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  1. Reduced serum levels of oestradiol and brain derived neurotrophic factor in both diabetic women and HFD-feeding female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shan-Wen; Khandekar, Neeta; Tong, Shi-Fei; Yang, He-Qin; Wang, Wan-Ru; Huang, Xu-Feng; Song, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Shu

    2017-04-01

    The estrogen levels in the pre and post menstrual phases interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a complex manner, which influences the overall state of the body. To study the role of oestradiol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in modulating obesity related type 2 diabetes and the interactions between two factors, we enrolled 15 diabetic premenopausal women and 15 diabetic postmenopausal women respectively, the same number of healthy pre and postmenopausal women were recruited as two control groups. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, estrogen, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured through clinical tests. Additionally, we set up obese female mouse model to mimic human trial stated above, to verify the relationship between estrogen and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings revealed that there is a moderately positive correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oestradiol in females, and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor may worsen impaired insulin function. The results further confirmed that high fat diet-fed mice which exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, showed lower levels of oestradiol and decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the ventromedial hypothalamus. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor reduced on condition that the level of oestradiol is sufficiently low, such as women in postmenopausal period, which aggravates diabetes through feeding-related pathways. Increasing the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor may help to alleviate the progression of the disease in postmenopausal women with diabetes.

  2. Novel GLP-1 Analog Supaglutide Reduces HFD-Induced Obesity Associated with Increased Ucp-1 in White Adipose Tissue in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GLP-1, an important incretin hormone plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the therapeutic use of native GLP-1 is limited due to its short half-life. We recently developed a novel GLP-1 mimetics (supaglutide by genetically engineering recombinant fusion protein production techniques. We demonstrated that this formulation possessed long-lasting GLP-1 actions and was effective in glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes rodent models. Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice. Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD for 6 months to induce obesity and then subjected to supaglutide treatment (300 μg/kg, bi-weekly for 4 weeks, and placebo as control. Metabolic conditions were monitored and energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry (CLAMS. Cold tolerance test was performed to evaluate brown-adipose tissue (BAT activities in response to cold challenge. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance tests. Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1 in adipose tissues was evaluated by Western blotting. We found that supaglutide treatment reduced body weight, which was associated with reduced food intake. Compared to the placebo control, supaglutide treatment improved lipid profile, i.e., significantly decreased circulating total cholesterol levels, declined serum triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels. Importantly, the intervention significantly reduced fatty liver, decreased liver triglyceride content, and concomitantly ameliorated liver injury exemplified by declined hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartic transaminase (AST content. Remarkably, supaglutide reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and altered morphometry in favor of small adipocytes in fat. This is consistent with the observation that

  3. Metformin improves metabolic memory in high fat diet (HFD)-induced renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Sharma, Ekta; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Pamulapati, Himani; Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang

    2016-08-22

    Recently, we have shown that high fat diet (HFD) in vivo and in vitro generates metabolic memory by altering H3K36me2 and H3K27me3 on the promoter of FOXO1 (transcription factor of gluconeogenic genes) (Kumar et al., 2015). Here we checked the hypothesis, whether concomitant diet reversal and metformin could overcome HFD-induced metabolic memory and renal damage. Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were rendered insulin resistant by feeding high fat diet for 16 weeks. Then the rats were subjected to diet reversal (REV) alone and along with metformin (REV+MET) for 8 weeks. Biochemical and histological markers of insulin resistance and kidney function were measured. Blood pressure and in vivo vascular reactivity to Angiotensin II (200 mgkg-1) were also checked. Diet reversal could improve lipid profile but could not prevent renal complications induced by HFD. Interestingly, metformin along with diet reversal restored the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. In kidney, metformin increased the activation of AMPK, decreased inflammatory markers-COX-2, IL-1β and apoptotic markers-PARP, Caspase3. Metformin was effective in lowering the elevated basal blood pressure, acute change in mean arterial pressure (ΔMAP) in response to Ang II. It also attenuated the tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis induced by HFD-feeding in kidney. Here we report for the first time, that metformin treatment overcomes metabolic memory and prevents HFD-induced renal damage.

  4. Swimming intervention mitigates HFD-induced obesity of rats through PGC-1α-irisin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-Q; Yuan, H; Li, J; Fan, J-J; Jia, S-H; Kou, X-J; Chen, N

    2016-05-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered myokine, can drive the browning of white adipocytes to control body weight or mitigate obesity progression through regulating energy metabolism. However, the underlying mechanisms or specific signal pathways of exercise-induced irisin on the management of obesity are still unclear. Totally 30 rats were subjected to high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 8 weeks to establish the rat model with obesity successfully. HFD-induced obese model rats were provided with 8 weeks swimming intervention at moderate intensity for exploring the treatment of obesity through exercise intervention. In addition, another 15 rats were subjected to HFD feeding coupled with total 16 weeks swimming intervention at a moderate intensity from the beginning of the experiment, which was used for exploring the prevention of obesity through exercise intervention. Blood and gastrocnemius samples were harvested from obese rats after swimming intervention to explore its specific signal pathways through ELISA analysis and Western blotting. HFD feeding of rats for 8 weeks could lead to the obesity due to the disorders of lipid metabolism. Totally 8 weeks swimming intervention at moderate intensity for rats with obesity could obviously alleviate the progression of obesity and 16 weeks swimming intervention from the beginning of the experiment could significantly inhibit the development of obesity. Meanwhile, swimming intervention could result in an increased phosphorylation of AMPK and up-regulation of irisin and PGC-1α as the biomarkers of energy metabolism. Exercise intervention can activate PGC-1α-dependent irisin to induce the browning of white adipocytes, thus inhibiting or alleviating the occurrence and development of obesity.

  5. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2011-01-01

    -62%) were seen in HFD and ND, but only in HFD was an elevated (P respiratory rate seen at recovery. With HFD complex I and IV protein expression decreased (P system protein content......) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P

  6. Butyrate Reduces HFD-Induced Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Metabolic Risk Factors in Obese LDLr-/-.Leiden Mice

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    Charlotte E. Pelgrim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance, liver function, and to increase the risk of T2DM. In this study, we examined the impact of intervention with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate following a high-fat diet (HFD on AT function and other metabolic risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM in mice during mid- and late life. In both mid- and late adulthood, butyrate reduced HFD-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and elevations in leptin levels, which were associated with body weight, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels. HFD feeding stimulated macrophage accumulation primarily in epididymal AT in both mid- and late life adult mice, which correlated with liver inflammation in late adulthood. In late-adult mice, butyrate diminished increased insulin levels, which were related to adipocyte size and macrophage content in epididymal AT. These results suggest that dietary butyrate supplementation is able to counteract HFD-induced detrimental changes in AT function and metabolic outcomes in late life. These changes underlie the obesity-induced elevated risk of T2DM, and therefore it is suggested that butyrate has potential to attenuate risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM.

  7. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, ye...

  8. A small amount of dietary carbohydrate can promote the HFD-induced insulin resistance to a maximal level.

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    Shuang Mei

    Full Text Available Both dietary fat and carbohydrates (Carbs may play important roles in the development of insulin resistance. The main goal of this study was to further define the roles for fat and dietary carbs in insulin resistance. C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow diet (CD or HFD containing 0.1-25.5% carbs for 5 weeks, followed by evaluations of calorie consumption, body weight and fat gains, insulin sensitivity, intratissue insulin signaling, ectopic fat, and oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscle. The role of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the HFD-induced insulin resistance was determined in mice. The role of fat in insulin resistance was also examined in cultured cells. HFD with little carbs (0.1% induced severe insulin resistance. Addition of 5% carbs to HFD dramatically elevated insulin resistance and 10% carbs in HFD was sufficient to induce a maximal level of insulin resistance. HFD with little carbs induced ectopic fat accumulation and oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscle and addition of carbs to HFD dramatically enhanced ectopic fat and oxidative stress. HFD increased hepatic expression of key gluconeogenic genes and the increase was most dramatic by HFD with little carbs, and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis prevented the HFD-induced insulin resistance. In cultured cells, development of insulin resistance induced by a pathological level of insulin was prevented in the absence of fat. Together, fat is essential for development of insulin resistance and dietary carb is not necessary for HFD-induced insulin resistance due to the presence of hepatic gluconeogenesis but a very small amount of it can promote HFD-induced insulin resistance to a maximal level.

  9. Short-term HFD does not alter lipolytic function of adipocytes

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    Wiedemann, Michael SF; Wueest, Stephan; Grob, Alexandra; Item, Flurin; Schoenle, Eugen J; Konrad, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A short bout of high fat diet (HFD) impairs glucose tolerance and hepatic insulin sensitivity. We recently identified adipose tissue inflammation and resulting dysfunctional adipose tissue–liver cross-talk as an early event in the development of HFD-induced hepatic insulin resistance. In particular, reducing white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation by adipocyte-specific depletion of Fas/CD95 protected mice from developing hepatic insulin resistance but not hepatic steatosis. Herein, we expanded our previous work and determined the impact of four days of HFD on lipolytic activity of isolated adipocytes. Compared with chow-fed mice, the degree of basal and isoproterenol-stimulated free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol release was similar in HFD-fed animals. Moreover, insulin’s ability to suppress lipolysis remained intact, suggesting retained insulin sensitivity. Despite unaltered lipolysis, circulating FFA concentrations were greatly increased in non-fasted HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, a short-term HFD challenge does not affect lipolytic function of adipocytes. The observed increase of circulating FFA levels in randomly fed animals may rather be the result of increased dietary fat supply. PMID:24719784

  10. Increasing self-drinking for children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kathryn M; Volkert, Valerie M; Zeleny, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often do not self-drink without treatment. Unfortunately, the literature on self-drinking is scarce. We evaluated differential positive reinforcement to increase self-drinking for 2 children with feeding disorders. Results showed that differential positive reinforcement with tangible items increased self-drinking for both children in the absence of nonremoval of the cup.

  11. Oral kanglaite injection (KLTI) attenuates the lung cancer-promoting effect of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Ning; Ma, Xiaofang; Guo, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Yaqiu; Geng, Shengnan; Meng, Mingjing; Du, Zhenhua; Lin, Haihong; Duan, Yongjian; Du, Gangjun

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer and cancer-related mortality, however, its role in lung cancer progression remains controversial. This study aimed to assess whether high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity promotes lung cancer progression and whether the promotion can be decreased by Kanglaite injection (KLTI). In vivo, HFD-induced overweight or obesity increases the lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity in a urethane-induced lung carcinogenic model and cancer-related mortality in a LLC al...

  12. INCREASING OF FALL RYE CORN FEEDING VALUE BY HYDROBARATHERNAL TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The results of production experience on hydrobarathernal treatment fall rye grain feeding are presented in the article. It is determined that ater high temperature and pressure impact on fall rye grain in aqueous media dextrinization of starch specifically amylopectin occurs to monosugar in the form of glucose, therewith, sugar content increases more than in twice in comparison with parent grain. It is revealed that replacement of milled corn grain mixture to fall rye grain hydrolyzate in rat...

  13. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dela, Flemming

    2011-06-01

    Twenty one healthy untrained male subjects were randomized to follow a high-fat diet (HFD; 55-60E% fat, 25-30E% carbohydrate, and 15E% protein) or a normal diet (ND; 25-35E% fat, 55-60E% carbohydrate, and 10-15E% protein) for 2(1/2) wk. Diets were isocaloric and tailored individually to match energy expenditure. At 2(1/2) wk of diet, one 60-min bout of bicycle exercise (70% of maximal oxygen uptake) was performed. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the diet, immediately after exercise, and after 3-h recovery. Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P increase was abolished. At recovery, no change from resting respiration was seen in either group. With a lipid substrate (octanoyl-carnitine with or without ADP), similar exercise-induced increases (31-62%) were seen in HFD and ND, but only in HFD was an elevated (P fat-rich diet induces marked changes in the mitochondrial electron transport system protein content and in exercise-induced mitochondrial substrate oxidation rates, with the effects being present hours after the exercise. The effect of HFD is present even without effects on insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular lipid accumulation. An isocaloric high-fat diet does not cause insulin resistance.

  14. Impaired striatal Akt signaling disrupts dopamine homeostasis and increases feeding.

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    Nicole Speed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically worldwide. The obesity epidemic begs for novel concepts and therapeutic targets that cohesively address "food-abuse" disorders. We demonstrate a molecular link between impairment of a central kinase (Akt involved in insulin signaling induced by exposure to a high-fat (HF diet and dysregulation of higher order circuitry involved in feeding. Dopamine (DA rich brain structures, such as striatum, provide motivation stimuli for feeding. In these central circuitries, DA dysfunction is posited to contribute to obesity pathogenesis. We identified a mechanistic link between metabolic dysregulation and the maladaptive behaviors that potentiate weight gain. Insulin, a hormone in the periphery, also acts centrally to regulate both homeostatic and reward-based HF feeding. It regulates DA homeostasis, in part, by controlling a key element in DA clearance, the DA transporter (DAT. Upon HF feeding, nigro-striatal neurons rapidly develop insulin signaling deficiencies, causing increased HF calorie intake. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that consumption of fat-rich food impairs striatal activation of the insulin-activated signaling kinase, Akt. HF-induced Akt impairment, in turn, reduces DAT cell surface expression and function, thereby decreasing DA homeostasis and amphetamine (AMPH-induced DA efflux. In addition, HF-mediated dysregulation of Akt signaling impairs DA-related behaviors such as (AMPH-induced locomotion and increased caloric intake. We restored nigro-striatal Akt phosphorylation using recombinant viral vector expression technology. We observed a rescue of DAT expression in HF fed rats, which was associated with a return of locomotor responses to AMPH and normalization of HF diet-induced hyperphagia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acquired disruption of brain insulin action may confer risk for and/or underlie "food-abuse" disorders and the recalcitrance of obesity. This molecular

  15. Oral kanglaite injection (KLTI) attenuates the lung cancer-promoting effect of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ning; Ma, Xiaofang; Guo, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Yaqiu; Geng, Shengnan; Meng, Mingjing; Du, Zhenhua; Lin, Haihong; Duan, Yongjian; Du, Gangjun

    2016-09-20

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer and cancer-related mortality, however, its role in lung cancer progression remains controversial. This study aimed to assess whether high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity promotes lung cancer progression and whether the promotion can be decreased by Kanglaite injection (KLTI). In vivo, HFD-induced overweight or obesity increases the lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity in a urethane-induced lung carcinogenic model and cancer-related mortality in a LLC allograft model by increasing oxidative stress and cellular signaling molecules including JAK, STAT3, Akt, mTOR, NF-κB and cyclin D1. These changes resulted in increases in vascular disruption and the lung water content, thereby promoting lung epithelial proliferation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during carcinogenesis. Chronic KLTI treatment substantially prevented the weight gain resulting from HFD consumption, thereby reversing the metabolic dysfunction-related physiological changes and reducing susceptibility to lung carcinogenesis. In vitro, KLTI significantly suppressed the proliferation and induced apoptosis and differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and attenuated endothelial cell permeability in HUVECs. Our study indicates that there is a potential relationship between obesity and lung cancer. This is the first study to show that obesity can directly accelerate carcinogen-induced lung cancer progression and that KLTI can decrease the lung cancer-promoting effect of HFD-induced obesity.

  16. An effective increase in milk production through triticale feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbal, Nora; Benbelkacem, A; Dib, Y

    2014-01-01

    Since the first studies in Algeria in 1999, 2002 and 2005, triticale has been used in arid and semi-arid areas mainly for livestock production. Efforts have been done for the utilization of triticale as hay, silage and hole grain to feed dairy cattle and small ruminants (sheep). Studies have shown that triticale could be easily integrated in the existing crop-livestock system of northern Algeria. In spite of the good results in the yield performance and adaptation to diverse environments, decision makers are not giving the necessary attention to triticale. Dairy cattle holders that tested the crop have adopted it quickly and developed it in an informal way. Now, more than 90% of the triticale seed business is in the hands of private farmers without any help or subsidies nor a good price policy to develop strongly this crop. The utilization of triticale in Algeria is roughly as follow: human consumption 5%, forage crop (hay or silage) 60% and 30% as feed grain, the remaining 5% are kept for sowing seed. In our studies we have compared different feed sources (barley, triticale, concentrate diet and mixtures) to dairy cattle and sheep. Triticale showed highly significantly better results for meat production and gave also an amazing response for dairy and sheep milk production in Algeria. Milk production of animals fed with triticale over exceeded the other feed sources by 26% to 53%; mean weight gain exhibited the same rates.

  17. Effect of HFD/STZ on expression of genes involved in lipid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Luisa; Vornoli, Andrea; Coppola, Ilaria; Croce, Clara Maria Della; Giorgetti, Lucia; Gervasi, Pier Giovanni; Longo, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate lipid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in a novel rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Rats (Wistar) were fed high fat/cholesterol diet (HFD) and a single low dose (35mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ). Collagen and glycogen content, oxidative stress and glucokinase activity were measured using biochemical assays. Other metabolic pathways were assessed by qRT-PCR. HFD/STZ treated rats, compared to control ones, showed an increase in expression of biomarkers of inflammation (TNFα, IL6), fibrosis (TGFβ), mitochondrial stress (UCP2) and oxidative stress (GSH and carbonylated proteins) but not of ER stress (CHOP, XBP1). Additionally, HFD/STZ treatment caused a reduction in glycogen content, glucokinase activity (a limiting step in glycolysis) and expression of ChREBP gene (a de novo lipogenesis regulator), suggesting a modified glycolytic pathway. The cholesterol biosynthesis in HFD/STZ treated rats was inhibited (reduced expression of SREBP-2-regulated HMGCoA red and LDLr), instead the cholesterol catabolism was increased, as shown by the mRNA induction of the CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 (key genes for BA acid). A reduced gene expression of FXR-dependent SHP (a key gene for feedback inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1) and of bile acids (NTCP, OATP1A1, BSEP) and cholesterol (ABCA1) transporters was found. These results widely extend the characterization of HFD/STZ rat model, which might mimic the NAFLD/NASH in diabetic humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-fat diet feeding promotes stemness and precancerous changes in murine gastric mucosa mediated by leptin receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Seiya; Kinoshita, Yuta; Ushida, Kaori; Enomoto, Atsushi; Inagaki-Ohara, Kyoko

    2016-11-15

    Obesity increases the risk for gastric cancers. However, the occurrence and mechanisms of precancerous atrophic gastritis induced by high-fat diet (HFD) remain unclear. Here, we show that HFD-associated lipotoxicity induces precancerous lesions that are accompanied by the disruption of organelle homeostasis, tissue integrity, and deregulated expression of stemness genes in the gastric epithelium mediated by leptin receptor (ObR) signaling. Following HFD feeding, ectopic fat accumulated and expression of LAMP2A in lysosome and COX IV in mitochondria increased in the gastric mucosa. HFD feeding also led to enhanced expression of activated-Notch1 and stem cell markers Lgr5, CD44, and EpCAM. In addition, HFD-fed mice showed intracellular β-catenin accumulation in the gastric mucosa with increased expression of its target genes, Nanog, Oct4, and c-Myc. These observations were abrogated in the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and ObR-mutated db/db mice, indicating that these HFD-induced changes were responsible for effects downstream of the ObR. Consistent with this, the expression of the Class IA and III PI3Ks was increased following ObR activation in the gastric mucosa of HFD-fed mice. Together, these results suggest that HFD-induced lipotoxicity and deregulated organelle biosynthesis confer cancer stem cell-like properties to the gastric mucosa via signaling pathway mediated by leptin, PI3K and β-catenin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster without increased larval feeding rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANASWINI SARANGI; ARCHANA NAGARAJAN; SNIGDHADIP DEY; JOY BOSE; AMITABH JOSHI

    2016-09-01

    Multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogasterin the 1980s and 1990s indicated that enhanced competitive ability evolved primarily through increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes and increased larval feeding and foraging rate, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass, and this became the widely accepted view of how adaptation to larval crowding evolves in fruitflies. We recently showed that populations of D. ananassaeand D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolved greater competitive ability without evolving higher feeding rates, primarily through acombination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion to biomass, increased pupation height and, perhaps, greater urea/ammonia tolerance. This was a very differentsuite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection in D. melanogasterand was closer to the expectations from the theory of K-selection. At that time, we suggested two possible reasons for the differences in the phenotypic correlates ofgreater competitive ability seen in the studies with D. melanogaster and the other two species. First, that D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta had a very different genetic architecture of traits affecting competitive ability compared to the long-term labora-tory populations of D. melanogaster used in the earlier studies, either because the populations of the former two species were relatively recently wild-caught, or by virtue of being different species. Second, that the different evolutionary trajectories in D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta versus D. melanogaster were a reflection of differences in the manner in which larval crowding was imposed in the two sets of selection experiments. The D. melanogaster studies used a higher absolute density of eggs per unit volume of food, and a substantially larger total volume of food, than the studies on D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta. Here, we

  20. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster without increased larval feeding rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Manaswini; Nagarajan, Archana; Dey, Snigdhadip; Bose, Joy; Joshi, Amitabh

    2016-09-01

    Multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster in the 1980s and 1990s indicated that enhanced competitive ability evolved primarily through increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes and increased larval feeding and foraging rate, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass, and this became the widely accepted view of how adaptation to larval crowding evolves in fruitflies.We recently showed that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolved greater competitive ability without evolving higher feeding rates, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion to biomass, increased pupation height and, perhaps, greater urea/ammonia tolerance. This was a very different suite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection in D. melanogaster and was closer to the expectations from the theory of K-selection. At that time, we suggested two possible reasons for the differences in the phenotypic correlates of greater competitive ability seen in the studies with D. melanogaster and the other two species. First, that D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta had a very different genetic architecture of traits affecting competitive ability compared to the long-term laboratory populations of D. melanogaster used in the earlier studies, either because the populations of the former two species were relatively recently wild-caught, or by virtue of being different species. Second, that the different evolutionary trajectories in D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta versus D. melanogaster were a reflection of differences in the manner in which larval crowding was imposed in the two sets of selection experiments. The D. melanogaster studies used a higher absolute density of eggs per unit volume of food, and a substantially larger total volume of food, than the studies on D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta. Here, we

  1. Short-Term High-Fat Diet (HFD) Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Cognitive Impairment Are Improved with Treatment by Glyburide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Stephen J.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Bray, Julie K.; Pillote, Melissa M.; Tir, Vincent L.; Towers, Albert E.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated comorbidities such as cognitive impairment and anxiety are increasing public health burdens that have gained prevalence in children. To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on brain function, mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) from weaning for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. When compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice (LFD-mice), HFD-fed mice (HFD-mice) had impaired novel object recognition (NOR) after 1 week. After 3 weeks, HFD-mice had impaired NOR and object location recognition (OLR). Additionally, these mice displayed anxiety-like behavior by measure of both the open-field and elevated zero maze (EZM) testing. At 6 weeks, HFD-mice were comparable to LFD-mice in NOR, open-field and EZM performance but they remained impaired during OLR testing. Glyburide, a second-generation sulfonylurea for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, was chosen as a countermeasure based on previous data exhibiting its potential as an anxiolytic. Interestingly, a single dose of glyburide corrected deficiencies in NOR and mitigated anxiety-like behaviors in mice fed with HFD-diet for 3-weeks. Taken together these results indicate that a HFD negatively impacts a subset of hippocampal-independent behaviors relatively rapidly, but such behaviors normalize with age. In contrast, impairment of hippocampal-sensitive memory takes longer to develop but persists. Since single-dose glyburide restores brain function in 3-week-old HFD-mice, drugs that block ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of obesity-associated childhood cognitive issues and psychopathologies. PMID:27563288

  2. Short-Term High-Fat Diet (HFD) Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Cognitive Impairment Are Improved with Treatment by Glyburide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Stephen J; Kwakwa, Kristin A; Bray, Julie K; Pillote, Melissa M; Tir, Vincent L; Towers, Albert E; Freund, Gregory G

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated comorbidities such as cognitive impairment and anxiety are increasing public health burdens that have gained prevalence in children. To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on brain function, mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) from weaning for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. When compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice (LFD-mice), HFD-fed mice (HFD-mice) had impaired novel object recognition (NOR) after 1 week. After 3 weeks, HFD-mice had impaired NOR and object location recognition (OLR). Additionally, these mice displayed anxiety-like behavior by measure of both the open-field and elevated zero maze (EZM) testing. At 6 weeks, HFD-mice were comparable to LFD-mice in NOR, open-field and EZM performance but they remained impaired during OLR testing. Glyburide, a second-generation sulfonylurea for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, was chosen as a countermeasure based on previous data exhibiting its potential as an anxiolytic. Interestingly, a single dose of glyburide corrected deficiencies in NOR and mitigated anxiety-like behaviors in mice fed with HFD-diet for 3-weeks. Taken together these results indicate that a HFD negatively impacts a subset of hippocampal-independent behaviors relatively rapidly, but such behaviors normalize with age. In contrast, impairment of hippocampal-sensitive memory takes longer to develop but persists. Since single-dose glyburide restores brain function in 3-week-old HFD-mice, drugs that block ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of obesity-associated childhood cognitive issues and psychopathologies.

  3. Increased Feeding Speed Is Associated with Higher Subsequent Sympathetic Activity in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyo Ohtani

    Full Text Available Although the domestication process has altered the feeding behavior of dogs, some breeds still demonstrate a remarkable ability to gorge, and will eat exceptionally large quantities of food whenever it is available. Lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus increase appetite and lead to obesity, suggesting that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in feeding. Focusing on the autonomic activities closely involved in food intake, we investigated sympathetic activities before and after feeding in dogs. The subjects were 56 healthy dogs of 21 different breeds (29 males and 27 females. Based on feeding habits, the 56 dogs were divided into three groups: Fast (n = 19, Slow (n = 24 and Leftover (n = 13. The feeding speed and the amount of food per mouthful of the Fast dogs were significantly greater than those of the Slow and the Leftover dogs. The plasma norepinephrine level in dogs of the Fast group was significantly increased after feeding, while those in the Slow and Leftover groups were significantly decreased after feeding, compared with the pre-feeding concentrations. The low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability is a good indicator of sympathetic activity and was also significantly higher in the Fast group than in the other groups. Delayed feeding using automatic feeding equipment decreased the plasma norepinephrine concentration and low frequency/high frequency ratio observed after feeding in dogs of the Fast group. In conclusion, dogs eating rapidly with less chewing, which indicates increased sympathetic activity during feeding, may benefit from delayed feeding. The slow eating may activate the parasympathetic nervous system after feeding, which could enhance the activity of the digestive system.

  4. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

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    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  5. A high-fat diet increases angiogenesis, solid tumor growth, and lung metastasis of CT26 colon cancer cells in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice.

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    Park, Heesook; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Gyoo Taik; Lim, Do Young; Yu, Rina; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Ki Won; Daily, James W; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated whether high-fat diet (HFD), in the absence of increased calorie intake, increases colon cancer growth and metastasis. Four-week-old male BALB/c mice were fed on an HFD (60 kcal% fat) or control diet (10 kcal% fat) for 16 wk, after which CT26 colon cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into the right flank. Solid tumor growth and the number and volume of tumor nodules in the lung were increased markedly in the HFD group with only a slight increase in body weight (5.9%). HFD feeding increased tumor tissue levels of Ki67, cyclin A, cyclin D1, CDK2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2; reduced p53 levels and TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells; increased the levels of CD45, CD68, CD31, VEGF, P-VEGF receptor-2, iNOS, and COX-2 as well as hemoglobin content; and increased the levels of HIF-1α, P-STAT3-Y705, P-STAT3-S727, P-IκB-α, P-p65, p65, P-c-Jun, P-Akt, P-ERK1/2, P-p38, and P-SAPK/JNK. HFD feeding increased the serum levels of EGF, insulin, IGF-I, IFN-γ, leptin, RANTES, MCP-1, IL-1ra, and SDF-1α and media conditioned by epididymal fat tissue explants from HFD-fed mice caused an increase in microvessel outgrowth from the mouse aorta and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results indicate that the chronic consumption of an HFD increases colon cancer cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis, and lung metastasis in mice in the absence of discernible weight gain. HFD feeding increases the levels of growth factors which activate transcription factors, thereby inducing the expression of many genes involved in the stimulation of inflammation, angiogenesis, and cellular proliferation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Using Negative Reinforcement to Increase Self-Feeding in a Child with Food Selectivity

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    Vaz, Petula C. M.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a negative reinforcement-based treatment on the self-feeding of 1 child with food selectivity by type and texture. Self-feeding increased when the child could choose to either self-feed 1 bite of a target food or be fed 1 bite of the target food and 5 bites of another food. Possible mechanisms that underlie the…

  7. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  9. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  10. Cordyceps sinensis biomass produced by submerged fermentation in high-fat diet feed rats normalizes the blood lipid and the low testosterone induced by diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire dos Santos, Leandro; Rubel, Rosália; Bonatto, Sandro José Ribeiro; Zanatta, Ana Lucia; Aikawa, Júlia; Yamaguchi, Adriana Aya; Torres, Maria Fernanda; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Habu, Sascha; Prado, Karin Braun; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation obtained from submerged fermentation on blood lipid and low testosterone induced by high-fat diet (HFD). The experiments were carried out using a long-term intake of HFD and HFD plus Simvastatin or C. sinensis (4 months). Our results show that plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL were decreased by Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation (CSBS). A long-term intake of HFD caused a significant liver damage which has been reverted by CSBS. CSBS normalized decreasing testosterone levels observed in high-fat diet feed rats. All these findings lead us to suggest that C. sinensis was able to decrease blood lipid concentration, increase hepatoprotective activity and normalize testosterone levels. PMID:27847459

  11. Preference for high-fat diet is developed by young Swiss CD1 mice after short-term feeding and is prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Angie; Flores, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandro; Sáez-Briones, Patricio; Burgos, Héctor; Morgan, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is increasing at an alarming rate. One of its causes is the increased availability and consumption of diets rich in fat. In the present study, we investigated the effects of short-term consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) on dietary preferences in Swiss CD1 mice and its relation in time to specific metabolic effects. Mice that were weaned 21days postpartum and fed a chow diet for one week were afterward subjected to a diet preference test for 5days, exposed to both a regular diet (RD) and HFD. We found that mice did not show any preferences. In a second experiment, two groups of mice that were weaned 21days postpartum and subjected to a chow diet for one week were fed either RD or HFD for 18days, and a diet preference test was performed for 5days. After this short-term consumption of HFD, mice preferred HFD, while mice subjected to RD did not show any preference. Importantly, no differences in blood glucose levels were found between the groups prior to and after the experiments. The results support our hypothesis that the preference for HFD is not a spontaneous behavior in CD1 mice, but it can be observed after short-term consumption; additionally, this preference develops before metabolic effects appear. Finally, this preference for HFD could not be observed when the mice were i.p. injected daily with low doses of the NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine, ifenprodil or MK-801 during the HFD feeding period. These data suggest that acquisition of dietary preference for HFD is a NMDA receptor-dependent learning process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An increased feed intake during early pregnancy improves sow body weight recovery and increases litter size in young sows.

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    Hoving, L L; Soede, N M; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Graat, E A M; Feitsma, H; Kemp, B

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding level and protein content in feed in first- and second-parity sows during the first month of gestation on sow BW recovery, farrowing rate, and litter size during the first month of gestation. From d 3 to 32 after the first insemination, sows were fed either 2.5 kg/d of a standard gestation diet (control, n = 49), 3.25 kg/d (+30%) of a standard gestation diet (plus feed, n = 47), or 2.5 kg/d of a gestation diet with 30% greater ileal digestible AA (plus protein, n = 49). Feed intake during the experimental period was 29% greater for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (93 vs. 72 kg, P Sows in the plus feed group gained 10 kg more BW during the experimental period compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (24.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.5 ± 1.2 and 16.9 ± 1.2 kg, respectively, P sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (76.6% vs. 89.8 and 89.8%, respectively, P = 0.16). Litter size, however, was larger for sows in the plus feed group (15.2 ± 0.5 total born) compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (13.2 ± 0.4 and 13.6 ± 0.4 total born, respectively, P = 0.006). Piglet birth weight was not different among treatments (P = 0.65). For both first- and second-parity sows, the plus feed treatment showed similar effects on BW gain, farrowing rate, and litter size. In conclusion, an increased feed intake (+30%) during the first month of gestation improved sow BW recovery and increased litter size, but did not significantly affect farrowing rate in the subsequent parity. Feeding a 30% greater level of ileal digestible AA during the same period did not improve sow recovery or reproductive performance in the subsequent parity.

  13. Feeding of liquid silicon for high performance multicrystalline silicon with increased ingot height and homogenized resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Schindler, Florian; Strauch, Theresa

    2017-04-01

    Feeding of liquid silicon during the directional solidification process is a promising opportunity for cost reduction by increased throughput and improved material homogeneity due to constant resistivity over ingot height. In this work, a liquid feeding apparatus was developed for an industrial type directional solidification furnace. One n-type G2 sized High Performance multicrystalline ingot with liquid feeding of additional 14 kg of undoped silicon feedstock was crystallized. The resistivity was kept within a range of ±0.1 Ω cm of the target resistivity during the feeding sequence. A smaller mean grain area growth was observed during feeding, whereas the area fraction of recombination active dislocation structures was as low as in a reference ingot. Increased interstitial oxygen and substitutional carbon concentrations were measured for the ingot with liquid feeding. The measured mean bulk lifetime of 190 μs for passivated wafers in the feeding sequence can probably be increased by further pre-melting crucible improvements. For this laboratory experiment, energy reductions of 2% per wafer and time savings of 16% per wafer were realized.

  14. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account.

  15. Increased food intake leads to obesity and insulin resistance in the tg2576 Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohjima, Motoyuki; Sun, Yuxiang; Chan, Lawrence

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used Tg2576 transgenic (Tg) mice, a widely used transgenic mouse model for AD, to explore the relationship between increased amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) and insulin resistance. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), Tg mice developed obesity and insulin resistance at 16 wk of age. Furthermore, HFD-fed Tg mice displayed abnormal feeding behavior and increased caloric intake with time. Although caloric intake of HFD-fed Tg mice was similar to that of normal diet-fed Tg or wild-type mice during 4 to 8 wk of age, it increased sharply at 12 wk, and went up further at 16 wk, which paralleled changes in the level of Abeta40 and Abeta42 in the brain of these mice. Limiting food intake in HFD-fed Tg mice by pair-feeding a caloric intake identical with that of normal diet-fed mice completely prevented the obesity and insulin intolerance of HFD-fed Tg mice. The hypothalamus of HFD-fed Tg mice had a significant decrease in the expression of the anorexigenic neuropeptide, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, at both the mRNA and protein levels. These findings suggest that the increased Abeta in the brain of HFD-fed Tg2576 mice is associated with reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression, which led to abnormal feeding behavior and increased food intake, resulting in obesity and insulin resistance in these animals.

  16. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  17. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  18. C. elegans feeding defective mutants have shorter body lengths and increased autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörck, Catarina; Pilon, Marc

    2006-08-03

    Mutations that cause feeding defects in the nematode C. elegans are known to increase life span. Here we show that feeding defective mutants also have a second general trait in common, namely that they are small. Our measurements of the body lengths of a variety of feeding defective mutants, or of a variety of double mutants affecting other pathways that regulate body length in C. elegans, i.e. the DBL-1/TGFbeta, TAX-6/calcineurin and the SMA-1/betaH-spectrin pathways, indicate that food uptake acts as a separate pathway regulating body length. In early stages, before eating begins, feeding defective worms have no defect in body length or, in some cases, have only slightly smaller body length compared to wild-type. A significant difference in body length is first noticeable at later larval stages, a difference that probably correlates with increasing starvation. We also show that autophagy is induced and that the quantity of fat is decreased in starved worms. Our results indicate that the long-term starvation seen in feeding-defective C. elegans mutants activates autophagy, and leads to depletion of fat deposits, small cell size and small body size.

  19. C. elegans feeding defective mutants have shorter body lengths and increased autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilon Marc

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations that cause feeding defects in the nematode C. elegans are known to increase life span. Here we show that feeding defective mutants also have a second general trait in common, namely that they are small. Results Our measurements of the body lengths of a variety of feeding defective mutants, or of a variety of double mutants affecting other pathways that regulate body length in C. elegans, i.e. the DBL-1/TGFβ, TAX-6/calcineurin and the SMA-1/βH-spectrin pathways, indicate that food uptake acts as a separate pathway regulating body length. In early stages, before eating begins, feeding defective worms have no defect in body length or, in some cases, have only slightly smaller body length compared to wild-type. A significant difference in body length is first noticeable at later larval stages, a difference that probably correlates with increasing starvation. We also show that autophagy is induced and that the quantity of fat is decreased in starved worms. Conclusion Our results indicate that the long-term starvation seen in feeding-defective C. elegans mutants activates autophagy, and leads to depletion of fat deposits, small cell size and small body size.

  20. Modelling the consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on land and feed use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.A.H.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van H.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the consequences of a model extension towards the presentation of by-product in the production of biofuels. By-products can be used as a substitute for feed grain use in livestock production. A boost in biofuel production will also show a strong increase in the

  1. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Nadia Salem Abdel; Bueno, Ana Beatriz Miguel; Silva, Patrícia Elaine da; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Inês Ferreira, Rívea

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls) aged 3 (13.9%), 4 (40.8%), 5 (34%) and 6 (11.3%) years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit) sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90) performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05). The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1), 38.8% (G2), 39.2% (G3) and 47.8% (G4). The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1), 48.8% (G2), 43.4% (G3) and 43% (G4). No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.

  2. Economic and environmental effects of providing increased amounts of solid feed to veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhorst, H; Berentsen, P B M; Berends, H; Gerrits, W J J; de Boer, I J M

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, veal calves receive most of their nutrients from milk replacer (MR). Nowadays, however, solid feed (SF; i.e., concentrates and roughages) increasingly substitutes for MR. Studies have shown that providing SF reduces different types of nonnutritive oral behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental effects of substituting SF for MR in veal calf diets. With respect to environmental effects, we considered the emission of greenhouse gases and land occupation. Substitution rates were based on an experiment in which 160 calves were provided 2 mixtures of SF at 4 levels of dry matter (DM) intake. Mixtures of SF contained either 80% concentrates, 10% corn silage, and 10% straw on DM basis (C80) or 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw (C50). The 4 levels of SF during the last 17 wk of the fattening period were 20, 100, 180, and 260 kg of DM SF. Additionally, provision of MR was adjusted to achieve equal rates of carcass gain. Substitution rates, representing the SF equivalent needed to substitute for 1 kg of DM MR, were 1.43 kg of DM for C80 and 1.61 kg of DM for C50. Economic effects were assessed based on prices and substitution rates of SF for MR and the possible penalty for carcass color. Environmental effects were assessed based on effects related to the production of feed ingredients, substitution rates, and changes in enteric methane emission and energy use for feed preparation. Costs of feeding SF needed to substitute for 1 kg of DM MR were €0.68 lower for C80 and €0.71 lower for C50, compared with the costs of feeding 1 kg of DM MR. When carcass color scores became too high, however, lower feeding costs were offset by lower revenues from meat. Emissions of greenhouse gases were hardly affected when SF intake was increased. In general, increased enteric methane emission were offset by lower emissions from feed production and energy use. Land occupation increased when intake of SF was increased

  3. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Salem Abdel Jabbar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls aged 3 (13.9%, 4 (40.8%, 5 (34% and 6 (11.3% years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90 performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05. The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1, 38.8% (G2, 39.2% (G3 and 47.8% (G4. The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1, 48.8% (G2, 43.4% (G3 and 43% (G4. No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p < 0.001 and Class 2 canine relationship (O.R. = 4.02, p < 0.001 were greater for children with pacifier and/or digit-sucking habits, compared to those without a history of nonnutritive sucking behavior. It may be suggested that bottle feeding alone is not directly associated with higher prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.

