preliminary discharge, the free electron concentration was at a low level, so the energy was at a low level, then following the gas discharge, numerous free electrons formed in the lamp, resultin in the increase in the concentration of free electrons, therefore discharge current rised rapidly and voltage reduced. The lamp released photons to generate light pulse in the moment of ionic recombination, The pulse xenon lamp light energy output and spectral characteristic is related to electron energy in recombination and combination level of xenon, if the input energy and the energy consumption of the xenon lamp is inconsistent, it will lead to repeated capacitor charging and discharging and produce oscillation waveform. This paper is very useful for understanding the process of xenon lamp discharge, optimizing the driver circuit and the production of xenon flash lamp.

  17. Topology optimisation of passive coolers for light-emitting diode lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This work applies topology optimisation to the design of passive coolers for light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. The heat sinks are cooled by the natural convection currents arising from the temperature difference between the LED lamp and the surrounding air. A large scale parallel computational...

  18. CALiPER Application Summary Report 17. LED AR111 and PAR36 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-08-01

    Report 17 analyzes the performance of a group of six LED products labeled as AR111 lamps. Results indicate that this product category lags behind other types of directional LED lamps but may perform acceptably in some applications and provide some energy savings.

  19. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps' fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, V; De Michelis, I; Ferella, F; Vegliò, F

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  20. LAMP3 and TP53 overexpression predicts poor outcome in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoxia; You, Yiwen; Huang, Jianfei; Wang, Xudong; Zhu, Huijun; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a newly identified tumor-specific and hypoxia-induced protein. It is a downstream target gene of tumor suppressor TP53 and its expression has been associated with hypoxia-induced metastasis and poor overall survival in cervical, breast and gastrointestinal cancers. However, little is known of LAMP3 protein expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its prognostic value. We determined protein expression of LAMP3 and TP53 in LSCC tissues (n=117) by immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarray (TMA), their expression was correlated with patients' clinical parameters and overall survival. LAMP3 and TP53 protein expression was significantly higher in cancerous tissues compared to adjacent normal surgical margin tissues. Both high LAMP3 and high TP53 protein expression was significantly associated with tumor stage and size. Significant correlation between LAMP3 and TP53 expression was observed. Patients with high LAMP3 or high TP53 expression had a poor overall survival. Our data suggest that both epithelial LAMP3 expression and TP53 expression are independent prognostic markers for LSCC.

  1. Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini copro-DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimatsu, Yuji; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach; Hong, Sung-Jong; Sripa, Banchob

    2012-03-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and other foodborne trematode infections are major health problem in Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Cambodia. Differential diagnosis of O. viverrini based on the microscopic observation of parasite eggs is difficult in areas where Clonorchis sinensis and minute intestinal flukes coexist. We therefore established a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detecting O. viverrini infection from the stool samples using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. A total of five primers from seven regions were designed to target the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) in ribosomal DNA for specific amplification. Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB) was more effective to detect the LAMP product compared to the Real-time LAMP and turbidity assay for its simple and distinct detection. The LAMP assay specifically amplified O. viverrini ITS1 but not C. sinensis and minute intestinal flukes with the limit of detection around 10(-3)ng DNA/μL. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 100% compared to egg positive samples. While all microscopically positive samples were positive by LAMP, additionally 5 of 13 (38.5%) microscopically negative samples were also LAMP positive. The technique has great potential for differential diagnosis in endemic areas with mixed O. viverrini and intestinal fluke infections. As it is an easy and simple method, the LAMP is potentially applicable for point-of-care diagnosis.

  2. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  3. 49 CFR 234.253 - Flashing light units and lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing light units and lamp voltage. 234.253... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.253 Flashing light units and lamp voltage. (a... voltage shall be tested when installed and at least once every 12 months thereafter. (c) Each...

  4. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Royer, Michael P.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-31

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  5. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  6. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB99 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts... procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The... the Secretary I. Authority and Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42...

  7. 76 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB50 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp... fluorescent lamp ballasts (ballasts) pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). During... The EPCA establishes energy conservation standards for certain ballasts and requires that DOE...

  8. Potential mercury emissions from fluorescent lamps production and obsolescence in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Quanyin; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The use of fluorescent lamps has expanded rapidly all over the world in recent years, because of their energy-saving capability. Consequently, however, mercury emissions from production, breakage, and discard of the lamps are drawing increasing concern from the public. This article focuses on evaluating the amount of mercury used for fluorescent lamp production, as well as the potential mercury emissions during production and breakage, in mainland China. It is expected to provide a comprehensive understanding about the risks present in the mercury from fluorescent lamps, and to know about the impacts of the policies on fluorescent lamps after their implementation. It is estimated that, in 2020, mercury consumption will be about 11.30-15.69 tonnes, a significant reduction of 34.9%-37.4% from that used in 2013, owing to improvement in mercury dosing dosage technology and tighter limitations on mercury content in fluorescent lamps. With these improvements, the amount of mercury remaining in fluorescent lamps and released during production is estimated to be 10.71-14.86 and 0.59-0.83 tonnes, respectively; the mercury released from waste fluorescent lamps is estimated to be about 5.37-7.59 tonnes. Also, a significant reduction to the mercury emission can be expected when a collection and treatment system is well established and conducted in the future.

  9. CALiPER Application Summary Report 21. Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    This report focuses on the bare lamp performance of 31 linear LED lamps intended as an alternative to T8 fluorescent lamps. Data obtained in accordance with IES LM-79-08 indicated that the mean efficacy is similar to that of fluorescent lamps, but that lumen output is often much lower. This presents a situation where something must change in order for energy savings and equivalent illumination levels to be achieved simultaneously. In this case, the luminous intensity distribution of all the tested lamps was directional or semi-directional, rather than omnidirectional. Also discussed in this report are several issues related to the electrical configuration of the lamps, such as the required socket types and power feed location. While no configuration is necessarily better, the multitude of options can make specifying and installing linear LED lamps more difficult, with the potential for safety issues. Similarly, the variety of color and power quality attributes adds a layer of complexity to the specification process. Many products offered good or excellent quality attributes, but some did not and thus could be perceived as inferior to fluorescent lamps in some installations.

  10. Impact of asymmetric lamp positioning on the performance of a closed-conduit UV reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipu Sultan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses for the performance improvement of a closed-conduit ultraviolet (UV reactor were performed by changing the lamp positions from symmetric to asymmetric. The asymmetric lamp positioning can be useful for UV reactor design and optimization. This goal was achieved by incorporating the two performance factors, namely reduction equivalent dose (RED and system dose performance. Four cases were carried out for asymmetric lamp positioning within the UV reactor chamber and each case consisted of four UV lamps that were simulated once symmetrically and four times asymmetrically. The results of the four asymmetric cases were compared with the symmetric one. Moreover, these results were evaluated by using CFD simulations of a closed-conduit UV reactor. The fluence rate model, UVCalc3D was employed to validate the simulations results. The simulation results provide detailed information about the dose distribution, pathogen track modeling and RED. The RED value was increased by approximately 15% by using UVCalc3D fluence rate model. Additionally, the asymmetric lamp positioning of the UV lamps had more than 50% of the pathogens received a better and a higher UV dose than in the symmetric case. Consequently, the system dose performance was improved by asymmetric lamp positioning. It was concluded that the performance parameters (higher RED and system dose performance were improved by using asymmetric lamp positioning.

  11. CALiPER Application Summary Report 17. LED AR111 and PAR36 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-08-01

    Report 17 analyzes the performance of a group of six LED products labeled as AR111 lamps. Results indicate that this product category lags behind other types of directional LED lamps but may perform acceptably in some applications and provide some energy savings.

  12. LampSite室内覆盖解决方案研究%Research on Indoor Coverage Solution with LampSite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小兵

    2015-01-01

    分析了MBB网络未来数据业务的发展趋势,提出了MBB网络面临的室内覆盖挑战。为了有效应对室内覆盖挑战,推出了LampSite创新室内覆盖解决方案,可以很好地满足室内环境的无线覆盖和网络容量需求。详细介绍了LampSite的组网架构和技术优势,并根据LampSite自身特点给出了具体的应用场景建议和无线网络规划建议。%It analyzes the trend of MBB network future data service and presents the chal enges for indoor coverage. To address the chal-lenges, the LampSite solution is launched, which can provide better indoor coverage and meet capacity requirements. Further-more, it introduces the network architectures and technical advantages of LampSite solution in detail. The application scenarios and wireless network planning are also provided according to the characteristics of LampSite.

  13. Tectonomagmatism in continental arcs: evidence from the Sark arc complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Wes; Moreno, Teresa

    2002-07-01

    The island of Sark (Channel Islands, UK) exposes syntectonic plutons and country rock gneisses within a Precambrian (Cadomian) continental arc. This Sark arc complex records sequential pulses of magmatism over a period of 7 Ma (ca. 616-609 Ma). The earliest intrusion (ca. 616 Ma) was a composite sill that shows an ultramafic base overlain by a magma-mingled net vein complex subsequently deformed at near-solidus temperatures into the amphibolitic and tonalitic Tintageu banded gneisses. The deformation was synchronous with D 2 deformation of the paragneissic envelope, with both intrusion and country rock showing flat, top-to-the-south LS fabrics. Later plutonism injected three homogeneous quartz diorite-granodiorite sheets: the Creux-Moulin pluton (150-250 m; ca. 614 Ma), the Little Sark pluton (>700 m; 611 Ma), and the Northern pluton (>500 m; 609 Ma). Similar but thinner sheets in the south (Derrible-Hogsback-Dixcart) and west (Port es Saies-Brecqhou) are interpreted as offshoots from the Creux-Moulin pluton and Little Sark pluton, respectively. All these plutons show the same LS fabric seen in the older gneisses, with rare magmatic fabrics and common solid state fabrics recording syntectonic crystallisation and cooling. The cooling rate increased rapidly with decreasing crystallisation age: >9 Ma for the oldest intrusion to cool to lower amphibolite conditions, 7-8 Ma for the Creux Moulin pluton, 5-6 Ma for the Little Sark pluton, and 10 -14 s -1) that focussed extensional deformation into the Sark area. The increased rates of extension allowed ingress of the subsequent quartz diorite-granodiorite sheets, although strain rate slowly declined as the whole complex cooled during exhumation. The regional architecture of syntectonic Cadomian arc complexes includes flat-lying "Sark-type" and steep "Guernsey-type" domains produced synchronously in shear zone networks induced by oblique subduction: a pattern seen in other continental arcs such as that running from Alaska

  14. Determination of MeHg sources to fish in the St. Louis River, MN, USA, using Hg stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes region has become a prevalent concern due to elevated methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish. While atmospheric deposition of Hg is ubiquitous, releases from legacy point-sources give rise to numerous Areas of Concern (AOCs) across the Great ...

  15. Tracing anthropogenic Hg and Pb input using stable Hg and Pb isotope ratios in sediments of the central Portuguese Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil-Holmens, M.; Blum, J.; Canário, J.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Trancoso, M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Johnson, M.; Branco, V.; Cesário, R.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Boer, W.; Melo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Three short marine sediment cores from the Cascais Submarine Canyon (CSC; cores 252-32 and 252-35) and the Estremadura Spur (core 252-16) on the central Portuguese Margin were analysed for Hg, Pb, Al, and Mn concentrations, and both Pb and Hg stable isotope compositions, in order to reconstruct tren

  16. Measurement of mercury bound in the glass envelope during operation of fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, E.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Doughty, D.A.; Beers, W.W. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Mercury vapor is essential to the high efficiency conversion of electrical power to light in fluorescent lamps. However, the amount of mercury that must be added to the lamp to achieve a 20,000 h operating life is much larger than the amount of vapor needed for the discharge. This is a result of processes that bind the mercury during lamp operation and make it unavailable as mercury vapor. As part of an effort to determine the amount of mercury that must be added to standard GE F40T12 lamps with halophosphate phosphors the authors have measured the mercury bound in the soda-lime glass under the phosphor in the positive column in a series of these lamps. From these measurements they have developed an empirical model which describes the amount of mercury per unit area that is bound in the glass as a function of operating time and the weight of phosphor over the glass.

