Sample records for hfet us06 sc03

  1. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations for FTP... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year...

  2. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy and carbon-related... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-12 Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust...

  3. Ka- and W-band PM-HFET DRO's (United States)

    Wenger, J.; Guettich, U.


    Dielectric resonator stabilized oscillators have been designed, fabricated, and investigated. The oscillators consist of microstrip matching and biasing circuits on alumina substrate, a dielectric resonator puck, and a low-noise quarter-micron InGaAs-GaAs pseudomorphic (PM) HFET as the active device. At 37 GHz and 81 GHz, output powers of 10 dBm and 0 dBm have been measured. The phase noise of the Ka-band and W-band oscillators has been determined to be -97 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and -90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz off carrier, respectively.

  4. A Pt/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) prepared by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-gate approach (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Wen; Chang, Ching-Hong; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Chia; Chen, Huey-Ing; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Tsai, Jung-Hui; Liu, Wen-Chau


    Based on an electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-gate approach, a Pt/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) is fabricated and investigated at higher temperatures. The Pt/AlGaN interface with nearly oxide-free is verified by an Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) depth profile for the studied EPD-HFET. This result substantially enhances device performance at room temperature (300 K). Experimentally, the studied EPD-HFET exhibits a high turn-on voltage, a well suppression on gate leakage, a superior maximum drain saturation current, and an excellent extrinsic transconductance. Moreover, the microwave performance of an EPD-HFET is demonstrated at room temperature. Consequentially, this EPD-gate approach gives a promise for high-performance electronic applications.

  5. Quantum 1/f noise in GaN FETs, HFETs, MODFETs, and their oscillators' phase noise (United States)

    Handel, Peter H.; Hall, Amanda M.; Morkoç, Hadis


    GaN-based FETs, HFETs and MODFETs are ideally suited for use in high-power amplifiers and oscillators, due to their large band gap and high operating voltages. According to the quantum 1/f theory, the larger effective mass implied for the carriers also leads to lower fundamental 1/f noise and to lower resulting phase noise close to the carrier frequency. We have therefore studied the quantum 1/f noise sources in the channel and in the gate insulation. For the channel, a combination of conventional and coherent Quantum 1/f Effect (Q1/fE) is present, with the conventional Q1/fE dominant in the sub-threshold part of the channel toward the drain. It turns out that the quantum 1/f parameter "s" that determines the fraction of the two forms of Q1/fE, is no longer increasing proportionally to the width of the device w, when the latter exceeds the length of the channel. A logarithmic dependence on w is obtained for s instead. This is why an extremely large width w does not automatically lead to coherent Q1/fE in HFETs. Conventional Q1/fE applies for the gate insulation, with contributions of the much larger piezoelectric Q1/fE in spontaneously polarized AlGaN, if gate leakage is present. The noise figure is calculated, including all contributions. Finally, the minimal expected oscillator phase noise is calculated from the Q1/fE in the dissipative elements, even for perfectly linear amplifiers, by multiplication with the inverse fourth power of the quality factor, as was first done by us for quartz in 1979.

  6. High-resistivity GaN buffer templates and their optimization for GaN-based HFETs (United States)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Zhao, G.; Pavlidis, D.; Sutton, W.; Cho, E.


    High-resistance (HR) GaN templates for AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistor (HFET) applications were grown using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The GaN sheet resistance was tuned using final nucleation layer (NL) annealing temperature and NL thickness. Using an annealing temperature of 1033 °C and NL thickness of 26 nm, GaN with sheet resistance of 10 10 Ω/sq was achieved, comparable to that of Fe-doped GaN. Material characterization results show that the high-resistance GaN is achieved due to compensating acceptor levels that may be introduced through edge-type threading dislocations. Optimization of annealing temperature and NL thickness provided a means to maximize GaN sheet resistance without significantly degrading material quality. In situ laser reflectance was used to correlate the NL properties to sheet resistance and material quality, providing a figure of merit for expected sheet resistance. AlGaN/GaN HFET layers grown using HR GaN templates with R of 10 10 Ω/sq gave surface and interface roughness of 14 and 7 Å, respectively. The 2DEG Hall mobility and sheet charge of HFETs grown using HR GaN templates was comparable to similar layers grown using unintentionally doped (UID) GaN templates.

  7. Analytical calculation of the quantum 1/f coherence parameter for HFETs (United States)

    Handel, Peter H.; Sherif, Taher S.


    The ratio s of the coherent magnetic energy term and the incoherent mechanical kinetic energy terms of the drift motion in the hamiltonian of a current carrying system is calculated for the special cases of a HFET or FET. This ratio defines the resulting quantum 1/f noise from the coherent and conventional quantum 1/f effects. In this case of FETs and HFETs of much larger width w>>LDS>t, the kinetic energy Ek of average motion with drift velocity vd per unit length in the direction of the drain-source distance LDS in the channel of thickness t, is still given by Nmvd 2/2, but the magnetic energy Em per unit length in the direction of LDS is roughly proportional with the first power of w only, instead of w2, and can be approximated by Em = π[ln(w/2LDS)]LDS[nevS/c]2/w. Here S=wt is the cross section though which current flows this indicates field-decoherence along the large device width w. This yields a coherence ratio of s ≡ Em/Ek ~ πnrotLDSln(w/2LDS), which shows that only an effective width w=weff about equal to LDS should be used in the calculation of s in this special case; larger widths are subject to de-coherence. This favors lower, mainly conventional, quantum 1/f noise in these devices, in spite of the large values of w. It also explains for the first time why the huge widths are possible with impunity, i.e., without causing the much larger coherent quantum 1/f noise to appear. For non-uniform current distribution across t, and for piezoelectric coupling, improved forms are derived for s. Specifically, the coherence parameter, called s' for the piezo case, is given by s' = (gN'h/m*vs)( vs/u)3F(u/vs)t/12w, where F(u/vs) = (2/3)(u/vs) for small drift velocity u, much smaller than the sound velocity vs in the semiconductor. Here N'=nwt.

  8. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. (United States)


    ... natural gas test fuel. (b) If only one equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value exists for an... petroleum-based fuel economy for that configuration. (c) If more than one equivalent petroleum-based fuel... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection...

  9. Development of chip shrink technology for lateral-type GaN based HFETs using SiO2/polyimide dual IMD layers (United States)

    Oh, Seung kyu; Ko, Hwa-Young; Jang, Taehoon; Kwak, Joon Seop


    This study examined chip shrink technology for lateral-type AlGaN/GaN HFETs on 150 mm Si substrates fabricated with a bonding pad above the active area (BPAA) structure. The SiO2/polyimide layers were used as inter metal dielectric (IMD) layers, which yielded a very low leakage current of 0.58 nA/mm2 even at 1 kV and a good adhesion property after O2 plasma treatment. The fabricated AlGaN/GaN HFETs with the BPAA structure exhibited good device characteristics, such as a low leakage current of 7.1 nA at 1 kV and a drain current of 3.6 A at 2 V, which has the same value compared to that of the AlGaN/GaN HFETs without the BPAA structure, even though the BPAA structure reduced the size of chip by 40%. This suggests that the BPAA structure is a promising method for reducing the size and cost of the lateral-type AlGaN/GaN HFETs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Efficiency Enhancement of Pico-cell Base Station Power Amplifier MMIC in Gallium Nitride HFET Technology Using the Doherty technique (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sashieka

    With the growth of smart phones, the demand for more broadband, data centric technologies are being driven higher. As mobile operators worldwide plan and deploy 4th generation (4G) networks such as LTE to support the relentless growth in mobile data demand, the need for strategically positioned pico-sized cellular base stations known as 'pico-cells' are gaining traction. In addition to having to design a transceiver in a much compact footprint, pico-cells must still face the technical challenges presented by the new 4G systems, such as reduced power consumptions and linear amplification of the signals. The RF power amplifier (PA) that amplifies the output signals of 4G pico-cell systems face challenges to minimize size, achieve high average efficiencies and broader bandwidths while maintaining linearity and operating at higher frequencies. 4G standards as LTE use non-constant envelope modulation techniques with high peak to average ratios. Power amplifiers implemented in such applications are forced to operate at a backed off region from saturation. Therefore, in order to reduce power consumption, a design of a high efficiency PA that can maintain the efficiency for a wider range of radio frequency signals is required. The primary focus of this thesis is to enhance the efficiency of a compact RF amplifier suitable for a 4G pico-cell base station. For this aim, an integrated two way Doherty amplifier design in a compact 10mm x 11.5mm2 monolithic microwave integrated circuit using GaN device technology is presented. Using non-linear GaN HFETs models, the design achieves high effi-ciencies of over 50% at both back-off and peak power regions without compromising on the stringent linearity requirements of 4G LTE standards. This demonstrates a 17% increase in power added efficiency at 6 dB back off from peak power compared to conventional Class AB amplifier performance. Performance optimization techniques to select between high efficiency and high linearity operation are

  11. Effect of substrate offcut on AlGaN/GaN HFET structures on bulk GaN substrates (United States)

    Leach, J. H.; Biswas, N.; Paskova, T.; Preble, E. A.; Evans, K. R.; Wu, M.; Ni, X.; Li, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.


