WorldWideScience

Sample records for hfasd children produced

  1. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Lopata; Smith, Rachael A.; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Gloria K. Lee; McDonald, Christin A.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a) document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses); (b) examine the extent to which these measu...

  2. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Smith, Rachael A; Volker, Martin A; Thomeer, Marcus L; Lee, Gloria K; McDonald, Christin A

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a) document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses); (b) examine the extent to which these measures yielded similar scores on comparable scales; and (c) assess potential discrepancies between cognitive ability and adaptive behavior across the measures. All three adaptive measures revealed significant deficits overall for the sample, with the VABS-II and ABAS-II indicating relative weaknesses in social skills and strengths in academic-related skills. Cross-measure comparisons indicated significant differences in the absolute magnitude of scores. In general, the VABS-II yielded significantly higher scores than the BASC-2 and ABAS-II. However, the VABS-II and ABAS-II yielded scores that did not significantly differ for adaptive social skills which is a critical area to assess for children with HFASDs. Results also indicated significant discrepancies between the children's average IQ score and their scores on the adaptive domains and composites of the three adaptive measures.

  3. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lopata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs, yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses; (b examine the extent to which these measures yielded similar scores on comparable scales; and (c assess potential discrepancies between cognitive ability and adaptive behavior across the measures. All three adaptive measures revealed significant deficits overall for the sample, with the VABS-II and ABAS-II indicating relative weaknesses in social skills and strengths in academic-related skills. Cross-measure comparisons indicated significant differences in the absolute magnitude of scores. In general, the VABS-II yielded significantly higher scores than the BASC-2 and ABAS-II. However, the VABS-II and ABAS-II yielded scores that did not significantly differ for adaptive social skills which is a critical area to assess for children with HFASDs. Results also indicated significant discrepancies between the children’s average IQ score and their scores on the adaptive domains and composites of the three adaptive measures.

  4. Open-Trial Pilot of "Mind Reading" and in Vivo Rehearsal for Children with HFASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Lopata, Christopher; McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Smith, Rachael A.; Gullo, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot study, the authors evaluated a manualized administration of the "Mind Reading" (MR) program with in vivo rehearsal to determine the effects on emotion recognition and autism features of eleven 7- to 12-year-old children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD), and to determine the overall feasibility of the…

  5. Broad Cognitive Profile in Children and Adolescents with HF-ASD and in Their Siblings: Widespread Underperformance and Its Clinical and Adaptive Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mireia; Puig, Olga; Lázaro, Luisa; Vallés, Virginia; Lera, Sara; Sánchez-Gistau, Vanesa; Calvo, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence supporting the presence of cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD), the nature of these deficits and their clinical and adaptive correlates remain unclear. Moreover, there are few cognitive studies of ASD siblings as a high risk population. We compared 50 children and…

  6. Improving the Social Skills of Children with HFASD: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Cynthia; Peskin, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a social skills and Theory of Mind (S.S.ToM) intervention for children with high-functioning ASD. Children were taught to identify and consider their peer's mental states, e.g., knowledge, emotions, desires, beliefs, intentions, likes and dislikes, while learning friendship-making skills and strategies,…

  7. Community Trial of a Comprehensive Psychosocial Treatment for HFASDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; McDonald, Christin A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Smith, Rachael A.; Meichenbaum, David L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Lipinski, Alanna M.

    2015-01-01

    This community effectiveness trial examined the feasibility and efficacy of a comprehensive psychosocial treatment for 28 children, aged 7 to 10 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). Treatment included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social skills, face-emotion recognition skills, interest expansion, and…

  8. Mother-Stranger Comparisons of Social Attention in Jealousy Context and Attachment in HFASD and Typical Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zvieli, Nirit; Kugelmass, Dana Shoham

    2013-01-01

    Affective bonding, social attention, and intersubjective capabilities are all conditions for jealousy, and are deficient in autism. Thus, examining jealousy and attachment may elucidate the socioemotional deficit in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Jealousy was provoked in 30 high-functioning children with ASD (HFASD) and 30 typical children (ages…

  9. Responses to Wh-, Yes/No-, A-not-A, and choice questions in Taiwanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su-Fen; Oi, Manabu

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) have a greater difficulty in responding to Wh- than Yes/No questions across languages. Conversations between Taiwanese children and their mothers were investigated and the children's response adequacy to maternal questions in a semi-structured setting were examined. Twelve Taiwanese children with HFASD, ranging in age from 7.1 to 14.9 years old, were compared with 12 typically developing (TD) children matched on age, sex, IQ and mean length of utterance in syllable (MLUs). Compared to TD children, HFASD children produced more inadequate or inappropriate responses to Wh- and Yes/No questions than to A-not-A and Choice questions. Taiwanese HFASD children share a greater difficulty in responding to maternal Wh-questions with their Japanese counterparts and do not show a relative ease in responding to Yes/No questions, while A-not-A and Choice questions were easier to respond to for the Taiwanese children.

  10. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  11. Resilience and emotional intelligence in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Adam W; Matchullis, Ryan L; Altomare, Alyssa A

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the results of an investigation of resilience factors and their relation to emotional intelligence (EI) as an area of potential strength for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Based upon previous research with young adults, it was hypothesized that children with HFASD would demonstrate reduced EI and differential relations between EI and resilience as compared to typically developing (TD) children. Forty children aged 8-12 years (20 with HFASD and 20 TD control children) completed measures of resilience and EI. Children with HFASD did not significantly differ from TD children on either measure. However, several significant correlations between resilience and EI were found in the HFASD sample. The findings suggest that EI may be a unique area of interest for this population, particularly for interventions that propose to capitalize upon potentially inherent strengths. Implications of these results for intervention are discussed.

  12. VMI-VI and BG-II KOPPITZ-2 for Youth with HFASDs and Typical Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Dua, Elissa H.; Schiavo, Audrey M.; Bain, Fabienne; Nelson, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 90 youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 51 typically developing (TD) youth were assessed using the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Sixth Edition (VMI-VI) and Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt Test-Second Edition (KOPPITZ-2).…

  13. VMI-VI and BG-II KOPPITZ-2 for Youth with HFASDs and Typical Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Dua, Elissa H.; Schiavo, Audrey M.; Bain, Fabienne; Nelson, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 90 youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 51 typically developing (TD) youth were assessed using the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Sixth Edition (VMI-VI) and Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt Test-Second Edition (KOPPITZ-2).…

  14. Producing Multimedia Stories with ESL Children: A Partnership Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsinyi; Fitzgerald, Gail; Park, MeeAeng

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of multimedia stories produced by ESL children using a children-as-designers approach. The rationale for the project was based on the use of technology to help second-language learning children express their culturally-diverse backgrounds and perspectives. Stories were produced by ten foreign-born…

  15. Producing Multimedia Stories with ESL Children: A Partnership Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsinyi; Fitzgerald, Gail; Park, MeeAeng

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of multimedia stories produced by ESL children using a children-as-designers approach. The rationale for the project was based on the use of technology to help second-language learning children express their culturally-diverse backgrounds and perspectives. Stories were produced by ten foreign-born…

  16. Predicting literacy in children with a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Diane W; Richdale, Amanda L

    2013-08-01

    The most commonly reported reading profile for children with a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) is one of intact decoding combined with reduced reading comprehension. Whether or not the variables that predict decoding and reading comprehension for children with a HFASD are exactly the same as those identified for a non-ASD population is unknown. Therefore, the ability of cognition, phonological processing, oral language, and vision to predict decoding and reading comprehension was investigated. Regression analysis revealed that cognition, phonological processing, and syntax predicted decoding and reading comprehension for the HFASD and non-ASD groups. One notable difference was that semantics predicted literacy for the non-ASD children but not their HFASD peers.

  17. Comprehension of figurative language in Taiwanese children with autism: The role of theory of mind and receptive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su-Fen; Oi, Manabu; Taguchi, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    First-order theory of mind (ToM) is necessary for comprehension of metaphors, and second-order ToM is necessary for comprehension of irony. This study investigated the role of ToM and language ability in comprehending figurative language in 50 Taiwanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) compared with 50 typically developing children. Results showed that the No-ToM HFASDs group performed worse than the first-order ToM HFASDs group and the second-order ToM HFASDs group in comprehension of metaphors, irony, sarcasm and indirect reproach, but not for indirect request. Receptive vocabulary correlated only with metaphor comprehension. The volatility of results seen among studies in terms of the relationship between ToM and figurative language comprehension is discussed.

  18. The Relationship between Comprehension of Figurative Language by Japanese Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and College Freshmen's Assessment of Its Conventionality of Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Manabu; Tanaka, Sanae; Ohoka, Harue

    2013-01-01

    Unlike their English-speaking counterparts, Japanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) perform as well as typically developing (TD) children in comprehending metaphor, despite lacking 1st order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning. Additionally, although Japanese sarcasm and "indirect reproach" appear theoretically to need 2nd order ToM reasoning, HFASD children without this comprehended these forms of language as well as TD children. To attempt to explain this contradiction, we asked college freshmen to evaluate the strangeness (unconventionality) of these types of figurative language. We aimed to test the hypothesis that metaphor, sarcasm, and "indirect reproach" might be evaluated as more conventional than irony, which children with HFASDs do not comprehend as well as those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results for irony, metaphor, and "indirect reproach" supported the hypothesis, while those for sarcasm did not. Sarcasm is comprehended by HFASDs children as well as by TD children despite being evaluated as highly unconventional. This contradiction is discussed from a self-in-relation-to-other perspective. We postulate that a new explanation of disabilities of figurative language comprehension in children with HFASDs is needed instead of relying on a single cognitive process.

  19. The Relationship between Comprehension of Figurative Language by Japanese Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and College Freshmen’s Assessment of Its Conventionality of Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Oi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike their English-speaking counterparts, Japanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs perform as well as typically developing (TD children in comprehending metaphor, despite lacking 1st order theory of mind (ToM reasoning. Additionally, although Japanese sarcasm and “indirect reproach” appear theoretically to need 2nd order ToM reasoning, HFASD children without this comprehended these forms of language as well as TD children. To attempt to explain this contradiction, we asked college freshmen to evaluate the strangeness (unconventionality of these types of figurative language. We aimed to test the hypothesis that metaphor, sarcasm, and “indirect reproach” might be evaluated as more conventional than irony, which children with HFASDs do not comprehend as well as those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results for irony, metaphor, and “indirect reproach” supported the hypothesis, while those for sarcasm did not. Sarcasm is comprehended by HFASDs children as well as by TD children despite being evaluated as highly unconventional. This contradiction is discussed from a self-in-relation-to-other perspective. We postulate that a new explanation of disabilities of figurative language comprehension in children with HFASDs is needed instead of relying on a single cognitive process.

  20. A Virtual Joy-Stick Study of Emotional Responses and Social Motivation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanguk; Rosenthal, M. Zachary; Gwaltney, Mary; Jarrold, William; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain, Lindsay; Solomon, Marjorie; Mundy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new virtual reality task was employed which uses preference for interpersonal distance to social stimuli to examine social motivation and emotion perception in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Nineteen high function children with higher functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) and 23 age, gender, and IQ matched children with typical…

  1. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt-II and VMI-V in Samples of Typical Children and Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Schiavo, Audrey; Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2010-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 60 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 46 typically developing children were assessed using the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test-Second Edition (BG-II) and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition (VMI-V). Within-group comparisons yielded substantive…

  2. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt-II and VMI-V in Samples of Typical Children and Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Schiavo, Audrey; Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2010-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 60 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 46 typically developing children were assessed using the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test-Second Edition (BG-II) and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition (VMI-V). Within-group comparisons yielded substantive…

  3. Meme Engineers: Children as Producers of Musical Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which young children construct and negotiate musical meaning as song-makers in a post-modern consumerist musical world. A critical analysis of the presentation of music in two popular Australian children's television programmes (Play School and Hi-5) and the ways in which such media impact upon children's…

  4. Meme Engineers: Children as Producers of Musical Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which young children construct and negotiate musical meaning as song-makers in a post-modern consumerist musical world. A critical analysis of the presentation of music in two popular Australian children's television programmes (Play School and Hi-5) and the ways in which such media impact upon children's…

  5. A Virtual Joy-Stick Study of Emotional Responses and Social Motivation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanguk; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Gwaltney, Mary; Jarrold, William; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain, Lindsay; Solomon, Marjorie; Mundy, Peter

    2015-12-01

    A new virtual reality task was employed which uses preference for interpersonal distance to social stimuli to examine social motivation and emotion perception in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Nineteen high function children with higher functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) and 23 age, gender, and IQ matched children with typical development (TD) used a joy stick to position themselves closer or further from virtual avatars while attempting to identify six emotions expressed by the avatars, happiness, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and surprise that were expressed at different levels of intensity. The results indicated that children with HFASD displayed significantly less approach behavior to the positive happy expression than did children with TD, who displayed increases in approach behavior to higher intensities of happy expressions. Alternatively, all groups tended to withdraw from negative emotions to the same extent and there were no diagnostic group differences in accuracy of recognition of any of the six emotions. This pattern of results is consistent with theory that suggests that some children with HFASD display atypical social-approach motivation, or sensitivity to the positive reward value of positive social-emotional events. Conversely, there was little evidence that a tendency to withdraw from social-emotional stimuli, or a failure to process social emotional stimuli, was a component of social behavior task performance in this sample of children with HFASD.

  6. Co-Producing Children's Sociality in Parent-Teacher Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närvänen, Anna-Liisa; Markström, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe how parents and preschool teachers talk about children's interactional skills in parent-teacher conferences in the Swedish preschool and how this can be related to socialization processes. The analyses show that children's communicative skills, such as turn-taking in conversation and co-operation, are…

  7. The Secret Agent Society Social-Emotional Skills Program for Children with a High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Parent-Directed Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronoff, Kate; Silva, Jenni; Beaumont, Renae

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated a parent-delivered social and emotional skills intervention--the Secret Agent Society (SAS) for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASD). The study was a pre-post follow-up design with an 8-week baseline period and 6-week follow-up period. Participants were 38 parents and 41 children recruited from…

  8. The Secret Agent Society Social-Emotional Skills Program for Children with a High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Parent-Directed Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronoff, Kate; Silva, Jenni; Beaumont, Renae

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated a parent-delivered social and emotional skills intervention--the Secret Agent Society (SAS) for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASD). The study was a pre-post follow-up design with an 8-week baseline period and 6-week follow-up period. Participants were 38 parents and 41 children recruited from…

  9. A psychometric evaluation of the Danish version of the Theory of Mind Storybook for 8-14 year-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eClemmensen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory-of-Mind (ToM keeps on developing in late childhood and early adolescence, and the study of ToM development later in childhood had to await the development of sufficiently sensitive tests challenging more mature children. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Theory-of-Mind Storybook Frederik (ToM-Frederik. Methods We assessed whether ToM-Frederik scores differed between a group of 41 typically developing (TD children and a group of 33 children with High functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD. A lower mean ToM-Frederik score was expected in the HFASD group. To determine the convergent validity of ToM-Frederik, potential associations with Strange Stories and Animated Triangles (AT were analyzed. Furthermore, potential associations between ToM-Frederik and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS and between ToM-Frederik and the Social Emotional Evaluation (SEE Total score were analyzed. Results A significantly higher ToM-Frederik score was observed in the TD group compared to the HFASD group. Furthermore, the convergent validity of ToM-Frederik as a measure of ToM was supported by significant and positive associations with the Strange Stories and the AT scores in the HFASD group, whereas ToM-Frederik was significantly correlated with Strange Stories, but not with AT in the TD group. ToM-Frederik was not significantly associated with SRS in neither the HFASD nor the TD group.Conclusion The findings are supportive of ToM-Frederik as a valid indicator of deficits at the group level in children with HFASD between 7 and 14 years of age. Furthermore, the convergent validity is supported.

  10. Sensory Responsiveness as a Predictor of Social Severity in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia L.; Harper, Jacquelyn D.; Kueker, Rachel Holmes; Lang, Andrea Runzi; Abbacchi, Anna M.; Todorov, Alexandre; LaVesser, Patricia D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sensory responsiveness and social severity in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD; N = 36) and age-matched controls (N = 26) between 6 and 10 years old. Significant relationships were found between social responsiveness scale scores and each of the six sensory profile sensory…

  11. Sensory Responsiveness as a Predictor of Social Severity in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia L.; Harper, Jacquelyn D.; Kueker, Rachel Holmes; Lang, Andrea Runzi; Abbacchi, Anna M.; Todorov, Alexandre; LaVesser, Patricia D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sensory responsiveness and social severity in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD; N = 36) and age-matched controls (N = 26) between 6 and 10 years old. Significant relationships were found between social responsiveness scale scores and each of the six sensory profile sensory…

  12. French-speaking Children's Freely Produced Labels for Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem eMaassarani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the labeling of facial expressions in French-speaking children. The participants were 137 French-speaking children, between the ages of 5 and 11 years, recruited from three elementary schools in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The facial expressions included expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. Participants were shown one facial expression at a time, and asked to say what the stimulus person was feeling. Participants’ responses were coded by two raters who made judgments concerning the specific emotion category in which the responses belonged. Five- and 6-year-olds were quite accurate in labeling facial expressions of happiness, anger, and sadness but far less accurate for facial expressions of fear, surprise, and disgust. An improvement in accuracy as a function of age was found for fear and surprise only. Labeling facial expressions of disgust proved to be very difficult for the children, even for the 11-year-olds. In order to examine the fit between the model proposed by Widen and Russell (2003 and our data, we looked at the number of participants who had the predicted response patterns. Overall, 88.52% of the participants did. Most of the participants used between 3 and 5 labels, with correspondence percentages varying between 80.00% and 100.00%. Our results suggest that the model proposed by Widen and Russell is not limited to English-speaking children, but also accounts for the sequence of emotion labeling in French-Canadian children.

  13. Productive Participation - Children as Active Media Producers in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Leinonen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Media education and media cultures should be considered a part of early childhood education, because media has an important role in children’s lives. With a socio-cultural learning approach, children are considered active participants and competent actors with the media. In this paper, media education has been approached as a case study from the viewpoint of active production and participation. The processes of creating media stories included steps from orientation and planning to action and story production. According to the results gained via content analysis, children were able to share ideas and listen to each other’s choices and opinions in participatory learning. They were also social actors motivated to participate in conversations and negotiations. The joy of learning and acting together intensified the social learning.

  14. Productive Participation - Children as Active Media Producers in Kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Jonna Leinonen; Sara Sintonen

    2014-01-01

    Media education and media cultures should be considered a part of early childhood education, because media has an important role in children’s lives. With a socio-cultural learning approach, children are considered active participants and competent actors with the media. In this paper, media education has been approached as a case study from the viewpoint of active production and participation. The processes of creating media stories included steps from orientation and planning to action and ...

  15. Intellectual Ability, Self-Perceived Social Competence, and Depressive Symptomatology in Children with High-Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerstaff, Sandy; Heriot, Sandra; Wong, Michelle; Lopes, Ana; Dossetor, David

    2007-01-01

    Although social competence deficits in children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders (HFASD) are well documented, there is little research investigating self-perceptions of social limitations. This study replicated research showing a negative association between self-perceived social competence and intellectual ability and…

  16. A Best Practices Guide in Social Skills Training for Kindergarten Teachers of Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Mandi Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation identifies social skills as the central treatment concern for young children with Asperger's Syndrome (AS)/High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) in an educational setting (Attwood, 1998; Macintosh & Dissanayake, 2006; Rao, Beidel, & Murray, 2008; Sansosti, 2010; Sansosti, Powell-Smith, & Cowan, 2010).…

  17. Relationships between children's exposure to ethnic produce and their dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Zhao, Yanling

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined relationships between children's ethnic produce exposure and healthy dietary practices among Latino, Hmong and non-Hispanic white children. One hundred Latino, 100 Hmong, and 92 non-Hispanic white parents of children ages 5-8 years old in northern California completed a cross-sectional survey. Children's exposure to ethnic produce from Hmong and Latino cultures, overall fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food and ethnic restaurant use were measured. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare variables across different ethnic groups. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between variables. Children's overall ethnic produce exposure, as well as exposure to produce from other cultures, was significantly correlated with overall fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a marginal (p = 0.053) negative association between ethnic produce exposure and fast food restaurant use among Latino children. These findings suggest that promoting ethnic produce is an effective strategy for enhancing healthy dietary practices among children.

  18. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Children: Old Foe, Emerging Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Lukac, Paul J.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Logan, Latania K.

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae continue to be a serious concern and global threat. The burden of ESBL infections in children is growing, although little is known about the epidemiology in the pediatric population. This review describes the emergence of ESBLs in children and highlights the impact of this resistance threat on an international scale.

  19. Description and Preliminary Evaluation of a Curriculum for Teaching Conversational Skills to Children with High-Functioning Autism and Other Social Cognition Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eve; Cannon, Lynn R.; Kornblum, Courtney; Clark, Jonna; Powers, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this clinical focus article is to provide (a) a detailed description of a school-based intervention designed to teach children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASDs) and other social cognition challenges both the "how" and the "why" of conversation and (b) a preliminary evaluation of…

  20. The Secret Agent Society Social Skills Program for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of Two School Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Renae; Rotolone, Cassie; Sofronoff, Kate

    2015-01-01

    School is often considered an ideal setting for child social skills training due to the opportunities it provides for skills teaching, modeling, and practice. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of two variants of the Secret Agent Society social skills program for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) in a…

  1. Meta-analysis of neuropsychological measures of executive functioning in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun Lun Eric; Lau, Zoe; Lui, Simon S Y; Lok, Eugenia; Tam, Venus; Chan, Quinney; Cheng, Koi Man; Lam, Siu Man; Cheung, Eric F C

    2017-05-01

    Existing literature on the profile of executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder showed inconsistent results. Age, comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cognitive abilities appeared to play a role in confounding the picture. Previous meta-analyses have focused on a few components of executive functions. This meta-analysis attempted to delineate the profile of deficit in several components of executive functioning in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Ninety-eight English published case-control studies comparing children and adolescents with HFASD with typically developing controls using well-known neuropsychological measures to assess executive functions were included. Results showed that children and adolescents with HFASD were moderately impaired in verbal working memory (g = 0.67), spatial working memory (g = 0.58), flexibility (g = 0.59), planning (g = 0.62), and generativity (g = 0.60) except for inhibition (g = 0.41). Subgroup analysis showed that impairments were still significant for flexibility (g = 0.57-0.61), generativity (g = 0.52-0.68), and working memory (g = 0.49-0.56) in a sample of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects without comorbid ADHD or when the cognitive abilities of the ASD group and the control group were comparable. This meta-analysis confirmed the presence of executive dysfunction in children and adolescents with HFASD. These deficits are not solely accounted for by the effect of comorbid ADHD and the general cognitive abilities. Our results support the executive dysfunction hypothesis and contribute to the clinical understanding and possible development of interventions to alleviate these deficits in children and adolescents with HFASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 911-939. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    OpenAIRE

    E. Romero; S. Márquez-Rosa; Bernal, F; N. Camberos; J.A. De Paz

    2015-01-01

    Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 chil...

  3. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children: old foe, emerging threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Paul J; Bonomo, Robert A; Logan, Latania K

    2015-05-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae present an ever-growing burden in the hospital and community settings, across all ages and demographics. Infections due to ESBL-containing pathogens continue to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. With widespread empiric broad-spectrum β-lactam use creating selective pressure, and the resultant emergence of stable, rapidly proliferating ESBL-producing clones with continued horizontal gene transfer across genera, addressing this issue remains imperative. Although well characterized in adults, the epidemiology, risk factors, outcomes, therapies, and control measures for ESBL-producing bacteria are less appreciated in children. This analysis provides a brief summary of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children, with a focus on recent clinical and molecular data regarding colonization and infection in nonoutbreak settings.

  4. Community faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in french children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgy André

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing incidence of community acquired infection due to Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL -Producing Enterobacteriaceae represent a great concern because there are few therapeutic alternatives. The fecal flora of children in the community can represent a reservoir for ESBLs genes which are located on highly transmissible plasmids and the spread of these genes among bacterial pathogens is concerning. Because intestinal carriage is a key factor in the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, the study of the prevalence of these resistant bacteria and risk factors in young children is of particular interest. Methods We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of community-acquired faecal carriage of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children aged from 6 to 24 months, by means of rectal swabbing in community pediatric practices. Child’s lifestyle and risk factors for carriage of resistant bacteria were noted. Results Among the 411 children enrolled, 4.6% carried ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 were the predominant ESBLs. The 18 E. coli isolates were genetically heterogeneous. Recent third-generation oral-cephalosporin exposure was associated with a higher risk of ESBL carriage (AOR=3.52, 95% CI[1.06-11.66], p=0.04. Conclusions The carriage rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacae in young children in the French community setting is noteworthy, underlining the importance of this population as a reservoir. Exposure to third-generation oral cephalosporins was associated with a significant risk of ESBL carriage in our study. Because of the significant public health implications including the treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections, the spread of organisms producing ESBLs in the community merits close monitoring with enhanced efforts for surveillance.

  5. "Can't Talk about Sex": Producers of Children's Television around the World Speak out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemish, Dafna

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this article discusses the views of 135 producers from 65 countries around the world regarding the presentation of sex on quality television for children. The article suggests that overall this topic is silenced because it is perceived as either inappropriate or culturally impossible to deal with in the context of a…

  6. "Can't Talk about Sex": Producers of Children's Television around the World Speak out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemish, Dafna

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this article discusses the views of 135 producers from 65 countries around the world regarding the presentation of sex on quality television for children. The article suggests that overall this topic is silenced because it is perceived as either inappropriate or culturally impossible to deal with in the context of a…

  7. Cytolethal distending toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains causing severe diarrhoea in young Mexican children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Puga, Samantha; Huerta-Cantillo, Jazmin; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), encoded by cdt genes, have DNase activity leading to cellular and nuclear distension, resulting in irreversible cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of target cells. cdt-positive Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from children with diarrhoea. There is, however, scant information on the prevalence and clinical presentation of diarrhoeal disease caused by these strains. Furthermore, toxin production of cdt-positive strains is rarely confirmed. We report five young children with diarrhoea caused by CDT-producing E. coli in whom stools were negative for other bacterial or enteric pathogens. Case presentation. On admission to hospital, all children presented watery diarrhoea with high stool output (range 7–20 stools/24 h); five had fever of 38 °C or more and four presented vomiting. Dehydration was present in four patients, one of whom had hypovolaemic shock; one child also presented hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia. In two children, cdt-positive strains were classified as typical and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, and the remaining three harboured cdt-positive strains that did not belong to any diarrhoeagenic pathogroup. One cdt-positive strain from each case was characterized by a CDT cytotoxic assay and a cdt type-specific PCR. All strains produced the characteristic cellular intoxication due to CDT. Two strains carried the cdt-I, one cdt-III, one cdt-IV, and one concurrently had cdt-I, cdt-II and cdt-III genes. Conclusion. Our results suggest that CDT-producing E. coli strains are an infrequent, albeit significant, cause of severe diarrhoeal illness in children. Future research should measure the true burden of cdt-positive E. coli diarrhoea among children.

  8. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD. To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS compared to treatment as usual (TAU. It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  9. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder--study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA--net trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Cholemkery, Hannah; Elsuni, Leyla; Kroeger, Anne K; Bender, Stephan; Kunz, Cornelia Ursula; Kieser, Meinhard

    2013-01-07

    Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA-FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. The SOSTA - net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. ISRCTN94863788--SOSTA--net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  10. Risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in children, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Marta; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rangel, Josefa; Caletti, Maria G; Vallés, Patricia; Roldán, Carlos D; Balbi, Laura; Marsano de Mollar, Maria C; Amoedo, Diego; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Chinen, Isabel; Hoekstra, Robert M; Mead, Paul; Griffin, Patricia M

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection among children in Argentina. We conducted a prospective case-control study in 2 sites and enrolled 150 case-patients and 299 controls. The median age of case-patients was 1.8 years; 58% were girls. Serotype O157:H7 was the most commonly isolated STEC. Exposures associated with infection included eating undercooked beef, living in or visiting a place with farm animals, and contact with a child <5 years of age with diarrhea. Protective factors included the respondent reporting that he or she always washed hands after handling raw beef and the child eating more than the median number of fruits and vegetables. Many STEC infections in children could be prevented by avoiding consumption of undercooked beef, limiting exposure to farm animals and their environment, not being exposed to children with diarrhea, and washing hands after handling raw beef.

