Sample records for hf propagation paths

  1. Space weather and HF propagation along different paths of the Russian chirp sounders network (United States)

    Kurkin, V. I.; Litovkin, G. I.; Matyushonok, S. M.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Ivanov, V. A.; Poddelsky, I. N.; Rozanov, S. V.; Uryadov, V. P.

    This paper presents experimental data obtained on long paths (from 2200 km to 5700 km range) of Russian frequency modulated continues wave (chirp) sounders network for the period from 1998 to 2003. Four transmitters (near Magadan, Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, Norilsk) and four receivers (near Irkutsk, Yoshkar-Ola, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don) were combined into single network to investigate a influence of geomagnetic storms and substorms on HF propagation in Asian region of Russia. In this region the geographic latitudes are in greatest excess of magnetic latitudes. As a consequence, elements of the large-scale structure, such as the main ionospheric trough, and the zone of auroral ionization, are produced in the ionosphere at the background of a low electron ionization. Coordinated experiments were carried out using 3-day Solar-Geophysical activity forecast presented by NOAA Space Environment Center in Internet. Sounding operations were conducted in the frequency band 4 -- 30 MHz on a round-the-clock basis at 15-min intervals. Oblique-incidence sounding (OIS) ionograms were recorded during 5-7 days every season for some years. The comparison between experimental data and simulation of OIS ionograms using International Reference Ionospheric model (IRI-2001) allowed to estimate the forecast of HF propagation errors both under quiet condition and during geomagnetic disturbances. Strong deviations from median values of maximum observed frequencies on mid-latitude paths in daytime present a real challenge to ionospheric forecast. Subauroral and mid-latitude chirp-sounding paths run, respectively, near the northward and southward walls of the main ionospheric trough. This make sit possible to study the dynamics of the trough's boundaries under different geophysical conditions and assess the influence of ionization gradients and small-scale turbulence on HF signal characteristics. The signals off-great circle propagation were registered over a wide frequency range and for

  2. Substorm correlated absorption on a 3200 km trans-auroral HF propagation path

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    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available A high-frequency transmitter located at Clyde River, NWT, Canada, and a receiver located near Boston, USA, provide a 3200 km trans-auroral, near-meridional propagation path over which the propagation characteristics have been measured. Out of the fourteen frequencies in the HF band sampled every hour for the duration of the experimental campaign (16 January–8 February 1989, the signal level measurements of 6.800 MHz transmissions were selected in order to determine the extent and occurrence of auroral absorption. The median level of auroral absorption along the path is found to increase with geomagnetic activity, quantified by the index Kp, with the increase being greater in the post-midnight sector than in the pre-midnight sector. This asymmetric behaviour is attributed to the precipitation of high energy electrons into the midnight and morning sector auroral D region. The measured diurnal variation in the median level of absorption is consistent with previous models describing the extent and magnitude of auroral absorption and electron precipitation. Individual substorms, identified from geosynchronous satellite data, are found to cause short-lived absorption events in the HF signal level of ~30 dB at 6.800 MHz. The occurrence of substorm correlated auroral absorption events is confined to the midnight and morning sectors, consistent with the location of the electron precipitation. The magnitude of absorption is related to the magnetotail stress during the substorm growth phase and the magnetotail relaxation during the substorm expansion phase onset. The absorption magnitude and the occurrence of substorms during the period of the campaign increase at times of high Kp , leading to an increase in median auroral absorption during disturbed periods.

  3. Irregular HF radio propagation on a subauroral path during magnetospheric substorms

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    D. V. Blagoveshchensky


    Full Text Available The impact of the main ionospheric trough, sporadic structures, gradients and inhomogeneities of the subpolar ionosphere during substorms on the signal amplitude, azimuthal angles of arrival, and propagation modes for the radio path Ottawa (Canada-St. Petersburg (Russia was considered. This subauroral path with the length of about 6600 km has approximately an east-west orientation. The main goals are to carry out numerical modeling of radio propagation for the path and to compare the model calculations with experimental results. Wave absorption and effects of focusing and divergence of rays were taken into consideration in the radio wave modeling process. The following basic results were obtained: The signal amplitude increases by 20–30 dB 1–1.5 h before the substorm expansion phase onset. At the same time the signal azimuth deviates towards north of the great circle arc for the propagation path. Compared with quiet periods there are effects due to irregularities and gradients in the area of the polar edge of the main ionospheric trough on the passing signals. Propagation mechanisms also change during substorms. The growth of signal amplitude before the substorm can be physically explained by both a decrease of the F2-layer ionization and a growth of the F2-layer height that leads to a decrease of the signal field divergence and to a drop of the collision frequency. Ionospheric gradients are also important. This increase of signal level prior to a substorm could be used for forecasting of space weather disturbed conditions.

  4. Sub-mesoscale Eddies and Their Propagation Paths in Long Bay, SC Observed in HF Radar Surface Currents (United States)

    Cahl, D.; Voulgaris, G.