    Bulk GaN substrates promise to bring the full potential of nitride-based devices to bear since they offer a low thermal and lattice mismatched alternative to foreign substrates for epitaxial growth. However, due to the high cost and low availability of bulk GaN substrates, effects such as surface misorientation (offcut), surface polishing, and preparation of such substrates on subsequent epitaxy are still not well understood. As such, AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with nominal Al compositions of 25% were grown by MOCVD on semi-insulating bulk GaN substrates with offcuts ranging from 0.05 to 1.95° in the m-direction (10 10) to attempt to determine the optimal offcut for bulk GaN substrates for AlGaN-based HFET devices. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that the Al composition does not vary with offcut, however reciprocal space mapping shows evidence of strain relaxation of the AlGaN in samples grown on substrates with offcut >1.1°. Additionally, we observed a minimum in sheet resistance of the 2DEGs for substrates with offcuts near 0.5°, arising from higher mobilities in these samples. Evidence of an optimal substrate misorientation is important for AlGaN-based devices grown on bulk GaN substrates.

  12. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission (United States)

    Sullivan, Gerry


    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Analytical charge control model for AlGaN/GaN MIS-HFETs including an undepleted barrier layer (United States)

    Shenghui, Lu; Jiangfeng, Du; Qian, Luo; Qi, Yu; Wei, Zhou; Jianxin, Xia; Mohua, Yang


    An analytical charge control model considering the insulator/AlGaN interface charge and undepleted Al-GaN barrier layer is presented for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors (MIS-HFETs) over the entire operation range of gate voltage. The whole process of charge control is analyzed in detail and partitioned into four regions: I—full depletion, II—partial depletion, III—neutral region and IV—electron accumulation at the insulator/AlGaN interface. The results show that two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) saturates at the boundary of region II/III and the gate voltage should not exceed the 2DEG saturation voltage in order to keep the channel in control. In addition, the span of region II accounts for about 50% of the range of gate voltage before 2DEG saturates. The good agreement of the calculated transfer characteristic with the measured data confirms the validity of the proposed model.

  14. Comparative studies on AlGaN/GaN/Si MOS-HFETs with Al2O3/TiO2 stacked dielectrics by using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition technique (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Sung; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Chiang, Bo-Jung; Liu, Han-Yin; Lee, Hsin-Yuan


    Al0.26Ga0.74N/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) grown on a Si substrate with Al2O3/TiO2 stacked gate dielectrics formed by using non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) technique are investigated. High permittivity (k) values of Al2O3 and TiO2 were characterized to be 9 and 46.1, respectively, with an equal layer thickness of 10 nm. The present MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) design has demonstrated enhanced device characteristics at 300 K, including maximum drain-source current density (I DS,max) of 725 (530) mA/mm, I DS at V GS = 0 V (I DSS0) of 471 (383) mA/mm, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 2.5 (1.6) V, two-terminal gate-drain breakdown voltage (BV GD) of -182 (-121) V, turn-on voltage (V on) of 4.9 (3.2) V, three-terminal off-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BV DS) of 174 (103) V, on/off current ratio (I on/I off) of 5.6 × 107 (3.7 × 103), unity-gain cut-off frequency (f T ) of 10.3 (6.8) GHz, maximum oscillation frequency (f max) of 14.8 (8.6) GHz, and power-added efficiency (P.A.E.) of 38.5% (31.7%) at 2.4 GHz. High temperature device characteristics up to 450 K are also discussed.

  15. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. (United States)


    ... manual transmission vehicles, the vehicle shall be shifted according the provisions of § 86.128-00. (8...). Fifteen seconds after the engine starts, place vehicle in gear. (10) Eighteen seconds after the engine... rates to the desired flow rate and set the gas flow measuring devices to zero. (i) For gaseous...

  16. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. (United States)


    ..., CH4, and NOX. For petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles, THC is sampled and analyzed continuously... scoop. Additionally, the Administrator may conduct certification, fuel economy and in-use testing using... used, petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle THC analyzer continuous sample line should be preheated to...

  17. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. (United States)


    ... adjustment. (e) Perform the test bench sampling sequence outlined in § 86.140-94 prior to or in conjunction... sample bag, turn on the petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle THC analyzer system integrator, mark the recorder.... 1 (and the petroleum-fueled diesel hydrocarbon integrator No. 1 and mark the petroleum-fueled diesel...

  18. Study of Ultra Short HFET Devices with InP Substrates (United States)


    MBE growth , and sharply (-100:1) reduction of the gate breakdown current by using a barrier-enhancement acceptor doping plane under the gate. Near pinch-off, the drain-source voltage at breakdown was doubled. Additionally, the optimization of the fabrication technology of the mushroom (or T) shaped gates was completed for these devices, and integrated circuits for millimeter amplifiers and oscillators were designed and

  19. Physical Modeling and Reliability Mechanisms in High Voltage AIGaN/GaN HFETs (United States)


    substrates with low-pressure custom- designed organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). Standard fabrication methods were applied to produce approximately...coupled plasma etcher based on Cl chemistry . Finally, the standard liftoff procedure was used to form the gate electrodes of Pt/Au (thickness 30/50

  20. Elimination of gold diffusion in the heterostructure core/shell growth of high performance Ge/Si nanowire HFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Radial heterostructure nanowires offer the possibility of surface, strain, band-edge and modulution-doped engineering for optimizing performance of nanowire transistors. Synthesis of such heterostructures is non-trivial and is typically accompanied with Au diffusion on the nanowire sidewalls that result in rough morphology and undesired whisker growth. Here, they report a novel growth procedure to synthesize Ge/Si core/multi-shell nanowires by engineering the growth interface between the Au seed and the nanowire sidewalls. Single crystal Ge/Si core/multi-shell nanowires are used to fabricate side-by-side FET transistors with and without Au diffusion. Elimination of Au diffusion in the synthesis of such structures led to {approx} 2X improvement in hole field-effect mobility, transconductances and currents. Initial prototype devices with a 10 nm PECVD nitride gate dielectric resulted in a record maximum on current of 430 {micro}A/V (I{sub DS}L{sub G}/{pi}DV{sub DS}), {approx} 2X higher than ever achieved before in a p-type FET.

  1. Window for Optimal Frequency Operation and Reliability of 3DEG and 2DEG Channels for Oxide Microwave MESFETs and HFETs (United States)


    time.The longest energy relaxation time (1.8 ps) was in a reasonably good agreement with the published values obtained through optical time-resolved...phonon accumulation was taken into account. The assumption of electron density-independent hot- phonon lifetime led to a monotonous increase in the hot...preferable for several reasons : (i) a high-density electron gas is present at equilibrium, (ii) doped channels are of direct interest for FETs

  2. In-situ, Gate Bias Dependent Study of Neutron Irradiation Effects on AlGaN/GaN HFETs (United States)


    Applied Physics Letters , vol.82, no. 22, 2 June 2008. 72 [12] D. M. Sathaiya, et al., "Thermionic trap-assisted tunneling model and its... Letters , vol. 25, no. 3, 1045, 2008. [18] A. Y. Polyakov , et al., “Neutron irradiation effects on electrical properties and deep-level spectra in...undoped n-AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 98, 033529, 2005. [19] A. Y. Polyakov , et al., “Neutron irradiation effects in

  3. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission... (United States)


    ... performed using alcohol or natural gas test fuel. (b) If only one equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy... per gallon, will comprise the petroleum-based fuel economy for that configuration. (c) If more than one equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration,...

  4. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type. (United States)


    ... calculate the fuel economy for the base level. (7) For alcohol dual fuel automobiles and natural gas dual... diesel test fuel. (ii) Calculate the city, highway, and combined fuel economy values from the tests... fuel economy values for the model type. (5) For alcohol dual fuel automobiles and natural gas dual fuel...

  5. Limitation of Hot-Carrier Generated Heat Dissipation on the Frequency of Operation and Reliability of Novel Nitride-Based High-Speed HFETs (United States)


    obtained. The averaged noise values are digitized in the computer module SR245 and loaded through RS232 interface to the PC for further averaging. Hand...amplifier (Stanford Research Systems) SR245 – computer interface module (Stanford Research Systems) RS232 – interface module Labview – computer software

  6. 300C/15 kW power converter with AlGaN/GaN-Si MOS-HFETs for electric propulsion systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capitalizing on a strong expertise in III-Nitride epitaxy, GaN-Si power device designs, and wide-bandgap power electronics, researchers at GeneSiC Semiconductor...