  4. Particle In-Flight Velocity and Dispersion Measurements at Increasing Particle Feed Rates in Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.; Yin, S.; Lupoi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Cold spray (CS) is attracting interest of research and industry due to its rapid, solid-state particle deposition process and respective advantages over conventional deposition technologies. The acceleration of the particles is critical to the efficiency of CS, and previous investigations rarely consider the particle feed rate. However, because higher particle loadings are typically used in the process, the effect of this cannot be assumed negligible. This study therefore investigates the particle velocities in the supersonic jet of an advanced CS system at low- and high pressure levels and varying particle feed rates using particle image velocimetry. The particle dispersion and velocity evolution along the jet axis were investigated for several feedstock materials. It was found that the average particle velocity noticeably decreases with increasing particulate loading in all cases. The velocity distribution and particle dispersion were also observed to be influenced by the feed rate. Effects are driven by both mass loading and volume fraction, depending on the feedstock's particle velocity parameter. Increased particle feed rates hence affect the magnitude and distribution of impact velocity and consequently the efficiency of CS. In particular, numerical models neglecting this interconnection are required to be further improved, based on these experimental studies.

  5. Salamanders increase their feeding activity when infected with the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Alexandra; McAllister, Caroline; DeMarchi, Joseph; Zidek, Makenzie; Murone, Julie; Venesky, Matthew D

    2015-10-27

    Immune function is a costly line of defense against parasitism. When infected with a parasite, hosts frequently lose mass due to these costs. However, some infected hosts (e.g. highly resistant individuals) can clear infections with seemingly little fitness losses, but few studies have tested how resistant hosts mitigate these costly immune defenses. We explored this topic using eastern red-backed salamanders Plethodon cinereus and the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Bd is generally lethal for amphibians, and stereotypical symptoms of infection include loss in mass and deficits in feeding. However, individuals of P. cinereus can clear their Bd infections with seemingly few fitness costs. We conducted an experiment in which we repeatedly observed the feeding activity of Bd-infected and non-infected salamanders. We found that Bd-infected salamanders generally increased their feeding activity compared to non-infected salamanders. The fact that we did not observe any differences in mass change between the treatments suggests that increased feeding might help Bd-infected salamanders minimize the costs of an effective immune response.

  6. Differential body weight and feeding responses to high-fat diets in rats and mice lacking cholecystokinin 1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sheng; Chen, Jie; Behles, R Ryan; Hyun, Jayson; Kopin, Alan S; Moran, Timothy H

    2007-07-01

    Prior data demonstrated differential roles for cholecystokinin (CCK)1 receptors in maintaining energy balance in rats and mice. CCK1 receptor deficiency results in hyperphagia and obesity of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats but not in mice. To ascertain the role of CCK1 receptors in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity, we compared alterations in food intake, body weight, fat mass, plasma glucose, and leptin levels, and patterns of hypothalamic gene expression in OLETF rats and mice lacking CCK1 receptors in response to a 10-wk exposure to HFD. Compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) control rats, OLETF rats on HFD had sustained overconsumption over the 10-wk period. High fat feeding resulted in greater increases in body weight and plasma leptin levels in OLETF than in LETO rats. In situ hybridization determinations revealed that, while HFD reduced neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression in both the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of LETO rats, HFD resulted in decreased NPY expression in the Arc but not in the DMH of OLETF rats. In contrast to these results in OLETF rats, HFD increased food intake and induced obesity to an equal degree in both wild-type and CCK1 receptor(-/-) mice. NPY gene expression was decreased in the Arc in response to HFD, but was not detectable in the DMH in both wild-type and CCK1 receptor(-/-) mice. Together, these data provide further evidence for differential roles of CCK1 receptors in the controls of food intake and body weight in rats and mice.

  7. Assessing Secondary Students with the Bender, VADS, and HFD: Research and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppitz, Elizabeth M.

    The Koppitz Minibattery, that is, the Bender Gestalt Test, the Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS), and the Human Figure Drawing (HFD), was adopted and extended for use with middle school pupils (aged 11 to 14). Similarities and differences for older and younger children are described in behavior observation, objective scores and the qualitative…

  8. Split feed injection: Another tool for increasing FCC light olefin yields and gasoline octanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, A.S. (Chevron U.S.A., El Segundo, CA (United States)); Skocpol, R.C. (Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); English, A.R. (Chevron U.S.A., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Sadeghbeigi, R. (BP Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Split Feed Injection (SFI) is Chevron's patented technology for increasing the flexibility of fluid catalytic cracking units. The process improvement, which requires a relatively simple, low-cost hardware modification, results in conversion of a portion of the gasoline into lighter products (primarily olefins), and higher gasoline research and motor octanes. The technology has been extensively tested in Chevron Research Technology Company's pilot plants, and in two commercial FCC units; additional commercial tests are planned.

  9. Impaired satiation and increased feeding behaviour in the triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedolapo Adebakin

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is associated with non-cognitive symptoms such as changes in feeding behaviour that are often characterised by an increase in appetite. Increased food intake is observed in several mouse models of AD including the triple transgenic (3×TgAD mouse, but the mechanisms underlying this hyperphagia are unknown. We therefore examined feeding behaviour in 3×TgAD mice and tested their sensitivity to exogenous and endogenous satiety factors by assessing food intake and activation of key brain regions. In the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS, 3×TgAD mice consumed more food after a fast compared to Non-Tg controls. Feeding and drinking behaviours were increased and rest decreased in 3×TgAD mice, but the overall sequence of behaviours in the BSS was maintained. Exogenous administration of the satiety factor cholecystokinin (CCK; 8-30 µg/kg, i.p. dose-dependently reduced food intake in Non-Tg controls and increased inactive behaviour, but had no effect on food intake or behaviour in 3×TgAD mice. CCK (15 µg/kg, i.p. increased c-Fos protein expression in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS and area postrema of the brainstem to the same extent in Non-Tg and 3×TgAD mice, but less c-Fos positive cells were detected in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of CCK-treated 3×TgAD compared to Non-Tg mice. In response to a fast or a period of re-feeding, there was no difference in the number of c-Fos-positive cells detected in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, NTS and area postrema of 3×TgAD compared to Non-Tg mice. The degree of c-Fos expression in the NTS was positively correlated to food intake in Non-Tg mice, however, this relationship was absent in 3×TgAD mice. These data demonstrate that 3×TgAD mice show increased feeding behaviour and insensitivity to satiation, which is possibly due to defective gut-brain signalling in response to endogenous satiety factors released

  10. Strategies for Increasing Buffalo Productivity through Improvement in Feed and Genetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalid Talib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is indigenous livestock of Asia, classified as beef buffaloes that evolve in Southeast Asia and China and dairy buffaloes exist in Indo-Pakistan and Mediteranian. In Indonesia, beef buffaloes are known as swamp buffalo and there are seven new buffalo breeds namely Pampangan, Sumbawa, Moa, Toraya, Simelue, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. Buffaloes are reared in extensive traditional system characterized by low growth rate and reproduction ability due to feed shortage and high inbreeding rate. Feed improvements in female is required to get dry matter intake 2.5-2.7% of body weight (BW that consist of 70% roughage and 30% concentrates, will show a clear sign of estrus. In the male when feed consumption is 2.7-3.5% of BW; it will perform growth rate of 0.6 kg/head/day. Genetic improvement is conducted through selection based on BW in certain ages, reproduction ability and parents without recessive alleles. Distribution of proven bulls and their sperm in outbreeding system would improve the production and reproduction performance, reduce inbreeding level and increase breeding farmer’s income. It is expected that in the long term, the population of buffaloes in Indonesia will increase.

  11. Inclusion of Oat in Feeding Can Increase the Potential Probiotic Bifidobacteria in Sow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Gyawali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i investigate the impact of feeding oat on the population of bifidobacteria and (ii evaluate their probiotic potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing sows’ gestation and lactation feed with 15% oat (prebiotic source on the levels of probiotic population in milk. We found that dietary inclusion of oat during lactation and gestation resulted in increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to lactobacilli in sow milk. Furthermore bifidobacteria within the sow milk samples were further evaluated for probiotic potential based on aggregating properties, and acid- and bile-tolerance after exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 2.5 and bile salts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% and 2.0%. All isolates survived under the condition of low pH and bile 2.0%. Autoaggregation ability ranged from 17.5% to 73%. These isolates also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7.Together our results suggest that inclusion of oat in feeding systems could have the potential to improve the intestinal health of piglets by increasing the population of bifidobacteria.

  12. Inclusion of Oat in Feeding Can Increase the Potential Probiotic Bifidobacteria in Sow Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rabin; Minor, Radiah C; Donovan, Barry; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of feeding oat on the population of bifidobacteria and (ii) evaluate their probiotic potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing sows' gestation and lactation feed with 15% oat (prebiotic source) on the levels of probiotic population in milk. We found that dietary inclusion of oat during lactation and gestation resulted in increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to lactobacilli in sow milk. Furthermore bifidobacteria within the sow milk samples were further evaluated for probiotic potential based on aggregating properties, and acid- and bile-tolerance after exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 2.5) and bile salts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% and 2.0%). All isolates survived under the condition of low pH and bile 2.0%. Autoaggregation ability ranged from 17.5% to 73%. These isolates also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7.Together our results suggest that inclusion of oat in feeding systems could have the potential to improve the intestinal health of piglets by increasing the population of bifidobacteria.

  13. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L; Keating, Karen D; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n = 15 male, n = 15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n = 277 male, n = 278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured. Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P = 0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P = 0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P weight for both sexes (P weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  14. Increasing sodium bicarbonate level in high-concentrate diets for heifers. II. Effects on chewing and feeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2008-05-01

    Four Holstein heifers (264 ± 12 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (BICARB) (0%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%, of concentrate dry matter (DM) basis) on chewing and feed intake behavior when fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrate (13.41% CP, 13.35% NDF) and barley straw were fed once a day at 0830 h ad libitum. Feed bunks placed on scales and video recording were used to measure 24-h feed intake and chewing behavior, respectively. The patterns of feeding behavior (feed intake, meal size and length) and chewing behavior (eating, ruminating and total chewing) were studied by dividing the day into 12 intervals of 2-h each, beginning at feeding (interval 1 through 12). Number of meals per day and eating rate decreased linearly with increasing buffer level, but meal length increased linearly. No treatment effects were observed in sum of daily meal lengths or average meal size. The treatment × interval interaction was significant on meal size, length and feed intake. The size and length of those meals occurring during the 4 h post-feeding increased linearly. However, meal size tended to decrease in the evening between 8 and 12 h, whereas feed intake decreased linearly from 6 to 10 h and from 12 to 14 h post-feeding. Buffer concentration did not affect the percentage of time spent ruminating, eating or drinking per day but the buffer level × interval interaction was significant. Time spent eating expressed as min per kg of DM or organic matter (OM) intake increased linearly with buffer levels. Proportion of time spent eating increased linearly during the intervals between 0 and 4 h post-feeding. Time spent ruminating decreased linearly during the 2 h post-feeding, and also in the evening from 12 to 14 h, and at night from 18 to 22 h post-feeding, but the effect was quadratic between 8 and 10 h when intermediate buffer levels showed the greatest ruminating

  15. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Salem Abdel Jabbar; Ana Beatriz Miguel Bueno; Patrícia Elaine da Silva; Helio Scavone-Junior; Rívea Inês Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls) aged 3 (13.9%), 4 (40.8%), 5 (34%) and 6 (11.3%) years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit) sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90) per...

  16. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-06

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  17. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome, improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a non-pharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases. PMID:22608008

  18. An increased feed intake during early pregnancy improves sow body weight recovery and increases litter size in young sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.; Soede, N.M.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Graat, E.A.M.; Feitsma, H.; Kemp, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding level and protein content in feed in first- and second-parity sows during the first month of gestation on sow BW recovery, farrowing rate, and litter size during the first month of gestation. From d 3 to d 32 after first insemination, sows were fed either 2

  19. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Sara M; Tylianakis, Jason M; Nelson, Ximena J

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard), with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  20. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  1. Increased feeding frequency increased milk fat yield and may reduce the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in higher-risk cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, K; Gao, X; Oba, M

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding behavior is different between cows at higher or lower risk for subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and whether increasing feeding frequency could be used to reduce the severity of SARA in higher-risk cows. In preliminary studies, 16 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed high-grain diets once per day to increase the risk of SARA. After a 17-d diet adaptation, ruminal pH was measured every 30 s over 24 h. Cows were classified as higher-risk (n = 7) or lower-risk (n = 9) for SARA based on an acidosis index (area of pH Feeding behavior was recorded every 5 min over the same 24 h. The 24-h observation period was analyzed in 3 periods of 8 h after feeding. Although there was no significant difference in overall dry matter intake, higher-risk cows spent more time eating in the first 8-h period after feeding than lower-risk cows (186 vs. 153 min) and less time eating in the third 8-h period (19 vs. 43 min). In the primary experiment, 8 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed a high-grain diet once per day (1×; 0800 h) or 3 times per day (3×; 0800, 1500, and 2000 h) in a crossover design with 21-d periods (16 d of treatment adaptation and 5 d of data collection). Rumen pH and feeding behavior were measured over 72 h. Behavior data were summarized separately for the 3 periods (0800 to 1500, 1500 to 2200, and 2200 to 0800 h). Four cows were categorized as higher-risk and 4 as lower-risk, based on their acidosis index. The 3× feeding reduced eating time between 0800 and 1500 h (99 vs. 145 min) and increased eating time between 2200 and 0800 h (76 vs. 43 min) for all cows, regardless of category, compared with 1× feeding. For higher-risk cows, 3× feeding reduced the area below pH 5.8 (51 vs. 98 pH × min/d), but it did not affect rumen pH for the lower-risk cows. Milk yield was not different between groups, but 3× feeding increased milk fat yield (1.22 vs. 1.08 kg/d) for all cows, regardless of

  2. Dexamethasone reduces energy expenditure and increases susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggioli, Raffaella; Ueta, Cintia B; Drigo, Rafael Arrojo E; Castillo, Melany; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Bianco, Antonio C

    2013-09-01

    To investigate how long-term treatment with dexamethasone affects energy expenditure and adiposity in mice and whether this is influenced by feeding on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were placed on a HFD for 2 weeks and started on dexamethasone at 5 mg/kg every other day during the next 7 weeks. Treatment with dexamethasone increased body fat, an effect that was more pronounced in the animals kept on HFD; dexamethasone treatment also worsened liver steatosis caused by the HFD. At the same time, treatment with dexamethasone lowered the respiratory quotient in chow-fed animals and slowed nightly metabolic rate in the animals kept on HFD. In addition, the acute VO2 acceleration in response to β3 adrenergic-stimulation was significantly limited in the dexamethasone-treated animals, as a result of marked decrease in UCP-1 mRNA observed in the brown adipose tissue of these animals. Long-term treatment with dexamethasone in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity decreases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and exaggerates adiposity and liver steatosis. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2013. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  3. A Herbal Formula HT048, Citrus unshiu and Crataegus pinnatifida, Prevents Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and HFD-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Mikyung; Lee, Minsu; Park, Juyeon; Kim, Hocheol

    2015-05-26

    HT048 is a combination composed of Crataegus pinnatifida leaf and Citrus unshiu peel extracts. This study aimed to investigate potential anti-obesity effect of the combination. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of HT048 and triglyceride accumulation, glycerol release and adipogenesis-related genes were analyzed. For in vivo study, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided according to experimental diets: the chow diet group, the high-fat diet (HFD) group, the HFD supplemented with orlistat group, the HFD supplemented with HT048 group (0.2% or 0.4%) for 12 weeks. We measured the body weight, serum lipid levels and the expression of genes involved lipid metabolism. HT048 treatment dose-dependently suppressed adipocyte differentiation and stimulated glycerol release. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα mRNA were decreased by HT048 treatment in adipocytes. HT048 supplementation significantly reduced the body and fat weights in vivo. Serum lipid levels were significantly lower in the HT048 supplemented groups than those of the HFD group. Expression of the hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased and expression of the β-oxidation-related genes were increased in rats fed HT048 compared to that of animals fed HFD. These results suggest that HT048 has a potential benefit in preventing obesity through the inhibition of lipogenesis and adipogenesis.

  4. A Herbal Formula HT048, Citrus unshiu and Crataegus pinnatifida, Prevents Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and HFD-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available HT048 is a combination composed of Crataegus pinnatifida leaf and Citrus unshiu peel extracts. This study aimed to investigate potential anti-obesity effect of the combination. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of HT048 and triglyceride accumulation, glycerol release and adipogenesis-related genes were analyzed. For in vivo study, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided according to experimental diets: the chow diet group, the high-fat diet (HFD group, the HFD supplemented with orlistat group, the HFD supplemented with HT048 group (0.2% or 0.4% for 12 weeks. We measured the body weight, serum lipid levels and the expression of genes involved lipid metabolism. HT048 treatment dose-dependently suppressed adipocyte differentiation and stimulated glycerol release. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα mRNA were decreased by HT048 treatment in adipocytes. HT048 supplementation significantly reduced the body and fat weights in vivo. Serum lipid levels were significantly lower in the HT048 supplemented groups than those of the HFD group. Expression of the hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased and expression of the β-oxidation-related genes were increased in rats fed HT048 compared to that of animals fed HFD. These results suggest that HT048 has a potential benefit in preventing obesity through the inhibition of lipogenesis and adipogenesis.

  5. Food safety and increasing hazard of mycotoxin occurrence in foods and feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2013-01-01

    The possible hazard of mycotoxin occurrence in foods and feeds and some food-borne mycotoxicoses is reviewed. Management of the risk of mycotoxin contamination using some useful preventive measures against mycotoxin contamination of foods/feeds during pre- and post-harvesting periods is considered. The physical and chemical methods of mycotoxin decontamination of foods/feeds are briefly described. The use of various feed additives as a method for prevention of the adverse effects of mycotoxins is reviewed. The processing of various foods and feeds is considered in a view to possible mycotoxin decontamination. The necessary hygiene control and risk assessment in regard to mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds in addition to some useful prophylactic measures are briefly described. A short reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in order to prevent a possible entering of some mycotoxins in commercial channels with a view to human health.

  6. Coscinaraea marshae corals that have survived prolonged bleaching exhibit signs of increased heterotrophic feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell-Browne, Pia; Stat, Michael; Thomson, Damian; Clode, Peta L.

    2014-09-01

    Colonies of Coscinaraea marshae corals from Rottnest Island, Western Australia have survived for more than 11 months in various bleached states following a severe heating event in the austral summer of 2011. These colonies are situated in a high-latitude, mesophotic environment, which has made their long-term survival of particular interest as such environments typically suffer from minimal thermal pressures. We have investigated corals that remain unbleached, moderately bleached, or severely bleached to better understand potential survival mechanisms utilised in response to thermal stress. Specifically, Symbiodinium (algal symbiont) density and genotype, chlorophyll- a concentrations, and δ13C and δ15N levels were compared between colonies in the three bleaching categories. Severely bleached colonies housed significantly fewer Symbiodinium cells ( p coral in both severely and moderately bleached colonies, with clade C and a mixed clade population detected. In unbleached colonies, only clade B was observed. Levels of δ15N indicate that severely bleached colonies are utilising heterotrophic feeding mechanisms to aid survival whilst bleached. Collectively, these results suggest that these C. marshae colonies can survive with low symbiont and chlorophyll densities, in response to prolonged thermal stress and extended bleaching, and increase heterotrophic feeding levels sufficiently to meet energy demands, thus enabling some colonies to survive and recover over long time frames. This is significant as it suggests that corals in mesophotic and high-latitude environments may possess considerable plasticity and an ability to tolerate and adapt to large environmental fluctuations, thereby improving their chances of survival as climate change impacts coral ecosystems worldwide.

  7. Short-term nutritional treatments grazing legumes or feeding concentrates increase prolificacy in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñoles, C; Meikle, A; Martin, G B

    2009-07-01

    We tested whether short periods of increased nutrition will improve ovulation rate and prolificacy, irrespective of the method used to synchronise the cycles of the ewes. In Experiment 1, we used 138 Corriedale ewes to evaluate two factors: synchronization treatment (sponges versus a single injection of prostaglandin) and type of pasture (native versus improved with Lotus corniculatus). Ewes were mated at the end of the grazing period and prolificacy was evaluated at lambing. Grazing Lotus corniculatus for 12 days tended to increase the number of twin lambs born (P=0.09). The percentage of ewes showing oestrus during a 9-day period was similar among synchronization treatments. Animals in Experiments 2 (n=282) and 3 (n=288) were allocated to a control group or a group fed a supplement of corn grain and soybean meal for 7 days. Ewes received 2 prostaglandin injections and the supplement was fed from Days 11 to 17 after the second prostaglandin. Ovulation rate was measured in 65 (Experiment 2) and 61 (Experiment 3) ewes that were confirmed to have consumed the supplement and showed oestrus in a 4-day period. The supplement increased ovulation rate by 14% in both experiments (PLotus corniculatus and in ovulation rate to 7 days feeding with a supplement rich in energy and protein. Moreover, in these studies, prostaglandin was as effective as sponges for synchronising oestrus, an important factor in future decisions about hormonal management of fertility.

  8. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  9. The effects of feeding increasing concentrations of corn oil on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of added fat source is common in high-concentrate finishing diets. The objective of our experiment was to determine if feeding increasing concentrations of added dietary corn oil would decrease enteric methane production, increase the ME:DE ratio, and improve recovered energy (RE) in finish...

  10. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  11. Feeding of Whitefly on Tobacco Decreases Aphid Performance via Increased Salicylate Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Zhao

    Full Text Available The feeding of Bemisia tabaci nymphs trigger the SA pathway in some plant species. A previous study showed that B. tabaci nymphs induced defense against aphids (Myzus persicae in tobacco. However, the mechanism underlying this defense response is not well understood.Here, the effect of activating the SA signaling pathway in tobacco plants through B. tabaci nymph infestation on subsequent M. persicae colonization is investigated. Performance assays showed that B. tabaci nymphs pre-infestation significantly reduced M. persicae survival and fecundity systemically in wild-type (WT but not salicylate-deficient (NahG plants compared with respective control. However, pre-infestation had no obvious local effects on subsequent M. persicae in either WT or NahG tobacco. SA quantification results indicated that the highest accumulation of SA was induced by B. tabaci nymphs in WT plants after 15 days of infestation. These levels were 8.45- and 6.14-fold higher in the local and systemic leaves, respectively, than in controls. Meanwhile, no significant changes of SA levels were detected in NahG plants. Further, biochemical analysis of defense enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (POD, β-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase demonstrated that B. tabaci nymph infestation increased these enzymes' activity locally and systemically in WT plants, and there was more chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase activity systemically than locally, which was opposite to the changing trends of PPO. However, B. tabaci nymph infestation caused no obvious increase in enzyme activity in any NahG plants except POD.In conclusion, these results underscore the important role that induction of the SA signaling pathway by B. tabaci nymphs plays in defeating aphids. It also indicates that the activity of β-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase may be positively correlated with resistance to aphids.

  12. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases energy consumption through activation of BAT in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Susumu; Kim, Minji; Awa, Riyo; Kuwahara, Hiroshige; Kano, Yuriko; Kawada, Teruo

    2014-11-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is a member of the ginger family and is known in Thailand as Thai ginseng, Krachai Dam or Black Ginger. TheK. parviflora extract (KPE) was previously reported to have a number of physiological effects; however, the antiobesity effects of KPE and its mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted KPE feeding experiments (low dose: 0.5% KPE, high dose: 1.0% KPE) in mice to examine the antiobesity effects. For both 0.5% KPE and 1.0% KPE, 7 weeks' feeding of KPE contained in a high-fat diet (HFD) significantly decreased body weight gain, intraabdominal fat accumulation, and plasma triglyceride and leptin levels. Concurrently, KPE administration increased oxygen consumption in mice fed on a HFD. We also found that 1.0% KPE feeding significantly increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Moreover, KPE administration increased urinary noradrenaline secretion levels. These results demonstrate that KPE promotes energy metabolism by activation of BAT, at both doses and up-regulation of UCP1 protein at a high dose. Although numerous challenges remain, the present study demonstrated that KPE suppresses HFD-induced obesity through increased energy metabolism.

  13. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  14. Feeding strategies of anthropophilic mosquitoes result in increased risk of pathogen transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, T.W.; Takken, W.

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne disease specialists have traditionally assumed that in each egg-laying cycle mosquitoes take a single bloodmeal that is used for egg development and feed on plant sugars for flight and production of energy reserves. Here we review research showing that for two of the most important

  15. Feeding strategies of anthropophilic mosquitoes result in increased risk of pathogen transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, T.W.; Takken, W.

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne disease specialists have traditionally assumed that in each egg-laying cycle mosquitoes take a single bloodmeal that is used for egg development and feed on plant sugars for flight and production of energy reserves. Here we review research showing that for two of the most important vect

  16. Live feed enrichment with probiotics: current methods and future perspectives on increasing finfish larviculture success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are considered an alternative to other treatments enhancing immune response, growth, or feed efficiency in animal rearing systems. While probiotics are extensively used in livestock practices, their use in aquaculture has not been as prevalent due to many factors, including a knowledge ga...

  17. Impaired macrophage autophagy increases the immune response in obese mice by promoting proinflammatory macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Zhao, Enpeng; Ilyas, Ghulam; Lalazar, Gadi; Lin, Yu; Haseeb, Muhammad; Tanaka, Kathryn E; Czaja, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence that excessive lipid accumulation can decrease cellular levels of autophagy and that autophagy regulates immune responsiveness suggested that impaired macrophage autophagy may promote the increased innate immune activation that underlies obesity. Primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and peritoneal macrophages from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice had decreased levels of autophagic flux indicating a generalized impairment of macrophage autophagy in obese mice. To assess the effects of decreased macrophage autophagy on inflammation, mice with a Lyz2-Cre-mediated knockout of Atg5 in macrophages were fed a HFD and treated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice developed systemic and hepatic inflammation with HFD feeding and LPS. This effect was liver specific as knockout mice did not have increased adipose tissue inflammation. The mechanism by which the loss of autophagy promoted inflammation was through the regulation of macrophage polarization. BMDM and Kupffer cells from knockout mice exhibited abnormalities in polarization with both increased proinflammatory M1 and decreased anti-inflammatory M2 polarization as determined by measures of genes and proteins. The heightened hepatic inflammatory response in HFD-fed, LPS-treated knockout mice led to liver injury without affecting steatosis. These findings demonstrate that autophagy has a critical regulatory function in macrophage polarization that downregulates inflammation. Defects in macrophage autophagy may underlie inflammatory disease states such as the decrease in macrophage autophagy with obesity that leads to hepatic inflammation and the progression to liver injury.

  18. Early initiation of breast feeding but not bottle feeding increase exclusive breastfeeding practice among less than six months infant in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-07-01

    data. The sub-sample study was infants under six months. Out of 7226 infant aged less than 6 months, 6397 infant had complete data for the analysis. The Cox regression was used for analysis. Results: Out of 6397 infant, 44% had exclusively breastfeed. Early initiation, bottle-feeding, postnatal care, residence and socio-economic status were associated to exclusive breastfeeding practices. Infant who had early initiation had 66% more exclusively breastfeed compared to delayed initiation [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.45 – 1.90]. Infant who had bottle-feeding or using pacifiers had 71% less to be exclusively breastfed compared to infant who did not have use bottle-feeding/ pacifiers (RRa = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25 – 0.34. Conclusion: Early initiation within one hour of birth increased exclusive breastfeeding practice, however, bottle-feeding decreased exclusive breastfeeding practice. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:44-8 Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, early initiation, bottle-feeding 

  19. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  20. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A; Aiken, Judd M

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  1. Increased expressions of genes and proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidation and antioxidant pathway in adipose tissue of pigs selected for a low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, I; Vincent, A; Tacher, S; Gilbert, H; Gondret, F

    2016-12-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary sensor for nutrient availability and regulates many functions including feed intake and energy homeostasis. This study was undertaken to determine the molecular responses of adipose tissue to differences in feed intake and feed efficiency. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between actual and expected feed intake, and from a subset of high-RFI pigs that were feed-restricted at the level of the voluntary feed intake of low-RFI pigs during the growing-finishing period. Transcriptomics analyses indicated that the number of genes that were differentially expressed ( feed-restricted high-RFI ( = 8) pigs. They included in silico pathway analyses of the differentially expressed (DE) genes ( feed restriction. This indicates that the responses of adipose tissue to RFI difference shared only some common mechanisms with feed intake modulation, notably the regulation of cell cycle (including ) and transferase activity pathway. Two carboxylesterase genes (, ) involved in lipolysis, were among the most overexpressed genes in the low-RFI pigs; they were also affected by feed restriction within the high-RFI line. About 60% of the molecular changes between low- and high-RFI pigs were specific to genetic divergence in feed efficiency, independently of feed intake. Different genes and proteins known to be associated with mitochondrial oxidative metabolism were overexpressed in adipose tissue of low-RFI pigs compared with high-RFI pigs; other proteins participating in the generation of energy were also affected by feed restriction within the high-RFI line. Finally, mitochondrial antioxidant genes were upregulated in low-RFI pigs vs. high-RFI pigs. Altogether, increased oxidative and antioxidant processes in adipose tissue might be associated with improved feed efficiency.

  2. Threatened Caribbean coral is able to mitigate the adverse effects of ocean acidification on calcification by increasing feeding rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Towle

    Full Text Available Global climate change threatens coral growth and reef ecosystem health via ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA. Whereas the negative impacts of these stressors are increasingly well-documented, studies identifying pathways to resilience are still poorly understood. Heterotrophy has been shown to help corals experiencing decreases in growth due to either thermal or OA stress; however, the mechanism by which it mitigates these decreases remains unclear. This study tested the ability of coral heterotrophy to mitigate reductions in growth due to climate change stress in the critically endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis via changes in feeding rate and lipid content. Corals were either fed or unfed and exposed to elevated temperature (30°C, enriched pCO2 (800 ppm, or both (30°C/800 ppm as compared to a control (26°C/390 ppm for 8 weeks. Feeding rate and lipid content both increased in corals experiencing OA vs. present-day conditions, and were significantly correlated. Fed corals were able to maintain ambient growth rates at both elevated temperature and elevated CO2, while unfed corals experienced significant decreases in growth with respect to fed conspecifics. Our results show for the first time that a threatened coral species can buffer OA-reduced calcification by increasing feeding rates and lipid content.

  3. Threatened Caribbean coral is able to mitigate the adverse effects of ocean acidification on calcification by increasing feeding rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Erica K; Enochs, Ian C; Langdon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens coral growth and reef ecosystem health via ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). Whereas the negative impacts of these stressors are increasingly well-documented, studies identifying pathways to resilience are still poorly understood. Heterotrophy has been shown to help corals experiencing decreases in growth due to either thermal or OA stress; however, the mechanism by which it mitigates these decreases remains unclear. This study tested the ability of coral heterotrophy to mitigate reductions in growth due to climate change stress in the critically endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis via changes in feeding rate and lipid content. Corals were either fed or unfed and exposed to elevated temperature (30°C), enriched pCO2 (800 ppm), or both (30°C/800 ppm) as compared to a control (26°C/390 ppm) for 8 weeks. Feeding rate and lipid content both increased in corals experiencing OA vs. present-day conditions, and were significantly correlated. Fed corals were able to maintain ambient growth rates at both elevated temperature and elevated CO2, while unfed corals experienced significant decreases in growth with respect to fed conspecifics. Our results show for the first time that a threatened coral species can buffer OA-reduced calcification by increasing feeding rates and lipid content.

  4. Cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus of high-fat diet-fed mice are increased after rosiglitazone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Kim, Dae Won; Nam, Sung Min; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Won, Moo-Ho; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined how rosiglitazone (RSG) differentially affected hippocampal neurogenesis in mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat). LFD and HFD were given to the mice for 8 weeks. Four weeks after initiating the LFD and HFD feeding, vehicle or RSG was administered orally once a day to both groups of mice. We measured cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively, as markers. In addition, we monitored the effects of RSG on the levels of DCX and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampal homogenates. At 8 weeks after the LFD feeding, the numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells as well as hippocampal levels of DCX and BDNF were significantly decreased in the RSG-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated animals. In contrast, the numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells along with hippocampal levels of DCX and BDNF in the HFD fed mice were significantly increased in the RSG-treated mice compared to the vehicle-treated group. Our data demonstrate that RSG can modulate the levels of BDNF, which could play a pivotal role in cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

  5. Microbial phytase and liquid feeding increase phytate degradation in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2010-01-01

    with microbial phytase (750 FTU/kg) fed dry; diet 3, diet 2 fed in liquid form (fermented 17.5 h, 20 °C, 50% residual in the tank). InsP6-P was not present in gastric or ileal digesta in pigs fed diet 3 due to complete InsP6 degradation before feeding. In pigs fed diet 2 the amount of gastric InsP6-P...... was considerably smaller compared with pigs fed diet 1 due to phytase addition (P ≤ 0.001). On the other hand, the amount of ileal InsP6-P was only slightly less in pigs fed diet 2 compared with diet 1 indicating that InsP6 is greatly degraded in the small intestine. Furthermore, the amounts of gastric or ileal...

  6. Adaptation to larval crowding in Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila nasuta nasuta : increased larval competitive ability without increased larval feeding rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARCHANA NAGARAJAN; SHARMILA BHARATHI NATARAJAN; MOHAN JAYARAM; ANANDA THAMMANNA; SUDARSHAN CHARI; JOY BOSE; SHREYAS V. JOIS; AMITABH JOSHI

    2016-06-01

    The standard view of adaptation to larval crowding in fruitflies, built on results from 25 years of multiple experimental evo-lution studies onDrosophila melanogaster , was that enhanced competitive ability evolves primarily through increased larvalfeeding and foraging rate, and increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion tobiomass. These results were at odds from the predictions of classicalK -selection theory, notably the expectation that selec-tion at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpretedthrough the lens of α -selection. We show here that populations ofD. ananassaeandD. n. nasutasubjected to extreme larvalcrowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult survivorship at high density, primarily through a combination ofreduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater time efficiency of food conversion tobiomass and increased pupation height, with a relatively small role of increased urea/ammonia tolerance, if at all. This is avery different suite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection inD .melanogaster ,andseemstobeclosertotheexpectations from the canonical theory ofK -selection. We also discuss possible reasons for these differences in results acrossthe three species. Overall, the results reinforce the view that our understanding of the evolution of competitive ability in fruit-flies needs to be more nuanced than before, with an appreciation that there may be multiple evolutionary routes through whichhigher competitive ability can be attained.

  7. Effect of agitation speed on the morphology of Aspergillus niger HFD5A-1 hyphae and its pectinase production in submerged fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darah; Ibrahim; Haritharan; Weloosamy; Sheh-Hong; Lim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of agitation speed on pectinase production and morphological changing of Aspergillus niger(A. niger) HFD5A-1 in submerged fermentation. METHODS: A. niger HFM5A-1 was isolated from a rotted pomelo. The inoculum preparation was performed by adding 5.0 m L of sterile distilled water containing 0.1% Tween 80 to a sporulated culture. Cultivation was carried out with inoculated 1 × 107 spores/m L suspension and incubated at 30 ℃ with different agitation speed for 6 d. The samples were withdrawn after 6 d cultivation time and were assayed for pectinase activity and fungal growth determination. The culture broth was filtered through filter paper(Whatman No. 1, London) to separate the fungal mycelium. The cell-free culture filtrate containing the crude enzyme was then assayed for pectinase activity. The biomass was dried at 80 ℃ until constant weight. The fungal cell dry weight was then expressed as g/L. The 6 d old fungal mycelia were harvested from various agitation speed, 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 rpm. The morphological changing of samples was then viewed under the light microscope and scanning electron microscope.RESULTS: In the present study, agitation speed was found to influence pectinase production in a batch cultivation system. However, higher agitation speeds than the optimal speed(150 rpm) reduced pectinase production which due to shear forces and also collision among the suspended fungal cells in the cultivation medium. Enzyme activity increased with the increasing of agitation speed up to 150 rpm, where it achieved its maximal pectinase activity of 1.559 U/m L. There were significant different(Duncan, P < 0.05) of the pectinase production with the agitation speed at static, 50, 100, 200 and 250 rpm. At the static condition, a well growth mycelial mat was observed on the surface of the cultivation medium and sporulation occurred all over the fungal mycelial mat. However with the increased in agitation speed, the mycelial

  8. Inclusion of copepod Acartia tonsa nauplii in the feeding of Centropomus undecimalis larvae increases stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo-Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research represents the first result of studies of the common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae from broodstock matured in captivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii improves stress resistance of common snook larvae. The larvae were fed with: rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (10 to 15 mL-1; A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5 mL-1 and rotifers (5 to 7.5 mL-1, and A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25 mL-1. The average percentage of survival of the treatments was 11.9%. At 20 days of age, larvae were subjected to thermal stress. Subsequently, the stress resistance was evaluated. Common snook larvae fed B. plicatilis+A. tonsa reached a higher weight and length (7.5 ± 0.00 mg and 9.1 ± 0.23 mm, respectively and resisted more heat stress (87.4% than larvae fed other foods, indicating that the feed mixture is satisfactory as a starter diet for larvae of common snook. However, more research is needed to confirm these results.

  9. Hypophagia and metabolic adaptations in mice with defective ATGL-mediated lipolysis cause resistance to HFD-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Renate; Hofer, Peter; Taschler, Ulrike; Voshol, Peter J; Rechberger, Gerald N; Kotzbeck, Petra; Jaeger, Doris; Preiss-Landl, Karina; Lord, Caleb C; Brown, J Mark; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zimmermann, Robert; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Zechner, Rudolf

    2015-11-10

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) initiates intracellular triglyceride (TG) catabolism. In humans, ATGL deficiency causes neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) characterized by a systemic TG accumulation. Mice with a genetic deletion of ATGL (AKO) also accumulate TG in many tissues. However, neither NLSDM patients nor AKO mice are exceedingly obese. This phenotype is unexpected considering the importance of the enzyme for TG catabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). In this study, we identified the counteracting mechanisms that prevent excessive obesity in the absence of ATGL. We used "healthy" AKO mice expressing ATGL exclusively in cardiomyocytes (AKO/cTg) to circumvent the cardiomyopathy and premature lethality observed in AKO mice. AKO/cTg mice were protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity despite complete ATGL deficiency in WAT and normal adipocyte differentiation. AKO/cTg mice were highly insulin sensitive under hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions, eliminating insulin insensitivity as a possible protective mechanism. Instead, reduced food intake and altered signaling by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c in WAT accounted for the phenotype. These adaptations led to reduced lipid synthesis and storage in WAT of HFD-fed AKO/cTg mice. Treatment with the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone reversed the phenotype. These results argue for the existence of an adaptive interdependence between lipolysis and lipid synthesis. Pharmacological inhibition of ATGL may prove useful to prevent HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

  10. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jung Chou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Inonotus obliquus (IO is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP, from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10–100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance, reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1, while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  11. Attempts to increase the growth rhythm of juvenile Northern pike (Esox lucius, L. by adding enzyme based ingredients into dry feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Muscalu-Nagy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Northern pike’s rearing in recirculation systems is limited because of increasing FCR togetherwith size of fish. The reason is apparently connected to the disability of pike to secrete sufficientdigestive enzymes to process any offered dry feed. During feeding on natural food, the pike gets thenecessary enzymes from the prey’s body. This is the reason why we added to feeds digestive enzymesand even “fish juice”. We used commercially available enzymes such as ®Colebil and ®Triferment indifferent dozes. We also used supplements of live feed. The results are encouraging since we noticed ahigher growth rate in feeding the pikes fingerlings with dry feed enriched with protease enzymes.

  12. Mechanism for the increased defecation and jejunum mucosal protein content in rats by feeding germinated barley foodstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanauchi, O; Agata, K; Fushiki, T

    1997-03-01

    We investigated the effects of germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) on the fecal excretion and jejunum mucosal protein content in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed on various diets with the same protein and dietary fiber levels. Under these experimental conditions, GBF was confirmed to induce greater fecal output compared with commercial water-soluble or -insoluble dietary fibers. While the dietary fiber extracted from GBF increased the fecal output and mucosal protein content, the protein fraction of GBF degraded to the peptide form did not increase the fecal output or mucosal protein content. Increased mucosal protein and fecal output were thus found to require the presence of the dietary fiber fraction or possibly the protein fraction bound tightly to the dietary fiber of GBF. GBF feeding increased the volatile fatty acids concentration in the cecum, indicating that GBF may be efficiently fermented in the intestinal tract.