    Sub-mesoscale eddies on the shoreward front of the Gulf Stream (GS) are thought to play a critical role in controlling cross-shelf transport and momentum flux in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) but cannot be observed continuously from satellites due to cloud cover. Non-linear eddies have the ability to trap and transport water as they propagate, which make them a potential source of cross-shelf transport. Long Bay, SC, just downstream of the Charleston Bump is the area of highest eddy activity in the SAB. Surface currents in Long Bay have been observed since 2012 using HF radars. The accuracy of three eddy detection methods (Okubo-Weiss, Vector-geometry, Winding-angle) are compared in this area of high shear on the shoreward front of the GS. The Okubo-Weiss parameter does not perform well in this area due to the high shear environment where eddies propagate. The Vector-Geometry method has good successful detection rates but suffers in shape analysis from inaccurate Stream Function contours in this area due to divergent surface currents. The Winding-Angle method performs well and was used to detect eddies and their propagation paths in Long Bay for years 2013 and 2014. Detected eddies propagate predominantly along-shelf, with cyclonic (anticyclonic) eddies propagating downstream (upstream) with respect the GS. Few eddies with the ability to trap and transport water propagating in the across-shelf direction were observed, leading to the conclusion that most of the influence of these eddies is confined to the shoreward front of the GS, near the shelf break.

  5. Aspects of HF radio propagation

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    Stephane Saillant


    Full Text Available

    radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST 296 Action, interest lies with effects associated

    with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects are covered in this paper:

    a The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have

    been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations

    with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that

    result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that

    result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation

    of HF radiolocation systems.

    b Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly

    ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough

    and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals impinge on the

    northerly ionosphere

  6. Propagators and path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van


    Path-integral expressions for one-particle propagators in scalar and fermionic field theories are derived, for arbitrary mass. This establishes a direct connection between field theory and specific classical point-particle models. The role of world-line reparametrization invariance of the classical action and the implementation of the corresponding BRST-symmetry in the quantum theory are discussed. The presence of classical world-line supersymmetry is shown to lead to an unwanted doubling of states for massive spin-1/2 particles. The origin of this phenomenon is traced to a `hidden` topological fermionic excitation. A different formulation of the pseudo-classical mechanics using a bosonic representation of {gamma}{sub 5} is shown to remove these extra states at the expense of losing manifest supersymmetry. (orig.).

  7. Equatorial ionospheric disturbance observed through a transequatorial HF propagation experiment

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    T. Maruyama


    Full Text Available A transequatorial radio-wave propagation experiment at shortwave frequencies (HF-TEP was done between Shepparton, Australia, and Oarai, Japan, using the radio broadcasting signals of Radio Australia. The receiving facility at Oarai was capable of direction finding based on the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification algorithm. The results were plotted in azimuth-time diagrams (AT plots. During the daytime, the propagation path was close to the great circle connecting Shepparton and Oarai, thus forming a single line in the AT plots. After sunset, off-great-circle paths, or satellite traces in the AT plot, often appeared abruptly to the west and gradually returned to the great circle direction. However, there were very few signals across the great circle to the east. The off-great-circle propagation was very similar to that previously reported and was attributed to reflection by an ionospheric structure near the equator. From the rate of change in the direction, we estimated the drift velocity of the structure to range mostly from 100 to 300 m/s eastward. Multiple instances of off-great-circle propagation with a quasi-periodicity were often observed and their spatial distance in the east-west direction was within the range of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LS-TIDs. Off-great-circle propagation events were frequently observed in the equinox seasons. Because there were many morphological similarities, the events were attributed to the onset of equatorial plasma bubbles.

  8. Anomalous phenomena on HF radio paths during geomagnetic disturbances (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskii, D. V.


    We analyze ionospheric oblique sounding data on three high-latitude and one high-latitude-midlatitude HF radio paths for February 15 and 16, 2014, when two substorms and one magnetic storm occurred. We investigate cases of anomalous propagation of signals: their reflection from sporadic layer Es, lateral reflections, type "M" or "N" modes, the presence of traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the diffusivity of signals and triplets. The most significant results are the following. In geomagnetically undisturbed times, sporadic Es-layers with reduced maximum observed frequencies (MOF Es) on three high-latitude paths were observed in both days. The values of MOF Es during disturbances are large, which leads to the screening of other oblique sounding signals reflected from the ionosphere. On all four paths, the most frequently traveling ionospheric disturbances due to the terminator were observed in quiet hours from 03:00 to 15:00 UT on the first day and from 06:00 to 13:00 UT on the second day of the experiment. In addition, both the sunset terminator and the magnetic storm on the high-latitude-mid-latitude path were found to generate traveling ionospheric disturbances jointly. No such phenomenon was found on high-latitude paths.

  9. Impact of famous CEDAR, GEM and ISTP geomagnetic Storms on HF Radio Propagation (United States)

    Blagoveshchensky, D.; Sergeeva, M.