  7. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol

  8. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard


    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  9. Performance of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors for High-Frequency and High-Power Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kordos


    Full Text Available Preparation and properties of GaN-based heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs for high-frequency and high-power applications are studied in this work. Performance of unpassivated and SiO2 passivated AlGaN/GaN HFETs, as well as passivated SiO2/AlGaN/GaN MOSHFETs (metal-oxide-semicondutor HFETs is compared. It is found that MOSHFETs exhibit better DC and RF properties than simple HFET counterparts. Deposited SiO2 yielded an increase of the sheet carrier density from 7.6x10^12 cm^-2 to 9.2x10^12 cm^-2 and subsequent increase of the static drain saturation current from 0.75 A/mm to 1.09 A/mm. Small-signal RF characterisation of MOSHFETs showed an extrinsic current gain cut-off frequency fT of 24 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation fmax of 40 GHz. These are fully comparable values with state-of-the-art AlGaN/GaN HFETs. Finnaůůy, microwave power measurements confirmed excellent performance of MOSHFETs:the output power measured at 7 GHz is about two-times larger than that of simple unpassived HFET. Thus, a great potential in application of GaN-based MOSHFETs is documented. 

  10. Effect of AlN growth temperature on trap densities of in-situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition grown AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Freedsman


    Full Text Available The trapping properties of in-situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD grown AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MIS-HFETs with AlN layers grown at 600 and 700 °C has been quantitatively analyzed by frequency dependent parallel conductance technique. Both the devices exhibited two kinds of traps densities, due to AlN (DT-AlN and AlGaN layers (DT-AlGaN respectively. The MIS-HFET grown at 600 °C showed a minimum DT-AlN and DT-AlGaN of 1.1 x 1011 and 1.2 x 1010 cm-2eV-1 at energy levels (ET -0.47 and -0.36 eV. Further, the gate-lag measurements on these devices revealed less degradation ∼ ≤ 5% in drain current density (Ids-max. Meanwhile, MIS-HFET grown at 700 °C had more degradation in Ids-max ∼26 %, due to high DT-AlN and DT-AlGaN of 3.4 x 1012 and 5 x 1011 cm-2eV-1 positioned around similar ET. The results shows MIS-HFET grown at 600 °C had better device characteristics with trap densities one order of magnitude lower than MIS-HFET grown at 700 °C.

  11. Evaluation of a gate-first process for AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors with low ohmic annealing temperature (United States)

    Liuan, Li; Jiaqi, Zhang; Yang, Liu; Jin-Ping, Ao


    In this paper, TiN/AlOx gated AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) were fabricated for gate-first process evaluation. By employing a low temperature ohmic process, ohmic contact can be obtained by annealing at 600 °C with the contact resistance approximately 1.6 Ω·mm. The ohmic annealing process also acts as a post-deposition annealing on the oxide film, resulting in good device performance. Those results demonstrated that the TiN/AlOx gated MOS-HFETs with low temperature ohmic process can be applied for self-aligned gate AlGaN/GaN MOS-HFETs. Project supported by the International Science and Technology Collaboration Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFG52260).

  12. 11.9 W output power at 4 GHz from 1 mm AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krämer, M.C.J.C.M.; Karouta, F.; Kwaspen, J.J.M.; Rudzinski, M.; Larsen, P.K.; Suijker, E.M.; Hek, P.A. de; Rödle, T.; Volokhine, I.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.


    A high electrical breakdown field combined with a high electron saturation velocity make GaN very attractive for high power high frequency electronics. The maximum drain current densities of AlGaN/GaN HFETs range from 1.0 A/mm to 1.5 A/mm [1-3]. Hence, it is obvious that breakdown voltages over 160

  13. 分子束外延生长InGaAs/GaAs异质结及其在独特场效应晶体管中的应用%The MBE Growth of InGaAs/GaAs Heterostructures and Its Applications in Special Structure Field Effect Transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢自力; 邱凯; 尹志军; 方小华; 王向武; 陈堂胜


    用分子束外延技术生长了InGaAs/GaAs异质结材料,并用HALL效应法和电化学C-V分布研究其特性.讨论了InGaAs/GaAs宜质结杨效应晶体管(HFET)的优越性.和GaAs MESFETS或HEMT相比,由于HFET没有Al组份,具有低温特性好,低噪声和高增益等特点.本文研究了具有InGaAs/GaAs双沟道和独特掺杂分布的低噪声高增益HFET.

  14. 200 W Output Power at S-Band in AlGaN/GaN Heterojunction Field Effect Transistors with Field Plates on Si Substrates (United States)

    Nakazawa, Satoshi; Tsurumi, Naohiro; Nishijima, Masaaki; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi


    Use of Si substrates for the fabrication of microwave AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistors (HFETs) has been strongly desired for the low cost fabrication. The performance so far has never been satisfactory in view of the output power and the gain as compared with those on SiC substrates. In this paper, AlGaN/GaN HFETs on Si with high output power of 203 W and high linear gain of 16.9 dB at 2.5 GHz are demonstrated. The HFETs have field plates to reduce the feedback capacitance leading to higher gain, of which a new design of the field plates enables high power as well. The structural design is based on the equivalent circuit model using the device parameters extracted from the small signal RF performances. Here, it is found that shortening the field plate length down to 0.6 µm results in the high output power owing to the stable output impedance for various drain voltage. Note that the conditions of the epitaxial growth are optimized to achieve high current density of 850 mA/mm with both the high mobility and high sheet carrier concentration. The device processing is established so as to achieve the high power operation free from the current collapse. The device can be operated at the drain voltage as high as 50 V, which enables the 200 W output power. The presented AlGaN/GaN HFETs are very promising for various microwave applications including cellular base stations, which would lower the system cost taking advantage of cost-effective Si substrates.

  15. Characteristics enhancement of a GaAs based heterostructure field-effect transistor with an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) surface treated gate structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Chia [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Huey-Ing; Liu, I-Ping [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Po-Cheng; Liou, Jian-Kai; Tsai, Yu-Ting [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Wen-Chau, E-mail: [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Highlights: • Platinum (Pt) was formed on the gate region of a heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) approach. • EPD-based Pt morphologies were examined by SEM, AFM, XRD, and EDS analyses. • EPD approach shows advantages of low cost, simple apparatus, and adjustable alloy grain size. • EPD-based Pt-gate structure contributes to device's superior temperature-dependent I–V characteristics. - Abstract: A Pt/AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET), prepared by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) approach on gate Schottky contact region, is fabricated and studied. The EPD-based Pt-gates with three different molar ratios (ω{sub 0}) are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image. Good Pt-gate coverage with effective reduction of thermal-induced defects at Pt/AlGaAs interface is achieved through a low temperature EPD approach. Experimentally, for a gate dimension of 1 μm × 100 μm, a lower gate current of 1.9 × 10{sup −2} mA/mm, a higher turn-on voltage of 0.85 V, a higher maximum drain saturation current of 319.3 mA/mm, and a higher maximum extrinsic transconductance of 146.8 mS/mm are obtained for an EPD-based HFET at 300 K. Moreover, comparable microwave characteristics of an EPD-based HFET are demonstrated at different temperature ambiences. Therefore, based on the improved DC performance and inherent benefits of low cost, simple apparatus, flexible deposition on varied substrates, and adjustable alloy grain size, the proposed EPD approach shows the promise to fabricate high-performance electronic devices.

  16. Microwave power aluminum gallium nitride/gallium nitride heterojunction field effect transistor for X-band applications (United States)

    Cai, Shujun

    GaN material has been considered in recent years an attractive candidate for microwave power applications owing to its strong piezo-electric (PZ) and spontaneous polarization (SP) effects, high saturation velocity and wideband gap. AlGaN/GaN Heterojunction Field Effect Transistor (HFET) is chosen to overcome the disadvantages of low mobility in wide bandgap materials so that both high power and high speed are feasible. Analysis and simulation are performed to understand the enhancement of sheet charge density due to the PZ and SP effects in the AlGaN/GaN material system. Major factors affecting the sheet channel charge density are discussed. To verify the PZ and SP charge effects, testing structures of AlGaN/GaN with various Al contents for Hall measurement are then fabricated. Results support our analysis. GaN-based HFET devices with 25% Al content are fabricated after solving process issues. An external transconductance of 200 mS/mm, a saturation current density of 800 mA/mm and a breakdown voltage of 40 V to 50 V are achieved. A CW power amplifier with the output of 8 W at 9 GHz is achieved from a single 5 mm AlGaN/GaN HFET device. A novel process, referred to as Gamma gate process, is developed to realize high breakdown performance as well as small gate length. As a result, a 0.3 mum gate length device with an integrated field plate is fabricated using 1 mum conventional optical lithograph techniques. Improvements of breakdown voltage and RF performance by a factor of over 2 have been achieved. High temperature storage and measurement show that the AlGaN/GaN HFET devices can survive at an environment temperature as high as 592°C. The devices also survive after exposing to proton irradiation at a dosage of 1 x 1014 cm-2, indicating its intrinsic resistance to radiation.

