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Sample records for hfd feeding increased

  1. Adipocyte Glucocorticoid Receptor Deficiency Attenuates Aging- and HFD-Induced Obesity and Impairs the Feeding-Fasting Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kristina M; Hartmann, Kerstin; Kaltenecker, Doris; Vettorazzi, Sabine; Bauer, Mandy; Mauser, Lea; Amann, Sabine; Jall, Sigrid; Fischer, Katrin; Esterbauer, Harald; Müller, Timo D; Tschöp, Matthias H; Magnes, Christoph; Haybaeck, Johannes; Scherer, Thomas; Bordag, Natalie; Tuckermann, Jan P; Moriggl, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important regulators of systemic energy metabolism, and aberrant GC action is linked to metabolic dysfunctions. Yet, the extent to which normal and pathophysiological energy metabolism depend on the GC receptor (GR) in adipocytes remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that adipocyte GR deficiency in mice significantly impacts systemic metabolism in different energetic states. Plasma metabolomics and biochemical analyses revealed a marked global effect of GR deficiency on systemic metabolite abundance and, thus, substrate partitioning in fed and fasted states. This correlated with a decreased lipolytic capacity of GR-deficient adipocytes under postabsorptive and fasting conditions, resulting from impaired signal transduction from β-adrenergic receptors to adenylate cyclase. Upon prolonged fasting, the impaired lipolytic response resulted in abnormal substrate utilization and lean mass wasting. Conversely, GR deficiency attenuated aging-/diet-associated obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy, and liver steatosis. Systemic glucose tolerance was improved in obese GR-deficient mice, which was associated with increased insulin signaling in muscle and adipose tissue. We conclude that the GR in adipocytes exerts central but diverging roles in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis depending on the energetic state. The adipocyte GR is indispensable for the feeding-fasting transition but also promotes adiposity and associated metabolic disorders in fat-fed and aged mice. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Novel GLP-1 Analog Supaglutide Reduces HFD-Induced Obesity Associated with Increased Ucp-1 in White Adipose Tissue in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GLP-1, an important incretin hormone plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the therapeutic use of native GLP-1 is limited due to its short half-life. We recently developed a novel GLP-1 mimetics (supaglutide by genetically engineering recombinant fusion protein production techniques. We demonstrated that this formulation possessed long-lasting GLP-1 actions and was effective in glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes rodent models. Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice. Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD for 6 months to induce obesity and then subjected to supaglutide treatment (300 μg/kg, bi-weekly for 4 weeks, and placebo as control. Metabolic conditions were monitored and energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry (CLAMS. Cold tolerance test was performed to evaluate brown-adipose tissue (BAT activities in response to cold challenge. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance tests. Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1 in adipose tissues was evaluated by Western blotting. We found that supaglutide treatment reduced body weight, which was associated with reduced food intake. Compared to the placebo control, supaglutide treatment improved lipid profile, i.e., significantly decreased circulating total cholesterol levels, declined serum triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels. Importantly, the intervention significantly reduced fatty liver, decreased liver triglyceride content, and concomitantly ameliorated liver injury exemplified by declined hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartic transaminase (AST content. Remarkably, supaglutide reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and altered morphometry in favor of small adipocytes in fat. This is consistent with the observation that

  3. Keap1 knockdown increases markers of metabolic syndrome after long-term high fat diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Vijay R; Xu, Jialin; Shimpi, Prajakta C; Belgrave, Clyde; Luyendyk, James P; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Slitt, Angela L

    2013-08-01

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway upregulates antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme expression to counter cellular oxidative stress. The contributions of Nrf2 to other cellular functions, such as lipid homeostasis, are emerging. This study was conducted to determine how enhanced Nrf2 activity influences the progression of metabolic syndrome with long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. C57BL/6 and Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice, which exhibit enhanced Nrf2 activity, were fed a HFD for 24 weeks. Keap1-KD mice had higher body weight and white adipose tissue mass compared to C57BL/6 mice on HFD, along with increased inflammation and lipogenic gene expression. HFD feeding increased hepatic steatosis and inflammation to a greater extent in Keap1-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was associated with increased liver Cd36, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expression, as well as increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 protein expression. The HFD altered short-term glucose homeostasis to a greater degree in Keap-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was accompanied by downregulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Together, the results indicate that Keap1 knockdown, on treatment with HFD, increases certain markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Swimming intervention mitigates HFD-induced obesity of rats through PGC-1α-irisin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-Q; Yuan, H; Li, J; Fan, J-J; Jia, S-H; Kou, X-J; Chen, N

    2016-05-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered myokine, can drive the browning of white adipocytes to control body weight or mitigate obesity progression through regulating energy metabolism. However, the underlying mechanisms or specific signal pathways of exercise-induced irisin on the management of obesity are still unclear. Totally 30 rats were subjected to high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 8 weeks to establish the rat model with obesity successfully. HFD-induced obese model rats were provided with 8 weeks swimming intervention at moderate intensity for exploring the treatment of obesity through exercise intervention. In addition, another 15 rats were subjected to HFD feeding coupled with total 16 weeks swimming intervention at a moderate intensity from the beginning of the experiment, which was used for exploring the prevention of obesity through exercise intervention. Blood and gastrocnemius samples were harvested from obese rats after swimming intervention to explore its specific signal pathways through ELISA analysis and Western blotting. HFD feeding of rats for 8 weeks could lead to the obesity due to the disorders of lipid metabolism. Totally 8 weeks swimming intervention at moderate intensity for rats with obesity could obviously alleviate the progression of obesity and 16 weeks swimming intervention from the beginning of the experiment could significantly inhibit the development of obesity. Meanwhile, swimming intervention could result in an increased phosphorylation of AMPK and up-regulation of irisin and PGC-1α as the biomarkers of energy metabolism. Exercise intervention can activate PGC-1α-dependent irisin to induce the browning of white adipocytes, thus inhibiting or alleviating the occurrence and development of obesity.

  5. Skeletal muscle interleukin-6 regulates metabolic factors in iWAT during HFD and exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella

    2015-01-01

    in combination with exercise training (HFD ExTr) for 16 weeks. RESULTS: Total fat mass increased (P mass than HFD Floxed mice. Accordingly, iWAT glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content, 5'AMP......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of skeletal muscle (SkM) interleukin (IL)-6 in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism. METHODS: Muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) and IL-6(loxP/loxP) (Floxed) mice were subjected to standard rodent diet (Chow), high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD.......05) in HFD IL-6 MKO than HFD Floxed mice, and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α (PDH-E1α) protein content was higher (P mass through regulation of glucose uptake capacity as well as lipogenic...

  6. Increasing self-drinking for children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kathryn M; Volkert, Valerie M; Zeleny, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often do not self-drink without treatment. Unfortunately, the literature on self-drinking is scarce. We evaluated differential positive reinforcement to increase self-drinking for 2 children with feeding disorders. Results showed that differential positive reinforcement with tangible items increased self-drinking for both children in the absence of nonremoval of the cup. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  8. Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

    2013-10-15

    It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses.

  9. Impaired striatal Akt signaling disrupts dopamine homeostasis and increases feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Speed

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically worldwide. The obesity epidemic begs for novel concepts and therapeutic targets that cohesively address "food-abuse" disorders. We demonstrate a molecular link between impairment of a central kinase (Akt involved in insulin signaling induced by exposure to a high-fat (HF diet and dysregulation of higher order circuitry involved in feeding. Dopamine (DA rich brain structures, such as striatum, provide motivation stimuli for feeding. In these central circuitries, DA dysfunction is posited to contribute to obesity pathogenesis. We identified a mechanistic link between metabolic dysregulation and the maladaptive behaviors that potentiate weight gain. Insulin, a hormone in the periphery, also acts centrally to regulate both homeostatic and reward-based HF feeding. It regulates DA homeostasis, in part, by controlling a key element in DA clearance, the DA transporter (DAT. Upon HF feeding, nigro-striatal neurons rapidly develop insulin signaling deficiencies, causing increased HF calorie intake.We show that consumption of fat-rich food impairs striatal activation of the insulin-activated signaling kinase, Akt. HF-induced Akt impairment, in turn, reduces DAT cell surface expression and function, thereby decreasing DA homeostasis and amphetamine (AMPH-induced DA efflux. In addition, HF-mediated dysregulation of Akt signaling impairs DA-related behaviors such as (AMPH-induced locomotion and increased caloric intake. We restored nigro-striatal Akt phosphorylation using recombinant viral vector expression technology. We observed a rescue of DAT expression in HF fed rats, which was associated with a return of locomotor responses to AMPH and normalization of HF diet-induced hyperphagia.Acquired disruption of brain insulin action may confer risk for and/or underlie "food-abuse" disorders and the recalcitrance of obesity. This molecular model, thus, explains how even short-term exposure to "the fast food

  10. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  11. Early oral feeding after pancreatoduodenectomy enhances recovery without increasing morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Arja; Wennink, Roos A W; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Tseng, Dorine S J; Steenhagen, Elles; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a change in the routine feeding strategy applied after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) from nasojejunal tube (NJT) feeding to early oral feeding improved clinical outcomes. Methods An observational cohort study was performed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing PD. In period 1 (n = 51, historical controls), the routine postoperative feeding strategy was NJT feeding. This was changed to a protocol of early oral feeding with on-demand NJT feeding in period 2 (n = 51, consecutive prospective cohort). The primary outcome was time to resumption of adequate oral intake. Results The baseline characteristics of study subjects in both periods were comparable. In period 1, 98% (n = 50) of patients received NJT feeding, whereas in period 2, 53% (n = 27) of patients did so [for delayed gastric empting (DGE) (n = 20) or preoperative malnutrition (n = 7)]. The time to resumption of adequate oral intake significantly decreased from 12 days in period 1 to 9 days in period 2 (P = 0.015), and the length of hospital stay shortened from 18 days in period 1 to 13 days in period 2 (P = 0.015). Overall, there were no differences in the incidences of complications of Clavien–Dindo Grade III or higher, DGE, pancreatic fistula, postoperative haemorrhage and mortality between the two periods. Conclusions The introduction of an early oral feeding strategy after PD reduced the time to resumption of adequate oral intake and length of hospital stay without negatively impacting postoperative morbidity. PMID:24308458

  12. Effects of increasing dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish. (Heterobranchus ... (Legendre, 1991) because of its taste, fast growth rate ..... diet containing 40% protein had high growth with low food intake and feed ... protein rate (45%) combined with a bad utilization of.

  13. Scheduled feeding results in adipogenesis and increased acylated ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Verbaeys, I.; Tolle, V.; SWENNEN, Quirine; Zizzari, P.; Buyse, J.; Epelbaum, J.; Cokelaere, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin, known to stimulate adipogenesis, displays an endogenous secretory rhythmicity closely related to meal patterns. Therefore, a chronic imposed feeding schedule might induce modified ghrelin levels and consequently adiposity. Growing Wistar rats were schedule-fed by imposing a particular fixed feeding schedule of 3 meals/day without caloric restriction compared with total daily control intake. After 14 days, their body composition was measured by DEXA and compared with ad libitum-fed co...

  14. The Mechanism by Which Safflower Yellow Decreases Body Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in HFD-induced Obese Mice

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    Huijuan eZhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesSafflower yellow (SY is the main effective ingredient of Carthamus tinctorius L. It has been reported that SY plays an important role in anti-inflammation, anti-platelet aggregation and inhibiting thrombus formation. In present study, we try to investigate the effects of SY on body weight, body fat mass, insulin sensitivity in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. MethodsHFD-induced obese male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with SY (120 mg kg-1 daily. Eight weeks later, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT were performed, and body weight, body fat mass, serum insulin levels were measured. The expression of glucose and lipid metabolic related genes in white adipose tissue (WAT were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot technologies.ResultsThe administration obese mice with SY significantly reduced the body fat mass of HFD-induced obese mice (P<0.05. IPITT test showed that the insulin sensitivity of SY treated obese mice were evidently improved. The mRNA levels of insulin signaling pathway related genes including insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1, PKB protein kinase (AKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β and forkhead box protein O1(FOXO1 in mesenteric WAT of SY treated mice were significantly increased to 1.9, 2.8, 3.3 and 5.9 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P<0.05. The protein levels of AKT and GSK3β were also significantly increased to 3.0 and 5.2 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P<0.05. Meanwhile, both the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α in inguinal subcutaneous WAT of SY group were notably increased to 2.5 and 3.0 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice (P<0.05.ConclusionsSY significantly reduce the body fat mass, fasting blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity of HFD-induced obese mice. The possible mechanism is to

  15. Breast-feeding increases sleep duration of new parents.

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    Doan, Therese; Gardiner, Annelise; Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A

    2007-01-01

    This study describes sleep patterns for mothers and fathers after the birth of their first child and compares exclusive breast-feeding families with parents who used supplementation during the evening or night at 3 months postpartum. As part of a randomized clinical trial, the study utilized infant feeding and sleep data at 3 months postpartum from 133 new mothers and fathers. Infant feeding type (breast milk or formula) was determined from parent diaries. Sleep was measured objectively using wrist actigraphy and subjectively using diaries. Lee's General Sleep Disturbance Scale was used to estimate perceived sleep disturbance. Parents of infants who were breastfed in the evening and/or at night slept an average of 40-45 minutes more than parents of infants given formula. Parents of infants given formula at night also self-reported more sleep disturbance than parents of infants who were exclusively breast-fed at night. Parents who supplement their infant feeding with formula under the impression that they will get more sleep should be encouraged to continue breast-feeding because sleep loss of more than 30 minutes each night can begin to affect daytime functioning, particularly in those parents who return to work.

  16. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13 C-lactate/ 13 C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, J. H. C.; Meagher, R. K.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and hence higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves), or pair...

  19. Using Negative Reinforcement to Increase Self-Feeding in a Child with Food Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Petula C. M.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a negative reinforcement-based treatment on the self-feeding of 1 child with food selectivity by type and texture. Self-feeding increased when the child could choose to either self-feed 1 bite of a target food or be fed 1 bite of the target food and 5 bites of another food. Possible mechanisms that underlie the…

  20. Aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic inflammation, liver fibrosis and aging in response to high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Hee; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Koyama, Yukinori; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Diggle, Karin; You, Young-Hyun; Schilling, Jan M; Jeste, Dilip; Sharma, Kumar; Brenner, David A; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic and renal inflammation or fibrosis in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and explore the underlying genetic alterations. Middle (10 months old) and old (20 months old) aged, male C57BL/6N mice were fed either a low-fat diet (4 % fat) or HFD (60 % fat) for 4 months. Young (3 months old) aged mice were included as control group. HFD-induced liver and kidney injuries were analyzed by serum and urine assay, histologic staining, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA sequencing with next-generation technology was done with RNA extracted from liver tissues. With HFD feeding, aged was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels, marked infiltration of hepatic macrophages, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A). Importantly, aged mice showed more advanced hepatic fibrosis and increased expression of fibrogenic markers (Col-I-α1, αSMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGFβRII, PDGF, PDGFRβII, TIMP1) in response to HFD. Aged mice fed on HFD also showed increased oxidative stress and TLR4 expression. In the total RNA seq and gene ontology analysis of liver, old-aged HFD group showed significant up-regulation of genes linked to innate immune response, immune response, defense response, inflammatory response compared to middle-aged HFD group. Meanwhile, aging and HFD feeding showed significant increase in glomerular size and mesangial area, higher urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and advanced renal inflammation or fibrosis. However, the difference of HFD-induced renal injury between old-aged group and middle-aged group was not significant. The susceptibility of hepatic fibrosis as well as hepatic inflammation in response to HFD was significantly increased with aging. In addition, aging was associated with glomerular alterations and increased renal inflammation or

  1. Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increases risk of stunting in children aged 12-24 months

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    Hijra Hijra

    2016-12-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increased the risk of stunting in 12-24 months old children by 8.26. This study confirms the need to scale up interventions during the first 2 years of life, including appropriate infant feeding practices.

  2. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  3. Flaxseed Oil Alleviates Chronic HFD-Induced Insulin Resistance through Remodeling Lipid Homeostasis in Obese Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Peiyi; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Liegang; Shen, Ruiling; Deng, Qianchun; Yao, Ping

    2017-11-08

    Emerging evidence suggests that higher circulating long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) levels were intimately associated with lower prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the understanding of bioactivity and potential mechanism of α-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil (ALA-FO) against insulin resistance was still limited. This study evaluated the effect of FO on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice focused on adipose tissue lipolysis. Mice after HFD feeding for 16 weeks (60% fat-derived calories) exhibited systemic insulin resistance, which was greatly attenuated by medium dose of FO (M-FO), paralleling with differential accumulation of ALA and its n-3 derivatives across serum lipid fractions. Moreover, M-FO was sufficient to effectively block the metabolic activation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), thereby improving adipose tissue insulin signaling. Importantly, suppression of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α were involved in FO-mediated modulation of adipose tissue lipolysis, accompanied by specific reconstitution of n-3PUFA within adipose tissue lipid fractions.

  4. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Do financial incentives of introducing case mix reimbursement increase feeding tube use in nursing home residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teno, Joan M; Feng, Zhanlian; Mitchell, Susan L; Kuo, Sylvia; Intrator, Orna; Mor, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether adoption of Medicaid case mix reimbursement is associated with greater prevalence of feeding tube use in nursing home (NH) residents. Secondary analysis of longitudinal administrative data about the prevalence of feeding tube insertion and surveys of states' adoption of case mix reimbursement. NHs in the United States. NH residents at the time of NH inspection between 1993 and 2004. Facility prevalence of feeding tubes reported at the state inspection of NHs reported in the Online Survey, Certification and Reporting database and interviews with state policy makers regarding the adoption of case mix reimbursement. Between 1993 and 2004, 16 states adopted Resource Utilization Group case mix reimbursement. States varied in the prevalence of feeding tubes in their NHs. Although the use of feeding tube increased substantially over the years of the study, once temporal trends and facility fixed effects were accounted for, case mix reimbursement was not associated with greater prevalence of feeding tube use. The adoption of Medicaid case mix reimbursement was not associated with an increase in the prevalence of feeding tube use.

  6. A clinical protocol to increase chewing and assess mastication in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M; Peterson, Kathryn M; Zeleny, Jason R; Piazza, Cathleen C

    2014-09-01

    Children with feeding disorders often cannot or do not chew when presented with table food. Children with chewing deficits also often swallow the bite before masticating it appropriately, which we will refer to as early swallowing. In the current study, we evaluated a clinical protocol to increase chews per bite, assess mastication, and eliminate early swallowing with three children with feeding disorders. The current study adds to a small body of literature on chewing and mastication of children with feeding disorders. Suggestions for future research are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. BMT decreases HFD-induced weight gain associated with decreased preadipocyte number and insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Katiraei

    Full Text Available Experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT in mice is commonly used to assess the role of immune cell-specific genes in various pathophysiological settings. The application of BMT in obesity research is hampered by the significant reduction in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. We set out to characterize metabolic tissues that may be affected by the BMT procedure and impair the HFD-induced response. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent syngeneic BMT using lethal irradiation. After a recovery period of 8 weeks they were fed a low-fat diet (LFD or HFD for 16 weeks. HFD-induced obesity was reduced in mice after BMT as compared to HFD-fed control mice, characterized by both a reduced fat (-33%; p<0.01 and lean (-11%; p<0.01 mass, while food intake and energy expenditure were unaffected. As compared to control mice, BMT-treated mice had a reduced mature adipocyte volume (approx. -45%; p<0.05 and reduced numbers of preadipocytes (-38%; p<0.05 and macrophages (-62%; p<0.05 in subcutaneous, gonadal and visceral white adipose tissue. In BMT-treated mice, pancreas weight (-46%; p<0.01 was disproportionally decreased. This was associated with reduced plasma insulin (-68%; p<0.05 and C-peptide (-37%; p<0.01 levels and a delayed glucose clearance in BMT-treated mice on HFD as compared to control mice. In conclusion, the reduction in HFD-induced obesity after BMT in mice is at least partly due to alterations in the adipose tissue cell pool composition as well as to a decreased pancreatic secretion of the anabolic hormone insulin. These effects should be considered when interpreting results of experimental BMT in metabolic studies.

  8. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  9. Personalized Social Network Activity Feeds for Increased Interaction and Content Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo eBerkovsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks were originally conceived as means of sharing information and activities with friends, and their success has been one of the primary contributors of the tremendous growth of the Web. Social network activity feeds were devised as a means to aggregate recent actions of friends into a convenient list. But the volume of actions and content generated by social network users is overwhelming, such that keeping users up-to-date with friend activities is an ongoing challenge for social network providers. Personalization has been proposed as a solution to combat social network information overload and help users to identify the nuggets of relevant information in the incoming flood of network activities. In this paper, we propose and thoroughly evaluate a personalized model for predicting the relevance of the activity feed items, which informs the ranking of the feeds and facilitates personalization. Results of a live study show that the proposed feed personalization approach successfully identifies and promotes relevant feed items and boosts the uptake of the feeds. In addition, it increases the contribution of user-generated content to the social network and spurs interaction between users.

  10. Vitellogenin-RNAi and ovariectomy each increase lifespan, increase protein storage, and decrease feeding, but are not additive in grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetlak, Alicia G; Burnett, Jacob B; Hahn, Daniel A; Hatle, John D

    2015-12-01

    Reduced reproduction has been shown to increase lifespan in many animals, yet the mechanisms behind this trade-off are unclear. We addressed this question by combining two distinct, direct means of life-extension via reduced reproduction, to test whether they were additive. In the lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera, ovariectomized (OVX) individuals had a ~20% increase in lifespan and a doubling of storage relative to controls (Sham operated). Similarly, young female grasshoppers treated with RNAi against vitellogenin (the precursor to egg yolk protein) had increased fat body mass and halted ovarian growth. In this study, we compared VgRNAi to two control groups that do not reduce reproduction, namely buffer injection (Buffer) and injection with RNAi against a hexameric storage protein (Hex90RNAi). Each injection treatment was tested with and without ovariectomy. Hence, we tested feeding, storage, and lifespans in six groups: OVX and Buffer, OVX and Hex90RNAi, OVX and VgRNAi, Sham and Buffer, Sham and Hex90RNAi, and Sham and VgRNAi. Ovariectomized grasshoppers and VgRNAi grasshoppers each had similar reductions in feeding (~40%), increases in protein storage in the hemolymph (150-300%), and extensions in lifespan (13-21%). Ovariectomized grasshoppers had higher vitellogenin protein levels than did VgRNAi grasshoppers. Last but not least, when ovariectomy and VgRNAi were applied together, there was no greater effect on feeding, protein storage, or longevity. Hence, feeding regulation, and protein storage in insects, may be conserved components of life-extension via reduced reproduction.

  11. Modelling the consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on land and feed use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.A.H.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van H.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the consequences of a model extension towards the presentation of by-product in the production of biofuels. By-products can be used as a substitute for feed grain use in livestock production. A boost in biofuel production will also show a strong increase in the

  12. Economic and environmental effects of providing increased amounts of solid feed to veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Berends, H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, veal calves receive most of their nutrients from milk replacer (MR). Nowadays, however, solid feed (SF; i.e., concentrates and roughages) increasingly substitutes for MR. Studies have shown that providing SF reduces different types of nonnutritive oral behaviors. The objective of

  13. Central pipecolic acid increases food intake under ad libitum feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Tomo; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Saito, Ei-Suke; Tomonaga, Shouzou; Saito, Shin; Bungo, Takashi; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2003-08-21

    It has been demonstrated that L-pipecolic acid (L-PA) is a major metabolic intermediate of L-lysine in the mammalian and chicken brain. A previous study showed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-PA suppressed feeding in neonatal chicks, and the actions were associated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor activation. It has been reported that endogenous L-PA in the brain fluctuated under different feeding conditions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of i.c.v. injection of L-PA on food intake in the neonatal chick under ad libitum feeding conditions. The food intake was increased by 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-PA under ad libitum feeding conditions contrary to previous studies using fasted birds. A hyperphagic effect of L-PA (0.5 mg) was attenuated by both GABA-A receptor antagonist (picrotoxin, 0.5 microg) and GABA-B receptor antagonist (CGP54626, 21.0 ng). These results indicate that a hyperphagic effect of L-PA is mediated by both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors and L-PA differentially affects food intake under different feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

  14. Apple Polysaccharide inhibits microbial dysbiosis and chronic inflammation and modulates gut permeability in HFD-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Qian; Zang, Yue; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Nan; Wang, Yifei; Xu, Xiaotao; Liu, Li; Mei, Qibing

    2017-06-01

    The saying "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" has been known for over 150 years, and numerous studies have shown that apple consumption is closely associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases. It has been well accepted that dysbiosis is the reflection of various chronic diseases. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of apple polysaccharides (AP) on gut dysbiosis. High-fat diet (HFD) fed rats were treated for 14 weeks with AP. The microbiota composition, microbiota-generated short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), gut permeability and chronic inflammation were analyzed. AP treatment showed higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus while lower Firmicutes and Fusobacteium. AP significantly increased total SCFAs level that contributed by acetic acid and isobutyric acid. Moreover, AP dramatically alleviated dysbiosis-associated gut permeability and chronic inflammation with decreased plasma LBP, up-regulation of Occludin, down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The potential mechanism is due to the fact that AP reduces gut permeability, which involves the induction of autophagy in goblet cells. Therefore, AP exerts health benefits through inhibiting gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation and modulating gut permeability in HFD-induced dysbiosis rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic and environmental effects of providing increased amounts of solid feed to veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhorst, H; Berentsen, P B M; Berends, H; Gerrits, W J J; de Boer, I J M

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, veal calves receive most of their nutrients from milk replacer (MR). Nowadays, however, solid feed (SF; i.e., concentrates and roughages) increasingly substitutes for MR. Studies have shown that providing SF reduces different types of nonnutritive oral behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental effects of substituting SF for MR in veal calf diets. With respect to environmental effects, we considered the emission of greenhouse gases and land occupation. Substitution rates were based on an experiment in which 160 calves were provided 2 mixtures of SF at 4 levels of dry matter (DM) intake. Mixtures of SF contained either 80% concentrates, 10% corn silage, and 10% straw on DM basis (C80) or 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw (C50). The 4 levels of SF during the last 17 wk of the fattening period were 20, 100, 180, and 260 kg of DM SF. Additionally, provision of MR was adjusted to achieve equal rates of carcass gain. Substitution rates, representing the SF equivalent needed to substitute for 1 kg of DM MR, were 1.43 kg of DM for C80 and 1.61 kg of DM for C50. Economic effects were assessed based on prices and substitution rates of SF for MR and the possible penalty for carcass color. Environmental effects were assessed based on effects related to the production of feed ingredients, substitution rates, and changes in enteric methane emission and energy use for feed preparation. Costs of feeding SF needed to substitute for 1 kg of DM MR were €0.68 lower for C80 and €0.71 lower for C50, compared with the costs of feeding 1 kg of DM MR. When carcass color scores became too high, however, lower feeding costs were offset by lower revenues from meat. Emissions of greenhouse gases were hardly affected when SF intake was increased. In general, increased enteric methane emission were offset by lower emissions from feed production and energy use. Land occupation increased when intake of SF was increased

  16. Hypothalamic gliosis associated with high-fat diet feeding is reversible in mice: a combined immunohistochemical and magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkseth, Kathryn E; Guyenet, Stephan J; Melhorn, Susan J; Lee, Donghoon; Thaler, Joshua P; Schur, Ellen A; Schwartz, Michael W

    2014-08-01

    Gliosis, the activation of astrocyte and microglial cell populations, is a hallmark of central nervous system injury and is detectable using either immunohistochemistry or in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Obesity in rodents and humans is associated with gliosis of the arcuate nucleus, a key hypothalamic region for the regulation of energy homeostasis and adiposity, but whether this response is permanent or reversible is unknown. Here we combine terminal immunohistochemistry analysis with serial, noninvasive MRI to characterize the progression and reversibility of hypothalamic gliosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The effects of HFD feeding for 16 weeks to increase body weight and adiposity relative to chow were nearly normalized after the return to chow feeding for an additional 4 weeks in the diet-reversal group. Mice maintained on the HFD for the full 20-week study period experienced continued weight gain associated with the expected increases of astrocyte and microglial activation in the arcuate nucleus, but these changes were not observed in the diet-reversal group. The proopiomelanocortin neuron number did not differ between groups. Although MRI demonstrated a positive correlation between body weight, adiposity, and the gliosis-associated T2 signal in the mediobasal hypothalamus, it did not detect the reversal of gliosis among the HFD-fed mice after the return to chow diet. We conclude that hypothalamic gliosis associated with 16-week HFD feeding is largely reversible in rodents, consistent with the reversal of the HFD-induced obesity phenotype, and extend published evidence regarding the utility of MRI as a tool for studying obesity-associated hypothalamic gliosis in vivo.

  17. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing FSW join strength by optimizing feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmadi, Djarot B.; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Siswanto, Eko

    2017-10-01

    Principally the join in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is formed due to mechanical bonding. At least there are two factors determines the quality of this join, first is the temperature in the area around the interface and secondly the intense of mixing forces in nugget zone to create the mechanical bonding. The adequate temperature creates good flowability of the nugget zone and an intensive mixing force produces homogeneous strong bonding. Based on those two factors in this research the effects of feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle of the FSW process to the tensile strength of resulted join are studied. The true experimental method was used. Feed rate was varied at 24, 42, 55 and 74 mm/minutes and from the experimental results, it can be concluded that the higher feed rate decreases the tensile strength of weld join and it is believed due to the lower heat embedded in the material. Inversely, the higher rotating speed increases the join’s tensile strength as a result of higher heat embedded in base metal and higher mixing force in the nugget zone. The rotating speed were 1842, 2257 and 2904 RPMs. The pin angle determines the direction of mixing force. With variation of pin angle: 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° the higher pin angle generally increases the tensile strength because of more intensive mixing force. For 12° pin angle the lower tensile strength is found since the force tends to push out the nugget area from the joint gap.

  19. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Meagher, R K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-09-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and, hence, higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves) or paired with another calf at 6±3 d (n=8 pairs) or 43±3 d of age (n=8 pairs). All calves were fed 8 L of milk/d for 4 wk, 6 L/d from 4 to 7 wk, and then milk was reduced by 20%/d until calves were completely weaned at 8 wk of age. Calves were provided ad libitumaccess to calf starter and a total mixed ration (TMR). Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly from 3 to 10 wk of age.Intake of calf starter was significantly higher for the early-paired calves than for individually reared and late-paired calves throughout the experimental period. At 10 wk of age, starter dry matter intake averaged 2.20±0.22, 1.09±0.25, and 1.26±0.33kg/d for early-paired, late-paired, and individually housed calves, respectively. Intake of TMR did not differ among treatments, TMR dry matter intake averaged 3.27±0.72, 3.08±0.46, and 2.89±0.54kg/d for the same 3 treatments. Calves in the early paired treatment also showed significantly higher average daily gain over the experimental period (0.89±0.04 vs. 0.76±0.04 and 0.73±0.04kg/d for the early-paired, individual, and late-paired calves, respectively). These results indicate that social housing soon after birth can increase weight gains and intake of solid feed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Highlighting the positive impact of increasing feeding frequency on metabolism and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Sylvestre, Jeanine; Lluch, Anne; Neant, Françoise; Blundell, John E

    2003-01-01

    Research on feeding frequency started more than 20 years ago and some studies have shown evidence of nutritional benefits, especially on metabolism and body weight management. Advice on feeding frequency could play an important role in public health policies by reducing levels of overweight and obesity, the prevalence of which has dangerously increased in most countries over the last few decades. The 17th International Congress of Nutrition brought to the forefront the benefits of increasing feeding frequency (i.e. keeping the same total daily energy intake but dividing it into more frequent meals than usual). Recent epidemiological studies, mostly carried out in France, have provided evidence on the beneficial effects of a fourth meal for those individuals who habitually choose this pattern. Supported by metabolic data, these findings have now been supported by experimental studies. The "goûter", commonly eaten in the afternoon in France by most children and many adults, has the biological characteristics of a meal because it is eaten in response to hunger. Suppressing the "goûter" in "habitual fourth meal eaters" soon leads to an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI). Further, people who are regular "goûter" eaters have a higher carbohydrate intake and better metabolic profile than other adults, even though their total energy intake is not greater. Increased feeding frequency leads to a reduction in the total secretion of insulin, an improvement in insulin resistance and a better blood glucose control, as well as an improvement in the blood lipid profile. The experts agreed that, as long as we do not consume more energy than we use up and we only eat when we are hungry, it may be useful to split our total energy intake into as many meals as our social pattern allows. However, the pattern of eating cannot be completely dissociated from the composition of foods consumed. Therefore within this energy intake, we must take care to consume not only a good balance of

  1. A Herbal Formula HT048, Citrus unshiu and Crataegus pinnatifida, Prevents Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and HFD-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available HT048 is a combination composed of Crataegus pinnatifida leaf and Citrus unshiu peel extracts. This study aimed to investigate potential anti-obesity effect of the combination. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of HT048 and triglyceride accumulation, glycerol release and adipogenesis-related genes were analyzed. For in vivo study, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided according to experimental diets: the chow diet group, the high-fat diet (HFD group, the HFD supplemented with orlistat group, the HFD supplemented with HT048 group (0.2% or 0.4% for 12 weeks. We measured the body weight, serum lipid levels and the expression of genes involved lipid metabolism. HT048 treatment dose-dependently suppressed adipocyte differentiation and stimulated glycerol release. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα mRNA were decreased by HT048 treatment in adipocytes. HT048 supplementation significantly reduced the body and fat weights in vivo. Serum lipid levels were significantly lower in the HT048 supplemented groups than those of the HFD group. Expression of the hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased and expression of the β-oxidation-related genes were increased in rats fed HT048 compared to that of animals fed HFD. These results suggest that HT048 has a potential benefit in preventing obesity through the inhibition of lipogenesis and adipogenesis.

  2. Lactation counseling increases breast-feeding duration but not breast milk intake as measured by isotopic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G; Haisma, Hinke; Wright, Antony; Coward, William A

    The importance of exclusive breast-feeding in the first 6 mo of life is widely recognized, but most mothers still do not reach this goal. Several studies have shown that face-to-face lactation counseling is effective in increasing not only exclusive breast-feeding rates but also the total duration

  3. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  4. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlow, G.; Oel, van P.R.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive

  5. SARM1 deletion restrains NAFLD induced by high fat diet (HFD) through reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen-Guo; An, Xu-Sheng

    2018-04-06

    SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice. Additionally, inflammatory response caused by HFD was alleviated by SARM1-deletion through inactivating TLR4/7/9 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Of note, SARM1-deletion also reduced the expressions of inflammation-associated molecules in hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, HFD administration led to oxidative stress in liver of mice, while being decreased in SARM1-KO mice. Moreover, SARM1-ablation improved lipid dyslipidemia by suppressing the mRNA levels of genes, linked to glycolysis, lipogenesis and transcriptional regulation. Insulin resistance was also attenuated by SARM1-deficiency through enhancing the activation of liver Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1)/FOXO1 pathways in HFD-fed mice. Also, SARM1-knockout improved neuropeptide Y (NPY), Pro-Opiomelanocortins (POMC), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP) and Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript 1 (CART1) expressions in hypothalamus of mice after HFD administration. In vitro, we found that the reduction of inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia induced by SARM1-knockout in primary hepatocytes after fructose stimulation was largely attributed to its suppression to TLR4/7/9. Together, the findings demonstrated that SARM1 might be an effective target for developing effective therapeutic strategies against NAFLD. Copyright © 2018

  6. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , glucose and vitC concentrations. Hepatic vitC concentration and gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) capacity, as a measure of vitC de novo biosynthesis, were analyzed in liver homogenates. RESULTS: HF diet significantly increased plasma concentrations of vitC compared with a control diet low in fat (P ... to modulate their vitC homeostasis during high-fat (HF) feeding. METHODS: Twenty-five male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high- or low-fat diets for 14 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 weeks of intervention. Terminal fasting plasma samples were analyzed for insulin.......05). Hepatic de novo biosynthesis of vitC was upregulated (P glucose and insulin concentrations...