    The mighty geomagnetic storms due to the extraordinary Sun s activity cause as a rule some impacts in these areas radiation effects on human and satellites commercial airlines outages electric power and other geomagnetic effects navigation and communication GPS effects ionospheric disturbances HF communication effects Therefore our scientific understanding of this activity is very important Joint efforts for example within the framework of the CAWSES enable progress in our ability to i identify critical inputs to specify the geospace environment at a level needed to minimize impacts on technology human society and life and ii support the development of robust models that predict conditions in geospace based on understanding of the Sun-Earth system and all of its interacting components In this study influence of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR GEM and ISTP storms within 1997-99 on radio propagation conditions have been investigated These conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on each path from three high-latitude HF radio paths of North-west Russia before during and after a storm It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character Nevertheless the common character of the certain manifestations during storm-time was revealed For example the frequency range MOF - LOF is getting wider several hours before a storm then it is sharply narrow during a storm-time and further it is expanded again several

  10. Investigation into the problem of characterization of the HF ionospheric fluctuating channel of propagation: construction of a physically based HF channel simulator

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    H. J. Strangeways


    Full Text Available A wideband HF simulator has been constructed that is based on a detailed physical model. It can generate an output giving a time realization of the HF wideband channel for any HF carrier frequency and bandwidth and for any given transmitter receiver path, time of day, month and year and for any solar activity/geomagnetic conditions. To accomplish this, a comprehensive solution has been obtained to the problem of HF wave propagation for the most general case of a 3D inhomogeneous ionosphere with time-varying electron density fluctuations. The solution is based on the complex phase method (Rytov s method, which has been extended to the case of an inhomogeneous medium and a point source of the field. Results of simulation obtained according to the technique developed have been presented, calculated for a single-hop path 1000 km long oriented to the south from St. Petersburg and including a horizontal electron density gradient present in the IRI model used as the basis of the ionosphere model. The fluctuations of the ionospheric electron density were characterized by an inverse power law anisotropic spatial spectrum. For this model, the random walk of the phasor at the receiver is determined and shown both for paths reflected in the E- and Fregions, being significantly larger for the latter. The oblique sounding ionogram is constructed and reveals three propagation modes: the E-mode and low and high angle F-mode paths. The time-varying field due to each of these paths is then summed at the receiving location enabling the calculation of the scattering function and also the time realization of the received signal shown as a function of both fast and slow time. This is performed both with and without the presence of the geomagnetic field; in the former case the splitting of the F2-mode into both e- and o-modes is seen. It is also shown how the scattering function can be obtained from the time realization of the channel in a way akin to experimental

  11. HF Propagation Directions Observed by the e-POP Radio Receiver Instrument (United States)

    James, H. G.; Perry, G. W.


    We have investigated high-frequency (HF) propagation direction measurements by the e-POP Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the CASSIOPE spacecraft. The measurement of the direction of arrival (DOA) of electromagnetic waves propagating in the ionosphere is a desirable technique for the analysis of both spontaneous emissions and waves emitted by ground transmitters. In the case of detection of waves launched by HF radars, DOA evidence at low earth orbit close to regions of (coherent) backscatter may help to understand the details of the physics of scatter of radar waves, by the examination of waves both incident on and scattered by irregularities of density. The RRI has been used to observe direct transmissions from the ground for evaluation of a DOA detection algorithm. Signals are detected with two orthogonal 6-m distributed dipoles on RRI working at frequencies up to about 18 MHz. When ground sources emit electric-field polarisation of one of the Ordinary (O) and Extraordinary (X) cold-plasma modes, the DOA of transmissions propagating near the bore sight of the RRI crossed dipoles can be determined. In the instance of transversely polarized transmissions from a SuperDARN source, the emissions are the sum of the two cold-plasma modes and we depend on differential refraction to temporally resolve the pulsed transmissions into two modes for DOA measurement by the RRI. DOA information can help to confirm the existence of horizontal density gradients that can bend rays away from the great-circle beam paths traditionally assumed in the SuperDARN fields of view.

  12. The Instagram: A Novel Sounding Technique for Enhanced HF Propagation Advice (United States)


    The Instagram : A Novel Sounding Technique for Enhanced HF Propagation Advice Rod I. Barnes, G. Fred Earl Riverside Research Organization Rosslyn...low transmit powers, is reduced over conventional methods by up to three orders of magnitude leading to the term ‘ Instagram ’. The technique is...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Instagram : A Novel Sounding Technique for Enhanced HF Propagation Advice

  13. Characterization of Ionosphere Waveguide Propagation by Monitoring HAARP HF Transmissions in Antarctica (United States)



  14. Modeling Propagation of Gas Path Damage (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be tracked and modeled for a range of fault modes in some modules of commercial high bypass aircraft engines. To that...