  17. Reduction of leakage current by O{sub 2} plasma treatment for device isolation of AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ying; Wang, Qingpeng [School of Electronic Science and Technology, Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Zhang, Fuzhe; Li, Liuan [Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Zhou, Deqiu; Liu, Yang [School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, 135 Xingang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Dejun, E-mail: [School of Electronic Science and Technology, Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Ao, Jin-Ping, E-mail: [Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)


    Highlights: • The influence of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on mesa region of AlGaN/GaN HFET was studied. • An effective condition of O{sub 2} plasma treatment was confirmed. • The treated GaN surface was characterized by PL spectrum and XPS. • The AlGaN/GaN HFET with an on/off drain current ratio of 1.73 × 10{sup 7} was achieved. • The breakdown voltage of the mesa-isolated region improved. - Abstract: The influence of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the mesa-isolated region of AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) was studied. The etched surface of the undoped GaN layer was exposed to O{sub 2} plasma generated by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The current–voltage characteristics indicated that the current of the mesa-isolated region was strongly dependent on the treatment temperature. Treatment with O{sub 2} plasma at 300 °C and 250 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition, under which isolation current was reduced by four orders of magnitude and photovoltaic response was suppressed. The photoluminescence spectrum showed a decrease in the density of defects related to the yellow luminescence band and the occurrence of defects related to the blue luminescence band. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed the formation of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a possible defect of substitutional oxygen on the nitrogen site O{sub N}. AlGaN/GaN HFETs with an on/off drain current ratio of 1.73 × 10{sup 7} were obtained, and the breakdown voltage of the mesa-isolated region increased from 171.5 to 467.2 V.

  18. A study on III-nitride recessed-gate field-effect transistors using a remote-oxygen-plasma treatment (United States)

    Lee, Y.-C.; Kao, T.-T.; Shen, S.-C.


    We report a comparative study of the device performance of III-nitride (III-N) heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) and metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs). The influence of a remote-oxygen-plasma treatment was investigated. The plasma-treated recessed-gate HFETs and MISFETs show normally-off characteristics with higher peak transconductance, lower sub-threshold slope, smaller hysteresis. An on-off ratio greater than 2.2E11 with a significant suppression of gate leakage can be achieved in plasma-treated III-N MISFETs. A drain current transient measurement was performed to analyze the traps in these devices and possible origins of these traps are studied. Six traps with characteristic time constants (τ) ranging from 180 s to 3 ms are identified in both HFETs and MISFETs, in addition to a trap which is associated with the ALD-grown gate dielectrics for the MISFETs. The results suggest that improved device performance in these plasma-treated III-N FETs is attributed to the reduced trap states with τ 2 s) cannot be reduced by the plasma treatment and are related to the oxygen and carbon impurities and the buffer traps in the bulk semiconductors.

  19. Electron mobility in the linear region of an AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ying-Xia; Lin Zhao-Jun; Luan Chong-Biao; Wang Yu-Tang; Chen Hong; Wang Zhan-Guo


    We simulate the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with different gate lengths using the quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) model.The calculation results obtained using the modified mobility model are found to accord well with the experimental data.By analyzing the variation of the electron mobility for the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with the electric field in the linear region of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFET I-V output characteristics,it is found that the polarization Coulomb field scattering still plays an important role in the electron mobility of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFETs at the higher drain voltage and channel electric field.As drain voltage and channel electric field increase,the 2DEG density reduces and the polarization Coulomb field scattering increases,as a result,the 2DEG electron mobility decreases.

  20. Interfacial design and structure of protein/polymer films on oxidized AlGaN surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Samit K; Casal, Patricia; Nicholson III, Theodore R; Lee, Stephen Craig [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wu, Hao-Hsuan; Wen Xuejin; Anisha, R; Berger, Paul R; Lu, Wu; Brillson, Leonard J [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kwak, Kwang J; Bhushan, Bharat, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    Protein detection using biologically or immunologically modified field-effect transistors (bio/immunoFETs) depends on the nanoscale structure of the polymer/protein film at sensor interfaces (Bhushan 2010 Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology 3rd edn (Heidelberg: Springer); Gupta et al 2010 The effect of interface modification on bioFET sensitivity, submitted). AlGaN-based HFETs (heterojunction FETs) are attractive platforms for many protein sensing applications due to their electrical stability in high osmolarity aqueous environments and favourable current drive capabilities. However, interfacial polymer/protein films on AlGaN, though critical to HFET protein sensor function, have not yet been fully characterized. These interfacial films are typically comprised of protein-polymer films, in which analyte-specific receptors are tethered to the sensing surface with a heterobifunctional linker molecule (often a silane molecule). Here we provide insight into the structure and tribology of silane interfaces composed of one of two different silane monomers deposited on oxidized AlGaN, and other metal oxide surfaces. We demonstrate distinct morphologies and wear properties for the interfacial films, attributable to the specific chemistries of the silane monomers used in the films. For each specific silane monomer, film morphologies and wear are broadly consistent on multiple oxide surfaces. Differences in interfacial film morphology also drive improvements in sensitivity of the underlying HFET (coincident with, though not necessarily caused by, differences in interfacial film thickness). We present a testable model of the hypothetical differential interfacial depth distribution of protein analytes on FET sensor interfaces with distinct morphologies. Empirical validation of this model may rationalize the actual behaviour of planar immunoFETs, which has been shown to be contrary to expectations of bio/immunoFET behaviour prevalent in the literature for the last 20 years

  1. Electron density window for best frequency performance, lowest phase noise and slowest degradation of GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (United States)

    Matulionis, Arvydas


    The problems in the realm of nitride heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) are discussed in terms of a novel fluctuation-dissipation-based approach impelled by a recent demonstration of strong correlation of hot-electron fluctuations with frequency performance and degradation of the devices. The correlation has its genesis in the dissipation of the LO-mode heat accumulated by the non-equilibrium longitudinal optical phonons (hot phonons) confined in the channel that hosts the high-density hot-electron gas subjected to a high electric field. The LO-mode heat causes additional scattering of hot electrons and facilitates defect formation in a different manner than the conventional heat contained mainly in the acoustic phonon mode. We treat the heat dissipation problem in terms of the hot-phonon lifetime responsible for the conversion of the non-migrant hot phonons into migrant acoustic modes and other vibrations. The lifetime is measured over a wide range of electron density and supplied electric power. The optimal conditions for the dissipation of the LO-mode heat are associated with the plasmon-assisted disintegration of hot phonons. Signatures of plasmons are experimentally resolved in fluctuations, dissipation, hot-electron transport, transistor frequency performance, transistor phase noise and transistor reliability. In particular, a slower degradation and a faster operation of GaN-based HFETs take place inside the electron density window where the resonant plasmon-assisted ultrafast dissipation of the LO-mode heat comes into play. A novel heterostructure design for the possible improvement of HFET performance is proposed, implemented and tested.

  2. Novel GaN-based vertical heterostructure field effect transistor structures using crystallographic KOH etching and overgrowth (United States)

    Qian, H.; Lee, K. B.; Vajargah, S. Hosseini; Novikov, S. V.; Guiney, I.; Zaidi, Z. H.; Jiang, S.; Wallis, D. J.; Foxon, C. T.; Humphreys, C. J.; Houston, P. A.


    A novel V-groove vertical heterostructure field effect transistor structure is proposed using semi-polar (11-22) GaN. A crystallographic potassium hydroxide self-limiting wet etching technique was developed to enable a damage-free V-groove etching process. An AlGaN/GaN HFET structure was successfully regrown by molecular beam epitaxy on the V-groove surface. A smooth AlGaN/GaN interface was achieved which is an essential requirement for the formation of a high mobility channel.

  3. X-band 22W SSPA for earth observation satellite


    Zoyo, M.; Cartier, N.; Touchais, J.Y.; Maynadier, P.; Midan, E.; Sgard, P.; Buret, H.; Peschoud, M.


    An X-band high power Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA) using power HFET chip devices has been successfully developed for the earth observation satellite payload of the SPOT 5 program. The use of MMIC chips for the low power section allows to decrease significantly the mass and the size of this equipment and to reduce the production cycle due to the reduced tuning effort. The hybrid technology is used in the driver module and the power level section because it is attractive in terms of power ...

  4. Assembly of a supercrystal (SC) of the CMS endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Williams et al., RAL


    The first three pictures show the insertion of the first three rows of crystals into the supercrystal SC03 on Jan. 2004 and the completion of the SC endstops. Fig. 4 shows a complete supercrystal and Fig. 5 its components (alveolar, interface plate, housing, optical fibre, insert, crystal and VPT, endstop). A set of 25 inserts is shown in Fig. 6, while Fig. 7 shows housing, interface plates and inserts. Finally, a SC rear view showing the Vacum Phototriode (VPT) wires through the inserts can be seen in Fig. 8. Fig. 9 and 10 show two supercrystals under test on Dee F and R, respectively.