  7. Transgenic Mice Expressing Yeast CUP1 Exhibit Increased Copper Utilization from Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenliang; Liao, Rongrong; Zhang, Xiangzhe; Wang, Qishan; Pan, Yuchun

    2014-01-01

    Copper is required for structural and catalytic properties of a variety of enzymes participating in many vital biological processes for growth and development. Feeds provide most of the copper as an essential micronutrient consumed by animals, but inorganic copper could not be utilized effectively. In the present study, we aimed to develop transgenic mouse models to test if copper utilization will be increased by providing the animals with an exogenous gene for generation of copper chelatin in saliva. Considering that the S. cerevisiae CUP1 gene encodes a Cys-rich protein that can bind copper as specifically as copper chelatin in yeast, we therefore constructed a transgene plasmid containing the CUP1 gene regulated for specific expression in the salivary glands by a promoter of gene coding pig parotid secretory protein. Transgenic CUP1 was highly expressed in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands and secreted in saliva as a 9-kDa copper-chelating protein. Expression of salivary copper-chelating proteins reduced fecal copper contents by 21.61% and increased body-weight by 12.97%, suggesting that chelating proteins improve the utilization and absorbed efficacy of copper. No negative effects on the health of the transgenic mice were found by blood biochemistry and histology analysis. These results demonstrate that the introduction of the salivary CUP1 transgene into animals offers a possible approach to increase the utilization efficiency of copper and decrease the fecal copper contents. PMID:25265503

  8. Some properties of solid helium and helium nanoclusters using the effective HFD-like interaction potential: Adsorption and desorption inside carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, M.; Akbarzadeh, H.; Banihashemi, S. Z.; Sotoudeh, A.

    2018-02-01

    We have calculated the zero equation of state of solid helium using a two-body Hartree-Fock dispersion (HFD)-like potential from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. To take many-body forces into account, our simple and accurate empirical expression is used with the HFD-like potential without requiring an expensive three-body calculation. This potential model also includes the quantum effects for helium at low temperatures. The results indicate that our effective HFD-like potential improves the prediction of the classical two-body results to get better agreement with experiment than many other two-body and three-body potentials of helium reported in the literature. We have also simulated the adsorption and desorption processes of the (He)55, (He)147, (He)309, (He)561, and (He)923 icosahedral nanoclusters confined into the different armchair and zigzag CNTs from 0 to 50 K using our effective model. We have observed an interesting phenomenon at 0 K for helium. The nanoclusters adsorb to the inner CNT wall as a melting process. But, the heavier noble gas clusters (such as Ne and Xe) show the different behavior than the He clusters. They form a multilayered solid structure into the CNT at zero temperature and adsorb into the inner wall of the CNT at higher temperatures. Our results for He clusters show that the absolute value of the adsorption energy increases as the size of the nanocluster increases. The desorption process begins at a certain temperature and represents itself by a jump in the configurational energy values. We have also investigated the structural and dynamical properties of the confined helium nanoclusters during the adsorption and desorption processes at different temperatures.

  9. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-fat diet feeding causes rapid, non-apoptotic cleavage of caspase-3 in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Nguyen, Hong T; Hwang, Bang H; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G; Thaler, Joshua P

    2013-05-28

    Astrocytes respond to multiple forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury by entering a reactive state characterized by morphological changes and a specific pattern of altered protein expression. Termed astrogliosis, this response has been shown to strongly influence the injury response and functional recovery of CNS tissues. This pattern of CNS inflammation and injury associated with astrogliosis has recently been found to occur in the energy homeostasis centers of the hypothalamus during diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodent models, but the characterization of the astrocyte response remains incomplete. Here, we report that astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus respond robustly and rapidly to purified high-fat diet (HFD) feeding by cleaving caspase-3, a protease whose cleavage is often associated with apoptosis. Although obesity develops in HFD-fed rats by day 14, caspase-3 cleavage occurs by day 3, prior to the development of obesity, suggesting the possibility that it could play a causal role in the hypothalamic neuropathology and fat gain observed in DIO. Caspase-3 cleavage is not associated with an increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL staining, suggesting it plays a non-apoptotic role analogous to the response to excitotoxic neuron injury. Our results indicate that astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus respond rapidly and robustly to HFD feeding, activating caspase-3 in the absence of apoptosis, a process that has the potential to influence the course of DIO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of Okra Powder (Abelmoscus Esculentus Effects on Histology of Liver Tissue and Sero-Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

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    N erfani majd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabete is a kind of metabolic disease that it is associated with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and disturbed liver function.  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of Okra Powder on liver damage in high fat diet fed / streptozotocin (HFD-STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 Wistar Albino female rats with an average weight of (200–220 g were randomly divided  into 5 groups: Group I: (control group rats were fed the standard diet, Group II: healthy rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks; Group III (HFD/STZ group: Rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD (60% fat for 4 weeks  and then injected low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg, Group IV:  Diabetic rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. GroupV: Diabetic rats that received metformin (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, biochemical parameters were measured. Liver samples were removed and 5-6 µ sections were made and stained by H&E and Sudan black staining. Results: The results showed that all the biochemical parameters, except HDL-C and serum insulin were increased in diabetic rats, while they were decreased in Okra supplementation group compared  to diabetic rats (p<0.05. The liver structure alterations were improved in treated diabetic rats with Okra Powder and metformin.  Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the potential anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Okra Powder. Thus, it seems it has an important role in the management of type 2 diabete.

  12. FEEDING PATTERN TOWARD THE INCREASING OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CHILDREN AGED 1–3 YEARS

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    Toni Subarkah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of nutritional status problems with underweight in Indonesia at the moments is (19,6%. Data showed that children with less nutritional status aged 1-3 years in Kalijudan, Surabaya are existed. Provide feeding pattern properly is one effort to improve the nutritional status by fulfilling the needs of the child nutrition. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationship of feeding pattern and nutritional status in children aged 1-3 years in the Kalijudan district, Surabaya. Methods: The research design used was cross-sectional study with dietary habit as the independent variable and nutritional status as dependent variable. The sample was taken from 154 mothers and children. Consecutive sampling was deployed. Data collection by questionnaires, and then data analysis using the Spearman’s Rho in level  of significance α≤0.05. Result and Analysis: There was strong relationship between feeding pattern and nutritional status (r=0.640. The result showed that inappropriate feeding patterns with nutritional status is very thin (44.4% a proper feeding patterns with normal nutritional status (89.7%.  Discussion and Conclussion: The efforts to improve nutritional status of children aged 1-3 years related to feeding patterns should be improved in order to achieve a normal nutritional status. Further research may explore on the feeding patterns based on dietary allowances. Keywords: feeding pattern, nutritional status, 1-3 years old children

  13. FEEDING PATTERN TOWARD THE INCREASING OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CHILDREN AGED 1–3 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Subarkah; Nursalam Nursalam; Praba Diyan Rachmawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of nutritional status problems with underweight in Indonesia at the moments is (19,6%). Data showed that children with less nutritional status aged 1-3 years in Kalijudan, Surabaya are existed. Provide feeding pattern properly is one effort to improve the nutritional status by fulfilling the needs of the child nutrition. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationship of feeding pattern and nutritional status in children aged 1-3 years in the Kalijudan d...

  14. Feeding of Whitefly on Tobacco Decreases Aphid Performance via Increased Salicylate Signaling.

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    Haipeng Zhao

    Full Text Available The feeding of Bemisia tabaci nymphs trigger the SA pathway in some plant species. A previous study showed that B. tabaci nymphs induced defense against aphids (Myzus persicae in tobacco. However, the mechanism underlying this defense response is not well understood.Here, the effect of activating the SA signaling pathway in tobacco plants through B. tabaci nymph infestation on subsequent M. persicae colonization is investigated. Performance assays showed that B. tabaci nymphs pre-infestation significantly reduced M. persicae survival and fecundity systemically in wild-type (WT but not salicylate-deficient (NahG plants compared with respective control. However, pre-infestation had no obvious local effects on subsequent M. persicae in either WT or NahG tobacco. SA quantification results indicated that the highest accumulation of SA was induced by B. tabaci nymphs in WT plants after 15 days of infestation. These levels were 8.45- and 6.14-fold higher in the local and systemic leaves, respectively, than in controls. Meanwhile, no significant changes of SA levels were detected in NahG plants. Further, biochemical analysis of defense enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (POD, β-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase demonstrated that B. tabaci nymph infestation increased these enzymes' activity locally and systemically in WT plants, and there was more chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase activity systemically than locally, which was opposite to the changing trends of PPO. However, B. tabaci nymph infestation caused no obvious increase in enzyme activity in any NahG plants except POD.In conclusion, these results underscore the important role that induction of the SA signaling pathway by B. tabaci nymphs plays in defeating aphids. It also indicates that the activity of β-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase may be positively correlated with resistance to aphids.

  15. Infected Donor Biomass and Active Feeding Increase Waterborne Transmission of Ichthyophonus sp. to Rainbow Trout Sentinels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPatra, S E; Kocan, R M

    2016-06-01

    The precise nature of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission among wild fishes has eluded description for over a century. Transmission among piscivores is direct, via ingestion of infected prey, but there is also evidence for waterborne transmission between infected and uninfected individuals. Transmission among planktivores is believed to be via a waterborne infectious cell, but definitive proof of this mechanism has not been forthcoming. To explore possible mechanisms of transmission we used Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a model system and examined the consequence of housing infected donor fish with uninfected (sentinel) fish, without physical contact. We examined two variables linked to transmission: (1) feeding and nonfeeding sentinel fish, and (2) biomass of infected donor fish. Specific-pathogen free sentinel trout were placed in fine-mesh baskets suspended in tanks containing varying numbers of larger Ichthyophonus-infected donor fish and held for 10 weeks, during which time they were examined by in vitro explant culture for the presence of Ichthyophonus. Treatment groups consisted of fed and unfed sentinels housed with infected donors of increasing biomass. After 10 weeks infection prevalence in fed sentinels was significantly higher than in unfed sentinels, and Ichthyophonus was detected earlier in fed fish than in unfed fish. There was no correlation between infection prevalence and donor biomass in fed sentinels, but there was a strong correlation between infection prevalence and increasing donor biomass in unfed sentinels. These data suggest that Ichthyophonus is maintained in wild fish populations by two distinct mechanisms: (1) waterborne infectious cells ingested directly from the water by planktivores, and (2) both infected prey and waterborne infectious cells ingested by piscivores. Received November 13, 2015; accepted February 13, 2016.

  16. Increasing milk solids production across lactation through genetic selection and intensive pasture-based feed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index (EBI), on overall performance and lactation profiles for milk, milk solids, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) within 2 pasture-based systems of milk production likely to be used in the future, following abolition of the European Union's milk quota system. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of animals with North American origin and average or lower genetic merit at the time of the study; HighNA, North American Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit; and HighNZ, New Zealand Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark pasture (MP) system (2.64 cows/ha and 344 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,056 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). Pasture was allocated to achieve similar postgrazing residual sward heights for both treatments. A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, FS, and the interaction between genotype and FS on milk production, BW, and BCS across lactation were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotype and FS accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype by FS interaction was observed for any of the variables measured. Results show that milk solids production of the national average dairy cow can be increased across lactation through increased EBI. High EBI genotypes (HighNA and HighNZ) produced more milk solids per cow and

  17. The dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) increases both hepatic and extrahepatic ornithine urea cycle enzyme activities for nitrogen conservation after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Makiko; Walsh, Patrick J; Mommsen, Thomas P; Wood, Chris M

    2006-01-01

    Urea not only is utilized as a major osmolyte in marine elasmobranchs but also constitutes their main nitrogenous waste. This study investigated the effect of feeding, and thus elevated nitrogen intake, on nitrogen metabolism in the Pacific spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias. We determined the activities of ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) and related enzymes in liver and nonhepatic tissues. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (the rate-limiting enzyme of the O-UC) activity in muscle is high compared with liver, and the activities in both tissues increased after feeding. The contribution of muscle to urea synthesis in the dogfish body appears to be much larger than that of liver when body mass is considered. Furthermore, enhanced activities of the O-UC and related enzymes (glutamine synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, arginase) were seen after feeding in both liver and muscle and were accompanied by delayed increases in plasma urea, trimethylamine oxide, total free amino acids, alanine, and chloride concentrations, as well as in total osmolality. The O-UC and related enzymes also occurred in the intestine but showed little change after feeding. Feeding did not change the rate of urea excretion, indicating strong N retention after feeding. Ammonia excretion, which constituted only a small percentage of total N excretion, was raised in fed fish, while plasma ammonia did not change, suggesting that excess ammonia in plasma is quickly ushered into synthesis of urea or protein. In conclusion, we suggest that N conservation is a high priority in this elasmobranch and that feeding promotes ureogenesis and growth. Furthermore, exogenous nitrogen from food is converted into urea not only by the liver but also by the muscle and to a small extent by the intestine.

  18. Anti-Glycemic and Anti-Hepatotoxic Effects of Mangosteen Vinegar Rind from Garcinia mangostana Against HFD/STZ-Induced Type II Diabetes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Naymul

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on anti-glycemic and anti-hepatotoxic effects of mangosteen vinegar rind (MVR on five weeks high-fat diet (HFD / single dose streptozotocin (STZ 30 mg/kg BW induced male ICR diabetic mice. Mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=6, normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic groups treated with MVR 100, 200 mg/kg BW and glibenclamide 60 mg/kg BW for one week. After the treatment, lipid profile, glycogen and bilirubin contents, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities, antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT were measured in plasma and/or liver tissues. MVR and glibenclamide treatment to HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice significantly reduced their plasma glucose, plasma lipid profile, and hepatic lipid profile (P<0.05. Increased hepatic glycogen content indicates improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, oxidative damage markers were ameliorated in MVR- and glibenclamide-treated groups compared to the diabetic control group. MVR with phenolic compounds content of 75 mg GAE/g dry weight and antioxidant potential of 303 mmol/L Trolox/g dry weight acted as a hepatoprotective agent against oxidative damage.

  19. Live feed enrichment with probiotics: current methods and future perspectives on increasing finfish larviculture success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are considered an alternative to other treatments enhancing immune response, growth, or feed efficiency in animal rearing systems. While probiotics are extensively used in livestock practices, their use in aquaculture has not been as prevalent due to many factors, including a knowledge ga...

  20. Model-Based Nutrient Feeding Strategies for the Increased Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes latus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2017-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers which are considered as an effective alternative for conventional plastics due to their mechanical properties similar to the latter. However, the widespread use of these polymers is still hampered due to their higher cost of production as compared to plastics. The production cost could be overcome by obtaining high yields and productivity. The goal of the present research was to enhance the yield of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) with the help of two simple fed-batch cultivation strategies. In the present study, average batch kinetic and substrate limitation/inhibition study data of Alcaligenes latus was used for the development of PHB model which was then adopted for designing various off-line nutrient feeding strategies to enhance PHB accumulation. The predictive ability of the model was validated by experimental implementation of two fed-batch strategies. One such dynamic strategy of fed-batch cultivation under pseudo-steady state with respect to nitrogen and simultaneous carbon feeding strategy resulted in significantly high biomass and PHB concentration of 39.17 g/L and 29.64 g/L, respectively. This feeding strategy demonstrated a high PHB productivity and PHB content of 0.6 g/L h and 75%, respectively, which were remarkably high in comparison to batch cultivation. The mathematical model can also be employed for designing various other nutrient feeding strategies.

  1. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  2. Microbial phytase and liquid feeding increase phytate degradation in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative degradation of inositol phosphates (InsP6 to InsP2) in the stomach and small intestine as influenced by microbial phytase and fermented liquid feeding was compared by combining the results from two experiments. Six pigs (49 kg) were fitted with gastric cannulas ( Exp. 1 ) and 3...... with microbial phytase (750 FTU/kg) fed dry; diet 3, diet 2 fed in liquid form (fermented 17.5 h, 20 °C, 50% residual in the tank). InsP6-P was not present in gastric or ileal digesta in pigs fed diet 3 due to complete InsP6 degradation before feeding. In pigs fed diet 2 the amount of gastric InsP6-P...... was considerably smaller compared with pigs fed diet 1 due to phytase addition (P ≤ 0.001). On the other hand, the amount of ileal InsP6-P was only slightly less in pigs fed diet 2 compared with diet 1 indicating that InsP6 is greatly degraded in the small intestine. Furthermore, the amounts of gastric or ileal...

  3. Threatened Caribbean coral is able to mitigate the adverse effects of ocean acidification on calcification by increasing feeding rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Towle

    Full Text Available Global climate change threatens coral growth and reef ecosystem health via ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA. Whereas the negative impacts of these stressors are increasingly well-documented, studies identifying pathways to resilience are still poorly understood. Heterotrophy has been shown to help corals experiencing decreases in growth due to either thermal or OA stress; however, the mechanism by which it mitigates these decreases remains unclear. This study tested the ability of coral heterotrophy to mitigate reductions in growth due to climate change stress in the critically endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis via changes in feeding rate and lipid content. Corals were either fed or unfed and exposed to elevated temperature (30°C, enriched pCO2 (800 ppm, or both (30°C/800 ppm as compared to a control (26°C/390 ppm for 8 weeks. Feeding rate and lipid content both increased in corals experiencing OA vs. present-day conditions, and were significantly correlated. Fed corals were able to maintain ambient growth rates at both elevated temperature and elevated CO2, while unfed corals experienced significant decreases in growth with respect to fed conspecifics. Our results show for the first time that a threatened coral species can buffer OA-reduced calcification by increasing feeding rates and lipid content.

  4. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jung Chou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Inonotus obliquus (IO is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP, from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10–100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance, reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1, while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  5. Hepatic microvascular dysfunction and increased advanced glycation end products are components of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva; Silvares, Raquel Rangel; Flores, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita; Rodrigues, Karine Lino; Ramos, Isalira Peroba; da Silva, Igor José; Machado, Marcelo Pelajo; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano F; Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire de Castro; Tibiriça, Eduardo; Daliry, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA. The participation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and its receptor RAGE was evaluated by the measurement of gene and protein expression of RAGE by RT-PCR and Western-blot, respectively and by liver and serum quantification of fluorescent AGEs. Wistar rats fed high-fat diet (HFD) showed increase in epididymal and abdominal fat content, systolic arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose levels, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol, and impairment of glucose and insulin metabolisms. Liver histology confirmed the presence of steatosis and ultrasound analysis revealed increased liver size and parenchymal echogenicity in HFD-fed rats. HFD causes significant increases in leukocyte rolling and adhesion on hepatic microcirculation and decrease in liver microvascular blood flow. Liver tissue presented increase in oxidative stress and inflammtion. At 20 weeks, there was a significantly increase in AGE content in the liver and serum of HFD-fed rats and an increase in RAGE gene expression in the liver. The increase in liver AGE levels and microcirculatory disturbances could play a role in the pathogenesis of liver injury and are key components of NAFLD.

  6. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...... in the diet. As a mean 68% of the unsaturated C18 fatty acids were hydrogenated in the rumen. Fatty acid and crude fat true digestibilities decreased with increasing fat intakes owing to a decrease in stearic acid (C18:0) digestibility....

  7. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  8. Inclusion of copepod Acartia tonsa nauplii in the feeding of Centropomus undecimalis larvae increases stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo-Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research represents the first result of studies of the common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae from broodstock matured in captivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii improves stress resistance of common snook larvae. The larvae were fed with: rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (10 to 15 mL-1; A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5 mL-1 and rotifers (5 to 7.5 mL-1, and A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25 mL-1. The average percentage of survival of the treatments was 11.9%. At 20 days of age, larvae were subjected to thermal stress. Subsequently, the stress resistance was evaluated. Common snook larvae fed B. plicatilis+A. tonsa reached a higher weight and length (7.5 ± 0.00 mg and 9.1 ± 0.23 mm, respectively and resisted more heat stress (87.4% than larvae fed other foods, indicating that the feed mixture is satisfactory as a starter diet for larvae of common snook. However, more research is needed to confirm these results.

  9. Effect of increasing the level of alfalfa hay in finishing beef heifer diets on intake, sorting, and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, A; González, L A; Mainau, E; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2018-02-15

    Eight rumen cannulated Simmental heifers (BW = 281.4 ± 7.28 kg) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design to ascertain the effects of increasing levels of alfalfa hay on intake, sorting, and feeding behavior in comparison to barley straw as forage source. Treatments tested were four total mixed rations with: 1) 10% barley straw (10BS) with 7.0% NDF from forage, 2) 13% alfalfa hay (13AH) and less NDF from forage (5.7%) than 10BS, 3) 16% alfalfa hay (16AH) and the same NDF from forage (7.0%) as 10BS, and 4) 19% alfalfa hay (19AH) and more NDF from forage (8.3%) than 10BS. Each experimental period consisted of 3 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for sampling. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet linearly increased (P comparison to the 10BS diet. In the same way, intake of long, medium, and short particle size was greater in this diet. Moreover, heifers fed 19AH sorted for medium particle size and tended to sort for long and short particles size, and against fine particle size. Sorting behavior and meal length increased in the 19AH diet, which leads us to think that sorting feed ingredients requires time and therefore lengthens the meal. Time spent ruminating was greater in heifers fed 19AH, thus reducing the risk of ruminal acidosis when animals are fed high concentrate diets.

  10. Yeast culture increased plasma niacin concentration, evaporative heat loss, and feed efficiency of dairy cows in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Julia D L; Silva, Rayana B; Fernandes, Tatiane; Barbosa, Eugenio F; Graças, Larissa E C; Araujo, Rafael C; Pereira, Renata A N; Pereira, Marcos N

    2018-04-04

    The supplementation of dairy cows with yeast culture may increase diet digestibility, plasma niacin concentration, heat dissipation, and lactation performance. Our objective was to evaluate the response of Holstein cows in late lactation (234 ± 131 d in milk) to dead yeast culture (YC, 15 g/d, Factor SC, GRASP, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during Brazilian summer (temperature-humidity index >68 for 92.2% of the time). Thirty-two cows were individually fed a standard total mixed ration for 14 d and control (CTL) or YC treatments for 35 d, in a covariate adjusted complete randomized block design. Response was evaluated in wk 5 or as repeated measures over time. Cows were milked 3 times per day and treatments (YC or placebo) were orally dosed to each cow before each milking. Plasma niacin was 1.50 for CTL and 1.66 µg/mL for YC. The YC reduced rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, whereas it tended to increase sweating rate. The proportion of cows with rectal temperature ≥39.2°C on CTL and YC was, respectively, 8 and 0% at 0730 h, 52 and 25% at 1500 h, and 35 and 26% at 2200 h. Plasma glucose was increased by YC. The total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, plasma urea N concentration, molar proportion of ruminal VFA, and urinary allantoin excretion were not affected by YC. Cows fed YC were less selective against feed particles >19 mm in the morning, in the afternoon were more selective against long feed particles and in favor of particles loss, and feed efficiency of late lactation dairy cows by reducing intake at similar milk yield. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  12. High fat diet feeding results in gender specific steatohepatitis and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Michal; Csak, Timea; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-07-14

    To develop an animal model that encompasses the different facets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which has been a challenge. In this study, we used a high fat diet (HFD) feeding supplemented with fructose and sucrose in the water mimicking the high-fructose corn syrup that is abundant in the diet in the United States. We used C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for short and long-term feedings of 6 and 16 wk respectively, and evaluated the extent of liver damage, steatosis, and inflammasome activation. Our methods included histopathological analysis to assess liver damage and steatosis, which involved H and E and oil-red-o staining; biochemical studies to look at ALT and triglyceride levels; RNA analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; and cytokine analysis, which included the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to look at interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels. Furthermore, at each length of feeding we also looked at insulin resistance and glucose tolerance using insulin tolerance tests (ITT) and glucose tolerance tests. There was no insulin resistance, steatosis, or inflammasome activation at 6 wk. In contrast, at 16 wk we found significant insulin resistance demonstrated by impaired glucose and ITT in male, but not female mice. In males, elevated alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride levels, indicated liver damage and steatosis, respectively. Increased liver TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein, correlated with steatohepatitis. The inflammasome components, adaptor molecule, Aim2, and NOD-like receptor 4, increased at the mRNA level, and functional inflammasome activation was indicated by increased caspase-1 activity and IL-1β protein levels in male mice fed a long-term HFD. Male mice on HFD had increased α-smooth muscle actin and pro-collagen-1 mRNA indicating evolving fibrosis. In contrast, female mice displayed only elevated triglyceride levels, steatosis, and no fibrosis. Our data

  13. Feeding high grain diets to increase energy density has resulted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allocated to two groups of 15 each (treatment and control). ... growing steers, beef bulls and beef cattle increased dry matter intake and/or weight gain ..... No differences were observed in any of the rib-eye dimension measurements (Table 5).

  14. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P

  15. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  16. A Plant-Feeding Nematode Indirectly Increases the Fitness of an Aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace A. Hoysted

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants suffer multiple, simultaneous assaults from above and below ground. In the laboratory, pests and/or pathogen attack are commonly studied on an individual basis. The molecular response of the plant to attack from multiple organisms and the interaction of different defense pathways is unclear. The inducible systemic responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. host plant were analyzed to characterize the plant-mediated indirect interactions between a sedentary, endoparasitic nematode (Globodera pallida, and a phloem-sucking herbivore (Myzus persicae. The reproductive success of M. persicae was greater on potato plants pre-infected with G. pallida compared to control plants. Salicylic acid (SA increased systemically in the leaves of potato plants following nematode and aphid infection singly with a corresponding increase in expression of SA-mediated marker genes. An increase in jasmonic acid associated with aphid infection was suppressed when plants were co-infected with nematodes. Our data suggests a positive, asymmetric interaction between a sedentary endoparasitic nematode and a sap-sucking insect. The systemic response of the potato plant following infection with G. pallida indirectly influences the performance of M. persicae. This work reveals additional secondary benefits of controlling individual crop pests.

  17. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered compared with control rats (vehicle administered. This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1, total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  18. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  19. Long-Term Oral Feeding of Lutein-Fortified Milk Increases Voluntary Running Distance in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared wit...

  20. INCREASING NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF ARTIFICIAL FEED WITH WHOLE SPORE PROTEIN OF MYXOBOLUS KOI AS AN IMMUNOSTIMULTANT ON GOLDFISH (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusairi A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of goldfish in Indonesia in 2010-2013 has increased by 7.09%, the lowest average production increase compared with other main commodities such as shrimp, tilapia, catfish, and others. One of the primary causes of the low increase in production is the presence of disease and high price of feed in some central goldfish productions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi on goldfish (Cyprinus carpio L. through feed to immune response, growth rate, feed efficiency and survival rate. This research was conducted with complete randomized design with 5 replications. This study used two types of treatment, control (100% artificial feed and artificial feed + immunostimulant (whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi + Boster® Progol adhesive spores. The results showed that whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi given to the feed as immunostimulant can cause response of the immune through the increase of monocytes and lymphocytes in white blood cells on days 7, 14 and 28 observations, daily growth rate of 5.55% compared without immunostimulant with the rate of 1.13%; feed efficiency of 36.57% compared with no immunostimulant, which is only 23.84%, and the treatment gives a 99% survival rate.

  1. NURSING INTERVENTION THROUGH FAMILY PATHNERSHIP INCREASES BEHAVIOR IN PRACTICE OF FEEDING PATTERN ON INFANT OF AGE 6–24 MONTHS FOR NUCLEAR AND EXTENDED FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aziz Alimul Hidayat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing intervention is nursing action with a supportive and educative approach done by nurses cooperating with families in overcoming the problems of nursing family. The aim of the research was to explain the effect of nursing intervention through family pathnership toward behavior in practice of feeding pattern on infant of age 6–24 months for nuclear and extended family, including the breastfeeding (ASI, PASI, soft food, family food, snacks, and way of feeding. Method: The design of the research was experimental. The sample of the research was ninety six (96 samples, which was chosen with simple random sampling.The sample was then divided into two parts of family in Kenjeran District and Bulak Surabaya, namely nuclear family and extended family. The variables measured were breastfeeding, PASI, soft food, family food, and a way of feeding through interviewing and observation. The data analysis used was Mann Whitney U. Result: Result showed that effect of nursing interventions on the style of feeding containing of giving PASI (p = 0.003, soft food (p = 0.005, family food (p = 0.00, snacks (p = 0.034, and way of feeding (p = 0.00. Those effects can be shown with the increasing of frequency and way of feeding before and after intervention. Discussion: The conclusion is nursing intervention through the supportive and educative approach as the form of actions on families with problems on the pattern of feeding has the influence on the practice of feeding pattern. The increasing of feeding frequency shows the cognitive and behavioral change on the practice of feeding pattern which can possibly improve the status of infants nutrient.

  2. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  3. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  4. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enterprises of Ukraine, therefore an analysis of available data on zooplankton cultivation is important for looking for optimal and economically profitable methods of enrichment of pond fish diet with natural feeds. Methodology. Methods of cladoceran cultivation were the object of the study, material for the study – literature data on ways and methods of zooplankton cultivation. Findings. Cultivation of various species of zooplankton is performed for feeding of pond fish on different life stages. Main object of cultivation in aquaculture is Daphnia magna Straus, juvenile forms of which are consumed by fish larvae, while adult organisms are the most valuable for yearlings and older fish. The efficiency of hydrobiont cultivation highly depends on the selected object, containers, where cladocerans are cultivated, optimum conditions, peculiarities of water supply, species, and application of fertilizers and feeds. Originality. The highest production of zooplankton can be obtained when cultivating D. magna in tanks with continuous flow and in net cages installed in ponds under condition of ensuring requirements of the culture in bacterial and algae feeds (due to application of fertilizers and feeding with feeds and microalgae taking into account their presence in water, which is in the tank-cultivator. Practical value. Simplicity of the methods and high efficiency of zooplankton cultivation for preparation of pond fish juveniles is the basis of its wide use in

  5. Transfer of blood urea nitrogen to cecal microbial nitrogen is increased by fructo-oligosaccharide feeding in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kiyonori; Min, Xiao; Li, Xiao; Hasegawa, Ena; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which nitrogen (N) availability is improved by fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) in guinea pigs. Adult male guinea pigs were fed a commercial pellet diet (50 g/day) with either 5% glucose or 5% FOS for 7 days in individual metabolism cages. After 7 days of feeding the diet, (15) N-urea was administered intravenously 1 h before slaughter under anesthesia. The amount and concentration of total, protein, bacterial, ammonia and urea N and the (15) N atom % excess were measured in blood, liver, gut contents and urine. The (15) N atom % excess of total and protein N, and the amount of total, protein and bacteria N and (15) N in the cecum were significantly increased by the consumption of FOS. Furthermore, the concentration and amount of short-chain fatty acids were significantly increased by the consumption of FOS. In contrast, the amount of urinary (15) N was significantly decreased by the consumption of FOS. These results suggest that consumption of FOS increases transfer of blood urea N into the large intestine for bacterial N synthesis, which is subsequently re-absorbed by cecotrophy, and contributes to the increase of N utilization in guinea pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Restless behavior increases over time, but not with compressibility of the flooring surface, during forced standing at the feed bunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, N; Berry, S L; Tucker, C B

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the use of rubber flooring in freestall barns has increased, but little is known about which design features of these surfaces are important for cattle. In 2 experiments, we evaluated how the type and compressibility of the flooring surface in front of the feed bunk influenced the behavioral response to 4 h of forced standing after morning milking. Two flooring types were compared: rubber and concrete. Rubber was tested at 3 levels of compressibility: 2, 4, and 35 times as compressible as concrete. Four hours of forced standing was evaluated because it mimicked conditions that can occur on dairies, particularly when waiting for artificial insemination or veterinary treatment. The effects of cow weight and hoof surface area, gait score, and hoof health on the response to treatment were evaluated. Restless behavior, as measured by number of steps, almost doubled over the 4h of forced standing, regardless of flooring material. Cows lay down, on average, within 5 min after access to the lying area was provided. These results indicate that the 4 h of forced standing was uncomfortable. No differences in restless behavior were observed in association with the type or compressibility of the flooring surface in front of the feed bunk. Cow size, hoof health, or gait score did not consistently explain the response to the flooring treatments or stepping rate, although these populations of animals were generally healthy. It is unclear if comfort did not differ between the flooring options tested during 4 h of forced standing or if alterative methodology, such as measuring more subtle shifts in weight, is required to assess design features of rubber flooring. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5. Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP. The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S, 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-oil (C or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC. All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1 or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments

  9. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  10. High-fat feeding in cardiomyocyte-restricted PPARdelta knockout mice leads to cardiac overexpression of lipid metabolic genes but fails to rescue cardiac phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuquan; Cheng, Lihong; Qin, Qianhong; Liu, Jian; Lo, Woo-kuen; Brako, Lowrence A; Yang, Qinglin

    2009-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is an essential determinant of basal myocardial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and bioenergetics. We wished to determine whether increased lipid loading affects the PPARdelta deficient heart in transcriptional regulation of FAO and in the development of cardiac pathology. Cardiomyocyte-restricted PPARdelta knockout (CR-PPARdelta(-/-)) and control (alpha-MyHC-Cre) mice were subjected to 48 h of fasting and to a long-term maintenance on a (28 weeks) high-fat diet (HFD). The expression of key FAO proteins in heart was examined. Serum lipid profiles, cardiac pathology, and changes of various transduction signaling pathways were also examined. Mice subjected to fasting exhibited upregulated transcript expression of FAO genes in the CR-PPARdelta(-/-) hearts. Moreover, long-term HFD in CR-PPARdelta(-/-) mice induced a strikingly greater transcriptional response. After HFD, genes encoding key FAO enzymes were expressed remarkably more in CR-PPARdelta(-/-) hearts than in those of control mice. Despite the marked rise of FAO gene expression, corresponding protein expression remained low in the CR-PPARdelta(-/-) heart, accompanied by abnormalities in sarcomere structures and mitochondria that were similar to those of CR-PPARdelta(-/-) hearts with regular chow feeding. The CR-PPARdelta(-/-) mice displayed increased expression of PPARgamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and PPARalpha in the heart with deactivated Akt and p42/44 MAPK signaling in response to HFD. We conclude that PPARdelta is an essential determinant of myocardial FAO. Increased lipid intake activates cardiac expression of FAO genes via PPARalpha/PGC-1alpha pathway, albeit it is not sufficient to improve cardiac pathology due to PPARdelta deficiency.