  11. Risk Factors for Sporadic Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections in Children, Argentina1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Marta; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rangel, Josefa; Caletti, Maria G.; Vallés, Patricia; Roldán, Carlos D.; Balbi, Laura; Marsano de Mollar, Maria C.; Amoedo, Diego; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Chinen, Isabel; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Mead, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection among children in Argentina. We conducted a prospective case–control study in 2 sites and enrolled 150 case-patients and 299 controls. The median age of case-patients was 1.8 years; 58% were girls. Serotype O157:H7 was the most commonly isolated STEC. Exposures associated with infection included eating undercooked beef, living in or visiting a place with farm animals, and contact with a child <5 years of age with diarrhea. Protective factors included the respondent reporting that he or she always washed hands after handling raw beef and the child eating more than the median number of fruits and vegetables. Many STEC infections in children could be prevented by avoiding consumption of undercooked beef, limiting exposure to farm animals and their environment, not being exposed to children with diarrhea, and washing hands after handling raw beef. PMID:18439359

  12. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 children were enrolled in the program; they were between the ages of 8 and 11 with a body mass index (BMI of 26.59 ± 4.2 (kg/m2. They were evaluated before and after the physical activity intervention by means of a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS Test. The results with significant changes (p ≤ 0.05 between the pre-test and post-test are in weight and height. There are also significant changes observed in self-image in 15 parts of evaluated body segments, mainly in the abdomen, chest, thighs, buttocks, waist, and hips in all children from the experimental group. The results conclude that physical exercise, in spite of not producing significant changes in BMI, can positively modify body image perception.

  13. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Danish Version of the Theory of Mind Storybook for 8-14 Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Jespersen, Rókur Av F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theory-of-Mind (ToM) keeps on developing in late childhood and early adolescence, and the study of ToM development later in childhood had to await the development of sufficiently sensitive tests challenging more mature children. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric...... properties of the Danish version of the Theory-of-Mind Storybook Frederik (ToM-Frederik). METHODS: We assessed whether ToM-Frederik scores differed between a group of 41 typically developing (TD) children and a group of 33 children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). A lower mean To......M-Frederik as a valid indicator of deficits at the group level in children with HFASD between 7 and 14 years of age. Furthermore, the convergent validity is supported....

  14. In vivo susceptibility of ESBL producing Escherichia coli to ceftriaxone in children with acute pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The choice of empiric therapy of acute pyelonephritis (APN in children should be based on the knowledge of Escherichia coli (E. coli as the most common uropathogen and its antibiotic sensitivities considering that nowadays ESBL-producing [ESBL (+] E. coli is on the rise worldwide. Objective. To examine in vivo susceptibility of ESBL (+ E. coli to ceftriaxone (CTX, and to evaluate the options for empiric therapy for APN in children. Methods. Retrospective study of CTX empiric therapy of APN in children treated at the University Children΄s Hospital in Belgrade from January 2005 to December 2009. ESBL phenotypic confirmatory test with ceftazidime, CTX and cefotaxime was performed for all urine isolates by disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar plates. In vivo sensitivity of CTX documented by clinical response to empiric CTX therapy was compared between two groups of children: group I with ESBL (+ E. coli and group II with ESBL (- E. coli APN. Results. Group I with ESBL (+ APN consisted of 94 patients and group II of 120 patients with ESBL (- APN, respectively. All patients received CTX as empiric therapy at a mean dose of 66.9 mg during 7.2±2.6 days of therapy. Clinical effect of CTX was similar in patients with ESBL (+ compared to those with ESBL (- APN. Conclusions. In vitro resistance of ESBL E. coli to CTX determined by standard methods is not sufficiently predictive for its in vivo sensitivity. Therefore CTX may be used as empiric therapy for acute pyelonephritis in children.

  15. Neostigmine does not prolong the duration of analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Neostigmine extends the duration of analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children. Aims : To study the effect of different doses of caudal neostigmine on the duration of postoperative analgesia. Settings and Design : A randomized, double-blind study was conducted in 120 boys aged 1-12 years undergoing urethroplasty under combined general and caudal anesthesia. Materials and Methods : Children were administered 1.875 mg/kg bupivacaine alone (Group B, or with 2, 3 or 4 µg/kg of neostigmine (groups BN 2 , BN 3 or BN 4 respectively as caudal drug (0.75 ml/kg. Children with a pain score of 4 or more (OPS and NRS postoperatively were administered rescue analgesic. Time to first analgesic and the number of analgesic doses administered in the 24h were recorded. Statistical Analysis : Parametric data were analyzed using ANOVA. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the time to first analgesic administration were plotted and compared using log rank analysis. Chi-square test was used to analyze the incidence data. Results : The median [IQR] time to first analgesic in Group B (540 [240-1441] min was similar to that in Groups BN 2 (450 [240-720], BN 3 (600 [360-1020] and BN 4 (990 [420-1441]. Significantly more patients in Groups B (9 [34.6%] and BN 4 (13 [44.8%] required no supplemental analgesic for 24h than those in Groups BN 2 and BN 3 (4 [13.8%] and 4 [13.3%]. The number of analgesic doses required in 24h in the four groups was similar. Conclusion : Addition of neostigmine to 1.875 mg/kg of caudal bupivacaine did not prolong the analgesia following urethroplasty in children.

  16. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam De-la-Iglesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD in the following aspects. (1 Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2 Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3 Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4 Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed.

  17. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. PMID:26413564

  18. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, van den G.; Liakopoulos, A.; Mevius, D.J.; Geurts, Y.; Fluit, A.C.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Pelt, van W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria

  19. Role of auditory feedback in speech produced by cochlear implanted adults and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Tobey, Emily A.; Assmann, Peter F.; Katz, William F.

    2002-05-01

    A prominent theory of speech production proposes that speech segments are largely controlled by reference to an internal model, with minimal reliance on auditory feedback. This theory also maintains that suprasegmental aspects of speech are directly regulated by auditory feedback. Accordingly, if a talker is briefly deprived of auditory feedback speech segments should not be affected, but suprasegmental properties should show significant change. To test this prediction, comparisons were made between speech samples obtained from cochlear implant users who repeated words under two conditions (1) implant device turned ON, and (2) implant switched OFF immediately before the repetition of each word. To determine whether producing unfamiliar speech requires greater reliance on auditory feedback than producing familiar speech, English and French words were elicited from English-speaking subjects. Subjects were congenitally deaf children (n=4) and adventitiously deafened adults (n=4). Vowel fundamental frequency and formant frequencies, vowel and syllable durations, and fricative spectral moments were analyzed. Preliminary data only partially confirm the predictions, in that both segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech were significantly modified in the absence of auditory feedback. Modifications were greater for French compared to English words, suggesting greater reliance on auditory feedback for unfamiliar words. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  20. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among Ethiopian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legese, Melese Hailu; Weldearegay, Gebru Mulugeta; Asrat, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background Infections by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an emerging problem in children nowadays. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among children suspected of septicemia and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2014. A total of 322 study participants suspected of septicemia and UTIs were recruited. All blood and urine samples were cultured on blood and MacConkey agar. All positive cultures were characterized by colony morphology, Gram stain, and standard biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed on Muller-Hinton agar using disk diffusion. ESBL was detected using combination disk and double-disk synergy methods, and the results were compared. Carbapenemase was detected by modified Hodge method using meropenem. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results The overall prevalence of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 78.57% (n=22/28) and 12.12%, respectively. Among the Enterobacteriaceae tested, Klebsiella pneumoniae (84.2%, n=16/19), Escherichia coli (100%, n=5/5), and Klebsiella oxytoca (100%, n=1/1) were positive for ESBL. Double-disk synergy method showed 90.9% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, 95.2% positive predictive value, and 50% negative predictive value. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were K. pneumoniae (9.09%, n=3/33) and Morganella morganii (3.03%, n=1/33). Conclusion Screening Enterobacteriaceae for ESBL production is essential for better antibiotics selection and preventing its further emergence and spread. In resource-limited settings, double-disk synergy method can be implemented for screening and confirming ESBL production. Moreover, occurrence of CRE in countries where no carbapenems are sold is worrying microbiologists as well as clinicians. Hence, identifying factors that induce

  1. Role of climate in the spread of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection among children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaotta, Fiorella; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Fratianni, Simona; Perrone, Michela

    2017-04-01

    Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a rare disease mainly affecting children that develops as a complication of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection. It is characterised by acute kidney injury, platelet consumption and mechanical destruction of red blood cells (haemolysis). In order to test the working hypothesis that the spread of the infection is influenced by specific climatic conditions, we analysed all of the identified cases of infection occurring between June 2010 and December 2013 in four provinces of Lombardy, Italy (Milano, Monza Brianza, Varese and Brescia), in which a STEC surveillance system has been developed as part of a preventive programme. In the selected provinces, we recorded in few days a great number of cases and clusters which are unrelated for spatially distant or for the disease are caused by different STEC serotypes. In order to investigate a common factor that favoured the onset of infection, we have analysed in detail the weather conditions of the areas. The daily series of temperature, rain and relative humidity were studied to show the common climate peculiarities whilst the correlation coefficient and the principal component analysis (PCA) were used to point out the meteorological variable, maximum temperature, as the principal climate element in the onset of the infection. The use of distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) and the climate indices characterising heat waves (HWs) has allowed to identify the weather conditions associated with STEC infection. The study highlighted a close temporal correlation between STEC infection in children and the number, duration and frequency of heat waves. In particular, if the maximum temperature is greater than 90th percentile, days classified as very hot, for 3 or more consecutive days, the risk of infection is increasing.

  2. Social attention in a virtual public speaking task in higher functioning children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, William; Mundy, Peter; Gwaltney, Mary; Bailenson, Jeremy; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Kim, Kwanguk; Solomon, Marjorie; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain, Lindsay

    2013-10-01

    Impairments in social attention play a major role in autism, but little is known about their role in development after preschool. In this study, a public speaking task was used to study social attention, its moderators, and its association with classroom learning in elementary and secondary students with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Thirty-seven students with HFASD and 54 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched peers without symptoms of ASD were assessed in a virtual classroom public speaking paradigm. This paradigm assessed the ability to attend to nine avatar peers seated at a table, while simultaneously answering self-referenced questions. Students with HFASD looked less frequently to avatar peers in the classroom while talking. However, social attention was moderated in the HFASD sample such that students with lower IQ, and/or more symptoms of social anxiety, and/or more attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms, displayed more atypical social attention. Group differences were more pronounced when the classroom contained social avatars versus nonsocial targets. Moreover, measures of social attention rather than nonsocial attention were significantly associated with parent report and objective measures of learning in the classroom. The data in this study support the hypothesis of the Social Attention Model of ASD that social attention disturbance remains part of the school-aged phenotype of autism that is related to syndrome-specific problems in social learning. More research of this kind would likely contribute to advances in the understanding of the development of the spectrum of autism and educational intervention approaches for affected school-aged children.

  3. Social Attention in a Virtual Public Speaking Task in Higher Functioning Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, William; Mundy, Peter; Gwaltney, Mary; Bailenson, Jeremy; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Kim, Kwanguk; Solomon, Marjorie; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Background Impairments in social attention play a major role in autism, but little is known about their role in development after preschool. In this study a public speaking task was used to study social attention, its moderators, and its association with classroom learning in elementary and secondary students with higher functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). Method Thirty-seven students with HFASD and 54 age and IQ-matched peers without symptoms of ASD were assessed in a virtual classroom public speaking paradigm. This paradigm assessed the ability to attend to 9 avatar peers seated at a table, while simultaneously answering self-referenced questions. Results Students with HFASD looked less frequently to avatar peers in the classroom while talking. However, social attention was moderated in the HFASD sample such that students with lower IQ, and/or more symptoms of social anxiety, and/or more ADHD Inattentive symptoms, displayed more atypical social attention. Group differences were more pronounced when the classroom contained social avatars versus non-social targets. Moreover, measures of social attention rather than non-social attention were significantly associated with parent report and objective measures of learning in the classroom. Conclusions The data in this study supports the hypothesis of the Social Attention Model of ASD that social attention disturbance remains part of the school-aged phenotype of autism that is related to syndrome specific problems in social learning. More research of this kind would likely contribute to advances in the understanding of the development of autism and educational intervention approaches for affected school-aged children. PMID:23696132

  4. What Do Children Learn by Trying to Produce the Domino Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Naoko; Kamii, Constance

    2008-01-01

    Preschool teachers use the domino effect--standing dominos on end in rows and pushing one over--to examine how play contributes to children's acquisition of knowledge. Using diagrams, photos, and vignettes of children between the ages of 3 and 5 years, the authors demonstrate how children at different stages of development use physical knowledge…

  5. What Do Children Learn by Trying to Produce the Domino Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Naoko; Kamii, Constance

    2008-01-01

    Preschool teachers use the domino effect--standing dominos on end in rows and pushing one over--to examine how play contributes to children's acquisition of knowledge. Using diagrams, photos, and vignettes of children between the ages of 3 and 5 years, the authors demonstrate how children at different stages of development use physical knowledge…

  6. Assessing Advanced Theory of Mind in Children and Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism: The Spanish Version of the Stories of Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera-Miguel, Sara; Rosa, Mireia; Puig, Olga; Kaland, Nils; Lázaro, Luisa; Castro-Formieles, Josefina; Calvo, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Most individuals with autism spectrum disorders often fail in tasks of theory of mind (ToM). However, those with normal intellectual functioning known as high functioning ASD (HF-ASD) sometimes succeed in mentalizing inferences. Some tools have been developed to more accurately test their ToM abilities. The aims of this study were to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of Stories of Everyday Life Test (SEL) in a sample of 29 children and adolescents with HF-ASD and 25 typically developing controls and to compare their performance. The Spanish-SEL demonstrated good internal consistency, strong convergence with clinical severity and another ToM test, and adequate discriminant validity from intellectual capability and age, identifying the condition of 70 % of participants.

  7. Maxillary Arch Dimensions and Spectral Characteristics of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Produce Middorsum Palatal Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, David J.; Cevidanes, Lucia; Shah, Sonam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine maxillary arch dimensions of children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) who produced middorsum palatal stops and (b) to describe some spectral characteristics of middorsum palatal stops. Method: Maxillary arch width, length, and height dimensions and first spectral moments of…

  8. Maxillary Arch Dimensions and Spectral Characteristics of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Produce Middorsum Palatal Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, David J.; Cevidanes, Lucia; Shah, Sonam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine maxillary arch dimensions of children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) who produced middorsum palatal stops and (b) to describe some spectral characteristics of middorsum palatal stops. Method: Maxillary arch width, length, and height dimensions and first spectral moments of…

  9. Laughter Differs in Children with Autism: An Acoustic Analysis of Laughs Produced by Children with and without the Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudenko, William J.; Stone, Wendy; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined vocal expressions of emotion in children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that during social interactions, children diagnosed with autism would exhibit less extreme laugh acoustics than their nonautistic peers. Laughter was recorded during a series of playful interactions with an examiner. Results showed that…

  10. Formant frequencies of Malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hua-Nong; Zourmand, Alireza; Chia, See-Yan; Yong, Boon-Fei; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2012-09-01

    The formant frequencies of Malaysian Malay children have not been well studied. This article investigates the first four formant frequencies of sustained vowels in 360 Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Generally, Malay female children had higher formant frequencies than those of their male counterparts. However, no significant differences in all four formant frequencies were observed between the Malay male and female children in most of the vowels and age groups. Significant differences in all formant frequencies were found across the Malay vowels in both Malay male and female children for all age groups except for F4 in female children aged 12 years. Generally, the Malaysian Malay children showed a nonsystematic decrement in formant frequencies with age. Low levels of significant differences in formant frequencies were observed across the age groups in most of the vowels for F1, F3, and F4 in Malay male children and F1 and F4 in Malay female children.

  11. Failure to produce direct object clitic pronouns as a clinical marker of SLI in school-aged Italian speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Branchini, Chiara; Barbieri, Lina; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2014-09-01

    We administrated a clitic elicitation task to 16 school-aged Italian speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) in order to investigated whether the failure to produce third person direct object clitics (DO clitics) is a persistent clinical marker of SLI in Italian; we examined whether this failure also extends to reflexive clitics. Results show that Italian children with SLI aged 6 to 9;11 years fail to produce DO clitics and tend to produce a lexical noun introduced by a determiner (full DP) in the argument postverbal position instead of the pronoun; the production of reflexive clitics is preserved in the same population. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and computation of likelihood ratios show that the failure to produce DO clitics is a persistent good clinical marker of SLI in Italian. We argue that DO clitic production requires complex morphosyntactic operations that are hardly achieved by children with SLI; our findings are compatible with theories considering SLI as a deficit of processing complex linguistic relations.

  12. Promotion and consumption of commercially produced foods among children: situation analysis in an urban setting in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Alison B; Ndeye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Diop, Elhadji Issakha; Pries, Alissa M; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth R; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the promotion of commercially produced foods and consumption of these products by children less than 24 months of age in Dakar Department, Senegal. Interviews with 293 mothers of children attending child health clinics assessed maternal exposure to promotion and maternal recall of foods consumed by the child on the preceding day. Promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods outside health facilities was common with 41.0% and 37.2% of mothers, respectively, reporting product promotions since the birth of their youngest child. Promotion of commercially produced snack food products was more prevalent, observed by 93.5% of mothers. While all mothers reported having breastfed their child, only 20.8% of mothers breastfed their newborn within the first hour after delivery, and 44.7% fed pre-lacteal feeds in the first 3 days after delivery. Of children 6-23 months of age, 20.2% had consumed a breastmilk substitute; 49.1% ate a commercially produced complementary food, and 58.7% ate a commercially produced snack food product on the previous day. There is a need to stop the promotion of breastmilk substitutes, including infant formula, follow-up formula, and growing-up milks. More stringent regulations and enforcement could help to eliminate such promotion to the public through the media and in stores. Promotion of commercial snack foods is concerning, given the high rates of consumption of such foods by children under the age of 2 years. Efforts are needed to determine how best to reduce such promotion and encourage replacement of these products with more nutritious foods.

  13. Otitis-Prone Children Produce Functional Antibodies to Pneumolysin and Pneumococcal Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Wiertsema, Selma P; Corscadden, Karli J; Mateus, Tulia; Mullaney, Gemma L; Zhang, Guicheng; Richmond, Peter C; Thornton, Ruth B

    2017-03-01

    The pneumococcus is a major otitis media (OM) pathogen, but data are conflicting regarding whether otitis-prone children have impaired humoral immunity to pneumococcal antigens. We and others have shown that otitis-prone and healthy children have similar antibody titers to pneumococcal proteins and polysaccharides (vaccine and nonvaccine types); however, the quality of antibodies from otitis-prone children has not been investigated. Antibody function, rather than titer, is considered to be a better correlate of protection from pneumococcal disease. Therefore, we compared the capacities of antibodies from otitis-prone (cases) and healthy (controls) children to neutralize pneumolysin, the pneumococcal toxin currently in development as a vaccine antigen, and to opsonize pneumococcal vaccine and nonvaccine serotypes. A pneumolysin neutralization assay was conducted on cholesterol-depleted complement-inactivated sera from 165 cases and 61 controls. A multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA) was conducted on sera from 20 cases and 20 controls. Neutralizing and opsonizing titers were calculated with antigen-specific IgG titers to determine antibody potency for pneumolysin, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) polysaccharides, and non-PCV polysaccharides. There was no significant difference in antibody potencies between cases and controls for the antigens tested. Antipneumolysin neutralizing titers increased with the number of episodes of acute OM, but antibody potency did not. Pneumolysin antibody potency was lower in children colonized with pneumococci than in noncarriers, and this was significant for the otitis-prone group (P otitis-prone children demonstrates that they respond to the current PCV and are likely to respond to pneumolysin-based vaccines as effectively as healthy children. Copyright © 2017 Kirkham et al.

  14. Referential choice across the lifespan : why children and elderly adults produce ambiguous pronouns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Petra; Koster, Charlotte; Hoeks, John C. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, children, young adults and elderly adults were tested in production and comprehension tasks assessing referential choice. Our aims were (1) to determine whether speakers egocentrically base their referential choice on the preceding linguistic discourse or also take into account the

  15. Referential choice across the lifespan : why children and elderly adults produce ambiguous pronouns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Petra; Koster, Charlotte; Hoeks, John C. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, children, young adults and elderly adults were tested in production and comprehension tasks assessing referential choice. Our aims were (1) to determine whether speakers egocentrically base their referential choice on the preceding linguistic discourse or also take into account the pe

  16. Influence of Familiarity on Identifying Prosodic Vocalizations Produced by Children with Severe Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupal; Schroeder, Bethany

    2007-01-01

    Familiarity is thought to aid listeners in decoding disordered speech; however, as the speech signal degrades, the "familiarity advantage" becomes less beneficial. Despite highly unintelligible speech sound production, many children with dysarthria vocalize when interacting with familiar caregivers. Perhaps listeners can understand these…

  17. Risk factors for community-acquired urinary tract infection caused by ESBL-producing bacteria in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilca, Ozgur; Siraneci, Rengin; Yilmaz, Alev; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Ozturk, Erkut; Kiyak, Aysel; Ozkok, Dilek

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors of antimicrobial resistance in children with urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. A total of 344 patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI) between January 2008 and December 2009 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Causative microorganisms were ESBL-producing bacteria in 148 patients and non-ESBL-producing bacteria in 196 patients. There was no difference between the two groups regarding distribution of age, sex and length of follow up. The most frequent causative agent was Escherichia coli, of which 41.4% were ESBL producing. Among Klebsiella species, 53.2% were ESBL producing. The proportion of ESBL-producing bacteria that were resistant to antibiotics was 83.1% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 18.2% for nitrofurantoin, 47.3% for quinolones, and 39.9% for aminoglycosides. For non-ESBL-producing bacteria, the resistance rate was 62.2% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 4.6% for nitrofurantoin, 9.7% for quinolones, and 9.7% for aminoglycosides. Age <1 year, high UTI recurrence rate, long duration of prophylaxis, use of cephalosporins for prophylaxis, hospitalization within the previous 3 months and clean intermittent catheterization were found to be significant risk factors for ESBL-producing bacteria (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis identified age <1 year and high recurrence UTI rate to be independent risk factors, increasing the risk 1.74-fold and 2.25-fold, respectively. Recognition of the risk factors for ESBL-producing bacteria may be helpful to determine new policies in the management of UTI. Recurrence of UTI should be prevented especially in the first year of life, and prophylactic cephalosporins should be avoided. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Estimation of the total saliva volume produced per day in five-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Ohnishi, M; Imai, K; Kawano, E; Igarashi, S

    1995-08-01

    Fifteen boys and 15 girls were asked to record for 2 days the time spent awake, eating meals or snacks, and sleeping. The salivary flow rates elicited by chewing foods were also determined. The mean flow rate (+/- SD) of unstimulated saliva was 0.26 +/- 0.16 ml/min and that of saliva while chewing six different foods was 3.6 +/- 0.8 ml/min. The mean times spent eating, and awake but not eating, were 80.8 +/- 27.3 and 820 +/- 59 min, respectively, and the volumes of saliva produced during those periods would average about 288 and 208 ml, respectively. If the flow rate is virtually zero during sleep, the estimated total salivary volume produced per day is calculated to be about 500 ml.

  19. DISSEMINATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING ENTEROBACTERIACEAE IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Sílvia Branco; Ferreira, Helena Neto

    2017-01-01

    Extended -spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (EESBL), have been considered important nosocomial pathogens during the last decades. Nowadays community dissemination of this resistance threat is a reality, namely, in particular niches, as old people care settings. Fecal colonization of healthy people is a reality that might compromise effective infection control in acute care hospitals and long term care facilities and in that way, screening of extended -spectrum beta-lactamas...

  20. Dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, S.B.; Ferreira, H.N.

    2013-01-01

    As Enterobacteriaceae produtoras de beta-lactamases de espectro alargado (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae - EESBL) têm sido consideradas importantes agentes patogénicos hospitalares. Nos últimos tempos, a sua disseminação na comunidade, é uma realidade que pode condicionar a terapêutica empírica. A colonização fecal de pessoas saudáveis com EESBL é uma realidade que pode comprometer o controlo de infeção nos cuidados de saúde hospitalares e na prestação ...

  1. Recurrences in chronic tonsillitis substained by tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria in children. Relationship with the grade of tonsillar hyperplasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Sara; Drago, Lorenzo; Marchisio, Paola; Cappadona, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Vittorio; Nazzari, Erica; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2013-02-01

    It has been suggested that bacterial biofilms are involved in chronic tonsillar disease, but there is a lack of strong evidence concerning their etiopathogenic role in childhood chronic tonsillar infections. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of biofilm-producing bacteria (BPB) in tonsillar bioptic specimens taken from children with recurrent exacerbations of chronic hyperplastic tonsillitis, and to evaluate the possible relationship between them and the patients' demographic and clinical characteristics. 22 children (68.2% males; median age 6.5 years, range 3-13) with recurrent exacerbations of chronic hyperplastic tonsillitis were included. The presence of tonsillar BPB was assessed by means of the spectrophotometric analysis of tonsillar bioptic specimens taken during tonsillectomy between episodes of tonsillar infection. BPB were found in 50.0% of the 44 tonsillar specimens, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen (81.8%). There was a significant relationship (p=0.02) between the grade of tonsillar hyperplasy (GTH) and the presence of tonsillar BPB, with an increased relative risk (RR=4.27, standard error=2.57, pchildren with GTH scores of >2. The findings of this study: (1) confirm the presence of tonsillar BPB in children with recurrent exacerbations of chronic tonsillar infections; (2) suggest that GTH is an important indicator of the presence of tonsillar BPB; and (3) raise the question as to whether tonsillar biofilm is a causative factor or just a consequence of recurrent exacerbations of chronic hyperplastic tonsillitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional characterization of IgA-targeted bacterial taxa from malnourished Malawian children that produce diet-dependent enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kau, Andrew L.; Planer, Joseph D.; Liu, Jie; Rao, Sindhuja; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J.; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G.; Houpt, Eric R.; Hsieh, Chyi-Song; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the interrelationships among childhood undernutrition, the gut microbiota, and gut mucosal immune/barrier function, we purified bacterial strains targeted by IgA from the fecal microbiota of two cohorts of Malawian infants and children. IgA responses to several bacterial taxa, including Enterobacteriaceae, correlated with anthropometric measurements of nutritional status in longitudinal studies. The relationship between IgA responses and growth was further explained by enteropathogen burden. Gnotobiotic mouse recipients of an IgA+-bacterial consortium purified from the gut microbiota of undernourished children exhibited a diet-dependent enteropathy characterized by rapid disruption of the small intestinal and colonic epithelial barrier, weight loss and sepsis that could be prevented by administering two IgA-targeted bacterial species from a healthy microbiota. Dissection of a culture collection of 11 IgA-targeted strains from an undernourished donor, sufficient to transmit these phenotypes, disclosed that Enterobacteriaceae interacted with other consortium members to produce enteropathy. These findings indicate that bacterial targets of IgA responses have etiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications for childhood undernutrition. PMID:25717097

  3. beta-Lactamase-producing Moraxella catarrhalis may prevent the emergence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki-Erkkilä, Veli-Pekka; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Puhakka, Heikki

    2002-05-15

    We studied the effect of concomitant nasopharyngeal carriage of beta-lactamase producing Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae on the occurrence of penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We took nasopharyngeal samples from 306 children with recurrent otitis media and a history of several antibiotic treatments. We could isolate at least one of the pathogens in 89 subjects. Of these children 13% carried more than one pathogen. Of the isolated M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae strains 93% and 43% produced beta-lactamase, respectively. Of the S. pneumoniae strains 25% were non-susceptible (I/R) to penicillin. However, in patients carrying beta-lactamase-producing M. catarrhalis together with pneumococci all strains were susceptible to penicillin (P=0.0353). This finding suggests that beta-lactamase producing M. catarrhalis may hinder the emergence of penicillin resistance of S. pneumoniae in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

  4. High rates of multidrug resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in children and analyses of ESBL producers from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal. Methods A total of 5,484 urinary tract specimens from children suspected with UTI attending a teaching hospital of Nepal over a period of one year were processed for the isolation of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Escherichia coli (n = 739, the predominant isolate in pediatric UTI, was further selected for the detection of ESBL-production by phenotypic combination disk diffusion test. Results Incidence of urinary tract infection among pediatric patients was found to be 19.68% and E coli (68.4% was leading pathogen involved. Out of 739 E coli isolates, 64.9% were multidrug resistant (MDR and 5% were extensively drug resistant (XDR. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL was detected in 288 (38.9% of the E coli isolates. Conclusion Alarming rate of drug resistance among pediatric uropathogens and high rate of ESBL-producing E. coli was observed. It is extremely necessary to routinely investigate the drug resistance among all isolates and formulate strict antibiotics prescription policy in our country.