  5. Economic Renewal: A Grand Strategy for the United States (United States)


    difference between 1944’s Bretton Woods environment and today is that there are numerous vibrant, competing economies other than the United States which...that is consuming budget resources, the root cause of the problem is much deeper. The role of the U.S. dollar resulting from the Bretton Woods ...external/np/exr/center/mm/eng/mm_sc_03.htm (accessed December 29, 2009). 34 James M. Boughton, “A New Bretton Woods ?” Finance and Development, A Quarterly

  6. Effects of threading dislocations on drain current dispersion and slow transients in unpassivated AlGaN/GaN/Si heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Saptarsi, E-mail:; Dinara, Syed Mukulika; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Jana, Sanjay K.; Bag, Ankush; Kabi, Sanjib [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Chakraborty, Apurba [Department of E and E C E, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Chang, Edward Yi [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China); Biswas, Dhrubes [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Department of E and E C E, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)


    Current transient analysis combined with response to pulsed bias drives have been used to explore the possibilities of threading dislocations affecting the current dispersion characteristics of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs). A growth strategy is developed to modulate the dislocation density among the heterostructures grown on silicon by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Slow pulsed I-V measurements show severe compressions and appear to be significantly dependent on the threading dislocation density. By analyzing the corresponding slow detrapping process, a deep-level trap with emission time constant in the order of seconds was identified as the cause. Among the specimens, both in the epilayers and at the surface, the number of dislocations was found to have a notable influence on the spatial distribution of deep-level trap density. The observations confirm that the commonly observed degraded frequency performance among AlGaN/GaN HFETs in the form of DC-radio frequency dispersions can at least partly be correlated with threading dislocation density.

  7. Photoelectrochemical etching and oxidation technique for AlGaN and application in heterostructure field-effect transistorsi; Photoelektrochemische Aetz- und Oxidationstechnik fuer AlGaN und Anwendung in Heterostruktur-Feldeffekttransistoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotter, T.


    This work describes the development of novel photoelectrochemical technologies applied to polar and chemically inert GaN-based single layers and heterostructures. First, an understanding of the electronic reactions at the interface between the wide band-gap nitride semiconductor and the electrolyte is developed. By excitation of the semiconductor surface with UV radiation a low-energy and at the same time anisotropic etch process for n-type material is established. The nature of the threading dislocations in heteroepitaxially grown layers makes it possible to model these by a suitable choice of the etch parameters. So-called whiskers are formed and detected by scanning electron microscopy. Their density serves as a measure for the density of threading dislocations and the material quality. A new phase at the boundary surface is established and identified stoichiometrically as Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, when changing the photoelectrochemical etch regime of GaN from reaction-limited to diffusion-limited. With the aid of these new native oxide films the surface morphology of etched structures is improved crucially. In the following, the suitability of the photoelectrochemically generated oxide films as dielectric in field-effect applications is reflected by electrical characterization of corresponding MOS structures for the first time. The newly developed oxide films are successfully implemented into the processing sequence of heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) using a tungsten gate metallization scheme. HFETs with an dielectrically isolated gate electrode (MOS-HFETs) show high drain currents (>500 mA/mm) together with high extrinsic and intrinsic transconductances of 62 and 142 mS/mm, respectively. The new devices prove to be capable to high-voltage (V{sub ds}=100 V) and high-temperature operation (T=300 C) and high-power (12.5 W/mm CW). Other device concepts (e.g. gate recessing) are discussed and experimentally verified. Finally, an electrode-less etch

  8. 77 FR 45363 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing (United States)


    ... available. Inventors: Qing-Rong Liu, Mikko Airavaara, Barry Hoffer, Brandon K Harvey (all of NIDA...-262-2005/0-US-06). Multiple additional patent families. Licensing Contact: David A. Lambertson, Ph.D... HNO. Development Stage Early-stage. Pre-clinical. Inventors: David A. Wink and Larry K. Keefer...

  9. "Genetically Engineered" Nanoelectronics (United States)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos H.; Stoica, Adrian; Cwik, Thomas


    The quantum mechanical functionality of nanoelectronic devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared-photodetectors (QWIPs), quantum well lasers, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) is enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The design and optimization of such devices requires a fundamental understanding of electron transport in such dimensions. The Nanoelectronic Modeling Tool (NEMO) is a general-purpose quantum device design and analysis tool based on a fundamental non-equilibrium electron transport theory. NEW was combined with a parallelized genetic algorithm package (PGAPACK) to evolve structural and material parameters to match a desired set of experimental data. A numerical experiment that evolves structural variations such as layer widths and doping concentrations is performed to analyze an experimental current voltage characteristic. The genetic algorithm is found to drive the NEMO simulation parameters close to the experimentally prescribed layer thicknesses and doping profiles. With such a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment design synthesis can be performed.

  10. Applications of porous silicon formed by electrochemical etching using an electrolyte based on HF:formaldehyde (United States)

    De La Luz Merino, S.; Morales-Morales, F.; Méndez-Blas, A.; Calixto, M. E.; Nieto-Caballero, F. G.; García-Salgado, G.


    In this work, we report the experimental results on the formation of porous silicon (PSi) monolayers by electrochemical etching using a formaldehyde based electrolyte. The results were compared with PSi monolayers obtained with the traditional electrolyte (HF:ethanol). Both electrolytes facilitate the removal of H2 generated as a subproduct during the electrochemical etching process in the surface of the c-Si substrate. Formaldehyde presents a good affinity to surfaces and interfaces and the excess of water in the electrolyte reduces the pore sizes of PSi samples. The porosity and etching rate values are similar than those obtained using HF:et solutions. The refractive index values are the same in both cases at the same porosity in the visible range. The results have shown that the chemical characteristics of the ethanol and formaldehyde can give some different advantages to the PSi process and its applications.

  11. Thermal Stability of Strained AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; XIAO Hong-Di; LIN Zhao-Jun


    @@ The thermal stability of strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is characterized by comparing unannealed and 700℃ 30-min annealed Ni Schottky contacts prepared on strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Using photoemission, capacitance-voltage measurements, and the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger's and Poisson's equations, it is found that after 700℃ 30-min thermal annealing the Schottky barrier height of Ni Schottky contacts on strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is increased, and the sheet density of polarization charges and the sheet density of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) electrons for the strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are reduced. These results are closely related to the performance of AlGaN/GaN HFETs at high temperature.

  12. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor-Based Biosensor for the Detection of C-Reactive Protein. (United States)

    Lee, Hee Ho; Bae, Myunghan; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Son, Dong Hyeok; Won, Chul-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, Shin-Won


    In this paper, we propose an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT)-based biosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) using a null-balancing circuit. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly. The output voltage of the proposed biosensor was varied by antigen-antibody interactions on the gate surface due to CRP charges. The AlGaN/GaN HFET-based biosensor with null-balancing circuit applied shows that CRP can be detected in a wide range of concentrations, varying from 10 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out to verify the immobilization of self-assembled monolayer with Au on the gated region.

  13. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor-Based Biosensor for the Detection of C-Reactive Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Ho Lee


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT-based biosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP using a null-balancing circuit. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly. The output voltage of the proposed biosensor was varied by antigen-antibody interactions on the gate surface due to CRP charges. The AlGaN/GaN HFET-based biosensor with null-balancing circuit applied shows that CRP can be detected in a wide range of concentrations, varying from 10 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out to verify the immobilization of self-assembled monolayer with Au on the gated region.

  14. A Detection Scheme for Cavity-based Dark Matter Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Bukhari, M H S


    We present here proposal of a scheme and some useful ideas for resonant cavity-based detection of cold dark matter axions with hope to improve the existing endeavors. The scheme is based upon our idea of a detector, which incorporates an integrated tunnel diode and a GaAs HEMT or HFET, High Electron Mobility Transistor or Heterogenous FET, for resonance detection and amplification from a resonant cavity (in a strong transverse magnetic field from a cylindrical array of halbach magnets). The idea of a TD-oscillator-amplifier combination could possibly serve as a more sensitive and viable resonance detection regime while maintaining an excellent performance with low noise temperature, whereas the halbach magnets array may offer a compact and permanent solution replacing the conventional electromagnets scheme. We believe that all these factors could possibly increase the sensitivity and accuracy of axion detection searches and reduce complications (and associated costs) in the experiments, in addition to help re...

  15. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs induced by aerobic exercise training during heart failure. (United States)

    Souza, Rodrigo W A; Fernandez, Geysson J; Cunha, João P Q; Piedade, Warlen P; Soares, Luana C; Souza, Paula A T; de Campos, Dijon H S; Okoshi, Katashi; Cicogna, Antonio C; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli; Carvalho, Robson F


    Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on the myocardium in heart failure (HF) patients and in animal models of induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure. We hypothesized that if microRNAs (miRNAs) respond to changes following cardiac stress, then myocardial profiling of these miRNAs may reveal cardio-protective mechanisms of aerobic ET in HF. We used ascending aortic stenosis (AS) inducing HF in Wistar rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 wk after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 wk of aerobic ET (HF-ET) or to a heart failure sedentary group (HF-S). ET attenuated cardiac remodeling as well as clinical and pathological signs of HF with maintenance of systolic and diastolic function when compared with that of the HF-S. Global miRNA expression profiling of the cardiac tissue revealed 53 miRNAs exclusively dysregulated in animals in the HF-ET, but only 11 miRNAs were exclusively dysregulated in the HF-S. Out of 23 miRNAs that were differentially regulated in both groups, 17 miRNAs exhibited particularly high increases in expression, including miR-598, miR-429, miR-224, miR-425, and miR-221. From the initial set of deregulated miRNAs, 14 miRNAs with validated targets expressed in cardiac tissue that respond robustly to ET in HF were used to construct miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks that revealed a set of 203 miRNA-target genes involved in programmed cell death, TGF-β signaling, cellular metabolic processes, cytokine signaling, and cell morphogenesis. Our findings reveal that ET attenuates cardiac abnormalities during HF by regulating cardiac miRNAs with a potential role in cardio-protective mechanisms through multiple effects on gene expression.