  15. Design Change Model for Effective Scheduling Change Propagation Paths (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Ding, Guo-Fu; Li, Rong; Qin, Sheng-Feng; Yan, Kai-Yin


    Changes in requirements may result in the increasing of product development project cost and lead time, therefore, it is important to understand how requirement changes propagate in the design of complex product systems and be able to select best options to guide design. Currently, a most approach for design change is lack of take the multi-disciplinary coupling relationships and the number of parameters into account integrally. A new design change model is presented to systematically analyze and search change propagation paths. Firstly, a PDS-Behavior-Structure-based design change model is established to describe requirement changes causing the design change propagation in behavior and structure domains. Secondly, a multi-disciplinary oriented behavior matrix is utilized to support change propagation analysis of complex product systems, and the interaction relationships of the matrix elements are used to obtain an initial set of change paths. Finally, a rough set-based propagation space reducing tool is developed to assist in narrowing change propagation paths by computing the importance of the design change parameters. The proposed new design change model and its associated tools have been demonstrated by the scheduling change propagation paths of high speed train's bogie to show its feasibility and effectiveness. This model is not only supportive to response quickly to diversified market requirements, but also helpful to satisfy customer requirements and reduce product development lead time. The proposed new design change model can be applied in a wide range of engineering systems design with improved efficiency.

  16. Dynamical anisotropy of the optical propagation paths (United States)

    Arsenyan, Tatiana I.; Pisklin, Maksim V.; Suhareva, Natalia A.; Zotov, Aleksey M.


    Dynamics of laser beam intensity profile spatial modulations over a model tropospheric path with the controlled meteorological parameters was studied. Influence of the underlying surface temperature as well as the side wind load were considered. The increase of dynamic anisotropic disturbances saturation with the path length was observed. Spatio-temporal correlation characteristics of the directivity pattern in the signal beam registration plane were obtained. Proposed method of the experimental samples analysis on the base of chronogram with the following definition of the dynamic structure tensors array allows to estimate local and averaged projections of the flow velocities over the chosen spatio-temporal region and to restore their geometry in the zone of intersection with the signal beam. Additional characteristics suggested for the diagonalized local structure tensors such as local energy capacity and local structuredness are informative for the estimation of the inhomogeneities spatial dimensions, time of access through the section considered, the dynamics of energetic jets. The concepts of rotational and translational dynamic anisotropy are introduced to discriminate the types of the changes of the local ellipsoids axes orientation as well as their values. Rotational anisotropy shows itself in the changes of the local ellipsoids orientation, thus characterizing the illumination variation over the beam cross-section. Translational anisotropy describes the difference between the axes values for local ellipsoids.

  17. Local structure and local conduction paths in amorphous (In,Ga,Hf)-ZnO semiconductor thin films (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Seok; Cheol Lee, Jae; Chung, JaeGwan; Lee, Eunha; Anass, Benayad; Sung, Nark-Eon; Min Lee, Jay; Jae Kang, Hee


    The local structure and local conduction paths of Ga-In-Zn-O (GIZO) and Hf-In-Zn-O (HIZO) amorphous thin films were investigated by the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). We found that the local hindrance paths of In-Ga and In-Hf exist in the conduction paths of amorphous GIZO and HIZO semiconductor thin films, respectively.

  18. High-latitude propagation studies using a meridional chain of LF/MF/HF receivers

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    J. LaBelle


    Full Text Available For over a decade, Dartmouth College has operated programmable radio receivers at multiple high-latitude sites covering the frequency range 100-5000kHz with about a 1-s resolution. Besides detecting radio emissions of auroral origin, these receivers record characteristics of the ionospheric propagation of natural and man-made signals, documenting well-known effects, such as the diurnal variation in the propagation characteristics of short and long waves, and also revealing more subtle effects. For example, at auroral zone sites in equinoctial conditions, the amplitudes of distant transmissions on MF/HF frequencies are often enhanced by a few dB just before they fade away at dawn. The polarization and/or direction of the arrival of ionospherically propagating signals in the lower HF range (3-5MHz show a consistent variation between pre-midnight, post-midnight, and pre-dawn conditions. As is well known, magnetic storms and substorms dramatically affect ionospheric propagation; data from multiple stations spanning the invariant latitude range 67-79° reveal spatial patterns of propagation characteristics associated with magnetic storms and substorms. For example, in the hours preceding many isolated substorms, favorable propagation conditions occur at progressively lower latitudes as a function of time preceding the substorm onset. For some of these effects, explanations follow readily from elementary ionospheric physics, but understanding others requires further investigation.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (annual phenomena – Radio science (ionosphere propagation; radio-wave propagation6