  5. Spectral Analysis of Word-Initial Alveolar and Velar Plosives Produced by Iranian Children with Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Marziye; Zajac, David J.; Bijankhan, Mahmood; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Spectral moment analysis (SMA) was used to describe voiceless alveolar and velar stop-plosive production in Persian-speaking children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP). Participants included 11 children with bilateral CLP who were undergoing maxillary expansion and 20 children without any type of orofacial clefts. Four of the children with…

  6. Spectral Analysis of Word-Initial Alveolar and Velar Plosives Produced by Iranian Children with Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Marziye; Zajac, David J.; Bijankhan, Mahmood; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Spectral moment analysis (SMA) was used to describe voiceless alveolar and velar stop-plosive production in Persian-speaking children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP). Participants included 11 children with bilateral CLP who were undergoing maxillary expansion and 20 children without any type of orofacial clefts. Four of the children with…

  7. Cross-linguistic comparison of speech errors produced by English- and French-speaking preschool-age children with developmental phonological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Lapré, Françoise; Rvachew, Susan

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four French-speaking children with developmental phonological disorders (DPD) were matched on percentage of consonants correct (PCC)-conversation, age, and receptive vocabulary measures to English-speaking children with DPD in order to describe how speech errors are manifested differently in these two languages. The participants' productions of consonants on a single-word test of articulation were compared in terms of feature-match ratios for the production of target consonants, and type of errors produced. Results revealed that the French-speaking children had significantly lower match ratios for the major sound class features [+ consonantal] and [+ sonorant]. The French-speaking children also obtained significantly lower match ratios for [+ voice]. The most frequent type of errors produced by the French-speaking children was syllable structure errors, followed by segment errors, and a few distortion errors. On the other hand, the English-speaking children made more segment than syllable structure and distortion errors. The results of the study highlight the need to use test instruments with French-speaking children that reflect the phonological characteristics of French at multiple levels of the phonological hierarchy.

  8. The presence of biofilm-producing bacteria on tonsils is associated with increased exhaled nitric oxide levels: preliminary data in children who experience recurrent exacerbations of chronic tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Drago, L; Capaccio, P; Baggi, E; Pignataro, L

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that bacterial biofilms may be a causative factor in the aetiopathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis. Involvement of exhaled nitric oxide has been previously considered, with conflicting findings. A pilot study was performed to investigate the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide levels and the presence of tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria in children with chronic tonsillitis. Tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria on bioptic specimens taken during tonsillectomy were assessed by means of spectrophotometry. Analysis was based on 24 children aged 5-10 years (median, 7.5 years). Biofilm-producing bacteria were found in 40.9 per cent of specimens. The median exhaled nitric oxide level was 11.6 ppb (range, 3.2-22.3 ppb). There was a significant relationship between the presence of biofilm-producing bacteria and increased exhaled nitric oxide levels (p = 0.03). Children with exhaled nitric oxide levels of more than 8 ppb were at three times greater risk of developing tonsillar biofilm-producing bacteria than those with lower levels. Our findings suggest the possibility of discriminating children with chronic biofilm-sustained tonsillar infections on the basis of exhaled nitric oxide levels.

  9. Differences in assertive speech acts produced by children with autism, Asperger syndrome, specific language impairment, and normal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziatas, Kathryn; Durkin, Kevin; Pratt, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The assertive speech acts of children with autism (n = 12) and Asperger syndrome (n = 12), individually matched to children with specific language impairment (SLI; n = 24) and children with normal development (n = 24) were studied in the context of gently structured conversation. These children also completed the false belief test of theory of mind. The children with autism used significantly lower proportions of assertions involving explanations and descriptions than the children with SLI or normal development and significantly lower proportions of assertions involving internal state and explanations than the children with Asperger syndrome. The children with autism used a higher proportion of assertions involving identifications than any other group. The assertions of the children with Asperger syndrome were generally not different than those of the children with SLI or normal development except for a higher proportion of assertions involving own internal state. Further analysis of the mental assertions revealed that the children with autism and Asperger syndrome predominantly referred to desire and made few references to thought and belief, whereas the children with SLI and those with normal development used a higher proportion of references to thought and belief.

  10. Implications of screening and childcare exclusion policies for children with Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli infections: lessons learned from an outbreak in a daycare centre, Norway, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; Dalane, Per Kjetil; Aavitsland, Preben; Brandal, Lin Thorstensen; Wester, Astrid Louise; Vold, Line

    2014-12-18

    In Norway, it is recommended that children with Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are excluded from daycare centers until up to five consecutive negative stool cultures are obtained. Children with gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology are asked to remain home for 48 hours after symptoms subside. On 16 October 2012, two cases of STEC infection were reported from a daycare center, where other children were also symptomatic. Local health authorities temporarily closed the daycare center and all children and staff were screened for pathogenic E. coli. We present the results of the outbreak investigation in order to discuss the implications of screening and the exclusion policies for children attending daycare in Norway. Stool specimens for all children (n = 91) and employees at the daycare center (n = 40) were tested for pathogenic E. coli. Information on demographics, symptoms and potential exposures was collected from parents through trawling interviews and a web-based questionnaire. Cases were monitored to determine the duration of shedding and the resulting exclusion period from daycare. We identified five children with stx1- and eae-positive STEC O103:H2 infections, and one staff member and one child with STEC O91:H- infections. Three additional children who tested positive for stx1 and eae genes were considered probable STEC cases. Three cases were asymptomatic. Median length of time of exclusion from daycare for STEC cases was 53 days (range 9 days-108 days). Survey responses for 75 children revealed mild gastrointestinal symptoms among both children with STEC infections and children with negative microbiological results. There was no evidence of common exposures; person-to-person transmission was likely. The results of screening indicate that E. coli infections can spread in daycare centres, reflected in the proportion of children with STEC and EPEC infections. While screening can identify asymptomatic cases, the

  11. Does Quality Time Produce Quality Children? Evidence on the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital using Parental Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses variation created by parental deaths in the amount of time children spend with each parent to examine whether the parent-child correlation in schooling outcomes stems from a causal relationship. Using a large sample of Israeli children who lost one parent during childhood, we find a series of striking patterns which show that the relationship is largely causal. Relative to children who did not lose a parent, the education of the deceased parent is less important in determining...

  12. Rise of community-onset urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Nai-Chia; Chen, Hsin-Hang; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Tsai, Ming-Han; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2014-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by resistant bacteria is becoming more prevalent. Few studies are available regarding community-onset UTIs caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in children. During a 5-year period, hospitalized children with community-onset UTI caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (case) and those with non-ESBL-producing E. coli (control) were identified. Patients with long-term care facility stay within the preceding month and those with urine cultures obtained >72 hours after admission were excluded. Clinical features and risk factors associated with the occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli UTI were reviewed. The prevalence of UTI due to ESBL-producing E. coli increased slightly from 0.59% in 2002 to 0.96% in 2006. A total of 104 cases and 208 controls were included for comparison. The ciprofloxacin resistance of the ESBL-producing E. coli increased significantly in this period (p = 0.006). Pre-existing neurological diseases (p infection control measures, especially hand washing in childcare settings and antibiotic stewardship, is critical to reduce the spread of ESBL-producing E. coli. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A Case Study of the Features of Oral Narratives Produced by a Small Group of Children with Sensory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Helen Chen

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that oral narrative is the discourse form that functions as a bridge between conversational oral language and language skills that contribute to the acquisition of literacy in children (Westby, 1991). Learning to tell stories, therefore, is important to children's literacy development. Mastering extended discourse tasks such as…

  14. Can One-Parent Families or Divorced Families Produce Two-Language Children? An Investigation into How Portuguese-English Bilingual Children Acquire Biliteracy within Diverse Family Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obied, Vicky Macleroy

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of biliteracy in school-aged Portuguese-English bilingual children growing up within diverse family structures in Portugal. The ethnographic research investigated the premise that some children have the opportunity to acquire biliteracy, like their bilingualism, in naturalistic contexts. There are gaps in…

  15. High Rate of Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Children in Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reyes, María; Vicente, Diego; Gomariz, María; Esnal, Olatz; Landa, Joseba; Oñate, Eider

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) was studied in stool samples from 125 8- to 16-month-old healthy children. Twenty-four percent of them and 10.7% of the 318 fecal samples studied yielded extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, with the types being SHV-12, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-14, and TEM-52, the most common types of β-lactamases. This high prevalence of ESBLPE in healthy people, which is to our knowledge the highest currently reported in Europe, may represent a risk for increased infections by these organisms in the future. PMID:24395224

  16. Central Tendency and Dispersion Measures of the Fundamental Frequencies of Four Vowels as Produced by Two Year-Old and Four-Year Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Roberta Lynn

    The intrinsic fundamental frequency effect among vowels is a vocalic phenomenon of adult speech in which high vowels have higher fundamental frequencies in relation to low vowels. Acoustic investigations of children's speech have shown that variability of the speech signal decreases as children's ages increase. Fundamental frequency measures have been suggested as an indirect metric for the development of laryngeal stability and coordination. Studies of the intrinsic fundamental frequency effect have been conducted among 8- and 9-year old children and in infants. The present study investigated this effect among 2- and 4-year old children. Eight 2-year old and eight 4-year old children produced four vowels, /ae/, /i/, /u/, and /a/, in CVC syllables. Three measures of fundamental frequency were taken. These were mean fundamental frequency, the intra-utterance standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, and the extent to which the cycle-to-cycle pattern of the fundamental frequency was predicted by a linear trend. An analysis of variance was performed to compare the two age groups, the four vowels, and the earlier and later repetitions of the CVC syllables. A significant difference between the two age groups was detected using the intra-utterance standard deviation of the fundamental frequency. Mean fundamental frequencies and linear trend analysis showed that voicing of the preceding consonant determined the statistical significance of the age-group comparisons. Statistically significant differences among the fundamental frequencies of the four vowels were not detected for either age group.

  17. Use of Cognitive Dissonance to Produce Changes in the Attitudes and Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged First Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Teresa Martin

    Using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance as a model, this study attempted to change the attitude and behavior of children toward well liked toys. The results offer only limited support for the theory. The subjects in the three groups did play a significantly different amount of time in the two play periods. The t-tests indicated it was the…

  18. IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFECT PRODUCED BY VACCINATION WITH «PNEUMO 23» OF CHILDREN WITH CARRIAGE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Sizonenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sixteen children from 3 to 6 years old with complicated premorbid background, carrying S. pneumoniae, who had inflammation markers (altered IL-6 and TNFα amounts in peripheral blood analysisтalong with immunological deficiency, were vaccinated with a «Pneumo 23» preparation. A good tolerance of «Pneumo 23» vaccine was determined. A significant increase of specific antibodies was established both to pneumococcal polysaccharides and to polysaccharides, containing in «Pneumo 23». A tendency to diminished inflammatory events and activated immunological response was revealed, that was expressed as a decrease of serum IL-6 and increase in TNFα.

  19. Are children's vitamin D levels and BMI associated with antibody titers produced in response to 2014-2015 influenza vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chyongchiou J; Martin, Judith M; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Zimmerman, Richard K; Susick, Michael; Moehling, Krissy K; Levine, Min Z; Spencer, Sarah; Flannery, Brendan; Nowalk, Mary Patricia

    2017-07-03

    Vitamin D is an immunomodulating hormone, which has been associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases. Serum vitamin D levels in 135 children ages 3-17 y were measured at baseline and hemagglutinin influenza antibody titers were measured pre- and 21 d post influenza vaccination with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Height and weight were derived from the electronic medical record and were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Thirty-nine percent of children were ages 3-8 years; 75% were black, 34% were obese (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile); vitamin D levels were >20 ng/ml in 55%. In linear regression analyses, post vaccination antibody titers for LAIV B lineages (B Brisbane and B Massachusetts) were significantly higher among those with lower vitamin D levels and among younger participants (P D levels and responses to LAIV A strains (A/H1N1 and A/H3N2) or to any IIV strains or lineages were found. Low vitamin D levels were associated with higher response to LAIV B lineages in the 2014-2015 LAIV, but not related to LAIV A or any IIV strains.

  20. Nutritional value of locally produced foods and potential for developing age-appropriate complementary foods for children under 2 years of age in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Kodio, Joseph; Iknane, Akory Ag; Sodjinou, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Promotion of dietary diversity using locally available nutritious foods is an effective approach in low-income areas to improve the quality of young children's diet and, hence, their growth and development. To identify the nutritional values of locally acceptable, feasible, affordable, and sustainable foods and develop a number of recipes that could be used to complement effectively nutrient intakes provided through breastfeeding to children 6 to 23 months of age in Bandiagara, Mali. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain lists of all locally available foods during village assembly meetings and identify the food basket of households and child feeding practices during interviews with mothers and fathers. The nutritional values of the foods were estimated, and the Malian food composition table was used to identify the combinations that would result in the most nutritious recipes. Breastfeeding was widely practiced, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was extremely low (7%). The practice of early introduction of water and complementary foods was a problem. Forty recipes for improved dishes, including puddings, drinks and juices, purees, salads, and soups, were proposed. The nutritional values of the 10 most nutritious of these recipes, the types and quantities of the ingredients, and the method of preparation of each recipe are described. Locally produced indigenous foods in rural Mali were used to develop energy- and nutrient-dense complementary foods for children. Further research is needed to test the short- and long-term effects of consuming these dishes on the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age in Mali.

  1. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli infections in children: are community-acquired strains different from nosocomial strains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgand, Marjolaine; Vimont, Sophie; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Boyd, Anders; Thien, Hoang Vu; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Denamur, Erick; Arlet, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children. We compared 58 epidemiologically unrelated ESBL-producing E. coli strains that caused infections. They were isolated between 2008 and 2012 in two Parisian pediatric hospitals and grouped according to their origin into either community-acquired (CA) (n=37) or nosocomially acquired (NA) (n=21) strains. Molecular characteristics of the ESBLs, phylogenetic traits of the strains including their belonging to clone O25b-ST131, prevalence of associated virulence genes, growth capacities in different media, metabolic phenotype and biofilm formation abilities were studied. ESBL type, associated resistance and distribution of phylogenetic groups were similar in the CA and NA groups. More than 60% of the B2 phylogroup strains in both groups belonged to the ST131 clone. Interestingly, CA strains possessed more genes encoding virulence factors and the distribution of these genes differed significantly between the two groups: fyuA, hlyC, papC and papGII were more frequent in the CA group, whereas iroN was more frequent in the NA group. CA strains also showed enhanced growth capacities in Luria Bertani rich medium. They tended to produce more biofilm but the difference was not significant. This study confirms the wide spread of clone ST131 among infected children, regardless of whether their infections were community- or nosocomially acquired. It highlights genotypic and phenotypic differences according to the origin of the strains that could indicate adaptability of these multi-resistant bacteria to specific environmental and host factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Further characterization of autoantibodies to GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system produced by a subset of children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wills Sharifia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication, together with the presence of repetitive behaviors or a limited repertoire of activities and interests. The causes of autism are currently unclear. In a previous study, we determined that 21% of children with autism have plasma autoantibodies that are immunoreactive with a population of neurons in the cerebellum that appear to be Golgi cells, which are GABAergic interneurons. Methods We have extended this analysis by examining plasma immunoreactivity in the remainder of the brain. To determine cell specificity, double-labeling studies that included one of the calcium-binding proteins that are commonly colocalized in GABAergic neurons (calbindin, parvalbumin or calretinin were also carried out to determine which GABAergic neurons are immunoreactive. Coronal sections through the rostrocaudal extent of the macaque monkey brain were reacted with plasma from each of seven individuals with autism who had previously demonstrated positive Golgi cell staining, as well as six negative controls. In addition, brain sections from adult male mice were similarly examined. Results In each case, specific staining was observed for neurons that had the morphological appearance of interneurons. By double-labeling sections with plasma and with antibodies directed against γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, we determined that all autoantibody-positive neurons were GABAergic. However, not all GABAergic neurons were autoantibody-positive. Calbindin was colabeled in several of the autoantibody-labeled cells, while parvalbumin colabeling was less frequently observed. Autoantibody-positive cells rarely expressed calretinin. Sections from the mouse brain processed similarly to the primate sections also demonstrated immunoreactivity to interneurons distributed throughout the neocortex and many subcortical regions. Some

  3. [The detection of strains of Esherichia coll producing Shiga toxin in populations of normal intestinal microbiota in children with functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E I; Popkova, S M; Dzhioev, Iu P; Rakova, E B; Nemchenko, U M; Rychkova, L V

    2014-11-01

    In intestinal ecosystem, interchange of genetic material between different types of bacteria and other representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae results in development of types of normal colibacillus with genetic characteristics of pathogenicity. This occurrence can be considered as a theoretical substantiation for labeling such strains as pathobionts. The polymerase chain reaction was implemented to analyze 96 strains of different types of Escherichia coli (with normal and weak zymogenic activity and hemolytic activity) isolated from children with functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract. The purpose was to detect presence of gens coding capacity of toxin production (six1, stx2). In intestinal biotope of children, circulation of strains of Escherichia coli producing shiga toxin having no relation to pathogenic group being representatives of normal indigenous microbiota. The presence of gens stx1 and stx2 in various biochemical types of Escherichia coli permits establishing fact of forming of reservoir of potential pathogenicity in non-pathogenic forms of Escherichia coli. The presence of gen (verotoxin 1) in genome of various types of Escherichia coli isolated from one single biotope testifies possible horizontal transmission of factors of pathogenicity in intestinal biotope.

  4. Health impact assessment and monetary valuation of IQ loss in pre-school children due to lead exposure through locally produced food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, J; Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Torfs, R

    2012-01-01

    A case study has been performed which involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb) and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR) in response to current and future legislation. Consecutive model calculations (MSCE-HM, WATSON, XtraFOOD, IEUBK) were performed by different partners on the project as part of the full chain approach to derive estimates of blood lead (B-Pb) levels in children as a consequence of the consumption of local produce. The estimated B-Pb levels were translated into an average loss of IQ points/child using an empirical relationship based on a meta-analysis performed by Schwartz (1994). The calculated losses in IQ points were subsequently further translated into the average cost/child using a cost estimate of €10.000 per loss of IQ point based on data from a literature review. The estimated average reduction of cost/child (%) for all countries considered in 2010 under BAU and MFTR are 12.16 and 18.08% as compared to base line conditions, respectively. In 2020 the percentages amount to 20.19 and 23.39%. The case study provides an example of the full-chain impact pathway approach taking into account all foreseeable pathways both for assessing the environmental fate and the associated human exposure and the mode of toxic action to arrive at quantitative estimates of health impacts at the individual and

  5. Potentialization of β-lactams with colistin: in case of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with urinary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Atya, Ahmed K; Drider-Hadiouche, Karima; Vachee, Anne; Drider, Djamel

    2016-04-01

    Five strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) bacteria, identified as Escherichia coli, were isolated from children with urinary infections hospitalized at Roubaix hospital in the north of France. The DNA genotypes of these non-nosocomial isolates were determined by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Further, their DNA plasmids content revealed the presence of two distinct plasmids for S1, S2, S3 and one plasmid for S4 and S5. The antibacterial susceptibility of these ESBL bacteria was tested mainly against antibiotics of β-lactams family. The ESBL producing bacteria were resistant to ticarcillin and cefotaxime but the combination of these antibiotics with colistin has dropped the MIC of ticarcillin below its breakpoint (isolates S2, S3 and S4), and has almost reached the breakpoint for cefotaxime (isolate S2). Thus, kill curves analyses carried out with only isolates S1 and S2, strengthened the bactericidal activity of the combinations of colistin-ticarcillin and colistin-cefotaxime against ESBL E. coli. Indeed, reduction of 3 log10 colony count were observed after 24 h of incubation.

  6. ‘Our Care through Our Eyes’: a mixed-methods, evaluative study of a service-user, co-produced education programme to improve inpatient care of children and young people admitted following self-harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Asam; Carter, Tim; Cooper, Joanne; Horsley, Angela; Armstrong, Marie; Wharrad, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Within Europe, the UK has one of the highest rates of self-harm, with a particularly high prevalence in children and young people (CYP). CYP who are admitted to paediatric hospital wards with self-harm are cared for by registered children's nurses who have been identified to lack specific training in caring for this patient group. This may impede the delivery of high quality care. Therefore, this study aims to co-produce, implement and evaluate an education programme for registered children's nurses to improve their knowledge, attitudes and confidence when caring for CYP admitted with self-harm. Methods and analysis This mixed-methods evaluative study will involve a three-stage design. Stage 1: A priority-setting workshop will be conducted with 19 registered children's nurses. A Delphi technique will be used to establish consensus of information needs. Stage 2: An online educational intervention will be co-produced with 25 CYP and 19 registered children's nurses based on the priorities identified in Stage 1. Stage 3: The intervention will be implemented and evaluated with 250 registered children's nurses at a single hospital. Online Likert scale questionnaires will be administered at baseline and postintervention to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and confidence in caring for CYP who self-harm. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyse the data. Statistical significance will be assessed at the 5% (two-sided) level. One-to-one qualitative interviews will also be undertaken with approximately 25 participants to explore any perceived impact on clinical practice. An interpretive descriptive approach will guide qualitative data collection and analysis. Ethics and dissemination This study aims to develop, trial and evaluative a service-user, co-produced education programme for acute hospital registered children's nurses to improve the care of CYP admitted due to self-harm. The study has ethical approval from the National Health

  7. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  8. Turkish- and English-speaking children display sensitivity to perceptual context in the referring expressions they produce in speech and gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; So, Wing-Chee; Özyürek, Asli; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Speakers choose a particular expression based on many factors, including availability of the referent in the perceptual context. We examined whether, when expressing referents, monolingual English- and Turkish-speaking children: (1) are sensitive to perceptual context, (2) express this sensitivity in language-specific ways, and (3) use co-speech gestures to specify referents that are underspecified. We also explored the mechanisms underlying children’s sensitivity to perceptual context. Children described short vignettes to an experimenter under two conditions: The characters in the vignettes were present in the perceptual context (perceptual context); the characters were absent (no perceptual context). Children routinely used nouns in the no perceptual context condition, but shifted to pronouns (English-speaking children) or omitted arguments (Turkish-speaking children) in the perceptual context condition. Turkish-speaking children used underspecified referents more frequently than English-speaking children in the perceptual context condition; however, they compensated for the difference by using gesture to specify the forms. Gesture thus gives children learning structurally different languages a way to achieve comparable levels of specification while at the same time adhering to the referential expressions dictated by their language. PMID:22904588

  9. Producing Presences

    OpenAIRE

    Mandagará, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Resenha de MENDES, Victor K.; ROCHA, João Cezar de Castro (Eds.). Producing Presences: branching out from Gumbrecht’s work. Dartmouth, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 2007. (Adamastor book series, 2)

  10. Locally produced cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits versus peanut/milk-based spread for treatment of moderately to mildly wasted children in daily programmes on Nias Island, Indonesia: an issue of acceptance and compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Veronika; Purwestri, Ratna Chrismiari; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Inayati, Dyah Ayu; Suryantan, Julia; Bloem, Maurice Alexander; Biesalski, Hans Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Treatment effects of fortified ready-to-use foods for moderately to mildly wasted children are largely unknown. Two nutritionally comparable forms of locally produced ready-to-use foods for daily feeding programmes of moderately to mildly wasted children (weight-for-height Z-score/WHZ>=-3 to =-1.5SD, compliance to the ready-touse food programme, and weight gain until recovery or programme closure among children treated with peanut/ milk-based spreads (n=29) were compared among children receiving cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits (n=44) and a second group treated with cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits whose mothers received intensive nutrition education (n=38). Children in the cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits groups were younger (31 and 33 vs 39 months, p=0.004) and more likely to be moderately wasted (45 and 39 vs 21% with WHZ80%) to the ready-to-use (86 and 84 vs 45%, pspreads programme. Multivariable logistic regression revealed high compliance followed by weight gain and a lower degree of wasting at admission as independent and significant predictors of reaching target WHZ>=-1.5SD (all pspreads: r=0.188, p=0.051) and was highest in the cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits plus intensive education compared with the cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits and peanut/milk-based spreads groups. Locally produced ready-to-use foods as biscuits or spreads were similarly effective for rehabilitation of moderately to mildly wasted children.

  11. Analysis on iodine nutritional status and intelligent development of children aged 8 ~ 10 in coastal salt-producing areas and coastal non-salt-producing areas%沿海产盐区与非产盐区8~10岁儿童碘营养与智力水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍啸青; 张燕峰; 洪清祺; 戴龙; 张亚平; 牛建军; 陈敏; 康天偿; 邱志敏; 柯金炼; 郑立星

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和比较沿海产盐区和非产盐区8~10岁儿童碘营养状况与智力水平,为采取针对性防治措施提供依据.方法 选择产盐区翔安区和非产盐区集美区的小学为调查点,8~10岁儿童为调查对象,调查其家中碘盐食用情况、尿碘含量、甲状腺肿大情况和智商水平.结果 产盐区和非产盐区儿童合格碘盐食用率分别为81.5%和98.6%;甲状腺肿大率分别为3.0%和0.7%,尿碘中位数分别为202.8 μg/L和238.4 μg/L,<50 μg/L的比例分别为3.5%和1.0%.产盐区8~10岁儿童智商均明显低于非产盐区儿童;产盐区8岁儿童智商明显高于9岁和10岁儿童;非产盐区8岁儿童智商明显高于9岁和10岁儿童,9岁儿童智商明显高于10岁儿童.结论 补碘能提高儿童智商,降低智力损害.要坚持食用碘盐,开展对孕妇、哺乳妇的碘营养监测.%Objective To know and compare the iodine nutritional status and intelligent development of children aged 8~10 years old in coastal salt-producing areas and coastal non-salt-producing areas in Xiamen City ,and provide the evidence for taking the optimal measurements of IDD control. Methods All 8~ 10 year old children from schools were chosen in Xiang'an salt-producing areas and the Jimei non-salt-producing areas. Iodine content in edible salt at household level, the urinary iodine, total goiter rate and the status of the intelligence quotient (IQ) of the 8~ 10 year old children were observed. Results The edible qualified iodinated salt rate of the salt-producing areas and non-salt-producing areas were 81.5 % and 98.6 % respectively; the 8 ~ 10 year old children' s goiter rate of the two areas were 3.0 % and 0.7 %respectively, the median of urinary iodine were 202.8 and 238.4 μg/L respectively, the proportion of urine-iodine level < 50μg/L were 3.5 % and 1.0 % respectively. IQ of children in the coastal salt-producing areas was significantly lower than the coastal non-salt-producing

  12. Producing children in the 21st century: a critical discourse analysis of the science and techniques of monitoring early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the implications of commonly held ideologies within theories of child development. Despite critiques to doing so, developmental theory assumes that children's bodies are unitary, natural and material. The recent explosion of neuroscience illustrates the significance of historical, social and cultural contexts to portrayals of brain development, offering the opportunity for a critical departure in thinking. Instead, this neuroscience research has been taken up in ways that align with biomedical traditions and neoliberal values. This article uses a critical discursive approach, supported by Haraway's ideas of technoscience, to analyse a population-based early child development research initiative. This initiative organises a large-scale surveillance of children's development, operating from the premise that risks to development are best captured early to optimise children's potential. The analysis in this article shows an intermingling of health and economic discourses and clarifies how the child is a figure of significant contemporary social and political interests. In a poignant example of technobiopolitics, the collusion between health research, technologies and the state enrols health professionals to participate in the production of children as subjects of social value, figured as human capital, investments in the future, or alternatively, as waste. The analysis shows how practices that participate in what has become a developmental enterprise also participate in the marginalisation of the very children they intend to serve. Hence, there is the need to rethink practices critically and move towards innovative conceptualisations of child development that hold possibilities to resist these figurations.