  17. Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the Lighting Africa initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Damgaard Nielsen, Torben; Fyenbo, Jan

    2010-01-01

    . The discrete components were white light LEDs, a blocking diode, a lithium ion battery, vias and button contacts in two adjacent corners. The completed lamp has outside dimensions of 22.5 × 30.5 cm, a weight of 50 g and a very flat outline. The battery and components were the thickest elements and measured ... mm. A hole with a ring was punched in one corner to enable mechanical fixation or tying. The lamp has two states. In the charging state it has a completely flat outline and will charge the battery when illuminated from either side while the front side illumination is preferable. When used as a lamp...... two adjacent corners are joined via button contacts whereby the device can stand on a horizontal surface and the circuit is closed such that the battery discharges through the LEDs that illuminate the surface in front of the lamp. Several different lamps were prepared using the same solar cell...

  18. Ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from spotlights incorporating tungsten halogen lamps

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinlay, Alistair F; Whillock, M J

    1989-01-01

    This report summarises measurements of the ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from eleven 'desk-top' tungsten halogen (quartz) lamps and one 'floor-standing' tungsten halogen (quartz) lamp available in the UK. Values of occupational hazard weighted and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation irradiance and measurements and relevant calculations of blue-light hazards are presented. It is concluded that the safety design of some desk-top tungsten halogen lamps is inadequate to prevent unnecessary exposure of the skin to potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation. It is recommended that all tungsten halogen lamps should have sufficient filtration to reduce their ultraviolet emissions to an acceptably low level. As long as the comfort aversion responses of the eye are respected, direct viewing of the lamps examined should not constitute a retinal hazard.

  19. A Contribution to Arc Length Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation was raising the question: "What does 'arc length' mean?" Actually, it is considered expressing a kind of natural relationship between arc voltage and arc column shape. Statements such as "The higher the voltage the longer the arc" or "The arc voltage proves approximately proportional to the arc length", are frequently noticed in this conjunction. However, the author suggests that there is no general possibility of describing 'arc length' over the whole welding process range. Instances are represented in this paper, showing both theoretical attempts of definition and practical observations. This paper intends to contribute to a serious discussion of something trivial, indeed very well-known or used among welding experts, but actually yet hardly understood, at least as when it comes to closer examination

  20. LOT-G3: Plasma Lamp, Ozonator and CW transmitter

    CERN Document Server

    Gobato, Ricardo; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    The LOT-G3 is designed to be a versatile equipment that perform several simple experiments for use in helping the physics classes for high school. Easy construction, low cost, using easily accessible materials. Its construction involves simple practices and knowledge of electromagnetism. It has the function of a plasma globe to demonstrate the ionization of a low pressure gas, as well as the formation of magnetic field. Can be used as sanitizer closed environments such as automotive vehicles in ozonator function, demonstrating the ionization of oxygen in the atmosphere, producing ozone, essential to life on earth. And as a sparks transmitter, low power, low frequency modulated continuous wave in (CW), for signals in Morse code. Therefore the equipment here called LOT-G3, has three functions: a plasma lamp, ozonator and CW transmitter.

  1. The therapeutic lamp: treating small-animal phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, Maja; Alcañiz, Mariano; Botella, Cristina; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Bretón-López, Juana; Ortega, Mario; Brotons, Daniel Beneito

    2013-01-01

    We all have an irrational fear or two. Some of us get scared by an unexpected visit from a spider in our house; others get nervous when they look down from a high building. Fear is an evolutionary and adaptive function that can promote self-preservation and help us deal with the feared object or situation. However, when this state becomes excessive, it might develop into psychological disorders such as phobias, producing high anxiety and affecting everyday life. The Therapeutic Lamp is an interactive projection-based augmented-reality system for treating small-animal phobias. It aims to increase patient-therapist communication, promote more natural interaction, and improve the patient's engagement in the therapy.

  2. Fluorescence cell imaging and manipulation using conventional halogen lamp microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamagata

    Full Text Available Technologies for vitally labeling cells with fluorescent dyes have advanced remarkably. However, to excite fluorescent dyes currently requires powerful illumination, which can cause phototoxic damage to the cells and increases the cost of microscopy. We have developed a filter system to excite fluorescent dyes using a conventional transmission microscope equipped with a halogen lamp. This method allows us to observe previously invisible cell organelles, such as the metaphase spindle of oocytes, without causing phototoxicity. Cells remain healthy even after intensive manipulation under fluorescence observation, such as during bovine, porcine and mouse somatic cell cloning using nuclear transfer. This method does not require expensive epifluorescence equipment and so could help to reduce the science gap between developed and developing countries.

  3. LAMP-2C Inhibits MHC Class II Presentation of Cytoplasmic Antigens by Disrupting Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Liliana; McLetchie, Shawna; Gardiner, Gail J; Deffit, Sarah N; Zhou, Delu; Blum, Janice S

    2016-03-15

    Cells use multiple autophagy pathways to sequester macromolecules, senescent organelles, and pathogens. Several conserved isoforms of the lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) regulate these pathways influencing immune recognition and responses. LAMP-2A is required for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), which promotes Ag capture and MHC class II (MHCII) presentation in B cells and signaling in T cells. LAMP-2B regulates lysosome maturation to impact macroautophagy and phagocytosis. Yet, far less is known about LAMP-2C function. Whereas LAMP2A and LAMP2B mRNA were broadly detected in human tissues, LAMP2C expression was more limited. Transcripts for the three LAMP2 isoforms increased with B cell activation, although specific gene induction varied depending on TLR versus BCR engagement. To examine LAMP-2C function in human B cells and specifically its role in Ag presentation, we used ectopic gene expression. Increased LAMP-2C expression in B cells did not alter MHCII expression or invariant chain processing, but did perturb cytoplasmic Ag presentation via CMA. MHCII presentation of epitopes from exogenous and membrane Ags was not affected by LAMP-2C expression in B cells. Similarly, changes in B cell LAMP-2C expression did not impact macroautophagy. The gene expression of other LAMP2 isoforms and proteasome and lysosomal proteases activities were unperturbed by LAMP-2C ectopic expression. LAMP-2C levels modulated the steady-state expression of several cytoplasmic proteins that are targeted for degradation by CMA and diminished peptide translocation via this pathway. Thus, LAMP-2C serves as a natural inhibitor of CMA that can selectively skew MHCII presentation of cytoplasmic Ags.

  4. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  5. Analysis of energy saving lamps for use by photosensitive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, L; Ferguson, J; Moseley, H

    2012-08-01

    Due to European legislation, the British government has begun the phase out of incandescent bulbs, to be replaced by energy-saving alternatives. The alternatives that are available on the market are Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL), Energy-Efficient Halogens (EEH) and Light Emitting Diodes (LED). Whilst previous research has shown that CFLs emit UVC, UVB and UVA, there is conflicting data available on whether double enveloped CFLs are a safer alternative to single enveloped CFLs for individuals suffering from photosensitivity. The emission spectra of 106 single enveloped CFLs and 65 double enveloped CFLs were measured. There were 17 different models of single enveloped CFLs, including lamps from 6 different manufacturers (ranging from 8-20 W) and 9 models of double enveloped CFLs from 6 different manufacturers (7-15 W). In addition, the emission spectra of 53 LEDs and 56 EEHs were also analysed. The LEDs consisted of 8 different models, from 3 manufacturers, spanning between 2.5 and 12 W. There were 11 models of EEH from 6 different manufacturers with wattages ranging from 28-70 W. In order to reduce sample bias, some bulbs were provided by the lighting industry federation and others were purchased randomly from local retailers. The results validate previous research in that considerable variation exists in the UV emitted from CFLs. This variation in UV levels is true, not only within different makes and models but also, surprisingly, within a box of 8 seemingly identical bulbs supplied by a single manufacturer. It was concluded that double enveloped CFLs do reduce the levels of UVC and UVB and therefore are a safer alternative for photosensitive individuals. However, as some double enveloped CFLs and EEHs do emit UVA at levels that provoke a reaction in the skin of UVA sensitive individuals, newly emerging LEDs that have minimal UV levels may provide a safer alternative.

  6. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  7. Fucosylation of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 by FUT1 correlates with lysosomal positioning and autophagic flux of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Keng-Poo; Ho, Ming-Yi; Cho, Huan-Chieh; Yu, John; Hung, Jung-Tung; Yu, Alice Lin-Tsing

    2016-08-25

    Alpha1,2-fucosyltransferases, FUT1 and FUT2, which transfer fucoses onto the terminal galactose of N-acetyl-lactosamine via α1,2-linkage have been shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers. A few studies have shown the involvement of FUT1 substrates in tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lysosome-associated membrane protein 1, LAMP-1, has been reported to carry alpha1,2-fucosylated Lewis Y (LeY) antigens in breast cancer cells, however, the biological functions of LeY on LAMP-1 remain largely unknown. Whether or not its family member, LAMP-2, displays similar modifications and functions as LAMP-1 has not yet been addressed. In this study, we have presented evidence supporting that both LAMP-1 and 2 are substrates for FUT1, but not FUT2. We have also demonstrated the presence of H2 and LeY antigens on LAMP-1 by a targeted nanoLC-MS(3) and the decreased levels of fucosylation on LAMP-2 by MALDI-TOF analysis upon FUT1 knockdown. In addition, we found that the expression of LeY was substantial in less invasive ER+/PR+/HER- breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and T47D) but negligible in highly invasive triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, of which LeY levels were correlated with the levels of LeY carried by LAMP-1 and 2. Intriguingly, we also observed a striking change in the subcellular localization of lysosomes upon FUT1 knockdown from peripheral distribution of LAMP-1 and 2 to a preferential perinuclear accumulation. Besides that, knockdown of FUT1 led to an increased rate of autophagic flux along with diminished activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and enhanced autophagosome-lysosome fusion. This may be associated with the predominantly perinuclear distribution of lysosomes mediated by FUT1 knockdown as lysosomal positioning has been reported to regulate mTOR activity and autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that downregulation of FUT1, which leads to the perinuclear localization of LAMP-1 and 2, is correlated with increased

  8. History of Neptune's Ring Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.; Colwell, J. E.; Canup, R. M.

    1997-07-01

    The recent dynamical calculations for Neptune's Adams ring arcs by Foryta and Sicardy (1996) and Hanninen and Porco (1997) determine the basic evolutionary parameters for this system. The ring evolution is dominated by stochastic events, particularly chaotic motion that causes a migration between the corotation sites (FS96) and collisions near quadrature (HP97). A basic problem is that the high velocity collisions that produce the dusty arcs at the Galatea corotation resonances rapidly depopulate these sites (Colwell and Esposito 1990). With the new results in hand for the evolution of the ring particles over periods of less than a century, we can now calculate the long-term stochastic evolution of the Adams ring. Using a finite Markov chain as a model for this stochastic process, we follow the suggestion by FS96 that corotation sites provide preferential locations for accretion. A more general conclusion is that the longitudinal concentration of material in a few nearby sites (and that the majority of the Adams ring material is residing there) requires either an exceedingly recent event (EC92) or that the corotation sites be absorbing states of the Markov chain.In the latter case, the competing processes of chaotic diffusion and frustrated accretion can provide the arc and clump features as recurrent transient events near the Roche limit. Similar phenomena would be expected for Saturn's F and G rings.