  11. Reversal of diet-induced obesity increases insulin transport into cerebrospinal fluid and restores sensitivity to the anorexic action of central insulin in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Mul, Joram D; Liu, Min; Reedy, Brianne M; D'Alessio, David A; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) reduces the ability of centrally administered insulin to reduce feeding behavior and also reduces the transport of insulin from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS). The current study was designed to determine whether reversal of high-fat DIO restores the anorexic efficacy of central insulin and whether this is accompanied by restoration of the compromised insulin transport. Adult male Long-Evans rats were initially maintained on either a low-fat chow diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). After 22 weeks, half of the animals on the HFD were changed to the LFD, whereas the other half continued on the HFD for an additional 8 weeks, such that there were 3 groups: 1) a LFD control group (Con; n = 18), 2) a HFD-fed, DIO group (n = 17), and 3) a HFD to LFD, DIO-reversal group (DIO-rev; n = 18). The DIO reversal resulted in a significant reduction of body weight and epididymal fat weight relative to the DIO group. Acute central insulin administration (8 mU) reduced food intake and caused weight loss in Con and DIO-rev but not DIO rats. Fasting cerebrospinal fluid insulin was higher in DIO than Con animals. However, after a peripheral bolus injection of insulin, cerebrospinal fluid insulin increased in Con and DIO-rev rats but not in the DIO group. These data provide support for previous reports that DIO inhibits both the central effects of insulin and insulin's transport to the CNS. Importantly, DIO-rev restored sensitivity to the effects of central insulin on food intake and insulin transport into the CNS.

  12. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace K Saba

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2 concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill by conducting a CO(2 perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2 levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP. Under elevated CO(2 conditions (∼672 ppm, ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1 d(-1 and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2 concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2 treatment than at ambient CO(2 concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2 treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, were consistently higher in the high CO(2 treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  14. Feed-derived volatile basic nitrogen increases reactive oxygen species production of blood leukocytes in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Ei; Gross, Josef J; Kawashima, Chiho; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated over 9 months the changes of fermentative quality of total mixed rations (TMR) containing grass silage (GS) as a major component, associated with changes in the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in an experimental dairy farm. Effects of VBN levels in TMR on metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and conception rates for dairy cows were analyzed. According to VBN levels in TMR during survey periods, three distinct phases were identified; phase A with low VBN; phase B with high VBN; and phase C with mid-VBN. Metabolic parameters in blood were all within normal range. However, during phases B and C, nitrogen metabolic indices such as blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen showed higher levels compared to those in phase A, and a simultaneous increase in ROS production by blood PMNs and the load on hepatic function in metabolic parameters was observed in the cows with a lower conception rate. This suggests that feeding TMR with elevated VBN levels due to poor fermented GS results in stimulation of ROS production by PMNs by ammonia, and negatively affects metabolism and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cow. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Increased Coal Replacement in a Cement Kiln Burner by Feeding a Mixture of Solid Hazardous Waste and Shredded Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W. K. Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by combined feeding of plastic waste and solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. The coal replacement should be achieved without negative impacts on product quality, emissions or overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement kiln by varying SHW and plastic waste feeding rates. Experimental result...

  16. Ghrelin signaling in the ventral tegmental area mediates both reward-based feeding and fasting-induced hyperphagia on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X J; Sun, B; Chen, K; Lv, B; Luo, X; Yan, J Q

    2015-08-06

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic hormone that acts in the central nervous system to stimulate food intake via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) that is abundantly expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Not only does ghrelin modulate feeding behavior via a homeostatic mechanism, but numerous studies have identified ghrelin as a key regulator of reward-based hedonic feeding behaviors. Nutritional states influence ghrelin and GHSR expression as well as the behavioral sensitivity to reward-inducing stimuli. In the current study, we examined the role of ghrelin at the VTA level in food intake in two different nutritional states, satiety and hunger, by using a restricted feeding model. In this model, rats were conditioned to a daily 3-h (h) feeding session on standard chow for 10days and a high-fat diet (HFD) was supplied either in the third hour after 2h of chow diet intake, or at the beginning of a daily meal on the test day. We found that intra-VTA microinjection of 1, 2, and 4μg of ghrelin, induced a dose-related increase of 1h of reward-based feeding on HFD in sated rats, as well as a 24-h body weight gain. The overconsumption stimulated by ghrelin could be attenuated by 10μg of direct infusion of the ghrelin receptor antagonist D-Lys3-GHRP-6 into the VTA. Moreover, our data showed that the injection of 1, 2, and 4μg of ghrelin in the VTA, enhanced fasting-induced hyperphagia on HFD in a dose-related manner following a 21-h food restriction as well as a 24-h body weight gain. Conversely, hyperphagia on HFD that is potentiated by ghrelin could be blocked by pretreatment with a 10-μg D-Lys3-GHRP-6 intra-VTA microinjection. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ghrelin signaling at the VTA level mediates both reward-based eating and fasting-induced hyperphagia and provides a primary target for the control of the intake of rewarding food. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Matthias J; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7). Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience) and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint), explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by increased adaptive thermogenesis in BAT.

  18. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  19. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  20. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Performance of broilers fed increased levels energy in the pre-starter diet and on subsequent feeding programs having with acidulated soybean soapstock supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.

  2. Consuming Iron Biofortified Beans Increases Iron Status in Rwandan Women after 128 Days in a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jere D; Luna, Sarah V; Lung'aho, Mercy G; Wenger, Michael J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Beebe, Stephen; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Egli, Ines M

    2016-08-01

    Food-based strategies to reduce nutritional iron deficiency have not been universally successful. Biofortification has the potential to become a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective solution. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) to improve iron status in Rwandan women. A total of 195 women (aged 18-27 y) with serum ferritin Beans, with 86 mg Fe/kg, or standard unfortified beans (Control-Beans), with 50 mg Fe/kg, 2 times/d for 128 d in Huye, Rwanda. Iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI); inflammation was assessed by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and at end line. Random weekly serial sampling was used to collect blood during the middle 8 wk of the feeding trial. Mixed-effects regression analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of Fe-Beans compared with Control-Beans on iron biomarkers throughout the course of the study. At baseline, 86% of subjects were iron-deficient (serum ferritin beans/d. The Fe-Beans group consumed 14.5 ± 1.6 mg Fe/d from biofortified beans, whereas the Control-Beans group consumed 8.6 ± 0.8 mg Fe/d from standard beans (P Beans group had significantly greater increases in hemoglobin (3.8 g/L), log serum ferritin (0.1 log μg/L), and BI (0.5 mg/kg) than did controls after 128 d. For every 1 g Fe consumed from beans over the 128 study days, there was a significant 4.2-g/L increase in hemoglobin (P beans significantly improved iron status in Rwandan women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Salum

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS represent the front-line tools for malaria vector control globally, but are optimally effective where the majority of baseline transmission occurs indoors. In the surveyed area of rural southern Tanzania, bed net use steadily increased over the last decade, reducing malaria transmission intensity by 94%. Methods Starting before bed nets were introduced (1997, and then after two milestones of net use had been reached-75% community-wide use of untreated nets (2004 and then 47% use of ITNs (2009-hourly biting rates of malaria vectors from the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus group were surveyed. Results In 1997, An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes exhibited a tendency to bite humans inside houses late at night. For An. gambiae s.l., by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0018. At this time, the sibling species composition of the complex had shifted from predominantly An. gambiae s.s. to predominantly An. arabiensis. For An. funestus, by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0054 as well as the proportion biting indoors (p An. funestus s.s. remained the predominant species within this group. As a consequence of these altered feeding patterns, the proportion (mean ± standard error of human contact with mosquitoes (bites per person per night occurring indoors dropped from 0.99 ± 0.002 in 1997 to 0.82 ± 0.008 in 2009 for the An. gambiae complex (p = 0.0143 and from 1.00 ± An. funestus complex (p = 0.0004 over the same time period. Conclusions High usage of ITNs can dramatically alter African vector populations so that intense, predominantly indoor transmission is replaced by greatly lowered residual transmission, a greater proportion of which occurs outdoors. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the residual, self-sustaining transmission will respond poorly to further insecticidal measures within houses. Additional vector control

  4. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kruithof, Joop C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer

  5. Increased podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum cell suspension cultures after feeding coniferyl alcohol as a β-cyclodextrin complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Van Uden, W.; Frijlink, H.W.; Lerk, C.F.; Pras, N.; Malingre, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures, derived from roots of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), accumulate podophyllotoxin. In this study the use of β-cyclodextrin in feeding the poorly water-soluble precursor coniferyl alcohol to these cultures is described. By complexation with β-cyclodextrin, a

  6. Increased podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum cell suspension cultures after feeding coniferyl alcohol as a β-cyclodextrin complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H J; van Uden, W; Frijlink, H W; Lerk, C F; Pras, N; Malingré, T M

    Cell suspension cultures, derived from roots of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), accumulate podophyllotoxin. In this study the use of β-cyclodextrin in feeding the poorly water-soluble precursor coniferyl alcohol to these cultures is described. By complexation with β-cyclodextrin, a

  7. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Octopamine increases the excitability of neurons in the snail feeding system by modulation of inward sodium current but not outward potassium currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Henriette

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although octopamine has long been known to have major roles as both transmitter and modulator in arthropods, it has only recently been shown to be functionally important in molluscs, playing a role as a neurotransmitter in the feeding network of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The synaptic potentials cannot explain all the effects of octopamine-containing neurons on the feeding network, and here we test the hypothesis that octopamine is also a neuromodulator. Results The excitability of the B1 and B4 motoneurons in the buccal ganglia to depolarising current clamp pulses is significantly (P IA current and a sustained IK delayed-rectifier current, but neither was modulated by octopamine in any of these three buccal neurons. The fast inward current was eliminated in sodium – free saline and so is likely to be carried by sodium ions. 10 μM octopamine enhanced this current by 33 and 45% in the B1 and B4 motoneurons respectively (P Conclusion We conclude that octopamine is also a neuromodulator in snails, changing the excitability of the buccal neurons. This is supported by the close relationship from the voltage clamp data, through the quantitative simulation, to the action potential threshold, changing the properties of neurons in a rhythmic network. The increase in inward sodium current provides an explanation for the polycyclic modulation of the feeding system by the octopamine-containing interneurons, making feeding easier to initiate and making the feeding bursts more intense.

  9. Eggs early in complementary feeding increase choline pathway biomarkers and DHA: a randomized controlled trial in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Waters, William F; Gallegos Riofrío, Carlos Andres; Malo, Carla; Reinhart, Gregory; Palacios, Ana; Karp, Celia; Chapnick, Melissa; Cox, Katherine; Aguirre, Santiago; Narvaez, Luis; López, Fernando; Sidhu, Rohini; Kell, Pamela; Jiang, Xuntian; Fujiwara, Hideji; Ory, Daniel S; Young, Rebecca; Stewart, Christine P

    2017-12-01

    Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63. Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids. Design: A randomized controlled trial, the Lulun ("egg" in Kichwa) Project, was conducted in a rural indigenous population of Ecuador. Infants aged 6-9 mo were randomly assigned to treatment (1 egg/d for 6 mo; n = 80) and control (no intervention; n = 83) groups. Socioeconomic data, anthropometric measures, and blood samples were collected at baseline and endline. Household visits were made weekly for morbidity surveillance. We tested vitamin B-12 plasma concentrations by using chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay and plasma concentrations of choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, retinol, essential fatty acids, methionine, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine, and trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO) with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Socioeconomic factors and biomarker concentrations were comparable at baseline. Of infants, 11.4% were vitamin B-12 deficient and 31.7% marginally deficient at baseline. In adjusted generalized linear regression modeling, the egg intervention increased plasma concentrations compared with control by the following effect sizes: choline, 0.35 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.57); betaine, 0.29 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.58); methionine, 0.31 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.60); docosahexaenoic acid, 0.43 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.73); DMA, 0.37 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.69); and TMAO, 0.33 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.58). No significant group differences were found for vitamin B-12, retinol, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), or ratios of betaine to choline and LA to ALA. Conclusion: The findings supported our hypothesis that early introduction of eggs significantly

  10. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... these changes affects obesity development and insulin sensitivity in mice eating the salmon. In addition, we wanted to investigate how the background diet affects the antiobesity effect of FO. Results: Western diets (WDs) were produced containing salmon fed either FO (WD-FO), or with partly replacement (80......%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  11. Increasing efficiency of human mesenchymal stromal cell culture by optimization of microcarrier concentration and design of medium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Chew, Yi Kong; Tan, Hong Yu; Reuveny, Shaul; Weng Oh, Steve Kah

    2015-02-01

    Large amounts of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are needed for clinical cellular therapy. In a previous publication, we described a microcarrier-based process for expansion of MSCs. The present study optimized this process by selecting suitable basal media, microcarrier concentration and feeding regime to achieve higher cell yields and more efficient medium utilization. MSCs were expanded in stirred cultures on Cytodex 3 microcarriers with media containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Process optimization was carried out in spinner flasks. A 2-L bioreactor with an automated feeding system was used to validate the optimized parameters explored in spinner flask cultures. Minimum essential medium-α-based medium supported faster MSC growth on microcarriers than did Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (doubling time, 31.6 ± 1.4 vs 42 ± 1.7 h) and shortened the process time. At microcarrier concentration of 8 mg/mL, a high cell concentration of 1.08 × 10(6) cells/mL with confluent cell concentration of 4.7 × 10(4)cells/cm(2) was achieved. Instead of 50% medium exchange every 2 days, we have designed a full medium feed that is based on glucose consumption rate. The optimal medium feed that consisted of 1.5 g/L glucose supported MSC growth to full confluency while achieving the low medium usage efficiency of 3.29 mL/10(6)cells. Finally, a controlled bioreactor with the optimized parameters achieved maximal confluent cell concentration with 16-fold expansion and a further improved medium usage efficiency of 1.68 mL/10(6)cells. We have optimized the microcarrier-based platform for expansion of MSCs that generated high cell yields in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. This study highlighted the critical parameters in the optimization of MSC production process. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4-6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S; Keller, Kathleen L

    2010-10-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4-6-year-old children's self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n=70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (ED(food+drink)) and ED for foods only (ED(foods)) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food+drink). In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food). There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children.

  13. A protocol of early aggressive acceleration of tube feeding increases ileus without perceptible benefit in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesey, Jennifer; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential to the recovery of burned patients. The authors evaluated the efficacy of an aggressive nutrition delivery protocol. The following protocol was implemented: initiation of tube feeds within 4 hours, acceleration to goal rate within 8 hours, and tolerance of gastric residual volumes of 400 ml. Patients on the protocol formed the study group whereas patients admitted immediately before implementation served as controls for a study period of 7 days after admission. Outcome variables included ileus, prokinetic medication use, intensive care unit and overall length of stay, ventilator days and mortality. Variables were compared using bivariate analysis. The 42 study subjects and 34 controls were similar at baseline. Time to initiation was similar (6.8 vs 9.4 hours; P = .226), however, goal rate was achieved much sooner in the study group (11.2 vs 20.9 hours; P protocol was successfully implemented and resulted in early achievement of goal tube feed rates. However, this resulted in tube feed intolerance as manifested by more cases of clinical ileus.

  14. Illumina MiSeq Phylogenetic Amplicon Sequencing Shows a Large Reduction of an Uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae and an Increase of the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii Clade in Feed Restricted Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sean McCabe

    Full Text Available Periodic feed restriction is used in cattle production to reduce feed costs. When normal feed levels are resumed, cattle catch up to a normal weight by an acceleration of normal growth rate, known as compensatory growth, which is not yet fully understood. Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7, and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004. There was a strong negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.72, P = <1x10(-20 between relative abundances of OTU-3004 and OTU-M7 in the liquid rumen fraction. There was also a significant increase in acetate:propionate ratio (A:P in feed restricted animals that showed a negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.69, P = <1x10(-20 with the relative abundance of OTU-S3004 in the rumen liquid fraction but not the solid fraction, and a strong positive Spearman correlation with OTU-M7 in the rumen liquid (ρ = 0.74, P = <1x10(-20 and solid (ρ = 0.69, P = <1x10(-20 fractions. Reduced A:P ratios in the rumen are associated with increased feed efficiency and reduced production of methane which has a global warming potential (GWP 100 years of 28. Succinivibrionaceae growth in the rumen was previously suggested to reduce methane emissions as some members of this family utilise hydrogen, which is also utilised by methanogens for methanogenesis, to generate succinate which is converted to propionate. Relative abundance of OTU-S3004 showed a positive Spearman correlation with propionate (ρ = 0.41, P = <0.01 but not acetate in the liquid rumen fraction.

  15. First feeding of Eugerres brasilianus (Carapeva larvae with Acartia tonsa (Copepod nauplii increases survival and resistance to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotifer Brachionus sp. is commonly used for larval feeding in marine fish hatcheries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii in the initial diet of carapeva larvae improves their survival, growth and resistance to stress when compared to the regimen containing only rotifers. Adult copepods were collected in the wild and cultured with the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis oculata to obtain nauplii. Carapeva larvae were grown for 15 days using four treatments and three replicates: 1 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (10 to 15/mL; 2 A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5/mL; 3 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (5 to 7.5/mL + A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25/mL, and 4 no supply of live feed. After 15 days, the carapeva larvae were subjected to stress by exposure to air for 10 seconds and then returned to the source tank to evaluate survival after 24 h. Survival and stress resistance were higher in carapeva larvae fed B. plicatilis + A. tonsa nauplii (P<0.05, 20.9 ± 11.2% and 88.9%, respectively. These results confirm the positive effect of the inclusion of copepod nauplii in the diet of fish larvae. However, more research is needed to validate these results.

  16. Use of proton pump inhibitors is associated with increased mortality due to nosocomial pneumonia in bedridden patients receiving tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Kosuke; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Wakabayashi, Yu; Ihara, Daisuke; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Hamada, Hironobu; Ono, Koichi; Hattori, Noboru

    2018-05-22

    To investigate the association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and nosocomial pneumonia and gastrointestinal bleeding in bedridden patients receiving tube feeding. A total of 116 bedridden hospitalized patients receiving tube feeding, of which 80 were supported by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and 36 by nasogastric tube, were included in the present study. The patients were divided into two groups: 62 patients treated with PPI (PPI group) and 54 patients without PPI (non-PPI group). Mortality due to nosocomial pneumonia was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier approach and the log-rank test. A total of 36 patients (31%) died of nosocomial pneumonia during the observation period; the mortality rate due to nosocomial pneumonia was significantly higher in the PPI group than in the non-PPI group (P = 0.0395). Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the use of PPI and lower levels of serum albumin were independent predictors of 2-year mortality due to nosocomial pneumonia. Gastrointestinal bleeding was observed in four patients in the non-PPI group (7.7%) and in one patient in the PPI group (1.6%); there was no significant difference between the two groups. The use of PPI in bedridden tube-fed patients was independently associated with mortality due to nosocomial pneumonia, and the PPI group had a non-significant lower incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding than the non-PPI group. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Estimated Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive Interdisciplinary Behavioral Treatment for Increasing Oral Intake in Children With Feeding Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert; Burdo-Hartman, Wendelin; Halpin, Elizabeth; Williams, Carol

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE : To examine the cost-effectiveness of intensive interdisciplinary behavioral treatment (IIBT) to address severe pediatric feeding difficulties and lead to the removal or prevention of gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) from the perspective of the insurance company.  METHODS : Costs associated with G tubes and IIBT were compiled from the available literature and national databases. Costs were updated to price at the start of 2015 to allow data from different years to be analyzed on the same scale.  RESULTS : One-way sensitivity and two-way threshold analyses demonstrated that IIBT may be a cost-effective treatment for prevention and removal of G tubes over 5 and 10 years.  DISCUSSION : Data from this study can be used to justify cost of services for IIBT, and programs can use these data to discuss conservative savings of IIBT based on their treatment model and level of effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Time-restricted feeding improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heekyung; Chou, Winjet; Sears, Dorothy D; Patterson, Ruth E; Webster, Nicholas J G; Ellies, Lesley G

    2016-12-01

    Menopause is associated with significant hormonal changes that result in increased total body fat and abdominal fat, amplifying the risk for metabolic syndrome and diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in postmenopausal women. Intermittent fasting regimens hold significant health benefit promise for obese humans, however, regimens that include extreme daytime calorie restriction or daytime fasting are generally associated with hunger and irritability, hampering long-term compliance and adoption in the clinical setting. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a regimen allowing eating only during a specific period in the normal circadian feeding cycle, without calorie restriction, may increase compliance and provide a more clinically viable method for reducing the detrimental metabolic consequences associated with obesity. We tested TRF as an intervention in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity. Metabolic parameters were measured using Clinical Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS) and we carried out glucose tolerance tests. We also stained liver sections with oil red O to examine steatosis and measured gene expression related to gluconeogenesis. Preexisting metabolic disease was significantly attenuated during 7 weeks of TRF. Despite having access to the same high fat diet (HFD) as ad libitum fed (ALF) mice, TRF mice experienced rapid weight loss followed by a delayed improvement in insulin resistance and a reduced severity of hepatic steatosis by having access to the HFD for only 8h during their normal nocturnal feeding period. The lower respiratory exchange ratio in the TRF group compared with the ALF group early in the dark phase suggested that fat was the predominant fuel source in the TRF group and correlated with gene expression analyses that suggested a switch from gluconeogenesis to ketogenesis. In addition, TRF mice were more physically active than ALF fed mice. Our data support further analysis of TRF as a clinically viable form of

  19. SGLT2-inhibitor and DPP-4 inhibitor improve brain function via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, inflammation, and apoptosis in HFD-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Tanajak, Pongpan; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-10-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and neuroprotection in obese-insulin resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotection of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) in diabetes. However, the comparative effects of both drugs and a combination of two drugs on metabolic dysfunction and brain dysfunction impaired by the obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal-diet (ND, n=8) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n=32) for 16weeks. At week 13, the HFD-fed rats were divided into four subgroups (n=8/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle, vildagliptin (3mg/kg/day) dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or combined drugs for four weeks. ND rats were given a vehicle for four weeks. Metabolic parameters and brain function were investigated. The results demonstrated that HFD rats developed obese-insulin resistance and cognitive decline. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy on improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and reduced weight gain than vildagliptin. Single therapy resulted in equally improved brain mitochondrial function, insulin signaling, apoptosis and prevented cognitive decline. However, only dapagliflozin improved hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A combination of the drugs had greater efficacy in improving brain insulin sensitivity and reducing brain oxidative stress than the single drug therapy. These findings suggested that dapagliflozin and vildagliptin equally prevented cognitive decline in the obese-insulin resistance, possibly through some similar mechanisms. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy than vildagliptin for preserving synaptic plasticity, thus combined drugs could be the best therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in the obese-insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  2. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  3. Short-Term High-Fat Diet Increases Leptin Activation of CART Neurons and Advances Puberty in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Jade Cabestre; Margatho, Lisandra Oliveira; Rorato, Rodrigo; Rosales, Roberta Ribeiro Costa; Debarba, Lucas Kniess; Coletti, Ricardo; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Carol F; Elias, Lucila Leico K

    2017-11-01

    Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry; however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day (PN)21 and were studied at PN28 and PN32. The HFD increased body weight and plasma leptin concentrations and decreased the age at vaginal opening (HFD, 32 ± 0.53 days; RD, 38 ± 0.67 days). Similar colocalization of neurokinin B and dynorphin in Kiss1-hrGFP neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was observed between the HFD and RD groups. The HFD increased CART expression in the ARC and Kiss1 messenger RNA expression in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV)/anterior periventricular (Pe). The HFD also increased the number of ARC CART neurons expressing leptin-induced phosphorylated STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at PN32. Close apposition of CART fibers to Kiss1-hrGFP neurons was observed in the ARC of both RD- and HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, these data reinforce the notion that a HFD increases kisspeptin expression in the AVPV/Pe and advances puberty initiation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the HFD-induced earlier puberty is associated with an increase in CART expression in the ARC. Therefore, these data indicate that CART neurons in the ARC can mediate the effect of leptin on Kiss1 neurons in early puberty induced by a HFD. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  4. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  5. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Ma, Lu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  6. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lima, Andressa Ribeiro Veiga; Nunes, Ingrid Edwiges; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gondim, Paula Novato; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Alves, Fernando Henrique Ferrari; Pereira, Luciano José

    2016-12-17

    Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ-35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats.

  7. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; Pparental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; PParental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Methods for increasing ruminant production from available feed resources in Indonesia - Nutrition-reproduction interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entwistle, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    Within the project ''Application of Isotopes and radiation to increasing agricultural production'' a mission was spent in Indonesia. This travel report provides details on the progress of studies on the effects of urea-molasses block food supplements on growth and milk production in cattle, sheep and goats and on reproduction in goats. Also discussed is the use of iodine-125 radioimmunoassay procedures to monitor progesterone levels. 4 tabs

  9. Evidence for increasing digestive and metabolic efficiency of energy utilization with age of dairy cattle as determined in two feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Zeitz, J O; Clauss, M; Furger, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2018-03-01

    The changes taking place with age in energy turnover of dairy cattle are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the efficiency of energy utilization in digestion (characterized by faecal and methane energy losses) and in metabolism (characterized by urine and heat energy losses) is altered with age. In the present study, energy balance data were obtained from 30 lactating Brown Swiss dairy cows aged between 2 and 10 years, and 12 heifers from 0.5 to 2 years of age. In order to evaluate a possible dependence of age effects on diet type, half of the cattle each originated from two herds kept at the same farm, which were fed either on a forage-only diet or on the same forage diet but complemented with 5 kg/day of concentrate since their first calving. During 2 days, the gaseous exchange of the animals was quantified in open-circuit respiration chambers, followed by an 8-day period of feed, faeces, urine and milk collection. Daily amounts and energy contents were used to calculate complete energy balances. Age and feeding regime effects were analysed by parametric regression analysis where BW, milk yield and hay proportion in forage as consumed were considered as covariates. Relative to intake of gross energy, the availability of metabolizable energy (ME) increased with age. This was not the result of an increasing energy digestibility, but of proportionately lower energy losses with methane (following a curvilinear relationship with the greatest losses in middle-aged cows) and urine (continuously declining). The efficiency of utilization of ME for milk production (k l) increased with age. Potential reasons include an increase in the propionate-to-acetate ratio in the rumen because of a shift away from fibre degradation and methane formation as well as lower urine energy losses. The greater k l allowed older cows to accrete more energy reserves in the body. As expected, offering concentrate enhanced digestibility, metabolizability and metabolic utilization of energy

  10. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Khuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n=357, accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates including gender, birth weight, and socioeconomic status. Results. Participants were approximately half male (51%, born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3.5 kg, and 48% were exclusively breastfed for ≥90 days. Factors independently associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adolescence were faster weight gain in the first 3 months of life (B=0.16, P<0.05 and male gender (B=0.24, P<0.05. Breastfeeding as the sole source of milk for ≥90 days was associated with significantly decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (B=−0.16. Conclusion. This study adds to current knowledge about early infant growth and breastfeeding and their long-term health effects.

  11. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Brake, J

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen

  12. Silencing of Soybean Raffinose Synthase Gene Reduced Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides and Increased True Metabolizable Energy of Poultry Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. Valentine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is the number one oil and protein crop in the United States, but the seed contains several anti-nutritional factors that are toxic to both humans and livestock. RNA interference technology has become an increasingly popular technique in gene silencing because it allows for both temporal and spatial targeting of specific genes. The objective of this research is to use RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the soybean gene raffinose synthase 2 (RS2, to reduce total raffinose content in mature seed. Raffinose is a trisaccharide that is indigestible to humans and monogastric animals, and as monogastric animals are the largest consumers of soy products, reducing raffinose would improve the nutritional quality of soybean. An RNAi construct targeting RS2 was designed, cloned, and transformed to the soybean genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Resulting plants were analyzed for the presence and number of copies of the transgene by PCR and Southern blot. The efficiency of mRNA silencing was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Total raffinose content was determined by HPLC analysis. Transgenic plant lines were recovered that exhibited dramatically reduced levels of raffinose in mature seed, and these lines were further analyzed for other phenotypes such as development and yield. Additionally, a precision-fed rooster assay was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy (TME in full-fat soybean meal made from the wild-type or transgenic low-raffinose soybean lines. Transgenic low-raffinose soy had a measured TME of 2,703 kcal/kg, an increase as compared with 2,411 kcal/kg for wild-type. As low digestible energy is a major limiting factor in the percent of soybean meal that can be used in poultry diets, these results may substantiate the use of higher concentrations of low-raffinose, full-fat soy in formulated livestock diets.

  13. Silencing of Soybean Raffinose Synthase Gene Reduced Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides and Increased True Metabolizable Energy of Poultry Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Michelle F.; De Tar, Joann R.; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Firman, Jeffre D.; Zhang, Zhanyuan J.

    2017-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the number one oil and protein crop in the United States, but the seed contains several anti-nutritional factors that are toxic to both humans and livestock. RNA interference technology has become an increasingly popular technique in gene silencing because it allows for both temporal and spatial targeting of specific genes. The objective of this research is to use RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the soybean gene raffinose synthase 2 (RS2), to reduce total raffinose content in mature seed. Raffinose is a trisaccharide that is indigestible to humans and monogastric animals, and as monogastric animals are the largest consumers of soy products, reducing raffinose would improve the nutritional quality of soybean. An RNAi construct targeting RS2 was designed, cloned, and transformed to the soybean genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Resulting plants were analyzed for the presence and number of copies of the transgene by PCR and Southern blot. The efficiency of mRNA silencing was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Total raffinose content was determined by HPLC analysis. Transgenic plant lines were recovered that exhibited dramatically reduced levels of raffinose in mature seed, and these lines were further analyzed for other phenotypes such as development and yield. Additionally, a precision-fed rooster assay was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy (TME) in full-fat soybean meal made from the wild-type or transgenic low-raffinose soybean lines. Transgenic low-raffinose soy had a measured TME of 2,703 kcal/kg, an increase as compared with 2,411 kcal/kg for wild-type. As low digestible energy is a major limiting factor in the percent of soybean meal that can be used in poultry diets, these results may substantiate the use of higher concentrations of low-raffinose, full-fat soy in formulated livestock diets. PMID:28559898

  14. The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

    2013-10-01

    Increasing early (dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat

  15. Activation of cellular apoptosis in the caecal epithelium is associated with increased oxidative reactions in lactating goats after feeding a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiyu; Tian, Jing; Cong, Rihua; Sun, Lili; Duanmu, Yongqian; Dong, Haibo; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the ultrastructural changes of the caecal mucosa and the status of epithelial cellular apoptosis and oxidative reactions in lactating goats after prolonged feeding with a high-concentrate diet? What is the main finding and its importance? High-concentrate diet results in ultrastructural damage to the caprine caecal epithelium. Increased oxidative and decreased antioxidative reactions are involved in the process of activating epithelial apoptosis in the caecal epithelium of goats fed a high-concentrate diet. Our results provide new insight into the relationship between abnormal fermentation in the hindgut and damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. The effect of feeding a high-concentrate diet (HC) to lactating ruminants on their hindgut epithelial structure remains unknown. In this study, 12 lactating goats were randomly assigned to either HC (65% of dry matter as concentrate; n = 6) or a low-concentrate diet (LC; 35% of dry matter as concentrate; n = 6). After 10 weeks, the epithelial ultrastructure and cell apoptotic status in the caecal mucosa were determined by transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL, respectively. The results showed that the level of free lipopolysaccharide (P epithelium, as evidenced by more TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis showed that there was no significant difference in activated caspase-3, Bax protein expression in caecal epithelial mucosa between HC- and LC-fed goats (P > 0.05). However, the level of malondialdehyde content in the caecal epithelium from HC-fed goats was markedly higher than that in LC-fed goats (P < 0.05), whereas the level of glutathione peroxidase and the superoxide dismutase activity were significantly decreased. Gene expressions of cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, as well as myeloperoxidase activity in the caecal mucosa did not show any significant

  16. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  17. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-04-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system-based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys ( n = ∼500 children aged 6-23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24-59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623.

  18. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system–based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys (n = ∼500 children aged 6–23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24–59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623. PMID:28179488

  19. Retroconversion is a minor contributor to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid following docosahexaenoic acid feeding as determined by compound specific isotope analysis in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lacombe, R J Scott; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally plausible. In this study, 21-day old Long Evans rats were weaned onto an ALA only or DHA + ALA diet for 12 weeks. Afterwards, livers were collected and the natural abundance 13 C-enrichment was determined by compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of liver EPA by isotope ratio mass-spectrometry and compared to dietary ALA and DHA 13 C-enrichment. Isotopic signatures (per mil, ‰) for liver EPA were not different ( p  > 0.05) between the ALA only diet (-25.89 ± 0.39 ‰, mean ± SEM) and the DHA + ALA diet (-26.26 ± 0.40 ‰), suggesting the relative contribution from dietary ALA and DHA to liver EPA did not change. However, with DHA feeding estimates of absolute EPA contribution from ALA increased 4.4-fold (147 ± 22 to 788 ± 153 nmol/g) compared to 3.2-fold from DHA (91 ± 14 to 382 ± 13 nmol/g), respectively. In conclusion, CSIA of liver EPA in rats following 12-weeks of dietary DHA suggests that retroconversion of DHA to EPA is a relatively small contributor to increases in EPA, and that this increase in EPA is largely coming from elongation/desaturation of ALA.

  20. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  1. Use of flax seed mucilage or its active component for increasing suppression of hunger, increasing reduction of prospective consumption, increasing reduction of appetite in a subject during or between meals or feedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and/or reducing non-fat energy uptake in the gastrointestinal tract...... intervention comprises mucilage such as flax seed mucilage and/or one or more active compounds of mucilage useful for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and...

  2. Evidence for the Association of a Deleted Variant in the 5′-Flanking Region of the Chicken serotonin transporter (5-HTT Gene with a Temporary Increase in Feed Intake and Growth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergen B. Kjaer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The serotonergic system has been shown to be implicated in the regulation of mood and feeding behavior. Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of the serotonin transporter ( 5 - HTT gene of Lohmann Brown (LB laying hens. The deleted variant D was found to be associated with increased body weight. The objective of this study was to address whether the increased body weight may be due to an increased feed intake. After hatching, hens were kept under ad libitum feeding conditions, and their body weight and feed intake were weekly determined. From 5 weeks of age, the body weight of hens with the D/D and W/D genotypes was significantly greater than that of W/W carrying hens. Interestingly, we found that the feed intake of D/D carrying hens, relative to body weight, was transiently increased only between 4 and 7 weeks of age ( p < 0.05, leading to a higher growth rate ( p < 0.05, compared with that of W/W carrying hens. These results suggest that the presence of variant D may be correlated with a transiently increased appetite of D/D carrying hens.

  3. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  4. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Dietary alleviation of maternal obesity and diabetes: increased resistance to diet-induced obesity transcriptional and epigenetic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, Linda; Vigé, Alexandre; Gabory, Anne; Karimi, Moshen; Beauger, Aurore; Gross, Marie-Sylvie; Athias, Anne; Gallou-Kabani, Catherine; Gambert, Philippe; Ekstrom, Tomas J; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Junien, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    According to the developmental origins of health and diseases (DOHaD), and in line with the findings of many studies, obesity during pregnancy is clearly a threat to the health and well-being of the offspring, later in adulthood. We previously showed that 20% of male and female inbred mice can cope with the obesogenic effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks after weaning, remaining lean. However the feeding of a control diet (CD) to DIO mice during the periconceptional/gestation/lactation period led to a pronounced sex-specific shift (17% to 43%) from susceptibility to resistance to HFD, in the female offspring only. Our aim in this study was to determine how, in the context of maternal obesity and T2D, a CD could increase resistance on female fetuses. Transcriptional analyses were carried out with a custom-built mouse liver microarray and by quantitative RT-PCR for muscle and adipose tissue. Both global DNA methylation and levels of pertinent histone marks were assessed by LUMA and western blotting, and the expression of 15 relevant genes encoding chromatin-modifying enzymes was analyzed in tissues presenting global epigenetic changes. Resistance was associated with an enhancement of hepatic pathways protecting against steatosis, the unexpected upregulation of neurotransmission-related genes and the modulation of a vast imprinted gene network. Adipose tissue displayed a pronounced dysregulation of gene expression, with an upregulation of genes involved in lipid storage and adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia in obese mice born to lean and obese mothers, respectively. Global DNA methylation, several histone marks and key epigenetic regulators were also altered. Whether they were themselves lean (resistant) or obese (sensitive), the offspring of lean and obese mice clearly differed in terms of several metabolic features and epigenetic marks suggesting that the effects of a HFD depend on the leanness or obesity of the mother.