  13. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  14. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency has been linked to obesity and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Whereas humans are unable to synthesize vitC and therefore to compensate for increased turnover, we investigated whether mice-independent of dietary vitC-are able...

  15. An invasive whitefly feeding on a virus-infected plant increased its egg production and realized fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Yang; Ye, Gong-Yin; Dong, Sheng-Zhang; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2010-07-22

    Plant-pathogenic begomoviruses have a complex association with their insect vectors. The interactions of begomoviruses and reproduction of their vectors are poorly understood. Bemisia tabaci is known to transmit many begomoviruses, and the spread of B. tabaci, especially the B and Q 'biotypes', has been accompanied by the epidemics of begomoviruses. One of these identified disease-causing agents was Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV). In this study, we compared the egg production and realized fecundity of two 'biotypes' or putative species of the whitefly B. tabaci, including the alien invasive B and the indigenous ZHJ1 from Zhejiang, China, feeding on either healthy or TYLCCNV-infected tobacco plants. The ovary of the whitefly was composed of 12-22 telotrophic ovarioles. According to the morphology of the oocytes and level of yolk content, oocytes in ovarioles were divided into four developmental phases (I-IV). Significantly higher proportion of immature oocytes (phase II, III) and mature oocytes (phase IV) was observed in ovary of females that fed on TYLCCNV-infected tobacco compared to that on healthy plants. Moreover, there was significant increase of eggs laid of B whitefly that fed on TYLCCNV-infected tobacco plants during the early developmental stages. In contrast, the proportion of oocytes of different developmental phases and eggs laid had no significant differences between ZHJ1 whiteflies feeding on TYLCCNV-infected and non-infected host plants. The invasive B whitefly benefits from feeding on a begomovirus-infected plant through increased egg production and realized fecundity.

  16. An invasive whitefly feeding on a virus-infected plant increased its egg production and realized fecundity.

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    Jian-Yang Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant-pathogenic begomoviruses have a complex association with their insect vectors. The interactions of begomoviruses and reproduction of their vectors are poorly understood. Bemisia tabaci is known to transmit many begomoviruses, and the spread of B. tabaci, especially the B and Q 'biotypes', has been accompanied by the epidemics of begomoviruses. One of these identified disease-causing agents was Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we compared the egg production and realized fecundity of two 'biotypes' or putative species of the whitefly B. tabaci, including the alien invasive B and the indigenous ZHJ1 from Zhejiang, China, feeding on either healthy or TYLCCNV-infected tobacco plants. The ovary of the whitefly was composed of 12-22 telotrophic ovarioles. According to the morphology of the oocytes and level of yolk content, oocytes in ovarioles were divided into four developmental phases (I-IV. Significantly higher proportion of immature oocytes (phase II, III and mature oocytes (phase IV was observed in ovary of females that fed on TYLCCNV-infected tobacco compared to that on healthy plants. Moreover, there was significant increase of eggs laid of B whitefly that fed on TYLCCNV-infected tobacco plants during the early developmental stages. In contrast, the proportion of oocytes of different developmental phases and eggs laid had no significant differences between ZHJ1 whiteflies feeding on TYLCCNV-infected and non-infected host plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The invasive B whitefly benefits from feeding on a begomovirus-infected plant through increased egg production and realized fecundity.

  17. Protective Effect of Flowerbuds of Lonicera Japonica Extract on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Associated Vascular Complications in STZ-HFD Treated Rats

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    Chiragkumar Amrutlal Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effect of Lonicera Japonica Alcoholic Extract (LJALE on Diabetes Mellitus  II (DM and associated vascular complications.Methods: Induction of Diabetes Mellitus II with 35 mg / kg STZ-HFD leads to excessive level of 11β-HSD1 enzyme. It has been found that flower buds of Lonicera Japonica (LJ has also been traditionally indicated for treatment of diabetes. Chlorogenic Acid (CA is a major bioactive component in the flower buds of LJ has received more attention because of its 11β-HSD1 inhibitory action.11β-HSD1 regulates glucocorticoid action at the pre-receptor stage by converting cortisone to cortisol. Elevated glucocorticoids are a key risk factor for metabolic diseases. LJALE was prepared with help of Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE method.  STZ-HFD-induced diabetic rats were treated with LJALE (200 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and Metformin (50 mg/kg. It was given for 4 weeks.Result: LJALE treated Diabetic rats showed significant decreased in blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, serum cortisol as well significant increased hepatic glycogen, 11β-HSD1 index compare to diabetic control rats. LJALE (500 mg/kg treatment showed the return of islets close to good vascular pattern. LJALE treatment restored endothelium dysfunction.Conclusions: From all results it is reasonable to conclude that LJALE (500 mg/kg may be used in treatment of diabetes and diabetes associated vascular dysfunction.Keywords:  Diabetes Mellitus, 11β-HSD1, CA, LJALE

  18. A survey on breeding strategies and selection objectives for increased feed efficiency and decreased methane emission

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    The combined effects of world population growth, rising incomes and dietary changes have resulted in an increasing international demand for dairy and meat products. However, livestock can have negative impacts on the environment and the greater awareness of climate change has placed pressure on the ...

  19. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

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    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  20. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Sarah I; Holmes, Nathan; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow) for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  1. Chronic ethanol feeding increases the severity of Staphylococcus aureus skin infections by altering local host defenses

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    Parlet, Corey P.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Schlueter, Annette J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholics are at increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection and serious sequelae, such as bacteremia and death. Despite the association between alcoholism and severe S. aureus skin infection, the impact of EtOH on anti-S. aureus cutaneous immunity has not been investigated in a model of chronic EtOH exposure. To test the hypothesis that EtOH enhances the severity of S. aureus skin infection, mice were fed EtOH for ≥12 weeks via the Meadows-Cook model of alcoholism and inoculated with S. aureus following epidermal abrasion. Evidence of exacerbated staphylococcal disease in EtOH-fed mice included: skin lesions that were larger and contained more organisms, greater weight loss, and increased bacterial dissemination. Infected EtOH-fed mice demonstrated poor maintenance and induction of PMN responses in skin and draining LNs, respectively. Additionally, altered PMN dynamics in the skin of these mice corresponded with reduced production of IL-23 and IL-1β by CD11b+ myeloid cells and IL-17 production by γδ T cells, with the latter defect occurring in the draining LNs as well. In addition, IL-17 restoration attenuated S. aureus-induced dermatopathology and improved bacterial clearance defects in EtOH-fed mice. Taken together, the findings show, in a novel model system, that the EtOH-induced increase in S. aureus-related injury/illness corresponds with defects in the IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory axis and poor PMN accumulation at the site of infection and draining LNs. These findings offer new information about the impact of EtOH on cutaneous host-defense pathways and provide a potential mechanism explaining why alcoholics are predisposed to S. aureus skin infection. PMID:25605871

  2. Breast feeding increases vasoconstriction induced by electrical field stimulation in rat mesenteric artery. Role of neuronal nitric oxide and ATP.

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    Javier Blanco-Rivero

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate in rat mesenteric artery whether breast feeding (BF affects the vasomotor response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS, participation by different innervations in the EFS-induced response and the mechanism/s underlying these possible modifications. METHODS: Experiments were performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months old, divided into three groups: Control (in oestrous phase, mothers after 21 days of BF, and mothers that had recovered their oestral cycle (After BF, in oestrous phase. Vasomotor response to EFS, noradrenaline (NA and nitric oxide (NO donor DEA-NO were studied. Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS and phosphorylated nNOS (P-nNOS protein expression were analysed and NO, superoxide anion (O(2(.-, NA and ATP releases were also determined. RESULTS: EFS-induced contraction was higher in the BF group, and was recovered after BF. 1 µmol/L phentolamine decreased the response to EFS similarly in control and BF rats. NA vasoconstriction and release were similar in both experimental groups. ATP release was higher in segments from BF rats. 0.1 mmol/L L-NAME increased the response to EFS in both control and BF rats, but more so in control animals. BF decreased NO release and did not modify O(2(.- production. Vasodilator response to DEA-NO was similar in both groups, while nNOS and P-nNOS expressions were decreased in segments from BF animals. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding increases EFS-induced contraction in mesenteric arteries, mainly through the decrease of neuronal NO release mediated by decreased nNOS and P-nNOS expression. Sympathetic function is increased through the increased ATP release in BF rats.

  3. Preparation of the red yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, as feed additive with increased availability of astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gil-Hwan; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2003-05-01

    Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) is used as a colorant for aquaculture, egg yolks, and crustaceans but its carotenoids can only be absorbed by animals when its cell wall is degraded. Conditions that degraded the cell wall of X. dendrorhous were developed. To measure the degrees of cell wall degradation, the carotenoid extractability (extracted carotenoid by acetone/total carotenoid) unit was used. Treatment with HCl (0.2 M, 9 h, 90 degrees C) followed by neutralization to pH 3 by NaOH and spray-drying increased carotenoid extractability to 100% with minimal decomposition.

  4. Palmitic acid feeding increases ceramide supply in association with increased milk yield, circulating nonesterified fatty acids, and adipose tissue responsiveness to a glucose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Mathews, A T; Lovett, J; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Reduced insulin action is a key adaptation that facilitates glucose partitioning to the mammary gland for milk synthesis and enhances adipose tissue lipolysis during early lactation. The progressive recovery of insulin sensitivity as cows advance toward late lactation is accompanied by reductions in circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and milk yield. Because palmitic acid can promote insulin resistance in monogastrics through sphingolipid ceramide-dependent mechanisms, palmitic acid (C16:0) feeding may enhance milk production by restoring homeorhetic responses. We hypothesized that feeding C16:0 to mid-lactation cows would enhance ceramide supply and ceramide would be positively associated with milk yield. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows were randomly assigned to a sorghum silage-based diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45 d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration dry matter (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44 d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Liver and skeletal muscle tissue were biopsied at d 47 of treatment. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. The plasma and tissue concentrations of ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield, energy-corrected milk, and milk fat yield. The most abundant plasma and tissue sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide (GlcCer), and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and GlcCer decreased as lactation advanced, and ceramide and GlcCer were elevated in cows fed PALM

  5. NURSING INTERVENTION THROUGH FAMILY PATHNERSHIP INCREASES BEHAVIOR IN PRACTICE OF FEEDING PATTERN ON INFANT OF AGE 6–24 MONTHS FOR NUCLEAR AND EXTENDED FAMILY

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    A. Aziz Alimul Hidayat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing intervention is nursing action with a supportive and educative approach done by nurses cooperating with families in overcoming the problems of nursing family. The aim of the research was to explain the effect of nursing intervention through family pathnership toward behavior in practice of feeding pattern on infant of age 6–24 months for nuclear and extended family, including the breastfeeding (ASI, PASI, soft food, family food, snacks, and way of feeding. Method: The design of the research was experimental. The sample of the research was ninety six (96 samples, which was chosen with simple random sampling.The sample was then divided into two parts of family in Kenjeran District and Bulak Surabaya, namely nuclear family and extended family. The variables measured were breastfeeding, PASI, soft food, family food, and a way of feeding through interviewing and observation. The data analysis used was Mann Whitney U. Result: Result showed that effect of nursing interventions on the style of feeding containing of giving PASI (p = 0.003, soft food (p = 0.005, family food (p = 0.00, snacks (p = 0.034, and way of feeding (p = 0.00. Those effects can be shown with the increasing of frequency and way of feeding before and after intervention. Discussion: The conclusion is nursing intervention through the supportive and educative approach as the form of actions on families with problems on the pattern of feeding has the influence on the practice of feeding pattern. The increasing of feeding frequency shows the cognitive and behavioral change on the practice of feeding pattern which can possibly improve the status of infants nutrient.

  6. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Paul C; Bale, Jeffrey S; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  7. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  8. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  9. Nematicides increase grain yields in spring wheat cultivars and suppress plant-parasitic and bacterial-feeding nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpinski, J; Martin, R A; Sturz, A V

    2005-12-01

    Grain yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. AC Barrie, AC Walton, AC Wilmot, Belvedere, Glenlea) in field plots over a 3-year period were increased (P nematicide treatments of AC Barrie and Glenlea, which are grown primarily in the prairie provinces of Canada, was greater (48.5%) than the mean response of Belvedere, AC Walton, and AC Wilmot (33.7%), which are more common in the Maritime region of Canada (P nematicide applications (P < 0.001). Bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri (Maupas)) in root zone soil were also suppressed by fosthiazate (P < 0.01) but not by aldicarb. These data indicate that root lesion nematodes cause substantial yield losses in spring wheat in the Maritime region of Canada.

  10. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-02

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  11. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD-Fed Rats

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    Wen-Chang Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The results show that vanillic acid (VA demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05, indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  12. Increased gut permeability and microbiota change associate with mesenteric fat inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice.

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    Yan Y Lam

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between gut health, visceral fat dysfunction and metabolic disorders in diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed control or high saturated fat diet (HFD. Circulating glucose, insulin and inflammatory markers were measured. Proximal colon barrier function was assessed by measuring transepithelial resistance and mRNA expression of tight-junction proteins. Gut microbiota profile was determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6 mRNA levels were measured in proximal colon, adipose tissue and liver using RT-qPCR. Adipose macrophage infiltration (F4/80⁺ was assessed using immunohistochemical staining. HFD mice had a higher insulin/glucose ratio (P = 0.020 and serum levels of serum amyloid A3 (131%; P = 0.008 but reduced circulating adiponectin (64%; P = 0.011. In proximal colon of HFD mice compared to mice fed the control diet, transepithelial resistance and mRNA expression of zona occludens 1 were reduced by 38% (P<0.001 and 40% (P = 0.025 respectively and TNF-α mRNA level was 6.6-fold higher (P = 0.037. HFD reduced Lactobacillus (75%; P<0.001 but increased Oscillibacter (279%; P = 0.004 in fecal microbiota. Correlations were found between abundances of Lactobacillus (r = 0.52; P = 0.013 and Oscillibacter (r = -0.55; P = 0.007 with transepithelial resistance of the proximal colon. HFD increased macrophage infiltration (58%; P = 0.020, TNF-α (2.5-fold, P<0.001 and IL-6 mRNA levels (2.5-fold; P = 0.008 in mesenteric fat. Increased macrophage infiltration in epididymal fat was also observed with HFD feeding (71%; P = 0.006 but neither TNF-α nor IL-6 was altered. Perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissue showed no signs of inflammation in HFD mice. The current results implicate gut dysfunction, and attendant inflammation of contiguous adipose, as salient features of the metabolic dysregulation of diet-induced obesity.

  13. New insights into salvianolic acid A action: Regulation of the TXNIP/NLRP3 and TXNIP/ChREBP pathways ameliorates HFD-induced NAFLD in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunchun; Zhao, Yan; Shi, Xue; Zhang, Ning; Zu, Guo; Li, Zhenlu; Zhou, Junjun; Gao, Dongyan; Lv, Li; Tian, Xiaofeng; Yao, Jihong

    2016-06-27

    Salvianolic acid A (SalA), one of the most efficacious polyphenol compounds extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has been shown to possess many potential pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate whether SalA has hepatoprotective effects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to further explore the mechanism underlying this process. SalA treatment significantly attenuated HFD-induced obesity and liver injury, and markedly decreased lipid accumulation in HFD-fed rat livers. Moreover, SalA treatment ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress by decreasing hepatotoxic levels of cytokines, suppressing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and preventing the decreased expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Importantly, SalA reversed the HFD- or palmitic acid (PA)-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the nuclear translocation of ChREBP and the up-regulation of FAS, and these effects were accompanied by TXNIP down-regulation. However, TXNIP siRNA treatment partially abrogated the above-mentioned effects of SalA in PA-treated HepG2 cells. Together, our results demonstrated, for the first time, that SalA protects against HFD-induced NAFLD by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation, and these protective effects may partially due to regulation of the TXNIP/NLRP3 and TXNIP/ChREBP pathways.

  14. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enterprises of Ukraine, therefore an analysis of available data on zooplankton cultivation is important for looking for optimal and economically profitable methods of enrichment of pond fish diet with natural feeds. Methodology. Methods of cladoceran cultivation were the object of the study, material for the study – literature data on ways and methods of zooplankton cultivation. Findings. Cultivation of various species of zooplankton is performed for feeding of pond fish on different life stages. Main object of cultivation in aquaculture is Daphnia magna Straus, juvenile forms of which are consumed by fish larvae, while adult organisms are the most valuable for yearlings and older fish. The efficiency of hydrobiont cultivation highly depends on the selected object, containers, where cladocerans are cultivated, optimum conditions, peculiarities of water supply, species, and application of fertilizers and feeds. Originality. The highest production of zooplankton can be obtained when cultivating D. magna in tanks with continuous flow and in net cages installed in ponds under condition of ensuring requirements of the culture in bacterial and algae feeds (due to application of fertilizers and feeding with feeds and microalgae taking into account their presence in water, which is in the tank-cultivator. Practical value. Simplicity of the methods and high efficiency of zooplankton cultivation for preparation of pond fish juveniles is the basis of its wide use in

  15. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events

    OpenAIRE

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from question...

  16. Increasing weaning age of piglets from 4 to 7 weeks reduces stress, increases post-weaning feed intake but does not improve intestinal functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Koopmans, S.J.; Dekker, R.A.; Hoogendoorn, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that late weaning and the availability of creep feed during the suckling period compared with early weaning, improves feed intake, decreases stress and improves the integrity of the intestinal tract. In this study with 160 piglets of 16 litters, late weaning at 7 wee

  17. Effects of chronic high-fat feeding on skeletal muscle mass and function in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Rok; Khamoui, Andy V; Jo, Edward; Park, Bong-Sup; Zourdos, Michael C; Panton, Lynn B; Ormsbee, Michael J; Kim, Jeong-Su

    2015-08-01

    Increased adipose tissue may promote catabolic events in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to test whether high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity would accelerate the onset of muscle wasting in middle-aged mice. Muscle was collected from C57BL/6 mice at 9 months of age (baseline) and 14 months of age after consuming a control (C) or HFD. Mice in C and HFD were also subjected to evaluations of body composition and function before and after their respective diets. HFD demonstrated significant (p decreased to a greater degree in HFD although not significantly (C: -20.69 ± 7.94 vs. HFD: -31.14 ± 5.49 %, p > 0.05). Gastrocnemius, quadriceps, and hamstrings mass in C and HFD were significantly reduced from baseline (-27 to 43 and -39 to 47 %, respectively, p muscle to HFD-dependent catabolism more so than aging. In the muscles containing fast/mixed fibers, aging effects may have concealed the catabolic nature of HFD; however, morphological changes in the gastrocnemius including decreased fiber area, satellite cells, and myonuclei are consistent with an atrophic phenotype related to HFD.

  18. Restless behavior increases over time, but not with compressibility of the flooring surface, during forced standing at the feed bunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, N; Berry, S L; Tucker, C B

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the use of rubber flooring in freestall barns has increased, but little is known about which design features of these surfaces are important for cattle. In 2 experiments, we evaluated how the type and compressibility of the flooring surface in front of the feed bunk influenced the behavioral response to 4 h of forced standing after morning milking. Two flooring types were compared: rubber and concrete. Rubber was tested at 3 levels of compressibility: 2, 4, and 35 times as compressible as concrete. Four hours of forced standing was evaluated because it mimicked conditions that can occur on dairies, particularly when waiting for artificial insemination or veterinary treatment. The effects of cow weight and hoof surface area, gait score, and hoof health on the response to treatment were evaluated. Restless behavior, as measured by number of steps, almost doubled over the 4h of forced standing, regardless of flooring material. Cows lay down, on average, within 5 min after access to the lying area was provided. These results indicate that the 4 h of forced standing was uncomfortable. No differences in restless behavior were observed in association with the type or compressibility of the flooring surface in front of the feed bunk. Cow size, hoof health, or gait score did not consistently explain the response to the flooring treatments or stepping rate, although these populations of animals were generally healthy. It is unclear if comfort did not differ between the flooring options tested during 4 h of forced standing or if alterative methodology, such as measuring more subtle shifts in weight, is required to assess design features of rubber flooring.

  19. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5. Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP. The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S, 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-oil (C or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC. All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1 or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments

  20. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohme-Meier, F; Bee, G

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that

  1. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  2. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI5th to 25th to supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases.

  3. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-03-03

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice.

  4. Shifting the circadian rhythm of feeding in mice induces gastrointestinal, metabolic and immune alterations which are influenced by ghrelin and the core clock gene Bmal1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laermans, Jorien; Broers, Charlotte; Beckers, Kelly; Vancleef, Laurien; Steensels, Sandra; Thijs, Theo; Tack, Jan; Depoortere, Inge

    2014-01-01

    In our 24-hour society, an increasing number of people are required to be awake and active at night. As a result, the circadian rhythm of feeding is seriously compromised. To mimic this, we subjected mice to restricted feeding (RF), a paradigm in which food availability is limited to short and unusual times of day. RF induces a food-anticipatory increase in the levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin triggers the changes in body weight and gastric emptying that occur during RF. Moreover, the effect of genetic deletion of the core clock gene Bmal1 on these physiological adaptations was studied. Wild-type, ghrelin receptor knockout and Bmal1 knockout mice were fed ad libitum or put on RF with a normal or high-fat diet (HFD). Plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric contractility was studied in vitro in muscle strips and in vivo (13C breath test). Cytokine mRNA expression was quantified and infiltration of immune cells was assessed histologically. The food-anticipatory increase in plasma ghrelin levels induced by RF with normal chow was abolished in HFD-fed mice. During RF, body weight restoration was facilitated by ghrelin and Bmal1. RF altered cytokine mRNA expression levels and triggered contractility changes resulting in an accelerated gastric emptying, independent from ghrelin signaling. During RF with a HFD, Bmal1 enhanced neutrophil recruitment to the stomach, increased gastric IL-1α expression and promoted gastric contractility changes. This is the first study demonstrating that ghrelin and Bmal1 regulate the extent of body weight restoration during RF, whereas Bmal1 controls the type of inflammatory infiltrate and contractility changes in the stomach. Disrupting the circadian rhythm of feeding induces a variety of diet-dependent metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal alterations, which may explain the higher prevalence of obesity and immune-related gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers.

  5. Shifting the circadian rhythm of feeding in mice induces gastrointestinal, metabolic and immune alterations which are influenced by ghrelin and the core clock gene Bmal1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien Laermans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In our 24-hour society, an increasing number of people are required to be awake and active at night. As a result, the circadian rhythm of feeding is seriously compromised. To mimic this, we subjected mice to restricted feeding (RF, a paradigm in which food availability is limited to short and unusual times of day. RF induces a food-anticipatory increase in the levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin triggers the changes in body weight and gastric emptying that occur during RF. Moreover, the effect of genetic deletion of the core clock gene Bmal1 on these physiological adaptations was studied. METHODS: Wild-type, ghrelin receptor knockout and Bmal1 knockout mice were fed ad libitum or put on RF with a normal or high-fat diet (HFD. Plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric contractility was studied in vitro in muscle strips and in vivo (13C breath test. Cytokine mRNA expression was quantified and infiltration of immune cells was assessed histologically. RESULTS: The food-anticipatory increase in plasma ghrelin levels induced by RF with normal chow was abolished in HFD-fed mice. During RF, body weight restoration was facilitated by ghrelin and Bmal1. RF altered cytokine mRNA expression levels and triggered contractility changes resulting in an accelerated gastric emptying, independent from ghrelin signaling. During RF with a HFD, Bmal1 enhanced neutrophil recruitment to the stomach, increased gastric IL-1α expression and promoted gastric contractility changes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating that ghrelin and Bmal1 regulate the extent of body weight restoration during RF, whereas Bmal1 controls the type of inflammatory infiltrate and contractility changes in the stomach. Disrupting the circadian rhythm of feeding induces a variety of diet-dependent metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal alterations, which may explain the higher prevalence of obesity and

  6. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (P<.05). In contrast, femoral trabecular bone was not affected by the SFAs, whereas MUFAs increased trabecular volume fraction and thickness. The rise over time in FCA was greater in mice fed HFD than NFD and final FCA was higher with HFD (P<.05). Intestinal calbindin-D9k gene and hepatic cytochrome P450 2r1 protein levels were higher with the MUFA than the NFD diet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects.

  7. Feed-derived volatile basic nitrogen increases reactive oxygen species production of blood leukocytes in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Ei; Gross, Josef J; Kawashima, Chiho; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated over 9 months the changes of fermentative quality of total mixed rations (TMR) containing grass silage (GS) as a major component, associated with changes in the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in an experimental dairy farm. Effects of VBN levels in TMR on metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and conception rates for dairy cows were analyzed. According to VBN levels in TMR during survey periods, three distinct phases were identified; phase A with low VBN; phase B with high VBN; and phase C with mid-VBN. Metabolic parameters in blood were all within normal range. However, during phases B and C, nitrogen metabolic indices such as blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen showed higher levels compared to those in phase A, and a simultaneous increase in ROS production by blood PMNs and the load on hepatic function in metabolic parameters was observed in the cows with a lower conception rate. This suggests that feeding TMR with elevated VBN levels due to poor fermented GS results in stimulation of ROS production by PMNs by ammonia, and negatively affects metabolism and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cow.

  8. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Grace K; Schofield, Oscar; Torres, Joseph J; Ombres, Erica H; Steinberg, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2) concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) by conducting a CO(2) perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2) levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Under elevated CO(2) conditions (∼672 ppm), ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1) d(-1) and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2) concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2) treatment than at ambient CO(2) concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2) treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were consistently higher in the high CO(2) treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  9. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace K Saba

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2 concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill by conducting a CO(2 perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2 levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP. Under elevated CO(2 conditions (∼672 ppm, ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1 d(-1 and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2 concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2 treatment than at ambient CO(2 concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2 treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, were consistently higher in the high CO(2 treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  10. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...

  11. Increased Coal Replacement in a Cement Kiln Burner by Feeding a Mixture of Solid Hazardous Waste and Shredded Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W.K.Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by combined feeding of plastic waste and solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. The coal replacement should be achieved without negative impacts on product quality, emissions or overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement kiln by varying SHW and plastic waste feeding rates. Experimental ...

  12. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  13. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  14. Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low.

  15. Performance of broilers fed increased levels energy in the pre-starter diet and on subsequent feeding programs having with acidulated soybean soapstock supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.

  16. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice...

  17. Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Salum

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS represent the front-line tools for malaria vector control globally, but are optimally effective where the majority of baseline transmission occurs indoors. In the surveyed area of rural southern Tanzania, bed net use steadily increased over the last decade, reducing malaria transmission intensity by 94%. Methods Starting before bed nets were introduced (1997, and then after two milestones of net use had been reached-75% community-wide use of untreated nets (2004 and then 47% use of ITNs (2009-hourly biting rates of malaria vectors from the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus group were surveyed. Results In 1997, An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes exhibited a tendency to bite humans inside houses late at night. For An. gambiae s.l., by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0018. At this time, the sibling species composition of the complex had shifted from predominantly An. gambiae s.s. to predominantly An. arabiensis. For An. funestus, by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0054 as well as the proportion biting indoors (p An. funestus s.s. remained the predominant species within this group. As a consequence of these altered feeding patterns, the proportion (mean ± standard error of human contact with mosquitoes (bites per person per night occurring indoors dropped from 0.99 ± 0.002 in 1997 to 0.82 ± 0.008 in 2009 for the An. gambiae complex (p = 0.0143 and from 1.00 ± An. funestus complex (p = 0.0004 over the same time period. Conclusions High usage of ITNs can dramatically alter African vector populations so that intense, predominantly indoor transmission is replaced by greatly lowered residual transmission, a greater proportion of which occurs outdoors. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the residual, self-sustaining transmission will respond poorly to further insecticidal measures within houses. Additional vector control

  18. Feeding rumen-protected methionine pre- and post-partum increases milk protein content and yield in early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of feeding rumen-protected methionine (MET) from 23 d (±12) before calving until 98 days in milk (DIM) on lactation performance, dry matter intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) change of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 223) ...

  19. Octopamine increases the excitability of neurons in the snail feeding system by modulation of inward sodium current but not outward potassium currents

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    Szabó Henriette

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although octopamine has long been known to have major roles as both transmitter and modulator in arthropods, it has only recently been shown to be functionally important in molluscs, playing a role as a neurotransmitter in the feeding network of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The synaptic potentials cannot explain all the effects of octopamine-containing neurons on the feeding network, and here we test the hypothesis that octopamine is also a neuromodulator. Results The excitability of the B1 and B4 motoneurons in the buccal ganglia to depolarising current clamp pulses is significantly (P IA current and a sustained IK delayed-rectifier current, but neither was modulated by octopamine in any of these three buccal neurons. The fast inward current was eliminated in sodium – free saline and so is likely to be carried by sodium ions. 10 μM octopamine enhanced this current by 33 and 45% in the B1 and B4 motoneurons respectively (P Conclusion We conclude that octopamine is also a neuromodulator in snails, changing the excitability of the buccal neurons. This is supported by the close relationship from the voltage clamp data, through the quantitative simulation, to the action potential threshold, changing the properties of neurons in a rhythmic network. The increase in inward sodium current provides an explanation for the polycyclic modulation of the feeding system by the octopamine-containing interneurons, making feeding easier to initiate and making the feeding bursts more intense.

  20. Increasing fat content from 20 to 45 wt% in a complex diet induces lower endotoxemia in parallel with an increased number of intestinal goblet cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Bérengère; Laugerette, Fabienne; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain; Bodennec, Jacques; Estienne, Monique; Pineau, Gaëlle; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of high-fat diets (HFDs) on the onset of metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation are well established in rodent models. However, the dose-effect of dietary lipid intakes on these parameters is not known. We hypothesized that increasing dietary lipid amounts could be linked to parallel increases of endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic and intestinal alterations. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 2.6 wt% of lipids), a moderate HFD (mHFD, 22 wt% of lipids), or a very HFD (vHFD, 45 wt% of lipids) formulated mainly using chow ingredients and milk fat. After 12 weeks, white adipose tissues, liver, intestine, distal colon contents, and plasma were collected. Only vHFD mice significantly increased body weight and fat mass vs LFD mice. This was associated with increases of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, leptin and adiponectin, and liver lipids. No such differences were observed between LFD and mHFD mice. However, mHFD developed metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation, unlike vHFD mice. In turn, vHFD mice showed more goblet cells in all intestine segments vs both other groups and a decrease of Bacteroides-Prevotella in their microbiota vs LFD mice. Finally, mHFD mice colon exhibited a decrease in lactobacilli and in the levels of occludin phosphorylation. Altogether, using complex HFD, no associations were observed between dietary lipid amounts and the magnitude of endotoxemia, inflammation, and physiological alterations developed. These results reveal the impact of the diet composition on intestinal goblet cells and mucus coat, bringing new insights about further consequences on HFD-induced metabolic disorders.

  1. Increasing efficiency of human mesenchymal stromal cell culture by optimization of microcarrier concentration and design of medium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Chew, Yi Kong; Tan, Hong Yu; Reuveny, Shaul; Weng Oh, Steve Kah

    2015-02-01

    Large amounts of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are needed for clinical cellular therapy. In a previous publication, we described a microcarrier-based process for expansion of MSCs. The present study optimized this process by selecting suitable basal media, microcarrier concentration and feeding regime to achieve higher cell yields and more efficient medium utilization. MSCs were expanded in stirred cultures on Cytodex 3 microcarriers with media containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Process optimization was carried out in spinner flasks. A 2-L bioreactor with an automated feeding system was used to validate the optimized parameters explored in spinner flask cultures. Minimum essential medium-α-based medium supported faster MSC growth on microcarriers than did Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (doubling time, 31.6 ± 1.4 vs 42 ± 1.7 h) and shortened the process time. At microcarrier concentration of 8 mg/mL, a high cell concentration of 1.08 × 10(6) cells/mL with confluent cell concentration of 4.7 × 10(4)cells/cm(2) was achieved. Instead of 50% medium exchange every 2 days, we have designed a full medium feed that is based on glucose consumption rate. The optimal medium feed that consisted of 1.5 g/L glucose supported MSC growth to full confluency while achieving the low medium usage efficiency of 3.29 mL/10(6)cells. Finally, a controlled bioreactor with the optimized parameters achieved maximal confluent cell concentration with 16-fold expansion and a further improved medium usage efficiency of 1.68 mL/10(6)cells. We have optimized the microcarrier-based platform for expansion of MSCs that generated high cell yields in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. This study highlighted the critical parameters in the optimization of MSC production process. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) overexpression attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yanyan; Sui, Xianxian; Zhan, Yongkun; Xu, Chen; Li, Xiaobo; Ning, Yanxia; Zhi, Xiuling; Yin, Lianhua

    2017-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology. Intracellular lipid accumulation is the first step in the development and progression of NAFLD. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) plays an important role in the synthesis of bile acid and intracellular lipid homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism. We hypothesize that StAR is involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. The hypothesis was identified using free fatty acid (FFA)-overloaded NAFLD in vitro model and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD mouse model transfected by recombinant adenovirus encoding StAR (StAR). StAR expression was also examined in pathology samples of patients with fatty liver by immunohistochemical staining. We found that the expression level of StAR was reduced in the livers obtained from fatty liver patients and NAFLD mice. Additionally, StAR overexpression decreased the levels of hepatic lipids and maintained the hepatic glucose homeostasis due to the activation of farnesoid x receptor (FXR). StAR overexpression attenuated the impairment of insulin signaling in fatty liver. This protective role of StAR was owing to a reduction of intracellular diacylglycerol levels and the phosphorylation of PKCε. Furthermore, FXR inactivation reversed the observed beneficial effects of StAR. The present study revealed that StAR overexpression can reduce hepatic lipid accumulation, regulate glucose metabolism and attenuate insulin resistance through a mechanism involving the activation of FXR. Our study suggests that StAR may be a potential therapeutic target for NAFLD.

  3. Feeding an enhanced diet to Holstein heifers during the preweaning period alters steroid receptor expression and increases cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; Akers, R M

    2017-07-26

    expressing ESR1 was lowest in estradiol-treated calves. Overall, estradiol-treated calves had the greatest number of proliferating epithelial cells. Moreover, in zone 3, EH-E2 calves had a higher percentage of proliferating cells than in all other treatments. Results indicate both diet and estradiol administration alter proliferation rates of the mammary epithelium and that changes in expression of ESR1 and PGR are involved in enhanced mammary development. The data support our hypothesis that enhanced preweaning feeding increases the mammary tissue responsiveness to mammogenic stimulation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effort of Increasing Production of Livestock Feed out of Cassava Waste by Identifying the more Suitable Cellulotic Degrading Fungi

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    Yani Suryani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the bioethanol production process, as much as 90% of waste was produced. The availability of waste production is very important since waste can be processed to become livestock feed. The solid bioethanol waste contains cyanide (HCN 5.8177 mg/kg, water 95,21%, ash 0,39%, protein 8,16%, crude fiber 5,45%, crude fat 2.06%, and carbohydrates 83,94%. Processing bioethanol solid waste into livestock feed can be done by utilizing the existing fungi on bioethanol solid waste. Crude fiber (cellulose and carbohydrates are a source of cellulolytic fungi. Cellulolytic fungi can degrade the role of organic materials contained in bioethanol solid waste, so that it can be made as a source of highly nutritious livestock feed. This study aims to determine the types of cellulolytic fungal isolates contained in bioethanol solid waste which is potentially processed to become livestock woof. Descriptive analysis was employed as a method of the study. Furthermore, Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA was used as a medium for culturing and isolating the fungus. Dilution series and pour plate method were employed to isolate the fungus. And, Moist Chamber method was employed to identify it. In addition, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC was used as medium to identify cellulolytic fungi. The process was carried out up to the level of genus based on macroscopic and microscopic characterization. 10 fungal isolates from the genus of Aspergillus sp 1, Aspergillus sp 2, Aspergillus sp 3, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp, Mucor sp, Penicillium sp 1, Penicillium sp 2, Rhizopus sp and Trichoderma viride were yielded in this study. The results of examining cellulose enzyme activity revealed that 9 of 10 isolates of the fungus were capable of degrading cellulose. Isolates yielding the largest cellulose enzyme were Trichoderma viride, Penicillium sp 1, Cladosporium sp and Aspergillus niger.

  5. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    %) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic......Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... levels of diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramides and arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipins compared with mice fed WD-FO. In addition, C57BL/6J mice were fed fish oil-enriched diets with different carbohydrate sources, and we observed that sucrose dose-dependently abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil...

  6. Mio/dChREBP coordinately increases fat mass by regulating lipid synthesis and feeding behavior in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassu, Eric D; McDermott, Jacqueline E; Keys, Brendan J; Esmaeili, Melody; Keene, Alex C; Birnbaum, Morris J; DiAngelo, Justin R

    2012-09-14

    During nutrient excess, triglycerides are synthesized and stored to provide energy during times of famine. The presence of high glucose leads to the activation of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a transcription factor that induces the expression of a number of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes. ChREBP is expressed in major metabolic tissues and while we have a basic understanding of ChREBP function in liver, in vivo genetic systems to study the function of ChREBP in other tissues are lacking. In this study, we characterized the role of the Drosophila homolog of ChREBP, Mlx interactor (Mio), in controlling fat accumulation in larvae and adult flies. In Mio mutants, high sugar-induced lipogenic enzyme mRNA expression is blunted and lowering Mio levels specifically in the fat body using RNA interference leads to a lean phenotype. A lean phenotype is also observed when the gene bigmax, the fly homolog of ChREBP's binding partner Mlx, is decreased in the larval fat body. Interestingly, depleting Mio in the fat body results in decreased feeding providing a potential cause of the lowered triglycerides observed in these animals. However, Mio does not seem to function as a general regulator of hunger-induced behaviors as decreasing fat body Mio levels has no effect on sleep under fed or starved conditions. Together, these data implicate a role for Mio in controlling fat accumulation in Drosophila and suggests that it may act as a nutrient sensor in the fat body to coordinate feeding behavior with nutrient availability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. First feeding of Eugerres brasilianus (Carapeva larvae with Acartia tonsa (Copepod nauplii increases survival and resistance to acute stress

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    Wanessa de Melo Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotifer Brachionus sp. is commonly used for larval feeding in marine fish hatcheries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii in the initial diet of carapeva larvae improves their survival, growth and resistance to stress when compared to the regimen containing only rotifers. Adult copepods were collected in the wild and cultured with the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis oculata to obtain nauplii. Carapeva larvae were grown for 15 days using four treatments and three replicates: 1 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (10 to 15/mL; 2 A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5/mL; 3 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (5 to 7.5/mL + A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25/mL, and 4 no supply of live feed. After 15 days, the carapeva larvae were subjected to stress by exposure to air for 10 seconds and then returned to the source tank to evaluate survival after 24 h. Survival and stress resistance were higher in carapeva larvae fed B. plicatilis + A. tonsa nauplii (P<0.05, 20.9 ± 11.2% and 88.9%, respectively. These results confirm the positive effect of the inclusion of copepod nauplii in the diet of fish larvae. However, more research is needed to validate these results.

  8. Molecular characterization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA in Megalobrama amblycephala and effects on its expression of feeding status and dietary lipid and berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang-Le; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Wang, Li-Na; Xu, Wei-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I, EC 2.3.1.21) controls the main regulatory step of fatty acid oxidation, and hence studies of its molecular characterization are useful to understand lipid metabolism in cultured fish. Here, a full-length cDNA coding CPT I was cloned from liver of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. This cDNA obtained covered 2499bp with an open reading frame of 2181bp encoding 726 amino acids. This CPT I mRNA predominantly expressed in heart and white muscle, while little in eye and spleen. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of sequence alignments among several vertebrate species suggests that this blunt snout bream CPT I sequence belongs to the CPT IA family. In order to investigate the characterization of CPT IA mRNA expression, post-prandial experiment and feeding trial were conducted. The results showed that CPT IA mRNA expression was unchanged from 2 to 12h, and then significantly increased at 24h post-feeding in liver and heart. Berberine, an alkaloid, was identified as a promising lipid-lowering drug. In order to elucidate the effect of berberine on CPT I expression, fish were fed for 8 weeks with three diets (low-fat diet (LFD, 5% fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 15% fat), and berberine-supplemented diet (BSD, 15% fat). The results showed that HFD could decrease the expression of CPT IA and PPARα, while BSD increased those expressions.