  9. An investigation for the HgCdTe cleaning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Yi; Wang, Nili; Zhao, Shuiping; Liu, Shi-Jia; Li, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    A new cleaning process for HgCdTe was designed - which used the improved SC-1,SC-2 and Br2- C2H5OH solutions as the main cleaning fluid and applied mega sound waves in the cleaning process. By analyzing the test results carried out on the HgCdTe surface, it was found that the material of HgCdTe for the application of new cleaning process was better than the one for the application of conventional cleaning process in the minority carrier lifetime, residual organic contamination, responsivity and specific detectivity.

  10. Doping and Diffusion in HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    In’i, -InT. Te - 1.8 ( - 3 .5 )h ( + 2.9 - 6/) TeT1’- Tej . 4 Hg rich HgCdTe Hg - 1.8 + 1.2 + 1.4 - 2p H - ’g, - H g j.. ’TI - tetrahedral position...A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 11.81 (1988). B. D. Patterson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 60, 69 (1988). 60 V. A. Singh , C. Weigel, J. W. Corbett, and L. M

  11. Development of one-step Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for the detection of norovirus in oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid technique for detecting human norovirus (NoV). The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique was evaluated and found to be sensitive, highly specific, and useful for routine oyster testing. Reverse transcription-LAMP (RT-LAMP) pri...

  12. H_2O and CO_2 in magmas from the Mariana arc and back arc systems

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Sally; Stolper, Edward; STERN, Robert

    2000-01-01

    We examined the H2O and CO2 contents of glasses from lavas and xenoliths from the Mariana arc system, an intraoceanic convergent margin in the western Pacific, which contains an active volcanic arc, an actively spreading back arc basin, and active behind-the-arc cross-chain volcanoes. Samples include (1) glass rims from Mariana arc, Mariana trough, and cross-chain submarine lavas; (2) glass inclusions in arc and trough phenocrysts; and (3) glass inclusions from a gabbro + anorthosite xenolith...

  13. Arc Root Attachment on the Anode Surface of Arc Plasma Torch Observed with a Novel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wen-Xia; LI Teng; MENG Xian; CHEN Xi; WU Cheng-Kang

    2005-01-01

    @@ The arc-root attachment on the anode surface of a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch has been successfullyobserved using a novel approach. A specially designed copper mirror with a boron nitride film coated on itssurface central-region is employed to avoid the effect of intensive light emitted from the arc column upon theobservation of weakly luminous arc root. It is found that the arc-root attachment is diffusive on the anode surfaceof the argon plasma torch, while constricted arc roots often occur when hydrogen or nitrogen is added into argonas the plasma-forming gas.

  14. Strong-LAMP: A LAMP Assay for Strongyloides spp. Detection in Stool and Urine Samples. Towards the Diagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis Starting from a Rodent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandasegui, Javier; Bajo Santos, Cristina; López-Abán, Julio; Saugar, José María; Rodríguez, Esperanza; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis, the chief causative agent of human strongyloidiasis, is a nematode globally distributed but mainly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Chronic infection is often clinically asymptomatic but it can result in severe hyperinfection syndrome or disseminated strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients. There is a great diversity of techniques used in diagnosing the disease, but definitive diagnosis is accomplished by parasitological examination of stool samples for morphological identification of parasite. Until now, no molecular method has been tested in urine samples as an alternative to stool samples for diagnosing strongyloidiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a new molecular LAMP assay in a well-established Wistar rat experimental infection model using both stool and, for the first time, urine samples. The LAMP assay was also clinically evaluated in patients´ stool samples. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool and urine samples were obtained daily during a 28-day period from rats infected subcutaneously with different infective third-stage larvae doses of S. venezuelensis. The dynamics of parasite infection was determined by daily counting the number of eggs per gram of feces from day 1 to 28 post-infection. A set of primers for LAMP assay based on a DNA partial sequence in the 18S rRNA gene from S. venezuelensis was designed. The set up LAMP assay (namely, Strong-LAMP) allowed the sensitive detection of S. venezuelensis DNA in both stool and urine samples obtained from each infection group of rats and was also effective in S. stercoralis DNA amplification in patients´ stool samples with previously confirmed strongyloidiasis by parasitological and real-time PCR tests. Conclusions/Significance Our Strong-LAMP assay is an useful molecular tool in research of a strongyloidiasis experimental infection model in both stool and urine samples. After further validation, the Strong-LAMP could also be potentially

  15. Uptake of HgCl{sub 2} and MeHgCl in an insect cell line (Aedes albopictus C6/36)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeckman, B.; Cornelis, R.; Rzeznik, U.; Raes, H. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The authors studied the uptake mechanism of mercuric chloride (Hg) and methylmercuric chloride (MeHg) in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells. The uptake kinetics, together with the effect of temperature and a metabolic inhibitor (2,4-dinitrophenol) on the mercury accumulation, were examined. Both amounts of internalized Hg and MeHg increased linearly with the extracellular concentration. Initially, the influx rate was high for both metal species but MeHg was found to accumulate seven times faster than Hg. At longer exposure times it leveled off for Hg, while for MeHg, the intracellular concentration decreased. Hg toxicity was not significantly influenced by elevated temperatures; in contrast there was a marked decrease of the LC{sub 50/24 h} value for MeHg. On the other hand, Hg accumulation was temperature dependent but MeHg was not. The different toxicity and uptake rate of both mercury compounds can be explained in terms of membrane permeability and target site. For Hg the main target seems to be the plasma membrane, while MeHg readily crosses this barrier and reacts with intracellular targets. 2,4-Dinitrophenol had no effect on the accumulation of Hg but that of MeHg was doubled.

  16. Diagnostic potential of multi-targeted LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) for osteoarticular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kusum; Sharma, Megha; Batra, Nitya; Sharma, Aman; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh

    2017-02-01

    Delay in diagnosing osteoarticular tuberculosis (OATB) contributes significantly to morbidity by causing disfiguration and neurological sequelae. The delay caused by conventional culture and the expertise and expense involved in other nucleic acid based tests, make LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) assay a favorable middle path. We evaluated LAMP assay using IS6110 and MPB64 for rapid diagnosis of OATB by comparing with IS6110 PCR and culture. LAMP assay was performed on 140 synovial fluid and pus samples (10 culture-positive proven cases, 80 culture-negative probable cases, and 50 negative controls) using three set of primer pairs each for IS6110 and MPB64. LAMP assay, using two-target approach, had an overall sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 100% in detecting OATB. Sensitivity of IS6110 PCR, IS6110 LAMP, and MPB64 LAMP was 80%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, for confirmed cases and 72.5%, 81.75%, and 86.25%, respectively, for probable cases. Six additional cases were picked using two-target approach. LAMP assay utilizing IS6110 and MPB64 is a cost-effective technique for an early and reliable diagnosis of OATB. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:361-365, 2017.

  17. LAMP-2 is required for incorporating syntaxin-17 into autophagosomes and for their fusion with lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Virginie; Peschel, Andrea; Langer, Brigitte; Gröger, Marion; Rees, Andrew; Kain, Renate

    2016-10-15

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process used for removing surplus and damaged proteins and organelles from the cytoplasm. The unwanted material is incorporated into autophagosomes that eventually fuse with lysosomes, leading to the degradation of their cargo. The fusion event is mediated by the interaction between the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) on autophagosomes and the R-SNARE VAMP8 on lysosomes. Cells deficient in lysosome membrane-associated protein-2 (LAMP-2) have increased numbers of autophagosomes but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. By transfecting LAMP-2-deficient and LAMP-1/2--double-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 we observed a failure of fusion between the autophagosomes and the lysosomes that could be rescued by complementation with LAMP-2A. Although we observed no change in expression and localization of VAMP8, its interacting partner STX17 was absent from autophagosomes of LAMP-2-deficient cells. Thus, LAMP-2 is essential for STX17 expression by the autophagosomes and this absence is sufficient to explain their failure to fuse with lysosomes. The results have clear implications for situations associated with a reduction of LAMP-2 expression.

  18. Rapid detection of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) gene by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Tansho-Nagakawa, Shigeru; Kamoshida, Go; Mu, Xiaoqin; Ono, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), which are associated with resistance to carbapenem, have recently spread worldwide and have become a global concern. It is necessary to detect KPC-producing organisms in clinical settings to be able to control the spread of this resistance. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for rapid detection of KPC producers. LAMP primer sets were designed to recognize the homologous regions of blaKPC-2 to blaKPC-17 and could amplify blaKPC rapidly. The specificity and sensitivity of the primers in the LAMP reactions for blaKPC detection were determined. This LAMP assay was able to specifically detect KPC producers at 68 °C, and no cross-reactivity was observed for other types of β-lactamase (class A, B, C, or D) producers. The detection limit for this assay was found to be 10(0) CFU per tube, in 25 min, which was 10-fold more sensitive than a PCR assay for blaKPC detection. Then, the sensitivity of the LAMP reactions for blaKPC detection in human specimens (sputum samples, urine samples, fecal samples and blood samples) was analyzed; it was observed that the LAMP assay had almost the same sensitivity in these samples as when using purified DNA. The LAMP assay is easy to perform and rapid. It may therefore be routinely applied for detection of KPC producers in the clinical laboratory.

  19. Total spectral radiant flux measurements on Xe excimer lamps from 115 nm to 1000 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampert, Klaus E.; Paravia, Mark; Daub, Rüdiger; Heering, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    Xe excimer lamps are used as VUV source for industrial application like surface cleaning. To determine the VUV efficiency of the lamp the radiant flux need to be known. Due to the difficulties of VUV measurements, it is often determined by interpolation from a value of a fixed angle, which results in large uncertainties. Here a goniometric setup is presented to measure the radiant flux of VUV sources like Xe excimer lamps which emit a narrow spectral band in the VUV range between λ = 147 nm and 200 nm with a peak at 172 nm and spectral lines in NIR. By the use of two monochromators, we measure the spectral resolved radiant flux from 120 nm to 1000 nm. The measurement uncertainty of 9.7 % is rather low for the VUV spectral range and depends mainly on the uncertainty of the used deuterium calibration standard from PTB (7%). Due to the strong temperature dependence of the transmission edge of silica used for the lamp vessel, the measurements are done in nitrogen atmosphere to ensure the convection cooling of the lamp. We measured the radiance distribution curve and radiant flux of Xe excimer lamps and could show the angle dependence of the spectrum. The measured correlation between the VUV band and the NIR lines gives us a better understanding of the plasma kinetics, which is used to optimize the pulsed excitation of the lamp.