  6. Perspectives on financial incentives to health service providers for increasing breast feeding and smoking quit rates during pregnancy: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; MacLennan, Graeme; Dykes, Fiona; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Campbell, Marion K

    2015-11-13

    To explore the acceptability, mechanisms and consequences of provider incentives for smoking cessation and breast feeding as part of the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study. Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews. Scotland and North West England. Early years professionals: 497 survey respondents included 156 doctors; 197 health visitors/maternity staff; 144 other health staff. Qualitative interviews or focus groups were conducted with 68 pregnant/postnatal women/family members; 32 service providers; 22 experts/decision-makers; 63 conference attendees. Early years professionals were surveyed via email about the acceptability of payments to local health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding targets. Agreement was measured on a 5-point scale using multivariable ordered logit models. A framework approach was used to analyse free-text survey responses and qualitative data. Health professional net agreement for provider incentives for smoking cessation targets was 52.9% (263/497); net disagreement was 28.6% (142/497). Health visitors/maternity staff were more likely than doctors to agree: OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.64; pgaming, box-ticking bureaucracies and health inequalities were counterbalances to potential benefits. Provider incentives are favoured by non-medical staff. Solutions which increase trust and collaboration towards shared goals, without negatively impacting on relationships or increasing bureaucracy are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  8. Females increase reproductive investment in response to helper-mediated improvements in allo-feeding, nest survival, nestling provisioning and post-fledging survival in the Karoo scrub-robin Cercotrichas coryphaeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, P.; Andrew, Taylor W.; du Plessis, Morné A.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    In many cooperatively-breeding species, the presence of one or more helpers improves the reproductive performance of the breeding pair receiving help. Helper contributions can take many different forms, including allo-feeding, offspring provisioning, and offspring guarding or defence. Yet, most studies have focussed on single forms of helper contribution, particularly offspring provisioning, and few have evaluated the relative importance of a broader range of helper contributions to group reproductive performance. We examined helper contributions to multiple components of breeding performance in the Karoo scrub-robin Cercotrichas coryphaeus, a facultative cooperative breeder. We also tested a prediction of increased female investment in reproduction when helpers improve conditions for rearing young. Helpers assisted the breeding male in allo-feeding the incubating female, increasing allo-feeding rates. Greater allo-feeding correlated with greater female nest attentiveness during incubation. Nest predation was substantially lower among pairs breeding with a helper, resulting in a 74% increase in the probability of nest survival. Helper contributions to offspring provisioning increased nestling feeding rates, resulting in a reduced incidence of nestling starvation and increased nestling mass. Nestling mass had a strong, positive effect on post-fledging survival. Controlling for female age and habitat effects, annual production of fledged young was 130% greater among pairs breeding with a helper, and was influenced most strongly by helper correlates with nest survival, despite important helper effects on offspring provisioning. Females breeding with a helper increased clutch size, supporting the prediction of increased female investment in reproduction in response to helper benefits. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  9. Immune dysfunction and increased oxidative stress state in diet-induced obese mice are reverted by nutritional supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsche, Caroline; Hernandez, Oskarina; Gheorghe, Alina; Díaz, Ligia Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2018-04-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired immune defences and chronic low levels of inflammation and oxidation. In addition, this condition may lead to premature aging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a nutritional supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on several functions and oxidative stress parameters in peritoneal immune cells of obese mice, as well as on the life span of these animals. Obesity was induced in adult female ICR/CD1 by the administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. During the last 6 weeks of HFD feeding, one group of obese mice received the same HFD, supplemented with 1500 mg of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) and another with 3000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Several functions and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes were evaluated. The groups of obese mice treated with 2-OHOA or with EPA and DHA showed a significant improvement in several functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, digestion capacity, Natural killer activity and lymphoproliferation in response to mitogens. All of these functions, which were decreased in obese mice, increased reaching similar levels to those found in non-obese controls. Both treatments also improved oxidative stress parameters such as xanthine oxidase activity, which decreased, catalase activity and glutathione levels, which increased. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could be an effective nutritional intervention to restore the immune response and oxidative stress state, which are impaired in obese mice.

  10. Differential effects of restricted versus unlimited high-fat feeding in rats on fat mass, plasma hormones and brain appetite regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, T; Chen, H; Morris, M J

    2009-07-01

    The rapid rise in obesity has been linked to altered food consumption patterns. There is increasing evidence that, in addition to total energy intake, the macronutrient composition of the diet may influence the development of obesity. The present study aimed to examine the impact of high dietary fat content, under both isocaloric and hypercaloric conditions, compared with a low fat diet, on adiposity, glucose and lipid metabolism, and brain appetite regulators in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three diets: control (14% fat), ad lib high-fat palatable (HFD, 35% fat) or high-fat palatable restricted (HFD-R, matched to the energy intake of control) and were killed in the fasting state 11 weeks later. Body weight was increased by 28% in unrestricted HFD fed rats, with an almost tripling of caloric intake and fat mass (P < 0.001) and double the plasma triglycerides of controls. Glucose intolerance and increased insulin levels were observed. HFD-R animals calorie matched to control had double their fat mass, plasma insulin and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Only ad lib consumption of the HFD increased the hypothalamic mRNA expression of the appetite-regulating peptides, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Although restricted consumption of palatable HFD had no significant impact on hypothalamic appetite regulators or body weight, it increased adiposity and circulating triglycerides, suggesting that the proportion of dietary fat, independent of caloric intake, affects fat deposition and the metabolic profile.

  11. INCREASE IN DOPAMINE RELEASE FROM THE NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS IN RESPONSE TO FEEDING - A MODEL TO STUDY INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS AND NATURALLY ACTIVATED DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS IN THE RAT-BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC; TEISMAN, A; DEVRIES, JB

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions between the in vivo release of dopamine and certain drugs, during conditions of increased dopaminergic activity. Dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens were activated by feeding hungry rats. 48-96 h after implantation of a

  12. Increased Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Temporal Changes in the Feeding Regime of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats - A Potential Role for Bmal2 in the Liver

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polidarová, Lenka; Sládek, Martin; Nováková, Marta; Parkanová, Daniela; Sumová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2013), e75690 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : circadian * clock gene * metabolism * liver * feeding regime * Bmal2 * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  13. Response of male turkeys hatched from first-cycle and force-molted breeder hens to a regimen providing progressive feeds by weight and the value of increased lysine prior to marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E T; Krueger, K K; Acar, N

    1992-11-01

    Male poults originating from 41- and 85-wk-old Nicholas Large White breeder turkey hens were compared using a six-feed system provided on the basis of weight. Each source of poult was compared further in its response to lysine at .65 and .80% in the final feed (14.5% CP and 3.40 kcal AMEn/g) before marketing at 18 wk of age. Poults from 85-wk-old hens were heavier at placement than those from 41-wk-old hens. Equalization of body weights occurred once the allotment of starting feed had been consumed and for the most part remained similar thereafter. Increasing lysine content of the final feed did not improve body weight of both sources of birds at marketing (P < .13). Feed conversions included accrued mortality, and treatment differences were not apparent. Commercial processing of the flock and measurements on sample birds indicated no ready differences in chilled carcass yield nor proportions of parts occurred among treatments. The overall effects of breeder age with the progeny were negligible, and the .65% level of lysine that presently serves as the 1984 National Research Council minimum requirement when associated with 14% CP and 3.30 kcal/g appears to be adequate for the Nicholas strain of turkey from 16 to 18 wk of age.

  14. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  15. Influence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitat, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dietary fiber is largely used in pig production but some contradictions appear in the literature regarding the effects on performance and health. Objectives. This paper aims to contribute to the clarification of the effects of a diet rich in sugar beet pulp on animal behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs. Method. Two successive batches of 24 fattening pigs were each divided into two groups fed ad libitum either a standard diet based on cereals (STD, 19% NSP [non-starch-polysaccharides] or a fibrous diet based on 23% sugar beet pulp (HFD, 31% NSP. Results. Pigs activity rate and feeder occupancy duration were increased by 57% and 165% for group fed HFD, respectively (P < 0.05. The fecal bacteria counts showed increases with HFD for Lactobacillus (10.21 vs 9.84 log10 of cfu·g-1 of feces dry matter, P < 0.05 and Bifidobacterium (9.49 vs 8.88, P < 0.01 but decreases for Enterobacteriaceae (4.85 vs 5.97, P < 0.001. Reductions of the average daily gain (788 vs 876 g per day, P < 0.001 and the dressing percentage (75.7 vs 78.9%, P < 0.001 were observed with HFD. Gastric lesion score was decreased with HFD (0.82 vs 1.55, P < 0.05. For pigs fed HFD, the proportion of surface area occupied by goblet cells was increased in the jejunum (10.06 vs 7.99%, P < 0.01 and the number of CD3 lymphocytes was increased in the colon (1.24 vs 0.90·mm-², P < 0.05. Conclusions. HFD contributes to strengthen the gut health of fattening pigs, but it impairs growth performance and carcass traits.

  16. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  17. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  18. Short communication: Feeding linseed oil to dairy goats with competent reticular groove reflex greatly increases n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-01-01

    A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Colonic aberrant crypt formation accompanies an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Liu, Zhenhua; Bukowski, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to obesity and consumption of a high-fat Western diet. To test the hypothesis that a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes colonic aberrant crypt (AC) formation in a manner associated with gut bacterial dysbiosis, we examined the susceptibility to azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic AC and microbiome composition in C57/BL6 mice fed a modified AIN93G diet (AIN, 16% fat, energy) or an HFD (45% fat, energy) for 14 weeks. Mice receiving the HFD exhibited increased plasma leptin, body weight, body fat composition and inflammatory cell infiltration in the ileum compared with those in the AIN group. Consistent with the gut inflammatory phenotype, we observed an increase in colonic AC, plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the ileum of the HFD-AOM group compared with the AIN-AOM group. Although the HFD and AIN groups did not differ in bacterial species number, the HFD and AIN diets resulted in different bacterial community structures in the colon. The abundance of certain short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria (e.g., Barnesiella) and fecal SCFA (e.g., acetic acid) content were lower in the HFD-AOM group compared with the AIN and AIN-AOM groups. Furthermore, we identified a high abundance of Anaeroplasma bacteria, an opportunistic pathogen in the HFD-AOM group. Collectively, we demonstrate that an HFD promotes AC formation concurrent with an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the colon of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity.Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice.Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice.Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  1. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  2. Feeding period restriction alters the expression of peripheral circadian rhythm genes without changing body weight in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagoon Jang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian clock is closely associated with metabolic regulation. However, whether an impaired circadian clock is a direct cause of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight gain is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that body weight gain in mice is not significantly changed by restricting feeding period to daytime or nighttime. The expression of peripheral circadian clock genes was altered by feeding period restriction, while the expression of light-regulated hypothalamic circadian clock genes was unaffected by either a normal chow diet (NCD or a high-fat diet (HFD. In the liver, the expression pattern of circadian clock genes, including Bmal1, Clock, and Per2, was changed by different feeding period restrictions. Moreover, the expression of lipogenic genes, gluconeogenic genes, and fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver was also altered by feeding period restriction. Given that feeding period restriction does not affect body weight gain with a NCD or HFD, it is likely that the amount of food consumed might be a crucial factor in determining body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that feeding period restriction modulates the expression of peripheral circadian clock genes, which is uncoupled from light-sensitive hypothalamic circadian clock genes.

  3. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  4. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  5. Increased intake of energy-dense diet and negative energy balance in a mouse model of chronic psychosocial defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccurello, Roberto; Romano, Adele; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Tempesta, Bianca; Fiore, Marco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Marrocco, Ilaria; Altieri, Fabio; Moles, Anna; Gaetani, Silvana

    2018-06-01

    Chronic exposure to stress may represent a risk factor for developing metabolic and eating disorders, mostly driven by the overconsumption of easily accessible energy-dense palatable food, although the mechanisms involved remain still unclear. In this study, we used an ethologically oriented murine model of chronic stress caused by chronic psychosocial defeat (CPD) to investigate the effects of unrestricted access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) on food intake, body weight, energy homeostasis, and expression of different brain neuropeptides. Our aim was to shed light on the mechanisms responsible for body weight and body composition changes due to chronic social stress. In our model of subordinate (defeated), mice (CPD) cohabitated in constant sensory contact with dominants, being forced to interact on daily basis, and were offered ad libitum access either to an HFD or to a control diet (CD). Control mice (of the same strain as CPD mice) were housed in pairs and left unstressed in their home cage (UN). In all these mice, we evaluated body weight, different adipose depots, energy metabolism, caloric intake, and neuropeptide expression. CPD mice increased the intake of HFD and reduced body weight in the presence of enhanced lipid oxidation. Resting energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) were increased in CPD mice, whereas epididymal adipose tissue increased only in HFD-fed unstressed mice. Propiomelanocortin mRNA levels in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus increased only in HFD-fed unstressed mice. Oxytocin mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus and neuropeptide Y mRNA levels within the arcuate were increased only in CD-fed CPD mice. In the arcuate, CART was increased in HFD-fed UN mice and in CD-fed CPD mice, while HFD intake suppressed CART increase in defeated animals. In the basolateral amygdala, CART expression was increased only in CPD animals on HFD. CPD appears to uncouple the intake of HFD from energy homeostasis causing higher

  6. Carbon source feeding strategies for recombinant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... protein expression with the influence of the carbon source feeding ... in the culture media, increasing the peroxisomes numbers ...... source, temperature, pH, O2, methanol feeding strategy) ..... Catabolite Inactivation in Yeast.

  7. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts; decoupling agriculture' s N2O and CH4 emissions from population growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.L.; Meerburg, B.G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Verhagen, J.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present.

  8. Mice lacking natural killer T cells are more susceptible to metabolic alterations following high fat diet feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany V Martin-Murphy

    Full Text Available Current estimates suggest that over one-third of the adult population has metabolic syndrome and three-fourths of the obese population has non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Inflammation in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of obesity and its co-morbidities, including NAFLD. Natural Killer T (NKT cells are a subset of innate immune cells that abundantly reside within the liver and are readily activated by lipid antigens. There is general consensus that NKT cells are pivotal regulators of inflammation; however, disagreement exists as to whether NKT cells exert pathogenic or suppressive functions in obesity. Here we demonstrate that CD1d(-/- mice, which lack NKT cells, were more susceptible to weight gain and fatty liver following high fat diet (HFD feeding. Compared with their WT counterparts, CD1d(-/- mice displayed increased adiposity and greater induction of inflammatory genes in the liver suggestive of the precursors of NAFLD. Calorimetry studies revealed a significant increase in food intake and trends toward decreased metabolic rate and activity in CD1d(-/- mice compared with WT mice. Based on these findings, our results suggest that NKT cells play a regulatory role that helps to prevent diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction and may play an important role in mechanisms governing cross-talk between metabolism and the immune system to regulate energy balance and liver health.

  9. Effects of acute feed restriction combined with targeted use of increasing luteinizing hormone content of follicle-stimulating hormone preparations on ovarian superstimulation, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R. W.; Hackbart, K. S.; Dresch, A. R.; Carvalho, P. D.; Vieira, L. M.; Crump, P. M.; Guenther, J. N.; Fricke, P. M.; Shaver, R. D.; Combs, D. K.; Wiltbank, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple metabolic and hormonal factors can affect the success of protocols for ovarian superstimulation. In this study, the effect of acute feed restriction and increased LH content in the superstimulatory FSH preparation on numbers of ovulations, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Two experiments were performed using a Latin square design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial: feed restriction (FR; 25% reduction in dry matter intake) compared with ad libitum (AL) feeding, combined with high (H) versus low (L) LH in the last 4 injections of the superstimulatory protocol. As expected, FR decreased circulating insulin concentrations (26.7 vs. 46.0 μU/mL). Two analyses were performed: one that evaluated the complete Latin square in experiment 2 and a second that evaluated only the first periods of experiments 1 and 2. For both analyses, follicle numbers, ovulation rates, and corpora lutea on d 7 were not different. In the first period analysis of experiments 1 and 2, we observed an interaction between feed allowance and amount of LH on fertilization rates, percentage of embryos or oocytes that were quality 1 and 2 embryos, and number of embryos or oocytes that were degenerate. Fertilization rates were greater for the AL-L (89.4%) and FR-H (80.1%) treatments compared with the AL-H (47.9%) and FR-L (59.9%) treatments. Similarly, the proportion of total embryos or oocytes designated as quality 1 and 2 embryos was greater for AL-L (76.7%) and FR-H (73.4%) treatments compared with AL-H (35.6%) and FR-L (47.3%) treatments. In addition, the number of degenerate embryos was decreased for AL-L (1.3) and FR-H (0.4) treatments compared with the AL-H (2.6) and FR-L (2.3) treatments. Thus, cows with either too low (FR-L) or too high (AL-H) insulin and LH stimulation had lesser embryo production after superstimulation because of reduced fertilization rate and increased percentage of degenerate embryos. Therefore, interaction of the

  10. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts: linking N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture to population growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Christy L. van; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Schils, Rene L.M.; Verhagen, Jan; Kuikman, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present. These are mainly developing countries and countries in transition, the so-called non-Annex I countries of the UNFCCC. However, intensification of agricultural production systems is currently closely linked to high emissions of greenhouse gases notably nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ). In this paper the relations between population growth, agricultural development and emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 were assessed for 10 non-Annex I countries, viz. China, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Mongolia, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa. We combined FAO data on agricultural production levels, CENSUS data on population statistics and EDGAR data on N 2 O and CH 4 emissions. The projected trends in agricultural production indicate that emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 are expected to increase rapidly in the coming years and will level off from 2040 onwards. The results confirm the positive relation between population increase and increased emissions from agricultural activities for most countries. However, for some countries (South Africa, China and Mexico) this relation was weak or absent. Although numerous factors (e.g. changes in international trade) may have scattered the relation and we were unable to explain this decoupling, it suggests that population growth can be possible without additional emissions. The variation between the different countries and farming systems is however large and mitigation measures at farm-level should be tailored to the wide diversity in environmental conditions, regional customs and farming systems.

  11. Long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis are increased in mouse skeletal muscle with high-fat feeding regardless of insulin-sensitizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Stierwalt, Harrison D; Robinson, Matthew M

    2017-11-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial, with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice using 4 wk of a high-fat compared with a low-fat diet. For 8 additional weeks, diets were enriched with pioglitazone to restore insulin sensitivity compared with nonenriched control low-fat or high-fat diets. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis was measured using deuterium oxide labeling during weeks 10-12 High-resolution respirometry was performed using palmitoyl-l-carnitine, glutamate+malate, and glutamate+malate+succinate as substrates for mitochondria isolated from quadriceps. Mitochondrial protein synthesis and palmitoyl- l-carnitine oxidation were increased in mice consuming a high-fat diet, regardless of differences in insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. There was no effect of diet or pioglitazone treatment on ADP-stimulated respiration or H 2 O 2 emission using glutamate+malate or glutamate+malate+succinate. The results demonstrate no impairments to mitochondrial protein synthesis or respiration following induction of insulin resistance. Instead, mitochondrial protein synthesis was increased with a high-fat diet and may contribute to remodeling of the mitochondria to increase lipid oxidation capacity. Mitochondrial adaptations with a high-fat diet appear driven by nutrient availability, not intrinsic defects that contribute to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 the

  12. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  13. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlory, Chris; Wardle, Sophie L; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; Witard, Oliver C; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; Tipton, Kevin D

    2016-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed a bout of unilateral RE followed by ingestion of 30 g of whey protein. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after supplementation for assessment of muscle lipid composition and relevant protein kinase activities. Infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine was used to measure basal myofibrillar MP Sat rest (REST), in a nonexercised leg following protein ingestion (FED) and following RE and protein ingestion (FEDEX).MPS was significantly elevated above REST during FEDEX in both the FO and CO groups, but there was no effect of supplementation. There was a significant increase in MPS in both groups above REST during FED but no effect of supplementation. Supplementation significantly decreased pan PKB activity at RESTin the FO group but not the CO group. There was a significant increase from REST at post-RE for PKB and AMPKα2 activity in the CO group but not in the FO group. In FEDEX, there was a significant increase in p70S6K1 activity from REST at 3 h in the CO group only. These data highlight that 8 weeks of FO supplementation alters kinase signaling activity in response to RE plus protein ingestion without influencing MPS. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Dietary rose hip exerts antiatherosclerotic effects and increases nitric oxide-mediated dilation in ApoE-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Axling, Ulrika; Rippe, Catarina; Swärd, Karl; Holm, Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which atheromatous plaques develop inside arteries, leading to reduced or obstructed blood flow that in turn may cause stroke and heart attack. Rose hip is the fruit of plants of the genus Rosa, belonging to the Rosaceae family, and it is rich in antioxidants with high amounts of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Several studies have shown that fruits, seeds and roots of these plants exert antidiabetic, antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects in rodents as well as humans. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which rose hip lowers plasma cholesterol and to evaluate its effects on atherosclerotic plaque formation. ApoE-null mice were fed either an HFD (CTR) or HFD with rose hip supplementation (RH) for 24 weeks. At the end of the study, we found that blood pressure and atherosclerotic plaques, together with oxidized LDL, total cholesterol and fibrinogen levels were markedly reduced in the RH group. Fecal cholesterol content, liver expression of Ldlr and selected reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) genes such as Abca1, Abcg1 and Scarb1 were significantly increased upon RH feeding. In the aorta, the scavenger receptor Cd36 and the proinflammatory Il1β genes were markedly down-regulated compared to the CTR mice. Finally, we found that RH increased nitric oxide-mediated dilation of the caudal artery. Taken together, these results suggest that rose hip is a suitable dietary supplement for preventing atherosclerotic plaques formation by modulating systemic blood pressure and the expression of RCT and inflammatory genes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    Version 5\\ud Background\\ud \\ud Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis v...

  16. Reduced bone mass in obese young rats through PPAR omega suppression of wnt/beta-catenin signaling and direct action of free fatty acids (NEFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship of obesity to skeletal development is unclear. We utilized total enteral nutrition to feed high and low fat diets (HFD and LFD) to rats for 4 wks to produce obesity. Weight gain was matched but fat mass, serum leptin and NEFA were increased by HFD (P < 0.05). HFD lowered total bone ...

  17. Feeding Strategies Derived from Behavioral Economics and Psychology Can Increase Vegetable Intake in Children as Part of a Home-Based Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravener, Terri L; Schlechter, Haley; Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Schwartz, Marlene; Zucker, Nancy; Finkelstein, Stacey; Wang, Y Claire; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral economics and psychology have been applied to altering food choice, but most studies have not measured food intake under free-living conditions. To test the effects of a strategy that pairs positive stimuli (ie, stickers and cartoon packaging) with vegetables and presents them as the default snack. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with children who reported consumption of fewer than two servings of vegetables daily. Children (aged 3 to 5 years) in both control (n=12) and treatment (n=12) groups received a week's supply of plainly packaged (ie, generic) vegetables, presented by parents as a free choice with an alternative snack (granola bar), during baseline (Week 1) and follow-up (Week 4). During Weeks 2 and 3, the control group continued to receive generic packages of vegetables presented as a free choice, but the treatment group received vegetables packaged in containers with favorite cartoon characters and stickers inside, presented by parents as the default choice. Children in the treatment group were allowed to opt out of the vegetables and request the granola bar after an imposed 5-minute wait. General Linear Model repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare vegetable and granola bar intake between control and treatment groups across the 4-week study. Both within- and between-subjects models were tested. A time×treatment interaction on vegetable intake was significant. The treatment group increased vegetable intake from baseline to Week 2 relative to control (Ppsychology in the home to increase children's vegetable intake and decrease intake of a high-energy-density snack. Additional studies are needed to test the long-term sustainability of these practices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  20. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  1. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  2. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  3. Responsive versus scheduled feeding in preterm infants (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2015-01-01

    Scheduled feeding of prescribed enteral volumes remains standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their feeding and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance parent experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud Objectives: To assess the effect of feeding pr...

  4. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  5. Maternal high-fat feeding leads to alterations of brain glucose metabolism in the offspring: positron emission tomography study in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Elena; Liistro, Tiziana; Mainardi, Marco; Pardini, Silvia; Salvadori, Piero A; Vannucci, Alessandro; Burchielli, Silvia; Iozzo, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Maternal obesity negatively affects fetal development. Abnormalities in brain glucose metabolism are predictive of metabolic-cognitive disorders. We studied the offspring (aged 0, 1, 6, 12 months) of minipigs fed a normal vs high-fat diet (HFD), by positron emission tomography (PET) to measure brain glucose metabolism, and ex vivo assessments of brain insulin receptors (IRβ) and GLUT4. At birth, brain glucose metabolism and IRβ were twice as high in the offspring of HFD-fed than control mothers. During infancy and youth, brain glucose uptake, GLUT4 and IRβ increased in the offspring of control mothers and decreased in those of HFD-fed mothers, leading to a 40-85% difference (p brain glucose overexposure during fetal development, followed by long-lasting depression in brain glucose metabolism in minipigs. These features may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic-neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  7. Effects of crocin and voluntary exercise, alone or combined, on heart VEGF-A and HOMA-IR of HFD/STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, V; Mohammadi, M; Dariushnejad, H; Chodari, L; Mohaddes, G

    2016-10-01

    Hyperglycemia is the main risk factor for microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Crocin and voluntary exercise have anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetes. In this research, we evaluated the effects of crocin and voluntary exercise alone or combined on glycemia control and heart level of VEGF-A. Animals were divided into eight groups as: control (con), diabetes (Dia), crocin (Cro), voluntary exercise (Exe), crocin and voluntary exercise (Cro-Exe), diabetic-crocin (Dia-Cro), diabetic-voluntary exercise (Dia-Exe), diabetic-crocin-voluntary exercise (Dia-Cro-Exe). Type 2 diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet (4 weeks) and injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (i.p, 35 mg/kg). Animals received oral administration of crocin (50 mg/kg) or performed voluntary exercise alone or together for 8 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on overnight fasted control, diabetic and treated rats after 8 weeks of treatment. Then, serum insulin and heart VEGF-A protein levels were measured. Crocin combined with voluntary exercise significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p HOMA-IR) (p HOMA-IR) and reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Since both crocin and voluntary exercise can increase VEGF-A protein expression in heart tissue, they probably are able to increase angiogenesis in diabetic animals.

  8. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  9. Effects of feeding diets containing highly peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles and increasing vitamin E levels to wean-finish pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation in animal feed can negatively affect growth performance and meat quality. Weanling pigs (n = 432; BW = 6.6 ± 0.4 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding a peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) source with three levels of vitamin E (a-tocopheryl acetate)...

  10. Supplementation of Carrot (Daucus carrota as Natural Source of Beta-carotene prepared by Several Methods in Feed to Increase Blue Colour of Freshwater Crayfish Red Claw (Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro H. Satyantini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Red claw (Cherax quadricarinatus is one kind of freshwater crayfish that can cultured as consumption or ornamental fish commodities.  The colour of body was important character for performance of red claw as ornamental fish commodity.  Red claw with blue body colour is more expensive than brown.  The purpose of  this experiment was to know the influence addition of carrot with several methods in feed on blue colour  of freshwater crayfish red claw and which was the best preparation method to increase blue colour of freshwater crayfish red claw. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design with four treatments: A (control, B (extract, C (juice and D (shreeded of carrot with 45 ppm dose and five time replicates.  Data was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis and continued with Z test. Result of the experiment was showed that addition of carrot as natural source of beta-carotene with several preparation in feed increase significantly (P Keywords: freshwater crayfish, colour of red claw, carrot, beta-carotene   ABSTRAK Red claw (Cherax quadricarinatus adalah salah satu jenis lobster air tawar yang dapat dibudidayakan sebagai komoditas konsumsi maupun hias.  Sebagai komoditas ikan hias, warna tubuh merupakan karakter penting untuk menunjang penampilan red claw.  Red claw ukuran konsumsi yang memiliki warna biru akan memiliki nilai jual yang lebih tinggi daripada red claw berwarna coklat.  Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan wortel sebagai sumber beta karoten alami dengan beberapa metoda pengolahan pada pakan terhadap peningkatan warna biru lobster red claw. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan : A (kontrol, B (ekstrak, C (jus dan D (serutan wortel dengan menggunakan dosis 45 ppm beta karoten dan ulangan 5 kali.  Data dianalisis dengan uji Kruskal-Wallis dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Z.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan wortel sebagai sumber beta karoten alami dengan beberapa metode

  11. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2018-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  12. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  13. The evaluation of energy in fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    New and alternative plant ingredients are increasingly incorporated in fish feed due to the scarcity of captured fish and increased fishmeal and fish oil prices. As a result, current fish feeds are characterized by a highly variable ingredients composition, leading to a similar variability in the

  14. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, Sari J.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Nissinen, Anne; Stewart, C. Neal; Poppy, Guy M.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants

  15. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  20. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  1. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  4. Hydrolyzed sugar in cattle feeding. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, L K; Kurilov, N V; Mysnik, N D

    1978-01-01

    Hydrolyzed wood molasses (32% sugar) at 1 kg/day increased weight gains of bulls 14.6% in 86-day exports when given along with urea-containing granulated feed and straw. Rumen volatile fatty acids, feed digestibility, and N utilization were increased in bulls, and cow productivity was increased along with a 0.1 to 0.15% increase in milk fat content. Sulfite liquor at 400 g/day (4% of feed) also increased weight gains 13.9% in bulls.

  5. The influence of supplemented Curcuma in feed formulation to improve growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, M. M.; Zubaidah, M.; Arief, M.; Prayogo

    2018-04-01

    Catfish (Clarias sp.) is very potential to be developed as a food fish. The use of the feed additive in feed intended to improve the health, productivity and compliance with animal nutrition. Feed additive is to use ginger are derived from nature.The purpose of this study was to determine the potential increase in feed formulation. The Curcuma effect on growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.). The method used experimental methods and design complete random with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The parameters examined in this study aregrowth rate and efficiency feed.The research showed that the ANOVA markedly dissimilar ( Padditive on formulations feed.

  6. infant feeding issues implications of formula feeding to reduce hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-03

    Aug 3, 2004 ... exclusive bottle-feeding is, in theory, negligible. However, .... †Independent sample t-tests; categorical variables were tested using the X2-test. TABLE I. RESULTS FOR FIT ... increase the risk of diarrhoeal events.9. Frequent ...

  7. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  8. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  9. The benefits of authoritative feeding style: caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hughes, Sheryl O; Morales, Miriam

    2005-04-01

    This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors.

  10. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  11. PPARγ ablation sensitizes proopiomelanocortin neurons to leptin during high-fat feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lihong; Toda, Chitoku; Jeong, Jing Kwon; Horvath, Tamas L; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    Activation of central PPARγ promotes food intake and body weight gain; however, the identity of the neurons that express PPARγ and mediate the effect of this nuclear receptor on energy homeostasis is unknown. Here, we determined that selective ablation of PPARγ in murine proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons decreases peroxisome density, elevates reactive oxygen species, and induces leptin sensitivity in these neurons. Furthermore, ablation of PPARγ in POMC neurons preserved the interaction between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, which is dysregulated by HFD. Compared with control animals, mice lacking PPARγ in POMC neurons had increased energy expenditure and locomotor activity; reduced body weight, fat mass, and food intake; and improved glucose metabolism when exposed to high-fat diet (HFD). Finally, peripheral administration of either a PPARγ activator or inhibitor failed to affect food intake of mice with POMC-specific PPARγ ablation. Taken together, our data indicate that PPARγ mediates cellular, biological, and functional adaptations of POMC neurons to HFD, thereby regulating whole-body energy balance.

  12. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts daytime overeating induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Kek, Huiling Calvina; Lim, Joy; Gelling, Richard Wayne; Han, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) induces overeating and obesity. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces HFD-induced body weight and body fat gain mainly through increased lipid metabolism and fat oxidation. However, little is known about its effect on HFD-induced alterations in feeding behavior. Three diet groups of wildtype C57B/6j male mice at 5 months old were fed on normal chow diet, 1 week of HFD (60% of energy) and 3 months of HFD (diet-induced obesity (DIO)) prior to EGCG supplement in respective diet. EGCG had no effect on feeding behavior in normal chow diet group. Increased daytime feeding induced by HFD was selectively corrected by EGCG treatment in HFD groups, including reversed food intake, feeding frequency and meal size in HFD + EGCG group, and reduced food intake and feeding frequency in DIO + EGCG group. Moreover, EGCG treatment altered diurnally oscillating expression pattern of key appetite-regulating genes, including AGRP, POMC, and CART, and key circadian genes Clock and Bmal1 in hypothalamus of DIO mice, indicating its central effect on feeding regulation. Our study demonstrates that EGCG supplement specifically counteracts daytime overeating induced by HFD in mice, suggesting its central role in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the change in BSES-SF mean scores between the mothers who received SEBEP and those who did not receive SEBEP at two weeks post partum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  15. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88-deficiency increases risk of diabetes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hosoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence suggest innate immune response pathways to be involved in the development of obesity-associated diabetes although the molecular mechanism underling the disease is unknown. Recent observations suggest that saturated fatty acids can act as a ligand for toll-like receptor (TLR 4, which is thought to mediate obesity-associated insulin resistance. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 is an adapter protein for TLR/IL-1 receptor signaling, which is involved in the activation of inflammatory pathways. To evaluate molecular mechanisms linking obesity-associated diabetes down-stream of TLR4, we investigated physiological role of MyD88 in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we found MyD88-deficient mice fed a HFD had increased circulating levels of insulin, leptin and cholesterol, as well as liver dysfunction (increased induction of ALT levels, increased activation of JNK and cleavage of PARP, which were linked to the onset of severe diabetes. On the other hand, TNF-alpha would not be involved in HFD-induced diabetes in MyD88-deficient mice, because TNF-alpha level was attenuated in MyD88-deficient mice fed with HFD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present finding of an unexpected role for MyD88 in preventing diabetes may provide a potential novel target/strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.

  16. The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School Attendance In ... and SFP were significant variables which affect attendance of children in school. ... the school-feeding programme [SFP] succeeded in increasing parent's income.