  19. Investigation about crack propagation paths in thin rim gears

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    F. Curà


    Full Text Available Crack propagation in gears is a problem related not only to the life of the components, but also to the concept of failsafe design. Fail safe design means to design a component in order that, if a failure occurs, this may cause a “safe failure”. This aspect is very important above all in aerospace industry. As a matter of fact, in aerospace application, the need of reducing weight brings to produce gears with very thick rim and web. Considering thin rim gears, when a crack is nucleated near the tooth root, it may propagate through the tooth (causing the loss of the entire tooth or a portion of it or the propagation may follow a path across the wheel diameter (causing the projection of big parts of the gear that may break the gearbox and may cause serious damage to the aircraft. The first failure mode is define as “failsafe failure” and the second one as “catastrophic failure” and of course has to be avoided. Designers need to have robust design criteria in order to predict crack propagation paths and to avoid catastrophic failures. In literature, few works are present concerning this topic, in particular related to the effect of geometrical parameters that may affect the crack propagation. In this work a numerical analysis about crack propagation in gears with respect to the backup ratio (ratio between tooth height and rim thickness, initial crack position and shape has been done by means of the Extended FEM (XFEM technique, realizing 3D models. XFEM 3D is a relatively new technique consisting in enriching traditional finite elements with more complex shape functions; in this way it is possible to propagate crack also between mesh nodes and to have mesh independent results. Aim of this paper is to highlight the crack propagation path in order to give to designers an high confident design criterion, related to the gear geometry. In particular, the effect of both rim thickness and orientation of the initial crack have been considered

  20. The effect of plasma density structure on HF radio wave propagation at auroral and polar latitudes measured by e-POP (United States)

    Perry, G. W.; James, H. G.; Gillies, R.; McWilliams, K. A.; St-Maurice, J. P.; Yau, A. W.


    One of the scientific objectives of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) is to study ionospheric density structure and its impact on High Frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. We present a survey of several ePOP RRI transits through isolated beams of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) Saskatoon and Rankin Inlet radars. It reveals that the spreading of a SuperDARN beam beyond its nominal azimuthal beam width of 3.24° is a common occurrence at auroral and polar latitudes. Furthermore, on multiple occasions, lateral deviations of a beam's power peak by several beam widths was measured, indicating the presence of significant plasma density gradients along the ray path. The e-POP RRI measurements illustrate that our understanding and recognition of plasma density gradients and their influence on HF radio wave propagation is limited. We report on the results of employing HF ray tracing techniques to quantify the impact of ionospheric structuring on HF radio wave propagation, and consider the source of the gradients contributing to the spreading of the SuperDARN beams.

  1. IonRayTrace: An HF Propagation Model for Communications and Radar Applications (United States)


    this report was performed by the Atmospheric Propagation Branch (Code 55280), Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific), San Diego...the 2- to 7-MHz (red), 7- to 12-MHz (green), and 12- to 17-MHz (blue) bands ..................... 9 1 1. OVERVIEW The Advanced Refractivity ...density of free electrons (102 to 104 cm-3) and has negligible refractive effect on electromagnetic waves in the HF band [5]. However, in general

  2. Image Categorization by Learning a Propagated Graphlet Path. (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Hong, Richang; Gao, Yue; Ji, Rongrong; Dai, Qionghai; Li, Xuelong


    Spatial pyramid matching is a standard architecture for categorical image retrieval. However, its performance is largely limited by the prespecified rectangular spatial regions when pooling local descriptors. In this paper, we propose to learn object-shaped and directional receptive fields for image categorization. In particular, different objects in an image are seamlessly constructed by superpixels, while the direction captures human gaze shifting path. By generating a number of superpixels in each image, we construct graphlets to describe different objects. They function as the object-shaped receptive fields for image comparison. Due to the huge number of graphlets in an image, a saliency-guided graphlet selection algorithm is proposed. A manifold embedding algorithm encodes graphlets with the semantics of training image tags. Then, we derive a manifold propagation to calculate the postembedding graphlets by leveraging visual saliency maps. The sequentially propagated graphlets constitute a path that mimics human gaze shifting. Finally, we use the learned graphlet path as receptive fields for local image descriptor pooling. The local descriptors from similar receptive fields of pairwise images more significantly contribute to the final image kernel. Thorough experiments demonstrate the advantage of our approach.

  3. Fade durations in satellite-path mobile radio propagation (United States)

    Schmier, Robert G.; Bostian, Charles W.


    Fades on satellite to land mobile radio links are caused by several factors, the most important of which are multipath propagation and vegetative shadowing. Designers of vehicular satellite communications systems require information about the statistics of fade durations in order to overcome or compensate for the fades. Except for a few limiting cases, only the mean fade duration can be determined analytically, and all other statistics must be obtained experimentally or via simulation. This report describes and presents results from a computer program developed at Virginia Tech to simulate satellite path propagation of a mobile station in a rural area. It generates rapidly-fading and slowly-fading signals by separate processes that yield correct cumulative signal distributions and then combines these to simulate the overall signal. This is then analyzed to yield the statistics of fade duration.