  20. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  1. Procedure to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over LED and magnetic induction lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Otavio Luis de; Menzel, Silvio Carlos, E-mail: otavioluis@ipen.br, E-mail: scmenzel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Ribas, Jacinto Oliveira, E-mail: jacinto@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Eletrica e Instrumentacao

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a methodology to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over Lighting Emitting Diode (LED) and Magnetic Induction (MI) lamps as they use a lot of electronic in their power supply. Considering they have a huge lifetime it is interesting to apply this technology into environments under ionizing radiation, such as a nuclear facility. Thus, it is possible to increase the period between two consecutive maintenance, reduce the repair and global maintenance costs and reduce the operational personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. In this context it is going to be presented a scheme to select different LED and MI lamps available in the Brazilian market, a methodology to irradiate several lamp samples according various radiation levels that can be found in the facilities and the electrical and photometric evaluation to be performed. Considering this methodology it will be possible to analyze the lamps capacity to withstand ionizing radiation, under regular operating conditions of the facilities and its effects in the performance and lifetime of the selected lamps. Thus, the procedures suggested in this work can be used as a guide to perform experiments and analysis to find specific lamps that can reduce the global maintenance costs and the personnel exposure. Hereafter, several lamps are going to be acquired and the tests performed, according the procedures here described. (author)

  2. Correction of emission spectra in microspectrofluorimetry using a reference lamp: computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, L

    1992-01-01

    Accurate correction of emission spectra in microspectrofluorimetry, using a reference lamp, may require that a factor for the emissivity of tungsten be introduced. This is only possible provided that the true temperature of the lamp filament is known. A method is given for obtaining the true temperature from the knowledge of the colour temperature. Also, the values of the spectral concentration of the radiance of the black body, either computed according to Planck's equation or taken from available published tables, have to be converted from energetic units to units of quanta since the photomultiplier is linear not to absorbed power but to units of quanta. When the fluorescence spectra to be corrected extend into the far red it is preferable to use a lower temperature (by lowering the supply voltage) than that for which the lamp is certified. It is possible to determine the new temperature (and then the corresponding spectral distribution) by taking a few pairs of measurements at different wavelengths both at the lower voltage and at the voltage for which the lamp is certified and then introducing these values in a non-linear regression soluble on a PC with a curve fitting program. The microscope tungsten halogen lamp can conveniently be used as a reference, thanks to its small size and its steady spectral characteristics. When high accuracy is required, however, the halogen lamp should be calibrated against a certified ribbon filament lamp.

  3. The Effect of Operating Lamps on the Protected Area of a Unidirectional Down Flow (UDF) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversari, A A L; Bottenheft, C; Louman, R; van Heumen, S P M; Böggemann, J

    2017-04-01

    Operating lamps are often seen as the most disruptive factors within the protective area in the operating theater (OT). The effect of the operation lamps (with different shapes) should be demonstrated in an OT by trial, since research on the effects of the lamps is still limited. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a skirt, different lamps, and the position of the lamp on the protected area. The concentration of airborne particles was measured under different circumstances, in order to determine the size and quality of the protected area. This entrainment/segregation test is based on the deliberate and controlled emission of particles outside the zone that is protected. The degree of protection (DP) at the center of the protected area was higher for the case with the skirt. This skirt stimulates more down flow and prevents the early entry of particles into the protected area. It can also be concluded that Lamp Y, due to its open shape, has the most positive effect on the DP at the center. It has also been shown that the position of the lamp has an effect on the protected area.

  4. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  5. Wood’s Lamp Examination: Evaluation of Basic Knowledge in General Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudit Suraprasit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wood’s lamp examination is a useful diagnostic test in many dermatological disorders. However, there was limited data on knowledge of physicians about this tool. Objective: To evaluate basic knowledge of physicians on Wood’s lamp and its applications. Methods: The study used questionnaires in Thai general physicians who attended the 2013 Dermatology Annual Meeting. The questionnaire composed of a picture of a Wood’s lamp instrument and two open-end questions including 1 What is the name of this device? 2 Which diseases can this device help to make the diagnosis? Results: Eighty-two physicians enrolled in this study. Only 55 physicians (67.1% answered the name of a Wood’s lamp correctly. There were 29 out of 55 physicians (52.7% knew at least one application of Wood’s lamp. About half did not know any applications. Tinea versicolor, followed by melasma, tinea captitis, erythrasma, acne, porphyria, and vitiligo, respectively were the common applications that most physicians answered. Conclusion: This study showed around two-third of physicians know Wood’s lamp, but only half of them were knowledgeable about its’ application in dermatoses. Education regarding Wood’s lamp and application should be emphasized more in physicians to assist in dermatologic diagnoses.

  6. Results Of Hg Speciation Testing On DWPF SMECT-1, SMECT-3, And SMECT-5 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The thirteenth shipment of samples was designated to include Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 736 and 738 samples. Triplicate samples of each material were prepared for this shipment. Each replicate was analyzed for seven Hg species: total Hg, total soluble (dissolved) Hg, elemental Hg [Hg(0)], ionic (inorganic) Hg [Hg(I) and Hg(II)], methyl Hg [CH3Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], ethyl Hg [CH3CH2-Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], and dimethyl Hg [(CH3)2Hg]. The difference between the total Hg and total soluble Hg measurements gives the particulate Hg concentration, i.e. Hg adsorbed to the surface of particulate matter in the sample but without resolution of the specific adsorbed species. The average concentrations of Hg species in the aqueous samples derived from Eurofins reported data corrected for dilutions performed by SRNL are tabulated.

  7. Quantum Calorimeters Based on HgCdTe Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's next generation of x-ray observation missions require x-ray calorimeters with superior energy resolution. Semimetallic HgTe has already proven itself as an...

  8. Enrichment of Pb, Hg and Cr in cultured carp otolith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... record the pollution condition at the sampling time. ... aquatic organisms are aquatic algae, zooplankton .... element cannot show that Hg concentration in otolith ..... from Atlantic croaker along an estuarine pollution gradient.

  9. Quantum Calorimeters Based on HgCdTe Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's next generation of x-ray observation missions require x-ray calorimeters with superior energy resolution. Semimetallic HgTe has already proven itself as an...

  10. Properties of Light Hg, Pb and Po Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Muntian, I

    2003-01-01

    Quality of mass description for three different theoretical mass models is studied. Masses and deformations for Po, Pb and Hg isotopes are compared with experimental data. Gap in the proton single particle energy spectrum is discussed.

  11. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  12. Interaction of Hg Atom with Bare Si(111) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-Jun; LIU Ying

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the interaction between Hg atom and bare Si(111) surface, three types of silicon cluster models of Si4H7, Si7H10 and Si16H20 together with their Hg complexes were studied by using hybrid (U)B3LYP density functional theory method. Optimized geometries and energies for Hg atom on different adsorption sites indicate that: 1) the binding energies at different adsorption sites are small (ranging from ~3 to 8 kJ/mol dependent on the adsorption sites), suggesting a weak interaction between Hg atom and silicon surface; 2) the most favorable adsorption site is the on top (T) site. By analyzing their natural bonding orbitals, the possible reason of this difference is suggested.

  13. Cardiac dysfunction in HgCl2-induced nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodrigues, Mónica; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Moura, Cláudia; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2010-03-01

    The experimental model of HgCl(2) injection is characterized by a systemic autoimmune disease which leads to the development of nephrotic syndrome (NS). NS seems to be accompanied by cardiovascular alterations, since patients with NS present an increased incidence in cardiac disease. The aim of our work was to study the effects of HgCl(2)-induced NS on myocardial function and morphometry. Normotensive Brown-Norway rats were injected with HgCl(2) (1 mg/kg, HgCl(2) group; n = 6, subcutaneous) or the vehicle (control group; n = 6, subcutaneous) on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11. The animals were placed in metabolic cages for evaluation of urinary excretion of noradrenaline, sodium, total proteins, albumin and creatinine. Fourteen and 21 days after the first HgCl(2) injection, left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics was evaluated through pressure micromanometers in basal and isovolumetric heartbeats. The heart and gastrocnemius muscle weights and tibial length were also examined. In an additional group of animals cardiac dimensions and ejection fraction were assessed by echocardiography and LV apoptosis and fibrosis were studied. HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, sodium retention and ascites at day 14. These alterations were accompanied by LV hemodynamic changes only in isovolumetric heartbeats. Similarly, on day 21, HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, but no sodium retention or ascites. These animals presented LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in both basal and isovolumetric heartbeats, as well as cardiac atrophy, LV fibrosis and an increase in myocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, HgCl(2)-induced NS is accompanied by LV dysfunction and can be a promising model for studying the link between NS and cardiac disease.

  14. Searching for Line Profile Variability in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S; Knoglinger, P

    2002-01-01

    Spectra of four non-magnetic chemically peculiar late B type stars (HgMn) stars are analysed to detect periodic spectral line variations (LPVs). A procedure developed to study LPVs in Slowly Pulsating B stars has been adopted as pulsational properties of HgMn stars should be expected to be similar. In the preliminary results discussed here no conclusive evidence for periodic LPVs was uncovered. A more sensitive re-analysis of the data is under way.

  15. First observation of excited states in 173Hg93

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, D; Scholey, C; Bianco, L; Capponi, L; Carroll, R J; Darby, I G; Donosa, L; Drummond, M; Ertugral, F; Greenlees, P T; Grahn, T; Hauschild, K; Herzan, A; Jakobsson, U; Jones, P; Joss, D T; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Ketelhut, S; Labiche, M; Leino, M; Lopez-Martens, A; Mullholland, K; Nieminen, P; Peura, P; Rahkila, P; Rinta-Antila, S; Ruotsalainen, P; Sandzelius, M; Saren, J; Saygi, B; Simpson, J; Sorri, J; Thornthwaite, A; Uusitalo, J

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-deficient nucleus 173Hg has been studied following fusion-evaporation reactions. The observation of gamma rays decaying from excited states are reported for the first time and a tentative level scheme is proposed. The proposed level scheme is discussed within the context of the systematics of neighbouring neutron-deficient Hg nuclei. In addition to the gamma-ray spectroscopy, the alpha decay of this nucleus has been measured yielding superior precision to earlier measurements.

  16. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  17. Stability of Neptune's ring arcs in question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christophe; Terrile, Richard J.; Smith, Bradford A.; Schneider, Glenn; Becklin, E. E.

    1999-08-01

    Although all four of the gas-giant planets in the Solar System have ring systems, only Neptune exhibits `ring arcs'-stable clumps of dust that are discontinuous from each other. Two basic mechanisms for confining the dust to these arcs have been proposed. The firstrelies on orbital resonances with two shepherding satellites, while the second invokes a single satellite (later suggested to be Galatea) to produce the observed ring arc structures. Here we report observations of the ring arcs and Galatea, which show that there isa mismatch between the locations of the arcs and the site of Galatea's co-rotation inclined resonance. This result calls into question Galatea's sole role in confining the arcs.

  18. Crystal structure of K[Hg(SCN)3] - a redetermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Matthias; Häusler, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The crystal structure of the room-temperature modification of K[Hg(SCN)3], potassium tri-thio-cyanato-mercurate(II), was redetermined based on modern CCD data. In comparison with the previous report [Zhdanov & Sanadze (1952 ▶). Zh. Fiz. Khim. 26, 469-478], reliability factors, standard deviations of lattice parameters and atomic coordinates, as well as anisotropic displacement parameters, were revealed for all atoms. The higher precision and accuracy of the model is, for example, reflected by the Hg-S bond lengths of 2.3954 (11), 2.4481 (8) and 2.7653 (6) Å in comparison with values of 2.24, 2.43 and 2.77 Å. All atoms in the crystal structure are located on mirror planes. The Hg(2+) cation is surrounded by four S atoms in a seesaw shape [S-Hg-S angles range from 94.65 (2) to 154.06 (3)°]. The HgS4 polyhedra share a common S atom, building up chains extending parallel to [010]. All S atoms of the resulting (1) ∞[HgS2/1S2/2] chains are also part of SCN(-) anions that link these chains with the K(+) cations into a three-dimensional network. The K-N bond lengths of the distorted KN7 polyhedra lie between 2.926 (2) and 3.051 (3) Å.