  17. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  18. Increased cost of motor activity and heat transfer between non-shivering thermogenesis, motor activity and thermic effect of feeding in mice housed at room temperature – Implications in pre-clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Christian Even

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The components of energy expenditure, total metabolic rate (TMR, resting metabolic rate (RMR, thermogenic response to feeding (TEF, activity and cost of activity were measured in fed and fasted mice housed at 22°C and 30° C. Mice housed at 22°C had more than 2 times larger TMR and RMR. Mice at 22°C were less active when fasted but more active when fed. Cost of activity was nearly doubled in the fasted and in the fed state. Analysis of the short-term relation between TMR, RMR and bouts of activity showed that, at 22°C, the bouts of activity induced a decrease in the intensity of RMR that reflected the reduced need for thermal regulation induced by the heat released from muscular contraction. This phenomenon induced a considerable underestimation of TEF and prevented its reliable measurement when mice were housed at 22°C. Correlation between TMR and activity measured across time in individual mice was very strong at both 22°C and 30°C, but the correlation measured across mice was much weaker at 30°C and no longer significant at 22°C. We suspect that this phenomenon was due to the fact that RMR is a much more reliable predictor of TMR than activity. RMR is more variable at 22°C than at 30°C because of heat-transfers between thermal regulation and heat released by other discontinuous processes such as activity and TEF. Therefore more noise is introduced into the correlations performed across multiple mice between TMR and activity at 22°C. On the other hand it should be kept in mind that the doubling of TMR and RMR at 22°C is fueled by an increased non-shivering thermogenesis that can obviously modify how the mouse responds to pharmacological and nutritional challenges. Taken together these results suggest that in pre-clinical studies, mice should be housed in conditions where thermal regulation is limited as is generally the case in humans. However, the increased sensitivity of mice to small changes in ambient temperature can also be

  19. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  20. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  1. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  2. Self mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Hu, David

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  3. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  4. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  5. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  9. Liveweight gain and efficiency of feed utilization by Bunaji cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was carried out to study the effect of feeding increasing levels of total digestible nutrients (TDN) on the live weight of Bunaji cows during early lactation. The feeding trial ran for 56 days, starting on the 6th day after parturition. The experimental cows, in a completely randomized design, were randomly allocated ...

  10. Breast feeding practices in the Black community | Ross | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeding among rural and urban Blacks, to determine whether the number of women providing early supplementary feeding has increased over a 4-year period, and to discover groups at particular risk of failure to breast-feed optimally. Women ...

  11. Progressive obesity alters the steroidogenic response to ovulatory stimulation and increases the abundance of mRNAs stored in the ovulated oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeier, William E; Xie, Fang; Kurz, Scott G; Lu, Ningxia; Wood, Jennifer R

    2014-08-01

    Obese women who are able to attain pregnancy are at increased risk for early-pregnancy loss due, in part, to reduced oocyte quality. We and others have demonstrated that female Lethal Yellow (LY) mice and female C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet (B6-HFD) exhibit phenotypes consistent with human obesity. These studies also showed that zygotes collected from LY and B6-HFD females have reduced developmental competence. The current hypothesis is that LY and B6-HFD females exhibit an abnormal response to gonadotropin stimulation compared to C57BL/6 controls fed normal rodent chow (B6-ND), resulting in the ovulation of oocytes with an altered molecular phenotype which may contribute to its reduced developmental competence. To test this hypothesis, age-matched B6-ND, B6-HFD, and LY females were stimulated with exogenous gonadotropins, then circulating hormone levels and the phenotypes of ovulated oocytes were analyzed. There was no difference in ovulation rate or in the percentage of morphologically abnormal oocytes collected from the oviduct of any females. Progesterone and progesterone/estradiol ratios, however, were increased in B6-HFD and LY compared to B6-ND females 16 hr post-human chorionic gonadotropin treatment. The transcript abundance of several candidate oocyte genes was also increased in B6-HFD- and LY-derived oocytes compared to B6-ND-derived oocytes. These data suggest that increased insulin and leptin levels of obese females elevated circulating progesterone concentrations, altered transcriptional activity during oocyte growth, and/or impaired mechanisms of RNA translation and degradation during oocyte maturation. These changes in mRNA abundance likely contribute to reduced oocyte quality and the subsequent poor embryogenesis associated with obesity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  13. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  14. Increased susceptibility to metabolic dysregulation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease is associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin signaling and elevated BCAA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Henry H; Chi, Tiffany; Shin, Andrew C; Lindtner, Claudia; Hsieh, Wilson; Ehrlich, Michelle; Gandy, Sam; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between diabetes and dementia. Insulin signaling within the brain, in particular within the hypothalamus regulates carbohydrate, lipid, and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism in peripheral organs such as the liver and adipose tissue. We hypothesized that cerebral amyloidosis impairs central nervous system control of metabolism through disruption of insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, which dysregulates glucose and BCAA homeostasis resulting in increased susceptibility to diabetes. We examined whether APP/PS1 mice exhibit increased susceptibility to aging or high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic impairment using metabolic phenotyping and insulin-signaling studies. APP/PS1 mice were more susceptible to high-fat feeding and aging-induced metabolic dysregulation including disrupted BCAA homeostasis and exhibited impaired hypothalamic insulin signaling. Our data suggest that AD pathology increases susceptibility to diabetes due to impaired hypothalamic insulin signaling, and that plasma BCAA levels could serve as a biomarker of hypothalamic insulin action in patients with AD. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  16. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... button, close the clamp on the feeding set, disconnect the extension set from the button, and close ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

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    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

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  7. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  8. TENDENCIES AND PECULIARITIES OF SHRIMP FEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIUDMYLA V. FIHURSKA

    2018-04-01

    disadvantages of using the two most common processes of production of shrimp feeds (pelleting andextrusion, despite the relatively high cost extrusion, undoubtedly, is the main process of shrimp feed production.At the same time, there are challenges, which need to be overcome by the industry for effective further development: toproduce environmentally friendly feeds, to conduct further studies in order to clarify the required nutritional value of shrimp feedand add amino acids, feed enzymes, chemo-attractants, probiotics, and immunostimulants, to provide the necessary water stability ofpellets, and to increase feed conversion rate, develop regional, national, or international guidelines and codes of practices for bothfeed manufacturing practices and feed management practices, reduce fish meal in shrimp feed recipes.Despite the existence of problems, shrimp production is growing and the production of feed for their feeding has a greatpotential as an important source of animal protein in human nutrition.

  9. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  11. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  12. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. maternity hospital in South West England. 218 breast feeds (160 mother-infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. the tool has more explanation than other tools to remind those supporting breast-feeding women about the components of an efficient breast feed. There was good internal reliability for the final 4-item BBAT (Cronbach's alpha=0.668) and the midwives who used it showed a high correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.782). Midwives were able to score a breast feed consistently using the BBAT and felt that it helped them with advice to mothers about improving positioning and attachment to make breast feeding less painful, particularly with a tongue-tied infant. The tool showed strong correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy, indicating that more efficient breast feeding technique is associated with increased confidence in breast feeding an infant. the BBAT is a concise breast feeding assessment tool facilitating accurate, rapid breast feeding appraisal, and targeting breast feeding advice to mothers acquiring early breast feeding skills or for those experiencing problems with an older infant. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure enhanced breast feeding efficiency and increased maternal self-confidence. the BBAT could be used both clinically and in research to target advice to improve breast feeding efficacy. Further research is needed to establish its wider usefulness. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  15. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  16. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  17. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  18. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  19. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  20. Effects of oils on feed mildew and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Qi, Ming; Huang, Yakuan; Guo, Jiao; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Chong; Zhang, Niya; Sun, Lvhui; Qi, Desheng

    2017-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of oils on feed mildew and feed quality. Under different moisture content conditions (10%, 13% and 16%), the basal feeds were supplemented with 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% soybean oil. In addition, at different moisture content levels (10%, 13% and 16%), the basal feed was supplemented with 12% of various types of oil (soybean, peanut, corn and fish). Subsequently, a mixed mold spore suspension was added. The feed samples were incubated at 28°C, and the total mold, water activity (Aw), moisture, acid value, crude protein (CP), crude lipid (CL), crude ash (CA) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) levels were determined at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. The results showed no significant variations in the feed moisture, CP, CL, CA and NEF contents. However, the acid value gradually increased in the feed samples with an extended incubation time and increasing initial moisture. The feed moisture content was a critical factor controlling feed mildew, and high levels of oil supplementation caused an elevated Aw. Additionally, peanut oil promoted mold growth in feed. These results provide a reference for the production and scientific management of formulated feed. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Effects of different feeding levels on moulting, growth, food conversion efficiency and biochemical composition of the prawn, metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    food/g prawn/day represented the maintenance, optimum and maximum feeding levels Specific dynamic action increased twice at the observed maximum feeding level (20%) than at optimum feeding level (12%), indicating that the energy cost of converting food...

  2. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-04-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for

  3. Feeding proteins to livestock: Global land use and food vs. feed competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manceron Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition between direct consumption of plant production and the feeding of livestock is key to global food availability. This is because livestock consume edible commodities that could be available for (food insecure populations but also because it diverts arable land from food production. The share of total plant production redirected towards feeding livestock is (roughly known but estimations of land surfaces virtually occupied by livestock production are scarce. In this study, following up on the Agrimonde Terra** project, we estimate areas devoted to the feeding livestock. First, we estimate the protein composition of an averaged feed basket at the global scale in 2005 and detail the evolution of the protein-source feed component during the period 1961–2009. We focus on protein-rich crops such as oil crops and show its proportion in the global livestock diets has tripled since 1960, though only accounting for about one fourth of total proteins. Then, we estimate land virtually occupied by crop feed at the global scale using a set of straightforward hypotheses. Our estimates suggest that, although livestock and feed production has continuously increased and despite uncertainties in available data, competition for land between feed and food uses has decreased over the last two decades. The share of areas cultivated for feed requirements decreased from about 50% in the 1970s to 37% nowadays. This trend is attributable to the increase of crop yields and to a decrease of the share of cereals in livestock diets to the benefit of oilseeds by-products. However, estimating the share of total areas used for feed is complicated by the significant role played by by-products.

  4. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  5. Maternal obesity increases inflammation and exacerbates damage following neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jonathan D; Morris, Margaret J; Jones, Nicole M

    2017-07-01

    In humans, maternal obesity is associated with an increase in the incidence of birth related difficulties. However, the impact of maternal obesity on the severity of brain injury in offspring is not known. Recent studies have found evidence of increased glial response and inflammatory mediators in the brains as a result of obesity in humans and rodents. We hypothesised that hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury is greater in neonatal offspring from obese rat mothers compared to lean controls. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated to high fat (HFD, n=8) or chow (n=4) diet and mated with lean male rats. On postnatal day 7 (P7), male and female pups were randomly assigned to HI injury or control (C) groups. HI injury was induced by occlusion of the right carotid artery followed by 3h exposure to 8% oxygen, at 37°C. Control pups were removed from the mother for the same duration under ambient conditions. Righting behaviour was measured on day 1 and 7 following HI. The extent of brain injury was quantified in brain sections from P14 pups using cresyl violet staining and the difference in volume between brain hemispheres was measured. Before mating, HFD mothers were 11% heavier than Chow mothers (pmaternal weight. Similar observations were made with neuronal staining showing a greater loss of neurons in the brain of offspring from HFD-mothers following HI compared to Chow. Astrocytes appeared to more hypertrophic and a greater number of microglia were present in the injured hemisphere in offspring from mothers on HFD. HI caused an increase in the proportion of amoeboid microglia and exposure to maternal HFD exacerbated this response. In the contralateral hemisphere, offspring exposed to maternal HFD displayed a reduced proportion of ramified microglia. Our data clearly demonstrate that maternal obesity can exacerbate the severity of brain damage caused by HI in neonatal offspring. Given that previous studies have shown enhanced inflammatory responses in

  6. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  8. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  9. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  11. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  12. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  13. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J R Heerwagen

    Full Text Available Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02, and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05, while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02, as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02, which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, P<0.02. The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05, body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively, and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05, these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results

  14. Effluent profile of commercially used low-phosphorus fish feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Shozo H.; Marchant, Daniel D.; Kelsey, Kevin; Wiggins, Thomas; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2006-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) in aquaculture feeds contributes to the eutrophication of natural waters. While commercially available low-P (LP) fish feeds have been developed, there is uncertainty about their potential to reduce effluent P while maintaining fish growth relative to regular P (RP) feeds. We therefore simulated commercial aquaculture conditions and fed for 55 days rainbow trout (∼190 kg/raceway, n = 3 raceways/diet) RP (1.4% total P) and LP (1.0%) feeds then determined effluent P levels, fish growth, and feed costs. Excretions of fecal-P and soluble-P, but not particulate-P, in effluents were greater in RP than in LP ponds. Fish growth, bone-P and plasma-P were similar between diets, demonstrating that LP feeds can lower effluent P levels without compromising growth. Costs were $0.97/kg fish production for LP feeds, and $0.74/kg for RP. Because feed is the largest variable cost in commercial aquaculture, the use of LP feeds can significantly increase production costs. - Commercial low-phosphorus fish feeds pollute less but are more costly than standard fish feeds that provide similar fish growth rates

  15. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  17. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  18. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  19. Radiation technology and feed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  20. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  1. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  2. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. WAYS OF REDUCTION OF ADVERSE FEEDING EFFECT ON ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of livestock requires maintaining and further increasing of the genetic potential, the basis for the manifestation of which is the adequite balanced feeding. Currently, one of the most urgent problems of livestock breeding is to find ways for reduction of the negative impact of various feeding factors on the animals. In industrial conditions, it is difficult to exclude various feed stresses, which lead to a decrease in productivity, survival rate and ill health of a...

  4. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  5. Ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding versus scheduled interval feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Felicia M; Tosh, Karen; McGuire, William

    2010-02-17

    Scheduled interval feeding of prescribed enteral volumes is current standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (ad libitum or demand/semi demand) rather than at scheduled intervals might help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth rates and the time to hospital discharge. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to Oct 2009), EMBASE (1980 to Oct 2009), CINAHL (1982 to Oct 2009), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (including cluster randomised trials) that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found eight randomised controlled trials that compared ad libitum or demand/semi-demand regimens with scheduled interval regimes in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and of variable methodological quality. The duration of the intervention and the duration of data collection and follow-up in most of the trials was not likely to have allowed detection of measurable effects on growth. Three trials reported that feeding preterm infants using an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding regimen allowed earlier discharge from hospital (by about two to four days) but other trials did not confirm this

  6. Delayed fracture healing and increased callus adiposity in a C57BL/6J murine model of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Brown

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Impaired healing and non-union of skeletal fractures is a major public health problem, with morbidity exacerbated in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM is prevalent worldwide and affects approximately 25.8 million US adults, with >90% having obesity-related type 2 DM (T2DM. While fracture healing in type 1 DM (T1DM has been studied using animal models, an investigation into delayed healing in an animal model of T2DM has not yet been performed. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice at 5 weeks of age were placed on either a control lean diet or an experimental high-fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks. A mid-diaphyseal open tibia fracture was induced at 17 weeks of age and a spinal needle was used for intra-medullary fixation. Mice were sacrificed at days 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, and 35 for micro-computed tomography (μCT, histology-based histomorphometry and molecular analyses, and biomechanical testing. RESULTS: HFD-fed mice displayed increased body weight and impaired glucose tolerance, both characteristic of T2DM. Compared to control mice, HFD-fed mice with tibia fractures showed significantly (p<0.001 decreased woven bone at day 28 by histomorphometry and significantly (p<0.01 decreased callus bone volume at day 21 by μCT. Interestingly, fracture calluses contained markedly increased adiposity in HFD-fed mice at days 21, 28, and 35. HFD-fed mice also showed increased PPARγ immunohistochemical staining at day 14. Finally, calluses from HFD-fed mice at day 35 showed significantly (p<0.01 reduced torsional rigidity compared to controls. DISCUSSION: Our murine model of T2DM demonstrated delayed fracture healing and weakened biomechanical properties, and was distinctly characterized by increased callus adiposity. This suggests altered mesenchymal stem cell fate determination with a shift to the adipocyte lineage at the expense of the osteoblast lineage. The up-regulation of PPARγ in fracture calluses of HFD-fed mice is likely involved in the proposed

  7. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  8. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2015-10-13

    Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth, duration of hospital stay, and parental satisfaction. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 9, 2015), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to September 2015), and CINAHL (1982 to September 2015), conference proceedings, previous reviews, and trial registries. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and undertook data extraction independently. We analysed the treatment effects in the individual trials and reported the risk ratio and risk difference for dichotomous data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and explored the potential causes of heterogeneity in sensitivity analyses. We found nine eligible RCTs including 593 infants in total. These trials compared responsive with scheduled interval regimens in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and contained various methodological weaknesses including lack of blinding and incomplete assessment of all randomised participants. Meta-analyses, although limited by data quality and availability, suggest that responsive feeding

  9. [Animal feeding and feed legislation after the detection of the first indigenous BSE cases in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphues, J

    2002-08-01

    In Great Britain, even the earliest tangible signs indicating the epidemiologic significance of meat and bone meal in the spreading of BSE soon gave rise to increasingly rigorous legislative measures regulating animal feedstuffs. In 1994 a ban on the feeding of animal proteins to ruminants was implemented throughout the entire EU. But until the first BSE cases were actually confirmed in locally raised cattle (November 2000), feeding practice and legislation more or less in Germany remained unaffected by the efforts undertaken in Great Britain. This situation was suddenly changed on 1 December, 2000, when the so-called "Verfütterungsverbot" was put into effect, a law which drastically extended bans regarding the feedstuffs (including fishmeal and animal fats) as well as the species concerned (all animals used in food production). In 2001 the "contamination" phenomenon (ingredients of animal origin were detected in mixed feeds) became a vital issue for the feed industry; through the media, the subject "feedstuff safety" gained a previously unseen level of public awareness. Those circles concerned with mixed feed production and animal husbandry were increasingly confronted with the consequences of the "Verfütterungsverbot" (availability and pricing of substitute ingredients; the demand for amino acids and inorganic sources of phosphorus; problems finding adequate substitutes for animal fats; poor digestibility of alternative components such as indigenous legumes or vegetable fats in calf diets; lower utilization rate of original phosphorus in mixed feeds with negative consequences for skeletal development). With the conditional approval of fishmeal (except in feeds for ruminants) the situation has eased again to a certain degree; on the EU level there are increasing signals pointing toward a political intention to reinstate the utilization of by-products of slaughtered animals qualified for human consumption (with the exception of fallen/dead animals and specific

  10. Effect of Feed Substrate Thickness on the Bandwidth and Radiation Characteristics of an Aperture-Coupled Microstrip Antenna with a High Permittivity Feed Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyun Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The impedance bandwidth and radiation characteristics of an aperture-coupled microstrip line-fed patch antenna (ACMPA with a high permittivity (ɛr = 10 feed substrate suitable for integration with a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC are investigated for various feed substrate thicknesses through an experiment and computer simulation. The impedance bandwidth of an ACMPA with a high permittivity feed substrate increases as the feed substrate thickness decreases. Furthermore, the front-to-back ratio of an ACMPA with a high permittivity feed substrate increases and the cross-polarization level decreases as the feed substrate thickness decreases. As the impedance bandwidth of an ACMPA with a high permittivity feed substrate increases and its radiation characteristics improve as the feed substrate thickness decreases, the ACMPA configuration becomes suitable for integration with an MMIC.

  11. Refining low protein modular feeds for children on low protein tube feeds with organic acidaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A; Evans, S; Ashmore, C; Chahal, S; Santra, S; MacDonald, A

    2017-12-01

    Children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) who are dependent on tube feeding and require a protein restriction are commonly fed by 'modular tube feeds' consisting of several ingredients. A longitudinal, prospective two-phase study, conducted over 18 months assessed the long-term efficacy of a pre-measured protein-free composite feed. This was specifically designed to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children (aged over 1 year) with organic acidaemias on low protein enteral feeds and to be used as a supplement with an enteral feeding protein source. All non-protein individual feed ingredients were replaced with one protein-free composite feed supplying fat, carbohydrate, and micronutrients. Thirteen subjects, median age 7.4y (3-15.5y), all nutritionally tube dependent (supplying nutritional intake: ≥ 90%, n = 12; 75%, n = 1), and diagnosed with organic acidaemias (Propionic acidaemia, n = 6; Vitamin B 12 non-responsive methyl malonic acidaemia, n = 4; Isovaleric acidaemia, n = 2; Glutaric aciduria type1, n = 1); were studied. Nutritional intake, biochemistry and anthropometry were monitored at week - 8, 0, 12, 26 and 79. Energy intake remained unchanged, providing 76% of estimated energy requirements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids significantly increased from week 0 to week 79, but sodium, potassium, magnesium, decosahexanoic acid and fibre did not meet suggested requirements. Plasma zinc, selenium, haemoglobin and MCV significantly improved, and growth remained satisfactory. Natural protein intake met WHO/FAO/UNU 2007 recommendations. A protein-free composite feed formulated to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children aged over 1 year improved nutritional intake, biochemical nutritional status, and simplified enteral tube feeding regimens in children with organic acidaemias.

  12. Development of cereals for animal feed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological process of cereals production used in the production of feed stuff, which includes the following basic steps: grain moistening; binning of moistened grain for redistribution of moisture in the bulk of kernel; steaming of moistened grain; rolling of steamed grain; drying and cooling of flakes – is developed. In the production of flakes from scoured barley and oat grain before feeding to the rolling line film removal from the grain of these crops and the separation of the husks is carried out by one the existing methods: the method of grinding, followed by sifting and eventilation of films from tail fractions or a method of peeling on special machines with a separation of films. Wet-heat treatment of grain, followed by rolling helps to improve taste and palatability of feed, improves the nutritional value of carbohydrate and protein complexes, reduces the exertion of the body to digest food nutrients, allows to inactivate antinutritional substances and free the grain from the pathogenic and other microorganisms. In the duration of rolling process splitting of complex carbohydrates occurs, starch loses its original structure and is easier exposed to enzymes. The dried and cooled flakes have satisfactory flowability, do not set up. Humidity of flakes is not more than 14%, the temperature is not more than 10 °C above the ambient temperature, bulk density is 350–400 kg/m3. Developed set of equipment allows producing cereal flakes, the use of which in feed stuff and rations of young cattle and pigs increases the productivity of animals by 15–20% while reducing feed costs by 12–15%. Cereal flakes are used in the manufacture of complete feed for piglets (pigs at the age of 10 to 60 days, feed concentrates for pigs under the age of 4 months, the calves under the age of 115 days, high-producing cows, sporting and trained horses and lactating mares.

  13. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  14. Aging Increases Susceptibility to High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice: Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profile after Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Nunes-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been considered a novel component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, with the oxidative stress participating in its progression. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile in young and old mice with MetS, and the effects of apocynin and tempol on glycemic and lipid parameters. Young and old C57BL/6 mice with high fat diet- (HFD- induced MetS received apocynin and tempol 50 mg·kg−1/day in their drinking water for 10 weeks. After HFD, the young group showed elevated fasting glucose, worsened lipid profile in plasma, steatosis, and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the old group presented significant increase in fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and pronounced steatosis. The hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ between the groups. Tempol and apocynin seemed to prevent hepatic lipid deposition in both groups. Furthermore, apocynin improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in old mice. In summary, old mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic changes than their young counterparts. Also, the antioxidant therapy improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and in addition, apocynin seemed to prevent the HFD-induced hepatic fat deposition, suggesting an important role of oxidative stress in the induction of NAFLD.

  15. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  16. Nutritional status, complementary feeding practices and feasible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-03

    Feb 3, 2012 ... often coincides with decreased breast milk consumption,7 increased ... discussions were held with adults to determine perceived understanding, .... underweight), and < -3 (severely underweight). .... did not eat enough food to give them energy to produce milk to feed .... for treatment when they are sick.

  17. Wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandari, Hanumanth Rao; Sankarasubramanian, G; Kumar, A Praveen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the existing feeds in use at the GMRT Observatory and details the ongoing development of next generation wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT. The existing feeds include: feed with folded thick dipoles (for 150 MHz), dipole-disc feed (for 325 MHz), dual-band coaxial feed (for 233 MHZ and 610 MHz), and corrugated horn feed (for 1400–1450 MHz). The new broadband feeds covered in this paper are: cone-dipole feeds for 250–500 and 500–1000 MHz, wideband horn feed for 550–900 MHz, and dual ring feed for 130–260 MHz. Design techniques and performance results for these are described.

  18. Parental feeding practices and children's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jane; Carnell, Susan

    2007-04-01

    Global increases in childhood obesity rates demand that we tackle the problem from many directions. One promising avenue is to explore the impact of parental feeding practices, particularly those related to parental control over children's intake. In this paper, we review studies of parent feeding and child adiposity covering a range of research methodologies (case-control studies, high risk studies, cross-sectional community studies and longitudinal cohort studies). We also present results from a cross-sectional community study of pre-schoolers (n = 439) and a longitudinal study of twins from ages of 4 to 7 years (n = 3175 pairs). We conclude that parents are more likely to encourage leaner than heavier children to eat, but relationships between adiposity and other parental feeding strategies are unclear. We suggest that future research should: (i) explore the impact of a comprehensive range of authoritative and authoritarian parental feeding behaviours, preferably using the same validated scales consistently across studies; (ii) test the generalisation of existing findings to diverse socio-economic and ethnic groups and (iii) utilise experimental, prospective and genetic methodologies to explore the causal relationships between parental feeding and child weight. We describe current projects in our own group that are designed to take forward these recommendations.

  19. A review of feed efficiency in swine: biology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, John F; Rossoni-Serão, Mariana C; Gutiérrez, Néstor A

    2015-01-01

    Feed efficiency represents the cumulative efficiency with which the pig utilizes dietary nutrients for maintenance, lean gain and lipid accretion. It is closely linked with energy metabolism, as the oxidation of carbon-containing components in the feed drive all metabolic processes. While much is known about nutrient utilization and tissue metabolism, blending these subjects into a discussion on feed efficiency has proven to be difficult. For example, while increasing dietary energy concentration will almost certainly increase feed efficiency, the correlation between dietary energy concentration and feed efficiency is surprisingly low. This is likely due to the plethora of non-dietary factors that impact feed efficiency, such as the environment and health as well as individual variation in maintenance requirements, body composition and body weight. Nonetheless, a deeper understanding of feed efficiency is critical at many levels. To individual farms, it impacts profitability. To the pork industry, it represents its competitive position against other protein sources. To food economists, it means less demand on global feed resources. There are environmental and other societal implications as well. Interestingly, feed efficiency is not always reported simply as a ratio of body weight gain to feed consumed. This review will explain why this arithmetic calculation, as simple as it initially seems, and as universally applied as it is in science and commerce, can often be misleading due to errors inherent in recording of both weight gain and feed intake. This review discusses the importance of feed efficiency, the manner in which it can be measured and reported, its basis in biology and approaches to its improvement. It concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for future efforts.

  20. Liquid-Feed Methanol Fuel Cell With Membrane Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao; Narayanan, S. R.; Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Vamos, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    Fuel cell generates electricity from direct liquid feed stream of methanol/water solution circulated in contact with anode, plus direct gaseous feed stream of air or oxygen in contact with cathode. Advantages include relative simplicity and elimination of corrosive electrolytic solutions. Offers potential for reductions in size, weight, and complexity, and for increases in safety of fuel-cell systems.

  1. The future of animal feeding: towards sustainable precision livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the future, production will increasingly be affected by globalization of the trade in feed commodities and livestock products, competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between feed, food and biofuel, and by the need to operate in a carbonconstrained economy,

  2. Pneumothorax Following Feeding Tube Placement: Precaution and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Zahmatkesh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasojejunal feeding tubes are being used at an increased frequency, but it is not without complications that could be life-threatening. We report two cases of pneumothorax following small-bore feeding tube insertion into the pleural cavity, resulting in pneumothorax. We further discuss the potential measures that can be taken to prevent and treat this serious complication.

  3. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet...

  4. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  5. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  6. Feeding and eating disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    The past few years have seen a steep increase in journal articles relating to feeding and eating disorders in children, making a succinct overview timely. The relevance of this review is enhanced by the recent publication of revised feeding and eating disorder diagnostic criteria in DSM-5. These have significant implications for younger patients, in particular through the inclusion of the new diagnostic category Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID). It is likely that this will encourage increased research interest in this field. Recent publications included in this article cover a broad range of topics relevant to childhood feeding and eating disorders, to include: presentation, diagnosis and classification; epidemiology; risk factors; assessment measures; treatment, prognosis and outcome. The area of feeding and eating disorders in children remains relatively under-researched, with significant gaps in knowledge about epidemiology, course and prognosis as well as a limited evidence base for treatment. However, important and promising avenues are increasingly being explored. In relation to clinical practice, there is now a much better recognition of these disorders and a greater awareness of their complexity, severity and potential impact in both the short and the longer term if not appropriately managed.

  7. Malnutrition, eating difficulties and feeding dependence in a stroke rehabilitation centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, Bas; Brinkman-Zijlker, HG; Dijkstra, PU; Postema, K

    Purpose. To analyse prevalence of malnutrition, eating difficulties and feeding dependence in stroke rehabilitation patients because little is known about these prevalence's. Stroke patients have an increased risk for developing eating difficulties, feeding dependence and malnutrition because of

  8. Effect of flow velocity, substrate concentration and hydraulic cleaning on biofouling of reverse osmosis feed channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radu, Andrea I.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    )/nanofiltration (NF) feed channels. Simulations performed in channels with or without spacer filaments describe how higher liquid velocities lead to less overall biomass amount in the channel by increasing the shear stress. In all studied cases at constant feed flow

  9. Effects of sodium chloride on sheep. 2. Voluntary feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein (CP) had alleviated these detrimental effects to some extent. This was a ... feed intake and changes in certain rumen parameters of young Merino ..... in saliva, with a commensurate increase in the K ... its relation to feeding in cattle. 1.

  10. Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part I: leading element performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karameldin, A.; Saadawy, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the seawater reverse osmosis preheating process, and presents a parametric study of the process. The basic transport equations describing the leading element are exhibited and appraised. The leading element, which governs the whole system performance, is studied and analysed. The incorporated and investigated operating parameters are the feed pressure and the temperature for different feed salt concentrations. In addition, different feed flow rates, effects on permeate flux and permeator salt rejection, together with the permeator recovery, are studied. A seawater membrane of a well-known data, for instance FT30SW380HR, is used to perform the study. The membrane water permeability coefficient K w is determined and correlated. Furthermore, the membrane salt permeability coefficient K s from the manufacturer system analysis program (ROSA) is given and discussed. The transport governing equations are programmed in a way that facilitates the achievement of a realistic parametric study. The results showed that the permeate flux increases significantly as the feed pressure increases. Also, it increases significantly as the feed salt concentration decreases, and also as the feed temperature and pressure increase. Meanwhile, the permeator salt rejection increases significantly as the feed pressure increases, and decreases significantly as the feed temperature increases. The study of the leading element of the array showed that there are constraints that must be considered, such as maximum membrane flux, maximum applied feed pressure, maximum feed flow rate and maximum feed temperature. Therefore, to attain the maximum membrane flux, the applied feed pressure must be lowered when the feed temperature is increased. In the case where the feed temperature is increased from 18 deg.. C to 45 deg.. C, a pressure saving of between 7% and 26% is achieved, according to the feed salt concentration and feed flow rate. (author)

  11. Impact of biofilm accumulation on transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop: Effects of crossflow velocity, feed spacer and biodegradable nutrient

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Flemming, H. C.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kruithof, J. C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    . As biodegradable nutrient, acetate was dosed to the feed water (1.0 and 0.25mgL-1 carbon) to enhance biofilm accumulation in the monitors. The studies showed that biofilm formation caused an increased transmembrane resistance and feed channel pressure drop

  12. [Feeding disorders in infancy: feeding interaction concept in diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, M; Tyano, S

    1998-09-01

    In infancy clinical manifestations of psychological distress are mainly somatic. Feeding disorders are one of the most common and nonspecific manifestations of different kinds of disturbed parent-child relationships. These disturbances may have their origins in the baby's constitution and physical status, in the parent's personality structure, or both, as has been conceptualized in the transactional model of normal and abnormal development. Among the daily interactions a baby has with parents, feeding has special inherent impact on the early parent-child relationship because of its psychological meanings. Therefore, feeding disorders, with or without failure to thrive, often reflect various disorders of infancy, still not well recognized in the medical community, such as regulatory disorders, attachment disorders, depression of infancy, disorders of separation-individuation, and post-traumatic eating disorder. 3 clinical cases are brought to increase awareness of psychological distress in the infant, and of feeding disorders as 1 of its manifestations. Each illustrates a different kind of feeding disorder in terms of etiology and pathogenesis. Through these cases we emphasize the need for a multi-disciplinary, integrative approach in diagnosis and treatment. Our conceptual background is based both on the transactional model of development (infant and parental factors impact on each other) in a very dynamic paradigm, and on psychodynamic premises. Intrapsychic conflicts and past representations impact heavily on the parenting characteristics. We emphasize the psychological significance of disturbed feeding interactions, with or without failure to thrive.

  13. Ghrelin increases the rewarding value of high-fat diet in an orexin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perello, Mario; Sakata, Ichiro; Birnbaum, Shari; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Rovinsky, Sherry A; Woloszyn, Jakub; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Lutter, Michael; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2010-05-01

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic hormone that likely impacts eating via several mechanisms. Here, we hypothesized that ghrelin can regulate extra homeostatic, hedonic aspects of eating behavior. In the current study, we assessed the effects of different pharmacological, physiological, and genetic models of increased ghrelin and/or ghrelin-signaling blockade on two classic behavioral tests of reward behavior: conditioned place preference (CPP) and operant conditioning. Using both CPP and operant conditioning, we found that ghrelin enhanced the rewarding value of high-fat diet (HFD) when administered to ad lib-fed mice. Conversely, wild-type mice treated with ghrelin receptor antagonist and ghrelin receptor-null mice both failed to show CPP to HFD normally observed under calorie restriction. Interestingly, neither pharmacologic nor genetic blockade of ghrelin signaling inhibited the body weight homeostasis-related, compensatory hyperphagia associated with chronic calorie restriction. Also, ghrelin's effects on HFD reward were blocked in orexin-deficient mice and wild-type mice treated with an orexin 1 receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate an obligatory role for ghrelin in certain rewarding aspects of eating that is separate from eating associated with body weight homeostasis and that requires the presence of intact orexin signaling. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  15. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen White, Linsey King Nutrition and Dietetic Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, Faculty Health and Social Science, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom Abstract: Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump; and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. Keywords: nutrition, perceptions, experience

  16. Mothers' Psychological Distress and Feeding of Their Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Estrem, Hayley; Pados, Britt F; Knafl, George J; Brandon, Debra

    To examine the change in psychological distress of mothers of preterm infants and its association with maternal feeding behaviors as the infant transitions to full oral feeding. This descriptive exploratory study used a subset of data from a study of the effects of a coregulated feeding intervention for 34 mothers and hospitalized preterm infants in a Level-III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Maternal psychological distress was measured by maternal worry (Child Health Worry Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiology-Depression Scale), and role stress (Parental Stress Scale: NICU-Role Alteration) at three time points: within 1 week prior to the first oral feeding (T1), and at achievement of half (T2) and full oral feeding (T3). Feedings were videotaped at T2 and T3. An observational coding system measured maternal feeding behaviors. Linear mixed modeling evaluated the change in maternal psychological distress and its association with mothers' feeding behaviors as the infant transitioned to full oral feeding. Maternal depressive symptoms were highest at T1 and declined over time. Maternal worry and role stress were also highest at T1 but remained stable from T2 to T3. Increased maternal psychological distress, particularly depressive symptoms and role stress, were associated with less use of developmentally supportive feeding behaviors, that is, minimizing tactile stimulation, providing steady touch to contain or stabilize the infant, and regulating milk flow. Supporting maternal psychological well-being while infants are learning to feed orally may be an appropriate target for interventions to support mother-infant early feeding interactions.