  13. Early findings in outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome among young children caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Romania, January to February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Emilie; Zaharia, Alina; Zota, Lavinia Cipriana; Severi, Ettore; Mårdh, Otilia; Usein, Codruta; Bălgrădean, Mihaela; Espinosa, Laura; Jansa, Josep; Scavia, Gaia; Rafila, Alexandru; Serban, Amalia; Pistol, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    As at 29 February 2016, 15 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome with onset between 25 January and 22 February were reported among children between five and 38 months in Romania, and three of them died. Cases were mostly from southern Romania. Six cases tested positive for Escherichia coli O26 by serology. Fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products were among the possible common food exposures. Investigations are ongoing in Romania to control the outbreak.

  14. Ability of selected lactic acid bacteria to ferment a pearl millet-soybean slurry to produce gruels for complementary foods for young children

    OpenAIRE

    Songre Ouattara, L.T.; Mouquet Rivier, Claire; Humblot, Christele; Rochette, Isabelle; Diawara, B.; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    To assess the ability of lactic acid bacteria to improve some nutritional characteristics of the pearl millet-soybean slurry to prepare complementary foods for young children in African countries, inoculation was performed using strains previously selected for their ability to hydrolyse starch, phytate, or alpha-galactooligosaccharides (alpha-GOS). For the sake of comparison with the action of a natural microflora, fermentation was also performed by back slopping inoculation, that is, with a ...

  15. Transcription-based and acoustic analyses of rhotic vowels produced by children with and without speech sound disorders: further analyses from the Memphis Vowel Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyunju; Farr, Kathryn; Pollock, Karen E

    2014-05-01

    The acquisition of rhotic monophthongs (/ɝ/ and /ɚ/) and diphthongs (/ɪ͡ɚ, ɛ͡ɚ, ɔ͡ɚ and ɑ͡ɚ/) was examined in 3- and 4-year-old children with and without speech sound disorders (SSDs), using both transcription-based and acoustic analyses. African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) participants (n = 40) with and without SSD were selected from archival data collected as part of the Memphis Vowel Project. Dialect variation influenced rhotic vowels differently for EA and AA children, thus their data were reported separately. Transcription-based analyses showed wide variation in the accuracy of different rhotic vowels. The most frequent error pattern for children with SSD was Derhoticization to a Back Rounded Vowel (e.g. /ɝ/ → [ʊ]; /ɪ͡ɚ/ → [ɪ͡о]). Rhotic diphthong reduction errors were less frequent; however, Coalesence (/ɑ͡ɚ/ → [ɔ]) was often observed for /ɑ͡ɚ/. F2, F3 and F3-F2 spectral movement patterns revealed differences between productions transcribed as correct and incorrect.

  16. BASC-2 PRS Profiles for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Knoll, Valerie A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    BASC-2 PRS profiles of 62 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) were compared with those of 62 typically-developing children matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. Results indicated that, except for the Somatization, Conduct Problems, and Aggression scales, significant differences were found between the HFASD and…

  17. Ability of selected lactic acid bacteria to ferment a pearl millet-soybean slurry to produce gruels for complementary foods for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songré-Ouattara, Laurencia T; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Humblot, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Diawara, Bréhima; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    To assess the ability of lactic acid bacteria to improve some nutritional characteristics of the pearl millet-soybean slurry to prepare complementary foods for young children in African countries, inoculation was performed using strains previously selected for their ability to hydrolyse starch, phytate, or alpha-galactooligosaccharides (alpha-GOS). For the sake of comparison with the action of a natural microflora, fermentation was also performed by back slopping inoculation, that is, with a sample obtained from spontaneously fermented traditional pearl millet slurry obtained from a small scale processing unit in Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou). Starter cultures thrived on the slurry as shown by counts on MRS agar, TTGE fingerprints, and fermentation patterns. The fermentation of precooked slurries inoculated by back slopping or with mixed cultures containing the amylolytic strain Lb. plantarum A6 enabled partial starch hydrolysis. Corresponding gruels had a suitable consistency for young child feeding at high dry matter content, and a high energy density: 88.7 +/- 4.2 and 75.8 +/- 5.1 kcal/100 g of sweetened gruel, for the gruels inoculated by back slopping or with Lb. plantarum A6, respectively. Unexpectedly, no decrease in phytates was observed in any of the experiments, suggesting the presence of one or more inhibitory compounds in soybean. Furthermore, preprocessing conditions before fermentation affect the carbohydrate composition of slurry and have a more profound effect than fermentation on the reduction of the alpha-GOS content.

  18. Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulmin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Shin, Na-Young; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae-Wook; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eu Yoon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Sohn, Woo Yun; Kang, Jin Han

    2013-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, β-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.

  19. Confiabilidade das transcrições fonológicas de crianças com alteração específica de linguagem Reliability of phonological transcriptions of speech samples produced by language-impared children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Maria Befi-Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar a confiabilidade das transcrições fonológicas de crianças com Alteração Específica de Linguagem (AEL, e verificar se há diferença entre a confiabilidade das tarefas das crianças que eram capazes de realizar discurso na época da coleta da fonologia e daquelas que ainda não possuíam essa habilidade. MÉTODOS: Tarefas de nomeação de figuras e imitação de vocábulos de 37 crianças com AEL, de três a cinco anos, previamente coletadas e analisadas, foram transcritas pela segunda vez. Posteriormente, as pesquisadoras tiveram acesso às primeiras transcrições para realizar o cálculo de confiabilidade. Para as tarefas cujo índice de discordância foi superior a 20%, foi realizada uma terceira transcrição. Verificamos também que crianças eram capazes de realizar discurso na época da coleta da prova de fonologia. RESULTADOS: Para ambas as tarefas, houve predomínio de índice de concordância inferior a 80% (pPURPOSE: To analyze the reliability level of phonological transcriptions of speech samples produced by children with Language Impairment (LI, and to verify whether there was significant disagreement between the transcriptions, by comparing subjects who were able to produce discourse and those who were not. METHODS: Speech samples of 37 three- to five-year-old subjects with LI, previously collected and analyzed using two tasks (picture naming and repetition of words, were re-transcribed. Subsequently, the researchers accessed the first transcriptions, in order to calculate the agreement level. Transcriptions whose disagreement index was higher than 20% were transcribed for the third time. The ability to produce discourse at the time of data collection was also considered in the analysis. RESULTS: For both tasks, there was a predominance of agreement lower than 80% (p<0.001 when the first two transcriptions were taken into account. Meanwhile, the agreement between the first, the second and the third

  20. Molecular characterization and risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli colonization in children: emergence of NDM-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in a newborn intensive care unit in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, A; Soysal, A; Altinkanat Gelmez, G; Kepenekli Kadayifci, E; Söyletir, G; Bakir, M

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli are responsible for more than 50% of healthcare-associated infections. Colonization dynamics, characteristics, and risk factor data for CR-GNB are scarce in children. To examine the molecular characteristics of, and risk factors for nosocomial colonization with, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) in hospitalized paediatric patients in a tertiary university hospital's paediatric units in Turkey. A prospective case-control study was performed at a university hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 1840 rectal swab specimens were collected from all 762 hospitalized children between March 2013 and October 2013. Among them, 176 (23%) patients were colonized with CR-GNB. Of these, 72 (9%) patients were colonized with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 138 (18%) with CR-non-fermenter Gram-negative bacilli (CR-NF) and 34 (4%) with both. The median CR-GNB colonization time was 10 days (range: 1-116). The median duration of rectal colonization with CR-GNB was 8 days (range: 1-160). NDM (31%) was the second most frequent carbapenemase identified in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, and has not previously been detected in Turkey. All of the 17 patients colonized with NDM-producing A. baumannii were newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit. Independent risk factors for CR-GNB colonization were: age <1 year, nasogastric tube placement, presence of underlying chronic diseases, ampicillin usage, surgical intervention, and carbapenem use. This is the first description of NDM in A. baumannii in newborn units in Turkey. Carbapenem usage is a common independent risk factor for both CRE and CR-NF colonization, which underscores the importance of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 29 CFR 776.18 - Employees of producers for commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including restaurants, cafeterias, and snack bars, for the producer's employees in a factory, or in operating a children's nursery for the convenience of employees who leave young children there...

  2. 健康儿童肠道大肠埃希菌产ESBLs菌株耐药性研究%Resistance research of E .coli producing ESBLs strains in the gut for healthy children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金梅; 李雨珊; 刘华; 黄义山

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解无氟喹诺酮类抗菌药物用药史的健康儿童肠道大肠埃希菌产超广谱β‐内酰胺酶(ESBLs)菌株的检出率及对常用药物的耐药状况,为临床儿科大肠埃希菌产 ESBLs菌株异位感染的经验用药提供依据。方法从440例健康儿童大便中分离、鉴定大肠埃希菌,采用法国梅里埃VITEK‐2 compact的AST‐13全自动微生物鉴定药敏检测系统仪与K‐B纸片扩散法进行药敏试验及ESBLs表型确认试验。用WHONET5.3软件分析药敏试验数据,采用SPSS19.0进行耐药率数据分析。结果440株大肠埃希菌产ESBLs率为47.3%,产酶株与非产酶株的耐药率分别是:头孢他啶80.8%、43.1%;头孢噻肟80.8%、43.9%;头孢曲松88.5%、51.7%;头孢吡肟73.1%、34.5%;环丙沙星57.7%、39.7%;左氧氟沙星51.9%、37.9%;阿米卡星11.5%、3.4%。结论南充地区部分无氟喹诺酮类抗菌药物用药史的健康儿童肠道内大肠埃希菌具有产ESBLs的较高概率,且对3、4代头孢类、氟喹诺酮类、氨基糖苷类抗菌药物具有不同程度的多重耐药性。%Objective To understand the fluorine free history of quinolones drugs in the intestines of healthy children E. coli to produce ultra broad spectrum beta lactamase (ESBLs)strains of detection rate and drug resistance to commonly used medicines, for clinical pediatric E. coli producing ESBLs strains of ectopic infection provides the ba‐sis for empirical use. Methods E. coli in the stool were separated and identificated from 440 healthy children, VITEK‐2 compact AST‐13 and K‐B disc diffusion method were used for drug susceptibility and ESBLS phenotype confirmation test. WHONET5. 3 software was used to analyze susceptibility data, and SPSS19. 0 was used to analyze the percentages of data. Results The producing ESBLs rate was 47. 3% for 440 strains of E. coli, The drug resist‐ance rate

  3. Avaliação objetiva das forças axiais produzidas pela língua de crianças respiradoras orais Objective evaluation of axial forces produced by the tongue of oral breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas de Castro Perilo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar e comparar as forças produzidas pela língua de crianças respiradoras orais pré-cirúrgicas, respiradoras orais em tratamento fonoaudiológico e respiradoras nasais, além de comparar os achados da avaliação objetiva com os dados da avaliação clínica. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 15 crianças, de ambos os gêneros, com idades entre oito e 12 anos, sendo cinco respiradoras orais pré-cirúrgicas (Grupo 1, cinco respiradoras orais em tratamento fonoaudiológico (Grupo 2 e cinco respiradoras nasais (Grupo 3. Foi realizada uma avaliação clínica das características linguais das crianças e, em seguida, uma avaliação objetiva da força axial da língua por meio de equipamento desenvolvido na Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Os resultados foram analisados de forma descritiva por meio das medidas de tendência central e dispersão. RESULTADOS: A média dos valores das forças médias encontrada nos Grupos 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente, foi de 5,6, 6,0 e 7,3N. Já a média dos valores de força máxima foi de 8,2, 9,2 e 10,4N. Obtiveram os maiores valores de força média (7,0N e máxima (10,3N os indivíduos que apresentaram tensão adequada de língua na avaliação clínica e os valores mais baixos (3,5N e 2,0N aqueles cuja avaliação subjetiva indicou hipotensão lingual. A análise estatística indicou dados heterogêneos nos Grupos 1 e 2, tendendo a homogêneos no Grupo 1. CONCLUSÕES: A média das forças foi maior nos indivíduos respiradores nasais, seguidos pelos respiradores orais em tratamento fonoaudiológico e, por fim, os respiradores orais pré-cirúrgicos. Houve concordância entre os resultados das avaliações objetiva e clínica.PURPOSE: To quantify and to compare the forces produced by the tongues of pre-surgical mouth-breathing children, oral-breathing children enrolled in therapy and nasal-breathing children, and also to compare the findings of objective and clinical evaluations. METHODS

  4. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  5. AS DIFERENTES REPRESENTAÇÕES SEMIÓTICAS ELABORADAS POR CRIANÇAS DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL UTILIZANDO JOGOS DIGITAIS. DIFFERENT SEMIOTIC REPRESENTATIONS PRODUCED BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN FROM DIGITAL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Cezar Cardoso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Teoria das Representações Semióticas de Duval foi o referencial teórico norteador desta pesquisa, que teve como objetivo principal identificar, por meio de registros obtidos em atividades mediadas por jogos digitais, as possíveis representações mentais elaboradas por crianças do primeiro ano do Ensino Fundamental. A coleta de dados, feita durante o trabalho de conclusão de um curso de Pedagogia, deu-se por meio de gravações em vídeo e de registros escritos produzidos pelos estudantes. A análise dos dados identificou a elaboração e a manifestação de representações de conceitos matemáticos. Os dados foram analisados de acordo com a proposta de Henry (2006 e sob as lentes da teoria de Duval (2003. Os resultados apontam que os diversos registros apresentados pelos estudantes têm uma estreita relação com as competências desenvolvidas durante o jogo e a resolução de atividades escritas na mesma categoria. Dessa forma, esta pesquisa possibilita o estudo de situações nas quais os estudantes precisam interpretar e converter diferentes tipos de representações semióticas, a fim de compreender o complexo processo da construção de conceitos matemáticos pelas crianças. Duval’s Semiotic Representations Theory was the guiding theoretical reference to the present research, which mainly focused on identifying the possible mental representations elaborated by first grade students of Elementary School, by means of records obtained in activities mediated by digital games. The data collection methods, carried out as a research at the Pedagogy undergraduate level as a requirement for graduation were video recordings and written registers produced by students. The data analysis identified the formulation and manifestation of mathematical concepts representations. The data were analyzed according to the methodology proposed by Henry (2006, under Duval’s theory (2003, and the results indicated that the registers presented by

  6. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  7. Producing Against Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ypeij, Annelou

    2000-01-01

    Producing against Poverty is an anthropological research on micro-entrepreneurs in Lima, Peru. It analyses the way micro-producers accumulate capital. The anthropological approach of the book starts with an analysis of the daily lives of the micro-producers. Its gender approach makes a comparison be

  8. Echolalia and Comprehension in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The study with 10 autistic children (ages 4-17) found that those children with poor receptive language skills produced significantly more echolalic utterances than those children whose receptive skills were more age-appropriate. (Author/DB)

  9. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  10. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are stabil

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  12. The Relationship between the Accuracy of Consonants Produced in Different Manners and the Rehabilitation Time in Hearing-impaired Preschool Children%学前听障儿童声母正确率与康复时间的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史泱; 张芳; 晁欣; 黄露; 孙喜斌; 曲春燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between the accuracy of consonants produced in different manners and the rehabilitation time in hearing-impaired preschool children, and to provide a guide for the training of consonants. Methods 104 hearing-impaired children with rehabilitation time more than half year and 36 normal hearing children aged 3 to 5 were enrolled in this study. Using the articulation and phonology assessment as the test materials, the accuracy of consonants in different manners was statistically analyzed. Results (1)The accuracy of nasal consonants did not differ significantly for the hearing-impaired preschool children with rehabilitation time more than one year and the normal hearing children. (2)The accuracy of lateral consonant did not differ significantly for the hearing-impaired preschool children with rehabilitation time more than 1.5 years and the normal hearing children. (3)The accuracy of plosive consonants did not differ significantly for the hearing-impaired preschool children with rehabilitation time more than 2 years and the normal hearing children. (4)The accuracy of fricative and affricative consonants have extremely significant difference (P<0.01) for the hearing-impaired preschool children with varied rehabilitation time and the normal hearing children. Conclusion There is a certain acquisition order of consonants in preschool hearing-impaired children, probably due to the pitch of consonant, the difficulty of articulation manners, the visibility of articulation and the development of articulation movements. For the rehabilitation of hearing-impaired children, the training should be a gradual progression.%目的:分析学龄前听障儿童不同发音方式的声母正确率与康复时间的关系,为不同发音方式的声母康复训练提供指导。方法选取3~5岁康复半年以上的听障儿童104名和健听儿童36名,以《汉语构音能力测验词表》为测试材料,分析不同发音方式声母的

  13. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  14. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  15. Experimentally produced calf pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, R N; Howard, C J; Thomas, L H; Stott, E J

    1976-03-01

    Experimental pneumonia was produced in calves by the endobronchial inoculation of pneumonic lung homogenates. Irradiated homogenates produced minimal pneumonia. Ampicillin treatment of the homogenates and the experimental calves reduced the extent of pneumonia. Treatment with tylosin tartrate prevented experimental pneumonia. These results suggest that the total pneumonia was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate and that the residual pneumonia remaining after ampicillin treatment was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate but not to ampicillin. Of the organisms isolated from the lungs, the ones in this latter category most likely to be responsible are Mycoplasma dispar and ureaplasmas (T-mycoplasmas).

  16. Producing CD-ROMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  17. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  18. Method of producing imines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  19. Produce Sanitation System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    the  amount in each product’s case.     Table 2: Produce Packaging  Product   Amount  Tomatoes  25 lb  Broccoli   20 lb  Iceberg lettuce  6 heads...aftertaste through it computer-based cleansing process and use of a citrus-based “green” cleansing product . Microbiologists from CFD performed...several tests of bacteria counts and pathogen log rate reductions of various FF&V products before and after they passed through the sanitizing sink process

  20. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version...

  1. Crohn disease - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory bowel disease in children - Crohn disease; IBD in children - Crohn disease; Regional enteritis - children; Ileitis - children; Granulomatous ileocolitis - children; Colitis in children; CD - children

  2. Caring for children who self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-09

    Aim [Figure: see text] To co-produce, with children and young people (CYP) and registered children's nurses, a digital education programme to improve nurses' knowledge and confidence in the care of CYP injured through self-harm.

  3. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  4. Assessing Advanced Theory of Mind in Children and Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism: The Spanish Version of the "Stories of Everyday Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera-Miguel, Sara; Rosa, Mireia; Puig, Olga; Kaland, Nils; Lázaro, Luisa; Castro-Formieles, Josefina; Calvo, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Most individuals with autism spectrum disorders often fail in tasks of theory of mind (ToM). However, those with normal intellectual functioning known as high functioning ASD (HF-ASD) sometimes succeed in mentalizing inferences. Some tools have been developed to more accurately test their ToM abilities. The aims of this study were to examine the…

  5. Assessing Advanced Theory of Mind in Children and Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism: The Spanish Version of the "Stories of Everyday Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera-Miguel, Sara; Rosa, Mireia; Puig, Olga; Kaland, Nils; Lázaro, Luisa; Castro-Formieles, Josefina; Calvo, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Most individuals with autism spectrum disorders often fail in tasks of theory of mind (ToM). However, those with normal intellectual functioning known as high functioning ASD (HF-ASD) sometimes succeed in mentalizing inferences. Some tools have been developed to more accurately test their ToM abilities. The aims of this study were to examine the…

  6. 尿路感染患儿产ESBL大肠埃希菌的研究进展%Progress of E.coli producing extended spectrum beta-lactameses in children with urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灵芝

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI)is a childhood disease.With the use of extended spectrum antibiotics,resistant strains have increased every year,especially Escherichia coli(E.coli).The mechanisms of drug resistance are as follows:hydrolase,target gene mutations,efflux pumps and membrane permeability change.Of which producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase(ESBL) is increasing.So it presents a huge challenge to clinical antibiotic selection.According to the resistance genes (blaTEM,blaSHV,blaCTX-M,etc.),the ESBL can be classified into different types (TEM type,SHV-type,CTX-M type,etc.).The drug-resistant genes play an important role in spreading and prevalence of the resistance genes.It's necessary to do a review of the currently known genotypes.It is both in favor of scientific research work and providing guidance for clinical work.%尿路感染(urinary tract infection,UTI)是儿童期多发病,随着广谱抗生素的大量使用,耐药菌株逐年增多,尤以大肠埃希菌(Escherichia coli,E.coli)为著.E.coli耐药机制有产生药物水解酶、靶基因突变、主动外排泵和膜通透性的改变等,其中产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(extended spectrum beta-lactamases,ESBL)E.coli日趋增多,给临床抗生素的选择提出了巨大挑战.根据其耐药基因(blaTEM、blaSHV、blaCTX-M等)的不同分为不同类型(TEM型、SHV型、CTX-M型等)的ESBL.各种类型的ESBL对耐药基因的传播和流行起重要的作用,该文对目前已知耐药基因型的现状作一综述.

  7. Developmental Changes in Children's Understandings of Intelligence and Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Research on children's concepts of intelligence has not considered how children conceptualise specific thinking skills. This study extends previous research on the development of children's concepts of intelligence and produces novel data on children's understandings of effective thinking and thinking skills. Seventy-five children were sampled…

  8. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  9. Children's Rights with Endogenous Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses hypothetical contractarianism to consider the value of children's rights laws as a means of protecting children. Laws protecting children from their parents have the unintended but predictable consequence of making child-rearing less desirable for some parents and thereby reducing the number of children born. Such laws therefore produce a trade-off between the expected wellbeing of actual and possible persons. I show that a possible child behind an appropriate veil of ignorance may rationally oppose laws which benefit some and harm no actual children.

  10. Children and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Everette E.; Pease, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout history the media has primarily been produced by adults, for adults, about adults. Increasingly, children have become a matter of high priority in the modern media society, and as they have, they have also become the subject of much concern. From debates in Congress about the detrimental effects of movies, comic books, and video games over the last century to efforts to court children as media consumers, there is a clear recognition that the media are not now and probably ne...

  11. Producing Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  12. Quality of milk produced by small and large dairy producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the microbiological and physicochemical quality of raw milk produced by small and large dairy producers in Paraná, Brazil. Samples of raw milk were collected from small (49 and large (21 dairy producers. Dairy farms were characterized by observation and application of questionnaires. The total bacterial count (TBC was obtained by flow cytometry and Petrifilm® AC, while the somatic cell count (SCC was obtained by only flow cytometry. The content of fat, proteins, lactose, and solids in the mil were determined by infrared. Differences were observed in the techniques employed by small and large dairy producers, which may have influenced the microbiological quality of raw milk. Milk contamination significantly greater in milk produced by small farmers, which is evident from the average TBC of 3.8 × 106 CFU/mL obtained from milk produced by small farmers as compared to the TBC of 1.5 × 104 CFU/mL obtained from larger dairy farms. Twenty-four (49% small diary producers are no-compliant with the current standards for microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk established by the law, while all larger producers were compliant with the standards. The average SCC of milk obtained from small producers was 2.2 × 105 SC/mL, while that of large milk producers was 3.9 × 105 SC/mL. Milk produced by small producers contained significantly higher fat, protein, lactose, and solids content. Milk produced by larger dairy farmers was mainly composed of lactose. In brief, the microbiological quality of milk from larger producers was higher, and SCC is proportional to the productivity. In addition, milk obtained from small dairy producers has a higher solid content.

  13. Understanding Characteristics of Families Who Buy Local Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F.; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Lowe, Anna E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine individual characteristics associated with local produce purchasing among North Carolina families with children. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program (NC CHAMP), a representative sample of adults who have land-line telephones. Setting: North…

  14. Anxiety and Fear in Children's Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Ridvan

    2011-01-01

    Children's movies bear so many significant features that it should be studied from many aspects. In fact, one of the issues very often encountered in researches and analyses done so far, is the element of terror exposed in children's movies. Nevertheless, first how the basic feelings such as fear and anxiety are produced and formed in children's…

  15. English Organic Producer Survey 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine L. Gerrard; Padel, Susanne; Lampkin, Nic

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a survey carried out with English organic producers in November and December 2013 as part of the Organic Data Network Project. There are approximately 2724 English organic producers and 223 of these participated in the survey, a response rate of just over 8%. The sample is not representative of the total population of English organic producers, see the data collection and analysis section for more details, but gives a snapshot of the situation for...

  16. Training Facial Expression Production in Children on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Iris; Pierce, Matthew D.; Bartlett, Marian S.; Tanaka, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show deficits in their ability to produce facial expressions. In this study, a group of children with ASD and IQ-matched, typically developing (TD) children were trained to produce "happy" and "angry" expressions with the FaceMaze computer game. FaceMaze uses an automated computer…

  17. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  18. Prolonged fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli among children attending day-care centers in Argentina Excreción prolongada de Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga en niños que concurren a jardines maternales de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Miliwebsky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe the detection and duration of fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157 and non-O157 in symptomatic and asymptomatic cases during four events occurred among children in day-care centers in Argentina. In each event, the cases were identified among children, family contacts and staff members of the Institution. The isolates were characterized by pheno-genotyping and subtyping methods. The STEC fecal shedding was prolonged and intermittent. Strains O157:H7 (1st event; O26:H11 (2nd event; O26:H11 (3rd event and O145:NM (4th event were shed during 23-30, 37, 31 and 19 days, respectively. Considering the possibility of STEC intermittent long-term shedding, symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals should be excluded from the Institution until two consecutive stool cultures obtained at least 48 h apart, test negative.En el presente trabajo se describe la detección y el tiempo de excreción de Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga (STEC O157 y no-O157 en casos sintomáticos y asintomáticos durante cuatro eventos ocurridos en jardines maternales de Argentina. En cada evento se identificaron los casos entre los niños, sus familiares y el personal del jardín. Los aislamientos fueron caracterizados por técnicas feno-genotípicas y de subtipificación. La excreción de STEC fue, en general, prolongada e intermitente. Cepas STEC O157:H7 (1er evento; O26:H11 (2do evento; O26:H11 (3er evento y O145:NM (4to evento fueron excretadas durante 23-30, 37, 31 y 19 días, respectivamente. Dadas las características de la excreción, no debe permitirse el reingreso a la institución de todo niño o adulto con infección por STEC, sintomático o asintomático, hasta no tener dos coprocultivos negativos sucesivos, con intervalos de 48 horas entre ellos.

  19. Language disorders in children: impact and the effect of screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.E. van Agt (Heleen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLanguage in young children shows large variation in onset and development between individual children. Children speak their first words between 9 – 18 months (Goorhuis-Brouwer and Schaerlaekens 1994). By the age of 2 most children have at least 50 words of vocabulary and produce 2-3 word

  20. Language disorders in children: impact and the effect of screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.E. van Agt (Heleen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLanguage in young children shows large variation in onset and development between individual children. Children speak their first words between 9 – 18 months (Goorhuis-Brouwer and Schaerlaekens 1994). By the age of 2 most children have at least 50 words of vocabulary and produce 2-3

  1. Children Teaching Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia

    2007-01-01

    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  2. User producer interaction in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Moors, E.H.M.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    User producer interaction (UPI) increases chances for successful innovations. It is not always clear, however, what type of interaction is necessary in a particular context. This article identifies seven different types of UPI: constructing linkages, broadening, characterizing users, upstream

  3. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  4. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  5. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  6. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  7. Wednesday's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Katherine

    1986-01-01

    The author of "Jacob Have I Loved" and "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" describes the characters in books she has written who are like "Wednesday's children"--full of woe. Discusses dealing with tragedy in children's books. (EL)

  8. Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Allen; Youngster, Ilan; McAdam, Alexander J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is among the common causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. STEC is defined by the production of specific toxins, but within this pathotype there is a diverse group of organisms. This diversity has important consequences for understanding the pathogenesis of the organism, as well as for selecting the optimum strategy for diagnostic testing in the clinical laboratory. This review includes discussions of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the range of manifestations of infection, and the several different methods of laboratory detection of Shiga toxin-producing E coli.

  9. Producing miniature threads. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.; Robb, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    Miniature precision actuators, timers, and switches typically utilize miniature threads to provide convenient assembly, disassembly and adjustment. Thread rolling provides high-quality external threads with greater strength and lower cost than other thread-producing techniques. Tap breakage is a significant problem when 0.5 and 0.6 Unified National Miniature (UNM) threads must be produced in hard materials such as SAE K95100 high-permeability magnetic steel. Aluminum parts can be tapped with no difficulty in these sizes. Stainless steel 0.5 UNM screws break at loads of 21 lb (53 N). Thread failure occurs at thread heights of 62% full thread or lower.