  19. Self-powered sensor for trace Hg2+ detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dan; Deng, Liu; Guo, Shaojun; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-05-15

    A self-powered electrochemical sensor has been facilely designed for sensitive detection of Hg(2+) based on the inhibition of biocatalysis process of enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC) for the first time. The as-prepared one-compartment BFC, which was consisted of alcohol dehydrogenase supported on single-walled carbon nanohorns-based mediator system as the anode and bilirubin oxidase as the cathodic biocatalyst, generated an open circuit potential (V(oc)) of 636 mV and a maximum power density of 137 μW cm(-2). It was interestingly found that the presence of Hg(2+) would affect the performance of the constructed BFC (e.g., V(oc)). Taking advantage of the inhibitive effect of Hg(2+), a novel self-powered Hg(2+) sensor has been developed, which showed a linear range of 1-500 nM (R(2) = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1 nM at room temperature. In addition, this BFC-type sensor exhibited good selectivity for Hg(2+) against other common environmental metal ions, and the feasibility of the method for Hg(2+) detection in actual water samples (i.e., tap, ground, and lake water) was demonstrated with satisfactory results.

  20. CALiPER Report 21.1. Linear (T8) Lamps in a 2x4 K12-Lensed Troffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    This report focuses on the performance of the same 31 linear LED lamps operated in a typical troffer with a K12 prismatic lens. In general, luminaire efficacy is strongly dictated by lamp efficacy, but the optical system of the luminaire substantially reduces the differences between the luminous intensity distributions of the lamps. While the distributions in the luminaire are similar, the differences remain large enough that workplane illuminance uniformity may be reduced if linear LED lamps with a narrow distribution are used. At the same time, linear LED lamps with a narrower distribution result in slightly higher luminaire efficiency.

  1. Ultraviolet radiation emitted by lamps, TVs, tablets and computers: are there risks for the population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Malvestiti, Andrey Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The frequent human exposure to various types of indoor lamps, as well as other light sources (television monitors, tablets and computers), raises a question: are there risks for the population? In the present study the emission of UVA and UVB radiation by lamps and screens of electronic devices were measured in order to determine the safe distance between the emitting source and the individual. We concluded that the lamps and electronic devices do not emit ultraviolet radiation; so they pose no health risk for the population.

  2. Comparison Between X-rays Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Measurements on a Ceramic Envelop Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno LAFITTE; Michel AUBES; Georges ZISSIS

    2007-01-01

    Burners of metal halide lamps used for illumination are generally made of polycrystalline alumina ceramic (PCA) which is translucent to visible light.We show that the difficulty of selecting a line of sight through the lamp prevents the use of optical emission diagnostic.X-rays photons are mainly absorbed and not scattered by PCA.Absorption by mercury atoms contributing to the discharge allowed us to determine the density of mercury in the lamp.By comparing diagnostic methods,we put in evidence the difficulty of taking into account the scattering of light mathematically.

  3. Programming ArcGIS with Python cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pimpler, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Programming ArcGIS with Python Cookbook, Second Edition, is written for GIS professionals who wish to revolutionize their ArcGIS workflow with Python. Whether you are new to ArcGIS or a seasoned professional, you almost certainly spend time each day performing various geoprocessing tasks. This book will teach you how to use the Python programming language to automate these geoprocessing tasks and make you a more efficient and effective GIS professional.

  4. Statistical analysis of geographic information with ArcView GIS and ArcGIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, David W. S; Lee, Jay

    2005-01-01

    ... of its capabilities for spatial-quantitative synthesis. Now, David Wong and Jay Lee update their comprehensive handbook with Statistical Analysis of Geographic Information with ArcView GIS and ArcGIS...

  5. The Confinement of Neptune's Ring Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, C.; Namouni, F.

    2002-09-01

    The stability of the narrow ring arcs of Neptune has been a puzzle since their discovery. First detected in 1984 from the Earth in stellar occultations and imaged by the Voyager spacecraft in 1989, the 5 arcs spanning approximately 40 deg in longitude are apparently confined against the rapid azimuthal and radial spreading that results from energy dissipation in inter-particle collisions. Voyager data were used to argue in favor of an arc confinement model (Goldreich et al. AJ 1986; Porco, Science 1991) that relies on both the vertical and mean angular motions of the nearby Neptunian moon, Galatea, to produce a pair of Lindblad (LR) and corotation inclination (CIR) resonances capable of trapping ring particles into a sequence of arcs. However, HST and Earth-based observations taken in 1998 (Dumas et al. Nature 1999; Sicardy et al. Nature 1999) indicate a revised arc mean angular motion which displaces the arcs away from the CIR, leaving their stability once again unexplained. In this presentation, we will discuss the workings of a hitherto neglected resonance which relies on Galatea's orbital eccentricity and which, together with the LR, is likely responsible for the angular confinement of the arcs. The action of this resonance, which operates through the precession of Galatea's eccentric orbit forced by the arcs' inertia, will allow a determination of the arcs' mass from future measurements of Galatea's eccentricity. We acknowledge the financial support of NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and the Southwest Research Institute's Internal Research Grant program.

  6. The Team Orienteering Arc Routing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Archetti, Claudia; Speranza, M. Grazia; Corberan, Angel; Sanchís Llopis, José María; Plana, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The team orienteering arc routing problem (TOARP) is the extension to the arc routing setting of the team orienteering problem. In the TOARP, in addition to a possible set of regular customers that have to be serviced, another set of potential customers is available. Each customer is associated with an arc of a directed graph. Each potential customer has a profit that is collected when it is serviced, that is, when the associated arc is traversed. A fleet of vehicles with a given maximum trav...

  7. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  8. Metals purification by improved vacuum arc remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanner, Frank J.; Williamson, Rodney L.; Smith, Mark F.

    1994-12-13

    The invention relates to improved apparatuses and methods for remelting metal alloys in furnaces, particularly consumable electrode vacuum arc furnaces. Excited reactive gas is injected into a stationary furnace arc zone, thus accelerating the reduction reactions which purify the metal being melted. Additionally, a cooled condensation surface is disposed within the furnace to reduce the partial pressure of water in the furnace, which also fosters the reduction reactions which result in a purer produced ingot. Methods and means are provided for maintaining the stationary arc zone, thereby reducing the opportunity for contaminants evaporated from the arc zone to be reintroduced into the produced ingot.

  9. Class `E` protective headwear: electric arc exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.

    1997-04-01

    A series of tests were conducted using electric arcs under laboratory conditions to determine what, if any, damages can be inflicted upon class `E` hard hats. Ten hard hats were subjected to different levels of arc exposure to see if the hat would ignite, melt, drip, stick to the head, etc. It was noted that there is no standard on hard hat exposure to an electric arc. It was recommended that the CSA committee revise the protective headwear standard to include a requirement for flame/arc resistance, including specification of pass/fail criteria. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  10. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  11. Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea G; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Dranguet, Perrine; Makri, Stamatina; Björn, Erik; Ungureanu, Viorel Gh; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl(-) concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  12. Boxicity of Circular Arc Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Diptendu; Chandran, L. Sunil

    2008-01-01

    A $k$-dimensional box is the cartesian product $R_1 \\times R_2 \\times ... \\times R_k$ where each $R_i$ is a closed interval on the real line. The {\\it boxicity} of a graph $G$, denoted as $box(G)$, is the minimum integer $k$ such that $G$ can be represented as the intersection graph of a collection of $k$-dimensional boxes: that is two vertices are adjacent if and only if their corresponding boxes intersect. A circular arc graph is a graph that can be represented as the intersection graph of ...

  13. Feedback Linearization Based Arc Length Control for Gas Metal Arc Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a feedback linearization based arc length controller for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is described. A nonlinear model describing the dynamic arc length is transformed into a system where nonlinearities can be cancelled by a nonlinear state feedback control part, and thus, leaving only...

  14. Hg $L_{3}$ edge absorption study of the $HgBa_{2}CuO_{4}\\delta$ superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Ziyu, Wu; Bianconi, A

    2001-01-01

    The HgBa/sub 2/CuO/sub 4+ delta / superconductor has been studied by high resolution Hg L/sub 3/ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectrum has been simulated by full multiple-scattering calculations in order to explore the origin of different features in the experimental spectrum. The experimental Hg L/sub 3/-edge spectrum could be well reproduced by considering a cluster of 85 atoms, containing 10 shells, within a radius of about 7 AA from the central Hg atom. The low energy spectral feature in the XANES spectrum is found to be due to a transition from the Hg p states to the electronic states hybridized with higher shell Ba atoms. This implies that the transition features in the Hg L/sub 3/- edge XANES are strongly influenced by medium range order effects unlike the case of L/sub 3/ edge of 3d transition metals where short- range order is enough to describe the main transition features. (25 refs).

  15. Hg SOIL GAS AND Hg SOIL DISTRIBUTION AROUND FORMER „ZRINSKI“ MINE ON MT. MEDVEDNICA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jug

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the field and laboratory researches, statistical analyses and graphical displays of the results of Hg soil gas and Hg soil distribution in the area around former mining site „Zrinski“ on Mt. Medvednica. The values of overall Hg concentrations in the soil gas show lognormal distribution, and their spatial distribution outlines the connection with the present Pb-Ag-Zn mineralization and confirms anthropogenic origin of uneven landscape relief (waste rock clusters. Regression analysis of the dependence between Hg contents in the soil gas and the distance from the mine entrance (correlation coefficient r also points to the considerable spatial dependence. Hg soil contents show as well distribution similar to lognormal, and there is a slight correlation when compared with Hg soil gas content. Concentrations are mostly within background values, except in the immediate vicinity of the mine entrance where the values are significantly higher due to the mineralization influence concentrated in the waste-rock clusters. Soil pollution caused by mercury is of local character with the spreading tendency to the south-west because of the dominant relief influence. Mercury found in the soil of the research location derives from the present mineral body and former mining activities, while possible anthropogenic atmospheric inputs from remote sources can not be proven on the basic of conducted research studies (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

  17. Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

    2013-03-21

    DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOI's coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

  18. Superconducting Hg-Based Mixed Oxides and Oxyfluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, E. V.

    2000-09-01

    Syntheses under high pressure and under controlled mercury and oxygen partial pressures of different members of the HgBa2Can-1CunO2n+2+δ series have been developed. There are two main parameters influencing Tc in this family: width of a perovskite slab (n) and concentration (δ) of the extra oxygen located in the Hg layer. The increase of Tc with n occurs until the third member, while after that it decreases. All the members of the series exhibit similar cupola shaped dependencies of Tc vs. δ. Strongly overdoped high members of the series with n = 3-5 were prepared only using high pressure technique and BaO2 as an internal oxidizer. Neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out for monophase oxygenated HgBa2CuO4F4+δ and fluorinated HgBa2CuO4Fδ samples with different extra oxygen or fluorine content and Tc values. Fluorinated series also exhibits the cupola -like behavior for the Tc vs. δ dependence. NPD showed twice the amount of extra fluorine in comparison with those for the oxygenated Hg-1201 phases with close Tc's. The exchange of the extra oxygen by double amount of fluorine causes shortening of the apical Cu-O distances, while the in-plane ones, as well as Tc, do not vary. The influence of the external pressure on the structure and Tc of Hg-1201 strongly depends on the doping level. The increase of the extra oxygen content on going from underdoped to overdoped state results in the larger compression of the apical Cu-O and Ba-OHg distances while the HgO2 dumbbell as well as the distance between Ba and O from the (CuO2) layers becomes practically pressure independent. These results together with the data for fluorinated materials allow to elucidate the crucial structural features responsible for the Tc variation under high pressure.