  17. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  18. Influence of limit-feeding and time of day of feed availability to growing calves on growth performance and feeding behavior in cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto, L D; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Islas, A; Swanson, K C

    2017-11-01

    Objective swere to determine the effects of limit-feeding and time of feed access in cold weather on growth performance and feeding behavior of growing calves fed a corn silage-based diet. Sixty-six steers (BW = 317 ± 5.3 kg) and 30 heifers (BW = 239 ± 7.6 kg) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment: 1) ad libitum feed intake (AL), 2) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the daytime (0601-1759 h; LF-D), 3) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the nighttime (1800-0559 h; LF-N), and 4) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis, split 1/2 in the daytime and 1/2 in the nighttime (LF-S). Feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored over 84 d using the Insentec feeding system. Average daily gain, DMI, and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.002) in the AL group compared with others. Dry matter intake was not different ( = 0.17) when comparing the LF-D with the LF-N groups. Average daily gain and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.05) when comparing the LF-N group to the LF-D group, and were not different ( ≥ 0.51) when comparing the LF-S group with the mean of the LF-D and LF-N groups. Number of visits and meals per d was greater ( ≤ 0.001) in the LF-N than the LF-D group. Feed intake per visit was not different ( = 0.55) when comparing the AL group and others, and tended to be greater ( = 0.06) in the LF-D than the LF-N group. Feed intake per meal was greater ( Feed intake per minute (eating rate) was not influenced by treatment. In conclusion, limit-feeding at 80% of ad libitum intake decreased ADG and G:F. Limit-feeding in the nighttime as compared to limit-feeding in the daytime improves growth performance and increases feeding activity (number of visits and meals per d) which could be because of increased heat production to help maintain body temperature and thus reduce maintenance energy requirements.

  19. Increased insulin sensitivity and changes in the expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes and beta cell transcription factors in diabetic KKAy-mice after feeding with a soy bean protein rich diet high in isoflavone content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, I; Jeppesen, P B; Hong, J; Abudula, R; Hermansen, K

    2008-06-25

    High content isoflavone soy protein (SBP) (Abalon) has been found in animal studies to possess beneficial effects on a number of the characteristic features of the insulin resistance syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SBP exerts beneficial effects on metabolism in the diabetic KKAy-mouse. Furthermore, we investigated the long-term in vivo effect of SBP on the expression profile in islets of key insulin regulatory genes. Twenty KKAy-mice, aged 5 weeks, were divided into 2 groups and treated for 9 weeks with either (A) standard chow diet (control) or (B) chow + 50% SBP. Twenty normal C57BL-mice fed with standard chow diet served as nondiabetic controls (C). Blood samples were collected and analyzed before and after intervention. Gene expression was determined in islets by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Affymetrix microarray. It was demonstrated that long-term treatment with SBP improves glucose homeostasis, increases insulin sensitivity, and lowers plasma triglycerides in diabetic KKAy-mice. SBP reduces fasting plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Furthermore, SBP markedly changes the gene expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes GLUT2, GLUT3, Ins1, Ins2, IGF1, Beta2/Neurod1, cholecystokinin, and LDLr, and proliferative genes in islets isolated from KKAy-mice. After 9 weeks of treatment with SBP, plasma glucose and insulin homeostasis was normalized compared to start levels. The results indicate that SBP improves glucose and insulin sensitivity and up-regulates the expression of key insulin regulatory genes.

  20. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  1. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  2. Effect of high saturated free fatty acids feeding on progression of renal failure in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid O. Ibraheem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the impact of high saturated fat feeding in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were randomized into four groups; the first one received the standard rodents chow for 8 weeks and was treated as control, the second group (HFDreceived an experimental high fat diet rich in palm kernel oil (40% of Calories as fat for the same period. The third group (HFDG was given 80 mg/kg (body weight/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 24 days of the feeding period while the fourth group was given gentamicin as above along with the standard rodents chow. Renal function was assessed through measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium. At the end, rats underwent a surgical procedure for blood pressure measurement. Renal function study showed a stronger nephrotoxicity for HFDG group. Hypertension was observed in HFD group while the pressure declined after gentamicin co-administration. Overall, changing the feeding behavior toward using more SAFFAs for rats injected with gentamicin promotes the progression of renal failure.

  3. Breast feeding in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B

    1977-04-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.

  4. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  5. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean daily live mass gain was, however, 174 g/day (20,5%) more for the Large White boars and feed conversion16,5% ... of protein and fat in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed ..... regulation of growth and production.

  6. Feed intake and behavior of dairy goats when offered an elevated feed bunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Heather W; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Weary, Daniel M; Zobel, Gosia

    2018-04-01

    Goats are browsers and select vegetation at various heights when foraging. On commercial farms, dairy goats are typically fed from low-level feed bunks. The objective of this study was to determine how feed intake and feeding behavior vary when goats are offered feed at variable heights, with the potential of evaluating the benefits of offering an elevated feeder to dairy goats. Thirteen Saanen X dairy goats were housed in a home pen with a lying area of wood shavings, where they were pre-exposed for 24 d to 3 feeder heights designed to result in differences in head height while feeding: floor level (head lowered relative to body), head level (head level relative to body), and elevated level (head and neck angled upward). Nine groups of 3 goats each were randomly selected and housed for 24 h in a test pen identical to the home pen except that it contained 1 of each of the 3 feeder heights. Each feeder contained ad libitum chopped alfalfa silage and a top-dressed corn-based supplement, refreshed twice daily. Refusals from inside and under each feeder were weighed to calculate intake. Feed intake increased with increasing feeder height (mean ± SE; 0.18, 0.29, and 0.34 ± 0.04 kg of DM/goat for floor-level, head-level, and elevated-level feeders, respectively). Total feeding time did not vary with feeder height, but feeding rate tended to be faster at the elevated-level feeder (14.5 ± 2.1 g of DM/min) compared with head-level (9.2 ± 2.3 g of DM/min) and floor-level (8.9 ± 2.1 g of DM/min) feeders. Goats visited the floor-level feeder (36.4 ± 8.4 visits/goat) less than the head-level (79.4 ± 8.4 visits/goat) and elevated-level (74.8 ± 8.4 visits/goat) feeders. The number of displacements per minute of feeding time (physical removal of another goat from the feeding place) was greater at the elevated-level feeder (0.46 ± 0.06 displacements/min) compared with the floor-level feeder (0.23 ± 0.06 displacements/min) and tended to differ from the head-level feeder (0

  7. Early discharge with tube feeding at home for preterm infants is associated with longer duration of breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerlo-Habing, Z E; Kosters-Boes, E A; Klip, H; Brand, P L P

    2009-07-01

    Mothers of preterm infants are more likely to discontinue breast feeding early than mothers of term infants. We evaluated the effect of early discharge with tube feeding of preterm infants under close supervision by paediatric nurse specialists on the duration of breast feeding. Case-control study. Medium/high-care neonatal unit of a large district general hospital. Preterm infants (paediatric nurse specialists or regular follow-up of preterm infants discharged with oral feeding. Duration of breast feeding assessed by telephone interview 6 months after birth. There were 50 preterm infants in the early discharge group and 78 in the control group. Mothers in the early discharge group continued to breast feed longer than mothers in the control group (log rank test, p = 0.028). Four months after discharge, 63% of preterm infants in the control group were fed formula compared to 36% in the early discharge group (95% CI for difference 9% to 43%, p = 0.04). The relative risk of breast feeding cessation 6 months after birth in the early discharge group compared to the control group was 0.63 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.96). After adjustment for smoking, gestational age and birth weight, this relative risk was 0.67 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.05). Close supervision and follow-up by paediatric nurse specialists of preterm infants discharged early with tube feeding appears to increase duration of breast feeding. A randomised controlled trial to confirm these findings is warranted.

  8. A study on the effect of treatment of compound feed with ionizing radiation on feeding broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotinski, D.; Tsvetanov, I.; Stanchev, Kh.; Bokhorov, O.; Korudzhijski, N.; Dzhurov, A.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with 600 broiler chickens divided into 4 groups, whereas chickens of the control group were offered untreated compound feed and those of the experimental groups were given preliminary treated compound feed with 0.35, 0.7 and 1.0 Mrad, respectively. General chemical analysis of the nonradiated and radiated with different doses of gamma rays feed was carried out in advance, the count of bacteria cells per gram of feed was also determined. Followed up was also the weight development of chickens and the feed to gain ratio. The morphological examinations of some organs were also perfomed. Treatment with gamma rays in doses of 0.35 to 1.0 Mrad inactivated enterobacteria, excepting Bac. subtilis. The general chemical content of feed and weight development of chickens were not markedly effected by radiation. The feed to gain ratio decreased, but with the increase in the radiation dose also rose. No histological changes of the organs were observed upon feeding preliminary irradiated compound feeds

  9. Health, body condition and blood metabolites in reindeer after submaintenance feed intake and subsequent feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nilsson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition from experimentally induced poor nutritional conditions to feeding was studied with 69 eight-month-old female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. During a pre-experimental period, all reindeer were fed a simulated winter diet with 80% lichens Cladina spp. and 20% Vaccinum myrtillus shrubs and Salix spp. leaves (lichen diet ad lib. The reindeer were divided into five groups. A control group (group C was fed the lichen diet ad lib. throughout the experiment. Four groups were fed half of that ration for eight days and were then totally deprived of feed for one day (restriction period. During the following 34 days (feeding period the groups were re-fed the lichen diet (group L, fed pelleted reindeer feed combined with either lichen (group PL or grass silage (group PS, or fed silage with a gradually increasing addition of pellets (group SP. Weekly measurements of blood samples and body weighr showed that the control group remained clinically healthy and had stable blood plasma concentrations of protein, urea, glucose and insulin throughout the experiment, but they lost weight. At slaughter, before and after the restriction period, all animals had lost rumen-free body weight, but the reindeer fed a restricted amount of feed lost more than the control group. Also the plasma metabolites were affected by the restricted feeding, with increased concentrations of urea and decreased concentrations of glucose. Group L responded immediately to the ad lib. feeding with blood metabolite levels rapidly approaching those of group C. The body weight developments were similar in groups L and C. Although the feed rations were increased gradually, diarrhoea occurred in some animals belonging to groups PL and PS within the first week of the feeding period. All reindeer recovered, after antibiotic treatment of the worst affected animals. The PL and PS groups, which had high contents of metabolisable energy and crude protein in their diets, showed

  10. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality...... from animals supplemented with mate extract has not been investigated so far. Addition of extract of mate to a standard maize/soy feed at a level of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5% w/w to the diet of feedlot for cattle resulted in increased levels of inosine monophosphate, creatine and carnosine in the fresh meat....... The content of total conjugated linoleic acid increased in the meat as mate extract concentration was increased in the feed. The tendency to radical formation in meat slurries as quantified by EPR spin-trapping decreased as increasing mate extract addition to feed, especially after storage of the meat...

  11. AUTOMATION OF IN FEED CENTERLESS GRINDING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Piyusha P. Jadhav*, Sachin V. Lomte, Sudhir Surve

    2017-01-01

    In-feed centerless grinding technique offers a major contribution to the industries. This is the alternative in-feed centerless grinding technique using regulating wheel. Mainly centerless grinding is divided in three types, and those are End feed, in-feed and through feed Centerless grinding. This paper mainly deals with low cost automation on in-feed Centerless grinding machine using regulating wheel suitable for multiple in-feed type jobs. It deals with the development of a Centerless grin...

  12. Rumen distension and contraction influence feed preference by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Stott, R

    2009-01-01

    Distension of the rumen limits feed intake by livestock. Ruminal dysfunctions due to bloat, which causes distension by accumulation of excessive gas within the rumen, also reduce feeding. We hypothesized that excessive levels of rumen distension cause feed aversions and that preference increases for feeds eaten in association with recovery from bloat. To test these hypotheses, we determined whether 12 commercial crossbred lambs (average initial BW of 43 +/- 2 kg) could associate ingestion of specific feeds with the consequences of increased intraruminal pressure and its subsidence. Six of the lambs were fitted with rumen cannulas and offered ground alfalfa for 30 min after a rubber balloon was inserted into the rumen of each animal and distended with air to volumes of 1.8, 2.5, or 4.5 L. Subsequently, balloons were deflated and alfalfa was offered again for a second period of 30 min. Feed intake was not affected when the balloon was not distended (P = 0.45 to 0.93), but distension reduced feed intake (P rumen distension (P = 0.17 to P = 0.87). Thus, rumen distension and recovery from distension induced feed aversions and preferences, respectively, which may be critical in learning avoidance of bloat-inducing plants and preferences for plants and supplements that relieve the incidence of bloat.

  13. Motivation of hens to obtain feed during a molt induced by feed withdrawal, wheat middlings, or melengestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J M; Lay, D C; McMunn, K A; Moritz, J S; Wilson, M E

    2007-04-01

    Traditionally, molting was initiated by withdrawing feed. However, public criticism of feed deprivation, based on the perception that it inhumanely increases hunger, has led the poultry industry to ban the practice. Thus far, alternatives have not been demonstrated to ameliorate the increase in hunger that led to the ban on inducing molting by feed deprivation. Incorporating melengestrol acetate (MGA), an orally active progestin, into a balanced layer diet induces molting and increases postmolt egg quality. Hy-Line W-98 hens (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a balanced layer ration (control), a balanced layer ration containing MGA, or a 94% wheat middlings diet (wheat) for 20 d, or were feed deprived for 8 d. Hens were trained to peck a switch to receive a feed reward based on a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule. Motivation of hens to acquire feed was measured as the total number of pecks recorded in 15 min on d 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20. On d 20, abdominal fat pad and digesta-free gizzards were weighed. The number of pecks in the feed-deprived group was greater than controls by d 4 and remained greater at d 8, when these hens were removed from the experiment. Hens in the wheat group that were rewarded with a layer diet pecked more than controls from d 8 to 20. Hens in the MGA group pecked for a reward at the same rate as control hens throughout the experiment. Hens fed the wheat diet had heavier gizzards compared with control and MGA-fed hens. Hens fed MGA had greater abdominal fat pad compared with wheat and control hens. Hens molted using a diet containing MGA have a similar motivation to obtain feed as control hens; therefore, this alternative does not appear to increase hunger. However, hens molted with a wheat middling diet appear to be as motivated to obtain feed as did the feed-deprived hens.

  14. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El din, M D; Farag, H; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab.

  15. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  16. Best-feeding the baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Best-feeding the baby. Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breast- milk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been ...

  17. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  18. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  19. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Mardare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST or a high fat diet (HFD and subjected to regular endurance training (ET or resistance training (RT. After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs, circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p<0.05. An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p<0.05. Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p<0.05 and reduced serum ceramides (p<0.005. While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p<0.001, respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p<0.001, ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  20. Ethical Challenges in Infant Feeding Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Binns

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants have a complex set of nutrient requirements to meet the demands of their high metabolic rate, growth, and immunological and cognitive development. Infant nutrition lays the foundation for health throughout life. While infant feeding research is essential, it must be conducted to the highest ethical standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of developments in infant nutrition for the ethics of infant feeding research and the implications for obtaining informed consent. A search was undertaken of the papers in the medical literature using the PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and CINAHL databases. From a total of 9303 papers identified, the full text of 87 articles that contained discussion of issues in consent in infant feeding trials were obtained and read and after further screening 42 papers were included in the results and discussion. Recent developments in infant nutrition of significance to ethics assessment include the improved survival of low birth weight infants, increasing evidence of the value of breastfeeding and evidence of the lifelong importance of infant feeding and development in the first 1000 days of life in chronic disease epidemiology. Informed consent is a difficult issue, but should always include information on the value of preserving breastfeeding options. Project monitoring should be cognisant of the long term implications of growth rates and early life nutrition.

  1. Market for ethanol feed joint products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Gould, B.

    1979-10-01

    This report presents results of econometric estimations and mathematical simulations of markets for joint feed products of motor ethanol. The major issues considered are the nature of current market price relationships, effects on prices, including feed substitutes prices, and effects of demands for increased use of distillers' grains and gluten meal. The econometric section shows that soybean meal was by far the dominant force in the pricing of the two products. However, neither one could be adequately explained without the inclusion of corn in the estimating equations. Later research shows that this was due to the importance of both feeds for metabolizable energy as well as for protein in livestock diets. Current ration formulations would require some discounting of the value of the protein content of the two feeds. Careful siting of the ethanol facilities, and flexible design of the plants so that a maximum number of products may be extracted from the feedstock, seem necessary. Finally, the analysis indicates that substitution in animal diets of these joint products for the corn or milo used originally requires that additional energy be supplied to the animal by some type of forage crop. This implies that additional land may be required for energy production, for such marginal crops as hay and alfalfa, rather than for row crops.

  2. Feeding Chromonaela odorata during pregnancy to goat dams affects acceptance of this feedstuff by their offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats

  3. Creep feed intake during lactation enhances net absorption in the small intestine after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuller, W.I.; Beers-Schreurs, van H.M.G.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the effect of creep feeding during lactation on net absorption in the small intestine at 4 days after weaning. Intermittent suckling was used to increase creep feed intake during lactation. Creep feed containing chromic oxide was provided. Based on the colour of

  4. Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom F. O’Callaghan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pasture feeding systems—perennial ryegrass (GRS and perennial ryegrass and white clover (CLV—and an indoor total mixed ration (TMR system on the (a rumen microbiome; (b rumen fluid and milk metabolome; and (c to assess the potential to distinguish milk from different feeding systems by their respective metabolomes. Rumen fluid was collected from nine rumen cannulated cows under the different feeding systems in early, mid and late lactation, and raw milk samples were collected from ten non-cannulated cows in mid-lactation from each of the feeding systems. The microbiota present in rumen liquid and solid portions were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while 1H-NMR untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on rumen fluid and raw milk samples. The rumen microbiota composition was not found to be significantly altered by any feeding system in this study, likely as a result of a shortened adaptation period (two weeks’ exposure time. In contrast, feeding system had a significant effect on both the rumen and milk metabolome. Increased concentrations of volatile fatty acids including acetic acid, an important source of energy for the cow, were detected in the rumen of TMR and CLV-fed cows. Pasture feeding resulted in significantly higher concentrations of isoacids in the rumen. The ruminal fluids of both CLV and GRS-fed cows were found to have increased concentrations of p-cresol, a product of microbiome metabolism. CLV feeding resulted in increased rumen concentrations of formate, a substrate compound for methanogenesis. The TMR feeding resulted in significantly higher rumen choline content, which contributes to animal health and milk production, and succinate, a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Milk and rumen-fluids were shown to have varying levels of dimethyl sulfone in each feeding system, which was found to be an important compound for distinguishing between the diets

  5. [Study on feeding behavior patterns of rats on cariogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y

    1989-03-01

    The feeding behavior patterns of Jcl:Wistar rats fed on commercial stock diet and cariogenic diet (Diet #2000) were investigated with the newly developed autorecording system. They were caged separately under a regular light-dark cycle (L:D = 12:12). The results and conclusion were as follows. All rats have a circadian feeding rhythm, and 70-85% of feeding frequency were observed during the dark period. The group on the commercial stock diet showed a dual-peak pattern of feeding at 20:30 and 4:00. On the other hand, the cariogenic diet groups showed a more frequent feeding pattern during the dark period. The feeding frequency increased from 1:00 to 3:00 in the high sucrose diet group and more frequent feeding was observed. From these results, it was suggested that dental caries in the rats was caused by not only the local effect of sucrose in the mouth but also by the changing patterns of feeding behavior with cariogenic diet.

  6. From bioactive substances to research on breast-feeding promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, A L; Guerrero, M L

    2001-01-01

    Despite known health benefits, exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months is uncommon in many countries. In Mexico, most mothers initiate breast-feeding but few breast-feed exclusively. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of home visits by lay peer counselors to increase exclusive breast-feeding among mothers in a periurban area of Mexico. An ethnographic assessment conducted in 1994 that identified key maternal beliefs, practices, and needs was used to guide educational strategies. Lay counselors were recruited from the same community and trained by La Leche League. From March 1995 through September 1996, pregnant women were identified by community census and invited to participate. Women were enrolled into a randomized, controlled study of 3 groups: no intervention (control), 3 visits, and 6 visits during pregnancy and early postpartum. Data collection was performed by a social worker apart from the counselors. Exclusive breast-feeding was defined by WHO criteria. The study enrolled 130 women; 52 were in the 3-visit group, 44 in the 6-visit group, and 34 in the control group. Study groups did not differ in the maternal characteristics or initiation of breast-feeding (96%). At 3 months postpartum, exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 12% of controls vs. 52% in the 3-visit group and 67% in the 6-visit group (P exclusive breast-feeding and a significant reduction in infant illness in an urban community through well-designed maternal support including early intervention and repeated contact.

  7. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles and the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children's eating behavior are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 African-American mother-infant pairs with feeding styles, dietary recalls, and anthropometry collected from 3 to 18 months of infant age, we examined the relationship between feeding styles, infant diet, and weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Longitudinal mixed models indicated that higher pressuring and indulgent feeding style scores were positively associated with greater infant energy intake, reduced odds of breastfeeding, and higher levels of age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids, whereas restrictive feeding styles were associated with lower energy intake, higher odds of breastfeeding, and reduced odds of inappropriate feeding. Pressuring and restriction were also oppositely related to infant size with pressuring associated with lower infant weight-for-age and restriction with higher weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Infant size also predicted maternal feeding styles in subsequent visits indicating that the relationship between size and feeding styles is likely bidirectional. Our results suggest that the degree to which parents are pressuring or restrictive during feeding shapes the early feeding environment and, consequently, may be an important environmental factor in the development of obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  8. Design scheme of automatic feeding equipment of domestic uranium chemical concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jinming; Wang Chao; Peng Jinhui; Zhang Libo

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve problems by artificial feeding mode with low work efficiency, large intensity manual labor and environmental pollution in domestic uranium concentrate purification process, the design scheme of automatic feeding device was set up, including work flow sheet, composition of automatic equipment and operation. By application of automatic feeding equipment, the feeding speed can be greatly increased, labor force can be reduced, and harm to workman health can be decreased. (authors)

  9. FEEDING BROWN MIDRIB FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGE AND CORN GLUTEN FEED TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum contains less lignin , resulting in increased NDF digestibility compared to conventional sorghum . An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BMR forage sorghum silage in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). The objective was to determine the e...

  10. Feeding practices correlated with authoritative parenting style and responsive feeding style scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objective was to identify correlations of authoritative parenting and responsive feeding styles with parental practices and child behaviors previously found to protect children from or increase risk of child obesity. Participants were 144 low-income mothers of 3- to 5-year-old children (71 gir...

  11. Foraging response and acclimation of ambush feeding and feeding-current feeding copepods to toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jiayi; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    reticulatum. We hypothesize (1) that ambush feeders are less affected by toxic algae than feeding-current feeders, (2) that copepods acclimate to the toxic algae, and (3) that phytoplankton cells previously exposed to copepod cues elicit stronger responses. Both copepod species consumed the toxic algae...... to examine the response and temporal acclimation (5 d) of two copepods with different foraging behaviors to toxic dinoflagellates. Feeding-current feeding Temora longicornis and ambush feeding Acartia tonsa were offered three strains of toxic Alexandrium tamarense and a nontoxic control Protoceratium...... at a reduced rate and there was no difference in their net-response, but the mechanisms differed. T. longicornis responded in strain-specific ways by reducing its feeding activity, by rejecting captured algae, or by regurgitating consumed cells. A. tonsa reduced its consumption rate, jump frequency, and jump...

  12. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  13. Chemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of heat-sterilized and radappertized feed mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J.G. van

    1979-01-01

    In an attempt to develop a procedure for wholesomeness testing of irradiated food, which considers the use of irradiation as a physical process, large-scale feeding tests in pigs were carried out. Basic criteria of this procedure are the testing of wholly irradiated diets and the comparison of irradiation with another physical process, viz. heat treatment. The results of the biological evaluation of the protein showed, that protein quality of sow feed was not noticeably affected by either treatment, while protein quality of creep and hog feed was more adversely affected by heat than by irradiation. Heat-sterilized feeds always demonstrated the lowest values for lysine availability. Feed-borne vitamin E appeared very sensitive to irradiation. Losses of vitamins A, B 1 , B 6 and folic acid were in the order of 20% due to irradiation with 5 Mrad. Losses in heat-sterilized feeds were about 40% for vitamins A, B 1 and B 6 . Prior to heating, sow and creep feeds were fortified with vitamins A, B 1 and B 6 , and hog feed with vitamin A. Hogs on heat-sterilized feed showed a 10% increased feed conversion, indicating a less favourable growth than the pigs on untreated or on irradiated feed. The mean body-weight of piglets at 49 days on heat-sterilized feed was approx. 10% lower (significant at p<0.05) than the body-weight of piglets on either untreated or radappertized creep feed. Body-weight gain values of piglets on heat-sterilized creep feed are markedly lower than those of piglets on either untreated or radappertized creep feeds during that part of the lactation period when the young pigs consume considerable quantities of solid feed. Piglets and hogs on heat-sterilized feeds demonstrated an increased sensitivity to stress conditions

  14. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  15. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were subjected to ... Keywords: Broilers, carcass, performance, quantitative feed restriction ...

  16. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  17. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  18. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  19. Cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding for newborn infants unable to fully breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Anndrea; New, Karen; Davies, Mark W

    2016-08-31

    Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for term and preterm infants, and the ideal way for infants to receive breast milk is through suckling at the breast. Unfortunately, this may not always be possible for medical or physiological reasons such as being born sick or preterm and as a result requiring supplemental feeding. Currently, there are various ways in which infants can receive supplemental feeds. Traditionally in neonatal and maternity units, bottles and nasogastric tubes have been used; however, cup feeding is becoming increasingly popular as a means of offering supplemental feeds in an attempt to improve breastfeeding rates. There is no consistency to guide the choice of method for supplemental feeding. To determine the effects of cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding on weight gain and achievement of successful breastfeeding in term and preterm infants who are unable to fully breastfeed. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 31 January 2016), Embase (1980 to 31 January 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 31 January 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing cup feeding to other forms of enteral feeding for the supplementation of term and preterm infants. Data collection and analysis was performed in accordance with the methods of Cochrane Neonatal. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.The review authors independently conducted quality assessments and data extraction for included trials. Outcomes reported from these studies were: weight gain; proportion not breastfeeding at hospital discharge; proportion not feeding at three months of age; proportion not feeding at six

  20. An investigation of Breast Feeding Self Efficacy and its Relationship with exclusive breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rahmatnejad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Child nutrition in different aspects is important in the first years especially the first two years after birth. The most important feature of this period is that the physical and cerebral damage of malnutrition after this period is not compensable. Successful breastfeeding not only depends on psychological and social factors, but also depends on the physiological conditions that can affect the onset of lactation. In addition, other factors are involved in the duration of breastfeeding including: age and maternal education, family income, the first time to decide for breastfeeding, First time feeding, maternal skill and breastfeeding self-efficacy. The aim of this study, was to determine breastfeeding self efficacy and its relationship with exclusive breast-feeding. In this descriptive study, the data collection instrument, was a questionnaire consisted of the demographic characteristics and standard items of breastfeeding self efficacy. The number of participants in this study was 331 persons that selected continuously from the Primiparous women at Shahid Akbarabadi hospital in Tehran. The findings of this study showed promising results in all samples studied, standard deviation and mean score of breastfeeding self-efficacy in exclusive breast-feeding group was 53.64±9.8 and in non exclusive breast-feeding group was 46.11±9.23, which showed that the mothers with exclusive breast-feeding, had higher breastfeeding self-efficacy scores than those fed with the non-exclusive. Therefore according to the reported reduced rate of breast feeding in the recent years, it is necessary to provide appropriate strategies in order to increase breastfeeding self efficacy, especially in primiparous mothers in order to increase breastfeeding rates.

  1. Weather influences feed intake and feed efficiency in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Wall, Eileen

    2017-03-01

    A key goal for livestock science is to ensure that food production meets the needs of an increasing global population. Climate change may heighten this challenge through increases in mean temperatures and in the intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of extreme weather events, such as heat waves. Under high ambient temperatures, livestock are expected to decrease dry matter intake (DMI) to reduce their metabolic heat production. High yielding dairy cows require high DMI to support their levels of milk production, but this may increase susceptibility to heat stress. Here, we tested how feed intake and the rate of converting dry matter to milk (feed efficiency, FE) vary in response to natural fluctuations in weather conditions in a housed experimental herd of lactating Holstein Friesians in the United Kingdom. Cows belonged to 2 lines: those selected for high genetic merit for milk traits (select) and those at the UK average (control). We predicted that (1) feed intake and FE would vary with an index of temperature and humidity (THI), wind speed, and the number of hours of sunshine, and that (2) the effects of (1) would depend on the cows' genetic merit. Animals received a mixed ration, available ad libitum, from automatic feed measurement gates. Using >73,000 daily feed intake and FE records from 328 cows over 8 yr, we found that select cows produced more fat- and protein-corrected milk, and had higher DMI and FE than controls. Cows of both lines decreased DMI and fat- and protein-corrected milk but, importantly, increased FE as THI increased. This suggests that improvements in the efficiency of converting feed to milk may partially offset the costs of reduced milk yield owing to a warmer climate, at least under conditions of mild heat stress. The rate of increase in FE with THI was steeper in select cows than in controls, which raises the possibility that select cows use more effective coping tactics. This is, to our knowledge, the first longitudinal study

  2. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  3. Fed-Batch Feeding Strategies for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    of the differences in the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme. The model is then used to evaluate various feeding strategies to improve the enzymatic biodiesel production. The feeding strategies investigated, gave insight into how the methanol should be fed to potentially mitigate enzyme deactivation...... while improving the biodiesel yield. The best experimental results gave a yield of 703 .76 g FAME L-1 and a reactor productivity of 28.12 g FAME L-1 h-1. In comparison, to reach the same yield, the optimised two step feeding strategy took 6.25 hours less, which equates to an increase the reactor...

  4. Feeding device for rotary retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, T W.S.

    1923-04-25

    A horizontal rotary retort is heated externally with a feeding-worm or the like for distilling coal, oil shale, etc. It is characterized in that the shaft of the feeder moves adjustably lengthwise, so that, under the hopper more or less of the worm comes for action on the feed, so that the hopper is withdrawn through the retort while it projects into the retort and is secured in a position against the rotation.

  5. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  6. A High-Fat Diet Containing Lard Accelerates Prostate Cancer Progression and Reduces Survival Rate in Mice: Possible Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jin Cho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of high-fat diet (HFD containing lard on prostate cancer development and progression and its underlying mechanisms, transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP and TRAMP-C2 allograft models, as well as in vitro culture models, were employed. In TRAMP mice, HFD feeding increased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma and decreased that of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate, which was accompanied by increased expression of proteins associated with proliferation and angiogenesis. HFD feeding also led to increased metastasis and decreased survival rate in TRAMP mice. In the allograft model, HFD increased solid tumor growth, the expression of proteins related to proliferation/angiogenesis, the number of lipid vacuoles in tumor tissues, and levels of several cytokines in serum and adipose tissue. In vitro results revealed that adipose tissue-conditioned media from HFD-fed mice stimulated the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and angiogenesis compared to those from control-diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the increase of adipose tissue-derived soluble factors by HFD feeding plays a role in the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer via endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. These results provide evidence that a HFD containing lard increases prostate cancer development and progression, thereby reducing the survival rate.

  7. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart K. Morgan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP to pets (dogs and cats is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet’s diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. Methods An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. Results There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both ‘in general’ and ‘with respect to nutrition’ than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet’s nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Discussion Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition.

  8. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  9. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  10. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  11. Palatability of two artificial feeds for reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Rognmo

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of 15 reindeer were used to test the palatability of two artificial diets. None of the animals had experienced the diets before. Trials were carried out from April to mid May. Each group of animals was kept in a separate corral (600 sq. meters. Both groups were fed lichens for three days befort trials began. Then they were offered a concentrate feed (RF-80 or «Mill Waste Product» (MWP ad libitum. Both groups ate little or nothing for the first three days of the trial and so lichens were mixed with the two experimental feeds. The mean voluntary food intake of the RF-80-group increased from 0.8 Kg/day/animal to 1.8 Kg/day/animal after three weeks. A mixed feed, RF-80/lichen, was only used the first day for animals in the RF-80 group. Reindeer refused to eat MWP for twelve days despite mixing it with lichens. They were then offered RF-80 ad lib. without a mixture of lichens. The mean voluntary intake of these animals increased from 1.3 Kg RF-80/day/animal on day 13 to 2.3 Kg/day/animal by day 26. Two calves in the MWP-group got diarrhoea after refeeding with RF-80.

  12. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  13. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ''channeling'' which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates

  14. Plant feeding promotes diversification in the Crustacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Alistair G B; Ahyong, Shane T; Lowry, James K; Sotka, Erik E

    2017-08-15

    About half of the world's animal species are arthropods associated with plants, and the ability to consume plant material has been proposed to be an important trait associated with the spectacular diversification of terrestrial insects. We review the phylogenetic distribution of plant feeding in the Crustacea, the other major group of arthropods that commonly consume plants, to estimate how often plant feeding has arisen and to test whether this dietary transition is associated with higher species numbers in extant clades. We present evidence that at least 31 lineages of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial crustaceans (including 64 families and 185 genera) have independently overcome the challenges of consuming plant material. These plant-feeding clades are, on average, 21-fold more speciose than their sister taxa, indicating that a shift in diet is associated with increased net rates of diversification. In contrast to herbivorous insects, most crustaceans have very broad diets, and the increased richness of taxa that include plants in their diet likely results from access to a novel resource base rather than host-associated divergence.

  15. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of polydopamine- and polydopamine-. graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-coated feed spacers and membranes, copper-coated feed spacers, and commercially-available biostatic feed spacers on biofouling has been studied in membrane fouling simulators. Feed spacers and membranes applied in practical membrane filtration systems were used; biofouling development was monitored by feed channel pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG are hydrophilic surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG coatings on feed spacers and membranes, copper coatings on feed spacers, and a commercial biostatic feed spacer did not have a significant impact on feed channel pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation as measured by ATP and TOC content. The studied spacer and membrane modifications were not effective for biofouling control; it is doubtful that feed spacer and membrane modification, in general, may be effective for biofouling control regardless of the type of applied coating. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Feed water control device in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent substantial fluctuations of the water level in a nuclear reactor and always keep a constant standard level under any operation condition. Constitution: When the causes for fluctuating the reactor water level is resulted, a certain amount of correction signal is added to a level deviation signal for the difference between the reactor standard level and the actual reactor water level to control the flow rate of the feed water pump depending on the addition signal. If reactor scram should occur, for instance, a level correction signal changing stepwise depending on a scram signal is outputted and added to the level deviation signal. As the result, the flow rate of feed water sent into the reactor just after the scram is increased, whereby the lowering in the reactor water level upon scram can be decreased as compared with the case where no such level compensation signal is inputted. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Feed- and feed additives-related aspects of gut health and development in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluske, John R

    2013-01-07

    The development of new/different management and feeding strategies to stimulate gut development and health in newly-weaned pigs, in order to improve growth performance while minimizing the use of antimicrobial compounds such as antibiotic growth promotants (AGP) and heavy mineral compounds, is essential for the long-term sustainability of the pig industry. Factors including the sub-optimal intake of nutrients and energy, inappropriate microbiota biomass and (or) balance, immature and compromised immune function, and psychosomatic factors caused by weaning can compromise both the efficiency of digestion and absorption and intestinal barrier function through mucosal damage and alteration of tight junction integrity. As a consequence, pigs at weaning are highly susceptible to pathogenic enteric conditions such as post-weaning diarrhea that may be caused by serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Many dietary components, e.g., protein, fiber, feed additives and minerals, are known to influence microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract that in turn can impact upon pig growth and health, although the relationships between these are sometimes not necessarily apparent or obvious. In a world climate of increased scrutiny over the use of antibiotics per se in pig production, certain feed additives are seen as alternatives/replacements to antibiotics, and have evolved in some cases to have important roles in everyday commercial pig nutrition. Nevertheless and in general, there remains inconsistency and variability in the efficacy of some feed additives and in cases of severe disease outbreaks, for example, therapeutic antibiotics and/or heavy minerals such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are generally relied upon. If feed ingredients and (or) feed additives are to be used with greater regularity and reliability, then it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms whereby antibiotics and minerals such as ZnO influence animal physiology, in conjunction with the use of

  18. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  19. FEEDING PRACTICES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ANEMIA IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish Kumar; Ankitha; Udayamaliny

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children...