  16. An Experiment and Detection Scheme for Cavity-Based Light Cold Dark Matter Particle Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masroor H. S. Bukhari


    Full Text Available A resonance detection scheme and some useful ideas for cavity-based searches of light cold dark matter particles (such as axions are presented, as an effort to aid in the on-going endeavors in this direction as well as for future experiments, especially in possibly developing a table-top experiment. The scheme is based on our idea of a resonant detector, incorporating an integrated tunnel diode (TD and GaAs HEMT/HFET (High-Electron Mobility Transistor/Heterogeneous FET transistor amplifier, weakly coupled to a cavity in a strong transverse magnetic field. The TD-amplifier combination is suggested as a sensitive and simple technique to facilitate resonance detection within the cavity while maintaining excellent noise performance, whereas our proposed Halbach magnet array could serve as a low-noise and permanent solution replacing the conventional electromagnets scheme. We present some preliminary test results which demonstrate resonance detection from simulated test signals in a small optimal axion mass range with superior signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Our suggested design also contains an overview of a simpler on-resonance dc signal read-out scheme replacing the complicated heterodyne read-out. We believe that all these factors and our propositions could possibly improve or at least simplify the resonance detection and read-out in cavity-based DM particle detection searches (and other spectroscopy applications and reduce the complications (and associated costs, in addition to reducing the electromagnetic interference and background.

  17. Effect of polarization Coulomb field scattering on low temperature electron mobility in strained AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Yang, Ming; Luan, Chong-Biao; Wang, Yu-Tang; Lv, Yuan-Jie; Feng, Zhi-Hong


    The electron mobility of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with the ratio of the gate length to the drain-to-source distance being less than 1/2 has been studied in the temperature range 100 ˜ 300 K. The measured electron mobility at each testing temperature is obtained by using the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measured at the corresponding temperature, and the theoretically calculated temperature-dependent electron mobility is determined by Matthiessen’s law, which includes five kinds of important scattering mechanisms. For the prepared sample, the measured electron mobility with respect to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density was observed to increase to a peak point first and then decrease at each testing temperature. By comparing the measured electron mobility with the theoretically calculated value, the changing trend of the electron mobility at each testing temperature was found to be mainly determined by polarization Coulomb field (PCF) scattering. Particularly at lower temperature, PCF scattering plays a more significant role in the changing trend of the electron mobility.

  18. Simulations of electron transport in GaN devices

    CERN Document Server

    Arabshahi, H


    model of a device with traps to investigate this suggestion. The model includes the simulation of the capture and release of electrons by traps whose charge has a direct effect on the current flowing through the transistor terminals. The influence of temperature and light on the occupancy of the traps and the I-V characteristics are considered. It is concluded that traps are likely to play a substantial role in the behaviour of GaN field effect transistors. Further simulations were performed to model electron transport in AIGaN/GaN heterojunction FETs. So called HFET structures with a 78 nm Al sub 0 sub . sub 2 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 8 N pseudomorphically strained layer have been simulated, with the inclusion of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects in the strained layer. The polarization effects are shown to not only increase the current density, but also improve the electron transport by inducing a higher electron density close to the positive charge sheet that occurs in the channel. This thesis de...

  19. Raman scattering in GaN, AlN and AlGaN. Basic material properties, processing and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, J M


    dependence of the phonon frequencies and lifetimes was measured from 10 K to 1275 K. Empirical fitting and theoretical modelling of the temperature dependence was performed. The results have application for the monitoring of temperature in (Ga/AI)N. The E sub 2 (high) phonon frequency of GaN measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor local temperatures in active AIGaN/GaN hetero-structure field effect transistor devices (HFETs). The temperature rise in the active area of devices on sapphire substrates was significantly higher than for devices on 4H-SiC substrates. Temperatures were monitored to the point of device failure to gain insight into degradation mechanisms. GaN, AIN and AIGaN are very promising materials for high-power, high-temperature and high-frequency electronic device applications but many of their material properties and the effects of processing steps for device fabrication have not yet been fully investigated. AIGaN/GaN films were annealed at temperatures of 800 to 1300 deg C in...

  20. A survey on GaN- based devices for terahertz photonics (United States)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Anwar, Mehdi


    With fast growing of the photonics and power electronic systems, the need for high power- high frequency semiconductor devices is sensed tremendously. GaN provides the highest electron saturation velocity, breakdown voltage and operation temperature, and thus combined frequency-power performance among commonly used semiconductors. With achieving the first THz image in just two decades ago, generation and detection of terahertz (THz) radiation is one of the most emerging photonic areas. The industrial needs for compact, economical, high resolution and high power THz imaging and spectroscopy systems are fueling the utilization of GaN for the realizing of the next generation of THz systems. As it is reviewed in this paper, the mentioned characteristics of GaN together with its capabilities of providing high 2-dimentional election densities and large longitudinal-optical phonon of 90 meV, make it one of the most promising semiconductor materials for the future of the THz generation, detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication. GaN- based devices have shown capabilities of operating in the upper THz frequency band of 5- 12 THz with relatively high photon densities and in room temperature. As a result, THz imaging and spectroscopy systems with high resolutions and depths of penetrations can be realized via utilizing GaN- based devices. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the history and state of the art of the GaN- based electronic devices, including plasma HFETs, NDRs, HDSDs, IMPATTs, QCLs, HEMTs, Gunn diodes and TeraFETs together with their impact on the future of THz imaging and spectroscopy systems is provided.

  1. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter. (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto


    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  2. Investigation of Transmission Warming Technologies at Various Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehlik, Forrest; Iliev, Simeon; Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff


    This work details two approaches for evaluating transmission warming technology: experimental dynamometer testing and development of a simplified transmission efficiency model to quantify effects under varied real world ambient and driving conditions. Two vehicles were used for this investigation: a 2013 Ford Taurus and a 2011 Ford Fusion. The Taurus included a production transmission warming system and was tested over hot and cold ambient temperatures with the transmission warming system enabled and disabled. A robot driver was used to minimize driver variability and increase repeatability. Additionally the Fusion was tested cold and with the transmission pre-heated prior to completing the test cycles. These data were used to develop a simplified thermally responsive transmission model to estimate effects of transmission warming in real world conditions. For the Taurus, the fuel consumption variability within one standard deviation was shown to be under 0.5% for eight repeat Urban Dynamometer Driving Cycles (UDDS). These results were valid with the transmission warming system active or passive. Using the transmission warming system under 22 degrees C ambient temperature, fuel consumption reduction was shown to be 1.4%. For the Fusion, pre-warming the transmission reduced fuel consumption 2.5% for an urban drive cycle at -7 degrees C ambient temperature, with 1.5% of the 2.5% gain associated with the transmission, while consumption for the US06 test was shown to be reduced by 7% with 5.5% of the 7% gain associated with the transmission. It was found that engine warming due to conduction between the pre-heated transmission and the engine resulted in the remainder of the benefit. For +22 degrees C ambient tests, the pre-heated transmission was shown to reduce fuel consumption approximately 1% on an urban cycle, while no benefit was seen for the US06 cycle. The simplified modeling results showed gains in efficiency ranging from 0-1.5% depending on the ambient

  3. Electrical characterization of dislocations in gallium nitride using advanced scanning probe techniques (United States)

    Simpkins, Blake Shelley Ginsberg

    GaN-based materials are promising for high speed and power applications such as amplifier and communications circuits. Ga, In, and AIN-based alloys span a wide optical range (2--6.1 eV) and exhibit strong polarizations making them useful in many devices; however, films are highly defective (˜10 8 dislocations cm-2) due to lack of suitable substrates. Thus, nanoscale electronic characterization of these dislocations is critical for device and growth optimization. Scanning probe techniques enable characterization at length-scales unattainable by conventional techniques. First, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) was used to image surface potential variations due to charged dislocations in HVPE-grown GaN. The film's structural evolution "with thickness was monitored showing a decrease in dislocation density, likely through dislocation reaction. Numerical simulations were used to investigate tip-size effects when imaging highly localized (tens of nm) potential variations indicating that measured dislocation induced potential features in GaN can be much smaller (˜80%) than true variations. Next, capacitance variations in MBE-grown HFETs, due to dislocations-induced carrier depletion, were imaged with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The distribution of these charged centers was correlated with buffer schemes showing that an AIN buffer leads to pseudomorphic (2D) nucleation and randomly distributed misfit dislocations while deposition directly on SiC results in island (3D) nucleation and a domain structure with dislocations grouped at domain boundaries. Hall measurements and numerical simulations were also carried out to further study the implications of these microstructures. Numerical results indicated that randomly distributed dislocations deplete a larger fraction of free carriers than the same density of grouped dislocations and correlated favorably with Hall results. Correlated SKPM and conductive AFM (C-AFM) measurements were then used to study

  4. Micro-scale δ18O analyses of a Borneo stalagmite across the Toba super-eruption (United States)

    Orland, I. J.; Cobb, K. M.; Carolin, S.; Linzmeier, B.; Valley, J. W.; Adkins, J. F.