  19. LRO LAMP: Regional Variations in FUV Lunar Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Amanda; Retherford, K.; Gladstone, R.; Hurley, D.; Feldman, P.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D.; Miles, P.; Parker, J.; Greathouse, T.; Davis, M.; Pryor, W.; Bullock, M.; Mandt, K.; Stern, A.

    2013-10-01

    We present results from analysis of dayside data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument at far-ultraviolet (FUV) wavelengths. We focus on regional compositional variations, particularly those due to hydration and space weathering effects. The strong 165 nm H2O absorption edge is utilized to detect diurnal variations in hydration as indicated by changes in spectral slope. The diurnal variations in spectral slope are superimposed on latitudinal and spatial variations related to composition and weathering. We use two different spectral regions (164-173 nm and 175-190 nm) to separate out these effects. The diurnal variation in hydration is consistent with a solar wind origin and with a loss of H2O at temperatures above ~320 K (Hurley et al., 2012). We also look for hydration variations related to different terrains; mare regions, as well as the South Pole Aitken Basin, appear to have stronger diurnal variations in the water absorption edge than highlands regions. We find that Compton-Belkovich is a spectrally anomalous region in the FUV and investigate this further.

  20. Sporadic increases in lunar atmospheric helium detected by LAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason C.; Alan Stern, S.

    2014-07-01

    We report on a multi-year dataset of daily averaged observations of He in the lunar atmosphere by the LAMP UV spectrograph on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). We examine data obtained from the start of the LRO orbital tour in September 2009 to March 2013. We find that the maximum He number density occurs about two hours after local midnight, which is consistent with earlier measurements by the Apollo ALSEP LACE mass spectrometer. However, our measured maximum He density is 2-3 times lower than that of LACE. We also observed several instances where the surface He number density rapidly increased to higher than normal values and then declined for several days. We term these events “He flares”. We examined several plausible causes of these events, and found two plausible mechanisms that could be responsible for generating them. One is that the He may be generated by strong, coincident bursts of α particles in the solar wind. To do so, we compare our observations with solar wind α particle observations by ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun). Another plausible cause we discuss is that the He in the flares may be released from the Moon itself via moonquakes. Determining which is actually the cause requires further work and new measurements.

  1. Reaction Kinetics in cw Rare-Gas Halogen Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvermoser, M.; Murnick, D. E.; Ulrich, A.; Wieser, J.

    1999-10-01

    Pumping with a continuous low energy (excimer gas mixtures, the reaction kinetics leading to efficient vuv emission from ArF and F2 at 193nm and 157nm respectively has been studied. The scaling of the pumping power density with energy to the inverse 2.5 power and cube of the pressure allows a wide range of pumping rates to be considered. And, by studying the spectrum and yield as a function of pressure and gas mixture, optimum conditions for vuv emission can be determined and specific formation and quenching channels can be isolated. Energy transfer efficiency near 10% has been obtained at 193nm for neon-argon-fluorine (1:0.008:0.0004) mixtures and at 157nm for neon-fluorine (1:0.002) at two to three bar pressure. Lamps emitting tens of milliwatts light output from a 0.8mm diameter point have been stable for tens of hours. Scaling to at least 10W/cm^2str continuous output is possible.

  2. Photochemical surface modification of PET by excimer UV lamp irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S. L.; Häßler, R.; Mäder, E.; Bahners, T.; Opwis, K.; Schollmeyer, E.

    2005-09-01

    UV irradiation has interesting potential for the photochemical modification of polymers. In order to study cross-linking effects and/or thin-layer deposition following a treatment in the presence of bi-functional media or in inert atmosphere, irradiation of PET in various atmospheres was performed using a KrCl excimer lamp. Surface properties were investigated by atomic force microscopy, nanoindentation, micro-thermal analysis, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The studies reveal that surface chemical composition, morphology, adhesion, thermomechanics, and stiffness/modulus are strongly affected by UV irradiation in the presence of bi-functional media. Films treated in octadiene and argon show an increase of surface modulus, much less expansion, and lower soft/melt temperatures, which is an indication of the surface cross-linking effect and a decrease of crystallinity within the near-surface layer. In the case of a diallylphthalate-treated film, depending on the local structure, either a strong decrease of melting temperature or no melting point is found, which is attributed to the irregular cross linking and thickness of the modified layer associated with a decrease of surface modulus. A significant increase of the alkali resistance is found after irradiation, as a result of both wetting and cross-linking effects on the polymer surface.

  3. Functional features and hygienic aspects of LED lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Janosik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of the LED lamps and their influence on perceptual abilities and feeling of a human. Materials and methods: Technical parameters of ten chosen LED sources of light were determined. The sources varied among each other, according to the shape, colour temperature, colour rendering index and also name of the manufacturer. For each of the analysed sources of light, the illuminance, lighting uniformity, lighting luminance and degree of glare were determined. Moreover, also a subjective evaluation of the lighting conditions created by those lighting sources was performed. Results and conclusions: The study results have shown that the majority of the analysed sources of light provided their users with a good visibility and comfort of vision, but on the other hand, if used in an inappropriate way, they may be the reason for the unaccepted glare. It has been stated that the appropriate use and earlier – the well-thought-out choice of the LED sources of light are crucial. One has to consider the luminous flux, the colour temperature, the shape, as well as the manufacturer, who guarantees the quality and the safety class of the LED source of light.

  4. Hollow cathode lamp based Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Shang, Haosen; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2016-07-15

    The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), which has acquired wide applications, is mainly limited to some gaseous elements and low melting-point metals before, for the restriction of the attainable atomic density. In conventional FADOF systems a high atomic density is usually achieved by thermal equilibrium at the saturated vapor pressure, hence for elements with high melting-points a high temperature is required. To avoid this restriction, we propose a scheme of FADOF based on the hollow cathode lamp (HCL), instead of atomic vapor cells. Experimental results in strontium atoms verified this scheme, where a transmission peak corresponding to the (88)Sr (5s(2))(1)S0 - (5s5p)(1)P1 transition (461 nm) is obtained, with a maximum transmittance of 62.5% and a bandwith of 1.19 GHz. The dependence of transmission on magnetic field and HCL discharge current is also studied. Since the state-of-art commercial HCLs cover about 70 elements, this scheme can greatly expand the applications of FADOFs, and the abundant atomic transitions they provide bring the HCL based FADOFs potential applications for frequency stabilization.

  5. Enim küsitud küsimused / Marku Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Marku

    2007-01-01

    Metsaomanike küsimustele vastab seoses 1. jaan. 2007 kehtima hakanud uue metsaseadusega Keskkonnaministeeriumi metsaosakonna juhataja kt. Marku Lamp. Lisatud: lubatud võõrpuuliigid ; metsaseadus, paragrahv 29, lõige 11 ; mis puuliiki kuhu istutada

  6. Kas me sellist eesti keelt tahtsime? / Anu Lamp ; interv. Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    24. märtsil esietendus teatris NO99 lavakunstikooli 22. lennu viimane diplomilavastus "Keeleuuenduse lõpmatu kurv". Lavastaja Anu Lamp räägib eesti keelest ja sellest, kuidas materjal Johannes Aaviku keeleuuendusest lavale jõudis

  7. LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Far-UV Maps: A New View of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Gladstone, G. R.; Hendrix, A. R.; Mandt, K. E.; Egan, A. F.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Hayne, P. O.; Stern, S. A.; Parker, J. Wm.; Davis, M. W.; Grava, C.; Hurley, D. M.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Stickle, A. M.; Liu, Y.; Bullock, M. A.; Pryor, W. R.; Feldman, P. D.; Mukherjee, J.; Mokashi, P.; Seifert, C. J.; Versteeg, M. H.

    2016-05-01

    The LRO-LAMP investigation has provided a unique view at far-UV wavelengths, and uses an innovative way to measure surface reflectance within permanently shaded regions in order to constrain the water frost abundance at the surface.

  8. Silicon Nitride Film Deposition by Photochemical Vapor Deposition Using an Argon Excimer Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maezono, Yoshinari; Toshikawa, Kiyohiko; Kurosawa, Kou; Amari, Kouichi; Ishimura, Sou; Katto, Masahito; Yokotani, Atsushi

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we report the deposition of silicon nitride (SiNx) films for the production of semiconductor devices and flat panel displays, by chemical vapor deposition with vacuum ultraviolet excimer lamps (VUV-CVD) using SiH4 and NH3 as raw materials. An Ar2* excimer lamp (λ=126 nm, hν=9.8 eV) with a high photon energy was used to directly excite and dissociate SiH4 through a photochemical reaction. SiNx films were successfully formed at a low temperature of 100 °C with the Ar2* excimer lamp. Although the Si-rich films were obtained using an Ar2* lamp, they showed a quality almost similar to that of films obtained by conventional plasma-CVD at 400 °C.

  9. Microcontroller–Based Modified SEPIC Converter for Driving Lamp with Power Factor Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yamuna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodological study of electronic ballast for electrode less lamps including design and development issues is presented in this paper. The ballast is intended to feed a 300 W ultra violet lamp at 100 kHz with dimming feature. The proposed topology is composed of a Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC, used as power factor correction (PFC stage, integrated with a resonant half-bridge inverter, used as lamp power control (PC stage. The integration of both stages is proposed in this paper, in order to reduce the number of active switches, as well as to simplify the required driving and control circuitry for this application. The implemented topology attained very high power factor (0.9982, and low line current total harmonic distortion (THD (1.86%, without using electromagnetic interference (EMI filter, while the measured efficiency was 90% at nominal lamp power.

  10. Bayesian Models for Life Prediction and Fault-Mode Classification in Solid State Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Sakalaukus, Peter

    2015-04-19

    A new method has been developed for assessment of the onset of degradation in solid state luminaires to classifY failure mechanisms by using metrics beyond lumen degradation that are currently used for identification of failure. Luminous Flux output, Correlated Color Temperature Data on Philips LED Lamps has been gathered under 85°C/85%RH till lamp failure. The acquired data has been used in conjunction with Bayesian Probabilistic Models to identifY luminaires with onset of degradation much prior to failure through identification of decision boundaries between lamps with accrued damage and lamps beyond the failure threshold in the feature space. In addition luminaires with different failure modes have been classified separately from healthy pristine luminaires. It is expected that, the new test technique will allow the development of failure distributions without testing till L 70 life for the manifestation of failure.

  11. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine S; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Karina G

    2013-01-01

    astrocytomas and compared with tumor grade and overall patient survival. Moreover, double immunofluorescence stainings were performed with LAMP-1 and the astrocytic marker GFAP and the putative stem cell marker CD133 on ten glioblastomas. Most tumors expressed the LAMP-1 protein in the cytoplasm of the tumor...... cells, while the blood vessels were positive in all tumors. The percentage of LAMP-1 positive tumor cells and staining intensities increased with tumor grade but variations in tumors of the same grade were also found. No association was found between LAMP-1 expression and patient overall survival......Targeting of lysosomes is a novel therapeutic anti-cancer strategy for killing the otherwise apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Such strategies are urgently needed for treatment of brain tumors, especially the glioblastoma, which is the most frequent and most malignant type. The aim of the present...

  12. Enim küsitud küsimused / Marku Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Marku

    2007-01-01

    Metsaomanike küsimustele vastab seoses 1. jaan. 2007 kehtima hakanud uue metsaseadusega Keskkonnaministeeriumi metsaosakonna juhataja kt. Marku Lamp. Lisatud: lubatud võõrpuuliigid ; metsaseadus, paragrahv 29, lõige 11 ; mis puuliiki kuhu istutada

  13. CALiPER Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Merzouk, Massine B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report is a follow-up to CALiPER Application Summary Report 22, which investigated the photometric performance of LED MR16 lamps. The initial report found that many of the LED MR16 lamps did not perform as required by ENERGY STAR based on their equivalency claims, although they generally did provide substantial efficacy advantages compared to halogen MR16 lamps. All testing was completed using laboratory power supplies, with all but one product tested at 12 V AC. In contrast, this report examined the photoelectric performance of the same set of lamps, using commercially available transformers and dimmers as well as laboratory power supplies providing both AC and DC power.