  10. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  11. A new producer of mevastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu; Yiwen; Yang; Xi

    1999-01-01

    Mevastatin (compactin)was isolated form culture broth of a fungal strain SIIA-F3933,The strain SIIA-F3933 was isolated from a soil sample collected in Putuo mountain,Zhejiang Province,P,R.China,It was identified as Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski based on its cultural and morphological characteristics and was regarded as a new producer of mevastatin,。

  12. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools......, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase...

  13. Diabetes insipidus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Ravindranath, Aathira

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is one of the common disorders affecting sodium and water homeostasis, and results when ADH is either inadequately produced, or unable to negotiate its actions on the renal collecting tubules through aquaporins. The diagnostic algorithm starts with exclusion of other causes of polyuria and establishing low urine osmolality in the presence of high serum osmolality. In this paper, we have reviewed the diagnosis, etiology and management of DI in children, with special emphasis on recent advances in the field.

  14. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  15. Wall force produced during disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.

    2009-11-01

    The study of disruptions is of great importance for ITER. Previous work on disruptions [1] is extended to compute toroidally asymmetric wall force in ITER, using the M3D code. The disruptions are produced by n = 1 resistive wall modes or external kink modes. A thin wall resistive boundary model is used to calculate the wall forces. The symmetric wall force, produced by a VDE, and the asymmetric wall force, produced by n = 1 modes, are comparable in magnitude. It is found that the asymmetric and axisymmetric forces scale with the growth rate of the instability multiplied by the square of the current divided by magnetic field. A similar scaling was reported for VDEs in JET [2]. Numerically, the study of disruptions is very challenging. In the M3D extended MHD code, dealiasing was applied in the toroidal direction. Advection terms were treated with a numerical upwind method. These techniques provided sufficient numerical stability to simulate entire disruption events. [4pt] [1] R. Paccagnella, H. R. Strauss, and J. Breslau, Nucl. Fusion (2009) 49 035003. [2] V. Riccardo, T. C. Hender, P. J. Lomas, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion (2004)

  16. Endocrine cells producing regulatory peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcia, E; Usellini, L; Buffa, R; Rindi, G; Villani, L; Zampatti, C; Silini, E

    1987-07-15

    Recent data on the immunolocalization of regulatory peptides and related propeptide sequences in endocrine cells and tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, lung, thyroid, pituitary (ACTH and opioids), adrenals and paraganglia have been revised and discussed. Gastrin, xenopsin, cholecystokinin (CCK), somatostatin, motilin, secretin, GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide), neurotensin, glicentin/glucagon-37 and PYY (peptide tyrosine tyrosine) are the main products of gastrointestinal endocrine cells; glucagon, CRF (corticotropin releasing factor), somatostatin, PP (pancreatic polypeptide) and GRF (growth hormone releasing factor), in addition to insulin, are produced in pancreatic islet cells; bombesin-related peptides are the main markers of pulmonary endocrine cells; calcitonin and CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) occur in thyroid and extrathyroid C cells; ACTH and endorphins in anterior and intermediate lobe pituitary cells, alpha-MSH and CLIP (corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide) in intermediate lobe cells; met- and leu-enkephalins and related peptides in adrenal medullary and paraganglionic cells as well as in some gut (enterochromaffin) cells; NPY (neuropeptide Y) in adrenaline-type adrenal medullary cells, etc.. Both tissue-appropriate and tissue-inappropriate regulatory peptides are produced by endocrine tumours, with inappropriate peptides mostly produced by malignant tumours.

  17. Electromagnetic pulses produced by expanding laser-produced Au plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marco Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of an intense laser pulse with a solid target produces large number of fast free electrons. This emission gives rise to two distinct sources of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP: the pulsed return current through the holder of the target and the outflow of electrons into the vacuum. A relation between the characteristics of laser-produced plasma, the target return current and the EMP emission are presented in the case of a massive Au target irradiated with the intensity of up to 3 × 1016 W/cm2. The emission of the EMP was recorded using a 12 cm diameter Moebius loop antennas, and the target return current was measured using a new type of inductive target probe (T-probe. The simultaneous use of the inductive target probe and the Moebius loop antenna represents a new useful way of diagnosing the laser–matter interaction, which was employed to distinguish between laser-generated ion sources driven by low and high contrast laser pulses.

  18. Method for producing a tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  19. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  20. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  1. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  2. Screen Media and Young Children: Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2010-01-01

    Since the airing of "Sesame Street" in 1985, television produced for children has expanded to more television shows and educational media that includes videos, DVDs, and computer products. Viewing screen media is pervasive in the environments of young children, and companies are designing products for our youngest viewers--infants and toddlers.…

  3. The advertising and children's audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive in society and to develop memory. Others think that advertising reduces mental activity, imposes ideals of beauty and effects family relationships. Modern advertising industry is increasingly effects children. It is profitable because it is easier to attract young audience who easy perceive new things, habits and tastes. Children audience hasn’t molded own lifestyle. Social activities of companies are not limited to charity. Advertising for children should not be difficult and confusing to children. Following the requirements of creation the socially responsible advertising can gain adherents not only among adults but also among children, who will become loyal to particular company and products which it produces over time. The algorithm for creating socially responsible advertising campaign for children is proposed. Authors proposed appropriate slogans for different applications. It is very difficult to predict the children’s reaction. Indifferent attitude to the creation of advertising can lead to destruction of children’s right values. Children get information from any source. Conclusions and directions of further researches should be conducted towards the need of social responsibility for creating advertising in general and advertising for particular child. Children more respond to images with audio accompaniment. Special attention should be paid to the creation of television advertising and advertisement.

  4. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    to be a committed artist, and how that translates into supporting al-Assad’s rule in Syria; the Ramadan programme Harrir Aqlak’s attempt to relaunch an intellectual renaissance and to promote religious pluralism; and finally, al-Mayadeen’s cooperation with the pan-Latin American TV station TeleSur and its ambitions...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...... coalition (Iran, Hizbollah, Syria), capitalises on a series of factors that bring them together in spite of their otherwise diverse worldviews and agendas. The New Regressive Left is united by resistance against the growing influence of Saudi Arabia in the religious, cultural, political, economic...

  5. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...... generates emissions of N2O. The large quantity of substances, sprayed by terrestrial and aerial means, has negative impacts on biodiversity, water, soil, and human and animal health. The intensive production of soybeans also leads to social impacts, including loss of livelihoods and food sovereignty...

  6. ANTIPROTONS PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T., E-mail: ksenofon@ikfia.sbras.ru [Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Avenue, 677891 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-20

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  7. Leaf-produced floral signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevaart, Jan A D

    2008-10-01

    Florigen is the hypothetical leaf-produced signal that induces floral initiation at the shoot apex. The nature of florigen has remained elusive for more than 70 years. But recent progress toward understanding the regulatory network for flowering in Arabidopsis has led to the suggestion that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or its product is the mobile flower-inducing signal that moves from an induced leaf through the phloem to the shoot apex. In the past year, physical and chemical evidence has shown that it is FT protein, and not FT mRNA, that moves from induced leaves to the apical meristem. These results have established that FT is the main, if not the only, component of the universal florigen.

  8. 2×95%的有效药物剂量采用预注给药对儿童顺式阿曲库铵药效学的影响%The pharmacodynamics of 2 x the effective dose to produce 95% twitch depression of cisatracurium administrated by priming technique in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏嵘; 杜晶慧; 付月珍; 金泉英; 张马忠

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察2×95%的有效药物剂量(ED95)采用预注给药对儿童顺式阿曲库铵药效学及气管插管条件的影响.方法 39例2~10岁美国麻醉医师学会分级Ⅰ~Ⅱ级行择期手术的患儿被随机分为3组,每组13例;D组(2×ED95单次剂量组)单次静脉注射顺式阿曲库铵100 μg/kg;Y组(2×ED95预注组)先静脉预注顺式阿曲库铵10 μg/kg,5 min后注入余量90 μg/kg;S组(3×ED95单次剂量组)单次静脉注射顺式阿曲库铵150 μg/kg.麻醉诱导用咪达唑仑0.1 mg/kg、芬太尼2μg/kg、丙泊酚2~4 mg/kg及相应剂量顺式阿曲库铵.采用肌肉松弛监测仪对尺神经进行连续4个成串刺激(TOF)监测.记录各组起效时间[肌肉松弛药注射完毕至第1个肌颤搐反应高度(T1)消失为最大抑制时间]、阻滞维持时间(肌肉松弛药注射完毕至T1恢复到5%的时间)、临床作用时间(肌肉松弛药注射完毕至T1恢复到25%的时间)、体内作用时间(肌肉松弛药注射完毕至T1恢复到95%的时间)及恢复指数(T1从25%恢复到75%的时间);观察预注间期(预注量注射完毕至注入余下剂量前的5 min)TOF的变化.结果 3组间年龄、性别构成、体重及气管插管条件评估分级间的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05),Y组预注间期TOF值为1,无变化.S组的起效时间显著短于D组和Y组(P值均<0.05),但D组与Y组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).S组的阻滞维持时间、临床作用时间、体内作用时间均较D组和Y组显著延长(P值均<0.05),D组与Y组间差异无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).3组间恢复指数的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).结论 2×ED95剂量顺式阿曲库铵以10 μg/kg为预注剂量、90 μg/kg为余量应用于儿童麻醉诱导无明显优势.无论预注与否,2×ED95剂量的效果均不及3×ED95.%Objective To observe the effect of 2 × the effective dose to produce 95% twitch depression (ED95) of cisatracurium

  9. Belief in Magic Predicts Children's Selective Trust in Informants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunae; Harris, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Children are able to distinguish between regular events that can occur in everyday reality and magical events that are ordinarily impossible. How do children respond to a person who brings about magical as compared with ordinary outcomes? In two studies, we tested children's acceptance of informants' claims when the informants had produced either…

  10. Rethinking Children: Power, Pedagogy, and Contemporary Art Education Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashkevich, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Within the modern institution of schooling, educators portray children as lacking in knowledge and maturity and try to restrict their access to the issues that undermine this assumed innocence. Such renditions of children produce hierarchical power relationships in which children's ways of knowing are seen as what Foucault (1980) called…

  11. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  12. Altered sense of agency in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark S; Kliim-Due, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Children diagnosed with spastic Cerebral Palsy (CP) often show perceptual and cognitive problems, which may contribute to their functional deficit. Here we investigated if altered ability to determine whether an observed movement is performed by themselves (sense of agency......) contributes to the motor deficit in children with CP. Methods Three groups; 1) CP children, 2) healthy peers, and 3) healthy adults produced straight drawing movements on a pen-tablet which was not visible for the subjects. The produced movement was presented as a virtual moving object on a computer screen...... the movements in 310 seconds, whereas healthy children and especially CP children were significantly slower (p...

  13. School phobia in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łodygowska, Ewa; Czepita, Damian A

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexic disorders are found in many children, affecting the emotional and social sphere and producing negative consequences for school functioning of the child. The aim of the present work was to determine the impact of the type of therapy on school phobia in dyslexic children. 165 dyslexic children were examined using the questionnaire "Me and my school" developed by Elzbieta Skrzypek-Siwińska. The therapeutic experience of the children was taken into account and three groups were formed: 1) children with regular therapy; 2) children with occasional therapy; 3) children without therapy. Children with occasional therapy demonstrated higher levels of school phobia. These children exhibited a higher level of fear in situations when their knowledge was tested. Girls revealed a higher level of school phobia and knowledge testing fear, regardless of their therapeutic experience. The present study disclosed that the quality of therapy affects the emotional sphere of dyslexic children. Irregular therapy can produce serious consequences in the form of enhanced school phobia.

  14. Prosodically-Conditioned Variability in Children's Production of French Determiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Katherine; Tremblay, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have long noted that children's grammatical morphemes are variably produced, raising questions about when and how grammatical competence is acquired. This study examined the spontaneous production of determiners by two French-speaking children aged 1 ; 5-2 ; 5. It found that determiners were produced earlier with monosyllabic words,…

  15. Selection of phytotoxin producing rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D.C. Carvalho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to select phytotoxin producing rhizobacteria to control weed plants, twenty five bacterial strains previously isolated from the rhizospheres of various plants were grown in a liquid medium and, after cell removal by centrifugation, the liquid phases were freeze-dried and the products were extracted with ethyl acetate/methanol. The extracts were concentrated to dryness under vacuum and dissolved in water and sucrose solution to be submitted to in vitro assays of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seed germination and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. coleoptile growth. Although most samples affected coleoptile growth, only those from four strains reduced lettuce seed germination. Two strains of Bacillus cereus, one strain of B. pumilus and one of Stenotrophoonas altophilia were the most promising microorganisms for producing phytotoxin and, consequently, for the development of new weed control products.Com o objetivo de selecionar rizobactérias produtoras de fitotoxinas para uso no controle de plantas daninhas, vinte e cinco isolados bacterianos previamente obtidos das rizosferas de diferentes plantas foram cultivados em meio líquido e, após remoção das células por centrifugação, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e os resíduos obtidos foram submetidos à extração com acetato de etila/metanol. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo até secura e dissolvidos em água e solução de sacarose para serem submetidos a testes in vitro de germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e de crescimento de coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.. Embora a maior parte das amostras tenha desfavorecido o crescimento dos coleóptilos de trigo, somente as provenientes de quatro isolados reduziram a germinação das sementes de alface. Dois isolados de Bacillus cereus, um isolado de B. pumilus e um de Stenotrophomonas maltophilia foram os microrganismos mais promissores para a produção de fitotoxinas, com possibilidade de uso no

  16. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  17. Children's learning of science through literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, James B.

    This study examined the effects of picture books belonging to different literary genres on the learning of science by primary grade students. These genres included modern fantasy, fiction, and nonfiction. The students were exposed to two topics through books, butterflies and snails. The study focused on the effects of those books on children's expressions of (a) knowledge, (b) erroneous information, (c) creative ideas, and (d) the support required to elicit information and ideas from the children. Sixty-one children from three kindergarten and three second grade participated. Children were designated by their teachers as being high or low with respect to academic achievement. These categories allowed measurement of interactions between literary genres, grade levels, and academic achievement levels. Children first learned about butterflies, and then about snails. For each topic, children were interviewed about their knowledge and questions of the topic. Teachers engaged their classes with a book about the topic. The children were re-interviewed about their knowledge and questions about the topic. No class encountered the same genre of book twice. Comparisons of the children's prior knowledge of butterflies and snails indicated that the children possessed significantly more knowledge about butterflies than about snails. Literary genre had one significant effect on children's learning about snails. Contrary to expectations, children who encountered nonfiction produced significantly more creative expressions about snails than children who encountered faction or modern fantasy. No significant effects for literary genre were demonstrated with respect to children's learning about butterflies. The outcomes of the study indicated that nonfiction had its strongest impact on the learning of science when children have a relatively small fund of knowledge about a topic. This study has implications for future research. The inclusion of a larger number of students, classes, and

  18. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  19. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels.

  20. [Traveling with small children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, C

    1997-01-01

    Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children.

  1. Mothers' Production of Hand Gestures While Communicating with their Preschool Children Under Various Task Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Arlyne J.; Turnure, James E.

    This study investigates hand gesturing behavior produced by mothers communicating with their first born 2- to 3-year-old children and their 4- to 5-year-old children. Thirty-two mother-child pairs were assigned to groups balanced equally for age and sex. After it was confirmed that the older children produced longer utterances, the mother-child…

  2. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  3. Myocardial dysfunction in malnourished children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faddan Nagla Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Malnourished children suffer several alterations in body composition that could produce cardiac abnormalities. Aim : The aim of the present study was to detect the frequency of myocardial damage in malnourished children as shown by echocardiography and cardiac troponin T (cTnT level. Methods : Forty-five malnourished infants and young children (mean±SD of age was 11.24 ±7.88 months were matched with 25 apparently healthy controls (mean±SD of age was 10.78±6.29 months. Blood sample was taken for complete blood picture, liver and kidney function tests, serum sodium, potassium, calcium levels and cTnT. All the malnourished children were subjected to echocardiographic evaluation. Results : Malnourished children showed a significantly lower left ventricular (LV mass than the control group. The LV systolic functions were significantly impaired in patients with severe malnutrition. The cTnT level was higher than the upper reference limits in 11 (24.44% of the studied malnourished children and all of them had a severe degree of malnutrition. The cTnT level was significantly higher in patients with anemia, sepsis and electrolyte abnormalities and it correlated negatively with LV ejection fraction (EF. Six of the studied children with high cTnT levels (54.5% died within 21 days of treatment while only one case (2.9% with normal level of cTnT died within the same period. Conclusions: LV mass is reduced in malnourished children. Children with severe malnutrition have a significant decrease in LV systolic functions. Elevated cTnT levels in malnourished children has both diagnostic and prognostic significance for cardiomyocyte damage.

  4. Method for producing diene hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaylingol' d, A.L.; Abayev, G.N.; Mikhaylov, R.K.; Stepanov, G.A.; Troitskiy, A.P.

    1980-04-28

    A method is claimed for producing diene hydrocarbons by oxidational dehydration of paraffin or olefin hydrocarbons in a fluidized bed of a concentrate with circulation of the latter between the zones of the reaction of regeneration with the help of circulation stand pipes. To increase the efectiveness of the process, it is proposed to circulate the concentrate between the zones of reaction and regeneration, sequentially disposed in a common apparatus with a difference in the concentration of the concentrate in the circulation stand pipes disposed in the same apparatus and the zone of the reaction equal to 20-700 kg/m/sup 3/. For example, the process of oxidational dehydration of butane through the proposed system is conducted in an apparatus with a diameter of 1,000 mm, a circulation stand pipe diameter of 500 mm, a linear gas speed in the reaction zone of 0.6 m/s, and in the circulation stand pipe of 0.15 m/s. The concentration of the concentrate in the dehydration zone is 640 kg/m/sup 3/ and in the stand pipe, 970 kg/m/sup 3/. The volumetric ratio of the n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/:air, air:vapor vapor in the form of a condensate is 1:7.2:4.5:5.5. The output of the butadiene is: in the passed butane, 32.9% and in the broken down butane, 52.5%. The butane conversion is 62.6%. The losses of the concentrate with the contact gas and with the regeneration gases is 1/3 as much for the supplied butane, than in a known method. The method makes it possible to reduce the air expenditure by 60%, to reduce the concentrate losses by 2-3 times and to simplify the industrial system.

  5. Life-Cycle Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas Høgholm

    I show that conventional estimators based on the consumption Euler equation, extensively used in studies of intertemporal consumption behavior, produce inconsistent estimates of the effect of children on consumption if potentially binding credit constraints are ignored. As a more constructive...... contribution, I supply a tractable approach to obtaining bounds on the effect of children and a structural estimation strategy when households face constraints. Finally, I estimate the effect of children on consumption using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for the US and high quality Danish...... administrative register data. Results suggest that children does not affect household consumption in the same magnitude previously assumed....

  6. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Acad. Dept. of Radiol.; Blaser, S.; Armstrong, D.; Chuang, S.; Harwood-Nash, D. [Division of Neuroradiology, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Humphreys, R.P. [Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    We review the presentation, imaging findings and outcome in 18 children with cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVM). This group is of particular interest because of the reported poor outcome despite modern imaging and neurosurgical techniques. All children had CT and 15 underwent catheter angiography at presentation. Several of the children in the latter part of the study had MRI. Of the 18 children, 17 presented with a ruptured AVM producing intracranial haemorrhage. The remaining child presented with temporal lobe epilepsy and was shown to have temporal, vermian and cerebellar hemisphere AVM. This child had other stigmata of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Three other children had pre-existing abnormalities of possible relevance. One had a vascular malformation of the cheek and mandible, one a documented chromosomal abnormality and another a midline cleft upper lip and palate. Six of the 17 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM died within 7 days of the ictus. Vascular pathology other than an AVM was found in 10 of the 14 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM who had angiography: 4 intranidal aneurysms, 5 venous aneurysms and 2 cases of venous outflow obstruction (one child having both an aneurysm and obstruction). The severity of clinical presentation was directly related to the size of the acute haematoma, which was a reasonable predictor of outcome. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs.

  7. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care Guardianship Tribes ... of children and families through programs that reduce child abuse and neglect, increase the number of adoptions, and ...

  8. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the Administration on Children, Youth and Families' anti-trafficking strategy and resources about preventing, identifying, and responding ... Laws Technical Bulletins Policy Resources Monitoring AFCARS Assessment Reviews Child & Family Services Reviews NYTD Reviews SACWIS Assessment ...

  9. Framework for Producing Ecological Nowcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Hashimoto, H.; Ichii, K.; Melton, F.

    2007-12-01

    TOPS is a data and modeling software system designed to seamlessly integrate data from satellite, aircraft and ground sensors, and weather/climate models with application models to quickly and reliably produce operational nowcasts and forecasts of ecological conditions. Through automation of the data retrieval, pre-processing, integration, and modeling steps, TOPS is able to reliably provide data on current and predicted ecosystem conditions, allowing TOPS data products to be used in an operational setting for a range of applications. The core of the system is located and maintained by the Ecocast group at NASA Ames Research Center. We have develop a layered approach where at the lowest level the system interacts with the numerous data providers such as the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC), the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP), the National Weather Service (NWS), NOAA, and others. This subsystem is fully autonomous, gathering data through periodic query to the requesting centers sometimes as often as every 15-minutes. Subsets of our input datasets are also available by subscriptions and are being pushed to us as they become available (Oregon State University direct broadcast feed is an example of such interaction). When the data are obtained, they are archived in the database and then further processed to fit the application needs. Due to significant differences in climate and satellite data processing, we have two separate subsystems to accomplish the task. On the climate side, we merge ground station data with model data and grid these to required resolution together with generation of basic statistics and QA/QC information. The satellite processing subsystem performs spatial data tiling and subsetting, as well as composition of data sets based on the QA/QC information supplied, in order to obtain the highest quality inputs. After the climate and satellite data are processed, they are inserted into a database. The model framework

  10. Listeners Prefer the Laughs of Children with Autism to Those of Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudenko, William J.; Magenheimer, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of laugh sounds produced by 8- to 10-year-old children with and without autism on naive listeners, and to evaluate if listeners could distinguish between the laughs of the two groups. Results showed that listeners rated the laughs of children with autism more positively than the laughs of…

  11. Children's rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Demartini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of children's rights is of paramount importance in the face of social and economic context in which it is the Brazilian society and as a result of childhood. Speaking in childhood can not think of a single child, because it reflects the variations of human culture and in the same society are built different childhoods. The variation of social conditions the children live is the main factor of heterogeneity in the constitution of childhood.

  12. Visual pedagogy in dentistry for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, B; Pilebro, C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to present and evaluate a model based on visual pedagogy for the introduction of dentistry to preschool children with autism. The model is based on the knowledge that it is easier for these children to communicate via pictures than via words. A book has been produced with distinct color-prints describing every step when visiting the dentist. The project has been designed in cooperation with the multi-professional team involved with the children. A total of sixteen children with autism participated in the project. Evaluation was done after 1.5 years. The ability of the children to cooperate is compared with that of sixteen children with autism of the same ages who were not treated with this method. The capacity of the children in the project to cooperate during dental treatment is superior to that of the control-children. Visual pedagogy is a way of introducing dentistry to children with autism.

  13. 7 CFR 1207.305 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.305 Producer. Producer means any person engaged...

  14. Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Pathogenic fungi and bacteria often damage their host (plants) tissues by producing toxic metabolites, which induced various symptoms ...

  15. Children and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...

  16. Hodgkin lymphoma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphoma - Hodgkin - children; Hodgkin disease - children; Cancer - Hodgkin lymphoma - children; Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma ... In children, Hodgkin lymphoma is more likely to occur between ages 15 to 19 years. The cause of this type of ...

  17. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    OpenAIRE

    Thonart P.; Destain J.; Tine E.; Ngom A.; Diop MB.; Dubois-Dauphin R.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identifi ed from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by L...

  18. Complex Choices: Producers Risk Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, Joost M.E.; Isengildina, Olga; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Garcia, Philip; Frank, Julieta; Kuiper, W. Erno

    2005-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available. How do producers make a choice of risk management instruments? Using the recently developed choice bracketing framework, we examine what risk management strategies producers use and identify the factors that drive their risk management decisions. Our results identify that producers use a wide variety of combinations of risk management instruments and that they bracket their choices into sets of alternative risk management...

  19. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiadi, Aimé; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Peyre, Hugo; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this article is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, 55 chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and 55 reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain(®) T2). The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the center of the screen for 30 s. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 s of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  20. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIADI eBi Kuyami Guy Aimé

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this paper is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, fifty-five chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and fifty-five reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2. The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the centre of the screen for 30 seconds. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 sec of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  1. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  2. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  5. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  6. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  7. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs and...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.20 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.20 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the business of producing Hass avocados in the United...

  9. Off shore produced water treatment with pertraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas also water is produced. This produced water contains dispersed and dissolved oil components. The impact of offshore emissions of produced water on the environment and the treatment of technologies for it are currently under discussion. Emission limits tend to bec

  10. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer... is engaged in the business of producing, or causing to be produced for any market, blueberries...

  11. Produced Water Reinjection--the Way Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Huilan

    1997-01-01

    @@ It is the best way to make comprehensive utilization of produced water, save water and protect environment by treating oily produced water so as to make it meet the quality criteria for the water reinjected into the reservoir. So far, more than 46 produced water treatment stations and 148 reinjection stations have been built at Shengli oilfields.

  12. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  13. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  14. Cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and War: How to Talk to Children Movies, Media, and Children Internet Use in Children WatchingTV/Screen Time and Children Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Video Games and Children: Playing with Violence Music and Music Videos Violent Behavior in Children ...

  16. Children and Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can watch TV, movies, and videos with children; restrict violent video games; limit TV; and disapprove of the ... and Children TV Violence and Children Home Alone Children Music and Music Videos Teen Suicide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents Threats by Children: ...

  17. Dynamics of the Ecological Agroalimentary Produce Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The market of ecological agroalimentary produce in Romania tends to have a positive evolution, identical with the world market, according to the specialists in the field. The market of ecological produce in Romania is being developed: from the point of view of its life cycle, it is steadily going to the growth period. Since the appearance period passed away, now there is the unsatisfied need of green produce: the first producers able to meet this need have appeared and they have started to meet the needs related to these produce.

  18. Acceptability of locally produced ready-to-use therapeutic foods in Ethiopia, Ghana, Pakistan and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful treatment of severe acute malnutrition has been achieved with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), but only 15% of children with severe acute malnutrition receive RUTF. The objective of this study was to determine whether new formulations of RUTF produced using locally available ingredie...

  19. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients with diarrhoea in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.A.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Boer, de E.; Sturm, P.D.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Faruque, A.S.G.; Haque, R.; Sack, D.A.; Talukder, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and its characteristics were determined among hospitalized patients with diarrhoea and children with diarrhoea in an urban slum community of Dhaka city using sensitive culture and PCR methods. Stool samples were collected from 410 patie

  20. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients with diarrhoea in Bangladesh.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.A.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Boer, E. de; Sturm, P.D.J.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Faruque, A.S.; Haque, R.; Sack, D.A.; Talukder, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and its characteristics were determined among hospitalized patients with diarrhoea and children with diarrhoea in an urban slum community of Dhaka city using sensitive culture and PCR methods. Stool samples were collected from 410 patie

  1. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients with diarrhoea in Bangladesh.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.A.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Boer, E. de; Sturm, P.D.J.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Faruque, A.S.; Haque, R.; Sack, D.A.; Talukder, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and its characteristics were determined among hospitalized patients with diarrhoea and children with diarrhoea in an urban slum community of Dhaka city using sensitive culture and PCR methods. Stool samples were collected from 410 patie

  2. Effects of observing and producing deictic gestures on memory and learning in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H.R. Ouwehand (Kim)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe studies presented in this dissertation aimed to investigate whether observing or producing deictic gestures (i.e., pointing and tracing gestures to index a referent in space or a movement pathway), could facilitate memory and learning in children, young adults, and older adults.

  3. Invisible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara

    2013-01-01

    A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them.