  20. Nutritional manipulation of feeding behaviour of birds | Ubah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result from the study indicates that the feeding behaviour of laying hen can be manipulated nutritionally. Bulky diets (10.6 MJ/kg) significantly (P<0.05) increased the eating time of laying hens by 15% compared with normal energy content (11.8 MJ/kg) and this led to consumption of more feed (average 2355g) than those of ...

  1. Review: Feed demand landscape and implications of food-not feed strategy for food security and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S

    2017-12-04

    The food-feed competition is one of the complex challenges, and so are the ongoing climate change, land degradation and water shortage for realizing sustainable food production systems. By 2050 the global demand for animal products is projected to increase by 60% to 70%, and developing countries will have a lion's share in this increase. Currently, ~800 million tonnes of cereals (one-third of total cereal production) are used in animal feed and by 2050 it is projected to be over 1.1 billion tonnes. Most of the increase in feed demand will be in developing countries, which already face many food security challenges. Additional feed required for the projected increased demand of animal products, if met through food grains, will further exacerbate the food insecurity in these countries. Furthermore, globally, the production, processing and transport of feed account for 45% of the greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. This paper presents approaches for addressing these challenges in quest for making livestock sector more sustainable. The use of novel human-inedible feed resources such as insect meals, leaf meals, protein isolates, single cell protein produced using waste streams, protein hydrolysates, spineless cactus, algae, co-products of the biofuel industry, food wastes among others, has enormous prospects. Efficient use of grasslands also offers possibilities for increasing carbon sequestration, land reclamation and livestock productivity. Opportunities also exist for decreasing feed wastages by simple and well proven practices such as use of appropriate troughs, increase in efficiency of harvesting crop residues and their conversion to complete feeds especially in the form of densified feed blocks or pellets, feeding as per the nutrient requirements, among others. Available evidence have been presented to substantiate arguments that: (a) for successful and sustained adoption of a feed technology, participation of the private sector and a sound

  2. The crisis in infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A

    1978-01-01

    This article maintains that the dramatic decline in breast-feeding in low-income countries is extracting a substantial cost, both in infant health and in outright economic loss. From the 6th to 12th month of life, breast-feeding can supply up to 3/4 of a child's protein needs. The breast-fed child has received about 375 liters of breast milk by age 2. The nutritional equivalent in cow's milk would cost about $65; in packaged dried milk formulas, close to $140. Yet in the few developing countries where surveys of breast-feeding have been conducted over the years, the common pattern is one of significant decline, with greatest decline in urban areas. As communication techniques become more effective in developing countries, urban life styles will have increasing influence on rural societies. Estimates show that losses in breast milk can produce losses in the billions of dollars to developing countries. In terms of national development, lactation has another major economic asset: its link to family planning as a major form of contraception. One investigation reports that the incidence of pregnancy in the 1st 9 months after childbirth of nonnursing mothers was twice that of mothers who breast-fed, including those who simultaneously used other foods. Just as breast milk can be the major source of nutrition, the failure to provide breast milk is a major cause of infant malnutrition and mortality. Poor parents often dilute milk formulas to extend their supply; many cannot read labels and instructions; and hygienic needs often cannot be met by the parents. Breast-fed babies are more resistant to a host of diseases. The costs and obstacles of designing campaigns to encourage breast-feeding in developing countries may be less imposing than those of alternate nutrition intervention programs designed to achieve the same ends. Such a campaign calls for: 1) attracting the public's attention to the benefits of breast-feeding and the dangers of foregoing it through the media

  3. Effect of cup feeding and bottle feeding on breastfeeding in late preterm infants: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gonca; Caylan, Nilgun; Karacan, Can Demir; Bodur, İlknur; Gokcay, Gulbin

    2014-05-01

    Cup feeding has been used as an alternative feeding method for preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bottle and cup feeding on exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months post-discharge in late preterm infants. Included in the study were preterm infants of 32 to 35 weeks' gestation fed only by intermittent gastric tube at the time of recruitment; 522 infants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the cup-fed group (n = 254) and bottle-fed group (n = 268). Main outcomes were prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and length of hospital stay. Infants randomized to cup versus bottle feeding were more likely to be exclusively breastfed at discharge home (relative risk [RR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.83), 3 months after discharge (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42-1.89), and 6 months after discharge (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.63). There was no significant difference between groups for length of hospital stay. The mean hospital stay was 25.96 ± 2.20 days in the bottle-fed group and 25.68 ± 2.22 days in the cup-fed group. There was no significant difference between groups for time spent feeding, feeding problems, or weight gain in hospital. Cup feeding significantly increased the likelihood of late preterm infants being exclusively breastfed at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and cup feeding did not increase the length of hospital stay. Overall, we recommend cup feeding as a transitional method prior to breastfeeding for late preterm infants during hospitalization.

  4. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg -1 , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Radicidation and radappertization of animal feeds in Israel, 1968-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, M.

    1979-01-01

    Contamination of animal feed and animal products with salmonellae and other enteric microorganisms has considerably increased in recent years. This has resulted in commensurate increases in the incidence of salmonellosis and other enteric diseases in both animals and humans. The development of radappertization for laboratory animal feeds and of radicidation for farm animal feeds over the last ten years in Israel is reviewed. The products considered were radappertized feeds for SPF rodent colonies and for commercial SPF poultry flocks, and radicidized feed for breeder and broiler flocks. In the latter case microbiological, biological, technological and economic aspects are considered. The petition and clearance for radicidized poultry feed are briefly discussed. The potential use of radicidation in the preparation of animal feeds from organic wastes, i.e. putrescibles in household garbage and sewage sludge, is outlined, and the factors involved are evaluated. (author)

  6. Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values <100% indicate sorting against. Feed presentation did not affect dry matter intake or growth. Prior to weaning, all calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the novel TMR, sorting against long particles (86.5%) and for short (101.8%) and fine (101.2%) particles. These results indicate that initially providing dairy calves with solid feeds as separate components, compared with as a mixed ration, reduces the extent of

  7. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwagen, Margaret J R; Stewart, Michael S; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Janssen, Rachel C; Friedman, Jacob E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (Pmaternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, Pmaternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (Pmaternal inflammation may be a promising target for preventing adverse fetal metabolic outcomes in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

  8. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  9. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Hauschild, L; Kipper, M; Pires, P G S; Pomar, C

    2017-12-04

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region. Three feeding programs were applied for growing-finishing pigs: conventional phase feeding by group (CON); precision daily feeding by group (PFG) (whole herd fed the same daily adjusted diet); and precision daily feeding by individual (PFI) (diets adjusted daily to match individual nutrient requirements). Raising pigs (1 t pig BW at farm gate) in South Brazil under the CON feeding program using grain cultivated in the same region led to emissions of 1840 kg of CO2-eq, 13.1 kg of PO4-eq and 32.2 kg of SO2-eq. Simulations using grain from the Central-West region showed a greater climate change impact. Compared with the previous scenario, a 17% increase in climate change impact was found when simulating with soybeans produced in Central-West Brazil, whereas a 28% increase was observed when simulating with corn and soybeans from Central-West Brazil. Compared with the CON feeding program, the PFG and PFI programs reduced the potential environmental impact. Applying the PFG program mitigated the potential climate change impact and eutrophication by up to 4%, and acidification impact by up to 3% compared with the CON program. Making a further adjustment by feeding pigs according to their individual nutrient requirements mitigated the potential climate change impact by up to 6% and the potential eutrophication and acidification impact

  11. Hydroponic Feed With Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William M.; Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Placing nutrient solution under suction increases growth. Foam plug seals growing stem of plant, making it possible to maintain suction in nutrient liquid around roots. Jar wrapped in black tape to keep out light. Potential use in terrestrial applications in arid climates or in labor-intensive agricultural situations.

  12. Molecular annotation of integrative feeding neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristian A; Stanley, Sarah A; Wysocki, Robert W; Havranova, Jana; Ahrens-Nicklas, Rebecca; Onyimba, Frances; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2011-02-02

    The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control feeding is unknown. We injected pseudorabies virus, a retrograde tracer, into masseter muscle, salivary gland, and tongue of BAC-transgenic mice expressing GFP in specific neural populations and identified several CNS regions that project multisynaptically to the periphery. MCH and orexin neurons were identified in the lateral hypothalamus, and Nurr1 and Cnr1 in the amygdala and insular/rhinal cortices. Cholera toxin β tracing showed that insular Nurr1(+) and Cnr1(+) neurons project to the amygdala or lateral hypothalamus, respectively. Finally, we show that cortical Cnr1(+) neurons show increased Cnr1 mRNA and c-Fos expression after fasting, consistent with a possible role for Cnr1(+) neurons in feeding. Overall, these studies define a general approach for identifying specific molecular markers for neurons in complex neural circuits. These markers now provide a means for functional studies of specific neuronal populations in feeding or other complex behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuron-specific deletion of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ in mice leads to increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E Kocalis

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS lipid accumulation, inflammation and resistance to adipo-regulatory hormones, such as insulin and leptin, are implicated in the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity (DIO. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR α, δ, γ are nuclear transcription factors that act as environmental fatty acid sensors and regulate genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation in response to dietary and endogenous fatty acid ligands. All three PPAR isoforms are expressed in the CNS at different levels. Recent evidence suggests that activation of CNS PPARα and/or PPARγ may contribute to weight gain and obesity. PPARδ is the most abundant isoform in the CNS and is enriched in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain involved in energy homeostasis regulation. Because in peripheral tissues, expression of PPARδ increases lipid oxidative genes and opposes inflammation, we hypothesized that CNS PPARδ protects against the development of DIO. Indeed, genetic neuronal deletion using Nes-Cre loxP technology led to elevated fat mass and decreased lean mass on low-fat diet (LFD, accompanied by leptin resistance and hypothalamic inflammation. Impaired regulation of neuropeptide expression, as well as uncoupling protein 2, and abnormal responses to a metabolic challenge, such as fasting, also occur in the absence of neuronal PPARδ. Consistent with our hypothesis, KO mice gain significantly more fat mass on a high-fat diet (HFD, yet are surprisingly resistant to diet-induced elevations in CNS inflammation and lipid accumulation. We detected evidence of upregulation of PPARγ and target genes of both PPARα and PPARγ, as well as genes of fatty acid oxidation. Thus, our data reveal a previously underappreciated role for neuronal PPARδ in the regulation of body composition, feeding responses, and in the regulation of hypothalamic gene expression.

  14. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  15. [A new contraceptive method: breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1993-08-01

    Even though women have known for centuries that breast feeding has a contraceptive effect, family planning agents have only recently promoted it. Family planning specialists at a meeting in Bellagio, Italy, on breast feeding developed directives referred to as the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM). Adherence to these directives assure effective protection against pregnancy until resumption of menstruation, expansion of infant feeding to foods other than breast milk, or until 6 months postpartum. Nipple stimulation during suckling is sufficient to suppress ovulation. Frequent suckling or more intense suckling maintains the contraceptive effect, so the directives insist that mothers exclusively or almost exclusively breast feed their infants. LAM provides 98% effective protection against pregnancy for 6 months if women observe it as directed. After 6 months, they should use another family planning method. Scientists are trying to see whether they can make the directives more simple. They will discuss this possibility at their next international meeting in 1993 or 1994. Research indicates that the most crucial rule is amenorrhea and use of this rule will make LAM more easy to learn and use, thereby increasing its use. It is difficult to motivate hospital and family planning clinic staff to promote LAM. Information and education are needed to support LAM. for example, a project in Honduras is using peer counseling to promote LAM. Family Health International is following 1000 women for 1 year postpartum in Pakistan and the Philippines. This study's 6-month LAM efficacy rate was around 95%. Little research has looked at the cost effectiveness of LAM. Optimally, LAM is a temporary contraceptive method which must be followed immediately by another contraceptive method. Indeed, LAM counseling should often pregnancy. LAM supporters do not intend for LAM to be a substitute for family planning, but want LAM to be another method in the contraceptive method mix.

  16. Both oophorectomy and obesity impaired solely hippocampal-dependent memory via increased hippocampal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantor, Duangkamol; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Minta, Wanitchaya; Sutham, Wissuta; Palee, Siripong; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Jaiwongkum, Thidarat; Sriwichaiin, Sirawit; Krintratun, Warunsorn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2018-04-17

    Our previous study demonstrated that obesity aggravated peripheral insulin resistance and brain dysfunction in the ovariectomized condition. Conversely, the effect of obesity followed by oophorectomy on brain oxidative stress, brain apoptosis, synaptic function and cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory, has not been investigated. Our hypothesis was that oophorectomy aggravated metabolic impairment, brain dysfunction and cognitive impairment in obese rats. Thirty-two female rats were fed with either a normal diet (ND, n = 16) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n = 16) for a total of 20 weeks. At week 13, rats in each group were subdivided into sham and ovariectomized subgroups (n = 8/subgroup). At week 20, all rats were tested for hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory by using Morris water maze test (MWM) and Novel objective recognition (NOR) tests, respectively. We found that the obese-insulin resistant condition occurred in sham-HFD-fed rats (HFS), ovariectomized-ND-fed rats (NDO), and ovariectomized-HFD-fed rats (HFO). Increased hippocampal oxidative stress level, increased hippocampal apoptosis, increased hippocampal synaptic dysfunction, decreased hippocampal estrogen level and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory were observed in HFS, NDO, and HFO rats. However, the hippocampal-independent memory, cortical estrogen levels, cortical ROS production, and cortical apoptosis showed no significant difference between groups. These findings suggested that oophorectomy and obesity exclusively impaired hippocampal-dependent memory, possibly via increased hippocampal dysfunction. Nonetheless, oophorectomy did not aggravate these deleterious effects under conditions of obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadudvari, I.

    1979-01-01

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  18. Psychological factors in breast feeding versus bottle feeding in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B

    1982-06-01

    The increasing use of bottle feeding rather than traditional breastfeeding among mothers in developing countries is causing great concern. The feeding bottle is a powerful symbol of westernization, and it can be very difficult for mothers caught in the transitional period between traditional culture and western culture to understand that the feeding bottle can be, under improper hygienic conditions, dangerous to the health of the baby. The importance of breastfeeding in developing countries lies not only in its nutritional value, but in its effect on fertility, since, in many societies, among them the Yoruba of Nigeria, women used to avoid intercourse during breastfeeding. These traditional customs are breaking down, especially among urban and more educated women, or among those holding jobs; a study conducted in Nigeria reports that more education and modern occupations are dramatically changing feeding patterns; in 1976 80% of moderately educated women, i.e. above primary school level, had stopped breastfeeding by the time their children were 1 year old, compared to only 18% of uneducated women. Moreover, many mothers believe that artificial formula is better than breast milk for babies, and view it as medicine, or as being good for children's health. It seems that a reversal to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding will be impossible in most developing countries.

  19. Breast feeding: is it vital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasir, F A

    1990-12-01

    Human milk is the natural food of infants. It is a naturally balanced diet which meets the needs of the newborn. No artificial food can compare with human milk's natural, nutritional, and anti-infective properties. Various agencies have therefore strongly advocated every infant's right to be breast fed. For example, the International Confederation of Midwives at their 1984 meeting recommended that breast feeding be undertaken for at least 6 months especially in areas of the world where the incidence of infant mortality, morbidity, and malnutrition is high. The majority of women should be able to breast feed even if malnourished, and providing food for a lactating woman is less expensive than providing artificial formula for her baby. In some Western countries, breasts are seen more as sex symbols than sources of nourishment for infants. Women in developing countries should instead retain their tradition of breast feeding in the best interest of both their children and society.

  20. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  1. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  2. [Significance of extruded feeds for trout nutrition and water protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W

    1993-01-01

    Extruded feeds exhibit an improved starch digestibility and are more firmly bound due to the almost complete gelatinization of the starch. This results in fewer fines and longer water stability than pelleted feeds. Extruded pellets also have the advantage that they can soak up more oil than a conventional pellet. It is therefore possible to increase the maximum oil content to more than 20%. On the other hand extruding feeds is more expensive than steam pelleting. Gelatinized starch is a useful energy source in trout diets helping to reduce feed conversion ratios. Proportions up to 35-40% in the diet are tolerable. Using high dietary levels of both gelatinized starch and oil the non-protein energy of feed may be increased and thus a protein-sparing effect results. High-energy diets enable to reduce excretion of faeces and of nitrogen via gills. In addition a decrease of phosphorus level in feeds and thus of phosphorus excretion by fish is possible. Extruded high-energy diets therefore make a contribution to improve water quality.

  3. Increased 4E-BP1 Expression Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yin Tsai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor driving the global type II diabetes pandemic. However, the molecular factors linking obesity to disease remain to be elucidated. Gender differences are apparent in humans and are also observed in murine models. Here, we link these differences to expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, which, upon HFD feeding, becomes significantly reduced in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of male but not female mice. Strikingly, restoring 4E-BP1 expression in male mice protects them against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Male 4E-BP1 transgenic mice also exhibit reduced white adipose tissue accumulation accompanied by decreased circulating levels of leptin and triglycerides. Importantly, transgenic 4E-BP1 male mice are also protected from aging-induced obesity and metabolic decline on a normal diet. These results demonstrate that 4E-BP1 is a gender-specific suppressor of obesity that regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism.

  4. Impact of biofilm accumulation on transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop: Effects of crossflow velocity, feed spacer and biodegradable nutrient

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm formation causes performance loss in spiral-wound membrane systems. In this study a microfiltration membrane was used in experiments to simulate fouling in spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules without the influence of concentration polarization. The resistance of a microfiltration membrane is much lower than the intrinsic biofilm resistance, enabling the detection of biofilm accumulation in an early stage. The impact of biofilm accumulation on the transmembrane (biofilm) resistance and feed channel pressure drop as a function of the crossflow velocity (0.05 and 0.20ms-1) and feed spacer presence was studied in transparent membrane biofouling monitors operated at a permeate flux of 20Lm-2h-1. As biodegradable nutrient, acetate was dosed to the feed water (1.0 and 0.25mgL-1 carbon) to enhance biofilm accumulation in the monitors. The studies showed that biofilm formation caused an increased transmembrane resistance and feed channel pressure drop. The effect was strongest at the highest crossflow velocity (0.2ms-1) and in the presence of a feed spacer. Simulating conditions as currently applied in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis installations (crossflow velocity 0.2ms-1 and standard feed spacer) showed that the impact of biofilm formation on performance, in terms of transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop, was strong. This emphasized the importance of hydrodynamics and feed spacer design. Biomass accumulation was related to the nutrient load (nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity). Reducing the nutrient concentration of the feed water enabled the application of higher crossflow velocities. Pretreatment to remove biodegradable nutrient and removal of biomass from the membrane elements played an important part to prevent or restrict biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Feeding habits and comparative feeding rates of three southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.

  6. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati......We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey...... cells have short intense leakage burst, only a very small fraction of prey cells would be available to the copepod at any instance in time and, thus would be inefficient at low prey concentration. Finally, we report a few new observations of prey capture in two species of copepods, Temora longicornis...... and Centropages hamatus, offered a 45-μm sized dinoflagellate at very low concentration. The observed short prey detection distances, up to a few prey cell radii, are consistent with mechanoreception and we argue briefly that near-field mechanoreception is the most likely and common prey perception mechanism...

  7. The influence of supplementary feeding to ewes and creep feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARIN KOEP

    2015-03-24

    Mar 24, 2015 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African. Journal of Animal Science. .... mix (lick) supplied to producing SA. Mutton Merino ewes and creep feed for suckling lambs grazing wheat stubble during the dry summer period.

  8. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossel, D. A.A. [Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research TNO, Zeist (Netherlands); San Marcos University, Lima (Peru)

    1967-11-15

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80 Degree-Sign C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with {sup 60}Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  9. Feeding the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Sørensen, Marten; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The growing demand for food poses major challenges to humankind. We have to safeguard both biodiversity and arable land for future agricultural food production, and we need to protect genetic diversity to safeguard ecosystem resilience. We must produce more food with less input, while deploying e...... be much better spent in other research areas of plant science, e.g., nutrition, policy research, governance, and solutions close to local market conditions if the goal is to provide sufficient food for the world’s growing population in a sustainable way...... every effort to minimize risk. Agricultural sustainability is no longer optional but mandatory. There is still an on-going debate among researchers and in the media on the best strategy to keep pace with global population growth and increasing food demand. One strategy favors the use of genetically...

  10. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  11. Feeding broiler breeder males. 4. Deficient feed allocation reduces fertility and broiler progeny body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Leksrisompong, N; Brannan, K E; Brake, J

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of male broiler breeder feed intake on broiler progeny performance. In experiment 1, a low cumulative nutrition program supplied 29,580 kcal of ME and 1,470 g of CP, whereas a high cumulative nutrition program supplied 33,500 kcal of ME and 1,730 g of CP to photostimulation at 21 wk of age. Two diets (HiDiet and LoDiet) were formulated, and a single feeding program was used to achieve the selected nutrient intakes. The HiDiet group of males in experiment 1 achieved greater BW and exhibited lower fertility when fed as the LoDiet males from the onset of egg production. The HiDiet breeder males subsequently produced male broilers from eggs laid at 29 wk of age that exhibited lower BW at 42 d. This was due to the heaviest 50% of the breeder males in this treatment not gaining BW consistently due to less-than-adequate ME intake relative to their greater BW requirements. Two feeding programs during the production period (constant or increasing) were compared in experiment 2. Broilers were hatched from eggs laid at 32 and 48 wk of age to evaluate the vertical effect of male treatments on progeny performance. No difference in fertility or broiler performance was found at 32 wk. However, the constant feeding program produced lower fertility from 36 to 55 wk of age, and this resulted in a lower male and female broiler progeny BW at 42 d of age from eggs collected at 48 wk of age. Adequate breeder male feed allocation during the production period improved fertility and favorably affected broiler progeny performance in both experiments. However, broiler progeny effects were observed only when there were differences in fertility, which suggests that the males with the greatest genetic potential were not mating at these times.

  12. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  13. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  14. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  15. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  16. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  17. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in GPRC6A receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Madsen, Andreas N

    2013-01-01

    locomotor activity. Moreover, diet-induced obese Gprc6a KO mice had increased circulating insulin and leptin levels relative to WT animals, thereby demonstrating that endocrine abnormalities associate with the reported disturbances in energy balance. The phenotype was further accompanied by disruptions...... complications is still elusive. In the present study, we investigated the impact of GPRC6A deficiency in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male Gprc6a knockout (KO) mice and WT littermates were subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks and exposed to comprehensive metabolic phenotyping...

  18. [Feeding and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zaplana, Isabel; Maestre González, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Aging is characterized by an increase in relative population of 65 years and older, and can say that, in our country, it is a phenomenon demographic, political, social and health. Several studies have shown that the nutritional status of the general population and the elderly, in particular, is a valid indicator to predict longevity and quality of life of this group of people. The World Health Organization (who) pointed out that the elderly population is a group nutritionally very vulnerable as a result of anatomical and physiological changes associated with aging. Between 35-40 of the elderly has some kind of altered nutrition or malnutrition: protein or protein-energy malnutrition, selective deficiency of vitamins and minerals, inadequate water intake, obesity, etc. The best way to promote the quality of life and prevent disease is a proper diet, also called healthy eating, adapted to the special circumstances which older persons may present without forgetting gastronomy is not incompatible with health. In this article, some tips are also available for preparing and cooking food, as well as culinary strategies to introduce them in the daily menu.

  19. Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; De La Rocha, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of ......Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles...

  20. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  1. Effect of chronic garlic feeding on some haematological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    200mg/kg) daily for thirty days. Garlic feeding for 30 days significantly (P<0.05) increased the red cell count, haemoglobin concentration and the PCV when compared with the control. Also garlic fed rat showed a significant increase in total white ...

  2. Technological foundations of processing tomato pomace in feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yegorov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Search for new types of alternative raw material for the efficient development of poultry industry and problem of waste disposal of canning industry made it necessary to develop a method of processing tomato pomace in feed additives. Materials and methods. Sampling, preparation and testing were carried out by general and specific organ oleptic and physical-technological methods of assessment and analysis of the properties of raw materials and finished products. Results. Incorporation of tomato pomace in the feed additive reduces the cost of raw materials and expenses associated with moistening of the mixture before extrusion and incorporation of chalk feed will solve the problem of calcium imbalance of laying hens. It was found that extrusion process has improved the physical properties of feed additive and showed the possibility of its use as a feed component: moisture content decreased by 34.5 %, the angle of repose increased by 11.4 %, flowability decreased by 39.7 % and bulk density decreased by 32.3 %. Conclusions. The resulting feed additive will solve the problem of diversification of raw materials, waste, calcium imbalance of laying hens and reduce expenses on compound animal feedstuff production.

  3. Determining the safety of enzymes used in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariza, Michael W; Cook, Mark

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for evaluating the safety of enzyme preparations used in animal feed. Feed enzymes are typically added to animal feed to increase nutrient bioavailability by acting on feed components prior to or after consumption, i.e., within the gastrointestinal tract. In contrast, food processing enzymes are generally used during processing and then inactivated or removed prior to consumption. The enzymes used in both applications are almost always impure mixtures of active enzyme and other metabolites from the production strain, hence similar safety evaluation procedures for both are warranted. We propose that the primary consideration should be the safety of the production strain and that the decision tree mechanism developed previously for food processing enzymes (Pariza and Johnson, 2001) is appropriate for determining the safety of feed enzymes. Thoroughly characterized non-pathogenic, non-toxigenic microbial strains with a history of safe use in enzyme manufacture are also logical candidates for generating safe strain lineages, from which additional strains may be derived via genetic modification by traditional and non-traditional strategies. For new feed enzyme products derived from a safe strain lineage, it is important to ensure a sufficiently high safety margin for the intended use, and that the product complies with appropriate specifications for chemical and microbial contamination. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of supplementary feeding on reproductive success of white storks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Hilgartner

    Full Text Available European white stork (Ciconia ciconia populations have been object to several conservation measures such as reintroduction programs, habitat improvement or supplementary feeding in the last decades. Although recent white stork censuses revealed an upward trend of most of the western populations, evaluations of the relative importance of certain conservation measures are still scarce or even lacking. In our study we analyzed the effect of supplementary feeding on the reproductive success of white storks in conjunction with other factors such as weather or nest site characteristics. We present data of 569 breeding events at 80 different nest sites located in variable distances to an artificial feeding site at Affenberg Salem (south-western Germany collected from 1990-2012. A multilevel Poisson regression revealed that in our study population (1 reproductive success was negatively affected by monthly precipitation in April, May and June, (2 pairs breeding on power poles had a lower reproductive success than pairs breeding on platforms or trees and (3 reproductive success was significantly higher in pairs breeding in close distance to the feeding site. The number of fledglings per nest decreased by 8% per kilometer distance to the feeding site. Our data suggest that supplementary feeding increases fledgling populations which may be a tool to attenuate population losses caused by factors such as habitat deterioration or unfavorable conditions in wintering habitats.

  5. [Selective feeding in fish: Effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumyan, A O; Marusov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural olfactory signals (the food odor, the alarm pheromone) on choice and consumption of food items different in color and taste, and the manifestation of foraging behavior were examined in fish (koi Cyprinus carpio, roach Rutilus rutilus). The agar-agar pellets of red and green color having one of the amino acids (glycine, L-proline, L-alanine; all in concentration of 0.1 M) were simultaneously offered to single fishes in pure water, and in water extract of Chironomidae larvae or in water extract of fish skin. It was found out that odors used have different effects on fish foraging activity and on pellet selection for both pellet choice and consumption. On background of food odor, fish grasped pellets more often than in pure water. The equal choice of red and green pellets in pure water shifted to the preference of red ones in the presence of food odor. Despite the increase in the absolute number of pellets grasped, the relative consumption reduced and was replaced by selective consumption of pellets with glycine regardless of their color. Increasing demand for the food quality, due to the increased feeding motivation in response to food odor, is an important adaptation enhancing selection and consumption of food with more appropriate sensory qualities for fish. Defensive motivation caused by alarm pheromone suppressed predisposition. of fish to feed. Fish grasped pellets several times less often than in pure water and refused most of them. Any changes in the color or taste preferences were absent. Feeding behavior of fish of both species was characterized by repeated intraoral pellet testing, but in koi handling was less typical than in roach. In both species, handling activity was higher in those cases when the pellet was finally rejected. This activity was enhanced also on the background of food odor.

  6. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  7. Supplemental feeding of captive neonatal koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eri; Shindo, Izumi; Miyakawa, Etsuko; Kido, Nobuhide

    2017-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated. The amount of formula fed was determined according to the product instructions, and offspring weight was monitored. Slower than normal growth was not initially noticed in the first offspring. This caused delayed commencement of supplemental feeding. An attempt was made to counteract this by providing more formula for a longer period; however, this meant No. 1 was unable to eat enough eucalyptus when weaning. Supplemental feeding was started earlier for the second offspring than for the first, and was terminated at weaning; this juvenile showed a healthy body weight increase. Furthermore, it was able to eat eucalyptus leaves at an earlier stage than No. 1. Although No. 1 showed delayed growth, both koalas matured and are still living. This study showed that supplemental feeding is useful for koalas, if the mother will accept human intervention. The key factors for successful supplemental feeding of koalas identified by comparing the two feeding systems observed in this study are that: (1) it should be initiated as soon as insufficient growth is identified; and (2) it should be terminated before weaning age. Zoo Biol. 36:62-65, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent [Bucyrus, KS; Yerganian, Simon Scott [Lee's Summit, MO

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  9. Promoção da amamentação em localidade urbana da região sul do Brasil: estudo de intervenção randomizado A randomized intervention trial to increase breast-feeding prevalence in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Barros

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado em Pelotas, RS, Brasil, estudo de intervenção randomizado, para a promoção do aleitamento materno. Grupo de 450 mães e lactentes foram visitados em casa aos 5, 10 e 20 dias após o nascimento, e comparados com um grupo-controle do mesmo número. Noventa e dois por cento das famílias no grupo de intervenção receberam as três visitas planejadas. A avaliação do padrão de aleitamento materno e causas de desmame aconteceu seis meses depois do nascimento para ambos os grupos. Noventa e quatro por cento do grupo de intervenção e noventa e dois por cento do grupo-controle foram encontrados na visita de avaliação. A intervenção aumentou a duração do aleitamento (mediana de 120 dias no grupo de intervenção, contra 105 dias no grupo-controle; p=0,03 e retardou a introdução do leite artificial (mediana de idade de 90 dias no grupo de intervenção e 60 dias no grupo-controle; p=0,01. As causas de desmame foram classificadas como subjacentes, intermediárias, e imediatas. A causa subjacente mais comum foi "o bebê chora muito", sugerindo que as mães devem ser instruídas a respeito dos padrões normais de comportamento do lactente nas primeiras semanas de vida, em particular da necessidade que a criança tem de chorar e o fato de que isto, não necessariamente, significa fome.A randomized intervention trial to promote breast-feeding was carried out in southern Brazil. A group of 450 mothers and babies was visited at home 5, 10 and 20 days after birth and compared to a non-visited control group of the same size. Ninety-two per cent of the families visited received the three home visits planned. The evaluation of breast-feeding patterns and reasons for weaning took place 6 months after birth for both groups. Ninety-four per cent of the group visited and 92% of the non-visited controls group were traced on the occasion of the assessment. The intervention increased the duration of breastfeeding (median duration of 120 days

  10. Feeding of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC to growing sheep: 2. Growth rate and feed efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Lubis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of yeast and or filamentous fungi as feed additive to ruminants has been of interest since the late 1980’s. Two fungi species have been commercially produced in the United States, (1 Yea-Sacc containing living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (2 Amaferm bearing Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract. It has been demonstrated and proven that the cultures can enhance rumen development and function in young ruminants. This paper concerns the use of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC as feed additive for young-growing male ‘Garut’ sheep. The A. oryzae was cultured in a media made of mineral-enriched ‘onggok’ flour, a material of tapioca processing waste. The AOFC was prepared gradually by incubating the fungus at room temperature (26 – 300C for 5 days, dried at 400C and ground. The AOFC was added to a commercial concentrate (GT-03 at 0, 5 and 10% (w/w levels, as treatment C0 (control, C1, and C2, respectively. Fifteen growing ‘Garut’ sheep were used and the concentrate feed treatments were randomly allotted based on a randomized block design. Drinking water was available at all time. The amount of feed offered (chopped King grass and concentrates and their refusals were weighed daily and live-weight of sheep was measured once a week in the morning. Daily feces was collected and weighed in the last 10 days of the 14-week experimental period. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, total fiber (NDF, and ash. AOFC supplementation resulted in higher weight gains (P<0.05, which were 94.81; 122.08; and 140.52 g/d for C0, C1, and C2 treatments, respectively. Dry and organic matter, as well as protein intake was also significantly increased by inclusion of AOFC into concentrate diet (P<0.05. The increment in nutrient intake was from increased consumption of concentrates, and not from King grass, however, there was no effect of AOFC supplementation on feed efficiency.

  11. The effects of feeding frequency on waiting time, milking frequency, cubicle and feeding fence utilization for cows in an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, H.H.; Stefanowska, J.; Sallvik, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this trial, the effects of the forage feeding frequency on the waiting time prior to milking and the cowshed facility utilization by cows milked in an automatic milking unit (AMU) were studied. The feeding frequency was increased from two times per day to six times per day. It was found that the

  12. High-Fat Diet Augments VPAC1 Receptor-Mediated PACAP Action on the Liver, Inducing LAR Expression and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Nakata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP acts on multiple processes of glucose and energy metabolism. PACAP potentiates insulin action in adipocytes and insulin release from pancreatic β-cells, thereby enhancing glucose tolerance. Contrary to these effects at organ levels, PACAP null mice exhibit hypersensitivity to insulin. However, this apparent discrepancy remains to be solved. We aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying the antidiabetic phenotype of PACAP null mice. Feeding with high-fat diet (HFD impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in wild type mice, whereas these changes were prevented in PACAP null mice. HFD also impaired insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in the liver in wild type mice, but not in PACAP null mice. Using GeneFishing method, HFD increased the leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR protein tyrosine phosphatase in the liver in wild type mice. Silencing of LAR restored the insulin signaling in the liver of HFD mice. Moreover, the increased LAR expression by HFD was prevented in PACAP null mice. HFD increased the expression of VPAC1 receptor (VPAC1-R, one of three PACAP receptors, in the liver of wild type mice. These data indicate that PACAP-VPAC1-R signaling induces LAR expression and insulin resistance in the liver of HFD mice. Antagonism of VPAC1-R may prevent progression of HFD-induced insulin resistance in the liver, providing a novel antidiabetic strategy.