  14. Plant growth with new fluorescent lamps : I. Fresh and dry weight yields of tomato seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A S; Dunn, S

    1966-06-01

    Tomato seedlings were grown under seven kinds of fluorescent lamps, including two that are commercially available, and five experimental lamps. Detailed descriptions and spectral emission curves for these lamps are presented.The 78/22 lamp, which emitted most of its energy above 500 mμ, more than ten percent above 700 mμ, and had a sharp peak output at 660 mμ, generally produced superior fresh and dry weight yields. This effect may be due primarily to the high peak of energy emitted at approximately 660 mμ, combined with a considerable emission in the far-red, which in turn may be related to the red ↔ far-red reversibility phenomeon.The Com I lamp, which lacked the sharp peak output at 660 mμ and emitted more energy in the blue than the 78/22 lamp, was generally second only to the latter in promoting plant growth. A high moisture content was found in plants under this lamp in some experiments.The IRIII lamp had the sharp peak output at 660 mμ but greater output in the blue than the 78/22 lamp. The 282 lamp output was similar to the 78/22 but lacked the high peak. Both of these lamps generally gave improved results over those produced by commercial Gro-Lux, Warm-white, and FLAT lamps. This was attributed to the greater percentage of red and far-red energy emission by the former two lamps. The yields with the FLAT lamp were consistently lowest of all. This has been attributed to the high percentage of emitted energy in the blue and green portions of the spectrum.Both length of the test period (13 days versus 26 days) and light intensity (550 μw/cm(2) versus 1100 μw/cm(2)) may be important factors in determining which composition of spectral energy emission produces the greatest yields. Under low intensity and short test period the Com I light produced highest fresh- and dry-weight yields, but under high intensity and longer growth period the 78/22 lamp gave greatest yields. This effect may be due to inhibition of leaf expansion by red light in the early

  15. Photochemical/Microchannel Plasma Reactors Driven By High Power Vacuum Ultraviolet Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chul; Park, Sung-Jin; Eden, Gary

    2016-09-01

    Experiments are being conducted in which molecular dissociation or other chemical reactions in microchannel plasmas are accelerated by the introduction of vacuum ultraviolet photons. Initial emphasis is being placed on recently-developed Xe2 lamps that are efficient sources of 172 nm (h ν 7.2 eV) photons. Thin, flat lamps, fabricated from fused silica and having microcavity arrays internal to the lamp, have been developed by the University of Illinois and Eden Park Illumination and produce intensities above 200 mW/cm2. Integrating such lamps into a microcavity plasma reactor yields a hybrid photochemical/plasma system in which product yield and power consumption can be optimized. The selectivity of photodissociation in generating radicals and atomic fragments offers new synergies in plasma processing. Data concerning CO2 dissociation in arrays of microchannel plasmas, and the modification of this process by external 172 nm radiation, will be presented.

  16. Integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless fluorescent lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Joseph Christopher; Cocoma, John Paul; Roberts, Victor David

    1998-01-01

    An integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless SEF fluorescent lamp includes a wire mesh amalgam support constructed to jointly optimize positions of a starting amalgam and a running amalgam in the lamp, thereby optimizing mercury vapor pressure in the lamp during both starting and steady-state operation in order to rapidly achieve and maintain high light output. The wire mesh amalgam support is constructed to support the starting amalgam toward one end thereof and the running amalgam toward the other end thereof, and the wire mesh is rolled for friction-fitting within the exhaust tube of the lamp. The positions of the starting and running amalgams on the wire mesh are jointly optimized such that high light output is achieved quickly and maintained, while avoiding any significant reduction in light output between starting and running operation.

  17. Kas me sellist eesti keelt tahtsime? / Anu Lamp ; interv. Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Anu, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    24. märtsil esietendus teatris NO99 lavakunstikooli 22. lennu viimane diplomilavastus "Keeleuuenduse lõpmatu kurv". Lavastaja Anu Lamp räägib eesti keelest ja sellest, kuidas materjal Johannes Aaviku keeleuuendusest lavale jõudis

  18. Comparison of fluorescent and high-pressure sodium lamps on growth of leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, H. V.; Prince, R. P.; Koontz, R. F.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    Radiation from high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps provided more than a 50% increased yield (fresh and dry weight of tops) of loose-leaf lettuce cultivars Grand Rapids Forcing and RubyConn, compared to that obtained by radiation from cool-white fluorescent (CWF) lamps at equal photosynthetic photon flux; yet, input wattage was approximately 36% less. It was postulated that the considerable output of 700 to 850 nm radiation from the HPS lamp was a significant factor of the increased yield. Under HPS lamps, the leaves of both cultivars were slightly less green with very little red pigmentation ('RubyConn') and slightly elongated, compared to CWF, but plant productivity per unit electrical energy input was vastly superior with HPS.

  19. Assessing occupational mercury exposures during the on-site processing of spent fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Alan; Emery, Robert

    2006-03-01

    On-site processing of spent fluorescent lamps reduces storage space requirements and prevents mercury-containing lamp contents from entering the municipal waste stream, but such processing activities are typically not carried out in facilities specifically designed for the operation. This circumstance is of particular concern because lamp-handling and -crushing operations can release mercury vapors and aerosols that constitute an occupational exposure risk. In the study reported here, sampling for airborne mercury was performed during the processing of fluorescent lamps in an enclosed work area and in an open, outdoor work environment. In both enclosed and open work environments, exposures in excess of the established mercury exposure limit were detected. Simple interventions to prevent this possible unanticipated source of mercury exposure are described.

  20. A novel vacuum ultra violet lamp for metastable rare gas experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Daerr, Heiner; Sahling, Peter; Tippenhauer, Sandra; Arabi-Hashemi, Ariyan; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2011-01-01

    We report on a new design of a vacuum ultra violet (VUV) lamp for direct optical excitation of high laying atomic states e.g. for excitation of metastable rare gas atoms. The lamp can be directly mounted to ultra high vacuum vessels (p <= 10^(-10) mbar). It is driven by a 2.45 GHz microwave source. For optimum operation it requires powers of approximately 20 W. The VUV light is transmitted through a magnesium fluoride window, which is known to have a decreasing transmittance for VUV photons with time. In our special setup, after a run-time of the VUV lamp of 550 h the detected signal continuously decreased to 25 % of its initial value. This corresponds to a lifetime increase of two orders of magnitude compared to previous setups or commercial lamps.

  1. A novel vacuum ultra violet lamp for metastable rare gas experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daerr, Heiner; Kohler, Markus; Sahling, Peter; Tippenhauer, Sandra; Arabi-Hashemi, Ariyan; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2011-07-01

    We report on a new design of a vacuum ultra violet (VUV) lamp for direct optical excitation of high laying atomic states, e.g., for excitation of metastable rare gas atoms. The lamp can be directly mounted to ultra-high vacuum vessels (p ≤ 10(-10)mbar). It is driven by a 2.45 GHz microwave source. For optimum operation, it requires powers of ~20 W. The VUV light is transmitted through a magnesium fluoride window, which is known to have a decreasing transmittance for VUV photons with time. In our special setup, after a run-time of the VUV lamp of 550 h the detected signal continuously decreased to 25% of its initial value. This corresponds to a lifetime increase of two orders of magnitude compared to previous setups or commercial lamps.

  2. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  3. ATLAS DDM integration in ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Cameron, David; Ellert, Mattias;

    2008-01-01

    The Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF) consists of Grid resources running ARC middleware in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These resources serve many virtual organisations and contribute a large fraction of total worldwide resources for the ATLAS experiment, whose data is distributed and mana......The Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF) consists of Grid resources running ARC middleware in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These resources serve many virtual organisations and contribute a large fraction of total worldwide resources for the ATLAS experiment, whose data is distributed...... and managed by the DQ2 software. Managing ATLAS data within NDGF and between NDGF and other Grids used by ATLAS (the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE Grid and the Open Science Grid) presents a unique challenge for several reasons. Firstly, the entry point for data, the Tier 1 centre, is physically distributed...... outside the worker node environment. Also, the service used for cataloging the location of data files is different from otherGrids but must still be useable by DQ2 and ATLAS users to locate data within NDGF. This paper presents in detail how we solve these issues to allow seamless access worldwide to data...

  4. Visual performance for trip hazard detection when using incandescent and led miner cap lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, John J; Gallagher, Sean; Reyes, Miguel

    2010-04-01

    Accident data for 2003-2007 indicate that slip, trip, and falls (STFs) are the second leading accident class (17.8%, n=2,441) of lost-time injuries in underground mining. Proper lighting plays a critical role in enabling miners to detect STF hazards in this environment. Often, the only lighting available to the miner is from a cap lamp worn on the miner's helmet. The focus of this research was to determine if the spectral content of light from light-emitting diode (LED) cap lamps enabled visual performance improvements for the detection of tripping hazards as compared to incandescent cap lamps that are traditionally used in underground mining. A secondary objective was to determine the effects of aging on visual performance. The visual performance of 30 subjects was quantified by measuring each subject's speed and accuracy in detecting objects positioned on the floor both in the near field, at 1.83 meters, and far field, at 3.66 meters. Near field objects were positioned at 0 degrees and +/-20 degrees off axis, while far field objects were positioned at 0 degrees and +/-10 degrees off axis. Three age groups were designated: group A consisted of subjects 18 to 25 years old, group B consisted of subjects 40 to 50 years old, and group C consisted of subjects 51 years and older. Results of the visual performance comparison for a commercially available LED, a prototype LED, and an incandescent cap lamp indicate that the location of objects on the floor, the type of cap lamp used, and subject age all had significant influences on the time required to identify potential trip hazards. The LED-based cap lamps enabled detection times that were an average of 0.96 seconds faster compared to the incandescent cap lamp. Use of the LED cap lamps resulted in average detection times that were about 13.6% faster than those recorded for the incandescent cap lamp. The visual performance differences between the commercially available LED and prototype LED cap lamp were not statistically

  5. Fusion of Library, Archive, Museum, Publisher (LAMP: the NTNU Library Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke, Hao-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of libraries, archives, and museums (LAMs has garnered attention in recent years. Extending the tendency further, National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU fuses the library, archive, museum, and publisher (LAMP functionality together in its library. This article elaborates on the LAMP practices of the NTNU Library, which indicates that without creating new units in a university, its library can play a good role of curating invaluable university assets.

  6. CALiPER Application Summary Report 20. LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-11-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 38 LED PAR38 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR. Additional testing that focuses on performance attributes beyond those covered by LM-79-08 is planned for this group of lamps, and will be presented in subsequent reports.

  7. Analytical Investigation On Temperature Distribution Of High Wattage White Light Lamp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Andhare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent times the usage of floodlight is increasing. But for developing high power more than 200W of power consumption floodlight the problem on radiant heat has not been resolved clearly as ever. So in this paper the numerical study was conducted to analyze the temperature distributions of general 500 W floodlights. The temperature distribution on lamp was calculated at the instance where lamp gives white light under ideal conditions to see optimum conditions of the life.