  9. Effects of Feeding Increasing Proportions of Corn Grain on Concentration of Lipopolysaccharide in the Rumen Fluid and the Subsequent Alterations in Immune Responses in Goats

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    Wenjie Huo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding increasing proportions of corn grain on concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the rumen fluid and the subsequent alterations in immune responses as reflected by plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA and haptoglobin (Hp in goats. Nine goats were assigned to three diets (0%, 25%, and 50% corn grain in a 3 ×3 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that as the proportion of dietary corn increased, the ruminal pH decreased (p< 0.001, and the concentrations of propionate (p<0.001, butyrate (p<0.001, lactic acid (p = 0.013 and total volatile fatty acid (p = 0.031 elevated and the ruminal LPS level increased (p<0.001. As the proportion of dietary corn increased, the concentration of SAA increased (p = 0.013. LPS was detectable in the blood of individual goats fed 25% and 50% corn. A real-time PCR analysis showed that the copy number of phylum Bacteroidetes (p<0.001 was reduced (4.61×109copies/mL to 1.48×109copies/mL by the increasing dietary corn, and a correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the number of Bacteroidetes and rumen LPS levels. Collectively, these results indicated that feeding goats high proportions (50% of corn grain decreased the ruminal pH, increased LPS in the rumen fluid and tended to stimulate an inflammatory response.

  10. Feeding on a begomovirus-infected plant enhances fecundity via increased expression of an insulin-like peptide in the whitefly, MEAM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Yang; Cheng, Lu; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi; Guo, Jian-Yang

    2014-03-01

    The Middle East-Minor 1 cryptic species (MEAM1), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a globally invasive pest. It spreads widely due to its high fecundity and mutualistic interactions with the virus they vector. Feeding on virus (tomato yellow leaf curl China virus, TYLCCNV)-infected host plants improves their fecundity, however, the key factor regulating the signaling transduction in reproduction of whitefly remains to be identified. Here, we cloned a full length cDNA encoding an insulin-like peptide in MEAM1 (BtILP1) and investigated its expression profile, functions, and the expression induced by feeding on virus-infected tobacco plants. The full length cDNA of BtILP1 was 590 bps and encoded an open reading frame containing 149 amino acid residues. Multiple sequences alignment results showed BtILP1 contained the structural features typical of the insulin family. Expression dynamics associated with development showed the expression level of BtILP1 peaked at 5 days posteclosion (PE). During 1 to 3 days PE, BtILP1 was expressed highly in the head and abdomen of female adults and highly in the head during 5 to 7 days PE. Knockdown of the BtILP1 expression also impaired vitellogenin gene expression at both transcript and protein levels. Downregulating BtILP1 expression decreased fecundity of female adults and hatching rate of eggs. Feeding on virus-infected tobacco increased BtILP1 expression in MEAM1 female adults. We infer feeding on begomovirus-infected tobacco enhances the reproduction of MEAM1 by inducing BtILP1 expression. Our results give a new sight into the mutualistic interactions between virus and its insect vector.

  11. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  12. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  13. Time-restricted feeding improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heekyung; Chou, Winjet; Sears, Dorothy D; Patterson, Ruth E; Webster, Nicholas J G; Ellies, Lesley G

    2016-12-01

    Menopause is associated with significant hormonal changes that result in increased total body fat and abdominal fat, amplifying the risk for metabolic syndrome and diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in postmenopausal women. Intermittent fasting regimens hold significant health benefit promise for obese humans, however, regimens that include extreme daytime calorie restriction or daytime fasting are generally associated with hunger and irritability, hampering long-term compliance and adoption in the clinical setting. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a regimen allowing eating only during a specific period in the normal circadian feeding cycle, without calorie restriction, may increase compliance and provide a more clinically viable method for reducing the detrimental metabolic consequences associated with obesity. We tested TRF as an intervention in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity. Metabolic parameters were measured using Clinical Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS) and we carried out glucose tolerance tests. We also stained liver sections with oil red O to examine steatosis and measured gene expression related to gluconeogenesis. Preexisting metabolic disease was significantly attenuated during 7 weeks of TRF. Despite having access to the same high fat diet (HFD) as ad libitum fed (ALF) mice, TRF mice experienced rapid weight loss followed by a delayed improvement in insulin resistance and a reduced severity of hepatic steatosis by having access to the HFD for only 8h during their normal nocturnal feeding period. The lower respiratory exchange ratio in the TRF group compared with the ALF group early in the dark phase suggested that fat was the predominant fuel source in the TRF group and correlated with gene expression analyses that suggested a switch from gluconeogenesis to ketogenesis. In addition, TRF mice were more physically active than ALF fed mice. Our data support further analysis of TRF as a clinically viable form of

  14. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  15. Many-lined sun skinks (Mabuya multifasciata) do not compensate for the costs of tail loss by increasing feeding rate or digestive efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Yan; Yang, Jing; Ji, Xiang

    2009-02-01

    We used the many-lined sun skink (Mabuya multifasciata) as a model system to evaluate the energetic and locomotor costs of tail loss, and to examine whether tailless skinks compensate for the costs of tail loss by increasing feeding rate or digestive efficiency. We successively removed three tail segments from each of the 20 experimental skinks initially having intact tails. Energy content in each removed tail segment was measured, and swimming performance was measured for each experimental skink before and after each tail-removing treatment. Another independent sample of 19 skinks with intact tails were measured for swimming performance to serve as controls for successive measurements taken for the experimental skinks. Tailless experimental skinks and control skinks were then measured for food intake and digestive efficiency. Tail loss affected swimming speed, but the adverse influence was not significant until more than 55% of the tail (in length) was lost. Our data show that partial tail loss may not severely affect energy stores or locomotor performance in M. multifasciata. However, as tail breaks occurred more frequently in the proximal portion of the tail in skinks collected from the field, we conclude that caudal autotomy occurring in nature often incurs substantial energetic and locomotor costs. As tailless and tailed skinks did not differ in food intake, apparent digestive coefficient and assimilation efficiency, we conclude that tailless individuals do not compensate for the costs of tail loss by increasing feeding rate or digestive efficiency in M. multifasciata.

  16. Implementation of Health Education, Based on Ethnographic Study, to Increase the Colostrum and Decrease Early Solid Food Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and…

  17. SGLT2-inhibitor and DPP-4 inhibitor improve brain function via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, inflammation, and apoptosis in HFD-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Tanajak, Pongpan; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-10-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and neuroprotection in obese-insulin resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotection of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) in diabetes. However, the comparative effects of both drugs and a combination of two drugs on metabolic dysfunction and brain dysfunction impaired by the obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal-diet (ND, n=8) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n=32) for 16weeks. At week 13, the HFD-fed rats were divided into four subgroups (n=8/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle, vildagliptin (3mg/kg/day) dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or combined drugs for four weeks. ND rats were given a vehicle for four weeks. Metabolic parameters and brain function were investigated. The results demonstrated that HFD rats developed obese-insulin resistance and cognitive decline. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy on improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and reduced weight gain than vildagliptin. Single therapy resulted in equally improved brain mitochondrial function, insulin signaling, apoptosis and prevented cognitive decline. However, only dapagliflozin improved hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A combination of the drugs had greater efficacy in improving brain insulin sensitivity and reducing brain oxidative stress than the single drug therapy. These findings suggested that dapagliflozin and vildagliptin equally prevented cognitive decline in the obese-insulin resistance, possibly through some similar mechanisms. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy than vildagliptin for preserving synaptic plasticity, thus combined drugs could be the best therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in the obese-insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; Pparental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; PParental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices.

  19. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as this hormone has been shown to increase protein synthesis.

  20. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Khuc; Estela Blanco; Raquel Burrows; Marcela Reyes; Marcela Castillo; Betsy Lozoff; Sheila Gahagan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n = 357), accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates in...

  1. AdPLA ablation increases lipolysis and prevents obesity induced by high-fat feeding or leptin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Kathy; Ahmadian, Maryam; Duncan, Robin E; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Varady, Krista A; Hellerstein, Marc K; Lee, Hui-Young; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I; Kim, Kee-Hong; de Val, Sarah; Kang, Chulho; Sul, Hei Sook

    2009-02-01

    A main function of white adipose tissue is to release fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol for other tissues to use as an energy source. Whereas endocrine regulation of lipolysis has been extensively studied, autocrine and paracrine regulation is not well understood. Here we describe the role of the newly identified major adipocyte phospholipase A(2), AdPLA (encoded by Pla2g16, also called HREV107), in the regulation of lipolysis and adiposity. AdPLA-null mice have a markedly higher rate of lipolysis owing to increased cyclic AMP levels arising from the marked reduction in the amount of adipose prostaglandin E(2) that binds the Galpha(i)-coupled receptor, EP3. AdPLA-null mice have markedly reduced adipose tissue mass and triglyceride content but normal adipogenesis. They also have higher energy expenditure with increased fatty acid oxidation within adipocytes. AdPLA-deficient ob/ob mice remain hyperphagic but lean, with increased energy expenditure, yet have ectopic triglyceride storage and insulin resistance. AdPLA is a major regulator of adipocyte lipolysis and is crucial for the development of obesity.

  2. Long-term reconstitution with water of dry barley before feeding increases phosphorus digestibility in pigs1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    compared to dry stored barley on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in pigs. Dry barley (12% moisture; total P, 3.3 g/kg DM; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions...... numerically more soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and less phytate P (0.93 g/kg DM) than dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed an increase in P absorption (54%, P

  3. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Khuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n=357, accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates including gender, birth weight, and socioeconomic status. Results. Participants were approximately half male (51%, born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3.5 kg, and 48% were exclusively breastfed for ≥90 days. Factors independently associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adolescence were faster weight gain in the first 3 months of life (B=0.16, P<0.05 and male gender (B=0.24, P<0.05. Breastfeeding as the sole source of milk for ≥90 days was associated with significantly decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (B=−0.16. Conclusion. This study adds to current knowledge about early infant growth and breastfeeding and their long-term health effects.

  4. AdPLA ablation increases lipolysis and prevents obesity induced by high fat feeding or leptin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Kathy; Ahmadian, Maryam; Duncan, Robin E.; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Varady, Krista A.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Lee, Hui-Young; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Kim, Kee-Hong; de Val, Sarah; Kang, Chulho; Sul, Hei Sook

    2010-01-01

    A main function of white adipose tissue is to release fatty acids from triacylglycerol for other tissues to use as an energy source. While endocrine regulation of lipolysis has been extensively studied, autocrine/paracrine regulation is not well understood. Here, we describe the role of AdPLA, the newly identified major adipocyte phospholipase A2, in the regulation of lipolysis and adiposity. AdPLA null mice have a markedly higher rate of lipolysis, due to increased cAMP levels arising from the marked reduction in adipose PGE2 that binds the Gαi-coupled receptor, EP3. AdPLA null mice have drastically reduced adipose tissue mass and triglyceride content, with normal adipogenesis. They also have higher energy expenditure with higher fatty acid oxidation within adipocytes. AdPLA deficient ob/ob mice remain hyperphagic but lean, with increased energy expenditure, yet have ectopic triglyceride storage and insulin resistance. AdPLA is a major regulator of adipocyte lipolysis and critical for the development of obesity. PMID:19136964

  5. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  6. Apparent digestibility of mixed feed with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds in rabbit diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meineri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to three groups with ten animals each (five male and five female rabbits each, and kept individually in separate cages. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds (SHS (0, 10, and 15%. The digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and gross energy (GE were calculated according to standard procedures following the indirect digestibility method, using acid insoluble ash as an internal marker. The results showed that the DM, OM and GE digestibilities of 10% and 15% SHS diets were higher than those of the control diet, while the ADF digestibility of the 15% SHS diet was lower than that of the 10% SHS diet.

  7. A mixed diet of toxic plants enables increased feeding and anti-predator defense by an insect herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P A; Bernardo, M A; Singer, M S

    2014-10-01

    Some insect herbivores sequester plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) for their own defense, raising the interesting possibility that grazing herbivores are defended by combinations of PSMs from different plant species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the grazing caterpillar, Grammia incorrupta, deters the ant, Aphaenogaster cockerelli, by eating a mixture of plants containing iridoid glycosides (IGs) and those containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), and that this deterrence is greater than that attained by eating either plant alone. This hypothesis was tested against the non-mutually exclusive hypothesis that mixing plants containing PAs with those containing IGs improves growth performance. Caterpillar survival and growth were measured on three experimental diets: a PA plant, an IG plant, and a mixture of the two. We measured the degree of deterrence associated with these, and an additional experimental diet devoid of PSMs at naturally occurring A. cockerelli nests. Caterpillars fed both plants gained more mass than those fed either plant alone, but took longer to develop. These differences were not caused by diet-based variation in growth efficiency, but by eating more food when offered the mixed-plant diet relative to single-plant diets. The mixed diet was shown to provide deterrence to ants, whereas caterpillars fed single-plant diets were not significantly more deterrent than caterpillars that had eaten the PSM-free diet. We hypothesize that enhanced defense results from increased food consumption in response to multiple plant species, perhaps leading to greater PSM sequestration. Through this mechanism, bottom-up and top-down effects may mutually reinforce the grazing dietary strategy.

  8. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lima, Andressa Ribeiro Veiga; Nunes, Ingrid Edwiges; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gondim, Paula Novato; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Alves, Fernando Henrique Ferrari; Pereira, Luciano José

    2016-12-17

    Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ-35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats.

  9. Design, synthesis and characterization of zinc-morin, a metal flavonol complex and evaluation of its antidiabetic potential in HFD-STZ induced type 2 diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendrayaperumal, V; Iyyam Pillai, S; Subramanian, S

    2014-08-05

    The present study deals with the synthesis, characterization of zinc-morin complex and evaluation of its antidiabetic efficacy in High Fat Diet (HFD)-fedStreptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of zinc-morin complex to diabetic rats (5mg/kg body weight/day) for a period of 30 days resulted in the decreased levels of blood glucose and HbA1c. Oral administrations of the zinc-morin complex for 30 days significantly improved hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. The elevated levels of lipid peroxides declined and the antioxidant competence was found to be improved in diabetic rats treated with the complex. The status of the lipid and lipoprotein profile in the serum was normalized upon treatment. Levels of TNFα decreased upon treatment with the complex. The altered levels of adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin were normalized upon treatment with the complex. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the zinc-morin complex possesses antidiabetic, antidyslipidemic and antioxidant potentials in HFD-fedSTZ induced diabetic rats.

  10. Mitochondria-related miR-141-3p contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity by inhibiting PTEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juan; Qin, Yufeng; Ren, Jing; Lu, Chuncheng; Wang, Rong; Dai, Xiuliang; Zhou, Ran; Huang, Zhenyao; Xu, Miaofei; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Wei; Song, Ling; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Miao, Dengshun; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2015-11-09

    Mitochondria-related microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of cell metabolism and can modulate mitochondrial fusion and division. In order to investigate the roles of mitochondria-related miRNAs played in obesity, we conducted comprehensive molecular analysis in vitro and in vivo. Based on high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obese mice, we found that hepatic mitochondrial function was markedly altered. Subsequently, we evaluated the expression levels of selected mitochondria-related miRNAs and found that miR-141-3p was up-regulated strikingly in HFD mice. To further verify the role of miR-141-3p in obesity, we carried out gain-and-loss-of-function study in human HepG2 cells. We found that miR-141-3p could modulate ATP production and induce oxidative stress. Through luciferase report gene assay, we identified that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was a target of miR-141-3p. Inhibiting PTEN could alter the mitochondrial function, too. Our study suggested that mitochondria-related miR-141-3p induced mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibiting PTEN.

  11. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Francelino Andrade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM was induced by high-fat diet (HFD associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg. Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, triglycerides (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ diabetic rats.

  12. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Ma, Lu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts.

  13. High fat diet feeding exaggerates perfluorooctanoic acid-induced liver injury in mice via modulating multiple metabolic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Tan

    Full Text Available High fat diet (HFD is closely linked to a variety of health issues including fatty liver. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid, also causes liver injury. The present study investigated the possible interactions between high fat diet and PFOA in induction of liver injury. Mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD or low fat control with or without PFOA administration at 5 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Exposure to PFOA alone caused elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels and increased liver weight along with reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass. HFD alone did not cause liver damage, but exaggerated PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by higher plasma ALT and AST levels, and more severe pathological changes including hepatocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplet accumulation and necrosis as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. These additive effects of HFD on PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity correlated with metabolic disturbance in liver and blood as well as up-regulation of hepatic proinflammatory cytokine genes. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that both serum and hepatic metabolite profiles of PFOA, HFD, or HFD-PFOA group were clearly differentiated from that of controls. PFOA affected more hepatic metabolites than HFD, but HFD showed positive interaction with PFOA on fatty acid metabolites including long chain fatty acids and acylcarnitines. Taken together, dietary high fat potentiates PFOA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and necrotic cell death by disturbing hepatic metabolism and inducing inflammation. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that HFD increases the risk of PFOA in induction of hepatotoxicity.

  14. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  15. Feeding More People on an Increasingly Fragile Planet:China’s Food and Nutrition Security in a National and Global Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenggen Fan; Joanna Brzeska

    2014-01-01

    Developing and developed countries alike are increasingly facing the dififcult question of how to feed more people amidst a host of emerging demographic, environmental, and health challenges. At the same time, in addition to food quantity, increased attention is being given to food quality attributes, in particular nutrition and safety. This is especially evident in China, where concerns are on the rise regarding the ability of China’s food production systems to deliver nutritious and safe food to a growing, urbanizing and more aflfuent population. These food and nutrition concerns come at a time when China is an increasingly inlfuential actor within the global food security network through activities such as production, consumption and trade. We argue that China has the opportunity to increase food and nutrition security both nationally and globally through a comprehensive policy agenda that focuses on institutional reforms, investments for and in agriculture, productive social safety nets, mutually beneifcial trade, and the exchange of know-how and technologies among developing countries and donors. This agenda will help China adapt its food production systems to the changing face of agriculture and to play a vital role in addressing the emerging challenges facing food and nutrition security within and beyond China in the coming decades.

  16. High-fat feeding induces angiogenesis in skeletal muscle and activates angiogenic pathways in capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Mika; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Vuento, Mikael; Hulmi, Juha J; Torvinen, Sira; Lehti, Maarit; Kivelä, Riikka; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2013-04-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) increases fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that this leads to increased oxygen demand and thus to increased capillarization. We determined the effects of high-fat diet on capillarization and angiogenic factors in skeletal muscles of mice that were either active or sedentary. Fifty-eight C57BL/6 J mice were divided into four groups: low-fat diet sedentary (LFS), low-fat diet active (LFA), high-fat diet sedentary (HFS), and high-fat diet active (HFA). The mice in active groups were housed in cages with running wheels and the sedentary mice were housed in similar cages without running wheels. After 19 weeks HFS, LFA and HFA had higher capillary density and capillary-to-fiber-ratio in quadriceps femoris muscles than LFS. Capillarization was similar in HFS and HFA. To reveal possible mechanisms of HFD induced angiogenesis, we measured protein and mRNA levels of angiogenic factors VEGF-A, HIF-1α, PGC-1α and ERRα. VEGF-A protein levels were higher in muscles of HFS, LFA and HFA compared to LFS. However, no significant differences were observed between HFA and HFS. Protein levels of HIF-1α, PGC-1α, and ERRα were similar in all groups. However, the mRNA expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A was up-regulated in capillaries but not in muscle fibers of HFS. The sedentary and active mice groups had similar mRNA expression levels of angiogenesis regulators studied. We conclude that high-fat feeding induces angiogenesis in skeletal muscle and up-regulates the gene expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A in capillaries.

  17. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.

  18. High-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and postnatal development in female rats increases susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth R; Alexander, Barbara T; Lee, Jonathan; Hutchens, Zachary M; Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2013-02-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that both an adverse prenatal and early postnatal environment increase susceptibility to renal and metabolic dysfunction later in life; however, whether exposure to adverse conditions during both prenatal and postnatal development act synergistically to potentiate the severity of renal and metabolic injury remains unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat/fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. After being weaned, female offspring were randomized to either standard diet or the high-fat/high-fructose diet, resulting in the following treatment groups: NF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; NF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally; HF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; HF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally. At the time of euthanasia (17 wk of age), HF-HF offspring weighed 30% more and had 110% more visceral fat than NF-NF offspring. The HF-HF offspring also had elevated blood glucose levels, glucose intolerance, 286% increase in urine albumin excretion, and 60% increase in glomerulosclerosis compared with NF-NF. In addition, HF-HF offspring exhibited a 100% increase in transforming growth factor-β protein expression and 116% increase in the abundance of infiltrated macrophages compared with the NF-NF offspring. These observations suggest that high-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and throughout postnatal life increases the susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

  19. Investigation of a role for ghrelin signaling in binge-like feeding in mice under limited access to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S J; Rodrigues, T; Watts, A; Murray, E; Wilson, A; Abizaid, A

    2016-04-05

    Binge eating is defined by the consumption of an excessive amount of food in a short time, reflecting a form of hedonic eating that is not necessarily motivated by caloric need. Foods consumed during a binge are also often high in fat and/or sugar. Ghrelin, signaling centrally via the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), stimulates growth hormone release and appetite. GHSR signaling also enhances the rewarding value of palatable foods and increases the motivation for such foods. As ghrelin interacts directly with dopaminergic reward circuitry, shown to be involved in binge eating, the current studies explored the role of GHSR signaling in a limited access model of binge eating in mice. In this model, mice received either intermittent (INT) or daily (DAILY) access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet (HFD) for 2h late in the light cycle, alongside 24-h ad libitum chow. In CD-1 mice, 2-h exposure to HFD generated substantial binge-like intake of HFD, as well as a binge-compensate pattern of 24-h daily intake. INT and daily groups did not differ in 2-h HFD consumption, while INT mice maintained stable intake of chow despite access to HFD. GHSR knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice both binged during HFD access, and exhibited the same binge-compensate pattern. INT GHSR KO mice did not binge as much as WT, while DAILY KO and WT were comparable. Overall, GHSR KO mice consumed fewer calories from HFD, regardless of access condition. GHSR KO mice also had reduced activation of the nucleus accumbens shell, but not core, following HFD consumption. These data support the ability of INT HFD in mice to induce a binge-compensate pattern of intake that emulates select components of binge eating in humans. There also appears to be a role for GHSR signaling in driving HFD consumption under these conditions, potentially via mediation of reward-related circuitry.

  20. Post-pyloric feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Niv; Zvi Fireman; Nachum Vaisman

    2009-01-01

    Postpyloric feeding is an important and promising alternative to parenteral nutrition. The indications for this kind of feeding are increasing and include a variety of clinical conditions, such as gastroparesis, acute pancreatitis, gastric outlet stenosis, hyperemesis (including gravida), recurrent aspiration, tracheoesophageal fistula and stenosis in gastroenterostomy. This review discusses the differences between pre- and postpyloric feeding, indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, and provides an overview of the techniques of placement of various postpyloric devices.

  1. Extremely rapid increase in fatty acid transport and intramyocellular lipid accumulation but markedly delayed insulin resistance after high fat feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonen, Arend; Jain, Swati S; Snook, Laelie A; Han, Xiao-Xia; Yoshida, Yuko; Buddo, Kathryn H; Lally, James S; Pask, Elizabeth D; Paglialunga, Sabina; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Harasim, Ewa; Wright, David C; Chabowski, Adrian; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms for diet-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation and its association with insulin resistance remain contentious. In a detailed time-course study in rats, we examined whether a high-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid accumulation via alterations in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid transport, selected enzymes and/or fatty acid oxidation, and whether intramyocellular lipid accretion coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. We measured, daily (on days 1-7) and/or weekly (for 6 weeks), the diet-induced changes in circulating substrates, insulin, sarcolemmal substrate transporters and transport, selected enzymes, intramyocellular lipids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and basal and insulin-stimulated sarcolemmal GLUT4 and glucose transport. We also examined whether upregulating fatty acid oxidation improved glucose transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Finally, in Cd36-knockout mice, we examined the role of FAT/CD36 in intramyocellular lipid accumulation, insulin sensitivity and diet-induced glucose intolerance. Within 2-3 days, diet-induced increases occurred in insulin, sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 (but not fatty acid binding protein [FABPpm] or fatty acid transporter [FATP]1 or 4), fatty acid transport and intramyocellular triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and ceramide, independent of enzymatic changes or muscle fatty acid oxidation. Diet-induced increases in mitochondria and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation occurred much later (≥21 days). FAT/CD36 ablation impaired insulin-stimulated fatty acid transport and lipid accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced glucose intolerance. Increasing fatty acid oxidation in insulin-resistant muscles improved glucose transport. High-fat feeding rapidly increases intramyocellular lipids (in 2-3 days) via insulin-mediated upregulation of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 and fatty acid

  2. Immobilization of His-tagged recombinant xylanase from Penicillium occitanis on Nickel-chelate Eupergit C for increasing digestibility of poultry feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driss, Dorra; Driss, Zied; Chaari, Fatma; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant xylanase 2 from Penicillium occitanis expressed with an His-tag in Pichia pastoris, termed PoXyn2, was immobilized on nickel-chelate Eupergit C by covalent coupling reaction with a high immobilization yield up to 93.49%. Characterization of the immobilized PoXyn2 was further evaluated. The optimum pH was not affected by immobilization, but the immobilized PoXyn2 exhibited more acidic and large optimum pH range (pH 2.0–4.0) than that of the free PoXyn2 (pH 3.0). The free PoXyn2 had an optimum temperature of 50 °C, whereas that of the immobilized enzyme was shifted to 65 °C. Immobilization increased both pH stability and thermostability when compared with the free enzyme. Thermodynamically, increase in enthalpy and free energy change after covalent immobilization could be credited to the enhanced stability. Immobilized xylanase could be reused for 10 consecutive cycles retaining 60% of its initial activity. It was found to be effective in releasing reducing sugar from poultry feed. Immobilization on Eupergit C is important due to its mechanical resistance at high pH and temperature. Hence, considerable stability and reusability of bound enzyme may be advantageous for its industrial application. PMID:24932488

  3. Feeding history and obese-prone genotype increase survival of rats exposed to a challenge of food restriction and wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Heth, C Donald; Russell, James C; Richard, Denis; Proctor, Spencer D

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that obese-prone genotype and history of food restriction confer a survival advantage to genetically obese animals under environmental challenge. Male juvenile JCR:LA-cp rats, obese-prone and lean-prone, were exposed to 1.5 h daily meals and 22.5-h voluntary wheel running, a procedure inducing activity anorexia (AA). One week before the AA challenge, obese-prone rats were freely fed (obese-FF), or pair fed (obese-PF) to lean-prone, free-feeding rats (lean-FF). Animals were removed from protocol at 75% of initial body weight (starvation criterion) or after 14 days (survival criterion). AA challenge induced weight loss in all rats, but percent weight loss was more rapid and sustained in lean-FF rats than in obese-FF or obese-PF animals (P Wheel running increased linearly in all groups; lean-FF increased more rapidly than obese-FF (P wheel running. Prior food restriction of juvenile obese-prone rats induces a survival benefit beyond genotype, that is related to achievement of homeostasis. This metabolic adaptive process may help explain the development of human obesity in the presence of an unstable food environment which subsequently transitions to an abundant food supply.

  4. Use of flax seed mucilage or its active component for increasing suppression of hunger, increasing reduction of prospective consumption, increasing reduction of appetite in a subject during or between meals or feedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and/or reducing non-fat energy uptake in the gastrointestinal tract of ...

  5. Octopamine increases the excitability of neurons in the snail feeding system by modulation of inward sodium current but not outward potassium currents

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Although octopamine has long been known to have major roles as both transmitter and modulator in arthropods, it has only recently been shown to be functionally important in molluscs, playing a role as a neurotransmitter in the feeding network of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The synaptic potentials cannot explain all the effects of octopamine-containing neurons on the feeding network, and here we test the hypothesis that octopamine is also a neuromodulator. Results The exci...

  6. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  7. Sex differences in the effect of high-fat diet feeding on rat white adipose tissue mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual-Cladera, Emilia; Lladó, Isabel; Gianotti, Magdalena; Proenza, Ana M

    2012-08-01

    Obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion, which is involved in insulin resistance development. Taking into account the sex differences previously found both in mitochondrial function and for the insulin sensitivity profile in different tissues, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a sex-dependent effect of a long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding exists on WAT mitochondrial function. Indeed, HFD effects on the levels of the key components of the insulin and adiponectin signaling pathways, and the consequences of these effects on the systemic profile of insulin sensitivity were also studied. Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a standard diet or an HFD. Serum markers of insulin sensitivity, protein, and mRNA levels of the main elements of the insulin and adiponectin signaling pathways, and the markers of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, were measured. Our results indicate that different physiological strategies are adopted by male and female rats in response to HFD. In this regard, HFD induced mitochondrial proliferation in males and mitochondrial differentiation in females, as well as a greater retroperitoneal WAT expandability capacity, which allows them to preserve a better insulin sensitivity profile than male rats for both control and HFD groups. Moreover, female WAT showed a decrease in adiponectin and insulin signaling pathway element levels. This sexual dimorphism suggests that there are different strategies for retroperitoneal WAT to maintain the energetic and metabolic homeostasis in response to HFD feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Liver Steatosis and Increased ChREBP Expression in Mice Carrying a Liver Specific SIRT1 Null Mutation under a Normal Feeding Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Hong Wang, Cuiling Li, Chu-Xia Deng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SIRT1, a homolog of yeast Sir2, is a type III NAD+ dependent histone and protein deacetylase. Previous studies of mice carrying liver specific deletion of exon 4 of the Sirt1 gene revealed opposite responses of mutant mice to a high-fat diet in terms of fatty liver formation, which obscures the function of SRIT1 in liver development and lipid metabolism. To investigate this, we deleted exons 5 and 6 of Sirt1 in the liver by using a Cre-loxP approach. Western blot using an antibody to N-terminal SIRT1 does not detect a truncated protein in the liver of the mutant mice (Sirt1flox5-6/flox5-6;Alb-Cre, suggesting a null mutation for SIRT1 is generated in the liver. Unlike the previously reported phenotypes, the Sirt1flox5-6/flox5-6;Alb-Cre mice develop fatty liver under a normal feeding condition. The disease starts at two months of age and incidence increases as the animals become older, affecting 78% of them when they are over one year of age. We showed that the steatosis is accompanied by altered expression of a number of genes, including increased expression of ChREBP, which acts as one of the central determinants of lipid synthesis in the liver. This data uncovers an important role of SIRT1 in regulating lipid metabolism in the liver, and the SIRT1 mutant mice may serve as an animal model for studying human fatty liver disease and facilitate the development of effective therapeutic approach for the disease.

  9. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice.

  10. Dietary fat increases solid tumor growth and metastasis of 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cells and mortality in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Choi, Mi-Ran; Park, Heesook; Kim, Minhee; Hong, Ji Eun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Chun, Hyang Sook; Lee, Ki Won; Yoon Park, Jung Han

    2011-08-11

    High-fat diets (HFDs) are known to cause obesity and are associated with breast cancer progression and metastasis. Because obesity is associated with breast cancer progression, it is important to determine whether dietary fat per se stimulates breast cancer progression in the absence of obesity. This study investigated whether an HFD increases breast cancer growth and metastasis, as well as mortality, in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice. The 4-week-old, female BALB/c mice were fed HFD (60% kcal fat) or control diet (CD, 10% kcal fat) for 16 weeks. Subsequently, 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells were injected into the inguinal mammary fat pads of mice fed continuously on their respective diets. Cell-cycle progression, angiogenesis, and immune cells in tumor tissues, proteases and adhesion molecules in the lungs, and serum cytokine levels were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vitro studies were also conducted to evaluate the effects of cytokines on 4T1 cell viability, migration, and adhesion. Spleen and gonadal fat-pad weights, tumor weight, the number and volume of tumor nodules in the lung and liver, and tumor-associated mortality were increased in the HFD group, with only slight increases in energy intake and body weight. HF feeding increased macrophage infiltration into adipose tissues, the number of lipid vacuoles and the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1, cyclin A, Ki67, CD31, CD45, and CD68 in the tumor tissues, and elevated serum levels of complement fragment 5a (C5a), interleukin (IL)-16, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, leptin, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1. Protein levels of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were increased, but plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were

  11. Dietary alleviation of maternal obesity and diabetes: increased resistance to diet-induced obesity transcriptional and epigenetic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Attig

    Full Text Available According to the developmental origins of health and diseases (DOHaD, and in line with the findings of many studies, obesity during pregnancy is clearly a threat to the health and well-being of the offspring, later in adulthood. We previously showed that 20% of male and female inbred mice can cope with the obesogenic effects of a high-fat diet (HFD for 20 weeks after weaning, remaining lean. However the feeding of a control diet (CD to DIO mice during the periconceptional/gestation/lactation period led to a pronounced sex-specific shift (17% to 43% from susceptibility to resistance to HFD, in the female offspring only. Our aim in this study was to determine how, in the context of maternal obesity and T2D, a CD could increase resistance on female fetuses. Transcriptional analyses were carried out with a custom-built mouse liver microarray and by quantitative RT-PCR for muscle and adipose tissue. Both global DNA methylation and levels of pertinent histone marks were assessed by LUMA and western blotting, and the expression of 15 relevant genes encoding chromatin-modifying enzymes was analyzed in tissues presenting global epigenetic changes. Resistance was associated with an enhancement of hepatic pathways protecting against steatosis, the unexpected upregulation of neurotransmission-related genes and the modulation of a vast imprinted gene network. Adipose tissue displayed a pronounced dysregulation of gene expression, with an upregulation of genes involved in lipid storage and adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia in obese mice born to lean and obese mothers, respectively. Global DNA methylation, several histone marks and key epigenetic regulators were also altered. Whether they were themselves lean (resistant or obese (sensitive, the offspring of lean and obese mice clearly differed in terms of several metabolic features and epigenetic marks suggesting that the effects of a HFD depend on the leanness or obesity of the mother.

  12. Females increase reproductive investment in response to helper-mediated improvements in allo-feeding, nest survival, nestling provisioning and post-fledging survival in the Karoo scrub-robin Cercotrichas coryphaeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, P.; Andrew, Taylor W.; Du Plessis, M.A.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    In many cooperatively-breeding species, the presence of one or more helpers improves the reproductive performance of the breeding pair receiving help. Helper contributions can take many different forms, including allo-feeding, offspring provisioning, and offspring guarding or defence. Yet, most studies have focussed on single forms of helper contribution, particularly offspring provisioning, and few have evaluated the relative importance of a broader range of helper contributions to group reproductive performance. We examined helper contributions to multiple components of breeding performance in the Karoo scrub-robin Cercotrichas coryphaeus, a facultative cooperative breeder. We also tested a prediction of increased female investment in reproduction when helpers improve conditions for rearing young. Helpers assisted the breeding male in allo-feeding the incubating female, increasing allo-feeding rates. Greater allo-feeding correlated with greater female nest attentiveness during incubation. Nest predation was substantially lower among pairs breeding with a helper, resulting in a 74% increase in the probability of nest survival. Helper contributions to offspring provisioning increased nestling feeding rates, resulting in a reduced incidence of nestling starvation and increased nestling mass. Nestling mass had a strong, positive effect on post-fledging survival. Controlling for female age and habitat effects, annual production of fledged young was 130% greater among pairs breeding with a helper, and was influenced most strongly by helper correlates with nest survival, despite important helper effects on offspring provisioning. Females breeding with a helper increased clutch size, supporting the prediction of increased female investment in reproduction in response to helper benefits. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  13. INCREASE IN DOPAMINE RELEASE FROM THE NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS IN RESPONSE TO FEEDING - A MODEL TO STUDY INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS AND NATURALLY ACTIVATED DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS IN THE RAT-BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC; TEISMAN, A; DEVRIES, JB

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions between the in vivo release of dopamine and certain drugs, during conditions of increased dopaminergic activity. Dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens were activated by feeding hungry rats. 48-96 h after implantation of a micro

  14. An Evaluation of a High-Probability Instructional Sequence to Increase Acceptance of Food and Decrease Inappropriate Behavior in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meeta R.; Reed, Gregory K.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Bachmeyer, Melainie H.; Layer, Stacy A.; Pabico, Ryan S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of escape extinction with and without a high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence on food acceptance and inappropriate behavior for children diagnosed with feeding problems. The high-p sequence consisted of three presentations of a response that was similar topographically (i.e., presentations of an empty nuk[R],…

  15. An Evaluation of a High-Probability Instructional Sequence to Increase Acceptance of Food and Decrease Inappropriate Behavior in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meeta R.; Reed, Gregory K.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Bachmeyer, Melainie H.; Layer, Stacy A.; Pabico, Ryan S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of escape extinction with and without a high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence on food acceptance and inappropriate behavior for children diagnosed with feeding problems. The high-p sequence consisted of three presentations of a response that was similar topographically (i.e., presentations of an empty nuk[R],…

  16. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  17. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal’s production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by­products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken. PMID:28507415

  18. Feed restriction, but not l-carnitine infusion, alters the liver transcriptome by inhibiting sterol synthesis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increasing gluconeogenesis in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, H; Bionaz, M; Carlson, D B; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Everts, R E; Lewin, H A; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J

    2013-04-01

    Abomasal carnitine infusion during acute feed restriction increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation and decreases liver lipid in dairy cows. Eight mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement was used to determine the effects of water infusion+ad libitum dry matter intake (DMI), water infusion+restricted DMI (50% of previous 5-d average), l-carnitine infusion (20 g/d)+ad libitum DMI, or l-carnitine infusion+restricted DMI. Liver RNA from 7 healthy cows was used for transcriptome profiling using a bovine microarray. An ANOVA with a false discovery rate was used to identify treatment and interaction effects. A substantial transcriptome change was observed only with DMI restriction, resulting in 312 (155 downregulated, 157 upregulated) differentially expressed genes. Quantitative PCR was performed to verify microarray data and measure expression of additional genes not present on the microarray. The quantitative PCR data confirmed the effect of feed restriction but not of l-carnitine treatment. Feed restriction increased expression of GPX3 and of genes associated with gluconeogenesis (PC, PDK4), inflammation (SAA3), and signaling (ADIPOR2). In contrast, feed restriction downregulated BBOX, a key for l-carnitine biosynthesis, and the transcription factor HNF4A. The bioinformatics functional analysis of genes affected by DMI restriction uncovered biosynthesis of cholesterol and energy generation by mitochondrial respiration as the most relevant and inhibited functions. The data also indicated an increase of flux toward gluconeogenesis. We interpreted those results as a likely response of the liver to spare energy and provide glucose for the lactating mammary gland during feed deprivation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitat, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dietary fiber is largely used in pig production but some contradictions appear in the literature regarding the effects on performance and health. Objectives. This paper aims to contribute to the clarification of the effects of a diet rich in sugar beet pulp on animal behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs. Method. Two successive batches of 24 fattening pigs were each divided into two groups fed ad libitum either a standard diet based on cereals (STD, 19% NSP [non-starch-polysaccharides] or a fibrous diet based on 23% sugar beet pulp (HFD, 31% NSP. Results. Pigs activity rate and feeder occupancy duration were increased by 57% and 165% for group fed HFD, respectively (P < 0.05. The fecal bacteria counts showed increases with HFD for Lactobacillus (10.21 vs 9.84 log10 of cfu·g-1 of feces dry matter, P < 0.05 and Bifidobacterium (9.49 vs 8.88, P < 0.01 but decreases for Enterobacteriaceae (4.85 vs 5.97, P < 0.001. Reductions of the average daily gain (788 vs 876 g per day, P < 0.001 and the dressing percentage (75.7 vs 78.9%, P < 0.001 were observed with HFD. Gastric lesion score was decreased with HFD (0.82 vs 1.55, P < 0.05. For pigs fed HFD, the proportion of surface area occupied by goblet cells was increased in the jejunum (10.06 vs 7.99%, P < 0.01 and the number of CD3 lymphocytes was increased in the colon (1.24 vs 0.90·mm-², P < 0.05. Conclusions. HFD contributes to strengthen the gut health of fattening pigs, but it impairs growth performance and carcass traits.

  20. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child.