  13. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  14. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  15. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  16. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  17. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  18. Eating, feeding, and feeling: emotional responsiveness mediates longitudinal associations between maternal binge eating, feeding practices, and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Pineros-Leano, Maria; Liechty, Janet M; Bost, Kelly K; Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-08-02

    feeding behaviors, and child weight outcomes. Distress responses may serve as a risk factor for use of unhealthful feeding practices among mothers with BE and these responses may increase children's risk for weight gain. This study used an observational prospective design. Therefore, it has not been registered as a clinical intervention trial.

  19. First-time mothers' breast-feeding maintenance: role of experiences and changes in maternal perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ellen J; Campo, Shelly; Colaizy, Tarah T; Mulder, Pamela J; Breheny, Patrick; Ashida, Sato

    2017-12-01

    Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions. Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions. Secondary data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007. Data from 762 first-time mothers who ever breast-fed were analysed. Experiencing trouble with baby's latch, problems with milk flow/supply and painful breast-feeding were significantly associated with breast-feeding duration (64, 26 and 36 % shorter duration, respectively). Meanwhile, positive changes in perception with respect to breast-feeding self-efficacy, opinion about infant feeding and belief about breast milk were associated with 16-27 % longer duration. Furthermore, changes in perception were observed to partially mediate the impact of physiological experiences on breast-feeding duration. Perceptions of breast-feeding self-efficacy, beliefs and opinions can change over time and are influenced by breast-feeding experiences. The combined effect of experience and perception plays a key role in influencing breast-feeding duration. Future research should explore interventions to maintain or improve these perceptions while accounting for physiological experiences to support breast-feeding for recommended durations among first-time mothers.

  20. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  1. The assessment and the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources and coping strategies with feed scarcity in smallholder dairy farming in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert

    2017-06-01

    the wet season reported experiencing a shortage of feeds. Poor feed availability (73.9% of the respondents) was reported as the main causes of feed shortage followed by shortage of pastureland (7.8%). Increased use of bulule (55.6% of the respondents), crop residues (16.1%), non-conventional feed resources (14.4%), conserved hay (11.1%), purchased green feeds and concentrates (1.1%), and reducing herd size (1.1%) were the farmers' adopted coping strategies to mitigate feed shortage. It is suggested that technical intervention to improve the quality and efficient utilization of the existing feed resources is crucial to enable sustainable feed supply and boost milk production. Technologies that are easy to adopt, feasible, and low cost are also needed to be developed in participatory manner.

  2. Does breast-feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. H.; Ott, P.; Juul, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  3. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  4. Short communication: Limit feeding dairy heifers: effect of feed bunk space and provision of a low-nutritive feedstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Kitts, B L; Devries, T J

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the behavioral effects of providing limit-fed dairy heifers an increased amount of feed bunk space compared with recommended feed bunk allowance, and to determine if the effects of provision of extra bunk space would be comparable to those seen when limit-fed heifers are provided a low-nutritive feedstuff. Twelve Holstein dairy heifers (381.1 ± 44.8 d of age, 417.3 ± 47.9 kg), divided into groups of 4, were exposed to each of 3 treatments using a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 7-d periods. The treatments were (1) 0.68 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.68), (2) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.34), and (3) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer with an additional 0.34 m of feed bunk space available for free-choice straw (TMR-S). The total mixed ration was fed once daily at a restricted level (1.83% of body weight) and contained (dry matter basis) 19.9% alfalfa/grass haylage, 20.1% corn silage, 49.6% high-moisture corn, and 10.4% protein supplement. Group dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily. Behavior at the feed bunk was recorded for the last 4 d of each treatment period. Due to the provision of straw, DMI was highest on the TMR-S treatment compared with the other treatments (9.4 vs. 7.8 kg/d). Heifers spent the most time feeding when on the TMR-S treatment (147.7 min/d), with no difference in feeding time between the limit-fed TMR treatments (64.5 min/d). Within the TMR-S treatment, feeding time on the straw was 76.9 min/d; thus, the rate of consumption of only the TMR was similar across all treatments. Unrewarded time at the feed bunk (when no feed was present) did not differ between treatments. Heifers did not differ in competitive behavior when on the limit-fed TMR treatments (13.1 displacements/heifer per day). However, while on the TMR-S treatment, heifers displaced each other more frequently (23.8 displacements/heifer per day) than while on the other 2 treatments. Overall, results suggest that neither

  5. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  6. EFFECT OF MELTER-FEED-MAKEUP ON VITRIFICATION PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J.; Humrickhouse, C.J.; Moody, J.A.; Tate, R.M.; Tegrotenhuis, N.E.; Arrigoni, B.M.; Rodriguez, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting

  7. A dynamic programming model for optimising feeding and slaughter decisions regarding fattening pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Costs of purchasing new piglets and of feeding them until slaughter are the main variable expenditures in pig fattening. They both depend on slaughter intensity, the nature of feeding patterns and the technological constraints of pig fattening, such as genotype. Therefore, it is of interest to examine the effect of production technology and changes in input and output prices on feeding and slaughter decisions. This study examines the problem by using a dynamic programming model that links genetic characteristics of a pig to feeding decisions and the timing of slaughter and takes into account how these jointly affect the quality-adjusted value of a carcass. The state of nature and the genotype of a pig are known in the analysis. The results suggest that producer can benefit from improvements in the pig’s genotype. Animals of improved genotype can reach optimal slaughter maturity quicker and produce leaner meat than animals of poor genotype. In order to fully utilise the benefits of animal breeding, the producer must adjust feeding and slaughter patterns on the basis of genotype. The results also suggest that the producer can benefit from flexible feeding technology. Typically, such a technology provides incentives to feed piglets with protein-rich feed. When the pig approaches slaughter maturity, the share of protein-rich feed in the diet gradually decreases and the amount of energy-rich feed increases. Generally, the optimal slaughter weight is within the weight range that pays the highest price per kilogram of pig meat. The optimal feeding pattern and the optimal timing of slaughter depend on price ratios. Particularly, an increase in the price of pig meat provides incentives to increase the growth rates up to the pig’s biological maximum by increasing the amount of energy in the feed. Price changes and changes in slaughter premium can also have large income effects.;

  8. Visual Sentiment Analysis of RSS News Feeds Featuring the US Presidential Election in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Wanner, Franz; Rohrdantz, Christian; Mansmann, Florian; Oelke, Daniela; Keim, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    The technology behind RSS feeds offers great possibilities to retrieve more news items than ever. In contrast to these technical developments, human capabilities to read all these news items have not increased likewise. To bridge this gap, this paper presents a visual analytics tool for conducting semi-automatic sentiment analysis of large news feeds. While the tool automatically retrieves and analyzes RSS feeds with respect to positive and negative opinion words, the more demanding news anal...

  9. Hungry for Love: The Feeding Relationship in the Psychological Development of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Slaughter, Charles W; Bryant, Alika Hope

    2004-01-01

    At a time of increasing concern about childhood obesity, health care practitioners can exert pressure on parents and other caregivers to view meals and snacks primarily as opportunities to control children’s caloric intake and thus prevent or control childhood obesity. Yet feeding is about much more than the amount and kinds of food offered: Feeding can have a powerful influence not only on the physical health of children but also on their social and emotional health. The feeding interactions...

  10. Mechanisms of Feeding Deterrence by Ziziphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    number) e mechanism of feeding deterrence by ziziphins for sout rn armyworms ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) was investigated using bo long... Spodoptera eridania , to investigate the mechanisms of feeding deterrence by ziziphins extracted from the leaves of • .Ziziphus jujuba. Evaluation...Videotape Analysis of Feeding Suppression in the Southern Armyworm ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Produced by Extracts of the

  11. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... hazards present in animal feeds pose a threat to human health. Public concern on health matters related to food has ... meat, milk or eggs (Park and Laing, 1993; Dorner et al.,. 1994). ... are used in animal feed production (yellow whole maize, sifted ... number of fungal species than processed food and feed.

  12. The Hungry Worm Feeds the Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, J.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are important prey for many birds. Based on theirown feeding ecology, earthworms can be separated into two ecotypes: the detritivoresthat feed on organic material and the geophages that feed on soil particlesand organic matter. Detritivores collect their food on the surface

  13. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  14. Flooring in front of the feed bunk affects feeding behavior and use of freestalls by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M; de Passillé, A M; Campbell, B; Rushen, J

    2006-06-01

    In 2 experiments we assessed how preferences, time budgets, and feeding behavior of dairy cows change in response to flooring surfaces in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, 12 nonlactating dairy cattle were individually housed with access to 2 standing platforms filled with either concrete or sawdust. In Experiment 2, 24 nonlactating dairy cattle were given access to either concrete or Animat rubber flooring in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, cows preferred the sawdust to the concrete flooring. In both experiments, cows provided with a softer floor in front of the feed bunk spent more time standing near the feed bunk without eating (Experiment 1: 67 vs. 40 min/d on sawdust vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 5.6 min/d; Experiment 2: 176 vs. 115 min/d on Animat vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 20.5 min/d) compared with when they were kept on concrete. The increased time spent at the feed bunk was due to a combination of more frequent eating and standing bouts, indicating that cows were more willing to move on nonconcrete flooring. Total time spent eating was significantly greater on the softer floor in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1 (Exp. 1: 289 vs. 275 min/d on sawdust and concrete, respectively, SEM = 7.3 min/d; Exp. 2: 330 vs. 289 min/d on Animat and concrete, respectively, SEM = 15.4), although feed intake was increased on the sawdust treatment in Experiment 1. Cows spent significantly more time lying in the feed alley when the flooring was rubber (219 vs. 53 min/d on Animat and concrete, SEM = 53.6 min/d), perhaps because the lying area in Experiment 2 was inadequate. In conclusion, cows prefer to stand on softer flooring in front of the feed bunk, and are more willing to move on and spend more time standing in front of the feed bunk when provided with softer flooring. These results indicate that cows find softer flooring surfaces more comfortable to stand on than concrete, and highlight the importance of evaluating the comfort of the

  15. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 1. Changes in feed intake, feeding behavior, and digestion with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Luzi, S P; Furger, M; Zeitz, J O; Leiber, F; Ortmann, S; Clauss, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk production strategies focusing on longevity and limited use of concentrate are receiving increasing attention. To evaluate such strategies, knowledge of the development with age of animal characteristics, particularly digestion, is indispensable. We therefore investigated the development of feed intake, chewing activity, and digestion in 30 lactating Brown Swiss cows (876-3,648 d old) and 12 heifers (199-778 d old). We also studied whether age effects were exhibited differently in animals selected from herds subjected for 11 yr either to a forage-only or to a forage-concentrate feeding regimen. Forages consisted of grass hay (the only feed for heifers), corn silage, and grass pellets. Measurements lasted for 8 d, where amounts and composition of feeds, feces, and milk were recorded and analyzed. Ruminal pH data and eating and rumination activity were assessed by pH sensors put into the rumen and halter-mounted noseband sensors. The mean retention time of feed particles was assessed using Cr-mordanted fiber and data were used to calculate dry matter gut fill. Data were subjected to regression analyses with age and feeding regimen as explanatory variables, and body weight, milk yield, and proportion of hay in forage as covariates. This allowed separating age-related changes of body weight and milk yield from independent age effects and correcting for differences in preference for individual forages. In cows, organic matter intake increased with age (from slightly below to above 20kg/d), as did mean retention time and gut fill. Digestibility of organic matter did not show a clear age dependency, but fiber digestibility had a maximum in cows of around 4 to 6 yr of age. Ruminal pH and absolute eating and rumination times did not vary with cow age. Young and old cows chewed regurgitated boluses more intensively (60-70 times) than middle-aged cows (about 50 times). Effects of feeding regimen were small, except for fiber intake and rumination time per unit of intake

  16. Bottom Feeding and Beyond: How the Premaxillary Protrusion of Cypriniforms Allowed for a Novel Kind of Suction Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L Patricia; Staab, Katie Lynn

    2015-07-01

    While much of the functional work on suction feeding has involved members of Acanthopterygii, an earlier cypriniform radiation led to over 3200 species filling nearly every freshwater trophic niche. Within the great majority of acanthomorph clades that have been investigated suction feeding and the underlying morphology responsible for the generation of rapid suction have been largely conserved. This conserved feeding-apparatus is often associated with increasing the force experienced by the prey item, thus making a strike on elusive prey more effective. Cypriniforms' trophic anatomy is comprised of a number of novelties used for benthic feeding, which characterized early members of this clade. The modified cypriniform structure of the oral jaws represents a situation in which a particular type of suction feeding allowed for probing the benthos with a more functionally maneuverable anatomy. Requisite evolutionary modifications included origin and elongation of a median kinethmoid, duplications of certain divisions of the muscles of the adductor mandibulae, and origin of a dorsal, intra-buccal muscular palatal organ used in winnowing detritus. The elongated kinethmoid (coupled with modified adductor muscles) allowed for a type of premaxillary protrusion that decoupled the upper and lower jaws, enabled premaxillary protrusions with a closed mouth, and facilitated benthic feeding by increasing functional flexibility. The resultant flow of fluid generated by cypriniforms is also quite flexible, with multiple instances of peak flow in a single feeding event. This greatly modified morphology allowed for a degree of kinematic maneuverability not seen within most acanthomorphs. Later cypriniform radiations into piscivorous, insectivorous, or planktivorous feeding guilds were associated with shortening of the kinethmoid and with simplified morphology of the adductor, likely involving an emphasis on ram feeding. Although this suite of morphological novelties seemingly

  17. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with

  18. Influence of time off feed on broiler viscera weight, diameter, and shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Northcutt, J K; Lyon, C E; Rowland, G N

    1998-05-01

    The influence of time off feed on broiler viscera weight, intestinal diameter, and shear was studied by subjecting market-age male broilers (42, 44, or 48 d) to incremental feed withdrawal periods (0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 h). Body weight was determined prior to feed withdrawal and at the time of processing. After slaughter, scalding, and defeathering, the abdominal cavity was opened. Diameter and shear of the proventriculus-ventriculus junction, jejunum, and ileum segments were measured, as were gallbladder length and width. Thoracic and abdominal viscera, liver, and ventriculus weights were determined, and liver surface color was measured. Percentage body weight loss increased with longer feed withdrawal periods, as viscera, liver, and ventriculus weights decreased. Gallbladder length increased with time off feed, whereas its width did not change. Diameter of the proventriculus-ventriculus junction, jejunum, and ileum decreased with longer feed withdrawal periods. Shear values for the proventriculus-ventriculus junction, jejunum, and ileum were not influenced by time off feed. Positive correlations (P 0.4) between viscera weight and intestinal diameter were detected. Correlations between all measured parameters and shear values were not significant. Liver color measurements indicated that longer feed withdrawal periods resulted in significant linear decreases in L* (lightness), +a* (redness), and +b* (yellowness). Longer feed withdrawal periods decreased viscera weight and intestinal diameter, which would lower the potential for cutting the intestine during automated evisceration. However, the resulting greater gallbladder length (5 mm) would increase the possibility of bile contamination during evisceration.

  19. The potential of standard and modified feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The impact of feed spacers on initial feed channel pressure (FCP) drop, FCP increase and biomass accumulation has been studied in membrane fouling simulators using feed spacers applied in commercially available nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane modules. All spacers had a similar geometry.Our studies showed that biofouling was not prevented by (i) variation of spacer thickness, (ii) feed spacer orientation, (iii) feed spacer coating with silver, copper or gold and (iv) using a biostatic feed spacer. At constant feed flow, a lower FCP and FCP increase were observed for a thicker feed spacer. At constant linear flow velocity, roughly the same FCP development and biomass accumulation were found irrespective of the feed spacer thickness: hydrodynamics and substrate load were more important for development and impact of biofouling than the thickness of currently applied spacers. Use of biostatic and metal coated spacers were not effective for biofouling control. The same small reduction of biofouling rate was observed with copper and silver coated spacers as well as uncoated 45° rotated spacers.The studied modified spacers were not effective for biofouling prevention and control. The impact of biofouling on FCP increase was reduced significantly by a lower linear flow velocity, while spacer orientation and spacer thickness in membrane modules had a smaller but still significant effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. The potential of standard and modified feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araú jo, Paula A.; Kruithof, Joop C.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of feed spacers on initial feed channel pressure (FCP) drop, FCP increase and biomass accumulation has been studied in membrane fouling simulators using feed spacers applied in commercially available nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane modules. All spacers had a similar geometry.Our studies showed that biofouling was not prevented by (i) variation of spacer thickness, (ii) feed spacer orientation, (iii) feed spacer coating with silver, copper or gold and (iv) using a biostatic feed spacer. At constant feed flow, a lower FCP and FCP increase were observed for a thicker feed spacer. At constant linear flow velocity, roughly the same FCP development and biomass accumulation were found irrespective of the feed spacer thickness: hydrodynamics and substrate load were more important for development and impact of biofouling than the thickness of currently applied spacers. Use of biostatic and metal coated spacers were not effective for biofouling control. The same small reduction of biofouling rate was observed with copper and silver coated spacers as well as uncoated 45° rotated spacers.The studied modified spacers were not effective for biofouling prevention and control. The impact of biofouling on FCP increase was reduced significantly by a lower linear flow velocity, while spacer orientation and spacer thickness in membrane modules had a smaller but still significant effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. In-Vitro gas production technique as for feed evaluation: volume of gas production and feed degradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asih Kurniawati

    2007-01-01

    In-vitro gas production technique can be used to predict feed quality. The effect of molasses supplementation as a source of degradable carbohydrate to protein source red clover silage has been done using this technique. Data showed there were positive correlation between total volume gas produced and feed degradability (r = 0.96), between total volume gas produced and microbial biomass (r = 0,96). Dry matter degradability, dry matter degraded, microbial biomass production and efficiency of nitrogen utilization, highly significant (P<0,01) increased due to increasing of degradable carbohydrate. The addition of 0.3 g molasses gave the best result whereas the addition of 0.15 g and 0.225 g have better effect than 0.0625 g molasses addition and red clover only. This result suggested that In-vitro production technique can be used as tool for feed evaluation. (author)

  2. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  3. Performance study of ultrafiltration membrane with bovine serum albumin as feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahril Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin solutions at different temperature, pH, flow rate and operation pressure have been used as feed solution for studying performance of ultrafiltration membrane. Polysulfone membranes used for this experiment were in form of hollow fibers that have Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) 60 kDa. Observation was focused on flux parameter and rejection coefficient towards protein during the process. Result shows that temperature, pH of BSA feed solution, flow rate and operation pressure can affect the flux and rejection coefficient of membrane. High temperature feed solution tend to decrease the flux but increase rejection coefficient. Rejection coefficient of membrane will increase while flux decreasing at pH of feed solution near to protein isoelectric point. High pressure of feed solution will increase flux but decrease rejection of membrane. Rejection of membrane will decrease and flux will increase when the process operated in slow flow rate. (author)

  4. Perinatal factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth: the Bedouin Infant Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Berendest, H W; Lewando-Hundt, G; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1991-04-01

    Bedouin Arab women delivering newborns at Soroka Medical Center, Israel, during 1 year were interviewed in hospital to determine the factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth. Eighty-six per cent breastfed, 11% breast and bottlefed, and 3% bottlefed at birth. Based on a multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors that significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) of exclusive breastfeeding vs. breast and bottle feeding or bottle feeding at birth include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.49); maternal recall of feeling unwell during pregnancy (OR = 0.59); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.10); a newborn diagnosed with major malformations (OR = 0.30) or with major illnesses (OR = 0.32); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.09). In contrast, multiparae experienced an increased odds (OR = 1.67) of breastfeeding. Among primiparae, the factors that significantly reduced the odds of exclusive breastfeeding include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.47); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.12); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.18). Mothers of high-risk neonates and those who deliver by Caesarean section need to be educated about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Young primiparae are a challenge and require qualitative and quantitative research into the reasons precluding exclusive breastfeeding.

  5. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N

    2017-09-01

    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  6. The use of chitosan as bioadhesive and its property improvement by radiation treatment for water-stable shrimp feed production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Nguyen Duy; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Quynh, Tran Minh; Diep, Tran Bang; Binh, Nguen Van [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Institute for Nuclear Science and Techniques, Caugiay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Dung, Vu [Ministry of Fisheries, Research Institute of Marine Product, Haiphong (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Among marine polysaccharides, only chitosan with small content in feed (0.48-0.75%) could be selected to prepare shrimp feed-pellet having so high water-stability that meet the Standard of Vietnam Ministry of Fisheries 28-TCN 102/1997. Solid-state radiation treatment of chitosan with dose ranging from 10 to 200 kGy not only increased its solubility in solvents of dilute acid, but also improved the water-stability of feed-pellet product. Radiation treatment at sterilization doses (20-40 kGy) was evaluated as the most practical technology because irradiated chitosan with reduced content of 0.34% has capacity to be prepared feed-pellets stable as comparable to imported products. Results from feeding trials shown that chitosan containing feed did not affect the growth response and feed utilization efficiency such as weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and productivity at harvest. (author)

  7. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  8. The Design and Experiment of the Track-Type Equipment for Feeding Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the effective ways of reducing the cost and increase the revenue, feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity could further develop the production potential of high- yield dairy cows and improve the milk yield of every dairy cow. Therefore, based on three kinds of technologies of radio frequency identification technology, wireless transmission technology and infrared technology and grounded on the foundation of previous studies, this thesis has completed the track- type equipment for feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity. The equipment takes the computer as the information management platform, adopts the singly chip microcomputer as the control platform, uses the wireless module and U disk to conduct the transmission of individual feeding data of dairy cows and guides the whole process with the track. This kind of equipment could advance automatically, identify and feed dairy cows precisely during the feeding process. This thesis also designs the matching feeding technology of the equipment, and accomplishes the test of feeding outside the cowshed, which takes “TMR + precise feeding with concentrated feed” as the feeding model, so that the feeding process could be more effective and further steady.

  9. A model of the evolution of larval feeding rate in Drosophila driven by conflicting energy demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Laurence D; Barter, Thomas T

    2015-02-01

    Energy allocation is believed to drive trade-offs in life history evolution. We develop a physiological and genetic model of energy allocation that drives evolution of feeding rate in a well-studied model system. In a variety of stressful environments Drosophila larvae adapt by altering their rate of feeding. Drosophila larvae adapted to high levels of ammonia, urea, and the presence of parasitoids evolve lower feeding rates. Larvae adapted to crowded conditions evolve higher feeding rates. Feeding rates should affect gross food intake, metabolic rates, and efficiency of food utilization. We develop a model of larval net energy intake as a function of feeding rates. We show that when there are toxic compounds in the larval food that require energy for detoxification, larvae can maximize their energy intake by slowing their feeding rates. While the reduction in feeding rates may increase development time and decrease competitive ability, we show that genotypes with lower feeding rates can be favored by natural selection if they have a sufficiently elevated viability in the toxic environment. This work shows how a simple phenotype, larval feeding rates, may be of central importance in adaptation to a wide variety of stressful environments via its role in energy allocation.

  10. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  11. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  12. Activity-Based Protein Profiling Reveals Mitochondrial Oxidative Enzyme Impairment and Restoration in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Angel, Thomas E.; Lewis, Michael P.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Wiedner, Susan D.; Zink, Erika M.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-10-24

    High-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and concomitant development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not clear whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a direct effect of a HFD or if the mitochondrial function is reduced with increased HFD duration. We hypothesized that the function of mitochondrial oxidative and lipid metabolism functions in skeletal muscle mitochondria for HFD mice are similar or elevated relative to standard diet (SD) mice, thereby IR is neither cause nor consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. We applied a chemical probe approach to identify functionally reactive ATPases and nucleotide-binding proteins in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle of C57Bl/6J mice fed HFD or SD chow for 2-, 8-, or 16-weeks; feeding time points known to induce IR. A total of 293 probe-labeled proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, of which 54 differed in abundance between HFD and SD mice. We found proteins associated with the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and lipid metabolism were altered in function when comparing SD to HFD fed mice at 2-weeks, however by 16-weeks HFD mice had TCA cycle, β-oxidation, and respiratory chain function at levels similar to or higher than SD mice.

  13. Promotion of breast feeding in the community: impact of health education programme in rural communities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Adetugbo, A A

    1996-03-01

    Breast feeding has been recognized as a child survival strategy, while breast feeding programmes have been increasingly implemented in many communities. This study assesses the effectiveness of a breast feeding education programme launched through the primary health care programme in the rural communities of Nigeria. Late trimester pregnant women were enrolled into the study and given a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about breast feeding. Women in the study group (n = 126) received breast feeding counselling before and after delivery, while those in control group (n = 130) did not receive any counselling. Both groups were monitored after delivery and followed with the KAP questionnaire. The results of the study showed marked improvements in the intervention group for colostrum feeding (p = 0.0000). Moreover, 31.6% of the mothers in the intervention group practised timely initiation of breast feeding compared to 5.6% of the controls, and the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months was 39.8% in the intervention group compared to 13.9% for the controls. Multivariate analysis showed that the intervention was a powerful and the only significant predictor of the increase in breast feeding behaviours (p = 0.0000), and that an early initiation of breast feeding is a strong predictor of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months of age. It is concluded that breast feeding promotion in rural communities is feasible and can lead to behavioural changes.

  14. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.

  15. Sequential feeding using whole wheat and a separate protein-mineral concentrate improved feed efficiency in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Même, N; Rideau, N; Roffidal, L; Tukur, H M; Bastianelli, D; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P

    2010-04-01

    The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added

  16. Effect of feed restriction and feeding plans on performance, slaughter traits and body composition of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Birolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding systems (L, ad libitum vs. R, feed restriction were combined with 3 feeding plans (MM, MH, HH to evaluate the effects on performance, slaughter results, body composition and nitrogen balance of 300 commercial crossbred rabbits kept individually from weaning to slaughter (34-70 d of age. The R rabbits were fed from 80% (first days on trial to 100% (end of 3rd wk of ad libitum intake, whereafter R rabbits had free access to feed. The 3 feeding plans were: MM plan, M diet with moderate digestible energy (DE content, 10.6 MJ/kg, throughout the trial; HH plan, H diet with high DE content, 11.1 MJ/kg, throughout the trial; MH plan, M diet for the first 3 wk and H diet for the last 2 wk. Feed restriction did not affect nutrient digestibility, growth rate on the whole trial and slaughter results, but improved feed conversion (2.96 vs. 2.89 in L and R rabbits, respectively; P<0.01 and reduced N excretion (2.16 vs. 2.07 g excreted N/d, in L and R rabbits; P<0.05. At the end of the first period (55 d, R rabbits showed lower empty body protein, lipid, and gross energy gains than L rabbits, but differences disappeared within the end of the trial. The HH plan improved feed conversion (2.97 vs. 2.89 for MM vs. HH; P<0.05, but increased excreted N (2.03 vs. 2.17 g/d; P<0.001 in comparison with the MM plan due to the higher digestible protein/DE ratio of H diet, whereas the MH plan showed intermediate results. In conclusion, a moderate feed restriction during post weaning improved feed conversion and reduced N excretion without negative effects on growth or slaughter results. Moreover, N excretion was confirmed to depend largely on dietary nitrogen content.

  17. Intergenerational impact of maternal obesity and postnatal feeding practices on pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L

    2013-10-01

    The postnatal feeding practices of obese and overweight mothers may place their children at increased risk for the development of obesity through shared biology and family environments. This article reviews the feeding practices of obese mothers, describes the potential mechanisms linking maternal feeding behaviors to child obesity risk, and highlights the potential avenues of intervention. Strategies important for improving the quality of the eating environment and preventing the intergenerational transmission of obesity include supporting breastfeeding, improving the food choices of obese women, and encouraging the development of feeding styles that are responsive to hunger and satiety cues. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  18. Feed-related Splanchnic Oxygenation in Preterm Infants With Abnormal Antenatal Doppler Developing Gut Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia; Aceti, Arianna; Beghetti, Isadora; Faldella, Giacomo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2018-05-01

    Preterm infants with antenatal absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) in umbilical arteries are at major risk for gastrointestinal (GI) complications, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal perforation and feeding intolerance. Near-infrared spectroscopy provides continuous monitoring of splanchnic oxygenation (SrSO2) and may represent a useful tool to predict GI outcomes in this high-risk population. This observational, pilot study assessed feed-related SrSO2 patterns at enteral feeding introduction and full enteral feeding (FEF) achievement in twenty AREDF infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks. Enrolled infants were divided into 2 groups according to the development versus lack of GI complications. Infants developing GI complications showed significantly lower SrSO2 and increased splanchnic oxygen extraction in response to enteral feeds at both enteral feeding introduction and FEF. The potential role of these findings in predicting GI complications in AREDF preterm infants seems promising and deserves further evaluation.

  19. Short communication In situ ruminal degradability of protein feeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 2221-4062 (online) ... protein at a passage rate of 2% per hour was higher in meals than in grains. .... beef cattle reduced the consumption rate, but improved the feed conversion rate, increasing.

  20. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  1. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for carcass gain (MJ ME/ g) improved with an increase in the C: R ratio. Steers fed sub-ad libitum feeding ... energie-inname vir karkastoename (MJ ME/ g) het verbeter met 'n toename in die K: R-verhouding. Doeltreffendheid van osse op die ... fic carbon sources on lipogenesis (Prior & Scott, 1980) have also been reported.

  2. Verification of Organic Feed Identity by Fatty Acid Fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tres, A.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and authenticity of feed for laying hens is an important and fraud-susceptible aspect in the production of organic eggs. Chemical fingerprinting in combination with chemometric methods is increasingly used in conjunction with administrative controls to verify and safeguard the

  3. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in

  4. Chronic ethanol feeding modulates the synthesis of digestive enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnappa, B.C.; Hoek, J.B.; Rubin, E.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on pancreatic protein synthesis were investigated. Protein synthesis was assessed by studying the rate of incorporation of 3 H-leucine into TCA-precipitable proteins in isolated pancreatic acini from rats. Chronic ethanol ingestion increased the rate of pancreatic protein synthesis by 2-4 fold. The onset of the increase in protein synthesis was detectable two days after ethanol feeding, reached a maximum after 7 days and remained unchanged after 4 months on the ethanol-containing diet. The rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes was studied by SDS-PAGE on extracts obtained from purified zymogen granules. Ethanol feeding induced an increase in the rate of synthesis of most of the digestive enzymes; chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and an unidentified protein were increased to a greater extent than other digestive enzymes. By contrast, the synthesis of amylase was selectively decreased after ethanol feeding. These results suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion has specific effects on the rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes in the exocrine pancreas

  5. Child factors associated with complementary feeding practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bInstitute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being and Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of ... Objectives:The objective of the study was to identify child factors that influenced ... increasingly independent and mobile and thus exposed to .... violence, breastfeeding and infant feeding practices, vaccinations.

  6. Possible reasons for differences in residual feed intake: An overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-RFI animals tend to digest feed better than high-RFI animals, and as intake increases there is a tendency for digestion to decrease. The correlation between RFI and dry matter (DM) digestibility has been determined to be r = –0.33. A positive correlation exists between metabolisable energy for maintenance (ME) and ...

  7. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding solid food ... per day, but will eat more at each feeding than the first 6 months. If you feed ...

  8. Genetic effects of feeding irradiated wheat to mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalaxmi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of feeding irradiated wheat in mice on bone marrow and testis chromosomes, germ cell numbers and dominant lethal mutations were investigated. Feeding of freshly irradiated wheat resulted in significantly increased incidence of polyploid cells in bone marrow, aneuploid cells in testis, reduction in number of spermatogonia of types A, B and resting primary spermatocytes as well as a higher mutagenic index. Such a response was not observed when mice were fed stored irradiated wheat. Also there was no difference between the mice fed un-irradiated wheat and stored irradiated wheat. (author)

  9. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate...... (both the vegetable oil and alcohol) feed rate/concentration is manipulated simultaneously. The results of the simulation were tested in the laboratory and are sufficiently positive to suggest the implementation of a feeding strategy for large scale enzymatic biodiesel production...

  10. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  11. Kinematics Analysis of End Effector for Carrier Robot of Feeding Broiler Chicken System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Rafiuddin; Arsyad, Hairul; Bauna, Ruslan; Renreng, Ilyas; Bakhri, Syaiful

    2018-02-01

    The demand for commodities, especially Broiler chicken farms are increasing, the volume of feed requirements Broiler chickens increased with age up to the age of 30-57 days required feed 3,829 grams/day/head, so if the chicken population is 3,000 needed transporting feed 11 487 kg/day, This research aims to produce a robot capable of transporting feed in the top of the cage by using a control system so as to make efficient use of manpower. Design robot performed using software design three-dimensional Solidworks2010, process of making the robot is started with the design manufacture three (3) units of mechanical systems (mechanical system for holder feed, mechanical systems for lifter feed and mechanical systems for transporting feed), then do the design process framework as a component buffer so that the mechanical system will work properly and safely when the robot operates. Furthermore, the manufacture of electronic circuits and control are using Arduino Mega microcontroller. After assembling all components mechanical systems and installation of electronic systems and control, then experiments to evaluate the performance of the robot have been made. The results of experiments showed that all components work well according to plan, in particular the speed and acceleration of end effector motion so it can hold and release the feed well. This strongly supports the robots perform tasks in accordance with the intent, i.e., holding, lifting and moving feed.

  12. Fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; León Peláez, María A; Diosma, Gabriela; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2014-12-01

    Fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety. Whey fermented for 24 h at 20 °C with kefir grains (100 g L(-1) ) reduced conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Rhizopus sp. Poultry feed supplemented with fermented whey (1 L kg(-1) ) was two to four times more resistant to fungal contamination than control feed depending on the fungal species. Additionally, it contained kefir microorganisms at levels of 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) kg(-1) of lactic acid bacteria and 6 × 10(7) CFU kg(-1) of yeasts even after 30 days of storage. Fermented whey added to poultry feed acted as a biopreservative, improving its resistance to fungal contamination and increasing its shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Transition in Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Optimal infant and young child feeding, which includes initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for first six months, age appropriate complementary feeding after six months along with continued breastfeeding for 2 years and beyond, is a public health intervention to prevent child morbidity, mortality and malnutrition [1]. In India, even though institutional delivery rates are increasing, only 44% women are able to breastfeed their babies within one hour of delivery. While 65% children are exclusively breast fed for the first six months, the median duration of breastfeeding is 24.4 months and complementary feeding rates are 50%. To achieve optimal IYCF practices, each woman should have access to a community based IYCF counseling support system. Efforts are therefore needed to upgrade skill based training of health workers and revive and update the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). To promote and sustain breastfeeding amongst working women, it is essential to ensure adequate maternity leave, crèches at work place, flexible working hours, and provision of physical space for breast feeding at work place. It is imperative to also create public awareness about the dangers of bottle and formula feeding and to provide accurate information on the appropriate complementary food to be given to infants. In conclusion, India needs to make serious efforts to overcome malnutrition with not only prioritized IYCF policies but also their effective implementation in place. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Safety of the breast-feeding infant after maternal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Priti G; Bosak, Jodi; Berlin, Cheston

    2014-04-01

    There has been an increase in breast-feeding supported by the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization. An anesthesiologist may be presented with a well-motivated breast-feeding mother who wishes to breast-feed her infant in the perioperative period. Administration of anesthesia entails acute administration of drugs with potential for sedation and respiratory effects on the nursing infant. The short-term use of these drugs minimizes the possibility of these effects. The aim should be to minimize the use of narcotics and benzodiazepines, use shorter acting agents, use regional anesthesia where possible and avoid agents with active metabolites. Frequent clinical assessments of the nursing infant are important. Available literature does suggest that although the currently available anesthetic and analgesic drugs are transferred in the breast milk, the amounts transferred are almost always clinically insignificant and pose little or no risk to the nursing infant. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Improving meat quality through cattle feed enriched with mate extract