  4. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  5. Should India Use Commercially Produced Ready To Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF For Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    radha holla

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, nearly 20 million children under five suffer from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM, a condition which contributes to one million child deaths annually. In India 48% of children under five years of age are stunted and 43 percent are underweight; almost 8 million suffer from SAM. Malnutrition is not a new problem in India, nor is SAM. Several hospitals and non-government organizations are engaged in community-based management of malnutrition using locally produced/procured and locally processed foods along with intensive nutrition education. These programs enable parents to meet the nutritional requirements of their children with foods that are available at low cost. The Supreme Court of India has also directed the government to universalize the Integrated Child Development Scheme and provide one hot cooked meal to children under six years of age to supplement their nutrition. The blame for the increasing number of severely malnourish children can be laid at the door of policies that have destroyed poor people’s access to food. Nonetheless, there is urgent need to ensure that these children do not die; that they recover and maintain a healthy nutritional status. The current thinking – that a centrally produced and processed Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF should supplant the locally prepared indigenous foods in treatment of SAM – ignores the multiple causes of malnutrition and destroys the diversity of potential solutions based on locally available foods. This position paper has been drafted by Dr. Vandana Prasad, Radha Holla and Dr. Arun Gupta, members of the Working Group for Children Under Six – a joint effort of Jan Swasthya Abhiyan (People’s Health Movement – India and the Right to Food Campaign which been advocating for the last three years with the Indian government for decentralized and community-based strategies to combat and prevent malnutrition in children.

  6. Children's Stereotypes of Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…

  7. Children and guns: The detection of recent contact with firearms on children's hands by the PDT reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Karni L; Almog, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Throughout the world, young children are worryingly found to be involved in both unintentional and intentional gun violence, rendering the forensic investigation of gun handling by children a highly important matter. The effectiveness of the PDT reaction for mapping iron traces on hands of children has been tested and compared to its application on adults. Counter-intuitively, children were found to produce considerably more intense PDT impressions than adults. A plausible explanation which is based on physiological differences between children and adolescents is suggested.

  8. Children and teenagers as judges of taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2001-01-01

    Children and teenagers prefer fresh vegetables while their parents prefer boiled vegetables. The parents do not like toy-oriented packaging and are in general sceptical towards manufactured foods - especially fast food. However, children and teenagers enjoy products wrapped in fun packaging...... seeds for organic farming. Then seeds were sowed on organic fields and Nutana has started developing children-friendly frozen products. There are many considerations to make when one wishes to develop healthy and new frozen foods for children and teenagers. It has to be something that both groups want...... based on Danish organic vegetables. The project deals with all the steps from farm to fork. MAPP has studied consumer attitudes and demands in connection with the purchase of food for children and teenagers. Dæhnfeldt A/S has selected vegetable varieties for important quality attributes and produced...

  9. [Osteogenesis imperfecta: quality of life in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fano, Virginia; del Pino, Mariana; Rodríguez Celin, Mercedes; Buceta, Susana; Obregón, M Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The impact produced by osteogenesis imperfecta in childrens' quality of life almost has not been reported; 65 children, 38 males, were evaluated according to the questionnaire PedsQL 4.0 Argentinean Spanish version. Median age was 7.76 years; 35 children with OI type I were compared with 30 type III-IV (according to Sillence Classification) finding significant difference in the physical domain in both visions, children and parents, and only in parents' vision in the social area. Multivariate analysis showed an association between better PedQL scores and treatment compliance (coef. β= 19.41 p= 0.03) in children's vision. In parental report on the other hand, the association was found with greater pamidronate doses (coef. β 1.44 p=0.037), lower height compromise (coef. β= 3.8; p= 0.039) and less number of fractures (coef. β= 0.69; p= 0.003).

  10. Interactivity in prosodic representations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Lisa; Westover, Stefanie

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, using speech error and articulatory analyses, whether the binary distinction between iambs and trochees should be extended to include additional prosodic subcategories. Adults, children who are normally developing, and children with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Children with SLI were included because they exhibit prosodic and motor deficits. Children, especially those with SLI, showed the expected increase in omission errors in weak initial syllables. Movement patterning analyses revealed that speakers produced differentiated articulatory templates beyond the broad categories of iamb and trochee. Finally, weak-weak prosodic sequences that crossed word boundaries showed increased articulatory variability when compared with strong-weak alternations. The binary distinction between iamb and trochee may be insufficient, with additional systematic prosodic subcategories evident, even in young children with SLI. Findings support increased interactivity in language processing.

  11. Stable, fertile, high polyhydroxyalkanoate producing plants and methods of producing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2015-08-04

    Transgenic plants that produce high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate and methods of producing them are provided. In a preferred embodiment the transgenic plants are produced using plastid transformation technologies and utilize genes which are codon optimized. Stably transformed plants able to produce greater than 10% dwt PHS in tissues are also provided.

  12. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Miura

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that bioavailability of isoflavones are different between equol producers and non-producers, because the 24 h urinary excretion of equol in the equol producers were significantly lower than those in the equol non-producers.

  13. Understanding producers' motives for adopting sustainable practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-Barrera, Andres; Pennings, Joost M.E.; Hofenk, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the motives and risk attitudes of producers to engage in sustainable practices is important for policy-makers who wish to increase the likelihood of adoption and improve the design of incentives. This article examines the underlying motives of producers to adopt sustainable

  14. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  15. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  16. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  17. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of this...

  18. Taxomyces andreanae : A Presumed Paclitaxel Producer Demystified?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, Agata; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The 1990s brought an abundance of reports on paclitaxel-producing endophytes, initially heralded as a discovery having tremendous implications for cancer therapy. As the vision of large-scale fermentation tanks producing vast quantities of relatively inexpensive paclitaxel and novel taxanes has fade

  19. Automatic produce quality monitoring in Reefer containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Sanders, M.G.; Kramer, de J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Current day perishable supply chains require intermediate points for manual produce quality inspection. Over the last decade international seatransport of fruit and vegetables in reefer containers has grown tremendously. Reefer containers may completely close the cold chain only if produce quality

  20. Music Teacher as Writer and Producer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    In this article I attempt to redefine the role of a music teacher as being more than a director, the more traditional term ascribed to this position. I do this by using descriptions of the role of "writer" and "producer" of student lives borrowed from music education philosophy, screenwriting, and professional music producers. This vision is…

  1. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caggianiello, Graziano; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is able to produce capsular or extracellular polysaccharides, with various chemical compositions and properties. Polysaccharides produced by LAB alter the rheological properties of the matrix in which they are dispersed, leading to typically viscous and

  2. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  4. Genetic generations: artificial gametes and the embryos produced with them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Certain interventions now permit the derivation of mammalian gametes from stem cells cultivated from either somatic cells or embryos. These gametes can be used in an indefinite cycle of conception in vitro, gamete derivation, conception in vitro, and so on, producing genetic generations that live only in vitro. One commentator has described this prospect for human beings as eugenics, insofar as it would allow for the selection and development of certain traits in human beings. This commentary not only offers this topic for discussion, it also wades into the ethical fray over the practice. Several possible lines of objection can be raised against this practice, but these accounts are by and large insufficient as an ethical analysis of this possible, future way of conceiving human children.

  5. Particular applications of food irradiation fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-12-01

    On fresh fruits and vegetables, irradiation at low and medium dose levels can effectively reduce microbial counts which can enhance safety, inhibit sprouting to extend shelf-life, and eliminate or sterilize insect pests which can serve to facilitate trade between countries. At the dose levels used for these purposes, the impact on quality is negligible. Despite the fact that regulations in many countries allow the use of irradiation for fresh produce, the technology remains under-utilized, even in the light of an increase in produce related disease outbreaks and the economic benefits of extended shelf life and reduced food waste. Putative concerns about consumer acceptance particularly for produce that is labeled as irradiated have deterred many companies from using irradiation and retailers to carry irradiated produce. This section highlights the commercial use of irradiation for fresh produce, other than phytosanitary irradiation which is covered in supplementary sections.

  6. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  7. Children's use of four semantic cases in tow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokes, J; Konefal, J

    1981-11-01

    The production of agent + action + object + locative relations by 3;6- and 5;6-yr-old normal children and language-disordered children was investigated These utterances were produced after children observed object manipulation or while copying object manipulation. The results indicated a developmental trend in the use of case relations. The manipulation task enhanced the use of case relations by the language-disordered group, whereas the observation task was more effective (or equally effective) for the normal groups.

  8. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  9. Malory's Magic Book: King Arthur in Children's Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCausland, Elly

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines adaptations of Thomas Malory’s Morte Darthur produced for children between 1862 and 1960. It aims to interrogate the complex link between children and the Arthurian legend that has existed since J. T. Knowles’s first adaptation for a juvenile audience in 1862, and which remai...

  10. Single Word and Sentence Intelligibility in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaileh, Fadwa A.; Flipsen, Peter, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the intelligibility of speech produced by 17 children (aged 4-11 years) with cochlear implants. Stimulus items included sentences from the Beginners' Intelligibility Test (BIT) and words from the Children Speech Intelligibility Measure (CSIM). Naive listeners responded by writing sentences heard or with two types of responses…

  11. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  12. Similarities between obesity in pets and children : the addiction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest

  13. "Wanna" Contraction in Children: Retesting and Revising the Developmental Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Andrea; Larsen, Jaiva

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that very young children learning English adhere quite rigidly to a grammatical constraint on the possible contexts for contraction of "want" and "to" into the reduced form "wanna". Two elicited production studies reported here suggest that young children do produce "wanna" in illicit contexts. One study identifies…

  14. Brief Report: Human Figure Drawings by Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no…

  15. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  16. The Production of Complement Clauses in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Gillian; Rose, Miranda; Eadie, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive description of complement-clause production in children with language impairment. Complement clauses were examined with respect to types of complement structure produced, verb use, and both semantic and syntactic accuracy. Method: A group of 17 children with language impairment…

  17. Narrative Development in Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Earls, Anny; Petersen, Douglas; Spencer, Trina; Hammer, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the narratives produced by 3-, 4-, and 5- year old Spanish-speaking (SS) children. Narrative productions of 104 typically developing children were collected using a story-retelling task and coded using the Index of Narrative Complexity. The results of this study indicate…

  18. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  19. Beyond Words: An Enquiry into Children's Home Visual Communication Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on young children's experiences of the visual mode embedded in new multimodal literacy practices. An enquiry was undertaken into the role of visual and digital images in a group of 11 four-year-olds' out-of-school lives. The children photographed their use of a range of primarily visual-based media at home, to produce a book…

  20. Similarities between obesity in pets and children : the addiction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest

  1. Stop Consonant Productions of Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an acoustic examination of the obstruent stops produced by Korean-English bilingual children in connection with the question of whether bilinguals establish distinct categories of speech sounds across languages. Stop productions were obtained from ninety children in two age ranges, five and ten years:…

  2. The Production of Complement Clauses in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Gillian; Rose, Miranda; Eadie, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive description of complement-clause production in children with language impairment. Complement clauses were examined with respect to types of complement structure produced, verb use, and both semantic and syntactic accuracy. Method: A group of 17 children with language impairment…

  3. Children's Acquisition of English Onset and Coda /l/: Articulatory Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Susan; Demuth, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to better understand how and when onset /l/ ("leap") and coda /l/ ("peel") are acquired by children by examining both the articulations involved and adults' perceptions of the produced segments. Method: Twenty-five typically developing Australian English-speaking children aged 3;0…

  4. Biocorrosion produced by Thiobacillus-like microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A I; Marín, I; Amils, R

    1994-01-01

    Biocorrosion can be produced by many different microorganisms through diverse mechanisms. The biocorrosion produced by acidophilic microorganisms of the genus Thiobacillus is based on the production of sulfuric acid and ferric ion from pyrites or related mineral structures, as a result of the chemolithotrophic metabolism of these microorganisms. The products of this aerobic respiration are also powerful oxidant elements, which can produce chemical oxidations of other metallic structures. The Tinto River, a very unusual extremophilic habitat (pH around 2, and high concentration of ferric ion), product of the growth of strict chemolithotrophic microorganisms, is discussed as a model case.

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  6. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  7. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  8. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child ... pancreatitis will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  14. HIV/AIDS and children's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, the majority of all new HIV infections occur among children and young people under 25 years of age, the people who were born and who have grown up during the AIDS epidemic. The epidemic is straining resources in already impoverished communities and creating new obstacles to the realization of children's rights to survival, development, and protection. The failure to ensure children's rights creates opportunities for HIV infection; at the same time, HIV/AIDS creates opportunities for the violation of children's rights. Advances in the realization of children's rights, including the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), are necessary to stem the growth of the AIDS epidemic. We reproduce a fact sheet produced by the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development (ICAD) that summarizes available information on HIV/AIDS and children, and discusses the effect of HIV/AIDS on children's rights. The fact sheet also provides information about other, essential resources on HIV/AIDS and children.

  15. Explaining errors in children's questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F

    2007-07-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations.

  16. [Metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huifang; Ding, Mingzhu; Yuan, Yingjin

    2014-02-01

    In order to study the inherent difference among terpenes producing yeasts from the point of metabolomics, we selected taxadiene producing yeasts as the model system. The changes of cellular metabolites during fermentation log phase of artificial functional yeasts were determined using metabolomics methods. The results represented that compared to W303-1A as a blank control, the metabolites in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle and several amino acids were influenced. And due to the changes of metabolites, the growth of cells was inhibited to a certain extent. Among the metabolites identified, citric acid content in taxadiene producing yeasts changed the most, the decreasing amplitude reached 90% or more. Therefore, citric acid can be a marker metabolite for the future study of artificial functional yeasts. The metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts can provide more information in further studies on optimization of terpenes production in heterologous chassis.

  17. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...

  18. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolicall

  19. Quest II produce quality research overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Harkema, H.; Otma, E.C.; Paillart, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Quest II control algorithm (patent pending), developed by Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research together with Maersk Line and Carrier Transicold, reduces the energy consumption of reefer containers by approx. 65% without impairing produce quality.

  20. Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers' organizations in the ... Linkages are vital for effective achievement of purposes and most RPOs (80%), had established them ..... Success: Learning from Instructive Experiences in Ru-.

  1. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  2. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    João Marcelo Lima

    L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing .... Surface tension is a common metric and direct method for monitoring the production ..... Isolation and purification of a new enamide ...

  3. 9 CFR 114.16 - Producing subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.16 Producing subsidiaries. A serial or subserial of a biological product may...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.117 - Producer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.117 Producer information... information relating to production or marketing efficiencies, development of new markets, program activities...

  5. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer....

  6. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, Grant L; O& #x27; Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  7. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolicall

  8. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  9. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjan, W. E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These polysulfide ions are formed from reaction of sulfide with biologically produced sulfur. The basic concepts of this H 2 S removal process were developed at the department of Environmental Technology of Wageningen University and the...

  10. Producing oil wells; A steep downhill road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses the effects of the drilling collapse of the past few years. Even with improved and relatively stable pricing, the severely impeded drilling climate-coupled with the continued decline of marginal wells-has caused a drop of 3.2{percent} in the total number of producing oil wells. Based on an annual survey of state and regional petroleum agencies, World Oil estimates that 603,365 oil wells are currently producing in the United States.

  11. Clinical and cardiovascular alterations produced by scorpion envenomation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Cordeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a common problem that occurs in tropical and subtropical countries and assumes great medical-sanitary importance due to its fatal effect on sensitive individuals, being able to lead children and aged people to death. The envenomation lethal potential is responsible for the serious cardiopulmonary alterations the scorpion toxin produces in its victims. The present research evaluated the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom on dogs, using two distinct doses: a dose that simulates natural envenomation (0.4 mg/total dose, and an experimental dose (0.25 mg/kg. General clinical signs were observed at different moments after envenomation, and specific data related to the cardiopulmonary system were evaluated by systemic arterial pressure measurement, CK-MB enzymatic activity dosage, and radiographic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations. Results demonstrated that the scorpion venom, in experimental doses, was able to cause acute and reversible cardiac injury in few days, and, in the dose that simulated natural accident, it produced clinical signs of light envenomation, such as local pain, hyperesthesia, sialorrhea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneeze and prostration.

  12. Determination of Quality Properties in Labneh Produced with Probiotic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kök Taş

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent years, functional food market has been dramatically growing due to the increasing number of conscious consumers. More products in the field of functional foods include dairy products. Diversity of functional foods that are very popular in the world are very limited in Turkey. Use of probiotic microorganisms in dairy products are provided positive contribution to public health. Probiotic products are featured in many studies to affect the intestinal immune system, regulating the immune system. The aim of this reseach was to use probiotic starter culture to improve functional properties of Labne that is a very nutritious dairy product and preferred by children and youths. The quality properties (chemical, microbiological and sensorial of Labneh were determined. pH value and lactic acid of Labneh sample with yogurt culture and Labneh sample produced with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture were determined 4.53 and 4.58; 0.52 and 0.53, respectively. Labneh sample containing probiotic culture had 21% fat and 29.38% total solid. Labneh sample with probiotic culture contained 8.97 log cfu/ml as content of L. acidophilus. Result of sensory analyses showed that Labneh sample produced using L. acidophilus had higher taste, odor and texture scores.

  13. Local and Global Processing in Blind and Sighted Children in a Naming and Drawing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitawati, Ira; Jebrane, Ahmed; Vinter, Annie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the spatial analysis of tactile hierarchical patterns in 110 early-blind children aged 6-8 to 16-18 years, as compared to 90 blindfolded sighted children, in a naming and haptic drawing task. The results revealed that regardless of visual status, young children predominantly produced local responses in both tasks, whereas…

  14. Humor in Literature about Children with Disability: What Are We Seeing in Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…

  15. A Programmatic Description of a Social Skills Group for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social skills are a common problem for children with autism. One method of developing appropriate social skills in children with autism has been group instruction. To date, however, group instruction has produced mixed results. The purpose of this article is to describe a promising method of teaching social skills to children in small…

  16. An Exploratory Study of the Development of Early Syllable Structure in Reading-Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Roberts, Jenny A.; Locke, John L.; Tozer, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Babbling between the ages of 8 and 19 months was examined in 19 children, 13 of whom were at high risk for reading disorder (RD) and 6 normally reading children at low familial risk for RD. Development of syllable complexity was examined at five periods across this 11-month window. Results indicated that children who later evidenced RD produced a…

  17. A Programmatic Description of a Social Skills Group for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social skills are a common problem for children with autism. One method of developing appropriate social skills in children with autism has been group instruction. To date, however, group instruction has produced mixed results. The purpose of this article is to describe a promising method of teaching social skills to children in small…

  18. Multilingual Awareness and Heritage Language Education: Children's Multimodal Representations of Their Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Pfeifer, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse visual narratives of multilingual children, in order to acknowledge their self-perception as multilingual selves. Through the analysis of drawings produced by children enrolled in Portuguese as heritage language (PHL) classes in Germany, we analyse how bi-/multilingual children perceive their multilingual repertoires…

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Development of Early Syllable Structure in Reading-Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Roberts, Jenny A.; Locke, John L.; Tozer, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Babbling between the ages of 8 and 19 months was examined in 19 children, 13 of whom were at high risk for reading disorder (RD) and 6 normally reading children at low familial risk for RD. Development of syllable complexity was examined at five periods across this 11-month window. Results indicated that children who later evidenced RD produced a…

  20. Differential Production of Positive and Negative Discriminative Stimuli by Normal and Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Dallas E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two normal and two mentally retarded children were trained to earn pennies by pressing a key according to a multiple variable-interval extinction schedule of reinforcement. Retarded children differed from normal children by producing more positive than negative discriminative stimuli. (Author/DB)

  1. Repair Behavior in Children with Intellectual Impairments: Evidence for Metalinguistic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Y.; Tennenbaum, A.; Ornoy, A.

    2003-01-01

    Specific linguistic characteristics of responses to requests for clarification given by 4 children (ages 3-6) with intellectual impairments were investigated. Analysis focused on children's ability to locate the specific errors that provoked neutral requests for clarification and produce repair. Three children could locate errors and partly…

  2. Dichotic Listening in Children: Age-Related Changes in Direction and Magnitude of Ear Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, Deborah W.

    2011-01-01

    Children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were tested with dichotic listening tests utilizing single syllable words and random presentations of digits. They produced a higher prevalence of left ear dominance than expected, especially among right-handed children when tested with words. Whether more children demonstrate the LEA because of right…

  3. The Effect of Event Repetition on the Production of Story Grammar in Children's Event Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltis, Brooke B.; Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effect of event repetition on the amount and nature of story-grammar produced by children when recalling the event. Method: Children aged 4 years (N=50) and 7 years (N=56) participated in either 1 or 6 occurrences of a highly similar event where details varied across the occurrences. Half the children in each age…

  4. Wuxia's Children Shoes sole: Touching Children's Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Wuxia Children shoes sole company, founded in 1998, is the first professional children shoes sole business in Wenzhou city. It is located in Huanglong Commercial Center,Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province.

  5. Use of aflatoxin-producing ability medium to distinguish aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing ability medium was tested for its ability to distinguish aflatoxin-positive from aflatoxin-negative strains of Aspergillus flavus in naturally occurring populations from corn at harvest. All of the aflatoxin-positive strains and some of the aflatoxin-negative strains produced aflatoxins when cultured on cracked corn. Although the data indicate that aflatoxin-producing ability medium is not entirely reliable in distinguishing potential aflatoxin-producing strains of A. flav...

  6. Anticipatory postural adjustments in children with hemiplegia and diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Gay L; Shiratori, Takako; Aruin, Alexander S

    2011-12-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) play an important role in the performance of many activities requiring the maintenance of standing posture. However, little is known about if and how children with cerebral palsy (CP) generate APAs. Two groups of children with CP (hemiplegia and diplegia) and a group of children with typical motor development performed arm flexion and extension movements while standing on a force platform. Electromyographic activity of six trunk and leg muscles and displacement of center of pressure (COP) were recorded. Children with CP were able to generate anticipatory postural adjustments and produce directionally specific APAs and COP displacements similar to those described in adults and typically developing children. However, children with diplegia were unable to generate APAs of the same magnitude as children with typical development and hemiplegia and had higher baseline muscle activity prior to movement. In children with diplegia, COP was posteriorly displaced and peak acceleration was smaller during bilateral extension compared to children with hemiplegia. The outcomes of the study highlight the role of APAs in the control of posture of children with CP and point out the similarities and differences in anticipatory control in children with diplegia and hemiplegia. These differences may foster ideas for treatment strategies to enhance APAs in children with CP.

  7. Intelligence profiles of Chinese school-aged boys with high-functioning ASD and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaizhi Li,1,* Wenqing Jiang,2,* Yasong Du,2 Kathryn Rossbach3 1Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Emory Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This study aimed to explore the intelligence profiles of Chinese school-aged boys with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Additionally, differences in intelligence quotient (IQ between the HFASD group and the ADHD group were examined.Patients and methods: Thirty-two boys with HFASD, 58 boys with ADHD, and 39 typically developing (TD boys aged 6–16 years participated in this study. The ADHD group was divided into subgroups: ADHD-I (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-C (combined type. (The ADHD-H [hyperactive] group was excluded because of small sample size. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV Chinese version was administered to every participant, and the FSIQ (Full-Scale IQ score was used as the measure of IQ.Results: Both boys with HFASD and ADHD (ADHD-I and ADHD-C showed impairments in Processing Speed Index and FSIQ, as compared to the TD group. Lower Verbal Comprehension Index scores were found in the ASD and ADHD-I groups. Interestingly, Working Memory Index was only impaired in children with ADHD. Additionally, equivalent Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI scores were found among the HFASD, ADHD, and TD groups.Conclusion: Results indicated that both children with ADHD and HFASD have difficulty in processing speed, which may be explained by these children having neurodevelopmental disorders. These results also indicated that working memory appears to only be impacted by having ADHD. Children

  8. Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond

  9. Comparison of intonation production in cochlear-implanted children and normal hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Nourbakhsh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Due to defects of auditory feedback, children with hearing loss have inappropriate speech intonation. Consistently, results of previous studies have shown that cochlear-implanted children have some difficulties in their intonation. Intonation shows the type of the sentence which can be statement or question sentences. The purpose of this study was comparison of speech intonation in cochlear-implanted children and normal hearing children.Methods: The present study was performed on 25 cochlear-implanted children and 50 normal hearing children. Different pictures were shown to the subjects and they said statement and question sentences. All sentences were heard by eight speech therapists and perceptually judged. Using praat software mean base frequency and pitch alterations were measured.Results: In cochlear-implanted group, mean speech base frequency was higher and mean pitch alteration was lower than the control group. Mean experts' scores in cochlear-implanted group were lower than the control group. Differences in all three variables were statistically significant (p<0.05. There was a significant direct correlation between duration of time that the children had cochlear implant and perceptual judgment scores (p<0.05.Conclusion: According to the results, cochlear implant prosthesis has limited efficacy in improving speech intonation; although their ability to produce speech intonation improves by increasing duration of the time that children have cochlear implant. Thus speech therapists should consider intervening on speech intonation in treatment program of cochlear-implanted children.

  10. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  11. A Look at Young Children's Realistic Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jane M.; Wickersham, Elaine B.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes recent realistic fiction for children produced in the United States in terms of ethnicity, stereotyped behavior, and themes. Concludes that the sample did not reflect equivalent treatment of males and females nor the culturally pluralistic makeup of U.S. society. Provides an annotated bibliography of the books analyzed. (Author/FL)

  12. Topical morphine for oral mucositis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Aagaard, Gitte; Henneberg, Steen W;

    2012-01-01

    Systemic opioids for painful chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in children often result in unsatisfactory pain relief and a high frequency of side effects. Opioids applied topically can produce analgesia by binding to opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. These receptors...

  13. Learning Disabilities in Children with Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Karen

    As more children are now able to live with cancer and prepare for the future, care of the child with cancer should be directed at producing a child who is mentally healthy and who can function at an age-appropriate level in society. This presentation, given at the "Growth toward Independence" Conference in February 1987, notes the emotional,…

  14. Sources of Variability in Children's Language Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Waterfall, Heidi; Vasilyeva, Marina; Vevea, Jack; Hedges, Larry V.

    2010-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examines the role of caregiver speech in language development, especially syntactic development, using 47 parent-child pairs of diverse SES background from 14 to 46 months. We assess the diversity (variety) of words and syntactic structures produced by caregivers and children. We use lagged correlations to examine…

  15. A Look at Young Children's Realistic Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jane M.; Wickersham, Elaine B.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes recent realistic fiction for children produced in the United States in terms of ethnicity, stereotyped behavior, and themes. Concludes that the sample did not reflect equivalent treatment of males and females nor the culturally pluralistic makeup of U.S. society. Provides an annotated bibliography of the books analyzed. (Author/FL)

  16. Phonotactic Probability Effects in Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie D.; Byrd, Courtney T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of "phonotactic probability", which is the frequency of different sound segments and segment sequences, on the overall fluency with which words are produced by preschool children who stutter (CWS) as well as to determine whether it has an effect on the type of stuttered disfluency…

  17. Measuring Epistemic Curiosity in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Litman, Jordan A.; Valkenburg, Patti

    2014-01-01

    Epistemic curiosity (EC) is the desire to obtain new knowledge capable of either producing positive experiences of intellectual interest (I-type) or of reducing undesirable conditions of informational deprivation (D-type). Although researchers acknowledge that there are individual differences in young children's epistemic curiosity, there are…

  18. Zirconium alloys produced by recycling zircaloy tunings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamba, N.S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica, INCAPE (FIQ, UNL–CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Carbajal-Ramos, I.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA e Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Ulla, M.A.; Pierini, B.T. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica, INCAPE (FIQ, UNL–CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Gennari, F.C., E-mail: gennari@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA e Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Zr–Ti alloys were successfully produced by two-step procedure. •Zircaloy tunings were used as a valuable source of Zr. •Zircaloy tunings and Ti powders was milled under hydrogen to produce hydride powders. •Hydride powders were decomposed by heating at 900 °C to synthesize the Zr-based alloy. •The procedure could be extended to the production of other Zr-based alloys. -- Abstract: Zircaloy chips were recycled to successfully produce Zr–Ti alloys with bcc structure and different compositions. The procedure developed involves two steps. First, the reactive mechanical alloying (RMA) of the zircaloy tunings and Ti powders was performed to produce metal hydride powders, with a high refinement of the microstructure and a Zr–Ti homogeneous composition. Second, the metal hydride powders were thermally decomposed by heating up to 900 °C to synthesize the Zr-based alloy with a selected composition. The change in the nature of the powders from ductile to brittle during milling avoids both cold working phenomena between the metals and the use of a control agent. A minimum milling time is necessary to produce the solid solution with the selected composition. The microstructure and structure of the final alloys obtained was studied. The present procedure could be extended to the production of Zr-based alloys with the addition of other metals different from Ti.