  1. Food intake and energy expenditure are increased in high-fat-sensitive but not in high-carbohydrate-sensitive obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2014-08-01

    Obesity-prone (OP) rodents are used as models of human obesity predisposition. The goal of the present study was to identify preexisting defects in energy expenditure components in OP rats. Two studies were performed. In the first one, male Wistar rats (n = 48) were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 3 wk and then a high-fat diet (HFD) for the next 3 wk. This study showed that adiposity gain under HCD was 2.9-fold larger in carbohydrate-sensitive (CS) than in carbohydrate-resistant (CR) rats, confirming the concept of "carbohydrate-sensitive" rats. Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), caloric intake (CI), and locomotor activity measured during HFD identified no differences in EE and RQ between fat-resistant (FR) and fat-sensitive (FS) rats, and indicated that obesity developed in FS rats only as the result of a larger CI not fully compensated by a parallel increase in EE. A specific pattern of spontaneous activity, characterized by reduced activity burst intensity, was identified in FS rats but not in CS ones. This mirrors a previous observation that under HCD, CS but not FS rats, exhibited bursts of activity of reduced intensity. In a second study, rats were fed a HFD for 3 wk, and the components of energy expenditure were examined by indirect calorimetry in 10 FR and 10 FS rats. This study confirmed that a low basal EE, reduced thermic effect of feeding, defective postprandial energy partitioning, or a defective substrate utilization by the working muscle are not involved in the FS phenotype. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Short-term high-fat feeding induces islet macrophage infiltration and β-cell replication independently of insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, David C; Liu, Wei; Leong, Jacky; Sears, Mallory L; Luo, Ping; Chen, Xiaojuan

    2016-10-01

    Short-term high-fat consumption stimulates mouse islet β-cell replication through unknown mechanisms. Resident macrophages (MΦs) are capable of secreting various factors involved in islet development and tissue remodeling. We hypothesized that a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) promotes MΦ infiltration in pancreatic islets and that MΦs serve as a regulator of β-cell replication. To test these hypotheses and dissect mechanisms involved in HFD-induced β-cell replication, adult C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for 7 days with or without administration of clodronate-containing liposomes, an MΦ-depleting agent. Mouse body and epididymal fat pad weights, and nonfasting blood glucose and fasting serum insulin levels were measured, and pancreatic islet β-cell replication, oxidative stress, and MΦ infiltration were examined. Short-term HFD promoted an increase in body and epididymal fat pad weight and blood glucose levels, along with an increased fasting serum insulin concentration. β-Cell replication, islet MΦ infiltration, and the percentage of inducible NO synthase positive MΦs in the islets increased significantly in mice fed the HFD. Immunofluorescence staining for 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine or activated caspase-3 revealed no significant induction of DNA damage or apoptosis, respectively. In addition, no change in stromal-derived factor 1-expressing cells was found induced by HFD. Despite continuous elevation of nonfasting blood glucose and fasting serum insulin levels, depletion of MΦs through treatments of clodronate abrogated HFD-induced β-cell replication. These findings demonstrated that HFD-induced MΦ infiltration is responsible for β-cell replication. This study suggests the existence of MΦ-mediated mechanisms in β-cell replication that are independent of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly distributed diurnal feeding patterns. However, differences in feeding patterns resulting from feed presentation did not persist after 8 wk of age, when all calves were fed a mixed ration. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Altered gastric vagal mechanosensitivity in diet-induced obesity persists on return to normal chow and is accompanied by increased food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, S J; O'Donnell, T A; Frisby, C L; Li, H; Wittert, G A; Page, A J

    2014-05-01

    Gastric vagal afferents convey satiety signals in response to mechanical stimuli. The sensitivity of these afferents is decreased in diet-induced obesity. Leptin, secreted from gastric epithelial cells, potentiates the response of vagal afferents to mechanical stimuli in lean mice, but has an inhibitory effect in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. We sought to determine whether changes in vagal afferent function and response to leptin in obesity were reversible by returning obese mice consuming a HFD to standard laboratory chow diet (SLD). Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were either fed a SLD (N=20) or HFD (N=20) for 24 weeks. A third group was fed a HFD for 12 weeks and then a SLD for a further 12 weeks (RFD, N=18). An in vitro gastro-oesophageal vagal afferent preparation was used to determine the mechanosensitivity of gastric vagal afferents and the modulatory effect of leptin (0.1-10 nM) was examined. Retrograde tracing and quantitative RT-PCR were used to determine the expression of leptin receptor (LepR) messenger RNA (mRNA) in whole nodose and specific cell bodies traced from the stomach. After 24 weeks, both the HFD and RFD mice had increased body weight, gonadal fat mass, plasma leptin, plasma insulin and daily energy consumption compared with the SLD mice. The HFD and RFD mice had reduced tension receptor mechanosensitivity and leptin further inhibited responses to tension in HFD, RFD but not SLD mice. Mucosal receptors from both the SLD and RFD mice were potentiated by leptin, an effect not seen in HFD mice. LepR expression was unchanged in the whole nodose, but was reduced in the mucosal afferents of the HFD and RFD mice. Disruption of gastric vagal afferent function by HFD-induced obesity is only partially reversible by dietary change, which provides a potential mechanism preventing maintenance of weight loss.

  5. Short communication: Feeding linseed oil to dairy goats with competent reticular groove reflex greatly increases n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-01-01

    A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased sensitivity of the circadian system to temporal changes in the feeding regime of spontaneously hypertensive rats - a potential role for Bmal2 in the liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Polidarová

    Full Text Available The mammalian timekeeping system generates circadian oscillations that rhythmically drive various functions in the body, including metabolic processes. In the liver, circadian clocks may respond both to actual feeding conditions and to the metabolic state. The temporal restriction of food availability to improper times of day (restricted feeding, RF leads to the development of food anticipatory activity (FAA and resets the hepatic clock accordingly. The aim of this study was to assess this response in a rat strain exhibiting complex pathophysiological symptoms involving spontaneous hypertension, an abnormal metabolic state and changes in the circadian system, i.e., in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. The results revealed that SHR were more sensitive to RF compared with control rats, developing earlier and more pronounced FAA. Whereas in control rats, the RF only redistributed the activity profiles into two bouts (one corresponding to FAA and the other corresponding to the dark phase, in SHR the RF completely phase-advanced the locomotor activity according to the time of food presentation. The higher behavioral sensitivity to RF was correlated with larger phase advances of the hepatic clock in response to RF in SHR. Moreover, in contrast to the controls, RF did not suppress the amplitude of the hepatic clock oscillation in SHR. In the colon, no significant differences in response to RF between the two rat strains were detected. The results suggested the possible involvement of the Bmal2 gene in the higher sensitivity of the hepatic clock to RF in SHR because, in contrast to the Wistar rats, the rhythm of Bmal2 expression was advanced similarly to that of Bmal1 under RF. Altogether, the data demonstrate a higher behavioral and circadian responsiveness to RF in the rat strain with a cardiovascular and metabolic pathology and suggest a likely functional role for the Bmal2 gene within the circadian clock.

  7. Perinatal overnutrition exacerbates adipose tissue inflammation caused by high-fat feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon D Kayser

    Full Text Available Obesity causes white adipose tissue (WAT inflammation and insulin resistance in some, but not all individuals. Here, we used a mouse model of early postnatal overfeeding to determine the role of neonatal nutrition in lifelong WAT inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. C57BL/6J mice were reared in small litters of 3 (SL or normal litters of 7 pups (NL and fed either regular chow or a 60% high fat diet (HFD from 5 to 17 weeks. At weaning, SL mice did not develop WAT inflammation despite increased fat mass, although there was an up-regulation of WAT Arg1 and Tlr4 expression. On HFD, adult SL mice had greater inguinal fat mass compared to NL mice, however both groups showed similar increases in visceral fat depots and adipocyte hypertrophy. Despite the similar levels of visceral adiposity, SL-HFD mice displayed greater impairments in glucose homeostasis and more pronounced hepatic steatosis compared to NL-HFD mice. In addition, WAT from SL mice fed a HFD displayed greater crown-like structure formation, increased M1 macrophages, and higher cytokine gene expression. Together, these data suggest that early postnatal overnutrition may be a critical determinant of fatty liver and insulin resistance in obese adults by programming the inflammatory capacity of adipose tissue.

  8. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  9. Ursolic acid and rosiglitazone combination improves insulin sensitivity by increasing the skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Arjunan; Radhiga, Thangaiyan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA) and rosiglitazone (RSG) on insulin sensitivity and proximal insulin signaling pathways in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57/BL/6J mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either normal diet or HFD for 10 weeks, after which animals in each dietary group were divided into the following six groups (normal diet, normal diet plus UA and RSG, HFD alone, HFD plus UA, HFD plus RSG, and HFD plus UA and RSG) for the next 5 weeks. UA (5 mg/kg BW) and RSG (4 mg/kg BW) were administered as suspensions directly into the stomach using a gastric tube. The HFD diet elevated fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index. The expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), Akt, and glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 were determined by Western blot analyses. The results demonstrated that combination treatment (UA/RSG) ameliorated HFD-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by improving the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index. Further, combination treatment (UA/RSG) stimulated the IRS-1, PI3-kinase, Akt, and GLUT 4 translocation. These results strongly suggest that combination treatment (UA/RSG) activates IRS-PI3-kinase-Akt-dependent signaling pathways to induce GLUT 4 translocation and increases the expression of insulin receptor to improve glucose intolerance.

  10. Reduced feed intake of lactating primiparous sows is associated with increased insulin resistance during the peripartum period and is not modified through supplementation with dietary tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnier, E; Le Floc'h, N; Etienne, M; Ramaekers, P; Sève, B; Père, M-C

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether insulin resistance is related to the dietary concentration of Trp and the ADFI of primiparous sows having similar body conditions. Twenty-four primiparous sows were catheterized on d 97 of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected during 3 tests: after the ingestion of 1.5 kg of feed (meal test), after the intravenous infusion of 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW (glucose tolerance test), and during an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with an infusion rate of 100 ng of insulin x kg of BW(-1) x min(-1). Both tests were performed at 4 stages at approximately d 103 and 110 of pregnancy and at d 3 and 10 of lactation. Sows were fed a diet containing 0.16 or 0.26% of total Trp (suboptimal vs. slight excessive Trp supply according to recommendations for lactating sows) from d 104 of pregnancy after the first clamp until weaning. The dietary treatment did not result in differences in ADFI, BW, and backfat changes, and growth of piglets during lactation. Plasma Trp concentration was greater for the sows allocated to the slight excessive Trp diet than for the sows allocated to the suboptimal Trp diet (P glucose, NEFA, and urea profiles during the meal tests were not affected by the dietary treatment. At d 3 of lactation, the insulin concentration at 105 (P = 0.03) and 120 min (P = 0.04) after meal intake was less for the sows allocated to the slight excessive Trp diet than for the sows allocated to the suboptimal Trp diet. On d 10 of lactation, the glucose half life (P = 0.03) and the time needed to reach 25% of the area under the insulin curve (P = 0.04) during the tolerance test were less for the sows allocated to the slight excessive Trp diet than for the sows allocated to the suboptimal Trp diet. The glucose infusion rate during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps was similar in the 2 Trp groups of sows. Irrespective of the dietary treatment, the ADFI of the sows was negatively related to the glucose half life during the

  11. Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hak; Wu, Dayong; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-09-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3.2 g from the 14th to the 30th weeks. Fat mass was significantly different among the groups (11.4, 15.8, and 37.5 g in the LL, HH, and HL groups, respectively; Pfat mass through feeding a lower-fat diet to HFD-induced obese mice restores liver iron storage.

  12. Intermittent Hypoxia Promote the Formation of Atherosclerosis by Increasing Expression of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein%间歇性低氧通过上调脂蛋白相关磷脂酶A2和氧化型低密度脂蛋白表达促进动脉粥样硬化形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月春; 刘国荣; 王宝军; 郝喜娃; 张京芬; 庞江霞; 闫洁

    2012-01-01

    increasing expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A, (Lp-PLA,) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Methods Using randomized controlled study, prospective animal and factorial experiment, the animal models were established by intermittent hypoxia and high-fat diet. 24 New-Zealand white rabbits (4 months old) were divided into the following 4 groups; control group, intermittent hypoxia group(IH), high-fat-feeding group(HFD) and intermittent hypoxia & high-fat-feeding group (IH + HFD). Each group had 6 rabbits. Rabbits in IH group and IH + HFD group were placed in a cabin which nitrogen and air were periodically infused every 5 minutes for 8 h/day. The lowest level of oxygen concentration was at 8%. The highest level of oxygen concentration was at 21%. The HFD group and IH + HFD group were fed with fat-rich-stoyer. The intervention experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Blood samples for measurements of Lp-PLA; and ox-LDL were collected at 0 w, 4 w, 8 w and 12 w. The formation of atherosclerosis in the aortic arch and abdominal aorta was observed. Result The Lp-PLA2 level of IH group, HFD group and IH + HFD group al 8th and 12th week was higher than control group and at 4th week, the difference has statistic significance (P<0.05). The Lp-PLA, level of IH + HFD group at 4th, 8th and 12th week was higher than control group, IH group and HFD group) P < 0.05). The two factors of IH and HFD had significant syneTgistic effects on the Lp-PIA2 al 4th, 8ih and 12th week(f = 0.000,P =0.001 ,P =0.000). The ox-LDL level of IH group, HFD group and IH + HFD group at 4th, 8th and 12th week was higher than control group(P<0. 05). It was higher at 4th week than at 8th and 12th week (P<0.05). The ox-LDL level of IH + HFD group at 4th, 8th and 12th week was higher than control group, IH group and HFD group (P < 0.05). The two factors of IH and HFD had significant synergistic effects on the ox-LDL at 4th week( P = 0.000), however they had no significant synergistic effects at 8th

  13. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  14. Aliskiren Reduces Hepatic steatosis and Epididymal Fat Mass and Increases Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Yang, Ying-Ying; Chan, Che-Chang; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    .... Aliskiren reduced systemic insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, epididymal fat mass and increased gastrocnemius muscle glucose transporter type 4 levels with lower tissue angiotensin II levels in the HFD-fed mice...

  15. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice. RESULTS: Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  16. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts; decoupling agriculture' s N2O and CH4 emissions from population growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.L.; Meerburg, B.G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Verhagen, J.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present.

  17. Resveratrol increases nephrin and podocin expression and alleviates renal damage in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing-Rong; Ren, Yan-Long; Zhu, Jia-Jia; Hu, Yan-Jin; Zheng, Jin-Su; Fan, Hui; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Liu, Wen-Xian

    2014-07-14

    Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol). Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  18. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  19. Chronic maternal inflammation or high-fat-feeding programs offspring obesity in a sex-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudele, A; Hougaard, K S; Kjølby, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The current world-wide obesity epidemic partially results from a vicious circle whereby maternal obesity during pregnancy predisposes the offspring for accelerated weight gain and development of metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate whether low-grade inflammation......, characteristic of the obese state, provides a causal role for this disastrous fetal programming in mice. METHODS: We exposed pregnant and lactating C57BL/6JBom female mice to either high-fat diet (HFD), or continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent trigger of innate immunity, and studied offspring...... phenotypes. RESULTS: Both maternal LPS or HFD treatments rendered the offspring hyperphagic and inept of coping with a HFD challenge during adulthood, increasing their adiposity and weight gain. The metabolic effects were more pronounced in female offspring, while exposed male offspring mounted a larger...

  20. Effects of High-Fat Feeding on Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Nie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we examined the responses of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats fed either a standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD from weaning to 20 weeks of age. This comparison included gene expression profiling of skeletal muscle using Affymetrix gene array chips. The expression profiling is interpreted within the context of a wide array of physiological measurements. Genes whose expressions are different between the 2 strains regardless of diet, as well as genes that differ between strains only with HFD, were identified. In addition, genes that were regulated by diet in 1 or both strains were identified. The results suggest that both strains respond to HFD by an increased capacity to oxidize lipid fuels in the musculature but that this adaptation occurs more rapidly in WKY rats. The results also demonstrated an impaired cytokine signalling and heightened inflammatory status in the GK rats.

  1. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  2. Long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis are increased in mouse skeletal muscle with high fat feeding regardless of insulin sensitizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Stierwalt, Harrison D; Robinson, Matthew M

    2017-07-11

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet, the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice using 4 weeks of high-fat compared with low-fat diet. For 8 additional weeks, diets were enriched in pioglitazone to restore insulin sensitivity as compared with non-enriched control low-fat or high-fat diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis was measured using deuterium oxide labeling during weeks 10 to 12. High-resolution respirometry was performed using palmitoyl-L-carnitine, glutamate+malate and glutamate+malate+succinate as substrates for mitochondria isolated from quadriceps. Mitochondrial protein synthesis and palmitoyl-L-carnitine oxidation were increased in mice consuming high-fat diet, regardless of differences in insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. There was no effect of diet or pioglitazone treatment on ADP-stimulated respiration or H2O2 emission using glutamate+malate or glutamate+malate+succinate. The results demonstrate no impairments to mitochondrial protein synthesis or respiration following induction of insulin resistance. Instead, mitochondrial protein synthesis was increased with high-fat diet and may contribute to remodeling of the mitochondria to increase lipid oxidation capacity. Mitochondrial adaptations with high-fat diet appear driven by nutrient availability, not intrinsic defects that contribute to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017, American

  3. Mice lacking natural killer T cells are more susceptible to metabolic alterations following high fat diet feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany V Martin-Murphy

    Full Text Available Current estimates suggest that over one-third of the adult population has metabolic syndrome and three-fourths of the obese population has non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Inflammation in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of obesity and its co-morbidities, including NAFLD. Natural Killer T (NKT cells are a subset of innate immune cells that abundantly reside within the liver and are readily activated by lipid antigens. There is general consensus that NKT cells are pivotal regulators of inflammation; however, disagreement exists as to whether NKT cells exert pathogenic or suppressive functions in obesity. Here we demonstrate that CD1d(-/- mice, which lack NKT cells, were more susceptible to weight gain and fatty liver following high fat diet (HFD feeding. Compared with their WT counterparts, CD1d(-/- mice displayed increased adiposity and greater induction of inflammatory genes in the liver suggestive of the precursors of NAFLD. Calorimetry studies revealed a significant increase in food intake and trends toward decreased metabolic rate and activity in CD1d(-/- mice compared with WT mice. Based on these findings, our results suggest that NKT cells play a regulatory role that helps to prevent diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction and may play an important role in mechanisms governing cross-talk between metabolism and the immune system to regulate energy balance and liver health.

  4. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-08

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  5. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlory, Chris; Wardle, Sophie L; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; Witard, Oliver C; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; Tipton, Kevin D

    2016-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed a bout of unilateral RE followed by ingestion of 30 g of whey protein. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after supplementation for assessment of muscle lipid composition and relevant protein kinase activities. Infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine was used to measure basal myofibrillar MP Sat rest (REST), in a nonexercised leg following protein ingestion (FED) and following RE and protein ingestion (FEDEX).MPS was significantly elevated above REST during FEDEX in both the FO and CO groups, but there was no effect of supplementation. There was a significant increase in MPS in both groups above REST during FED but no effect of supplementation. Supplementation significantly decreased pan PKB activity at RESTin the FO group but not the CO group. There was a significant increase from REST at post-RE for PKB and AMPKα2 activity in the CO group but not in the FO group. In FEDEX, there was a significant increase in p70S6K1 activity from REST at 3 h in the CO group only. These data highlight that 8 weeks of FO supplementation alters kinase signaling activity in response to RE plus protein ingestion without influencing MPS.

  6. If you feed them, will they come? The use of social marketing to increase interest in attending a college alcohol program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Rebekka S; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2006-01-01

    The authors used social marketing to design and test advertisement components aimed at increasing students' interest in attending an alcohol program focused on reaching students who drink heavily, although the authors offered no such program. Participants were undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses (N = 551). Questionnaires included measures assessing demographic information, alcohol use and negative consequences, and interest in attending an alcohol program in response to exposure to 1 of 12 systematically varied advertisements. The authors found that approximately 20% of participants across all ad types indicated some level of interest in attending the alcohol program. Students who use alcohol reported more interest in attending when an informational message was used. Of the participants offered food, 41.9% indicated the food offered in the advertisement impacted their interest in attending. Results suggest market segmentation plays a role in developing effective advertisements to recruit different groups of students based on their reported drinking behavior.

  7. Chronic leucine supplementation increases body weight and insulin sensitivity in rats on high-fat diet likely by promoting insulin signaling in insulin-target tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Xiaolei; Liu, Rui; Ma, Yan; Guo, Huailan; Hao, Liping; Yao, Ping; Liu, Liegang; Sun, Xiufa; He, Ka; Cao, Wenhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of chronic leucine supplementation on insulin sensitivity and the associated mechanisms in rats on high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either normal chow diet or HFD supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% leucine for 24 weeks. We found that chronic leucine supplementation increased insulin sensitivity together with increased body weight in rats on HFD, but had no effect on insulin sensitivity in rats on normal chow diet. The increased insulin sensitivity by leucine supplementation was not associated with altered ectopic fat accumulation in liver and muscle, plasma levels of lipids and cytokines, but is associated with reduced oxidative stress and improved insulin signaling. Chronic leucine supplementation did not enhance insulin receptor substract-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation on serine 302, but elevated basal IRS-1 phosphorylation on tyrosine 632 and improved insulin-stimulated protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue of rats on HFD rats, indicating leucine supplementation prevented HFD-induced insulin resistance in insulin-target tissues. Chronic leucine supplementation can increase insulin sensitivity and body weight likely by reducing oxidative stress and improving insulin signaling pathway in rats on HFD. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chronic high fat feeding increases anxiety-like behaviour and reduces transcript abundance of glucocorticoid signalling genes in the hippocampus of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanathan, Shathveekan; Thavartnam, Kabriya; Arif, Shahneen; Elegino, Trisha; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of diets high in saturated fats and obesity have been associated with impaired physical and mental health. Previous studies indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption leads to systemic inflammation in humans and non-human animal models. Studies in non-human animals suggest that altered physiological responses to stress are also a consequence of high fat diet consumption. Glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms may link immune and stress-related pathways in the brain, and were shown to be significantly altered in the brains of female rat offspring of mothers exposed to chronic high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation. For adult females, the consequence of chronic high fat diet consumption on these signalling pathways and their relationship to stress-related behaviour is not known. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic consumption of a high fat diet compared to a low fat control diet among adult female Long Evans rats. We found significant differences in weight gain, caloric intake, anxiety-related behaviours, and glucocorticoid-related gene expression over a 10-week exposure period. As expected, rats in the high fat diet group gained the most weight and consumed the greatest number of calories. Rats in the high fat diet group showed significantly greater levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the Light Dark and Open Field tasks compared to rats in the low fat diet group. Rats consuming high fat diet also exhibited reduced transcript abundance in the hippocampus of stress-related mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor genes, as well as nuclear factor kappa beta gene expression, implicated in inflammatory processes. Together, these data indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption may increase anxiety-like behaviour at least in part via alterations in glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms in limbic brain regions.

  9. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  10. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  11. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  12. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  13. Novel Cell-Ess ® supplement used as a feed or as an initial boost to CHO serum free media results in a significant increase in protein yield and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Elhofy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many metrics, including metabolic profiles, have been used to analyze cell health and optimize productivity. In this study, we investigated the ability of a lipid supplement to increase protein yield. At a concentration of 1% (v/v the lipid supplement caused a significant increase in protein titer (1118 ± 65.4 ng 105 cells−1 days−1 when compared to cultures grown in the absence of supplementation (819.3 ± 38.1 ng 105 cells−1 days−1; p < 0.05. This equated to a 37% increase in productivity. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of ammonia, glutamate, lactate, and glucose were not significantly altered by the polar lipid supplement. In a separate set of experiments, using the supplement as a feed resulted in 2 notable effects. The first was a 25% increase in protein titer. The second was an extension of peak protein production from 1 day to 2 days. These results suggest that lipid supplementation is a promising avenue for enhancing protein production. In addition, our results also suggest that an increase in protein production may not necessarily require a change in the metabolic state of the cells.

  14. Inclusão de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na alimentação de frangos de corte Feeding increasing defatted corn germ meal levels to broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Brunelli

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios foram realizados para avaliação do uso de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado (FGMD na alimentação de frangos de corte. No primeiro ensaio, para determinação do valor nutricional pelo método de coleta total de excretas, foram utilizados 120 pintos de corte com 19 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições de dez aves por unidade experimental. As dietas experimentais, à base de milho e farelo de soja, variaram de acordo com os níveis de FGMD (0, 20 e 40%. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de metabolização de MS, FB, PB, EE e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn foram, com base na matéria natural (MN, 60,99; 16,73; 53,80 e 82,71% e 2.413 kcal/kg, respectivamente. No segundo ensaio, foram utilizados 480 pintinhos de quatro dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e oito repetições (quatro de cada sexo de 12 aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de dietas experimentais à base de milho e farelo de soja, com 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% de FGMD. Foram observados efeitos linear crescente do FGMD para ganho de peso (GP e consumo de ração (CR e linear decrescente para conversão alimentar (CA. A inclusão de 20% de FGMD proporcionou efeitos positivos nas características de desempenho de frangos de corte e não alterou as características de carcaça.Two trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of feeding of increasing defatted corn germ meal (DCGM levels to broilers. In the first trial, for determination of nutritional value by method of total excreta collection, 120 19-day old broilers were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replications of 10 birds each. The treatments consisted of corn and soybean meal-based diets with increasing DCGM levels: 0, 20, and 40%. Mean values of

  15. Pro-inflammatory macrophages increase in skeletal muscle of high fat-fed mice and correlate with metabolic risk markers in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Lisbeth N; Costford, Sheila R; Lee, Yun S; Jensen, Thomas E; Bilan, Philip J; Oberbach, Andreas; Blüher, Matthias; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Sams, Anette; Klip, Amira

    2014-03-01

    In obesity, immune cells infiltrate adipose tissue. Skeletal muscle is the major tissue of insulin-dependent glucose disposal, and indices of muscle inflammation arise during obesity, but whether and which immune cells increase in muscle remain unclear. Immune cell presence in quadriceps muscle of wild type mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) was studied for 3 days to 10 weeks, in CCL2-KO mice fed HFD for 1 week, and in human muscle. Leukocyte presence was assessed by gene expression of lineage markers, cyto/chemokines and receptors; immunohistochemistry; and flow cytometry. After 1 week HFD, concomitantly with glucose intolerance, muscle gene expression of Ly6b, Emr1 (F4/80), Tnf, Ccl2, and Ccr2 rose, as did pro- and anti-inflammatory markers Itgax (CD11c) and Mgl2. CD11c+ proinflammatory macrophages in muscle increased by 76%. After 10 weeks HFD, macrophages in muscle increased by 47%. Quadriceps from CCL2-KO mice on HFD did not gain macrophages and maintained insulin sensitivity. Muscle of obese, glucose-intolerant humans showed elevated CD68 (macrophage marker) and ITGAX, correlating with poor glucose disposal and adiposity. Mouse and human skeletal muscles gain a distinct population of inflammatory macrophages upon HFD or obesity, linked to insulin resistance in humans and CCL2 availability in mice. © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. Observation on the effect of QCC in increasing success rate of breast feeding in hospitalized puerperae%品管圈提高产妇母乳喂养成功率的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗从艳; 王君琴; 闫华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨品管圈(QCC)活动提高住院产妇母乳喂养成功率的效果。方法:选取2014年1~2月我院住院分娩产妇306例作为对照组,给予常规母乳喂养知识健康教育;选取2014年6~7月我院门诊定期产检和分娩产妇298例作为研究组,在对照组基础上实施 QCC 活动。比较两组母乳喂养成功率、母乳喂养失败原因及开展 QCC 前后圈员能力评分。结果:研究组住院产妇母乳喂养成功率高于对照组(P <0.01)。开展 QCC 活动后圈员的解决问题能力、沟通协调能力、自信心、积极性、QCC 手段掌握程度、个人素质修养评分高于开展前(P <0.05,P <0.01)。结论:开展 QCC 活动能有效提高住院产妇母乳喂养成功率,提高护理服务质量和圈员能力。%Objective:To investigate the effect of quality control circle(QCC)in increasing success rate of breast feeding in hospital-ized puerperae. Methods:306 puerperae who had childbirth in our hospital from Jan. to Feb. 2014 were taken as the control group and the puerperae in this group were given conventional health education on breast feeding;other 298 puerperae who had prenatal examination and childbirth in our hospital from Jun. to Jul. 2014 were taken as the study group and the QCC was implemented in this group. The success rate of breast feeding and the scores of ability of QCC team members were compared between the two groups before and after the implemen-tation of QCC. Results:The success rate of breast feeding in the study group was higher than that in the control group(P < 0. 01);the scores of the ability of QCC team members in solving problem,communication and coordination and the scores of self - confidence,enthusi-asm,mastery of QCC means and personal accomplishment were higher after the implementation of QCC than those before its implementation (P < 0. 05,P < 0. 01). Conclusion:Implementation of QCC can effectively improve the success rate of

  17. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased.

  18. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  19. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  20. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  1. Increased adiposity in annexin A1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rand T Akasheh

    Full Text Available Production of Annexin A1 (ANXA1, a protein that mediates the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids, is altered in obesity, but its role in modulation of adiposity has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate modulation of ANXA1 in adipose tissue in murine models of obesity and to study the involvement of ANXA1 in diet-induced obesity in mice. Significant induction of ANXA1 mRNA was observed in adipose tissue of both C57BL6 and Balb/c mice with high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity versus mice on chow diet. Upregulation of ANXA1 mRNA was independent of leptin or IL-6, as demonstrated by use of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and IL-6 KO mice. Compared to WT mice, female Balb/c ANXA1 KO mice on HFD had increased adiposity, as indicated by significantly elevated body weight, fat mass, leptin levels, and adipocyte size. Whereas Balb/c WT mice upregulated expression of enzymes involved in the lipolytic pathway in response to HFD, this response was absent in ANXA1 KO mice. A significant increase in fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as development of insulin resistance was observed in ANXA1 KO mice on HFD compared to WT mice. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels and blunted downregulation of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue was observed in ANXA1 KO mice compared to diet-matched WT mice. However, no differences between WT and KO mice on either chow or HFD were observed in expression of markers of adipose tissue inflammation. These data indicate that ANXA1 is an important modulator of adiposity in mice, with female ANXA1 KO mice on Balb/c background being more susceptible to weight gain and diet-induced insulin resistance compared to WT mice, without significant changes in inflammation.

  2. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  3. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  4. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  6. The isoflavone-rich fraction of the crude extract of the Puerariae flower increases oxygen consumption and BAT UCP1 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-08-12

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-fat diet-fed given PFE (HFD + PFE), and (3) high-fat diet-fed given the PFE isoflavone-rich fraction (HFD + ISOF). All groups were fed for 42 days. The HFD + PFE and HFD + ISOF groups showed significant resistance to increases in body weight, hepatic triglyceride level, and visceral fat compared to the HFD group. These groups also exhibited significant increases in oxygen consumption and UCP1-positive brown adipose tissue (BAT) area. Our results demonstrate that the active ingredients in PFE are present in the ISOF and that these compounds may increase energy expenditure by upregulation of BAT UCP1 expression. These findings provide valuable information regarding the anti-obesity effects of isoflavones.

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document. ...

  8. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  9. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  10. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  11. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child. These guidelines on breastfeeding and bottle feeding can help you make the decision that's right ... formula is a nutritious alternative to breast milk. Bottle feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for moms, ...

  12. Investigation of the impact of increased dietary insoluble fiber through the feeding of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the incidence and severity of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberts, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Tim S; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R; Madson, Darin M; Patience, John F; Burrough, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including "B. hampsonii" has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or "B. hampsonii") and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the "B. hampsonii" groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery.

  13. Feed grain improvement through biopreservation and bioprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Olstorpe, Matilda

    2008-01-01

    Fermentation is an environmentally friendly method to improve feed quality. Fermented liquid feed and airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain systems that are of increasing importance in agricultural practice were studied. Both rely on spontaneous microbial developments with poorly understood population dynamics, resulting in unpredictable final quality. Temperature, fermentation time and ingredients affected final properties of the feed. Molecular-based species identification showed that ...

  14. Increased intramyocellular lipid/impaired insulin sensitivity is associated with altered lipid metabolic genes in muscle of high responders to a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Saori; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Takeno, Kageumi; Sakurai, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Minako; Watanabe, Takahiro; Funayama, Takashi; Sato, Fumihiko; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi; Kanazawa, Akio; Fujitani, Yoshio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Watada, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) is recognized as an important determinant of insulin resistance, and is increased by a high-fat diet (HFD). However, the effects of HFD on IMCL and insulin sensitivity are highly variable. The aim of this study was to identify the genes in muscle that are related to this inter-individual variation. Fifty healthy men were recruited for this study. Before and after HFD for 3 days, IMCL levels in the tibialis anterior were measured by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and peripheral insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose infusion rate (GIR) during the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Subjects who showed a large increase in IMCL and a large decrease in GIR by HFD were classified as high responders (HRs), and subjects who showed a small increase in IMCL and a small decrease in GIR were classified as low responders (LRs). In five subjects from each group, the gene expression profile of the vastus lateralis muscle was analyzed by DNA microarray analysis. Before HFD, gene expression profiles related to lipid metabolism were comparable between the two groups. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis demonstrated that five gene sets related to lipid metabolism were upregulated by HFD in the HR group but not in the LR group. Changes in gene expression patterns were confirmed by qRT-PCR using more samples (LR, n = 9; HR, n = 11). These results suggest that IMCL accumulation/impaired insulin sensitivity after HFD is closely associated with changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in muscle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Evaluation of dry feeding and liquid feeding to lactating sows under high temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J S; Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Fang, L H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Liquid feeding system has been introduced to domestic swine farms, but negative cognition about liquid feeding system has been remained for feed waste decay related with poor management and microbial contamination. For these reasons, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding method in lactating sows. A total of 30 mixed-parity (average 4.13) lactating sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) with an initial BW of 218.8 ± 19.5kg was used in a 3 week trial. Sows were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design by their body weight, backfat thickness, parity and alive litter weight. One of treatments was dry feeding and the other was liquid feeding (water to feed ratio, 1:1). Experimental diets contained 3265 kcal ME/kg, 12.6 % CP, 5.76 % EE, 1.09 % total lysine, 0.25 % total methionine, as fed basis. Dry feeding treatment had high body weight loss rather than liquid feeding treatment (P = 0.04). Dry feeding treatment had tendency to increase litter weight at 21d of lactation (P = 0.06) and litter weight gain (P = 0.04) during lactation period (0-3 week). Sows fed dry feeding method made milk containing high content of casein and total solid rather than sows fed liquid feeding method (P = 0.04). In addition, dry feeding treatment had tendency to higher content of milk fat, protein and solid not fat on 21d of lactation (P = 0.07). Sows fed dry feeding type also showed higher milk energy content in milk of 21d lactation (P = 0.05). Furthermore, liquid feeding treatment showed high occurrence in feed waste during lactation period (P sows under high temperature environment like lactating barn.

  16. Feeding problems in healthy young children: prevalence, related factors and feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banchaun Benjasuwantep

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demographic information, as well as information on parental education and occupation, and their concerns about feeding their children, was collected. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were taken. The percentage of children identified as having feeding problems was 26.9%. The first child of a family had an increased risk of having feeding problems [P=0.032, odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.04-2.71]. Children with feeding problems were fed less frequently, were less likely to be fed at their own table or at the family table, and had mealtimes longer than 30 min when compared with children without feeding problems (P=0.015, 0.004 and 0.025, respectively. The results highlight that feeding problems in normally developing children are common. During consultations about feeding issues, pediatricians should focus on families with a first child. Topics such as frequency of meals per day, duration of meal-times, and appropriate places for feeding should be discussed.

  17. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring ... babies who are born prematurely, as are many twins and higher order multiples. Breast milk is easier ...

  18. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  19. Increased Cost of Motor Activity and Heat Transfer between Non-Shivering Thermogenesis, Motor Activity, and Thermic Effect of Feeding in Mice Housed at Room Temperature – Implications in Pre-Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Patrick C.; Blais, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The components of energy expenditure, total metabolic rate (TMR), resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermogenic response to feeding (TEF), activity, and cost of activity were measured in fed and fasted mice housed at 22 and 30°C. Mice housed at 22°C had more than two times larger TMR and RMR. Mice at 22°C were less active when fasted but more active when fed. Cost of activity was nearly doubled in the fasted and in the fed state. Analysis of the short-term relation between TMR, RMR, and bouts of activity showed that, at 22°C, the bouts of activity induced a decrease in the intensity of RMR that reflected the reduced need for thermal regulation induced by the heat released from muscular contraction. This phenomenon induced a considerable underestimation of TEF and prevented its reliable measurement when mice were housed at 22°C. Correlation between TMR and activity measured across time in individual mice was very strong at both 22 and 30°C, but the correlation measured across mice was much weaker at 30°C and no longer significant at 22°C. We suspect that this phenomenon was due to the fact that RMR is a much more reliable predictor of TMR than activity. RMR is more variable at 22°C than at 30°C because of heat transfers between thermal regulation and heat released by other discontinuous processes, such as activity and TEF. Therefore, more noise is introduced into the correlations performed across multiple mice between TMR and activity at 22°C. On the other hand, it should be kept in mind that the doubling of TMR and RMR at 22°C is fueled by an increased non-shivering thermogenesis that can obviously modify how the mouse responds to pharmacological and nutritional challenges. Taken together, these results suggest that in pre-clinical studies, mice should be housed in conditions where thermal regulation is limited as is generally the case in humans. However, the increased sensitivity of mice to small changes in ambient temperature can also be used as a

  20. USE OF FEED YEAST IN FEEDING OF STURGEON (ACIPENSERINAE SPECIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the use of feed yeast preparations in feeding of sturgeon species (Acipenserinae. Findings. The review of scientific works demonstrated that feed yeast in the feeding of sturgeons have been used as a source of vitamins and complete protein, the nutritional value of which is significantly higher than in the proteins of plant origin and are similar to the proteins of animal origin. In addition, a unit of yeast protein mass is significantly lower than in the feeds of animal origin. Moreover, based on the content of B group vitamins, feed yeast produced from the grain-potato spent wash exceed fish meal and meat-and-bone meal. The article highlights the peculiarities of the technological process of the production of different feed yeast species, amino acid and fatty acid composition of their preparations, basic physical and chemical parameters of their composition. The examples of feed yeast formulas for sturgeon species based on feed yeast preparations are presented. It was shown that sturgeon species, especially on early stages of their ontogenesis, could effectively use the feed yeast nucleotides. Thus, the latters can be an effective substitute of live zooplanktonic organisms. While the production of some feed yeast preparations (paprin, eprin was stopped in 1990s due to a number of social-economic reasons, the works on the creation of their full analogues was continued later. Currently, the trends of the development of world aquaculture anticipates the return to the use of yeast in fish feeding. Therefore, the interest of the agrarians of Ukraine in yeast lately increased and their use in agricultural sector increased by 2-2.5 times. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of feeding of sturgeon species, because the data about the use of yeast as sources of complete protein in fish feeds is important in a constant search for the

  1. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  2. In adipose tissue, increased mitochondrial emission of reactive oxygen species is important for short-term high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialunga, Sabina; Ludzki, Alison; Root-McCaig, Jared; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-05-01

    Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) induces insulin resistance in white adipose tissue (WAT) within 1 week. However, little is known about the initiating events. One potential mechanism that has remained largely unexplored is excessive mitochondrial emission of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine the role of mitochondrial ROS emissions at the onset of insulin resistance, wild-type (WT) mice were placed on an HFD for 1 week. WAT insulin sensitivity and inflammation were assessed by western blot. In addition, we optimised/validated a method to determine ROS emissions in permeabilised WAT. An HFD for 1 week resulted in impaired insulin signalling, increased c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and an increase in oxidative stress. These changes were associated with an increase in fatty-acid-mediated mitochondrial ROS emissions without any change in mitochondrial respiration/content. To determine that mitochondrial ROS causes insulin resistance, we used transgenic mice that express human catalase in mitochondria (MCAT) as a model of upregulated mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme capacity. MCAT mice displayed attenuated mitochondrial ROS emission, preserved insulin signalling and no inflammatory response following an HFD. Findings from this study suggest that elevated mitochondrial ROS emission contributes to HFD-induced WAT insulin resistance.