  4. Mixed quantum-classical reaction path dynamics of C2H5F --> C2H4 + HF. (United States)

    Stopera, Christopher J; Bladow, Landon L; Thweatt, W David; Page, Michael


    A mixed quantum-classical method for calculating product energy partitioning based on a reaction path Hamiltonian is presented and applied to HF elimination from fluoroethane. The goal is to describe the effect of the potential energy release on the product energies using a simple model of quantized transverse vibrational modes coupled to a classical reaction path via the path curvature. Calculations of the minimum energy path were done at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) and MP2/6-311++G** levels of theory, followed by energy-partitioning dynamics calculations. The results for the final HF vibrational state distribution were found to be in good qualitative agreement with both experimental studies and quasiclassical trajectory simulations.

  5. Determining dyke-propagation paths at Santorini volcano, Greece (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Browning, John; Lecoeur, Nora; Gudmundsson, Agust


    The volcanic Island of Santorini constitutes a complex of collapse calderas which has experienced a range of explosive and effusive volcanic eruptions and is still active. Numerous stratigraphic horizons which constitute the upper part of the volcano have widely different mechanical properties, resulting in local stresses that may act as dyke-traps, preventing the dykes from reaching the surface to erupt. Several caldera collapses (<3.6 ka) have exposed part of the stratigraphy and a dyke swarm (composed of at least 63 dykes, many arrested and some feeders) within a section of the northern caldera wall, allowing detailed examination. This ongoing study will (1) document the petrological and structural characteristics of feeder and non-feeder (arrested) dykes and estimate their frequency; (2) determine the physiochemical and mechanical conditions that control dyke arrest/dyke penetration at contacts between layers; (3) explore the fluid and mechanical conditions of the associated magma chamber(s) that must be satisfied for chamber rupture and dyke injection to occur; (4) make numerical and probabilistic models as to the likely dyke paths in heterogeneous and anisotropic crustal segments/volcanoes (such as Santorini), including the likelihood of injected dykes reaching the surface during an unrest period in a volcano of a given type; (5) compare the data collected from Santorini with existing data on dykes worldwide, particularly those on dykes in Tenerife and Iceland. The principal aim of the study is to provide models that, during an unrest period in Santorini and other similar volcanoes, allow us to forecast (a) the condition for magma-chamber rupture and dyke injection, and (b) the likely path of the resulting dyke. The latter includes assessment of the likelihood as to dyke arrest versus dyke propagation to the surface, the latter resulting in an eruption. For dyke-fed eruptions, the study will also provide methods for forecasting the likely volumetric flow

  6. Signal absorption effects on HF radio paths near Sodankyla observatory (Finland) (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskii, D. V.


    Studies were performed on three oblique ionospheric sounding (OIS) paths: Gor'kovskaya-Lovozero (St. Petersburg) with a length of 890 km, Sodankyla-Gor'kovskaya (800 km), and Sodankyla-Lovozero (360 km). The data for March 17 and April 14, 2012, the days during the recovery phase of the corresponding magnetic storms, have been analyzed. According to the observations performed at Sodankyla, riometer absorption in the morning-daytime hours was high against a background of very weak magnetic disturbances registered with a magnetometer; a high absorption level was also typical of the second day but during a substantial magnetic disturbance. The signal propagation mode structure and intensity on different paths were compared for the indicated days. The main results achieved are as follows. The OIS signal mode structure at weak (for April 14, 2012) and strong (for March 17, 2012) absorption substantially differed when magnetic disturbances were weak at the same instant. Diffuse reflections from the F2 layer were observed on the first two paths during a magnetic disturbance at night of April 14, 2012. At the same time, diffusivity was absent on the same paths under quiet magnetic conditions in the morning and daytime hours on March 17, 2012. A short-term abrupt increase in the maximum observed frequency of the Es layer (MOF Es) by 30-80% was registered half an hour before a substantial absorption burst on the first path. Signal reflections from the sporadic Es layer were observed only on the first path on March 17, 2012, and April 14, 2012, during the absorption maximum ( A = 6 dB) according to the Sodankyla data, and the signal characteristics differed on those days.

  7. Quasiclassical propagator of a relativistic particle via the path-dependent gauge potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    The proper time formalism for a particle propagator in an external electromagnetic field is combined with the path-dependent formulation of gauge theory to simplify the quasiclassical propagator of a relativistic particle. The latter is achieved due to a specific choice of gauge corresponding to the use of the classical path in the path-dependent formulation of gauge theory, which leads to cancellation of the interaction part of the classical action in the Feynman path integral. A simple expression for the quasiclassical propagator is obtained in all cases of the external field when the classical equations of motion in this field are integrable. As an example, simple expressions for the propagators are derived for a spinless charged particle interacting with the following fields: an arbitrary constant and uniform electromagnetic field, an arbitrary plane wave, and finally an arbitrary plane wave combined with an arbitrary constant and uniform electromagnetic field. In all these cases the quasiclassical propagator coincides with the exact result.