  19. Producer-level benefits of sustainability certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Allen; Rivera, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Initiatives certifying that producers of goods and services adhere to defined environmental and social-welfare production standards are increasingly popular. According to proponents, these initiatives create financial incentives for producers to improve their environmental, social, and economic performance. We reviewed the evidence on whether these initiatives have such benefits. We identified peer-reviewed, ex post, producer-level studies in economic sectors in which certification is particularly prevalent (bananas, coffee, fish products, forest products, and tourism operations), classified these studies on the basis of whether their design and methods likely generated credible results, summarized findings from the studies with credible results, and considered how these findings might guide future research. We found 46 relevant studies, most of which focused on coffee and forest products and examined fair-trade and Forest Stewardship Council certification. The methods used in 11 studies likely generated credible results. Of these 11 studies, nine examined the economic effects and two the environmental effects of certification. The results of four of the 11 studies, all of which examined economic effects, showed that certification has producer-level benefits. Hence, the evidence to support the hypothesis that certification benefits the environment or producers is limited. More evidence could be generated by incorporating rigorous, independent evaluation into the design and implementation of projects promoting certification.

  20. What the stories children tell can tell about their memory: narrative skill and young children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Klemfuss, J Zoe

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined the relation between children's narrative ability, which has been identified as an important contributor to memory development, and suggestibility. Across 2 studies, a total of 112 preschool-aged children witnessed a staged event and were subsequently questioned suggestively. Results from Study 1 indicated that children's ability to provide a high-quality narrative of the event was related to resistance to suggestive questions, and narrative ability appeared to supersede age as a predictor of such resistance. In Study 2, children's general language and narrative abilities were measured in addition to their ability to produce a high-quality narrative about the target event. These results replicated Study 1's findings that children's ability to produce a high-quality narrative of a previously experienced event predicted resistance to suggestion. However, the quality of children's autobiographical memory narratives predicted shifting from denial to assent. Findings are considered in light of narrative's role in memory development and underlying mechanisms that may explain children's suggestibility.

  1. Heidrun Testing Produced Water Reinjection (Pwri)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paltiel, Sten [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    On the Heidrun platform in the Norwegian Sea, Statoil is carrying out tests to determine the feasibility of re-injecting produced water into the reservoir. There are two main incentives for the implementation of PWRI: - Environmental gains through reduced discharge to sea, - Provides a source of low sulphate water, which is positive for the reservoir. The production wells on the field need pressure support, and produced water is an alternative to the sea water that is currently used for this purpose. The Heidrun reservoir has a great potential for producing scale due to the high content of barium sulphate. Experience so far shows that if scaling goes unchecked, a large portion of the oil will be non-recoverable. Well treatments also create separation problems when back flowing. This means that maintaining the 40 mg/l limit is a challenge. (author)

  2. Components and Treatments of Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdul-Jalil Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of variety of processes that are used in the treatment produced water prior to reuse or to responsible disposal are presented with their environmental issues and economical benefits. Samples of produced water from five locations in Rumaila oilfield/in south of Iraq were taken and analyzed for their contents of brine, some heavy metals, total suspended solids and oil and grease. Moreover, two samples of water were treated using reverse osmosis technique which showed its ability to treat such contaminated water. The results showed that the environmental impact of produced water arises from its chemical composition; i.e., its salt content, its heavy metals, and hydrocarbon contents.

  3. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  4. Global Spread of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naas, Thierry; Poirel, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Carbapenemases increasingly have been reported in Enterobacteriaceae in the past 10 years. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases have been reported in the United States and then worldwide, with a marked endemicity at least in the United States and Greece. Metallo-enzymes (Verona integron–encoded metallo-β-lactamase, IMP) also have been reported worldwide, with a higher prevalence in southern Europe and Asia. Carbapenemases of the oxacillinase-48 type have been identified mostly in Mediterranean and European countries and in India. Recent identification of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 producers, originally in the United Kingdom, India, and Pakistan and now worldwide, is worrisome. Detection of infected patients and carriers with carbapenemase producers is necessary for prevention of their spread. Identification of the carbapenemase genes relies mostly on molecular techniques, whereas detection of carriers is possible by using screening culture media. This strategy may help prevent development of nosocomial outbreaks caused by carbapenemase producers, particularly K. pneumoniae. PMID:22000347

  5. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion

  6. User community vs. producer innovation development efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; von Hippel, Eric; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report upon a first empirical exploration of the relative efficiency of innovation development by product users vs. product producers. In a study of over 50 years of product innovation in the whitewater kayaking field, we find users in aggregate were approximately 3× more efficient...... at developing important kayaking product innovations than were producers in aggregate. We speculate that this result is driven by what we term “efficiencies of scope” in problem-solving. These can favor an aggregation of many user innovators, each spending a little, over fewer producer innovators benefitting...... from higher economies of scale in product development. We also note that the present study explores only one initial point on what is likely to be a complex efficiency landscape....

  7. Chryseobacterium indologenes, novel mannanase-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Rattanasuk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mannanase is a mannan degrading enzyme which is produced by microorganisms, including bacteria. This enzyme can be used in many industrial processes as well as for improving the quality of animal feeds. The aim of the present study was toscreen and characterize the mannanase-producing bacteria. Two genera of bacteria were isolated from Thai soil samples,fermented coconut, and fertilizer. Screening was carried out on agar plates containing mannan stained with iodine solution.The bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence, biochemical test and morphology, respectively. The mannanase activity was determined by zymogram and DNS method. Two strains of bacteria with mannanase activity were identified as Bacillus and Chryseobacterium. This is the first report of mannanase-producing Chryseobacterium.

  8. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  9. Contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, A B; Johansen, J D; Deleuran, M.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis is frequently debated. Previously, patients with atopic dermatitis were believed to have a reduced ability to produce a type IV immunological response. However, this belief has been challenged and authors have highlighted the risk...... of underestimating and overlooking allergic contact dermatitis in children with atopic dermatitis. Several studies have been published aiming to shed light on this important question but results are contradictory. To provide an overview of the existing knowledge, we systematically reviewed studies that report...... frequencies of positive patch test reactions in children with atopic dermatitis. We identified 436 manuscripts of which 31 met the inclusion criteria. Although the literature is conflicting, it is evident that contact allergy is a common problem in children with atopic dermatitis....

  10. Beginnings of prosodic organization: intonation and duration patterns of disyllables produced by Japanese and French infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallé, P A; de Boysson-Bardies, B; Vihman, M M

    1991-01-01

    In this study, some prosodic aspects of the disyllabic vocalizations (both babbling and words) produced by four French and four Japanese children of about 18 months of age, are examined. F0 contour and vowel durations in disyllables are found to be clearly language-specific. For French infants, rising F0 contours and final syllable lengthening are the rule, whereas falling F0 contours and absence of final lengthening are the rule for Japanese children. These results are congruent with adult prosody in the two languages. They hold for both babbling and utterances identified as words. The disyllables produced by the Japanese infants reflect adult forms not only in terms of global intonation patterns, but also in terms of tone and duration characteristics at the lexical level.

  11. Thromboembolism in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Cheng-xin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Thromboembotic events are being increasingly diagnosed in children. The incidence of symptomatic thrombolic events is 0.07%/10 000 children , 5.3/10 000hospital admissions of children and 2.4/1 000 admissions of newborns to intensive care units in west, but the incidence of thromboembotic events in children in China is an unknow now.

  12. Children Solve Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  13. Neutrons produced by muons at 25 mwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragić, A.; Aničin, I.; Banjanac, R.; Udovičić, V.; Joković, D.; Maletić, D.; Savić, M.; Veselinović, N.; Puzović, J.

    2013-02-01

    The flux of fast neutrons produced by CR muons in lead at the depth of 25 mwe is measured. Lead is a common shielding material and neutrons produced in it in muon interactions are unavoidable background component, even in sensitive deep underground experiments. A low background gamma spectrometer, equipped with high purity Ge detector in coincidence with muon detector is used for this purpose. Neutrons are identified by the structure at 692 KeV in the spectrum of delayed coincidences, caused by the neutron inelastic scattering on Ge-72 isotope. Preliminary result for the fast neutron rate is 3.1(5) × 10--4n/cm2 · s.

  14. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Gearhart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations.

  15. Methods for producing silicon carbide fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  16. Alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Han, Ting; Ming, Qianliang; Wu, Lingshang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, a number of alkaloids have been discovered from endophytic fungi in plants, which exhibited excellent biological properties such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities. This review mainly deals with the research progress on endophytic fungi for producing bioactive alkaloids such as quinoline and isoquinoline, amines and amides, indole derivatives, pyridines, and quinazolines. The biological activities and action mechanisms of these alkaloids from endophytic fungi are also introduced. Furthermore, the relationships between alkaloid-producing endophytes and their host plants, as well as their potential applications in the future are discussed.

  17. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  18. Caracterização molecular de Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistentes a carbapenêmicos e produtoras de metalo-β-lactamase isoladas em hemoculturas de crianças e adolescentes com câncer Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from blood cultures from children and teenagers with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Ávila Fernandes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCÃO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência e a disseminação de amostras de Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente aos carbapenêmicos e produtoras de metalo-β-lactamases isoladas de hemoculturas (2000-2005 de pacientes do Instituto de Oncologia Pediátrica da UNIFESP (IOP-GRAACC. MÉTODOS E RESULTADOS: Cinquenta e seis amostras de Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram isoladas de 49 pacientes. Trinta e duas dessas amostras foram classificadas como resistentes aos carbapenêmicos pela técnica de disco difusão e submetidas a reação de PCR para detecção de genes de MBL. Dezoitos dessas 32 amostras evidenciaram o gene blaSPM-1. Oito amostras selecionadas em diferentes anos no período de estudo apresentaram o mesmo perfil genético por pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A terapêutica antimicrobiana foi considerada adequada em apenas 23,5% dos pacientes com bacteremia por P. aeruginosa carreando blaSPM-1 e letalidade de 70,6% no período de até 30 dias após a bacteremia e uma inadequação inicial dos esquemas antibióticos utilizados CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciamos a presença de um clone de P. aeruginosa resistente aos carbapenêmicos carreando blaSPM-1 que persistiu em amostras de hemocultura pelo período de 6 anos na instituição, com alta letalidade, justificando uma vigilância epidemiológica rigorosa e uma readequação dos esquemas de terapia antimicrobianos na instituição.INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from blood-stream samples (2000-2005 that were collected from patients admitted to the Institute of Pediatric Oncology, UNIFESP (IOP-GRAACC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-six P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from 49 patients. Thirty-two of these samples were classified as carbapenem-resistant using the disc diffusion method and were subjected to the PCR reaction in order to detect

  19. Effects of observing and producing deictic gestures on memory and learning in different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwehand, Kim

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe studies presented in this dissertation aimed to investigate whether observing or producing deictic gestures (i.e., pointing and tracing gestures to index a referent in space or a movement pathway), could facilitate memory and learning in children, young adults, and older adults. More specifically, regarding memory it was investigated whether the use of deictic gestures would improve performance on tasks targeting cognitive functions that are found to change with age (worki...

  20. Deaf and hearing children's plural noun spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breadmore, Helen L; Olson, Andrew C; Krott, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines deaf and hearing children's spelling of plural nouns. Severe literacy impairments are well documented in the deaf, which are believed to be a consequence of phonological awareness limitations. Fifty deaf (mean chronological age 13;10 years, mean reading age 7;5 years) and 50 reading-age-matched hearing children produced spellings of regular, semiregular, and irregular plural nouns in Experiment 1 and nonword plurals in Experiment 2. Deaf children performed reading-age appropriately on rule-based (regular and semiregular) plurals but were significantly less accurate at spelling irregular plurals. Spelling of plural nonwords and spelling error analyses revealed clear evidence for use of morphology. Deaf children used morphological generalization to a greater degree than their reading-age-matched hearing counterparts. Also, hearing children combined use of phonology and morphology to guide spelling, whereas deaf children appeared to use morphology without phonological mediation. Therefore, use of morphology in spelling can be independent of phonology and is available to the deaf despite limited experience with spoken language. Indeed, deaf children appear to be learning about morphology from the orthography. Education on more complex morphological generalization and exceptions may be highly beneficial not only for the deaf but also for other populations with phonological awareness limitations.

  1. Expectancy violations promote learning in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa

    2017-02-27

    Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning.

  2. Word Learning Deficits in Children With Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany; Green, Samuel; Gray, Shelley; Cabbage, Kathryn; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets of games that manipulated phonological or visuospatial demands. All children were monolingual English-speaking 2nd graders without oral language impairment. The word learning games measured children's ability to link novel names with novel objects, to make decisions about the accuracy of those names and objects, to recognize the semantic features of the objects, and to produce the names of the novel words. Accuracy data were analyzed using analyses of covariance with nonverbal intelligence scores as a covariate. Word learning deficits were evident for children with dyslexia across every type of manipulation and on 3 of 5 tasks, but not for every combination of task/manipulation. Deficits were more common when task demands taxed phonology. Visuospatial manipulations led to both disadvantages and advantages for children with dyslexia. Children with dyslexia evidence spoken word learning deficits, but their performance is highly dependent on manipulations and task demand, suggesting a processing trade-off between visuospatial and phonological demands.

  3. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.

  4. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  5. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  6. Urban Stories : Producing news for urban youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Joke; Graaf, Christa de

    2015-01-01

    This paper will query whether a dedicated news platform can attune to young people’s civic needs? That is to ask: can this be a space that follows a social media logic of conversation and ‘give and take’ – with producers and consumers changing roles or even losing the distinction? How could and woul

  7. Transforming business education to produce global managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedia, Ben L.; Englis-Danskin, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of businesses has occurred faster than the internationalization of business schools—in terms of faculty, students, and curriculum. Indeed, there is now a disconnect between global economic realities and the ability of business schools to produce global managers. This

  8. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  9. PV producers must advertise; Werbung wird wichtiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, T.

    2001-01-12

    Producers of current inverters are profiting from the growing PV market. The bigger suppliers are enhancing their advertising and marketing efforts while smaller suppliers opt for high-efficiency technology. [German] Vom kraeftigen Wachstum des Photovoltaik-Marktes profitieren zwangslaeufig auch die Wechselrichter-Hersteller. Die groesseren Anbieter verstaerken Vertrieb und Marketing, waehrend die kleineren versuchen, mit besonders effizienter Technik zu glaenzen. (orig.)

  10. Functionally graded materials produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  11. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, B.; Graaf, de R.M.; Staay, van der G.W.M.; Alen, T.A.; Richard, G.; Gabalon, T.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Moon - van der Staay, S.Y.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Hellemond, van J.J.; Tielens, A.G.M.; Friedrich, T.; Veenhuis, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen(1), and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates(2). Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabo

  12. Chalco:Leading Nonferrous Metal Producer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China Aluminum Corporation Limited (Chalco) is an alumina producerand supplier holding the first place in China and the second place in the world. It is also a primary aluminum producer and supplier holding the first place in China and the sixth place in the world.

  13. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  14. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, Dusan; Gorter, de Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been

  15. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, Dusan; Gorter, de Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been

  16. Produce Your Own: A Community Gardening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, JoLynn; Arnold, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Many County Extension offices offer an adult Master Gardener Program, which includes advanced gardening training, short courses, newsletters, and conferences. However, with the comprehensive training provided comes a large time commitment. The Produce Your Own program was created to introduce adults to gardening in a similar manner, but with…

  17. Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-06

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food.  Created: 8/6/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/13/2014.

  18. A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxins are decaketide-derived secondary metabolites which are produced by a complex biosynthetic pathway. Aflatoxins are among the economically most important mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 exhibits hepatocarcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties, and is frequently referred to as the most potent natu...

  19. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  20. Functionally graded materials produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  1. Functionally Graded Materials Produced by Laser Cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  2. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage repr...

  3. Method of producing purified carotenoid compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, Laura (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of producing a carotenoid in solid form includes culturing a strain of Chlorophyta algae cells in a minimal inorganic medium and separating the algae comprising a solid form of carotenoid. In one embodiment f the invention, the strain of Chlorophyta algae cells includes a strain f Chlamydomonas algae cells.

  4. How Can We Best Produce Courseware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Howard

    Several models exist for production methods that can be used in the development of instructional materials for use in television- or computer-based instructional programs. These models include the established audiovisual industry that currently produces educational films and similar materials; consortia of educational institutions sharing in the…

  5. Chemicals that produce anosmia in mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military since 1942. A small component of this research program has been focused on the discovery of attractants that can be used to produce potent lures for haematophagous arthropods, especial...

  6. CHARACTERIZING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE PRODUCED BY LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KATZ, MARTIN M.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPONENTS OF LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) PRODUCED PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES ARE INVESTIGATED. THE SUBJECTS WERE PAID VOLUNTEERS FROM THE PATUXENT INSTITUTION, A TREATMENT CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY UNSTABLE CRIMINAL OFFENDERS. IN ONE STUDY, GROUPS OF 23 SUBJECTS RECEIVED LSD, AN AMPHETAMINE, OR A PLACEBO. IN THE SECOND STUDY, 11…

  7. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  8. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  9. Transforming business education to produce global managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedia, Ben L.; Englis, Paula D.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of businesses has occurred faster than the internationalization of business schools—in terms of faculty, students, and curriculum. Indeed, there is now a disconnect between global economic realities and the ability of business schools to produce global managers. This a

  10. Producing and Scrounging during Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When problem based learning occurs in a social context it is open to a common social behaviour, scrounging. In the animal behaviour literature, scroungers do not attempt to find resources themselves but rather exploit resources found by other group members (referred to as producers). We know from studies of animal behaviour (including humans) that…

  11. Secondary Particles Produced by Hadron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Use of hadron therapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique is increasing. In this method, secondary particles are produced through primary beam interactions with the beam-transport system and the patient’s body. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to determine the dose of produced secondary particles, particularly neutrons during treatment. Materials and Methods In this study, secondary particles, produced by proton and ion beams, were simulated for a cancer treatment plan. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of secondary neutrons, produced by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam on an electronic crate, which was exposed to radiation field under radioactive conditions. The level of major secondary particles, particularly neutrons, irradiating the target, was evaluated, using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Results The fluences and radiation doses were applied to determine the shielding efficiency of devices and the probability of radiation damage to nearby electronic systems. According to the results, by using maximum-energy carbon ions (400 MeV/u, electronic devices are exposed to a dose rate of 0.05 µSv/s and an integrated dose of about 34 mSv, each year. Conclusion The simulation results could provide significant information about radiation assessment; they could also be a major help for clinical facilities to meet shielding requirements. Moreover, such simulations are essential for determining the radiation level, which is responsible for radiation-induced damages.

  12. User producer interaction in context: a classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, Roel; Moors, Ellen; Smits, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    Science, Technology and Innovation Studies show that intensified user producer interaction (UPI) increases chances for successful innovations, especially in the case of emerging technology. It is not always clear, however, what type of interaction is necessary in a particular context. This paper pro

  13. Method of producing a chemical hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-11-13

    A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

  14. Producing Student Films: Shakespeare on Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Makes a case for asking students to produce their own film version of Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." Explains how to manage student filming projects logistically; how to teach students about filming techniques through the study of modern movies; and how filming becomes a lesson in the interpretation of Shakespeare. (TB)

  15. The Top American Indian Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at the Indiana University Bloomington. This year, Diverse staff…

  16. Process and apparatus for producing coated particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ommen, J.R.; Ellis, N.; Yurteri, C.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process and apparatus for preparing coated particles, in particular a process for preparing particles that are coated with small particles using electrospraying. The coated particles produced according to the present invention find use for instance as catalysts or as

  17. Process for producing a fried foodstuff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van P.C.M.; Waele, de E.T.

    1997-01-01

    A process for producing fried starch-containing foodstuffs is described, comprising a thermal treatment resulting in gelatinisation of starch, partial frying, cooling, optional freezing and optional finishing, wherein the foodstuff is subjected to a mechanical surface treatment between said thermal

  18. 7 CFR 955.9 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 955.9 Section 955.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA...

  19. How to Produce a Small Newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward; And Others

    A how-to manual for people interested in the mechanics of newspaper production, this book was produced by the editors of a small town newspaper. Chapters about content, printing, typography, pasteup, design and layout, advertising, circulation and distribution, financial matters, and deadlines contain practical discussions of details such as what…

  20. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These polysul

  1. Process of producing mannitol and homopolysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel-Schutten, Gerritdina Hendrika van; Binnema, Doede J.; van der Maarel, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process producing mannitol and one or more homopolysaccharides by bacteria. The bacteria according to the invention express mannitol-2-dehydrogenase activity and one or more sucrase activities. Preferably, the bacteria are lactic acid bacteria and more preferably t

  2. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These

  3. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  4. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  5. Torture in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level.

  6. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  7. Comparative study of the phonology of preschool children prenatally exposed to cocaine and multiple drugs and non-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, C L; Johnson, J M; Seikel, J A; Arnold, M; Schultheis, L

    1998-01-01

    Cocaine and multiple drug abuse among young adults has spawned research interest in fetal exposure and the sequela of that exposure during the formative developmental years. Previous study of the language development of exposed children has not specifically addressed phonological acquisition. In the present study, the speech of 25 children prenatally exposed to cocaine and multiple drugs was analyzed and compared to that of 25 children who were not prenatally exposed to determine if differences were evident in their phonological patterns. The children ranged in age from 22 months to 51 months. The number and type of phonological processes produced, number of utterances needed to produce a 50-word sample, number of unintelligible words produced, and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores were recorded and analyzed. The use of cocaine and multiple drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increase in the use of phonological processes.

  8. Singing abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eCLEMENT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific Language impairment (SLI is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012. The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Brandt et al., 2012; Corriveau et al., 2007. In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al, submitted. Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in 8 children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition. The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents. In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.

  9. Acoustic properties of vowel production in prelingually deafened Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Brown, Emily; Fox, Robert A; Xu, Li

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the acoustic features of vowel production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). The subjects included 14 native Mandarin-speaking, prelingually deafened children with CIs (2.9-8.3 yr old) and 60 age-matched, normal-hearing (NH) children (3.1-9.0 years old). Each subject produced a list of monosyllables containing seven Mandarin vowels: [i, a, u, y, ɤ, ʅ, ɿ]. Midpoint F1 and F2 of each vowel token were extracted and normalized to eliminate the effects of different vocal tract sizes. Results showed that the CI children produced significantly longer vowels and less compact vowel categories than the NH children did. The CI children's acoustic vowel space was reduced due to a retracted production of the vowel [i]. The vowel space area showed a strong negative correlation with age at implantation (r = -0.80). The analysis of acoustic distance showed that the CI children produced corner vowels [a, u] similarly to the NH children, but other vowels (e.g., [ʅ, ɿ]) differently from the NH children, which suggests that CI children generally follow a similar developmental path of vowel acquisition as NH children. These findings highlight the importance of early implantation and have implications in clinical aural habilitation in young children with CIs.

  10. Sprouting Healthy Kids Promotes Local Produce and Healthy Eating Behavior in Austin, Texas, Middle Schools: Promoting the Use of Local Produce and Healthy Eating Behavior in Austin City Schools. Program Results Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiden, Karyn

    2010-01-01

    The Sustainable Food Center, which promotes healthy food choices, partnered with six middle schools in Austin, Texas, to implement Sprouting Healthy Kids. The pilot project was designed to increase children's knowledge of the food system, their consumption of fruits and vegetables and their access to local farm produce. Most students at these…

  11. FIXED TEMPORAL PATTERNS IN CHILDREN'S SPEECH DESPITE VARIABLE VOWEL DURATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Melissa A; Oh, Grace E

    2015-08-01

    The current study compared children's and adults' ability to produce inherent and context-specific vowel duration differences with their ability to repeatedly produce the same vowel in the same context. Children (5- and 8-year-olds) and adults produced real English words in a frame sentence multiple times. Mean vowel duration and variability in vowel duration were analysed as a function of the manipulated factors. Results were that children produced exactly the same contrasts as adults despite also exhibiting more variability in their production of individual vowels. The results are consistent with a model where the 'plan' is remembered relative timing information and execution is the achievement of motor goals at specified temporal intervals.

  12. Monetary Shocks in Models with Inattentive Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando E; Lippi, Francesco; Paciello, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    We study models where prices respond slowly to shocks because firms are rationally inattentive. Producers must pay a cost to observe the determinants of the current profit maximizing price, and hence observe them infrequently. To generate large real effects of monetary shocks in such a model the time between observations must be long and/or highly volatile. Previous work on rational inattentiveness has allowed for observation intervals that are either constant-but-long (e.g. Caballero, 1989 or Reis, 2006) or volatile-but-short (e.g. Reis's, 2006 example where observation costs are negligible), but not both. In these models, the real effects of monetary policy are small for realistic values of the duration between observations. We show that non-negligible observation costs produce both of these effects: intervals between observations are infrequent and volatile. This generates large real effects of monetary policy for realistic values of the average time between observations.

  13. Sounds energetic: the radio producer's energy minibook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Minibook will be expanded into the final Radio Producer's Energy Sourcebook. Radio producers and broadcasters are asked to contribute ideas for presenting energy knowledge to the public and to be included in the Sourcebook. Chapter One presents a case study suggesting programming and promotion ideas and sample scripts for a radio campaign that revolves around no-cost or low-cost steps listeners can take to increase their home energy efficiency and save money. A variety of other energy topics and suggestions on ways to approach them are addressed in Chapter Two. Chapter Three contains energy directories for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and Washington, DC. The directories will be expanded in the Sourcebook and will consist of a selection of local public and private sector energy-related organizations and list local experts and organizations and the best Federal, state, and local government programs that can provide consumers and citizens groups with information, technical assistance, and financial support. (MCW)

  14. Calcitonin produces hypercalcemia in leopard sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, J; O'Sullivan, J; Miller, M; Wilkie, D W; Deftos, L J

    1985-02-01

    Calcitonin was detected by RIA in sera from four marine species, leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata), horn sharks (Heterodontus francisci), thornback rays (Platyrhinoides triseriata), and kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus). These animals have levels of calcitonin and calcium higher than freshwater and terrestrial species have. The administration of salmon calcitonin to bass (4 micrograms/kg BW) produced hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia as has been reported for other bony vertebrates. In marked contrast, calcitonin produced a prompt hypercalcemia in sharks; the average was 9.8% increase in serum calcium in nine animals with no attendant change in phosphorus. These findings demonstrate that calcitonin can increase serum calcium in sharks. Because shark skeleton is composed of cartilage, this hypercalcemic effect of calcitonin does not require a bony skeleton.

  15. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sanjay KS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  16. Characterization of briquettes produced with agroforestry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present was to characterize the quality of briquettes produced with fines of vegetable coal and bamboo residues, under different formulations. Specific gravity density, bulk density mass, moisture content and speed or rate of thermic degradation were evaluated. Compressive strength and rotation test were applied to the briquettes. Superior and inferior calorific values from briquettes were estimate by adjusted equations. Briquettes produced with the highest percentages of vegetable coal fines presented higher specific gravity, bulk density, ash content and fixed carbon. It also presented resistance to fall and abrasion. Briquettes with higher bamboo residues content presented faster degradation, higher compressive strength, beyond higher volatile matters and calorific value.

  17. Method for producing catalysis from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Derbyshire, Frank; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Jagtoyen, Marit

    1998-01-01

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

  18. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants Produced by Pseudomonas Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Surfactants are chemical products widely used in our daily life in toothpaste and other personal hygiene and cosmetic products, and in several industries. Biosurfactants are surfactants of biological origin that can be produced by microorganisms and have many advantages, such as low toxicity and high biodegradability, compared to synthetic counterparts. Unfortunately, high production costs limit the use of biosurfactants. Low-cost production is the most important factor for biosurfactants to be able to compete in the global market place. This review presents general information on rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas species, as well as on their production and applications. In addition, industrial products and their wastes used for rhamnolipid production are reviewed in detail based on recent studies.

  19. Malay Speech Intelligibility Test (MSIT for Deaf Malaysian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhairi Md. Yusof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to objectively measure speech intelligibility of deaf Malaysian children using nonsense syllables as test words. In this study, speech intelligibility of deaf children is measured through the ability to say simple syllables (consisting of a consonant and a vowel for all the 22 Malay consonants. The MSIT score should indicate how well these children can produce speech; the higher the score, the better their speech intelligibility. The MSIT have been tested with twenty deaf and ten normal hearning Malaysian children and has been verified by five naïve and two expert listeners. The application of the test is presented as speech intelligibility index for deaf children in a deaf school. The successful development of the MSIT system serves to assist speech pathologist, therapist, teachers and parents of deaf children to determine the level of Malay speech deficiencies and the effectiveness of corrective measures taken.