  3. Kaempferol regulates the lipid-profile in high-fat diet-fed rats through an increase in hepatic PPARα levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of the flavonoid kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with kaempferol (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or fenofibrate (100 mg/kg) once daily for eight weeks. Fenofibrate is an antilipemic agent that exerts its therapeutic effects through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α). Kaempferol (300 mg/kg/day) produced effects similar to fenofibrate in reducing body weight gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol also caused dose-related reductions in hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content and lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic PPAR α. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1) proteins were reversed by kaempferol and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in HFD-fed rats were lowered by kaempferol and fenofibrate. These results suggest that kaempferol reduced the accumulation of visceral fat and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-fed obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the downregulation of SREBPs and promoting the hepatic expression of ACO and CYP4A1, secondary to a direct upregulation hepatic PPAR α expression.

  4. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88-deficiency increases risk of diabetes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hosoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence suggest innate immune response pathways to be involved in the development of obesity-associated diabetes although the molecular mechanism underling the disease is unknown. Recent observations suggest that saturated fatty acids can act as a ligand for toll-like receptor (TLR 4, which is thought to mediate obesity-associated insulin resistance. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 is an adapter protein for TLR/IL-1 receptor signaling, which is involved in the activation of inflammatory pathways. To evaluate molecular mechanisms linking obesity-associated diabetes down-stream of TLR4, we investigated physiological role of MyD88 in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we found MyD88-deficient mice fed a HFD had increased circulating levels of insulin, leptin and cholesterol, as well as liver dysfunction (increased induction of ALT levels, increased activation of JNK and cleavage of PARP, which were linked to the onset of severe diabetes. On the other hand, TNF-alpha would not be involved in HFD-induced diabetes in MyD88-deficient mice, because TNF-alpha level was attenuated in MyD88-deficient mice fed with HFD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present finding of an unexpected role for MyD88 in preventing diabetes may provide a potential novel target/strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.

  5. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  7. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts daytime overeating induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Kek, Huiling Calvina; Lim, Joy; Gelling, Richard Wayne; Han, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) induces overeating and obesity. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces HFD-induced body weight and body fat gain mainly through increased lipid metabolism and fat oxidation. However, little is known about its effect on HFD-induced alterations in feeding behavior. Three diet groups of wildtype C57B/6j male mice at 5 months old were fed on normal chow diet, 1 week of HFD (60% of energy) and 3 months of HFD (diet-induced obesity (DIO)) prior to EGCG supplement in respective diet. EGCG had no effect on feeding behavior in normal chow diet group. Increased daytime feeding induced by HFD was selectively corrected by EGCG treatment in HFD groups, including reversed food intake, feeding frequency and meal size in HFD + EGCG group, and reduced food intake and feeding frequency in DIO + EGCG group. Moreover, EGCG treatment altered diurnally oscillating expression pattern of key appetite-regulating genes, including AGRP, POMC, and CART, and key circadian genes Clock and Bmal1 in hypothalamus of DIO mice, indicating its central effect on feeding regulation. Our study demonstrates that EGCG supplement specifically counteracts daytime overeating induced by HFD in mice, suggesting its central role in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Some thoughts about infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickse, R G

    1983-12-01

    This article summarizes the nutritional considerations, impact on infection and immunity, and psychosocial aspects of the breast versus bottle feeding debate and concludes with guidelines for reorganizing government health services to promote breastfeeding. Its aim is to encourage reappraisal on the part of physicians of the direct implications of infant feeding for the health and well-being of people in all societies, but especially in developing countries. As a result of widespread abandonment of breastfeeding in developing countries, marasmus and infant diarrhea have increased. Although the biologic advatages of breast over bottle feeding are indisputable, the social and economic advantages are more difficult to quantify. Many Third World women curtail breastfeeding to meet the conditions of employment; however, the economic advantages of artificial feeding diminish as one descends down the pay scale. The counterproductive trend toward bottle feeding has been compounded by adoption of this method on the part of the educated elite in Third World countries, including medical and nursing professionals, thus conferring on it as status associated with progress and affluence. The present trend can be reversed only if communities are convinced of the advantages of breastfeeding and make adjustments to facilitate this practice. Preparation for motherhood must be viewed as an integral function of the health care system, with emphasis placed on the nutrition of pregnant and lactating women, preparation for breastfeeding, and the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Obstetric units must actively discourage the removal of infants from their mothers or routine artificial feeding. In addition, facilities must be provided at workplaces for breastfeeding, the working day should be modified to allow brestfeeding, maternity leaves should be extended, and appropriate payments should be made to nursing mothers. The nutrition needs of infants must be viewed as a shared

  9. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  10. Danger of zooplankton feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, H.; Colin, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly and ther......Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly...

  11. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Cornelia; Krüger, Karsten; Liebisch, Gerhard; Seimetz, Michael; Couturier, Aline; Ringseis, Robert; Wilhelm, Jochen; Weissmann, Norbert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST) or a high fat diet (HFD) and subjected to regular endurance training (ET) or resistance training (RT). After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs), circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p resistance training decreased body weight (p induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  13. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  14. Feeding biology of Cerambycids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    There are more than 36,000 species of Cerambycidae recognized throughout the world (see Chapter 1), occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Linsley 1959). Given such numbers, it is not surprising that cerambycids display great diversity in their feeding habits. Both adults and larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous. Some adults appear not to feed at all,...

  15. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Common illnesses ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Family health & safety ') ...

  17. [Current views on breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, R

    1983-07-01

    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  18. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  19. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  20. Phase-Center Extension for a Microwave Feed Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.; Manshadi, F.

    1987-01-01

    Corrugated cylindrical tube relocates phase center of Cassegrain antenna feed. Proposed modification increases aperture of Cassegrain antenna from 64 to 70 m. Relatively inexpensive extension moves phase center of feed without incurring cost of redesigning horn and relocating low-noise equipment. Extension does not affect polarization characteristics of feed.

  1. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  2. Improving aquaculture feed in Bangladesh: From feed ingredients to farmer profit to safe consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Mamun-Ur-Rashid, M.; Belton, B.; Phillips, M; Rosentrater, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Use of manufactured feeds in aquaculture in Bangladesh has grown rapidly over the last five years. More than 1 million tonnes of commercially formulated feeds and 0.3-0.4 million tonnes of farm-made feeds were produced in 2012, and sectoral growth is projected to increase substantially over the medium term. This working paper summarizes findings from a study, conducted as part of the WorldFish/USAID “Feed the Future-Aquaculture†project in 2012, assessing the current status of the aquacult...

  3. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in histamine-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Vogelsang, Thomas W; Knigge, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The neurotransmitter histamine is involved in the regulation of appetite and in the development of age-related obesity in mice. Furthermore, histamine is a mediator of the anorexigenic action of leptin. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible role of histamine...... in the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: Histamine-deficient histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC-KO) mice and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were given either a standard diet (STD) or HFD for 8 weeks. Body weight, 24-hour caloric intake, epididymal adipose tissue size, plasma leptin...... concentration and quantitative expression of leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA were measured. RESULTS: Both HDC-KO and WT mice fed an HFD for 8 weeks increased their body weight significantly more than STD-fed mice. A significant difference in body weight gain between HDC-KO mice fed an HFD or an STD was seen after 2...

  4. Farming Systems Research and Livestock Feed Development : the case of a project on feeding of crop residues in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, J.B.; Kiran Singh,; Boer, de A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of prime agricultural land for cropping and non-agricultural uses in many tropical countries implies that crop residues become more important as a source of feed for livestock. Traditionally, much research on crop residue feeding was done by focusing on laboratory measurements of feed

  5. Estimating feed efficiency of lactating dairy cattle using residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising feed costs and ever increasing concerns about the negative impacts of agriculture and animal production on the environment have made the improvement of feed efficiency of all livestock species a high-priority area of agricultural research. Improving production efficiency of lactating dairy ca...

  6. An intrauterine catch-up growth regimen increases food intake and post-natal growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, M; Rajasekar, P; Lee, M S; Kim, J; Kwon, D-H; Kang, W; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T-T T

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional conditions during the intrauterine stage are an important developmental programming factor that can affect the growth and metabolic status during foetal development and permanently alter the phenotypes of newborn offspring and adults. This study was performed to examine the effects of intrauterine catch-up growth (IUCG) on food intake, post-natal body growth and the metabolic status of offspring and growing rats. Control pregnant rats were fed ad libitum during the entire gestation period. For the IUCG regimen, pregnant rats were fed 50% of the food of the controls from pregnancy days 4 through 11 (8 days), followed by ad libitum feeding from pregnancy days 12 through parturition. The birth weight of offspring was not affected by the IUCG regimen. At weaning, offspring from each treatment group were assigned to two groups and given either a normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks until 103 days of age. In the normal diet group, the IUCG offspring showed a 9.0% increase (P food intake, were 11.2% heavier (p food intake and post-natal body growth of offspring without inducing metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance. The IUCG nutritional regimen might be used to improve the food intake and post-natal body growth of domestic animals. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  8. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  9. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  10. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-02-16

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  11. 氮源优化及新型补糖工艺提高红霉素效价研究%Increasing the titer of erythromycin by optimization of nitrogen source with new glucose feeding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 李静

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of available nitrogen source to slow release nitrogen source in erythromycin industrial fermentation medium were optimized under the condition of equal proportion of total nitrogen.Meanwhile feather peptone was tentatively used as a new type of available nitrogen source.The experimental results showed that,when the optimal ratio of available nitrogen source to slow release nitrogen source was 3.9, (the concentration of feather peptone 6 g/L and the soybean meal 33 g/L),erythromycin titer reached to 11 059 U /mL.Compared with corn steep liquor,feather peptone has the characteristic of stable quality, thus erythromycin titer fluctuation caused by quality instability of corn steep liquor can be avoided.Using the optimized medium,the traditional pH -feedback glucose feeding was compared with pH -RQ -feed-back glucose feeding.The results showed that the erythromycin titer reached to 11 915 U /mL with pH -RQ -feedback glucose feeding,which was 7.7% higher than that with the traditional pH -feedback glu-cose feeding,moreover the total glucose amount fed to fermenter was decreased by 40%.%在总氮相等条件下优化了红霉素工业发酵培养基的速效氮源和迟效氮源比例,同时尝试性地引入羽毛蛋白胨作为新型速效氮源。实验结果表明,迟效氮源与速效氮源比值为3.9时,即羽毛蛋白胨浓度为6 g/L、黄豆饼粉为33 g/L 时,红霉素效价最高为11059 U /mL。与玉米浆相比,羽毛蛋白胨具有质量稳定的特点,从而可避免玉米浆质量不稳定引起的红霉素效价波动。采用优化后的培养基,比较了传统 pH 反馈补糖工艺和 pH 结合呼吸熵(RQ)反馈补糖工艺。结果表明,pH 结合 RQ 反馈补糖工艺下的红霉素效价达到11915 U /mL,比传统 pH 反馈补糖工艺的效价提高了7.7%,而新补糖工艺下的补糖总量降低了40%。

  12. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is ... and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  20. Institutional feeding of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Not only is there a high prevalence of malnutrition among the elderly admitted to hospital and other institutions, but nutritional status seems to decline during admission, not only as a result of disease but also problems with catering and feeding policies, which are not well-geared to the needs of the sick. This results in high food wastage rates and inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes to meet requirements. In the elderly, decreased portion size and increased energy, protein and micronutrient density have been shown to be effective in decreasing wastage and improving intake. Other strategies for improving intake are reviewed, including a better environment, a reduction in drugs causing anorexia, help with eating, and less interruption of meals by procedures and ward rounds. Targets for nutritional intake and aims of feeding are reviewed.

  1. Breast feeding in IMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A; Depondt, E; Evans, S; Daly, A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani A, A; Saudubray, J-M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs on diet) identified breast feeding experience in IMD. Successful, demand breast feeding (in combination with an infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids) was reported in 17 infants with MSUD, 14 with tyrosinaemia type I, and 5 with homocystinuria. Eighty-nine per cent were still breast fed at 16 weeks. Fewer infants with organic acidaemias were demand breast fed (7 with propionic acidaemia; 6 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 13 with isovaleric acidaemia) (usually preceded by complementary feeds of a protein-free infant formula or infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids). Only 12 infants with urea cycle disorders were given demand breast feeds, but this was unsuccessful beyond 8 days in CPS deficiency. Further work is needed in developing guidelines for feeding and for clinical and biochemical monitoring for breast-fed infants with IMDs.

  2. Effect of a 3-day high-fat feeding period on carbohydrate balance and ad libitum energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, J E; de Jonge, L; Most, M M; Bray, G A; Smith, S R

    2010-05-01

    A reduction in glycogen after the switch to an isoenergetic high-fat diet (HFD) might promote a compensatory increase in food intake to reestablish carbohydrate balance. We assessed the effect of an isoenergetic switch from a 49%-carbohydrate to 50%-fat diet on nutrient balance and ad libitum food intake. We hypothesized that carbohydrate balance would be inversely related to ad libitum energy intake. In 47 men and 11 women (22.6+/-0.4 years; 26.1+/-0.5 kg m(-2)), fuel balance was measured in a respiration chamber over 4 days. During the first day, an isoenergetic, high-carbohydrate diet was provided followed by a 3-day isoenergetic, HFD. At the end of this period and after 16 h of fasting, three options of foods (cookies, fruit salad and turkey sandwich) were offered ad libitum for 4 h. The relationships between post-chamber ad libitum intake and macronutrient oxidation and balance measured day-to-day and over the 4-day respiration chamber stay were studied. After switching to a HFD, 24-h respiratory quotient decreased from 0.87+/-0.02 to 0.83+/-0.02 (Plibitum energy intake. However, we detected that 4-day carbohydrate balance was a positive and independent predictor of post-chamber ad libitum energy intake (R (2)=0.10; P=0.01), whereas no significant influence of fat and protein balances was found. In response to an isoenergetic change from a high-carbohydrate to HFD, higher carbohydrate balance related to increased energy intake.

  3. High fat diet increases melanoma cell growth in the bone marrow by inducing osteopontin and interleukin 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Liang; Luo, Yubin; Eriksson, Daniel; Meng, Xianyi; Qian, Cheng; Bäuerle, Tobias; Chen, Xiao-Xiang; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    The impact of metabolic stress induced by obesity on the bone marrow melanoma niche is largely unknown. Here we employed diet induced obese mice model, where mice received high-fat (HFD) or normal diet (ND) for 6 weeks before challenge with B16F10 melanoma cells. Tumor size, bone loss and osteoclasts numbers were assessed histologically in the tibial bones. For defining the molecular pathway, osteopontin knock-out mice, interleukin 6 neutralizing antibody or Janus kinase 2 inhibition were carried out in the same model. Mechanistic studies such as adipocyte-melanoma co-cultures for defining adipocyte induced changes of tumor cell proliferation and expression profiles were also performed. As results, HFD enhanced melanoma burden in bone by increasing tumor area and osteoclast numbers. This process was associated with higher numbers of bone marrow adipocytes expressing IL-6 in direct vicinity to tumor cells. Inhibition of IL-6 or of downstream JAK2 blocked HFD-induced tumor progression. Furthermore, the phenotypic changes of melanoma cells triggered macrophage and osteoclast accumulation accompanied by increased osteopontin expression. Osteopontin triggered osteoclastogenesis and also exerted a positive feedback loop to tumor cells, which was abrogated in its absence. Metabolic stress by HFD promotes melanoma growth in the bone marrow by an increase in bone marrow adipocytes and IL-6-JAK2-osteopontin mediated activation of tumor cells and osteoclast differentiation. PMID:27049717

  4. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  5. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  6. Sex-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome in adult offspring after prenatal ethanol exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng He; Jing Li; Hanwen Luo; Li Zhang; Lu Ma; Liaobin Chen; Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) is an established risk factor for intrauterine growth retardation. The present study was designed to determine whether PEE can increase the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult offspring in a sex-specific manner, based on a generalized linear model analysis. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg.d) from gestational day 11 until term delivery. All offspring were fed either a normal diet or a HFD after we...

  7. Dielectric rod feed for compact range reflector

    CERN Document Server

    Balabukha, Nikolay P; Shapkina, Natalia E

    2014-01-01

    A dielectric rod feed with a special radiation pattern of a tabletop form used for the compact range reflector is developed and analyzed. Application of this feed increases the size of the compact range quiet zone generated by the reflector. The feed consists of the dielectric rod made of polystyren, the rod is inserted into the circular waveguide with a corrugated flange. The waveguide is excited by the H11-mode. The rod is covered by the textolite biconical bushing and has a fluoroplastic insert in the vicinity of the bushing. Mathematical modeling was used to obtain the parameters of the feed for the optimal tabletop form of the radiation pattern. The problem of the electromagnetic radiation was solved for metal-dielectric bodies of rotation by method of integral equations with further solving of the problem of the synthesis for feed parameters. The dielectric rod feed was fabricated for the X-frequency range. Feed amplitude and phase patterns were measured in the frequency range 8.2-12.5 GHz. Presented re...

  8. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig

    OpenAIRE

    Bidanel, Jean Pierre; Billon, Yvon; Lagant, Herve; Guillouet, Philippe; Sellier, Pierre; NOBLET, Jean; Hermesch,

    2012-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for so...

  10. Food intakes in a group of breast-feeding and not breast-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bonfante, G; Muratore, M C; Peltran, A; Cresi, F; Mostert, M; Oggero, R

    2000-01-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breast milk composition is still an open question. An important issue is whether mothers who are breast feeding modify, respect to before lactation, food intake to satisfy the increased requirements.

  11. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double......-lumen duodenal perfusion/aspiration techniques over 6 hours. Subjects were assigned to no feeding (n = 7), duodenal feeding with a polymeric diet (n = 7) or low-fat elemental diet (n = 6), mid-distal jejunal feeding (n = 11), or intravenous feeding (n = 5). All diets provided 40 kcal/kg ideal body weight/d and 1...

  12. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  13. Low-income mothers' feeding goals predict observed home mealtime and child feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, M H; Miller, A L; Appugliese, D P; Kaciroti, N; Rosenblum, K L; Lumeng, J C

    2016-11-01

    Mothers' goals are important for health behavior change, and engagement in child obesity interventions. It is unknown if maternal feeding goals are associated with observed home mealtime or feeding practices. The objective of this study was to examine the association of four common feeding goals (restrict junk food, promote fruit or vegetable intake, promote autonomy in eating and prevent obesity) with mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N = 265) of children (mean child age 70.8 months) participated in a semi-structured interview about child feeding. A coding scheme was developed and reliably applied to identify mothers' feeding goals from transcripts. Mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices were reliably coded from home mealtimes and a laboratory eating protocol. Mothers completed a questionnaire and reported demographics. Participant weights and heights were obtained. Regression models were used to test the association of each feeding goal with observed maternal practices, controlling for covariates. The goal of restricting junk food was associated with the child always eating at a table (OR 2.87, 95% CI (1.39-5.96) p = 0.005), but not with the mother restricting junk food. The goal of promoting fruit or vegetable intake was associated with observationally promoting vegetables (OR 1.41, 95% CI (1.09-1.84), p = 0.01). The goals of promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not associated with any observed maternal home mealtime or feeding practices. While mothers' goals to restrict junk food and promote fruit or vegetable intake were associated with observed home mealtime and feeding practices, promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not. Increased understanding of why low-income mothers may not translate certain feeding goals into practices may inform childhood obesity interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of different feeding levels on moulting, growth, food conversion efficiency and biochemical composition of the prawn, metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    food/g prawn/day represented the maintenance, optimum and maximum feeding levels Specific dynamic action increased twice at the observed maximum feeding level (20%) than at optimum feeding level (12%), indicating that the energy cost of converting food...

  15. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  16. Feeding through artificial membranes reduces fecundity for females of the blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, R Gary; Chiang, Jennifer A

    2010-06-01

    The blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus, has been raised in the laboratory for close to 100 years. Various feeding techniques have been employed ranging from the use of warm-blooded hosts, to the use of previously collected blood offered through artificial membranes. This study compared the fecundity in mated and unmated females fed rabbit blood directly from the shaved belly of a rabbit to that of females fed defibrinated rabbit blood through an artificial membrane. These results confirm previous reports that this insect's feeding efficacy is reduced using an artificial membrane. It also demonstrates for the first time that the fecundity index, which measures the efficiency of turning the blood meal into eggs, is significantly reduced. We suggest that the natural feeding on a warm-blooded host may provide cues that have the short-term effect of enhancing the act of feeding and the long-term effect of increasing egg production efficiency. Until an artificial feeding method that does not interfere with feeding and fecundity is devised, experiments on reproduction in R. prolixus warrant the use of a warm-blooded host to emulate feeding in its natural setting.

  17. The Impact of a Self-Efficacy Intervention on Short-Term Breast-Feeding Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jeni; Schutte, Nicola S.; Brown, Rhonda F.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Price, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy for breast-feeding may contribute to success in breast-feeding. This study aimed to increase breast-feeding self-efficacy and actual breast-feeding through an intervention based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A total of 90 pregnant women participated in the study. The women who were assigned to a breast-feeding…

  18. Feeding proteins to livestock: Global land use and food vs. feed competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manceron Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition between direct consumption of plant production and the feeding of livestock is key to global food availability. This is because livestock consume edible commodities that could be available for (food insecure populations but also because it diverts arable land from food production. The share of total plant production redirected towards feeding livestock is (roughly known but estimations of land surfaces virtually occupied by livestock production are scarce. In this study, following up on the Agrimonde Terra** project, we estimate areas devoted to the feeding livestock. First, we estimate the protein composition of an averaged feed basket at the global scale in 2005 and detail the evolution of the protein-source feed component during the period 1961–2009. We focus on protein-rich crops such as oil crops and show its proportion in the global livestock diets has tripled since 1960, though only accounting for about one fourth of total proteins. Then, we estimate land virtually occupied by crop feed at the global scale using a set of straightforward hypotheses. Our estimates suggest that, although livestock and feed production has continuously increased and despite uncertainties in available data, competition for land between feed and food uses has decreased over the last two decades. The share of areas cultivated for feed requirements decreased from about 50% in the 1970s to 37% nowadays. This trend is attributable to the increase of crop yields and to a decrease of the share of cereals in livestock diets to the benefit of oilseeds by-products. However, estimating the share of total areas used for feed is complicated by the significant role played by by-products.

  19. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  20. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellioscaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellioscaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellioscaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment.

  1. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; KITZINGER, Jenny; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  2. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequat...... predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling....

  3. Breast feeding and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G V; Calvert, L J; Kanto, W P

    1978-04-01

    Breast feeding is a management problem requiring knowledge of the physiology of lactation, maternal and infant nutritional requirements, and specifics such as drugs which enter the milk. The job of the physician is to allay anxiety; this helps establish the let-down reflex and increases milk production. "Caking," mastitis and even abscesses are not indications for weaning. Rest, warm compresses and frequent nursing are indicated. Breast-fed infants have less tendency to obesity than those who are bottle-fed. Early solid foods in the diet are not needed.

  4. Feed sorting in dairy cattle: Causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2016-12-29

    Dairy cattle commonly sort total mixed rations, a behavior that influences individual nutrient intake and reduces the nutritive value of the ration left in the bunk across the day. Typical patterns of feed sorting in lactating dairy cows, against longer forage particles, result in greater intake of highly-fermentable carbohydrates and lesser intake of effective fiber than intended, and are associated with reduced rumen pH and altered milk composition. To understand the reason for this behavior and reduce it on-farm, numerous studies have explored the influences of ration characteristics, feeding strategies, and management factors on the expression of feed sorting. In mature cows and young calves, feed sorting is influenced by forage inclusion rate, particle size, and dry matter content. Feeding strategies that increase the time available to manipulate feed-including decreased feeding frequency and increased feeding level-may result in increased feed sorting. The extent of feed sorting is also influenced by a variety of herd-level factors, but variability between individuals in the extent of feed sorting suggests that this behavior may be subject to additional factors, including previous experience and internal state. The development of feed sorting in young calves has been explored in several recent studies, suggesting that early opportunities to sort feed, as provided by access to mixed diets, may encourage the early onset of this behavior and help it persist beyond weaning. Evidence also supports the role of feedback mechanisms that influence this behavior at the individual level. In calves and adult cows, selective consumption of higher-energy ration components may be linked to energy demands, as influenced by the availability of supplemental feed or changing metabolic status. Further, considerable evidence suggests that cattle will adjust patterns of feed sorting in favor of physically effective fiber to attenuate low rumen pH, providing evidence for the role

  5. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  6. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  7. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  8. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  9. [History of complementary feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  11. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  13. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed intake is ... apportionment of consumed energy towards protein and ..... alia, genetic potential for protein deposition and its ... The content and dietary balance of feed nutrients, such as ...

  14. Does Green Feed Result in Healthier Dairy Products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun

    by the degradation of the chlorophyll molecule, is a fatty acid uniquely found in ruminant fat. PA has been suggested to have beneficial properties with regard to metabolic disorders. The content of milk fat PA has been shown to increase with the content of green feed fed to dairy cows. Hence, increasing green feed...

  15. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns and time courses of activity and feed availability were investigated in three generations of farmed mink (2003-2005) subjected to three different feedings routines; normal farm feeding (close to average ad libitum), ad libitum, and restricted feeding. The mink were fed daily at h12...... on different feeding schedules. The diurnal activity rhythm in both the farm fed and the ad libitum fed mink consisted of three activity peaks; one around sunrise, one prior to feeding time, and one around sunset. However, the restrictively fed mink decreased their activity in the morning when feed...... was not available and increased their activity up to expected feeding time at noon and again around sunset. When feeding was postponed, the restrictively fed mink increased their activity up to expected feeding time, whereas the ad libitum or farm fed mink did not. The results indicate that mink fed restrictively...

  16. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  17. Effects of feeding frequency on intake, ruminal fermentation, and feeding behavior in heifers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, V; González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2007-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 385 +/- 6.2 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to determine the effect of feeding frequency on intake, water consumption, ruminal fermentation, and feeding and animal behavior. The treatments consisted of different feeding frequencies: a) once daily (T1); b) twice daily (T2); c) 3 times daily (T3); and d) 4 times daily (T4). Heifers were offered ad libitum access to concentrate and barley straw. Feeding frequency did not affect DMI (P >0.10), but water consumption tended to increase linearly as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.08). Average ruminal pH was not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, but at 12 h after feeding ruminal pH was greater for T2 than for the other treatments. Total VFA concentration and VFA proportions were not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, except valerate proportion, which increased linearly (P = 0.05) as feeding frequency increased. The concentration of ammonia-N was affected (P 0.05), except for observational behavior, for which there was a linear decrease as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.02). Heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, independent of feeding frequency. However, meal criteria tended to be affected (P = 0.07) by feeding frequency, with T2 (39.4 min) showing the longest intermeal interval. Total daily meal time, meal frequency, and meal size were not affected by feeding frequency (P >0.10), whereas meal length and eating rate showed cubic tendencies (P = 0.10 and P = 0.06, respectively) as feeding frequency increased. These results suggest that in the present experimental conditions, with heifers fed high-concentrate diets and with noncompetitive feeding, a smaller range of ruminal pH values was observed when feed was offered twice daily. Although heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, more stable ruminal conditions were probably achieved by feeding twice daily due to the rumination pattern, which was more constant during

  18. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J R Heerwagen

    Full Text Available Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02, and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05, while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02, as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02, which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, P<0.02. The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05, body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively, and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05, these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results

  19. Research and Development on Animal Feed in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wan Zahari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the non-ruminant sector to self–sufficiency in meat and eggs has been matched by massive importation of feed. Thus, a major thrust to reduce the burden of feed imports is to increase the use of indigenous feed resources and intensify research to look for alternatives and substitutes. Over the past 3 decades, local researchers have reported on the availability nutritive content, optimal inclusion levels and treatment methods to enhance nutrient value of many locally available feed ingredients in practical poultry rations. The list includes evaluation and utilization of feed rice, palm kernel cake (PKC, broken rice, bran, sorghum, cassava, sago, fishmeal and commercial grain corn production; but the goal of import substitution and self- sufficiency is still unfulfilled. Although PKC, feed rice, local maize and specialty fats has potential to be viable energy feed sources and local fish meal is a promising protein feed source, more large scale Research and Development (R & D is needed. In the ruminant sub-sector, emphasis is towards maximizing use of locally available agro-industrial byproducts and crop residues for the production of cost-effective feeds. The utilization of local feed resources is highly dependent on the supply of agro- industrial byproducts or crop residues from the oil palm and rice industries. In order to encourage a sustainable ruminant industry in Malaysia, local feed production has to be maximized and strengthened. Current emphasis is towards the development of practical and low-cost feeds for various classes of livestock species, particularly by utilizing local forages, tree fodders, crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts. This paper highlights the research and development on animal feed in Malaysia over the last three decades and discusses various aspects of livestock feeding.

  20. Recombinant acylation stimulating protein administration to C3-/- mice increases insulin resistance via adipocyte inflammatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Nancy Munkonda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement 3 (C3, a key component of the innate immune system, is involved in early inflammatory responses. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP; aka C3adesArg, a C3 cleavage product, is produced in adipose tissue and stimulates lipid storage. We hypothesized that, depending on the diet, chronic ASP administration in C3(-/- mice would affect lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity via an adaptive adipose tissue inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C3(-/- mice on normal low fat diet (ND or high fat diet (HFD were chronically administered recombinant ASP (rASP for 25 days via an osmotic mini-pump. While there was no effect on food intake, there was a decrease in activity, with a relative increase in adipose tissue weight on ND, and a shift in adipocyte size distribution. While rASP administration to C3(-/- mice on a ND increased insulin sensitivity, on a HFD, rASP administration had the opposite effect. Specifically, rASP administration in C3(-/- HFD mice resulted in decreased gene expression of IRS1, GLUT4, SREBF1 and NFκB in muscle, and decreased C5L2 but increased JNK, CD36, CD11c, CCR2 and NFκB gene expression in adipose tissue as well as increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (Rantes, KC, MCP-1, IL-6 and G-CSF. In adipose tissue, although IRS1 and GLUT4 mRNA were unchanged, insulin response was reduced. CONCLUSION: The effects of chronic rASP administration are tissue and diet specific, rASP administration enhances the HFD induced inflammatory response leading to an insulin-resistant state. These results suggest that, in humans, the increased plasma ASP associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease could be an additional factor directly contributing to development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  1. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles.

  2. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  3. Live feeds in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, Ph.; Sorgeloos, P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two decades intensive larviculture of several fish and shellfish species has expanded into a multimillion dollar industry. Although much progress has been made in identifying the dietary requirements of the larvae of various aquaculture species, the mass culture of their early larval stages still requires the use of live feeds. Selected either through trial and error approaches or because of their convenience in mass production and use, hatcheries are relying today on three grou...

  4. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  5. Residual Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  6. Mercury-contaminated sediments affect amphipod feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Newman, Michael C; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    A 125-mile reach of the South River, Virginia, was contaminated with mercury during the first half of the 20th century. As increased concentrations of mercury have persisted, researchers have carefully studied its distribution in the river biota and estimated associated risks. The present study evaluated the influence of mercury on feeding rate and uptake by the amphipod Hyalella azteca. The test organisms were exposed for 7 days with leaf discs to reference and contaminated field sediment during the preliminary experiment and additionally to Sedimite (a commercial mercury-sequestering agent) amended sediments during the final experiment. The preliminary experiment demonstrated a decreased feeding rate (approximately 35%) of H. azteca in sediment from a contaminated site relative to sediment from a reference site. The test design of the final experiment took advantage of the knowledge gained in the preliminary experiment by increasing the number of replicates, which decreased the type II error rate. First, the results of the final experiment confirmed the results of the preliminary experiment by again demonstrating differences in the feeding rate of approximately 35% between reference and contaminated sediment. Second, the results indicated a lower feeding rate in reference sediment in the presence of Sedimite. Third, an opposite tendency, although not significant, was apparent for Sedimite-amended contaminated sediment. Thus, Sedimite appears to decrease sediment quality, whereas this conclusion is based on the feeding rate of H. azteca. However, Sedimite and its value as a mercury-sequestering agent requires further evaluation.

  7. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk, vi...

  8. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network....

  9. Food Safety Information RSS feed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...

  10. Multiple part feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design/methodology/approach - Th......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design....../methodology/approach - The necessary AIMM technologies exist at a mature level - the reason that no mobile manipulators have yet been implemented in industrial environments, is that research in the right applications have not been carried out. We propose a pragmatic approach consisting of: a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile...... manipulator system design ("Little Helper"), a suitable and comprehensive industrial application (multiple part feeding), and a general implementation concept for industrial environments (the "Bartender Concept"). Findings - Results from the three days of real-world demonstration show that "Little Helper...

  11. Mice that are fed a high-fat diet display increased hepcidin expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, Érica Martins Ferreira; dos Santos, Aline Noronha; Miyashiro, Renan Akira; Gambero, Sheley; Rocha, Thalita; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery that hepcidin is expressed in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, attention has been increasingly focused on alterations in iron homeostasis that are associated with adiposity. We examined the production of hepcidin, the expression of hepcidin-related genes and the iron content of the adipose tissue in obesity using Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mice were maintained on a control diet or HFD for 12 or 24 wk, and body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. The expression of several genes (hepcidin, TfR1, TfR2, DMT1, FT-heavy, ferroportin, IRP-1, IRP-2 and HIF-1) and the protein expression of hepcidin and IL-6 were quantified. The iron level was assessed using a Prussian blue reaction in paraffin-embedded tissue. After 24 wk on the HFD, we observed increases in the levels of hepcidin in the serum and the visceral adipose tissue. The IL-6 levels also increased in the visceral adipose tissue. Adipocytes isolated from the visceral adipose tissues of lean and obese mice expressed hepcidin at comparable levels; however, isolated macrophages from the stromal vascular fraction expressed higher hepcidin levels. Adipose tissues from obese mice displayed increased tfR2 expression and the presence of iron. Our results indicate that IL-6 and iron may affect the signaling pathways governing hepcidin expression. Thus, the mice fed HFD for 24 wk represent a suitable model for the study of obesity-linked hepcidin alterations. In addition, hepcidin may play local roles in controlling iron availability and interfering with inflammation in adipose tissue.

  12. AgRP Neuron-Specific Deletion of Glucocorticoid Receptor Leads to Increased Energy Expenditure and Decreased Body Weight in Female Mice on a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Miyuki; Banno, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Mariko; Tominaga, Takashi; Onoue, Takeshi; Tsunekawa, Taku; Azuma, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Lu, Wenjun; Ito, Yoshihiro; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) expressed in the arcuate nucleus is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide, which increases food intake and reduces energy expenditure resulting in increases in body weight (BW). Glucocorticoids, key hormones that regulate energy balance, have been shown in rodents to regulate the expression of AgRP. In this study, we generated AgRP-specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-deficient (knockout [KO]) mice. Female and male KO mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) showed decreases in BW at the age of 6 weeks compared with wild-type mice, and the differences remained significant until 16 weeks old. The degree of resistance to diet-induced obesity was more robust in female than in male mice. On a chow diet, the female KO mice showed slightly but significantly attenuated weight gain compared with wild-type mice after 11 weeks, whereas there were no significant differences in BW in males between genotypes. Visceral fat pad mass was significantly decreased in female KO mice on HFD, whereas there were no significant differences in lean body mass between genotypes. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, oxygen consumption was significantly increased in female KO mice on HFD. In addition, the uncoupling protein-1 expression in the brown adipose tissues was increased in KO mice. These data demonstrate that the absence of GR signaling in AgRP neurons resulted in increases in energy expenditure accompanied by decreases in adiposity in mice fed HFD, indicating that GR signaling in AgRP neurons suppresses energy expenditure under HFD conditions.

  13. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  14. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  15. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  16. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  17. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  18. Utilization of Eco-Feed Containing Mugwort Microorganism Compounds as a Feed Ingredient Source for Layer Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruttanavut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Due to price hikes in feed, several strategies should be sought to reduce feeding costs. At the same time, there has been a considerable increase in environmental pollution from food waste. If food waste could be transferred into poultry diets, this would solve a great problem, helping poultry producers to reduce feeding costs, while reducing environmental problems arising from the disposal of food waste. The present study was performed to evaluate the possibility that Eco-feed (feed produced from recycled food waste can be used as a feed ingredient source for layer hens. Approach: To promote the quality of conventional Eco-feed, it was sunk into Japanese Mugwort Silage Juice (JMSJ including microorganism compounds and combined with a compound of microorganisms derived from JMSJ, resulting in Eco-feed Containing Mugwort microorganism compounds (ECM. Thirty-two 56-wk-old White Leghorn hens were divided into 4 groups of 8 birds each. They were fed 0 (control, 10, 20 or 30% dietary ECM for 12 weeks. Results: Compared with the control, although the chickens in all the experimental groups consumed less feed (pConclusion: These results indicate that ECM can be a useful feed ingredient in commercial diets for laying hens at levels up to 20%.

  19. MARKETTING SITUATIONS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDS IN WELMERA AND DENDI WEREDA OF WEST SHOA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MESFIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the status of livestock feed resources and market situations in Welmera and Dendi weredas of West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. The objective of the survey was to assess the potentials and constraints of feed resources and related marketing practices and suggest appropriate intervention options to overcome the constraints. Majority (76% of the interviewed farmers have faced shortage of livestock feeds. The diminishing trend of grazing land from time to time, roughage, concentrate feeds are the factors contributing to feed shortage. Moreover, the increasing trend in selling price of hay and concentrate feeds aggravates more to the problem. This situation is limiting livestock productiv in the highlands of Ethiopia. Under this condition, farmers purchase feeds to both local and crossbred animals. The purchased feeds include: hay, straw, grazing area, oilseed cakes, wheat bran and wet grass. Among these, the grazing area purchased takes the highest (52% proportion. Farmers and traders participate in purchasing of livestock feeds. The proportion of farmers that purchase feeds is higher (30% than that of the traders (1%. To alleviate the problems related to shortage of livestock feeds and decline of animal production and productivity, rearing of improved crossbred dairy cattle under intensive management and forage/fodder development and feeds conservation schemes should be promoted in a wider scale. Considering the ever-increasing price of feeds, there is a need to shift from purchased commercial feeds to the use of farm produced feed resources.

  20. Approaching the Children with Feeding Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding problems in childhood are common, occurring in 25-45% of healthy children and the ratio can be increased up to 80% in children with growth deficiency. Studies with healthy children reported that 20-60% of parents think that their children don’t eat enough. Serious eating disorders which requires intensive medical and behaviour treatment is seen in 3-10% of children. In this review, approach and follow up of a child who was brought to the hospital with feeding problems was studied.

  1. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children What are ... children with feeding and swallowing disorders ? What are feeding and swallowing disorders? Feeding disorders include problems gathering ...

  2. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  3. Nutritional manipulation of feeding behaviour of birds | Ubah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After five different time points (30, 90, 180, 270 and 360 minutes), these birds were ... coarse NSP increased the amount of time birds spent feeding by 32% and consequently ... above normal energy low NSP mixture diet (average feed intake of 120g ). ... after a period of satiety, possibly resulting in a short inter-meal interval.

  4. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Reduction in methane production increases the efficiency of feed utilization in .... archaea represents a loss of 2% to 12% of gross energy of feeds and ... in the rumen as methane; and 75 to 85 % of the Nitrogen consumed by dairy ..... protozoa; the population of fungi and fibrolytic bacteria were also decreased indicating.

  5. Rapid methods : for food and feed quality determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Barug, D.; Lauwaars, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for rapid methods and instrumentation in the field of food and feed quality. Key issues dealt with in the food and feed industry include: monitoring of processes at all stages; showing due diligence in the control of food and nutritional quality; achieving rapid

  6. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilenberg, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-LeRoux, C.; Capellozza, S.; Jensen, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each

  7. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilenberg, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-LeRoux, C.; Capellozza, S.; Jensen, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each

  8. Pneumothorax Following Feeding Tube Placement: Precaution and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Zahmatkesh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasojejunal feeding tubes are being used at an increased frequency, but it is not without complications that could be life-threatening. We report two cases of pneumothorax following small-bore feeding tube insertion into the pleural cavity, resulting in pneumothorax. We further discuss the potential measures that can be taken to prevent and treat this serious complication.