  8. Power Series Expansion of Propagator for Path Integral and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper we obtain a propagator of path integral for a harmonic oscillator and a driven harmonic oscillator by using the power series expansion. It is shown that our result for the harmonic oscillator is more exact than the previous one obtained with other approximation methods. By using the same method, we obtain a propagator of path integral for the driven harmonic oscillator, which does not have any exact expansion. The more exact propagators may improve the path integral results for these systems.

  9. Characterization of Propagation Path Loss at Vhf/Uhf Bands for Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Path loss exponent, standard deviation and building penetration loss are ... for an environment, coverage planning and propagation analysis could be done easily. ... MHz frequencies along ten routes in Ilorin City in Kwara State of Nigeria.

  10. An algorithm for determination of geodetic path for application in long-range acoustic propagation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sivakholundu, K.M.; Navelkar, G.S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    A computer program has been developed for the construction of geodetic path between two points on the spheroidal surface for application in long range acoustic propagation in the ocean. Geodetic equations have integrated numerically upto...

  11. Path Loss Analysis of WSN Wave Propagation in Vegetation (United States)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S. A.; Salim, M. S.; Kamaruddin, R.; Ahmad, R. B.; Malek, M. F.


    Deployment of a successful wireless sensor network requires precise prediction models that provide a reliable communication links of wireless nodes. Prediction models fused with foliage models provide sensible parameters of wireless nodes separation distance, antenna height, and power transmission which affect the reliability and communication coverage of a network. This paper review the line of sight and the two ray propagation models combined with the most known foliage models that cover the propagation of wireless communications in vegetative environments, using IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Simulation of models is presented and the impacts of the communication parameters, environment and vegetation have been reported.

  12. Study of long path VLF signal propagation characteristics as observed from Indian Antarctic station, Maitri (United States)

    Sasmal, Sudipta; Pal, Sujay; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.


    To examine the quality and propagation characteristics of the Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves in a very long propagation path, Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata, participated in the 27th Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica during 2007-2008. One Stanford University made AWESOME VLF receiving system was installed at the Indian Antarctic station Maitri and about five weeks of data were recorded successfully from the Indian transmitter VTX and several other transmitting stations worldwide. The quality of the signal from the VTX transmitter was found to be very good, consistent and highly stable in day and night. The signal shows the evidences of the presence of the 24 h solar radiation in the Antarctic region during local summer. Here we report the both narrow band and broadband VLF observations from this site. The diurnal variations of VTX signal (18.2 kHz) are presented systematically for Antarctica path and also compared the same with the variations for a short propagation path (VTX-Kolkata). We compute the spatial distribution of the VTX signal along the VTX-Antarctica path using the most well-known LWPC model for an all-day and all-night propagation conditions. The calculated signal amplitudes corresponding to those conditions relatively corroborate the observations. We also present the attenuation rate of the dominant waveguide modes corresponding to those propagation conditions where the effects of the Antarctic polar ice on the attenuation of different propagating waveguide modes are visible.

  13. Propagation of partially coherent annular beams with decentered field in turbulence along a slant path. (United States)

    Dou, Lingyu; Ji, Xiaoling; Li, Peiyun


    The model of partially coherent annular beams with linear non-uniformity field profile in the x direction is set up. The analytic expressions for the average intensity and the centre of gravity of partially coherent annular beams with decentered field propagating through atmospheric turbulence along a slant path are derived. The propagation equation governing the position of the intensity maximum is also given. It is found that the beam non-uniformity is amended gradually as the propagation distance and the strength of turbulence increase. The centre of beam gravity is independent of both the propagation distance and the turbulence. However, the position of the intensity maximum changes versus the propagation distance and the turbulence, and is farthest away from the propagation z-axis at a certain propagation distance. When the propagation distance is large enough, the position of the intensity maximum reaches an asymptotic value which increases with decreasing the zenith angle and is largest for the free space case. When the propagation distance is large enough, the position of the intensity maximum is not on the propagation z-axis, and is nearer to the propagation z-axis than the centre of beam gravity. On the other hand, changes in the intensity maximum in the far field are also examined in this paper.

  14. Exploiting Acoustic Similarity of Propagating Paths for Audio Signal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Bin


    Full Text Available Blind signal separation can easily find its position in audio applications where mutually independent sources need to be separated from their microphone mixtures while both room acoustics and sources are unknown. However, the conventional separation algorithms can hardly be implemented in real time due to the high computational complexity. The computational load is mainly caused by either direct or indirect estimation of thousands of acoustic parameters. Aiming at the complexity reduction, in this paper, the acoustic paths are investigated through an acoustic similarity index (ASI. Then a new mixing model is proposed. With closely spaced microphones (5–10 cm apart, the model relieves the computational load of the separation algorithm by reducing the number and length of the filters to be adjusted. To cope with real situations, a blind audio signal separation algorithm (BLASS is developed on the proposed model. BLASS only uses the second-order statistics (SOS and performs efficiently in frequency domain.