  20. Children's perception of their synthetically corrected speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbergsson, Sofia; Wengelin, Asa; House, David

    2014-06-01

    We explore children's perception of their own speech - in its online form, in its recorded form, and in synthetically modified forms. Children with phonological disorder (PD) and children with typical speech and language development (TD) performed tasks of evaluating accuracy of the different types of speech stimuli, either immediately after having produced the utterance or after a delay. In addition, they performed a task designed to assess their ability to detect synthetic modification. Both groups showed high performance in tasks involving evaluation of other children's speech, whereas in tasks of evaluating one's own speech, the children with PD were less accurate than their TD peers. The children with PD were less sensitive to misproductions in immediate conjunction with their production of an utterance, and more accurate after a delay. Within-category modification often passed undetected, indicating a satisfactory quality of the generated speech. Potential clinical benefits of using corrective re-synthesis are discussed.

  1. Microwave Semiconductor Equipment Produced in Poland,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-20

    lQal signal source in other devices. Microwave Transistors As a result of work in the field of microwave transistors , the technology for pnp ...is now commonly carried out on transistors and microwave subsystems. The results of the labors of the DM section connected with the new devices and...level of employment Illustration 2. Microwave diodes and semiconductor transistors presently produced in the ITE (DM section) The Construction and

  2. Cyanobacteria blooms produce teratogenic retinoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wan, Yi; Giesy, John P; Hu, Jianying

    2012-06-12

    Deformed amphibians have been observed in eutrophic habitats, and some clues point to the retinoic acids (RAs) or RA mimics. However, RAs are generally thought of as vertebrate-specific hormones, and there was no evidence that RAs exist in cyanobacteria or algae blooms. By analyzing RAs and their analogs 4-oxo-RAs in natural cyanobacteria blooms and cultures of cyanobacteria and algae, we showed that cyanobacteria blooms could produce RAs, which were powerful animal teratogens. Intracellular RAs and 4-oxo-RAs with concentrations between 0.4 and 4.2 × 10(2) ng/L were detected in all bloom materials, and extracellular concentrations measured in water from Taihu Lake, China, were as great as 2.0 × 10 ng/L, which might pose a risk to wildlife through chronic exposure. Further examination of 39 cyanobacteria and algae species revealed that 32 species could produce RAs and 4-oxo-RAs (1.6-1.4 × 10(3) ng/g dry weight), and the dominant cyanobacteria species in Taihu Lake, Microcystis flos-aquae and Microcystis aeruginosa, produced high amounts of RAs and 4-oxo-RAs with concentrations of 1.4 × 10(3) and 3.7 × 10(2) ng/g dry weight, respectively. Most genera of cyanobacteria that could produce RAs and 4-oxo-RAs, such as Microcystis, Anabaena, and Aphanizomenon, often occur dominantly in blooms. Production of RAs and 4-oxo-RAs by cyanobacteria was associated with species, origin location, and growth stage. These results represent a conclusive demonstration of endogenous production of RAs in freshwater cyanobacteria blooms. The observation of teratogenic RAs in cyanobacteria is evolutionarily and ecologically significant because RAs are vertebrate-specific hormones, and cyanobacteria form extensive and highly visible blooms in many aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Pheromone produced by the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, K.; Hegeman, G D; White, D

    1982-01-01

    An extracellular, diffusible signaling molecule (pheromone) was produced by Stigmatella aurantiaca during fruiting body formation. The pheromone decreased the aggregation period in both the light and the dark and substituted for light in stimulating the maturation of aggregates into fruiting bodies. The cells were more sensitive to lower concentrations of pheromone in the light than in the dark, possibly explaining the stimulation of aggregation and fruiting body formation by light. The phero...

  4. Interference to satellite systems produced by rainscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, R. G.; Thompson, P. T.

    1991-10-01

    Data, obtained from eight small dish receivers, placed around the United Kingdom, and designed to detect the scattering by rain of signals from the British Telecom (BT) 11 GHz microwave network, is presented. Fifteen site years of measurements were analyzed to produce cumulative distributions of effective receive antenna noise temperature and, where rainscattered signals were detected, cumulative distributions of transmission loss. The results obtained are compared with those predicted by a BT/University of Essex rainscatter interference prediction model (SCIMP).

  5. Method of producing microchannel and nanochannel articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Brian R.

    2010-05-04

    A method of making an article having channels therethrough includes the steps of: providing a ductile structure defining at least one macro-channel, the macro-channel containing a salt; drawing the ductile structure in the axial direction of the at least one macro-channel to reduce diameter of the macro-channel; and contacting the salt with a solvent to dissolve the salt to produce an article having at least one microchannel.

  6. Adventures in Laser Produced Plasma Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M

    2006-01-13

    In the UK the study of laser produced plasmas and their applications began in the universities and evolved to a current system where the research is mainly carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Central Laser Facility ( CLF) which is provided to support the universities. My own research work has been closely tied to this evolution and in this review I describe the history with particular reference to my participation in it.

  7. Investigate Nasal Colonize Staphylococcus Species Biofilm Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Demir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: 127 S.aureus and 65 CoNS strains were isolated from patients noses%u2019. To produce a biofilm ability was investigated using three different methods. Slime-positive and negative staphylococcies%u2019 resistance were evaluated against different antibiotics. Material and Method: Swap samples puted 7% blood agar. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolates biofilm produced ability were investigated using Congo Red Agar (CRA, microplates (MP and Standard Tube (ST methods. In addition to that, presence of antibiotic resistance of the staphylococcal isolates are determined agar disc diffusion method. Results: The rate of biofilm producing Staphylococcus spp strains was found to be 72.4%, 67.7%, and 62.9%, respectively with CRA, MP, and ST tests. There was no significant relationship among the tests (p>0.05. In addition, antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus spp. against various antibiotics was also determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Resistance rates of biofilm positive (BP Staphylococcus spp for penicilin G, ampicilin, amocycilin/clavulanic acid, tetracyclin, eritromycin, gentamycin, and enrofloxacin 71.7%, 69.7%, 6.2%, 20.7%, 21.4%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Resistance rates of biofilm negative (BN spp for 42.6%, 23.4%, 4.3%, 14.9%, 19.1%, 0.0%, 0.0% respectively. All Staphylococcus isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicaplonin. Although BP strains antibiotic resistance rates were observed higher than BN strains. But resistance rates were not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Discussion: CRA is the reliablity and specifity method to determine Staphylococcus spp. biofilm produce ability.

  8. Separation of a tungus producing taxol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An endogenous filariform fungus has been separated from a treenamed Taxus growing in the Aba region, Sichuan, China. The fungus is fermented in fluid medium for 3 weeks at 25℃, then the HPLC and MALDI-TOF analysis of the zymotic fluid show that the zymotic fluid contains taxol. So it is a fungus which can produce taxol. It is named Taxomyces sp. temporarily.

  9. KPC-producing Enterobacter aerogenes infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tuon, Felipe F.; Camila Scharf; Jaime L. Rocha; Juliette Cieslinsk; Guilherme Nardi Becker; Arend,Lavinia N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Enterobacteris a common nosocomial microorganism and its carbapenem's resistance has increased. The management of these cases is unclear.Objective: We evaluated 16 patients with KPC-producing Enterobacter aerogenesinfections, detailing the site of infection, therapy, clinical and epidemiological data.Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study. Clinical data were revised and KPC-2 detection was by molecular methods. Risk factors associated with mortality were compared using app...

  10. Producing a solid fuel from agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khigasikuni, T.; Fudziki, A.; Koisi, K.

    1982-08-21

    Agricultural wastes, in particular, the peels and seeds of mandarine oranges, used for canning, were ground, dried, mixed with a binder, molded in cylindrical or pyramidal forms of a piece of the desired size, heated and impregnated with a water repellant substance, for instance, paraffin. A material is produced with a d = 1. PVA was used as the binder. The wastes were partially gasified and the obtained gas was used as a heat source in drying the wastes.

  11. Structural properties of produced CuO/NiO/glass thin layers Produced by chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramezani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel Oxide and Copper oxide on Nickel Oxide thin layers were produced by chemical bath deposition method. There nano structures were investigated by SEM and EDAX analysis. By producing CuO/NiO/glass sandwich layers nano structure of NiO/glass layer changed and fraction of voids decreases. In sandwich layer physical property of outer layer was dominant

  12. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  13. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  14. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  15. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  16. Social inclusion policy: Producing justice or retribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kym Macfarlane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of social inclusion has currently gained extraordinary credence in Australia. Policy incorporating social inclusion abounds across all discipline areas with the federal government for the first time instituting a government portfolio for this area, headed by the Deputy Prime Minister. Such a move indicates the importance of managing aspects of inclusion across all sectors, in a country where diversity abounds. However, this focus on inclusion can prove highly problematic, when it becomes such an integral part of policy formulation and of the assumptions, omissions and contradictions that policy produces. This paper examines how policy discourse produces ways of thinking about inclusion/exclusion. Using three vignettes, the author applies the theories of Michel Foucault to argue that the discursive production of such inclusive policy works to simultaneously exclude by categorising particular types of individuals and families as “proper” participants in society. The author contends that understandings of propriety relating to the inclusion/exclusion binary reinscribe each other, in ways that situate particular citizens outside of possibilities for “success” in social and systemic participation. Such understanding is highlighted by a conceptual examination of the ways in which discursively produced notions of propriety become normalised. Keywords: bricolage, discourse, authorised knowledge, imperative discourse, regimes of truth

  17. PIVKA-II-producing advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Shigetsugu; Honda, Ichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Soda, Hiroaki; Nagata, Matsuo; Hoshino, Isamu; Takenouchi, Toshinao; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2004-08-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old man with primary advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach, who displayed extremely high plasma levels of protein induced by vitamin K antagonist (PIVKA)-II (15 600 mAU/ml) and normal levels of alphafetoprotein (AFP) (4 ng/ml). Ultrasonography and dynamic computed tomography ruled out hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver metastasis. After preoperative chemotherapy, pancreatico-spleno total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. Postoperatively, plasma levels of PIVKA-II returned to within the normal range (29 mAU/ml). Microscopic examination revealed stomach adenocarcinoma showing various histological types, such as moderately to poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma, but hepatoid differentiation of gastric adenocarcinoma was not detected. Localization of PIVKA-II and AFP within tumor cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies. These results indicate that tumor cells from gastric cancer may produce PIVKA-II. Some cases of PIVKA-II- and AFP-producing advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis have been reported, but this is the first report of gastric cancer without liver metastasis producing PIVKA-II alone.

  18. Bioethanol produced from Moringa oleifera seeds husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. N.; Kemat, S. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the potential of bioethanol production from Moringa oleifera seeds husk which contains lignocellulosic through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper investigates the parameters which produce optimum bioethanol yield. The husk was hydrolyzed using NaOH and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Batch fermentation was performed with different yeast dosage of 1, 3, and 5 g/L, pH value was 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5, and fermentation time of 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. The temperature of fermentation process in incubator shaker is kept constant at 32ºC. The samples are then filtered using a 0.20 μm nylon filter syringe. The yield of bioethanol produced was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the highest yield of 29.69 g/L was obtained at 3 hours of fermentation time at pH of 4.5 and using 1g/L yeast. This research work showed that Moringa oleifera seeds husk can be considered to produce bioethanol.

  19. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K. (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. Radiation Monitoring, Dublin (Ireland))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so

  20. Children's rights in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Jürg C; Michel, Margot; Vayena, Effy

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations Convention of Children's Rights (UNCRC) introduced in 1989 has generated a global movement for the protection of children's rights and has brought about a paradigm change in how children are perceived. Pediatric healthcare professionals are interacting with children and therefore with children's rights on a daily basis. However, although at least 18 of the 54 articles are relevant for pediatric practice, there is limited systematic training on how pediatricians can support children's rights in the clinical setting. This article discusses the principles and aims of the UNCRC and proposes a comprehensive checklist of rights vis-à-vis issues that arise in clinical practice.

  1. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) produces widespread apoptosis in the developing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslick, Jennifer L; Lau, Karen; Noguchi, Kevin K; Olney, John W; Zorumski, Charles F; Mennerick, Steven; Farber, Nuri B

    2009-04-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent that is routinely used as a cryopreservative in allogous bone marrow and organ transplantation. We exposed C57Bl/6 mice of varying postnatal ages (P0-P30) to DMSO in order to study whether DMSO could produce apoptotic degeneration in the developing CNS. DMSO produced widespread apoptosis in the developing mouse brain at all ages tested. Damage was greatest at P7. Significant elevations above the background rate of apoptosis occurred at the lowest dose tested, 0.3 ml/kg. In an in vitro rat hippocampal culture preparation, DMSO produced neuronal loss at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%. The ability of DMSO to damage neurons in dissociated cultures indicates that the toxicity likely results from a direct cellular effect. Because children, who undergo bone marrow transplantation, are routinely exposed to DMSO at doses higher than 0.3 ml/kg, there is concern that DMSO might be producing similar damage in human children.

  2. Prevention of streptococcal pharyngitis by anti-Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Streptococcus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagg, J R

    2004-05-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a numerically prominent member of the human oral microbiota that produces a variety of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) having in vitro inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes. Our previous studies of S. salivarius isolates from children using a deferred antagonism BLIS production (P)-typing scheme showed that the 9 per cent of children having large populations of P-type 677 S. salivarius experienced fewer S. pyogenes acquisitions than either the 11 per cent of children having predominant P-type 226 populations or the 60 per cent of children with largely non-inhibitory (P-type 000) S. salivarius. Amongst the other BLIS P-types detected were a number of strongly-inhibitory (P-type 777) S. salivarius. In the present study the inhibitory agents produced by prototype strains of P-types 226, 677 and 777 S. salivarius are compared. The prototype BLIS-producing S. salivarius strains SN, 20P3, and K12 were isolated from tongue swabbings. BLIS P-typing was done using standard procedures. The BLIS molecules were purified and characterized. S. salivarius SN (P-type 226) produces a heat-labile muramidase. S. salivarius 20P3 (P-type 677) produces the 2315 Da lantibiotic salivaricin A and S. salivarius K12 (P-type 777) produces two lantibiotics; salivaricin A2 (2368 Da) and salivaricin B (2733 Da). The P-type 777 S. salivarius strain produced salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B. The combined production of two anti-S. pyogenes BLIS activities by this strain indicates that it could be adopted as a colonizing strain in bacterial interference trials.

  3. The Interface of Syntax with Pragmatics and Prosody in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Francis, Kostantinos

    2016-08-01

    In order to study problems of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with morphosyntax, we investigated twenty high-functioning Greek-speaking children (mean age: 6;11) and twenty age- and language-matched typically developing children on environments that allow or forbid object clitics or their corresponding noun phrase. Children with ASD fell behind typically developing children in comprehending and producing simple clitics and producing noun phrases in focus structures. The two groups performed similarly in comprehending and producing clitics in clitic left dislocation and in producing noun phrases in non-focus structures. We argue that children with ASD have difficulties at the interface of (morpho)syntax with pragmatics and prosody, namely, distinguishing a discourse prominent element, and considering intonation relevant for a particular interpretation that excludes clitics.

  4. Expanding Possibilities of Periodicals for Children in Asia and the Pacific. Report of the 1997 Training Course on Production of Periodicals for Children (Tokyo, October 1-15, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following the proceedings of the training course on children's periodicals held in 1997 in Tokyo, this report contains the following articles: (1) "Children's Life and Magazines" (Jiro Saito); (2) "Periodical Picture Books to Develop Reading Skills of Children" (Tadashi Matsui); (3) "How to Produce Attractive Educational…

  5. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  6. Bupropion hydrochloride produces conditioned hyperactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jamie L; Bevins, Rick A

    2007-04-23

    Bupropion is marketed as an antidepressant, Wellbutrin and smoking cessation aid, Zyban. Although the therapeutic neurological mechanisms of bupropion have not been fully elucidated, bupropion shares some behavioral similarities with classic psychomotor stimulants. The present study sought to further investigate these psychomotor stimulant effects of bupropion by assessing whether repeated administration of bupropion in a distinct environment produced conditioned hyperactivity. Paired rats received 10 daily i.p. injections of bupropion (2.5-30 mg/kg) before placement in locomotor chambers for 30 min. Bupropion (10-30 mg/kg) produced acute locomotor hyperactivity compared to Unpaired controls. After repeated administration, there was no progressive increase or decrease in bupropion-induced activity. In a subsequent drug-free session conditioned hyperactivity was observed at 5-30 mg/kg doses. In a follow-up experiment, we examined whether responsiveness to novelty predicted the subsequent unconditioned and conditioned locomotor effect of bupropion. Reactivity to inescapable novelty, novel environment approach, and novel-object interaction were measured before locomotor conditioning with 30 mg/kg bupropion. We replicated the previous experiment, but scores on the novelty screens did not predict locomotor response to bupropion. This study extends the literature by demonstrating that environmental cues repeatedly paired with the stimulant effects of bupropion come to evoke elevated activity in the absence of drug (i.e., conditioned hyperactivity). This finding is consistent with the literature suggesting that bupropion shares many behavioral similarities with other psychomotor stimulants which also produce conditioned hyperactivity. However, a predictive relation between reactivity to forced novelty and the subsequent locomotor effect of bupropion may not be one of these similarities.

  7. Isolation of moulds capable of producing mycotoxins from blue mouldy Tulum cheeses produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, A; Gurses, M; Sert, S

    2003-08-15

    A total of 16 moulds was isolated and identified from 12 blue mouldy Tulum cheeses collected from retailers in Erzurum, Turkey; 12 were Penicillium roqueforti and 4 were Geotrichum candidum. The P. roqueforti isolates were grown in yeast sucrose broth at 5, 12 and 25 degrees C for 10 days, then extracted with chloroform and acetone and the extracts were examined for the presence of patulin, penicillic acid, roquefortine and PR toxin using thin layer chromatography. All of the P. roqueforti strains had toxin-producing ability at 5, 12 and 25 degrees C, eight produced only at 5 and 12 degrees C and six could not produce toxin at 5 degrees C.

  8. Narrative competence and internal state language of children with Asperger Syndrome and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Anna-Lena; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Becker, Katja; Kauschke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The central question of the present study was whether there are differences between children with Asperger Syndrome (AS), children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls (HC) with respect to the organization of narratives and their verbalization of internal states. Oral narrations of a wordless picture book produced by 31 children (11 with AS, 9 with ADHD, 11 HC, aged 8-12) were analyzed regarding the following linguistic variables: story length, sentence structure and sentence complexity, coherence and cohesion of the stories, verbalization of the narrator's perspective, as well as internal state language (verbal reference to mental states). Considerable similarities were noted between the two clinical groups, which deviate from HC children. Narratives of the children with AS and ADHD were shorter than the narratives produced by the HC children. The children of both clinical groups failed to point out the main aspects of the story. In particular, children with AS did not refer to cognitive states as often as the other groups. With respect to narrative coherence, they produced fewer pronominal references than HC children and children with ADHD. In conclusion, the two clinical groups differed from the HC group on a number of features, and a less frequent reference to cognitive states was identified for the children with AS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  10. ECOLOGICAL REGIONALIZATION METHODS OF OIL PRODUCING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Ivanovna Pivovarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses territory zoning methods with varying degrees of anthropogenic pollution risk. The summarized results of spatial analysis of oil pollution of surface water in the most developed oil-producing region of Russia. An example of GIS-zoning according to the degree of environmental hazard is presented. All possible algorithms of cluster analysis are considered for isolation of homogeneous data structures. The conclusion is made on the benefits of using combined methods of analysis for assessing the homogeneity of specific environmental characteristics in selected territories.

  11. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. Results The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM) of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM) was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions) were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber) content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. Conclusions We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to scale-up the fermentation

  12. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...... writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream...... the opportunity for engaging mainstream ideologies in order to reduce the rhetorical distance between minority and majority cultures....

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  14. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  15. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Mendoza, Daniel; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  17. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants' attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts.

  18. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitamoto Hiroko K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. Results The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. Conclusions We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to

  19. Cells and methods for producing fatty alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F.; Youngquist, Tyler J.

    2017-07-18

    Recombinant cells and methods for improved yield of fatty alcohols. The recombinant cells harbor a recombinant thioesterase gene, a recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase gene, and a recombinant acyl-CoA reductase gene. In addition, a gene product from one or more of an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, an enoyl-CoA hydratase gene, a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, and a 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene in the recombinant cells is functionally deleted. Culturing the recombinant cells produces fatty alcohols at high yields.

  20. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollan, E.O.

    1961-06-27

    A neutronic reactor comprising two discrete zones; namely, an inner zone containing fissionable material and an outer zone containing fertile material is described. The inner zone is operated at a low temperature and is cooled by pressurized water. The outer zone is operated at a substantially higher temperature and is cooled by steam flashed from the inner zone. The reactor is particularly advantageous in that it produces high temperature steam; yet the materials of construction in the core (inner zone) are not restricted to materials capable of withstanding high temperature operation.

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  2. Cardiogenic embolism producing crescendo transient ischemic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Patrick J; Oak, Jack; Choi, Eric T

    2005-09-01

    Lateralizing, repetitive transient ischemic attacks are characteristic of symptomatic carotid bifurcation atherosclerotic plaques. We report a case in which a cardiogenic embolus, after lodging at the left carotid bifurcation, produced crescendo episodes of expressive aphasia and mild right upper extremity weakness. Complete neurological recovery was achieved following emergent carotid embolectomy and endarterectomy. This case demonstrates that the laminar nature of internal carotid blood flow may result in the localization of embolic events to a single region of the cerebral vasculature, regardless of the source lesion in the carotid artery. The role of endoluminal techniques in the diagnosis and management of such lesions is discussed.

  3. Simon Fraser University Computer Produced Map Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Phillips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An IBM 360/50 computer and magnetic tape are used in a new univer- sity library to produce a map catalogue by area and up to six subiects for each map. Cataloguing is by non-professional staff using the Library of Congress "G, schedule. Author, title, and publisher are in variable length fields, and codes are seldom used for input or interpretation. Ma- chine searches by area, subjects, author, publisher, scale, pro-;ection, date and language can be carried out.

  4. Method for producing thin film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Manoj; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dorris, Stephen

    2016-06-07

    The invention provides for A method for producing pure phase strontium ruthenium oxide films, the method comprising solubilizing ruthenium-containing and strontium-containing compounds to create a mixture; subjecting the mixture to a first temperature above that necessary for forming RuO.sub.2 while simultaneously preventing formation of RuO.sub.2; maintaining the first temperature for a time to remove organic compounds from the mixture, thereby forming a substantially dry film; and subjecting the film to a second temperature for time sufficient to crystallize the film. Also provided is pure phase material comprising strontium ruthenium oxide wherein the material contains no RuO.sub.2.

  5. Immune response in diarrheal patients and asymptomatic carrier with CS6-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiprom, Orapim; Chantaroj, Siriporn; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Tooru

    2012-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the major causes of diarrhea in children and travelers in developing countries. ETEC colonization factors (CFs) are virulence determinants considered as protective antigens and major targets for vaccine development against ETEC infections. One of the most prevalent CFs, coli surface antigen 6 (CS6), a non-fimbrial polymeric protein consisting of two major subunits, CssA and CssB, is produced by approximately 25-35% of ETEC worldwide. We could isolate only CS6-producing ETEC strains from two diarrheal patients and one asymptomatic carrier, but we could not detect CssA- or CssB-specific antibodies in the feces and blood of two patients convalescing from natural ETEC infection and of an asymptomatic carrier using western blotting. Therefore, in order to protect against infection with CS6-producing ETEC, protective levels of CS6 immunity should be incorporated in any future vaccines against ETEC.

  6. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... side effects. Side effects from sulfasalazine may include headache, sun sensitivity rash, or other signs of sulfa ...

  7. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  8. Medicines and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is usually ...

  10. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and teens in our Learning Center . FAQs Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Childbirth and Delivery Neurologic Disease or Injury Colorectal Cancer Other Contributing Factors Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's ...

  11. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  12. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...

  14. A Children's Rights Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A survey shows that, although no occupational group tested so far approves of all of the proposed laws protecting children, the most accepting were the people who professionally work most closely with children; the least accepting were lawmakers. (RM)

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does the equipment look ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from having to ...

  16. Children's hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Dailey, A

    1990-01-01

    Facing the inevitable death of a child is a difficult reality for many parents and health care providers as well. Children's Hospice International offers a variety of information and education services to support the provision of children's hospice care.

  17. Airway reconstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background : Airway anomalies are infrequent but potentially life threatening in children. A program to care for these difficult children was set up at our institution, and this paper summarizes our experience. Methods: A total of 34 children were enrolled in the program over a period of three years. These children were evaluated as per the standard protocols. Treatment was individualized. Results: Of these 34 children, 28 had their airways restored and are doing well. Four children continue to remain on tracheostomy and two will require long term tracheostomy. There were two deaths. All children are under surveillance as there is a risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Airway anomalies are complex problems with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities allow for good results. Most children were successfully decannulated and did well.

  18. Reflux in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... could be GERD. What causes reflux and GERD in children? There is a muscle (the lower esophageal ... contents don't flow back into the esophagus. In children who have reflux and GERD, this muscle ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of ... full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy ...

  20. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...

  2. Secondhand Smoke and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Secondhand Smoke and Children Secondhand Smoke and Children Patient Health ... in homes with at least one adult smoker. Smoke’s effect on…... The fetus and newborn Maternal, fetal, ...

  3. Giving Medication to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Giving Medication to Children Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... the upper limit. back to top Q: Are medications that are intended for children clinically tested on ...

  4. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  5. Children and Facial Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Children and Facial Trauma Children and Facial Trauma Patient Health Information News ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is facial trauma? The term facial trauma means any injury to ...

  6. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  7. Auditory Processing Deficits in Children with Reading and Language Impairments: Can They (and Should They) Be Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, G. M.; Ellis, D.; Atkinson, C. M.; Coltheart, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five children with specific reading disability (SRD), 25 children with specific language impairment (SLI), and 37 age-matched controls were tested for their frequency discrimination, rapid auditory processing, vowel discrimination, and consonant-vowel discrimination. Subgroups of children with SRD or SLI produced abnormal frequency…

  8. ERPs Reveal Atypical Processing of Subject versus Object "Wh"-Questions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…

  9. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  10. [Glaucoma in children and adolescents: visual field and optic nerve in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouland, J-F

    2009-03-01

    High intraocular pressure, or glaucoma suspicion in children, requires to perform an automated visual field examination and to examine the optic nerve. These examinations are often difficult to realize in children, particularly those less than 6 years of age. From 6.5-7 years of age, visual sensitivity threshold is only marginally lower than that of adults, however due to the lack of established normative values for children, reference has to be based on adult normative values. Non mydriatic photographies of optic disc are a key element for follow up. Imaging technique (optical coherence tomography) produce reliable information, but difficult to interpret due to the absence of normative values adapted to children population.

  11. Children Teach Children: Learning by Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Alan; And Others

    This book describes current educational programs in which young people have been tutoring younger students; the programs are based on the assumption that children learn more from teaching other children. To the degree that they offer a chance to enact an adult role, teaching tasks can provide reassurance and confidence for many youths. Strategies…

  12. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KNIAZKOVA V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  13. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazkova V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  14. Cholecystectomy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....

  15. Cholecystectomy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....

  16. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  17. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composties produced thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intenisty acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaciton products comprise a solide particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particles-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  18. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composites produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2015-12-29

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intensity acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaction products comprise a solid particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particle-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  19. CCT`s in a deregulated environment: A producer`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, R.F. Jr.; Fayssoux, J.O. [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The US electric industry will be deregulated (or substantially re-regulated) within 5 years. Several states, including California, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, already have passed legislation to introduce competition into the electric markets before the year 2000. As this trend sweeps across the country, the resulting competitive market for generation will reward the lowest cost producers and force high cost producers out of the market. As a result, at least in the short run, it may be very difficult for new power plants employing Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) to compete. This paper discusses a producer`s perspective of the new competitive market, and suggests several short and long term strategies and niches for CCTs.

  20. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composites produced thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intensity acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaction products comprise a solid particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particle-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.