  9. Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Biggar, Robert J; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2012-01-01

    Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle...

  10. Rapid methods : for food and feed quality determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Barug, D.; Lauwaars, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for rapid methods and instrumentation in the field of food and feed quality. Key issues dealt with in the food and feed industry include: monitoring of processes at all stages; showing due diligence in the control of food and nutritional quality; achieving rapid resu

  11. dilemma of choice between breastfeeding and replacement feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REPLACEMENT FEEDING AMONG HIV POSITIVE MOTHERS. IN TANZANIA. DMSJ;19(2) ... greatly increases the risk of disease and death of the baby. [6] . Literature review of .... exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive formula feeding[13]. Many women are .... a difference in the efficacy of peripartum antiretroviral regimens in ...

  12. Re-feeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadaba, A; Paine, J; Adlard, R; Dilkes, M

    2001-09-01

    The effect of a therapeutically administered high calorie diet in a severely malnourished patient is discussed in this case report. In patients with advanced head and neck cancer prolonged periods of malnutrition prior to admission are frequently encountered. This case report highlights the need to constantly monitor the electrolyte and vitamin levels during the early stages of instituting enteral or parenteral nutrition. By vigilant monitoring and a high index of suspicion re-feeding syndrome or severe hypophosphataemia and its associated complications can be avoided.

  13. Feeding the Beast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Anders; Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of fear, we argue, this predisposes people to vote for anti-immigration parties. Our analysis highlights the position of anti-immigration parties; hence, the Sweden Democrats (SD) in Sweden and the Danish People’s Party (DPP) in Denmark. We use frame analysis to detect recurrent frames in the media debate...... as such plays a similar role and provides the DPP with an identity. We conclude that we are confronted with a two-faced beast that feeds on perceptions of the people as ultimately afraid of what are not recognized as native goods....

  14. Food and feed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  15. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeHaar, M.J.; Armentano, L.E.; Weigel, K.; Spurlock, D.M.; Tempelman, R.J.; Veerkamp, R.

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and

  16. Increase or decrease hydrogen sulfide exert opposite lipolysis, but reduce global insulin resistance in high fatty diet induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bin; Cai, Bo; Liao, Feng; Zheng, Yang; Zeng, Qiang; Fan, Xiaofang; Gong, Yongsheng; Yang, Jichun; Cui, Qing Hua; Tang, Chaoshu; Xu, Guo Heng

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue expressed endogenous cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE)/hydrogen sulfide (H2S) system. H2S precursor inhibited catecholamine stimulated lipolysis. Thus, we hypothesized that CSE/H2S system regulates lipolysis which contributed to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We treated rat adipocyte with DL-propargylglycine (PAG, a CSE inhibitor), L-cysteine (an H2S precursor) plus pyridoxial phosphate (co-enzyme) or the H2S chronic release donor GYY4137, then the glycerol level was assayed for assessing the lipolysis. Then, the effects of PAG and GYY4137 on insulin resistance in high fatty diet (HFD) induced obese mice were investigated. Here, we found that PAG time-dependently increased basal or isoproterenol stimulated lipolysis. However, L-cysteine plus pyridoxial phosphate or GYY4137 significantly reduced it. PAG increased phosphorylated protein kinase A substrate, perilipin 1 and hormone sensitive lipase, but L-cysteine and GYY4137 decreased the parameters. In HFD induced obese mice, PAG increased adipose basal lipolysis, thus blunted fat mass increase, resulting in lowering insulin resistance evidenced by reduction of fasting glucose, insulin level, HOMA index, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) curve area and elevating the insulin tolerance test (ITT) response. GYY4137 inhibited lipolysis in vivo without increasing fat mass, but also ameliorated the insulin resistance in HFD mice. These results implicated that inhibition endogenous CSE/H2S system in adipocytes increased lipolysis by a protein kinase A-perilipin/hormone-sensitive lipase pathway, thus blunted fat mass increase and reduced insulin resistance in obese mice; giving H2S donor decreased lipolysis, also reduced insulin resistance induced by HFD. Our data showed that increase or decrease H2S induced opposite lipolysis, but had the same effect on insulin resistance. The paradoxical regulation may be resulted from different action of H2S on metabolic and endocrine function in adipocyte.

  17. Increase or decrease hydrogen sulfide exert opposite lipolysis, but reduce global insulin resistance in high fatty diet induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Geng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue expressed endogenous cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE/hydrogen sulfide (H2S system. H2S precursor inhibited catecholamine stimulated lipolysis. Thus, we hypothesized that CSE/H2S system regulates lipolysis which contributed to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. METHODS: We treated rat adipocyte with DL-propargylglycine (PAG, a CSE inhibitor, L-cysteine (an H2S precursor plus pyridoxial phosphate (co-enzyme or the H2S chronic release donor GYY4137, then the glycerol level was assayed for assessing the lipolysis. Then, the effects of PAG and GYY4137 on insulin resistance in high fatty diet (HFD induced obese mice were investigated. RESULTS: Here, we found that PAG time-dependently increased basal or isoproterenol stimulated lipolysis. However, L-cysteine plus pyridoxial phosphate or GYY4137 significantly reduced it. PAG increased phosphorylated protein kinase A substrate, perilipin 1 and hormone sensitive lipase, but L-cysteine and GYY4137 decreased the parameters. In HFD induced obese mice, PAG increased adipose basal lipolysis, thus blunted fat mass increase, resulting in lowering insulin resistance evidenced by reduction of fasting glucose, insulin level, HOMA index, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT curve area and elevating the insulin tolerance test (ITT response. GYY4137 inhibited lipolysis in vivo without increasing fat mass, but also ameliorated the insulin resistance in HFD mice. CONCLUSION: These results implicated that inhibition endogenous CSE/H2S system in adipocytes increased lipolysis by a protein kinase A-perilipin/hormone-sensitive lipase pathway, thus blunted fat mass increase and reduced insulin resistance in obese mice; giving H2S donor decreased lipolysis, also reduced insulin resistance induced by HFD. Our data showed that increase or decrease H2S induced opposite lipolysis, but had the same effect on insulin resistance. The paradoxical regulation may be resulted from different action of H2S on

  18. Malnutrition, eating difficulties and feeding dependence in a stroke rehabilitation centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, Bas; Brinkman-Zijlker, HG; Dijkstra, PU; Postema, K

    Purpose. To analyse prevalence of malnutrition, eating difficulties and feeding dependence in stroke rehabilitation patients because little is known about these prevalence's. Stroke patients have an increased risk for developing eating difficulties, feeding dependence and malnutrition because of

  19. Malnutrition, eating difficulties and feeding dependence in a stroke rehabilitation centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, Bas; Brinkman-Zijlker, HG; Dijkstra, PU; Postema, K

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To analyse prevalence of malnutrition, eating difficulties and feeding dependence in stroke rehabilitation patients because little is known about these prevalence's. Stroke patients have an increased risk for developing eating difficulties, feeding dependence and malnutrition because of the

  20. Aging Increases Susceptibility to High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice: Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profile after Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Nunes-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been considered a novel component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, with the oxidative stress participating in its progression. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile in young and old mice with MetS, and the effects of apocynin and tempol on glycemic and lipid parameters. Young and old C57BL/6 mice with high fat diet- (HFD- induced MetS received apocynin and tempol 50 mg·kg−1/day in their drinking water for 10 weeks. After HFD, the young group showed elevated fasting glucose, worsened lipid profile in plasma, steatosis, and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the old group presented significant increase in fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and pronounced steatosis. The hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ between the groups. Tempol and apocynin seemed to prevent hepatic lipid deposition in both groups. Furthermore, apocynin improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in old mice. In summary, old mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic changes than their young counterparts. Also, the antioxidant therapy improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and in addition, apocynin seemed to prevent the HFD-induced hepatic fat deposition, suggesting an important role of oxidative stress in the induction of NAFLD.

  1. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  2. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  3. The potential effectiveness of the nutrition improvement program on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, Central Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinsma, Kate; Nkuoh, Godlove; Nshom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    .... Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers' knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children's linear growth, most of the counselling in sub...

  4. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and through direct observations. Twenty major feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into five classes: natural pasture grazing, green feeds, hay, concentrate (commercial mix and agro-industrial by-products) and non-conventional feed resources. Green feeds-fresh or succulent grasses and legumes (mean rank = 0.361), concentrate (0.256), hay (0.198), non-conventional feeds (0.115) and natural pasture grazing (0.070) were ranked as the main feed resources in that order of importance. Green feed (94.4 % of the respondents) was found to be the main basal diet of dairy cattle. Overall, wheat bran (85.2 % of the respondents), commercial concentrate (55.6 %), noug (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (20.4 %), cotton seed cake (7.4 %) and molasses (7.4 %) were the main concentrate supplements used (P > 0.05). Local brew waste (attela) (77.8 % of the respondents), bean and pea hulls (42.6 %) enset (Ensete ventricosum) leaf and pseudo-stem (37 %), sugarcane tops (33.3 %), banana leaf and stem/stover (16.7 %) and papaya stem (16.7 %) were the dominant non-conventional feed resources in the surveyed area (P > 0.05). About 79.6, 7.4, 1.9 and 11.1 % of the farmers used zero-, semi-zero-, and the combination of zero- and semi-zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Most farmers (90.7 %) offered concentrate supplements to milking cows. However, supplementation did not consider milk yield, physiological status and condition of cows. All the farmers (100

  5. Detailed analysis of the individual feeding behavior of male and female mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Lagüe, M; Guy, G; Ricard, E; Marie-Etancelin, C

    2014-04-01

    The feeding behavior of 19 mule ducks (males and females) bred in a group was studied during their growth phase (between 3 and 8 wk of age) using the recording system for waterfowl feeding behavior developed in our lab. The basic feeding behavior data obtained allowed us to confirm on the one hand the reliability of our tool and, on the other hand, to compute food intake traits per day (ADFI, number of visits, and time spent feeding per day), per visit (feed intake per visit, visit duration, and visit feeding rate), and per meal (meal size, meal duration, and meal feeding rate). Daily feed intake increased with age (130 to 248 g/d) while the time spent feeding decreased from 14 to 5.5 min/d. Because the duration of visits remained stable (average 45 s), this reflected a decrease in the number of visits per day. At the same time the feed intake per visit and the feeding rate per visit increased sharply with age. The same trend was observed at the meal level for both the feed intake and the feeding rate. Feed intake did not differ between males and females, but the time spent feeding was significantly greater for females than for males (10.8 and 8.9 min per day and 53 and 37 s per visit for females and males, respectively), leading to significantly greater feeding rate for males (30 g/min) than for females (24 g/min). Grouping visits in meal events minimized the differences between genders as the meals tended to comprise fewer visits for females. Under the hypothesis of a genetic link between feeding behavior during growth and force-feeding ability of ducks, genetic selection of these behavioral traits could be included in breeding programs to improve the force-feeding capacity of mule ducks.

  6. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen White, Linsey King Nutrition and Dietetic Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, Faculty Health and Social Science, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom Abstract: Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump; and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. Keywords: nutrition, perceptions, experience

  7. Self-mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Zhang, Bryan; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  8. Efeitos da inclusão de níveis crescentes de milheto (Pennisetum Glaucum (L. R. Brown grão na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação Effect of feeding increasing levels of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grain for growing and finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Orio Bastos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de desempenho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade nutricional e econômica da utilização de rações com níveis crescentes de milheto na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 40 suínos (metade machos castrados e metade fêmeas, com peso inicial de 25,1±2,11 kg, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições e dois animais (um macho castrado e uma fêmea por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações com níveis crescentes de milheto (0, 25, 50 e 75%. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de milheto sobre o consumo diário de ração (CDR, o ganho diário de peso (GDP e a conversão alimentar (CA na fase de crescimento. Entretanto, na fase de terminação, constatou-se efeito quadrático para o CDR e GDP, comprovando que a inclusão de 26,44% de milheto otimizou o GDP. A inclusão de até 75% de milheto em rações para suínos em crescimento e terminação atende aos requerimentos nutricionais dos animais nessas fases, sendo economicamente viável quando o valor de mercado corresponde a 70% do valor do milho.A performance trial was carried out to evaluate the nutritional and economical analyses of feeding increasing dietary levels of pearl millet for growing and finishing pigs. Forty crossbreed pigs averaging initial body weight of 25.1 ± 2.1 kg were assigned to four treatments as a randomized blocks design with five replicates and two pigs (one barrow and one gilt per experimental unit. The treatments contained the followign levels of pearl millet: 0, 25, 50 and 75%. No effects on daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG, and feed:gain ratio (FGR in the growing phase was detected. However, in the finishing phase, quadratic effect on DWG and DFI was observed, showing that the inclusion of 26.44% of pearl millet increased DWG. The inclusion of pearl millet up to 75% in the diets of growing and

  9. Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, M A; Kubitza, F; Cyrino, J E

    2000-11-01

    The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp.) is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m3 hapas and fed ground fish flesh with 35% success. Then, 1.3 g fish were pooled, stocked in six 25 L cages and fed two pellet sequences with 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0% ground fish flesh (GFF). One sequence was flavored with 10% krill meal (Euphausia sp.). Training success of fish fed the GFF-00 diet flavored with krill reached 12%a compared to 11.6%a (p GFF with 39.8% success. After the feed training period, 2.2 g fish were then fed a sequence of moist pellets containing 80%, 60% and 45% GFF. Fish trained to feed on moist pellets with 45% ground fish were pooled and stocked into nine 25 L cages. Fish were weaned to dry pellets without ground fish flesh (GFF-00) using three diet sequences: 1) dry pellets; 2) moist pellets; and 3) dry pellets flavored with 4% cod liver oil; all three diets contained 30, 10 and 0% GFF. The three sequences yielded, respectively 30.8%a, 23.6%a, and 24.7%a (p GFF-00. There were no apparent beneficial effects of increasing moisture or addition of cod liver oil as flavor enhancers in the weaning diets. This study revealed the feasibility of training peacock bass to accept dry pellets, but feeding young fish ground fish flesh seemed to be a major bottleneck in improving feed training success.

  10. Review of complementary feeding practices in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja-Mendoza, Itzayana Y; Meléndez, Guillermo; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E

    2014-10-19

    The early introduction of food is consistent with a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, particularly in children, partly because of the resulting changes in feeding patterns. The purpose of this study was to describe the complementary feeding practices of Mexican children younger than two years of age. Medline, Lilacs and manual methods were used to search for studies that assessed feeding practices in children younger than two years of age in Mexico. The following terms were used: complementary feeding, supplementary feeding, Mexico and weaning. Data on complementary feeding practices, including the age of initiation, the type of foods eaten, the frequency of food intake and the reasons for starting complementary feeding, were collected. The information gathered was subjected to qualitative analysis, and the data are presented as proportions in the tables. The seven studies included in this evaluation revealed that children were introduced to complementary feeding before the age of 6 months. Although fruits were the foods most commonly provided when complementary feeding began, processed juices, soft drinks and fried snacks were also offered. The intake of these products increased as the children grew older and coincided with a low intake of foods containing high-biological value protein, particularly red meats. The results of the included studies showed that during complementary feeding, infants receive high-energy density foods, whereas the intake of foods that provide animal protein and iron in particular is low. In addition, common conditions associated with complementary feeding include overweight, obesity, malnutrition, and anemia, which may contribute to health problems. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Stimulation of lateral hypothalamic kainate receptors selectively elicits feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettes, Stacey R; Heyming, Theodore W; Stanley, B Glenn

    2007-12-12

    Glutamate and its receptor agonists, NMDA, AMPA, and KA, elicit feeding when microinjected into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) of satiated rats. However, determining the relative contributions of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and KA receptors (KARs) to LH feeding mechanisms has been difficult due to a lack of receptor selective agonists and antagonists. Furthermore, LH injection of KA produces behavioral hyperactivity, questioning a role for KARs in feeding selective stimulation. In the present study, we used the KAR agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), which selectively binds the GluR5 subunit of KARs, to stimulate feeding, presumably via KAR activation. Using ATPA, we tested whether: (1) LH injection of ATPA elicits feeding, (2) prior treatment with the non-selective AMPA/KAR antagonist, CNQX, suppresses ATPA-elicited feeding, and (3) LH injection of ATPA elicits behavioral patterns specific for feeding. We found that injection of ATPA (0.1 and 1 nmol) elicited an intense feeding response (e.g., 4.8+/-1.6 g) that was blocked by LH pretreatment with CNQX, but was unaffected by pretreatment with the AMPAR selective antagonist, GYKI 52466. Furthermore, minute-by-minute behavioral analysis revealed that LH injection of ATPA increased time spent feeding to 55% of the initial test period with little or no effects on other behaviors at any time. In contrast, LH injection of KA similarly increased feeding but also produced intense locomotor activity. These data suggest that selective activation of LH KARs containing GluR5 subunit(s) is sufficient to elicit feeding.

  12. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  13. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati...

  14. Design of Multilevel Sequential Rotation Feeding Networks Used for Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential rotation feeding networks can significantly improve performance of the circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. In this paper, single, double, and multiple series-parallel sequential rotation feeding networks are examined. Compared with conventional parallel feeding structures, these multilevel feeding techniques present reduction of loss, increase of bandwidth, and improvement of radiation pattern and polarization purity. By using corner-truncated square patch as the array element and adopting appropriate level of sequential rotation series-parallel feeding structures as feeding networks, microstrip arrays can generate excellent circular polarization (CP over a relatively wide frequency band. They can find wide applications in phased array radar and satellite communication systems.

  15. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    challenging for larval rearing. After the start of exogenous feeding, another intense and likely critical period of change occurs in the early life stages of fish. This stage is the metamorphosis, during which the larvae transform organs and body morphology to become juveniles. Compared to other teleosts...... metamorphosis in flatfish species is often unsuccessful, resulting in different types of abnormal development. The objective of this thesis was to analyse the feeding behaviour of the flatfish species turbot (Psetta maxima L.) larvae during the two crucial life periods, 1) first feeding and 2) metamorphosis....... To analyse whether these two periods are critical for the correct development and survival of turbot, feeding behaviours of larvae during the period of first feeding and during the first stages of metamorphosis was studied using video recordings. This provided qualitative and quantitative descriptions...

  16. Co-parenting and feeding in early childhood: Reflections of parent dyads on how they manage the developmental stages of feeding over the first three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew; Majee, Wilson; Davis, Alexandra N

    2016-10-01

    Family-level influences on the development of healthy eating behaviors start in infancy and toddlerhood with how families manage developmental stages of feeding. Little research on home feeding environments for young children has examined how mothers and fathers collaborate around feeding issues or contribute jointly to feeding. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine co-parenting with regard to infant/toddler feeding practices. Twenty-four sets of co-resident, biological parents with a child between 6 months and 3 years were interviewed together about their feeding practices and how they discussed and collaborated on feeding during the main stages of feeding development in the first three years. Analyses illuminate themes related to how specific domains of co-parenting (satisfaction with labor, support, agreement, conflict) factor into infant and toddler feeding as well as how additional factors such as having older children and employment schedules shape how both food parenting practices and co-parenting are managed in relation to feeding. Mothers were the primary managers of feeding labor. Fathers participated in feeding in different ways and levels starting in infancy and increased involvement in feeding over the first few years requiring an ongoing negotiation around co-parenting related to feeding. Overall, this study develops insights into how multiple caregivers construct a family environment specifically related to early feeding - a perspective missing from current conceptualizations of home feeding environment. Attention to the concept of co-parenting within home feeding environments should help inform more effective approaches to intervene with families on issues around childhood obesity and family health.

  17. High-fat diet increases O-GlcNAc levels in cerebral arteries: a link to vascular dysfunction associated with hyperlipidaemia/obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Victor V; Giachini, Fernanda R; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Li, Weiguo; Bressan, Alecsander F M; Chawla, Dhruv; Webb, R Clinton; Ergul, Adviye; Tostes, Rita C

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and high fat intake induce alterations in vascular function and structure. Aberrant O-GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) of vascular proteins has been implicated in vascular dysfunction associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet (HFD)-mediated increases in O-GlcNAc-modified proteins contribute to cerebrovascular dysfunction. O-GlcNAc-protein content was increased in arteries from male Wistar rats treated with a HFD (45% fat) for 12 weeks compared with arteries from rats on control diet (CD). HFD augmented body weight [(g) 550±10 compared with 502±10 CD], increased plasma triacylglycerols [(mg/dl) 160±20 compared with 95±15 CD] and increased contractile responses of basilar arteries to serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] [(pD2) 7.0±0.1 compared with 6.7±0.09 CD] and the thromboxane analogue 9,11-dideoxy-9α,11α-methanoepoxy prostaglandin F2α (U-46619) [(pD2) 7.2±0.1 compared with 6.8±0.09 CD]. Of importance, increased levels of O-GlcNAc [induced by 24 h-incubation of vessels with a potent inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase (OGA), O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PugNAc)] increased basilar artery contractions in response to U-46619 [(pD2) 7.4±0.07 compared with 6.8±0.08 CD] and 5-HT [(pD2) 7.5±0.06 compared with 7.1±0.1 CD]. Vessels from rats on the HFD for 12 weeks and vessels treated with PugNAc displayed increased phosphorylation of p38 (Thr(180/182)) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) (Ser(180/221)). Increased 5HT-induced contractions in arteries from rats on the HFD or in arteries incubated with PugNAc were abrogated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. Our data show that HFD augments cerebrovascular O-GlcNAc and this modification contributes to increased contractile responses and to the activation of the MAPK pathway in the rat basilar artery.

  18. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  19. A transient ghrelin surge occurs just before feeding in a scheduled meal-fed sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, T; Hasegawa, Y; Kikkawa, Y; Yamaura, J; Yamagishi, M; Kurose, Y; Kojima, M; Kangawa, K; Terashima, Y

    2002-07-12

    Ghrelin, a gastric-derived peptide, has recently been identified as an endogenous natural ligand for the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor. However, secretory characteristics of ghrelin are still obscure in ruminants. To investigate the diurnal rhythm in ghrelin secretion and its relationship to GH secretion, plasma ghrelin and GH concentrations were determined in Suffolk rams fed with a roughage diet once daily (Experiment 1). Abrupt increases (Pghrelin occurred just before a meal-feeding compared with that at 1h before feeding, then rapidly fell with a minimum during the feeding. A pulsatile surge (Pghrelin, was observed during the feeding. In Experiment 2, plasma ghrelin and GH were determined in sheep subjected to a pseudo-feeding of 2h to determine whether feed ingestion itself influences ghrelin and GH secretions. Compared with those at 1h before feeding, a tendency of increases (Pghrelin and significant increases (Pghrelin temporally declined within 1h after the start of the pseudo-feeding, and increased again and maintained higher levels during the last period of the pseudo-feeding. These results suggest that the transient surge of ghrelin secretion just before a scheduled meal feeding would not be due to the ingestion of feed, and that a pulsatile increase in plasma GH during the actual- or pseudo-feeding could be induced by the transient ghrelin surge.

  20. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  1. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  2. Market for ethanol feed joint products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Gould, B.

    1979-10-01

    This report presents results of econometric estimations and mathematical simulations of markets for joint feed products of motor ethanol. The major issues considered are the nature of current market price relationships, effects on prices, including feed substitutes prices, and effects of demands for increased use of distillers' grains and gluten meal. The econometric section shows that soybean meal was by far the dominant force in the pricing of the two products. However, neither one could be adequately explained without the inclusion of corn in the estimating equations. Later research shows that this was due to the importance of both feeds for metabolizable energy as well as for protein in livestock diets. Current ration formulations would require some discounting of the value of the protein content of the two feeds. Careful siting of the ethanol facilities, and flexible design of the plants so that a maximum number of products may be extracted from the feedstock, seem necessary. Finally, the analysis indicates that substitution in animal diets of these joint products for the corn or milo used originally requires that additional energy be supplied to the animal by some type of forage crop. This implies that additional land may be required for energy production, for such marginal crops as hay and alfalfa, rather than for row crops.

  3. Ethical Challenges in Infant Feeding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kagawa, Masaharu

    2017-01-11

    Infants have a complex set of nutrient requirements to meet the demands of their high metabolic rate, growth, and immunological and cognitive development. Infant nutrition lays the foundation for health throughout life. While infant feeding research is essential, it must be conducted to the highest ethical standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of developments in infant nutrition for the ethics of infant feeding research and the implications for obtaining informed consent. A search was undertaken of the papers in the medical literature using the PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and CINAHL databases. From a total of 9303 papers identified, the full text of 87 articles that contained discussion of issues in consent in infant feeding trials were obtained and read and after further screening 42 papers were included in the results and discussion. Recent developments in infant nutrition of significance to ethics assessment include the improved survival of low birth weight infants, increasing evidence of the value of breastfeeding and evidence of the lifelong importance of infant feeding and development in the first 1000 days of life in chronic disease epidemiology. Informed consent is a difficult issue, but should always include information on the value of preserving breastfeeding options. Project monitoring should be cognisant of the long term implications of growth rates and early life nutrition.

  4. Brain glucosamine boosts protective glucoprivic feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osundiji, Mayowa A; Zhou, Ligang; Shaw, Jill; Moore, Stephen P; Yueh, Chen-Yu; Sherwin, Robert; Heisler, Lora K; Evans, Mark L

    2010-04-01

    The risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia is increased in diabetic patients who lose defensive glucoregulatory responses, including the important warning symptom of hunger. Protective hunger symptoms during hypoglycemia may be triggered by hypothalamic glucose-sensing neurons by monitoring changes downstream of glucose phosphorylation by the specialized glucose-sensing hexokinase, glucokinase (GK), during metabolism. Here we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of glucosamine (GSN), a GK inhibitor, on food intake at normoglycemia and protective feeding responses during glucoprivation and hypoglycemia in chronically catheterized rats. ICV infusion of either GSN or mannoheptulose, a structurally different GK inhibitor, dose-dependently stimulated feeding at normoglycemia. Consistent with an effect of GSN to inhibit competitively glucose metabolism, ICV coinfusion of d-glucose but not l-glucose abrogated the orexigenic effect of ICV GSN at normoglycemia. Importantly, ICV infusion of a low GSN dose (15 nmol/min) that was nonorexigenic at normoglycemia boosted feeding responses to glucoprivation in rats with impaired glucose counterregulation. ICV infusion of 15 nmol/min GSN also boosted feeding responses to threatened hypoglycemia in rats with defective glucose counterregulation. Altogether our findings suggest that GSN may be a potential therapeutic candidate for enhancing defensive hunger symptoms during hypoglycemia.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis using 2DE-LC-MS/MS reveals the mechanism of Fuzhuan brick tea extract against hepatic fat accumulation in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonghua; Lin, Yong; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Die; Liang, Qionglin; Luo, Guoan

    2015-09-01

    Fuzhuan brick tea has received increasing attention in recent years owing to its benefits for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated metabolic syndrome. For exploring the ameliorative mechanism, the liver proteomes from three groups of rats fed either a normal control diet (NCD), a high fat diet (HFD), or a HFD supplemented with high-dose Fuzhuan brick tea extract (FTE) (HFD + HFTE) were comprehensively compared by quantitative proteomics using 2DE-LC-MS/MS. This is the first study of the effects of tea aqueous extract on the liver proteome of rats suffering from metabolic syndrome. The results showed that 57 proteins displayed more than 1.5-fold differences in at least one of two comparisons of HFD versus NCD and HFD versus HFD + HFTE due to HFD feeding and FTE treatment, respectively. Of them, over 75% of proteins exhibited a similar tendency of expression in the two comparisons, meaning FTE was able to correct HFD effects on rat livers. By function analyses, an extensive list of proteins was involved in sugar and lipid metabolism. Compared with HFD-fed rats, the reduced lipogenesis and enhanced β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain in HFD + HFTE-fed rats, which mainly contributed to ameliorate hepatic fat accumulation and associated NAFLD. Additionally, some putative drug targets were also revealed such as COX2, PGAM1, ACACB, FAS, and ECHS1.

  6. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.15 Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed... subtherapeutic (increased rate of gain, disease prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic and sulfonamide drugs whether granted by approval of new animal drug applications, master files and/or...

  7. Creep feed intake during lactation enhances net absorption in the small intestine after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuller, W.I.; Beers-Schreurs, van H.M.G.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the effect of creep feeding during lactation on net absorption in the small intestine at 4 days after weaning. Intermittent suckling was used to increase creep feed intake during lactation. Creep feed containing chromic oxide was provided. Based on the colour of t

  8. Synergy between bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teekens, A.M.; Bruins, M.E.; Kasteren, van J.M.N.; Hendriks, W.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Processing biomass into multi-functional components can contribute to the increasing demand for raw materials for feed and bio-based non-food products. This contribution aims to demonstrate synergy between the bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery of currently used feed

  9. Feeding Chromonaela odorata during pregnancy to goat dams affects acceptance of this feedstuff by their offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats

  10. Feeding Chromonaela odorata during pregnancy to goat dams affects acceptance of this feedstuff by their offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats

  11. Meat Characteristics, Fatty Liver Weight and Blood Biochemical Parameters in Force-Feeding Geese

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A study on growth performance, meat characteristics, fatty liver weight and serum biochemical parameters (ASAT, ALAT, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine) in Landes geese before and after force-feeding was carried out. The overfeeding of geese with corn was taken after 90-days of age. Frequency of daily force feeding was gradually increased from 2 to 5 until the 15th day of force feeding. During force-feeding period, the body weight inc...

  12. Effects of Feed Composition and Feed Impurities in the Catalytic Conversion of Syngas to Higher Alcohols over Alkali-Promoted Cobalt–Molybdenum Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2011-01-01

    Alkali-promoted cobalt–molybdenum sulfide is a potential catalyst for the conversion of syngas into higher alcohols. This work is an investigation of how the feed composition influences the behavior of the sulfide catalyst. In a sulfur-free syngas the production of higher alcohols is observed...... to be optimal with an equimolar mixture of CO and H2 in the feed, while the methanol production benefits from an increasing hydrogen content in the feed. The influence of NH3 and H2O in the syngas feed has also been investigated. Ammonia (741 ppmv) in the feed is observed to cause a general and largely...

  13. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles and the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children's eating behavior are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 African-American mother-infant pairs with feeding styles, dietary recalls, and anthropometry collected from 3 to 18 months of infant age, we examined the relationship between feeding styles, infant diet, and weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Longitudinal mixed models indicated that higher pressuring and indulgent feeding style scores were positively associated with greater infant energy intake, reduced odds of breastfeeding, and higher levels of age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids, whereas restrictive feeding styles were associated with lower energy intake, higher odds of breastfeeding, and reduced odds of inappropriate feeding. Pressuring and restriction were also oppositely related to infant size with pressuring associated with lower infant weight-for-age and restriction with higher weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Infant size also predicted maternal feeding styles in subsequent visits indicating that the relationship between size and feeding styles is likely bidirectional. Our results suggest that the degree to which parents are pressuring or restrictive during feeding shapes the early feeding environment and, consequently, may be an important environmental factor in the development of obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  14. Feeding practices correlated with authoritative parenting style and responsive feeding style scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objective was to identify correlations of authoritative parenting and responsive feeding styles with parental practices and child behaviors previously found to protect children from or increase risk of child obesity. Participants were 144 low-income mothers of 3- to 5-year-old children (71 gir...

  15. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Mardare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST or a high fat diet (HFD and subjected to regular endurance training (ET or resistance training (RT. After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs, circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p<0.05. An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p<0.05. Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p<0.05 and reduced serum ceramides (p<0.005. While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p<0.001, respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p<0.001, ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Increased lipolysis and altered lipid homeostasis protect γ-synuclein–null mutant mice from diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millership, Steven; Ninkina, Natalia; Guschina, Irina A.; Norton, Jessica; Brambilla, Riccardo; Oort, Pieter J.; Adams, Sean H.; Dennis, Rowena J.; Voshol, Peter J.; Rochford, Justin J.; Buchman, Vladimir L.

    2012-01-01

    Synucleins are a family of homologous proteins principally known for their involvement in neurodegeneration. γ-Synuclein is highly expressed in human white adipose tissue and increased in obesity. Here we show that γ-synuclein is nutritionally regulated in white adipose tissue whereas its loss partially protects mice from high-fat diet (HFD)–induced obesity and ameliorates some of the associated metabolic complications. Compared with HFD-fed WT mice, HFD-fed γ-synuclein–null mutant mice display increased lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and energy expenditure, and reduced adipocyte hypertrophy. Knockdown of γ-synuclein in adipocytes causes redistribution of the key lipolytic enzyme ATGL to lipid droplets and increases lipolysis. γ-Synuclein–deficient adipocytes also contain fewer SNARE complexes of a type involved in lipid droplet fusion. We hypothesize that γ-synuclein may deliver SNAP-23 to the SNARE complexes under lipogenic conditions. Via these independent but complementary roles, γ-synuclein may coordinately modulate lipid storage by influencing lipolysis and lipid droplet formation. Our data reveal γ-synuclein as a regulator of lipid handling in adipocytes, the function of which is particularly important in conditions of nutrient excess. PMID:23213245

  17. Increased lipolysis and altered lipid homeostasis protect γ-synuclein-null mutant mice from diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millership, Steven; Ninkina, Natalia; Guschina, Irina A; Norton, Jessica; Brambilla, Riccardo; Brambilla, Ricardo; Oort, Pieter J; Adams, Sean H; Dennis, Rowena J; Voshol, Peter J; Rochford, Justin J; Buchman, Vladimir L

    2012-12-18

    Synucleins are a family of homologous proteins principally known for their involvement in neurodegeneration. γ-Synuclein is highly expressed in human white adipose tissue and increased in obesity. Here we show that γ-synuclein is nutritionally regulated in white adipose tissue whereas its loss partially protects mice from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and ameliorates some of the associated metabolic complications. Compared with HFD-fed WT mice, HFD-fed γ-synuclein-null mutant mice display increased lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and energy expenditure, and reduced adipocyte hypertrophy. Knockdown of γ-synuclein in adipocytes causes redistribution of the key lipolytic enzyme ATGL to lipid droplets and increases lipolysis. γ-Synuclein-deficient adipocytes also contain fewer SNARE complexes of a type involved in lipid droplet fusion. We hypothesize that γ-synuclein may deliver SNAP-23 to the SNARE complexes under lipogenic conditions. Via these independent but complementary roles, γ-synuclein may coordinately modulate lipid storage by influencing lipolysis and lipid droplet formation. Our data reveal γ-synuclein as a regulator of lipid handling in adipocytes, the function of which is particularly important in conditions of nutrient excess.

  18. Nutrition and Feeding of Organic Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years organic livestock production has gained interest all over the world due to the increased consumer demand for food that is perceived to be safe, healthy, flavorsome and produced in an environmentally sustainable way. This book completes a trilogy of books by Professor Robert Blair dealing with the nutrition of feeding of farm animals that are produced organically. Through its 7 chapters.....

  19. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  20. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  1. EFFECT OF FEEDS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUS COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRAN KUMAR DIVYA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous cows, on farm level, kept on feeding supplemented with powdered root of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.. It was observed that feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed increased percentage milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids significantly without altering quality and natural attributes of milk. Significant residual effect of feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed was also observed in terms of percentage increase in milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids (TS up to ten days after Shatavari roots supplemented was stopped to cows.

  2. Feeding value of pastures for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, G C; Clark, D A

    2004-12-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the primary forage component of ruminant diets in New Zealand. It is persistent and palatable, and immature ryegrass has a high nutritive value (NV). However, seedhead development substantially lowers its feeding value (FV) as fibre concentration increases, the rate and extent of digestibility decreases, and voluntary intake declines. Ryegrass pastures are susceptible to accumulation of endophytic and saprophytic fungi in dead material at the base of the sward, especially when mature and laxly grazed. Feeding forage legumes to ruminants grazing grass-dominant pastures will improve animal performance and lessen the reliance on a single species to meet all nutritional requirements. The FV of forage is a function of intake and NV, measured by chemical analyses and animal feeding trials. Performance of individual animals grazing forages is usually limited by energy intake because structural fibre can slow digestion and clearance from the rumen and because of competition between individuals for available feed. The use of metabolisable energy (ME) content of forage to signify FV can give a reasonable indication of animal performance, but it should be used in conjunction with chemical analyses to improve the accuracy of predictions. The relationship between FV, pasture production, animal performance and profitability is complex. The importance of skilled management to maintain pasture quality and optimise animal performance under inconsistent climatic conditions should not be underestimated. Acceptable animal performance with minimal veterinary intervention requires good nutrition, but the genetic potential of livestock in New Zealand cannot be met solely by grazing pasture, especially when a high utilisation of pasture is required to maintain quality and profitability. Producers are responding to industry demands to reduce the seasonality in supply of milk and meat by changing lambing and calving dates, and extending lactation length in dairy cows

  3. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure... additives, and feed supplements in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. ...

  4. Schistosome feeding and regurgitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Skelly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect >200 million people worldwide, causing the chronic, debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Unusual among parasitic helminths, the long-lived adult worms, continuously bathed in blood, take up nutrients directly across the body surface and also by ingestion of blood into the gut. Recent proteomic analyses of the body surface revealed the presence of hydrolytic enzymes, solute, and ion transporters, thus emphasising its metabolic credentials. Furthermore, definition of the molecular mechanisms for the uptake of selected metabolites (glucose, certain amino acids, and water establishes it as a vital site of nutrient acquisition. Nevertheless, the amount of blood ingested into the gut per day is considerable: for males ∼100 nl; for the more actively feeding females ∼900 nl, >4 times body volume. Ingested erythrocytes are lysed as they pass through the specialized esophagus, while leucocytes become tethered and disabled there. Proteomics and transcriptomics have revealed, in addition to gut proteases, an amino acid transporter in gut tissue and other hydrolases, ion, and lipid transporters in the lumen, implicating the gut as the site for acquisition of essential lipids and inorganic ions. The surface is the principal entry route for glucose, whereas the gut dominates amino acid acquisition, especially in females. Heme, a potentially toxic hemoglobin degradation product, accumulates in the gut and, since schistosomes lack an anus, must be expelled by the poorly understood process of regurgitation. Here we place the new observations on the proteome of body surface and gut, and the entry of different nutrient classes into schistosomes, into the context of older studies on worm composition and metabolism. We suggest that the balance between surface and gut in nutrition is determined by the constraints of solute diffusion imposed by differences in male and female worm morphology. Our conclusions have

  5. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-NL-2010-78 for the placing on the market of herbicide-tolerant, increased oleic acid genetically modified soybean MON 87705 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion is a risk assessment of the genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant, increased oleic acid soybean MON 87705 for food and feed uses, import and processing. MON 87705 contains the soybean FAD2-1A/FATB1-A gene fragments down-regulating endogenous FAD2 and FATB enzymes and the CP4 epsps gene cassette conferring tolerance to glyphosate-containing herbicides. Bioinformatic analyses and genetic stability studies did not raise safety issues. The levels of the CP4 EPSPS protein in soybean MON 87705 have been sufficiently analysed. MON 87705 differs from the conventional counterpart in the fatty acid profile (proportion of (C18:1 oleic acid increased and proportions of (C18:2 linoleic acid and (C16:0 palmitic acid decreased in seeds and the presence of the CP4 EPSPS protein. Scientific risk assessment of soybean MON 87705 was carried out in the context of the intended use as specified by the applicant, namely its use for food and feed as any conventional soybean except for the oil derived from soybean MON 87705, which is to be used in margarine, salad dressing, mayonnaise and home-use liquid vegetable oil, excluding the use of soybean MON 87705 oil for commercial frying.

    The safety assessment identified no concerns regarding potential toxicity and allergenicity of the CP4 EPSPS protein. The altered fatty acid profile did not raise concerns regarding toxicity. The overall allergenicity of the whole plant was not changed by the genetic modification. The estimated changes in intake levels of these fatty acids do not raise nutritional concerns in the context of the intended use as specified by the applicant. A feeding study on broiler chickens confirmed that defatted meal of soybean MON 87705 is as nutritious as meals produced from its conventional counterpart and non-GM reference varieties. There are no indications of an increased likelihood of establishment and spread of feral soybean plants

  6. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  7. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal’s past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.