    The Toba super-eruption occurred in close association with an abrupt climate transition from Greenland Interstadial (GI-) 20 to Greenland Stadial (GS-) 20, roughly 74 ky BP. As such, it is conceivable that the eruption played a role, whether direct or indirect, in shaping global-scale climate in the years, decades, and/or centuries that followed. Understanding the climatic response to Toba is important not only because the eruption represents an extreme atmospheric perturbation that is relevant to modeling future climate change, but also because the climate response may have slowed human population growth. Recent attempts to characterize either the regional or global climate response to Toba have been limited by a lack of age control, geographic proximity, and/or a convincing marker of the major eruption. Multiple U-Th-dated calcite stalagmites from Gunung Mulu National Park (Borneo; 4°N, 115°E) reveal a 1,000-year long period with elevated oxygen isotope values (δ18O; Carolin et al. 2013) that began abruptly and within error of the 40Ar/39Ar-dated Toba eruption (Storey et al., 2012). The δ18O shift is interpreted as a change in regional rainfall δ18O, and perhaps reflects a prolonged shift in the mean state of tropical climate. Microdrill analysis of the Mulu stalagmites showed that the abrupt onset of this period is marked by a large (>1‰) monotonic increase in δ18O. Here, we examine the structure of the abrupt δ18O increase at high-resolution in Mulu stalagmite "SC03". The WiscSIMS CAMECA IMS 1280 was used to measure δ18O in 857 spots along a 5.5 mm ( 1300 yr) linear, growth-axis traverse that is centered on the microdrilled δ18O shift. SIMS spot diameters are 6 mm in the growth dimension, 2 yr temporal resolution, with spot-to-spot δ18O reproducibility of ±0.3‰ (2 s.d.). The SIMS data reveal four δ18O excursions of ±2-3‰ over 6-10 spot intervals ( 10-20 yrs) during the 300 yr transition from GI-20 to GS-20, likely caused by fluctuations in

  5. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem


    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are

  6. PCR-DGGE Analysis of Lactic Acid Bacterial Community Structure in Pickled Mustard Tuber%基于PCR-DGGE方法分析榨菜中乳酸菌群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕平梅; 乔宏萍; 赵文婧; 单树花; 王琪; 柴政; 陈燕飞


    为了深入了解榨菜中的乳酸菌多样性以及影响因素,以市场销售含有辣椒和不含辣椒两种袋装榨菜为研究对象,测定榨菜中的食盐浓度以及亚硝酸盐含量;通过变性梯度凝胶电泳(denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE)法分离榨菜总微生物混合16S rDNA基因V7~V8片段,采用Quantity One软件分析乳酸菌物种丰富度、均匀度及物种多样性指数。结果表明:含辣椒的榨菜食盐浓度和亚硝酸盐含量均略低于不含有辣椒的榨菜;含有辣椒和不含辣椒的榨菜两者间物种多样性指数、丰富度和均匀度无显著差异(P>0.05)。通过回收DGGE电泳带,经克隆后测定碱基序列、与GenBank库序列对比鉴定,不含有辣椒的榨菜5条回收聚合酶链式反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)-DGGE泳带a、b、c、d、e经鉴定分别与Pediococcus argentinicus CRL 776、Uncultured Lactobacillus sp. isolate DGGE gel band lx12、Uncultured bacterium clone 11.02-12、Uncultured bacterium clone 11.02-9、Uncultured Lactobacillus sp. clone PxSC03相似度为98%、96%、97%、97%、97%。含有辣椒的榨菜4条回收PCR-DGGE泳带1、2、3、4经鉴定分别与Uncultured Lactobacillus sp.、Lactobacillus sakei A156、Lactobacillus sakei YY1、Lactobacillus sakei WJ1相似度为96%、97%、98%、97%。研究结果表明辣椒对榨菜中微生物群落结构无显著影响。%In order to understand the diversity of lactic acid bacteria in pickled mustard tuber and its influencing factors, two commercial bagged pickled mustard tubers (with and without hot pepper) were determined for the contents of salt and nitrite, and the V7-V8 region of total bacterial 16S rDNA sequences was separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Furthermore, the species richness, evenness and diversity of lactic acid bacteria were analyzed by the Quantity One software. Results indicated that the contents of salt and nitrite

  7. Using CPE Function to Size Capacitor Storage for Electric Vehicles and Quantifying Battery Degradation during Different Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang


    Full Text Available Range anxiety and battery cycle life are two major factors which restrict the development of electric vehicles. Battery degradation can be reduced by adding supercapacitors to create a Hybrid Energy Storage System. This paper proposes a systematic approach to configure the hybrid energy storage system and quantifies the battery degradation for electric vehicles when using supercapacitors. A continuous power-energy function is proposed to establish supercapacitor size based on national household travel survey statistics. By analyzing continuous driving action in standard driving cycles and special driving phases (start up and acceleration, the supercapacitor size is calculated to provide a compromise between the capacitor size and battery degradation. Estimating the battery degradation after 10 years, the battery capacity loss value decreases 17.55% and 21.6%, respectively, under the urban dynamometer driving schedule and the US06. Furthermore, the battery lifespan of the continuous power-energy configured system is prolonged 28.62% and 31.39%, respectively, compared with the battery alone system.

  8. Support vector based battery state of charge estimator (United States)

    Hansen, Terry; Wang, Chia-Jiu

    This paper investigates the use of a support vector machine (SVM) to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of a large-scale lithium-ion-polymer (LiP) battery pack. The SOC of a battery cannot be measured directly and must be estimated from measurable battery parameters such as current and voltage. The coulomb counting SOC estimator has been used in many applications but it has many drawbacks [S. Piller, M. Perrin, Methods for state-of-charge determination and their application, J. Power Sources 96 (2001) 113-120]. The proposed SVM based solution not only removes the drawbacks of the coulomb counting SOC estimator but also produces accurate SOC estimates, using industry standard US06 [V.H. Johnson, A.A. Pesaran, T. Sack, Temperature-dependent battery models for high-power lithium-ion batteries, in: Presented at the 17th Annual Electric Vehicle Symposium Montreal, Canada, October 15-18, 2000. The paper is downloadable at website] aggressive driving cycle test procedures. The proposed SOC estimator extracts support vectors from a battery operation history then uses only these support vectors to estimate SOC, resulting in minimal computation load and suitable for real-time embedded system applications.

  9. Electro-thermal analysis of Lithium Iron Phosphate battery for electric vehicles (United States)

    Saw, L. H.; Somasundaram, K.; Ye, Y.; Tay, A. A. O.


    Lithium ion batteries offer an attractive solution for powering electric vehicles due to their relatively high specific energy and specific power, however, the temperature of the batteries greatly affects their performance as well as cycle life. In this work, an empirical equation characterizing the battery's electrical behavior is coupled with a lumped thermal model to analyze the electrical and thermal behavior of the 18650 Lithium Iron Phosphate cell. Under constant current discharging mode, the cell temperature increases with increasing charge/discharge rates. The dynamic behavior of the battery is also analyzed under a Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule and it is found that heat generated from the battery during this cycle is negligible. Simulation results are validated with experimental data. The validated single cell model is then extended to study the dynamic behavior of an electric vehicle battery pack. The modeling results predict that more heat is generated on an aggressive US06 driving cycle as compared to UDDS and HWFET cycle. An extensive thermal management system is needed for the electric vehicle battery pack especially during aggressive driving conditions to ensure that the cells are maintained within the desirable operating limits and temperature uniformity is achieved between the cells.

  10. Model year 2010 (Gen 3) Toyota Prius level 1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Bocci, D.; Energy Systems


    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Toyota Prius (Generation 3) was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of 'Level 1' testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network connection, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D{sup 3}). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from the exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and minimal CAN bus data such as engine speed and pedal position. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Prius over standard regulatory cycles.

  11. Model year 2010 Ford Fusion Level-1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Energy Systems


    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Ford Fusion was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles, and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database. The major results are shown in this report. Given the benchmark nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and sought to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current/voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Fusion and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  12. Energy Optimization and Fuel Economy Investigation of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated with Diesel/RCCI Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Solouk


    Full Text Available Among different types of low temperature combustion (LTC regimes, eactively controlled compression ignition (RCCI has received a lot of attention as a promising advanced combustion engine technology with high indicated thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxides ( NO x and particulate matter (PM emissions. In this study, an RCCI engine for the purpose of fuel economy investigation is incorporated in series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV architecture, which allows the engine to run completely in the narrow RCCI mode for common driving cycles. Three different types of energy management control (EMC strategies are designed and implemented to achieve the best fuel economy. The EMC strategies encompass rule-based control (RBC, offline, and online optimal controllers, including dynamic programing (DP and model predictive control (MPC, respectively. The simulation results show a 13.1% to 14.2% fuel economy saving by using an RCCI engine over a modern spark ignition (SI engine in SHEV for different driving cycles. This fuel economy saving is reduced to 3% in comparison with a modern compression ignition (CI engine, while NO x emissions are significantly lower. Simulation results show that the RCCI engine offers more fuel economy improvement in more aggressive driving cycles (e.g., US06, compared to less aggressive driving cycles (e.g., UDDS. In addition, the MPC results show that sub-optimal fuel economy is achieved by predicting the vehicle speed profile for a time horizon of 70 s.