  8. Current-Mode Power Converter for Radiation Control in DBD Excimer Lamps

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A pulsed current-mode converter specifically designed for the supply of dielectric barrier discharge excimer lamps is proposed in this paper. The power supply structure is defined on the basis of causality criteria that are justified by the structure of the lamp model. The converter operation is studied, and its design criteria are established using state-plane analysis. This converter, operating in discontinuous conduction mode, controls directly both the amplitude and the duration of the em...

  9. Characterization of particulate matter size distributions and indoor concentrations from kerosene and diesel lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J; Vicente, R; Yarberry, A; Lohse, N; Mills, E; Jacobson, A; Poppendieck, D

    2010-10-01

    Over one-quarter of the world's population relies on fuel-based lighting. Kerosene lamps are often located in close proximity to users, potentially increasing the risk for respiratory illnesses and lung cancer. Particulate matter concentrations resulting from cook stoves have been extensively studied in the literature. However, characterization of particulate concentrations from fuel-based lighting has received minimal attention. This research demonstrates that vendors who use a single simple wick lamp in high-air-exchange market kiosks will likely be exposed to PM(2.5) concentrations that are an order of magnitude greater than ambient health guidelines. Using a hurricane lamp will reduce exposure to PM(2.5) and PM(10) concentrations by an order of magnitude compared to using a simple wick lamp. Vendors using a single hurricane or pressure lamp may not exceed health standards or guidelines for PM(2.5) and PM(10), but will be exposed to elevated 0.02-0.3 μm particle concentrations. Vendors who change from fuel-based lighting to electric lighting technology for enhanced illumination will likely gain the ancillary health benefit of reduced particulate matter exposure. Vendors exposed only to ambient and fuel-based lighting particulate matter would see over an 80% reduction in inhaled PM(2.5) mass if they switched from a simple wick lamp to an electric lighting technology. Changing lighting technologies to achieve increased efficiency and energy service levels can provide ancillary health benefits. The cheapest, crudest kerosene lamps emit the largest amounts of PM(2.5). Improving affordability and access to better lighting options (hurricane or pressure lamps and lighting using grid or off-grid electricity) can deliver health benefits for a large fraction of the world's population, while reducing the economic and environmental burden of the current fuel-based lighting technologies.

  10. Distribution of populations in excited states of electrodeless discharge lamp of Rb atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO ZhiMing; WANG YanFei; HONG YeLong; WANG DongYing; ZHANG ShengNan; ZHUANG Wei; CHEN JingBiao

    2013-01-01

    The intensity of fluorescence spectral lines of Rb atoms in the region of 350-1110 nm is measured in eletrodeless discharge lamp.The population ratio between the excited states is calculated according to the spontaneous transition probabilities with rate equations.At the same time,the population density of energy level is also obtained.The results provide the potential applications of electrodeless discharge lamp in atomic filter and optical frequency reference at higher excited states without a pumping laser.

  11. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: The impact of dental amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, Iman, E-mail: iman@kfshrc.edu.sa [Biological and Medical Research Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sedairi, Al anoud [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box: 24452, Riyadh 11495 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine ({mu}g/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter ({mu}g/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N = 106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N = 76), with means of 3.763 {mu}g/g creatinine versus 3.457 {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P = 0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P = 0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 {mu}g/g (N = 97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 {mu}g/g (N = 74) for those without amalgam fillings (P = 0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 {mu}g/g, N = 61) versus those with (0.163 {mu}g/g, N = 101), the relationship was not significant (P = 0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (P < 0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse relationship was seen between NHg levels and dental amalgam fillings (P = 0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and

  12. Overcoming phytoremediation limitations. A case study of Hg contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a broad term that comprises several technologies to clean up water and soil. Despite the numerous articles appearing in scientific journals, very few field applications of phytoextraction have been successfully realized. The research here reported on Phytoextraction, the use the plant to "extract" metals from contaminated soil, is focused on implementations to overcome two main drawbacks: the survival of plants in unfavorable environmental conditions (contaminant toxicity, low fertility, etc.) and the often lengthy time it takes to reduce contaminants to the requested level. Moreover, to overcome the imbalance between the technology's potential and its drawbacks, there is growing interest in the use of plants to reduce only the fraction that is the most hazardous to the environment and human health, that is to target the bioavailable fractions of metals in soil. Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping (BCS) would be a remediation approach focused to remove the bioavailable metal fractions. BCS have been used in a mercury contaminated soil from Italian industrial site. Bioavailable fractions were determined by sequential extraction with H2O and NH4Cl.Combined treatments of plant hormone and thioligand to strength Hg uptake by crop plants (Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) were tested. Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution following treatments were compared. Results indicate the plant hormone, cytokinine (CK) foliar treatment, increased evapotranspiration rate in both tested plants. The Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants increased with simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments. B. juncea was the most effective in Hg uptake. Application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 232% in shoots and 39% in roots with respect to control. While H. annuus gave a better response in plant biomass production, the application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to

  13. Spectroscopic variability and magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Savanov, I S; Dall, T; Schoeller, M; Cowley, C R; Briquet, M; Arlt, R

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of exotic abundances, chemical inhomogeneities, and weak magnetic fields on the surface of late B-type primaries in spectroscopic binaries has important implications not only for our understanding of the formation mechanisms of stars with Hg and Mn peculiarities themselves, but also for the general understanding of B-type star formation in binary systems. The origin of the abundance anomalies observed in late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity is still poorly understood. The connection between HgMn peculiarity and membership in binary and multiple systems is supported by our observations during the last decade. The important result achieved in our studies of a large sample of HgMn stars is the finding that most HgMn stars exhibit spectral variability of various chemical elements, proving that the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution on the surface of these stars is a rather common characteristic and not a rare phenomenon. Further, in the studied systems, we found that all components are che...

  14. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  15. Are there tangled magnetic fields on HgMn stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Jeffers, S V; Johns-Krull, C M; Keller, C U; Rodenhuis, M; Snik, F; Stempels, H C; Valenti, J A

    2013-01-01

    Several recent spectrophotometric studies failed to detect significant global magnetic fields in late-B HgMn chemically peculiar stars, but some investigations have suggested the presence of strong unstructured or tangled fields in these objects. We used detailed spectrum synthesis analysis to search for evidence of tangled magnetic fields in high-quality observed spectra of 8 slowly rotating HgMn stars and one normal late-B star. We also evaluated recent sporadic detections of weak longitudinal magnetic fields in HgMn stars based on the moment technique. Our analysis of the Zeeman broadening of magnetically sensitive spectral lines reveals no evidence of tangled magnetic fields in any of the studied HgMn or normal stars. We infer upper limits of 200-700 G for the mean magnetic field modulus -- much smaller than the field strengths implied by studies based on differential magnetic line intensification and quadratic field diagnostics. The new HARPSpol longitudinal field measurements for the extreme HgMn star H...

  16. Ultraviolet Radiation Emissions and Illuminance in Different Brands of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Safari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Replacing incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs, which are three to six times more efficient, is one of the easiest methods to achieve energy efficiency. The present study aimed to evaluate relationships between UV emissions radiated and illuminance CFLs. Material and Methods. This pilot study was conducted on 16 single envelope CFLs. The illuminance and UV irradiance of various types of CFLs are measured on a three-meter long optical bench, using a calibrated lux meter and UV meter, and measurement was done in 10, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 cm, in three angles, including 0°, 45°, and 90°, at the ages of 0, 100, and 2000 hours. Result. UVC irradiance was not observed at the distance of 10 cm in all of lamps. The lowest value of UVB irradiance was recorded in Pars Khazar lamp, while the highest value was recorded in Etehad lamps. UVR values measured at different times showed negligible differences; the highest asset value was detected in zero times. One way ANOVA indicated that relationships between UVA irradiance and illuminance were significant (P<0.05. Conclusion. UVB irradiance in most of the lamp in 10 and 25 cm was more than occupational exposure and UVA except for the fact that Pars Khazar 60 watts and Nama Noor 60 watts were less than occupational exposure.

  17. Design and Manufacture of a Novel LED Table Lamp with Flower Decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work involved the design and manufacture of a novel LED table lamp that provides for flower decoration. It is a combination of a normal LED table lamp and attachments holding flower arrangement frogs. In this application the frogs, as used for traditional flower arrangements, became heat sinks for the LED units. They are made of an aluminum alloy to give good heat transfer and dissipation. In any case since they are fixed to the unit they do not need to be very heavy. The design features of this novel flower-arrangement LED table lamp are: (1 the use of a light aluminum alloy flower decoration frog as a heat sink which gives both high heat dissipation and allows decorative flower arrangement; (2 the installation of LED lamps at three points of the same plate above a cylinder covered with a glass lampshade to achieve a beautiful effect; (3 to provide three different lighting modes for reading, use as a night light and for flower decoration. This novel LED table lamp meets all the energy-saving and environmental protection requirements. It has commercial potential in the market for LED lamps.

  18. Screening of vibriosis in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to standardize a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the detection of Vibrio harveyi,the causative agent of vibriosis in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. The dnaJ gene of the bacterial pathogen was used as the target gene for theLAMP assay. It was optimized at an incubation time of 1 h at 630C. The assay was highly specific for V. harveyiand did not cross-react withother bacterial pathogens of fish. However, the assay was able to detect V. harveyithat was isolated from infected shrimps. The limit of detectionof the LAMP assay was 40 pg of DNA mL-1 or 40 fg of the genomic DNA per LAMP reaction and was 10 times more sensitive than conventionalPCR in detecting the bacterial pathogen from infected samples. The LAMP products can be quantified spectrophotometrically usinghydroxynaphthol blue (HNB dye and showed positive correlation with the amount of the pathogen. These results demonstrated that LAMP isa simple and sensitive detection technique that has potential application for routine diagnosis of vibrosis caused by V. harveyiin Asian seabassand other aquatic species.

  19. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): A novel rapid detection platform for pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanmei; Fan, Penghui; Zhou, Shishui; Zhang, Li

    2017-03-18

    Foodborne bacterial infections and diseases have been considered to be a major threat for public health in the worldwide. Increased incidence of human diseases caused by foodborne pathogens have been correlated with growing world population and mobility. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been regarded as an innovative gene amplification technology and emerged as an alternative to PCR-based methodologies in both clinical laboratory and food safety testing. Nowadays, LAMP has been applied to detection and identification on pathogens from microbial diseases, as it showed significant advantage in high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity. The high sensitivity of LAMP enables detection of the pathogens in sample materials even without time consuming sample preparation. An overview of LAMP mainly containing the development history, reaction principle and its application to four kind of foodborne pathogens detection are presented in this paper. As concluded, with the advantages of rapidity, simplicity, sensitivity, specificity and robustness, LAMP is capable of applications for clinical diagnosis as well as surveillance of infection diseases. Moreover, the main purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical basis for the clinical application of LAMP technology.

  20. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP): Emergence As an Alternative Technology for Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Yue; Liang, Jun-Song; Zhou, Xing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of medicinal plant ingredients is essential for their safe use and for the regulation of herbal drug supply chain. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a recently developed approach to identify herbal medicine species. This novel molecular biology technique enables timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where infrastructures to support polymerase chain reaction facilities are lacking. Studies that used this method have altered our view on the extent and complexity of herbal medicine identification. In this review, we give an introduction into LAMP analysis, covers the basic principles and important aspects in the development of LAMP analysis method. Then we presented a critical review of the application of LAMP-based methods in detecting and identifying raw medicinal plant materials and their processed products. We also provide a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for the utilization of the LAMP protocol in herbal authentication, and consider the prospects of LAMP technology in the future developments of herbal medicine identification and the challenges associated with its application.