  8. Fed-Batch Feeding Strategies for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    of the differences in the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme. The model is then used to evaluate various feeding strategies to improve the enzymatic biodiesel production. The feeding strategies investigated, gave insight into how the methanol should be fed to potentially mitigate enzyme deactivation...... while improving the biodiesel yield. The best experimental results gave a yield of 703 .76 g FAME L-1 and a reactor productivity of 28.12 g FAME L-1 h-1. In comparison, to reach the same yield, the optimised two step feeding strategy took 6.25 hours less, which equates to an increase the reactor...

  9. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic......-chemical dietary fibre (DF) analytical method compared with conventional analytical methods of crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). We expect the DF method to provide detailed and useful information concerning the nutritional properties of feed ingredients for horses....

  10. Unsuppressed lipolysis in adipocytes is linked with enhanced gluconeogenesis and altered bile acid physiology in Insr(P1195L/+) mice fed high-fat-diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Sakurai, Kenichi; Zhang, Xilin; Toda, Chitoku; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Jiang, Meizi; Shirasawa, Takuji; Tachibana, Kaori; Yokote, Koutaro; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Miki, Takashi

    2015-11-30

    High-fat diet (HFD) triggers insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, but their link remains unclear. Characterization of overt hyperglycemia in insulin receptor mutant (Insr(P1195L/+)) mice exposed to HFD (Insr(P1195L/+)/HFD mice) revealed increased glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) expression in liver and increased gluconeogenesis from glycerol. Lipolysis in white adipose tissues (WAT) and lipolysis-induced blood glucose rise were increased in Insr(P1195L/+)/HFD mice, while wild-type WAT transplantation ameliorated the hyperglycemia and the increased G6pc expression. We found that the expressions of genes involved in bile acid (BA) metabolism were altered in Insr(P1195L/+)/HFD liver. Among these, the expression of Cyp7a1, a BA synthesis enzyme, was insulin-dependent and was markedly decreased in Insr(P1195L/+)/HFD liver. Reduced Cyp7a1 expression in Insr(P1195L/+)/HFD liver was rescued by WAT transplantation, and the expression of Cyp7a1 was suppressed by glycerol administration in wild-type liver. These findings suggest that unsuppressed lipolysis in adipocytes elicited by HFD feeding is linked with enhanced gluconeogenesis from glycerol and with alterations in BA physiology in Insr(P1195L/+)/HFD liver.

  11. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  12. Feeding profiles of tame moose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the feeding profiles of tame moose. 3 moose were observed for 99 hours while in natural range, each bite plant species, browse conditions and size...

  13. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Susan; Shepherd, Megan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP) to pets (dogs and cats) is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet’s diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. Methods An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. Results There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both ‘in general’ and ‘with respect to nutrition’ than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet’s nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Discussion Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition. PMID:28265510

  14. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of polydopamine- and polydopamine-. graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-coated feed spacers and membranes, copper-coated feed spacers, and commercially-available biostatic feed spacers on biofouling has been studied in membrane fouling simulators. Feed spacers and membranes applied in practical membrane filtration systems were used; biofouling development was monitored by feed channel pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG are hydrophilic surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG coatings on feed spacers and membranes, copper coatings on feed spacers, and a commercial biostatic feed spacer did not have a significant impact on feed channel pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation as measured by ATP and TOC content. The studied spacer and membrane modifications were not effective for biofouling control; it is doubtful that feed spacer and membrane modification, in general, may be effective for biofouling control regardless of the type of applied coating. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Application of deactivating properties of some sorbents in aquaculture feed production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasukevich, T A; Nitievskaya, L S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility and effectiveness of application of selective sorbents for fish feed production in aquaculture in the area exposed to the radioactive pollution were studied. The investigations of the fish feed deactivating properties with additives of ferrocyn and potassium alginate, and magnesium on whitefish fry-fingerlings and yearlings were carried out. The study has shown that the ferrocyn performance is greater than 99% regardless of the fish age. 1% ferrocyn addition to feed allows increasing the acceptable concentration of feed compo- nents polluted by the above norm cesium radionuclide up to 20 times. The alginate additives in feed provide almost double decrease in the activity of fish tissues. The optimally effective alginate dose should exceed the calcium concentration in feed up to 4 times. It was found that utilization of the feedstock (fish meal, crops and legumes, oil meal and oil cake) polluted by radionuclides is possible in combined aquaculture feed pro- duction. The application of sorbents in feed will allow increasing the amount permissible for use of the feed components polluted above the norm; ensure the radiation safety of feed and, finally, the protection of aquatic biological resources from radioactive contamination. It is shown that the sorbent additive in feed is also jus- tified in case of fish farming in closed waters affected by radioactive pollution. Feeding by mixed fodder with the sorbent additives prevents fish from radionuclide intake from natural food sources.

  16. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  17. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  18. Growth of bacteria in enteral feeding solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, A

    1985-08-01

    Solutions of Clinifeed ISO, Triosorbon, Vivonex Standard (full- and half-strength) and Vivonex HN were experimentally contaminated with two strains each of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae at concentrations of 10(2)-10(3) organisms/ml. Samples were incubated at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C and viable counts were made at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h. No increase in numbers of any of the organisms was observed in any of the feeds during 24 h at 4 degrees C. All organisms multiplied rapidly in Clinifeed ISO and in Triosorbon at 25 and 37 degrees C. There was less rapid growth in half-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, although at 37 degrees C all strains multiplied rapidly except for the two S. aureus strains, the growth of which was inhibited in half-strength Vivonex Standard at both 25 and 37 degrees C. In full-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, only P. aeruginosa showed any increase in numbers during 24 h, whereas P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes and E. cloacae all multiplied at 37 degrees C. None of the test organisms multiplied in full strength Vivonex HN at any of the temperatures studied. The results of the study show that bacteria survive and may multiply even in feeds with low pH and high osmolarity, and emphasise the importance of strict hygiene during the preparation and handling of all enteral feeds.

  19. Palatability of two artificial feeds for reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Rognmo

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of 15 reindeer were used to test the palatability of two artificial diets. None of the animals had experienced the diets before. Trials were carried out from April to mid May. Each group of animals was kept in a separate corral (600 sq. meters. Both groups were fed lichens for three days befort trials began. Then they were offered a concentrate feed (RF-80 or «Mill Waste Product» (MWP ad libitum. Both groups ate little or nothing for the first three days of the trial and so lichens were mixed with the two experimental feeds. The mean voluntary food intake of the RF-80-group increased from 0.8 Kg/day/animal to 1.8 Kg/day/animal after three weeks. A mixed feed, RF-80/lichen, was only used the first day for animals in the RF-80 group. Reindeer refused to eat MWP for twelve days despite mixing it with lichens. They were then offered RF-80 ad lib. without a mixture of lichens. The mean voluntary intake of these animals increased from 1.3 Kg RF-80/day/animal on day 13 to 2.3 Kg/day/animal by day 26. Two calves in the MWP-group got diarrhoea after refeeding with RF-80.

  20. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  1. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermen...

  2. Supporting oral feeding in fragile infants: an evidence-based method for quality bottle-feedings of preterm, ill, and fragile infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Erin Sundseth; Philbin, M Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Successful oral feeding of preterm and other ill and fragile infants is an interactive process that requires (1) sensitive, ongoing assessment of an infant's physiology and behavior, (2) knowledgeable decisions that support immediate and long-term enjoyment of food, and (3) competent skill in feeding. Caregivers can support feeding success by using the infant's biological and behavioral channels of communication to inform their feeding decisions and actions. The Supporting Oral Feeding in Fragile Infants (SOFFI) Method is described here with text, algorithms, and reference guides. Two of the algorithms and the reference guides are published separately as Philbin, Ross. SOFFI Reference Guides: Text, Algorithms, and Appendices (in review). The information in all of these materials is drawn from sound research findings and, rarely, when such findings are not available, from expert, commonly accepted clinical practice. If the quality of a feeding takes priority over the quantity ingested, feeding skill develops pleasurably and at the infant's own pace. Once physiologic organization and behavioral skills are established, an affinity for feeding and the ingestion of sufficient quantity occur naturally, often rapidly, and at approximately the same postmenstrual age as volume-focused feedings. Nurses, therapists, and parents alike can use the SOFFI Method to increase the likelihood of feeding success in the population of infants at risk for feeding problems that emerge in infancy and extend into the preschool years.

  3. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  4. Mice deficient in Sfrp1 exhibit increased adiposity, dysregulated glucose metabolism, and enhanced macrophage infiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Gauger

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of obesity and related complications remain unclear. Wnt signaling plays an important role in preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. The expression of a Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1, is increased in response to initial weight gain, then levels are reduced under conditions of extreme obesity in both humans and animals. Here we report that loss of Sfrp1 exacerbates weight gain, glucose homeostasis and inflammation in mice in response to diet induced obesity (DIO. Sfrp1(-/- mice fed a high fat diet (HFD exhibited an increase in body mass accompanied by increases in body fat percentage, visceral white adipose tissue (WAT mass, and adipocyte size. Moreover, Sfrp1 deficiency increases the mRNA levels of key de novo lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Acaca, Acly, Elovl, Scd1 and the transcription factors that regulate their expression (Lxr-α, Srebp1, Chreb, and Nr1h3 in WAT. Fasting glucose levels are elevated, glucose clearance is impaired, hepatic gluconeogenesis regulators are aberrantly upregulated (G6pc and Pck1, and glucose transporters are repressed (Slc2a2 and Slc2a4 in Sfrp1(-/- mice fed a HFD. Additionally, we observed increased steatosis in the livers of Sfrp1(-/- mice. When there is an expansion of adipose tissue there is a sustained inflammatory response accompanied by adipokine dysregulation, which leads to chronic subclinical inflammation. Thus, we assessed the inflammatory state of different tissues and revealed that Sfrp1(-/- mice fed a HFD exhibited increased macrophage infiltration and expression of pro-inflammatory markers including IL-6, Nmnat, Tgf-β2, and SerpinE1. Our findings demonstrate that the expression of Sfrp1 is a critical factor required for maintaining appropriate cellular signaling in response to the onset of obesity.

  5. Effects of feed restriction and cold exposure on glucose metabolism in response to feeding and insulin in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, H; Takebayashi, A; Kodama, Y; Nakamura, K; Ito, H; Arino, Y; Fujita, T; Takahashi, H; Ambo, K

    1999-09-01

    The effects of feed restriction, cold exposure, and the initiation of feeding on blood glucose metabolism, other blood metabolites, hormones, and tissue responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin were measured in sheep. The sheep consumed orchardgrass hay ad libitum (AL) or were restricted to 82% of the ME requirement for maintenance (RE) and were exposed to a thermoneutral (20 degrees C) or a cold environment (2 degrees C). An isotope dilution method and a glucose clamp approach were applied to determine blood glucose metabolism and insulin action, respectively. Plasma NEFA and insulin concentrations were influenced by feed restriction. Concentrations of plasma glucose, NEFA, insulin, and glucagon were influenced by cold exposure. Plasma NEFA concentration for RE decreased after the initiation of feeding and plasma insulin concentration increased transiently for all treatments. [U-13C]Glucose was continuously infused for 8 or 7 h after a priming injection starting 3 h before the initiation of either feeding or insulin infusion, respectively. When responses to feeding were studied, blood glucose turnover rate was less (P rate changed little after the initiation of feeding. For the glucose clamp approach, insulin was infused over four sequential 1-h periods at rates from .64 to 10 mU x kg BW(-1) x min(-1), with concomitant glucose infusion to maintain preinfusion plasma glucose concentrations. The rates of glucose infusion and blood glucose turnover increased (P rate. The maximal glucose infusion rate was greater (P glucose infusion rate was lower (P glucose turnover rate tended to be greater (P = .10) for RE than for AL, and it was greater (P glucose was suppressed by insulin infusion. In sheep fed a roughage diet, blood glucose turnover rate seems to be influenced by both intake level and environmental temperature, but not by the act of feeding. Moreover, the action of insulin on glucose metabolism is enhanced during cold exposure, and the effect of feed

  6. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg(-1) , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The crisis in infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A

    1978-01-01

    This article maintains that the dramatic decline in breast-feeding in low-income countries is extracting a substantial cost, both in infant health and in outright economic loss. From the 6th to 12th month of life, breast-feeding can supply up to 3/4 of a child's protein needs. The breast-fed child has received about 375 liters of breast milk by age 2. The nutritional equivalent in cow's milk would cost about $65; in packaged dried milk formulas, close to $140. Yet in the few developing countries where surveys of breast-feeding have been conducted over the years, the common pattern is one of significant decline, with greatest decline in urban areas. As communication techniques become more effective in developing countries, urban life styles will have increasing influence on rural societies. Estimates show that losses in breast milk can produce losses in the billions of dollars to developing countries. In terms of national development, lactation has another major economic asset: its link to family planning as a major form of contraception. One investigation reports that the incidence of pregnancy in the 1st 9 months after childbirth of nonnursing mothers was twice that of mothers who breast-fed, including those who simultaneously used other foods. Just as breast milk can be the major source of nutrition, the failure to provide breast milk is a major cause of infant malnutrition and mortality. Poor parents often dilute milk formulas to extend their supply; many cannot read labels and instructions; and hygienic needs often cannot be met by the parents. Breast-fed babies are more resistant to a host of diseases. The costs and obstacles of designing campaigns to encourage breast-feeding in developing countries may be less imposing than those of alternate nutrition intervention programs designed to achieve the same ends. Such a campaign calls for: 1) attracting the public's attention to the benefits of breast-feeding and the dangers of foregoing it through the media

  8. A High-Fat Diet Containing Lard Accelerates Prostate Cancer Progression and Reduces Survival Rate in Mice: Possible Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jin Cho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of high-fat diet (HFD containing lard on prostate cancer development and progression and its underlying mechanisms, transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP and TRAMP-C2 allograft models, as well as in vitro culture models, were employed. In TRAMP mice, HFD feeding increased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma and decreased that of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate, which was accompanied by increased expression of proteins associated with proliferation and angiogenesis. HFD feeding also led to increased metastasis and decreased survival rate in TRAMP mice. In the allograft model, HFD increased solid tumor growth, the expression of proteins related to proliferation/angiogenesis, the number of lipid vacuoles in tumor tissues, and levels of several cytokines in serum and adipose tissue. In vitro results revealed that adipose tissue-conditioned media from HFD-fed mice stimulated the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and angiogenesis compared to those from control-diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the increase of adipose tissue-derived soluble factors by HFD feeding plays a role in the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer via endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. These results provide evidence that a HFD containing lard increases prostate cancer development and progression, thereby reducing the survival rate.

  9. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... same time, (2) properly designed facilities for feeding and watering the livestock, (3) reasonably...

  10. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including stereoty

  11. Melatonin improves metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Akira; Ohta, Yoshiji; Ohashi, Koji

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we examined whether melatonin improves metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose intake in male Wistar rats. Feeding of a diet containing 60% fructose (HFD) for 4 or 6 wk caused increased serum insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, uric acid, leptin, and lipid peroxide concentrations as well as hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, and relative intra-abdominal fat and liver weights. The 4- or 6-wk HFD feeding reduced serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin concentrations. The 6-wk HFD feeding increased serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentration and hepatic lipid peroxide concentration and lowered hepatic reduced glutathione concentration. Daily intraperitoneal administration of melatonin (1 or 10mg/kg body weight), starting at 4-wk HFD feeding, attenuated these changes at 6-wk HFD feeding more effectively at its higher dose than at its lower dose. In an oral glucose tolerance test, rats with 4- or 6-wk HFD feeding showed higher serum insulin response curve and normal serum glucose response curve when compared with the corresponding animals that received the control diet. The 4- or 6-wk HFD feeding caused insulin resistance, judging from the scores of HOMR-IR and QUICKI, which are indices of insulin resistance. The daily administered melatonin (1 or 10mg/kg body weight) ameliorated the higher serum insulin response curve in the oral glucose tolerance test and insulin resistance at 6-wk HFD feeding more effectively at its higher dose than at its lower dose. These results indicate that melatonin improves metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose intake in rats.

  12. Is looped nasogastric tube feeding more effective than conventional nasogastric tube feeding for dysphagia in acute stroke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwood Rowan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia occurs in up to 50% of patients admitted to hospital with acute strokes with up to 27% remaining by seven days. Up to 8% continue to have swallowing problems six months after their stroke with 1.7% still requiring enteral feeding. Nasogastric tubes (NGT are the most commonly used method for providing enteral nutrition in early stroke, however they are easily and frequently removed leading to inadequate nutrition, early PEG (Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy insertion or abandoning of feeding attempts. Looped nasogastric tube feeding may improve the delivery of nutrition to such patients. Methods Three centre, two arm randomised controlled trial, with 50 participants in each arm comparing loop (the intervention versus conventional nasogastric tube feeding. The primary outcome measure is proportion of intended feed delivered in the first 2 weeks. The study is designed to show a mean increase of feed delivery of 16% in the intervention group as compared with the control group, with 90% power at a 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes are treatment failures, mean volume of feed received, adverse events, cost-effectiveness, number of chest x-rays, number of nasogastric tubes and tolerability. Trial Registration ISRCTN Number: ISRCTN61174381

  13. Effect of feeding fermented liquid feed and fermented grain on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Højberg, O; Badsberg, J H; Jensen, B B

    2007-11-01

    containing fermented, liquid cereal grains as a means of avoiding microbial decarboxylation of free amino acids in the feed and increasing feed intake by improving palatability seems promising but requires further investigation.

  14. Feed forward control of estimated wind speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Engelen, T.G.; Van der Hooft, E.L. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2003-12-01

    A control structure 'feed forward of estimated wind speed' is described, as it were: 'the wind turbine rotor will be used as a wind meter'. The control structure is based on 'estimation' of wind speed as well as a non-linear compensation of a wind speed dependent pitch speed setpoint, which is optimised to maintain (stationary) rated electric power. It is required to know the rotor properties with moderate accuracy. In time domain simulations, inclusion of a feed forward of estimated wind speed control action has shown to be a powerful extension to current ECN wind turbine control structures: reduction of rotor speed variations: 0.2 rpm decreased standard deviation; improved turbine behaviour to large wind gusts; increase of energy yield of 0.9%; For reasons of simplicity and robustness, a tabular implementation approach is preferred above polynomial implementation. The resulting brief algorithm uses small sized tables, requires low hardware requirements and needs a minimum of easy interpretable parameters for design and tuning. Both stability, robustness and parametric uncertainties were observed. The addition control loop has a slightly positive effect on overall stability and robustness. Appeared offsets in the estimated wind speed value due to parameter uncertainties do not have impact on the effectuation of the wind speed feed forward loop.

  15. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF TECHNICAL MEANS FOR PREPARATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FEED MIXTURES AT SMALL CATTLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov V. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To increase the productivity of the cattle it is demanded simultaneous distribution of all types of animal feed in the form of balanced feed mixture with a given nutritional value. Balanced feeding of animals can improve their productivity, reduce feed wastage, and include alternative components of feed mixtures in their diets, which have nourishing properties and high digestibility; make and adjust feeding rations. Researches conducted by Russian and foreign scientists, proved the prospects of full feeding of complete feed mixtures, which allow to increase the productivity of animals to 9-30 % and reduce the feed consumption in the calculation of 1 с of milk by 7-8 %. The composition of complete feed mixtures includes sunflower cake, silage, root crops and forage. The process of preparation and distribution of feeds for large horned livestock is the issue of all the necessary components of the feed mixture with a given nutritional value. Saturation of the feed product with extra energy goes during its interaction with the working bodies of technical means for preparation and distribution (TMPD of different types of food. For preparation and distribution of components of the feed mixture it is necessary to have following facilities, provided with reducing energy intensity and improving the qualitative indicators of processes: for grinding beet fodder and sunflower cake we need disk shredders; for shredding silage and roughage – bearnie and rotor shredders, respectively; for dispensing of beet fodder and sunflower cake – belt conveyor, for dispensing silage and roughage we use disc and drum dispensers, respectively; for mixing sunflower cake - rotary mixers, and for silage, beet fodder and for-age we may use paddle mixers; for distribution of sunflower cake we use rotary feeders, for silage and beet fodder – bin distributors, and for coarse feed we should use conveyor dispensers

  17. Determination of virginiamycin in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, H S; Black, L J; Waisner, D L

    1979-05-01

    Virginiamycin was extracted from the feed by ethanol-pH 2.5 phosphate buffer (1 + 1). The pH during extraction was adjusted (when necessary) to between 4 and 5. Sample dilutions and the standard dose response line were prepared to contain ethanol pH 6 phosphate buffer (2 + 8), and the test organism was Sarcina lutea. Three feeds (a poultry ration, a swine finishing ration, and a swine starter ration) showed virginiamycin recovery of 88.8--108.9% when standard solutions were added at concentrations of 4.54--90.8 g/ton. The coefficient of variation (4--20%) was larger for low potency feeds (10 g/ton) compared to the higher feeds (100 g/ton). Similarly, excellent recovery was obtained when the swine starter feed was fortified by a commercial premix. Amprolium, roxarsone, and monensin can be present at 20 times the concentration of virginiamycin with little or no interference in the antibiotic determination. Lasalocid at 10 times the concentration of virginiamycin caused a slightly positive bias (recovery, 107.4%).

  18. Hydroponic Feed With Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William M.; Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Placing nutrient solution under suction increases growth. Foam plug seals growing stem of plant, making it possible to maintain suction in nutrient liquid around roots. Jar wrapped in black tape to keep out light. Potential use in terrestrial applications in arid climates or in labor-intensive agricultural situations.

  19. Hydroponic Feed With Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William M.; Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Placing nutrient solution under suction increases growth. Foam plug seals growing stem of plant, making it possible to maintain suction in nutrient liquid around roots. Jar wrapped in black tape to keep out light. Potential use in terrestrial applications in arid climates or in labor-intensive agricultural situations.

  20. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  1. Associations between herd-level feeding management practices, feed sorting, and milk production in freestall dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, A D; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2013-07-01

    The challenges associated with group-housed dairy cows include within-herd variability in nutrient consumption and milk production, which may be related to feeding management. The objective of this observational study was to examine the association of herd-level feeding management factors, feed sorting, and milk production. Twenty-two freestall herds with an average lactating herd size of 162±118 cows, feeding total mixed rations, were each studied for 7 consecutive days in summer and winter. In cases of multiple feeding groups within a herd, the highest producing group of cows with an even distribution of days in milk and parity was selected for this study. The average group size studied was 83±31 cows. The average study group consisted of cows 187±47 days in milk, with a parity of 2.3±0.6, consuming 24.3±2.6kg of dry matter, with an average group-level yield of 34.3±6kg of milk/d, 3.7±0.3% milk fat, and 3.2±0.18% milk protein. Milk production parameters, including yield, fat, and protein, were recorded through regular Dairy Herd Improvement milk testing. A survey of feeding management practices and barn characteristics was administered on each farm. The amounts of feed offered and refused were recorded and sampled daily to assess dry matter intake (DMI) and particle size distribution. Feeding twice per day compared with once per day was associated with an average increase of 1.42kg of DMI, 2.0kg of milk yield, and less sorting against long ration particles (>19mm). Every 2% group-level selective refusal (sorting) of long particles was associated with 1kg/d of reduction in milk yield. A 10cm/cow increase in feed bunk space was associated with a 0.06-percentage-point increase in group-average milk fat and a 13% decrease in group-average somatic cell count. These results support that herd-level management practices to promote feed access, such as increased feeding frequency and bunk space, may improve DMI and promote more balanced nutrient intake and greater

  2. Hematological profile of beef cattle with divergent residual feed intake, following feed deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the hematological profiles of steers and bulls, according to residual feed intake (RFI, after feed deprivation. Twenty‑month‑old Nellore steers and bulls were fed feedlot diets for 70 and 56 days, respectively. RFI was calculated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake. More and less efficient steers and bulls, according to RFI, were subjected to 24 hours of food deprivation. Blood was sampled prior to and following the withdrawal period. Hematological analyses included total and differential white blood cell count, red blood cell count and morphology, and plasma glucose concentration. Variation in RFI did not influence plasma glucose concentration or blood cell profiles. Glucose concentrations in bulls decreased from 114 to 97 mg dL‑1, but remained unchanged in steers, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio increased from 0.39 to 0.57 following deprivation. Hematological profiles do not differ between more and less efficient steers and bulls, according to RFI.

  3. Somatosensory integration controlled by dynamic thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabernet, Laetitia; Jadhav, Shantanu P; Feldman, Daniel E; Carandini, Matteo; Scanziani, Massimo

    2005-10-20

    The temporal features of tactile stimuli are faithfully represented by the activity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex. However, the cellular mechanisms that enable cortical neurons to report accurate temporal information are not known. Here, we show that in the rodent barrel cortex, the temporal window for integration of thalamic inputs is under the control of thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition and can vary from 1 to 10 ms. A single thalamic fiber can trigger feed-forward inhibition and contacts both excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons. The dynamics of feed-forward inhibition exceed those of each individual synapse in the circuit and are captured by a simple disynaptic model of the thalamocortical projection. The variations in the integration window produce changes in the temporal precision of cortical responses to whisker stimulation. Hence, feed-forward inhibitory circuits, classically known to sharpen spatial contrast of tactile inputs, also increase the temporal resolution in the somatosensory cortex.

  4. Bottle feeding simulates child loss: postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Nathan Pipitone, R; Carrone, Kelly J; Leadholm, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    At the level of a mother's basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions associated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression. The implications of this hypothesis for infant feeding practices, hospital procedures that lead to intermittent separation between mothers and infants during the immediate postpartum period, parallels between an increased desire to hold infants by mothers who bottle feed and responses to infant death among nonhuman primates, and the relationship between weaning and depression are discussed in the context of an emerging discipline known as evolutionary medicine.

  5. China's Feed Companies Eye Safety Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's feed companies in China are looking to strengthen safety control substantially according to the highest international standard.The first step will be improving the feed safety control in the pre-mixture and compound feed production.The next step will be extending this control to the whole feed supply chain, covering feed ingredients and services like transport and storage.Besides, a joint program will be defined in cooperation with GMP+ International.

  6. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  7. Breast versus bottle: correlates of adolescent mothers' infant-feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1987-05-01

    Since the 1970s, breast-feeding as the preferred method of infant feeding has increased in overall popularity. However, certain populations, particularly poor, young, black, and less-educated women, have been slow to adopt this method. This prospective study was undertaken to identify factors relating to the choice of infant-feeding method among inner-city adolescents. Two hundred fifty-four pregnant adolescents completed a questionnaire supplying information regarding attitudes toward and knowledge about breast-feeding, social support, personal experience, and other variables hypothesized to correlate with their choice of infant-feeding method. Of the total sample, 17% said they were "probably" or "definitely" going to breast-feed their babies. Analyses revealed adolescents most likely to intend to breast-feed were those who perceived more benefits to breast-feeding, who desired more knowledge about it, who were themselves breast-fed, who reported supportive social environments, and who perceived relatively fewer barriers to breast-feeding their infants. Specific interventions based upon these findings are proposed. We conclude that adolescent mothers are interested in breast-feeding their babies and that interventions are feasible to increase breast-feeding within this population.

  8. Effect of early feed restriction on reproductive performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S M; Mady, M E; Cartwright, A L; Sabri, H M; Mobarak, M S

    2003-07-01

    Reproductive performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was evaluated following feed restriction (100, 85, and 70% of ad libitum) between 2 to 5 wk of age with three replicates of 12, 2-wk-old chicks per replicate. Body weight, feed conversion, and leucocyte distribution were measured during feed restriction. After experimental feed treatment, BW, age at first egg, egg production, fertility, hatchability, and embryonic mortality were evaluated from five replicates of two females and one male per treatment. Feed-restricted female chicks had lower BW from 3 to 5 wk of age, but male weights were depressed only during the most severe restriction at 4 and 5 wk. No treatment differences were observed among BW within a sex from 6 to 13 wk. Body weights at first egg were significantly heavier for females fed 70% ad libitum than for birds on other treatments. Fertility, age at first egg, feed conversion, egg production, and egg weight were unaffected by feed restriction. Although hatchability was unaffected by feed restriction, percentage of late dead and total dead embryos were significantly reduced in eggs from restricted quail. Thirty quail fed 70% of ad libitum control intake had significantly increased egg specific gravity. Feed restriction increased the percentage of heterophils and basophils and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, whereas the percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased. Feed can be restricted to 85 or 70% of ad libitum feed intake from 2 to 5 wk of age without detrimentally affecting reproductive parameters between 6 to 13 wk of age.

  9. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces.

  10. Role of oleoylethanolamide as a feeding regulator in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Ana B; Armirotti, Andrea; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J; Piomelli, Daniele; de Pedro, Nuria

    2014-08-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a bioactive lipid mediator, produced in the intestine and other tissues, which is involved in energy balance regulation in mammals, modulating feeding and lipid metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and possible role of OEA in feeding regulation in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We assessed whether goldfish peripheral tissues and brain contain OEA and their regulation by nutritional status. OEA was detected in all studied tissues (liver, intestinal bulb, proximal intestine, muscle, hypothalamus, telencephalon and brainstem). Food deprivation (48 h) reduced intestinal OEA levels and levels increased upon re-feeding, suggesting that this compound may be involved in the short-term regulation of food intake in goldfish, as a satiety factor. Next, the effects of acute intraperitoneal administration of OEA on feeding, swimming and plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides were analysed. Food intake, swimming activity and circulating triglyceride levels were reduced by OEA 2 h post-injection. Finally, the possible interplay among OEA and other feeding regulators (leptin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, orexin and monoamines) was investigated. OEA actions on energy homeostasis in goldfish could be mediated, at least in part, through interactions with ghrelin and the serotonergic system, as OEA treatment reduced ghrelin expression in the intestinal bulb, and increased serotonergic activity in the telencephalon. In summary, our results indicate for the first time in fish that OEA could be involved in the regulation of feeding, swimming and lipid metabolism, suggesting a high conservation of OEA actions in energy balance throughout vertebrate evolution.

  11. Selected hormonal and neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating feed intake in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartin, J L; Daniel, J A; Whitlock, B K; Wilborn, R R

    2010-11-01

    Appetite control is a major issue in normal growth and in suboptimal growth performance settings. A number of hormones, in particular leptin, activate or inhibit orexigenic or anorexigenic neurotransmitters within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where feed intake regulation is integrated. Examples of appetite regulatory neurotransmitters are the stimulatory neurotransmitters neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone and the inhibitory neurotransmitter, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Examination of messenger RNA (using in situ hybridization and real-time PCR) and proteins (using immunohistochemistry) for these neurotransmitters in ruminants has indicated that physiological regulation occurs in response to fasting for several of these critical genes and proteins, especially AgRP and NPY. Moreover, intracerebroventricular injection of each of the four stimulatory neurotransmitters can increase feed intake in sheep and may also regulate either growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, cortisol or other hormones. In contrast, both leptin and MSH are inhibitory to feed intake in ruminants. Interestingly, the natural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonist, AgRP, as well as NPY can prevent the inhibition of feed intake after injection of endotoxin (to model disease suppression of appetite). Thus, knowledge of the mechanisms regulating feed intake in the hypothalamus may lead to mechanisms to increase feed intake in normal growing animals and prevent the wasting effects of severe disease in animals.

  12. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs.

  13. Impact of biofilm accumulation on transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop: Effects of crossflow velocity, feed spacer and biodegradable nutrient

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm formation causes performance loss in spiral-wound membrane systems. In this study a microfiltration membrane was used in experiments to simulate fouling in spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules without the influence of concentration polarization. The resistance of a microfiltration membrane is much lower than the intrinsic biofilm resistance, enabling the detection of biofilm accumulation in an early stage. The impact of biofilm accumulation on the transmembrane (biofilm) resistance and feed channel pressure drop as a function of the crossflow velocity (0.05 and 0.20ms-1) and feed spacer presence was studied in transparent membrane biofouling monitors operated at a permeate flux of 20Lm-2h-1. As biodegradable nutrient, acetate was dosed to the feed water (1.0 and 0.25mgL-1 carbon) to enhance biofilm accumulation in the monitors. The studies showed that biofilm formation caused an increased transmembrane resistance and feed channel pressure drop. The effect was strongest at the highest crossflow velocity (0.2ms-1) and in the presence of a feed spacer. Simulating conditions as currently applied in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis installations (crossflow velocity 0.2ms-1 and standard feed spacer) showed that the impact of biofilm formation on performance, in terms of transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop, was strong. This emphasized the importance of hydrodynamics and feed spacer design. Biomass accumulation was related to the nutrient load (nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity). Reducing the nutrient concentration of the feed water enabled the application of higher crossflow velocities. Pretreatment to remove biodegradable nutrient and removal of biomass from the membrane elements played an important part to prevent or restrict biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  15. Floral arrangements and hummingbird feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, F Reed; Mercier, Theresa; Wolf, Larry L

    1983-05-01

    The influence of simulated inflorescence design on feeding behavior of 3 male Eugenes fulgens (Rivoli's hummingbird) and one female Lampornis clemenciae (Bluethroated hummingbird) was studied in the laboratory using artificial flowers. Five two-dimensional and three three-dimensional arrangements provided constant rewards per artificial flower. Visits to two-dimensional arrangements had more flower visits per feeding bout, proportionally more flower revisits, and shorter time between flowers than visits to three-dimensional arrangements. This suggests inflorescence design may influence pollen movement by hummingbirds.

  16. Relationships between feeding problems, behavioral characteristics and nutritional quality in children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiqitious in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime behaviors and social, communication, and cognitive levels as well repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, sensory behaviors, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, we examined whether feeding habits were predictive of nutritional adequacy. In this sample, we found strong associations between parent reported feeding habits and (1) repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, (2) sensory features, and (3) externalizing and internalizing behavior. There was a lack of association between feeding behaviors and the social and communication deficits of ASD and cognitive levels. Increases in the degree of problematic feeding behaviors predicted decrements in nutritional adequacy.

  17. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellio scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment. PMID:25561844

  18. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Drobne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of P. scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b to assess the data quality in each experiment.

  19. Increased 4E-BP1 Expression Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yin Tsai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor driving the global type II diabetes pandemic. However, the molecular factors linking obesity to disease remain to be elucidated. Gender differences are apparent in humans and are also observed in murine models. Here, we link these differences to expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, which, upon HFD feeding, becomes significantly reduced in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of male but not female mice. Strikingly, restoring 4E-BP1 expression in male mice protects them against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Male 4E-BP1 transgenic mice also exhibit reduced white adipose tissue accumulation accompanied by decreased circulating levels of leptin and triglycerides. Importantly, transgenic 4E-BP1 male mice are also protected from aging-induced obesity and metabolic decline on a normal diet. These results demonstrate that 4E-BP1 is a gender-specific suppressor of obesity that regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism.

  20. Aliskiren Reduces Hepatic steatosis and Epididymal Fat Mass and Increases Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Yang, Ying-Ying; Chan, Che-Chang; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2016-01-06

    Aliskiren has been found to reduce chronic injury and steatosis in the liver of methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed mice. This study investigated whether aliskiren has an anti-steatotic effect in HFD-fed mice, which are more relevant to human patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than MCD mice. Mice fed with 4-week normal chow or HFD randomly received aliskiren (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle via osmotic minipumps for further 4 weeks. Aliskiren reduced systemic insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, epididymal fat mass and increased gastrocnemius muscle glucose transporter type 4 levels with lower tissue angiotensin II levels in the HFD-fed mice. In addition, aliskiren lowered nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and its down-signaling molecules and increased cytochrome P450 4A14 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) in liver. In epididymal fat, aliskiren inhibited expressions of lipogenic genes, leading to decrease in fat mass, body weight, and serum levels of leptin and free fatty acid. Notably, in the gastrocnemius muscle, aliskiren increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt. Based on these beneficial effects on liver, peripheral fat and skeletal muscle, aliskiren is a promising therapeutic agent for patients with NAFLD.

  1. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  2. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  3. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative...... impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...

  4. Feeding the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Sørensen, Marten; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2013-01-01

    no scientific support, but is rather a reflection of corporate interests. The second obstacle is the resultant shortage of research funds for agrobiodiversity solutions in comparison with funding for research in genetic modification of crops. Favoring biodiversity does not exclude any future biotechnological...... be much better spent in other research areas of plant science, e.g., nutrition, policy research, governance, and solutions close to local market conditions if the goal is to provide sufficient food for the world’s growing population in a sustainable way...... every effort to minimize risk. Agricultural sustainability is no longer optional but mandatory. There is still an on-going debate among researchers and in the media on the best strategy to keep pace with global population growth and increasing food demand. One strategy favors the use of genetically...

  5. Effect of restricted feeding and realimentation on feed performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abouheif

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty Najdi ram lambs weighing 26.6±0.3 kg were utilized in this experiment to determine the effects of feed restriction followed by realimentation and body weight at the onset of feed restriction (30 and 36 kg body weights on performance and carcass characteristics; feeding and restriction levels were ad libitum, 0.75 and 0.60 of the ad libitum intake. All lambs were slaughtered after 14 weeks of experimentation. The results showed that, during the feed restriction phase, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency decreased as the level of restriction increased. During the realimentation phase, the 30 kg lambs gained weights and consumed dry matter (DM similarly to the ad libitum group, whereas the ADG for the 36 kg lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups were 20 and 43.8% faster than the ad libitum group, respectively. At the end of the trial, final body weight and overall ADG of the realimented 30 kg groups were lower than ad libitum group, whereas the ADG of the 36 kg groups were not different compared with the ad libitum group. Although empty body, hot and cold carcass, empty stomach compartments, empty intestines and liver weights for the 36 kg groups were not affected by feed restriction followed by realimentation, weights of visceral fat depots, subcutaneous fat and tail fat decreased much more than those of the ad libitum group. Carcass composition of the realimented 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to have 5.1 and 8.8% less lean tissue than the ad libitum group when the restriction started at 30 kg, respectively. On the other hand, the realimented lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to be 5.1 and 2.8% leaner than those of the ad libitum group when restriction started at 36 kg body weight, respectively. Feed restriction of up to 40% for a 5-week period followed by a 4-week period of refeeding in 36 kg lambs is economically feasible and does not offset production.

  6. PROBIOTIC TRILAKTOBAKT IN FEEDING OF QUAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshchayev A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During experiments on quail it was found that use of Trilaktobaktis probiotic is characterized with the activation of major types of metabolism, including protein –by increase the total protein content (5.17% and mineral – by increase serum calcium and phosphorus (2.71 and 19.5%, respectively; by decrease of cholesterol content (10.6%. Probiotic stimulates erythro and hematopoiesis in quail: increase of the number of erythrocytes by 2.93% and hemoglobin by 2.57% was marked. Preparation enhances nonspecific resistance by increasing lysozyme and serum bactericidal activity by 47.4% and 149.6%.Besides, use of Trilaktobaktin diets increases digestibility of organic substance (5.74%, raw protein (3.95% and raw fiber (4.83%. Probiotics use in the diet of quail improves nitrogen digestion by 5.3%, calcium and phosphorus – by 1.4%. Under the influence of probiotics content of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteriain chyme of quail increases by 46.2%.Use of Trilaktobaktin quail breeding increases safety and live weight gain by 6.0% and 6.9%, reduces the cost of feeds to produce 1 kg of body weight by 7.4%, and carcass yield reaches 66.4%, providing 100% output of first category carcasses. Use of Trilaktobakt feed additive has a positive effect on the quality of meat products. Thus, carcass output was 57.1% and the amount of fat decreased by 14.4% (pectoral muscles and 12.7% (leg muscles relative to the control. At the same time protein content in the thoracic and leg muscles increased by 7.5% and 10.7%

  7. Fermented and nonfermented liquid feed to growing pigs: effect on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Jensen, B B

    2003-08-01

    The effect of feeding dry feed (DF), nonfermented liquid feed (NFLF), and fermented liquid feed (FLF) to growing pigs on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and on performance was investigated. Nonfermented liquid feed was prepared by mixing feed and water at a ratio of 1:2.5 immediately before feeding. Fermented liquid feed was prepared by mixing feed and water in the same ratio as NFLF, and stored in a tank at 20 degrees C for 4 d, after which hal