  13. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.


    This presentation discusses a method of accounting for realistic levels of driver aggression to higher-level vehicle studies, including the impact of variation in real-world driving characteristics (acceleration and speed) on vehicle energy consumption and different powertrains (e.g., conventionally powered vehicles versus electrified drive vehicles [xEVs]). Aggression variation between drivers can increase fuel consumption by more than 50% or decrease it by more than 20% from average. The normalized fuel consumption deviation from average as a function of population percentile was found to be largely insensitive to powertrain. However, the traits of ideal driving behavior are a function of powertrain. In conventional vehicles, kinetic losses dominate rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses. In xEVs with regenerative braking, rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses dominate. The relation of fuel consumption predicted from real-world drive data to that predicted by the industry-standard HWFET, UDDS, LA92, and US06 drive cycles was not consistent across powertrains, and varied broadly from the mean, median, and mode of real-world driving. A drive cycle synthesized by NREL's DRIVE tool accurately and consistently reproduces average real-world for multiple powertrains within 1%, and can be used to calculate the fuel consumption effects of varying levels of driver aggression.

  14. Optimal Energy Management Strategy of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Chen


    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have been recognized as one of the most promising vehicle categories nowadays due to their low fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Energy management is critical for improving the performance of PHEVs. This paper proposes an energy management approach based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The optimization objective is to minimize total energy cost (summation of oil and electricity from vehicle utilization. A main drawback of optimal strategies is that they can hardly be used in real-time control. In order to solve this problem, a rule-based strategy containing three operation modes is proposed first, and then the PSO algorithm is implemented on four threshold values in the presented rule-based strategy. The proposed strategy has been verified by the US06 driving cycle under the MATLAB/Simulink software environment. Two different driving cycles are adopted to evaluate the generalization ability of the proposed strategy. Simulation results indicate that the proposed PSO-based energy management method can achieve better energy efficiency compared with traditional blended strategies. Online control performance of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through a driver-in-the-loop real-time experiment.

  15. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL


    fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  16. Model year 2010 Honda insight level-1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)


    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Honda Insight was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were tested. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D3). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation when available. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Insight and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  17. Discovery of Novel NOx Catalysts for CIDI Applications by High-throughput Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blint, Richard J. [General Motors Corporation, Warren, MI (United States)


    DOE project DE-PS26-00NT40758 has developed very active, lean exhaust, NOx reduction catalysts that have been tested on the discovery system, laboratory reactors and engine dynamometer systems. The goal of this project is the development of effective, affordable NOx reduction catalysts for lean combustion engines in the US light duty vehicle market which can meet Tier II emission standards with hydrocarbons based reductants for reducing NOx. General Motors (prime contractor) along with subcontractors BASF (Engelhard) (a catalytic converter developer) and ACCELRYS (an informatics supplier) carried out this project which began in August of 2002. BASF (Engelhard) has run over 16,000 tests of 6100 possible catalytic materials on a high throughput discovery system suitable for automotive catalytic materials. Accelrys developed a new database informatics system which allowed material tracking and data mining. A program catalyst was identified and evaluated at all levels of the program. Dynamometer evaluations of the program catalyst both with and without additives show 92% NOx conversions on the HWFET, 76% on the US06, 60% on the cold FTP and 65% on the Set 13 heavy duty test using diesel fuel. Conversions of over 92% on the heavy duty FTP using ethanol as a second fluid reductant have been measured. These can be competitive with both of the alternative lean NOx reduction technologies presently in the market. Conversions of about 80% were measured on the EUDC for lean gasoline applications without using active dosing to adjust the C:N ratio for optimum NOx reduction at all points in the certification cycle. A feasibility analysis has been completed and demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of the technology using these materials compared with other potential technologies. The teaming agreements among the partners contain no obstacles to commercialization of new technologies to any potential catalyst customers.

  18. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.


    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  19. EDITORIAL: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors (United States)

    Han, Jung; Kneissl, Michael


    -nitride-based laser diodes is compared. Leung et al discuss the optical emission characteristics of semipolar (1122) GaN light-emitting diodes on m-sapphire and stripe-etched r-sapphire, and Jung et al present results on high brightness non-polar a-plane GaN light-emitting diodes. Finally, in a review Konar et al discuss the charge transport in non- and semipolar III-V nitride heterostructures, and Ishida et al present the latest results on non-polar AlGaN/GaN HFETs with a normally-off operation. Overall, we think that this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in the field on non-polar and semipolar nitride materials and devices. In view of the rapidly growing interest in this field, the demonstrated enhanced device performance and the wide range of applications, this special issue can be considered a very timely contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the IOP editorial staff, in particular Jarlath McKenna, for their support, and we would also like to thank all contributors for their efforts in making this special issue possible.

  20. Advanced Semiconductor Devices (United States)

    Shur, Michael S.; Maki, Paul A.; Kolodzey, James


    I. Wide band gap devices. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor devices for automotive applications / M. Sugimoto ... [et al.]. A GaN on SiC HFET device technology for wireless infrastructure applications / B. Green ... [et al.]. Drift velocity limitation in GaN HEMT channels / A. Matulionis. Simulations of field-plated and recessed gate gallium nitride-based heterojunction field-effect transistors / V. O. Turin, M. S. Shur and D. B. Veksler. Low temperature electroluminescence of green and deep green GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / Y. Li ... [et al.]. Spatial spectral analysis in high brightness GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / T. Detchprohm ... [et al.]. Self-induced surface texturing of Al2O3 by means of inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in Cl2 chemistry / P. Batoni ... [et al.]. Field and termionic field transport in aluminium gallium arsenide heterojunction barriers / D. V. Morgan and A. Porch. Electrical characteristics and carrier lifetime measurements in high voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes / P. A. Losee ... [et al.]. Geometry and short channel effects on enhancement-mode n-Channel GaN MOSFETs on p and n- GaN/sapphire substrates / W. Huang, T. Khan and T. P. Chow. 4H-SiC Vertical RESURF Schottky Rectifiers and MOSFETs / Y. Wang, P. A. Losee and T. P. Chow. Present status and future Directions of SiGe HBT technology / M. H. Khater ... [et al.]Optical properties of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum Wells structure and light emitting diode grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy / J. Senawiratne ... [et al.]. Electrical comparison of Ta/Ti/Al/Mo/Au and Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contacts on undoped GaN HEMTs structure with AlN interlayer / Y. Sun and L. F. Eastman. Above 2 A/mm drain current density of GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire / F. Medjdoub ... [et al.]. Focused thermal beam direct patterning on InGaN during molecular beam epitaxy / X. Chen, W. J. Schaff and L. F. Eastman -- II. Terahertz and millimeter wave devices. Temperature-dependent microwave performance of

  1. 亚硒酸钠对大鼠脑缺血再灌注后行为学和梗死灶体积的影响%Effect of Na2SeO3 on behavior and infarct size after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光胜; 王元伟; 陈孝东; 顾汉沛; 耿德勤


    Objective To observe the effects of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) on the behavior and infarct size after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. Methods 63 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, the sham-operated group, IR group and the Na2SeO3 group, with 21 rats in each group. In the latter two groups, cerebral IR injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. The changes of behavior scores before and after the Na2SeO3 treatment in each group were studied, and the changes in the number of the hippocampal neurons by methylthionine staining three days after reperfusion was investigated. Then the cerebral water content was calculated and the volume of infarct was measured by TTC staining. Results There was no significant difference in the behavior scores before treatment between the IR group and the Na2SeO3 group, but neurological deficit was improved in the Na2SeO3 group 24 hours after reperfusion (P<0.05), and was significantly improved 72 hours after reperfusion (P<0.01). The number of hippocampal neurons significantly decreased after cerebral IR injury in rats, but the survival neurons increased significantly in the Na2SeO3 group after treatment. Compared with the IR group, the size of infarct was significantly reduced in the Na2Sc03 group (P<0.01). The brain tissue water content of infarcted cerebral hemisphere was increased significantly, compared with that of the sham-operated group and the non-infarcted cerebral hemisphere (P<0.05). The brain tissue water content of the Na2SeO3 group was decreased significantly after treatment, compared with the IR group (P<0.05). Conclusion Na2SeO3 can reduce the infarct size and improve the neurological function in rats, thus exerting a protective effect on cerebral IR injury.%目的 观察亚硒酸钠对大鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤后行为学和梗死灶体积的影响.方法 63只SD大鼠随机分为假手术组、缺血再灌注组(模型组)

  2. NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL


    applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  3. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    improvement was measured for this vehicle, which achieved near volumetric fuel economy parity on the aggressive US06 drive cycle, demonstrating the potential for improved fuel economy in forthcoming downsized, downsped engines with high-octane fuels.