  15. General concepts of modern HF communications (United States)

    Aarons, Jules

    Both conceptual and hardware advancements have led to substantial systems developments in military HF communications; the former encompass coding and error correction techniques for security, in order to minimize propagation and interference, while the latter prominently include digital equipment permitting the selection of a frequency for a particular path and propagation mode, as well as modulation selection. Propagation-related advancements involve better statistical models as well as advancements in short-term forecasting methods responsive to changes in solar-geophysical parameters. Adaptive HF systems have been developed for meteor-scatter radio communications.

  16. Propagation Path Loss Models for 5G Urban Micro- and Macro-Cellular Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Shu; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Rangan, Sundeep


    This paper presents and compares two candidate large-scale propagation path loss models, the alpha-beta-gamma (ABG) model and the close-in (CI) free space reference distance model, for the design of fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems in urban micro- and macro-cellular scenarios....

  17. Slant path average intensity of finite optical beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Zhang; Gaogang Wang


    The average intensity of finite laser beam propagating through turbulent atmosphere is calculated from the extended Huygens Fresnel principle. Formulas are presented for the slant path average intensity from an arbitrarily truncated Gaussian beam. The new expressions are derived from the modified von Karman spectrum for refractive-index fluctuations, quadratic approximation of the structure function,and Gaussian approximation for the product of Gaussian function and Bessel function. It is shown that the form of average intensity is not a Gaussian function but a polynomial of the power of the binomial function, Gaussian function, and the incomplete gamma function. The results also show that the mean irradiance of a finite optical beam propagating in slant path turbulent atmosphere not only depends on the effective beam radius at the transmitting aperture plane, propagation distance, and long-term lateral coherence length of spherical wave, but also on the radius of emit aperture.

  18. UAV feasible path planning based on disturbed fluid and trajectory propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Peng


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm based on disturbed fluid and trajectory propagation is developed to solve the three-dimensional (3-D path planning problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV in static environment. Firstly, inspired by the phenomenon of streamlines avoiding obstacles, the algorithm based on disturbed fluid is developed and broadened. The effect of obstacles on original fluid field is quantified by the perturbation matrix, where the tangential matrix is first introduced. By modifying the original flow field, the modified one is then obtained, where the streamlines can be regarded as planned paths. And the path proves to avoid all obstacles smoothly and swiftly, follow the shape of obstacles effectively and reach the destination eventually. Then, by considering the kinematics and dynamics equations of UAV, the method called trajectory propagation is adopted to judge the feasibility of the path. If the planned path is unfeasible, repulsive and tangential parameters in the perturbation matrix will be adjusted adaptively based on the resolved state variables of UAV. In most cases, a flyable path can be obtained eventually. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  19. Curve-Like Structure Extraction Using Minimal Path Propagation With Backtracking. (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yudong; Yang, Jian; Cao, Qing; Yang, Guanyu; Chen, Jian; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Feng, Qianjing


    Minimal path techniques can efficiently extract geometrically curve-like structures by finding the path with minimal accumulated cost between two given endpoints. Though having found wide practical applications (e.g., line identification, crack detection, and vascular centerline extraction), minimal path techniques suffer from some notable problems. The first one is that they require setting two endpoints for each line to be extracted (endpoint problem). The second one is that the connection might fail when the geodesic distance between the two points is much shorter than the desirable minimal path (shortcut problem). In addition, when connecting two distant points, the minimal path connection might become inefficient as the accumulated cost increases over the propagation and results in leakage into some non-feature regions near the starting point (accumulation problem). To address these problems, this paper proposes an approach termed minimal path propagation with backtracking. We found that the information in the process of backtracking from reached points can be well utilized to overcome the above problems and improve the extraction performance. The whole algorithm is robust to parameter setting and allows a coarse setting of the starting point. Extensive experiments with both simulated and realistic data are performed to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  20. Quantum-classical path integral with self-consistent solvent-driven reference propagators. (United States)

    Banerjee, Tuseeta; Makri, Nancy


    Efficient procedures for evaluating the quantum-classical path integral (QCPI) [J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 137, 22A552] are described. The main idea is to identify a trajectory-specific reference Hamiltonian that captures the dominant effects of the classical "solvent" degrees of freedom on the dynamics of the quantum "system". This time-dependent reference is used to construct a system propagator that is valid for large time increments. Residual "quantum memory" interactions are included via the path integral representation of the density matrix, which converges with large time steps. Two physically motivated reference schemes are considered. The first involves the dynamics of the solvent unperturbed by the system, which forms the basis for the "classical path" approximation. The second is based on solvent trajectories determined self-consistently with the evolution of the system, according to the time-dependent self-consistent field or Ehrenfest model. Application to dissipative two-level systems indicates that both reference schemes allow a substantial increase of the path integral time step, leading to rapid convergence of the path sum. In addition, the time-dependent reference propagators automatically weigh state-to-state coupling against solvent reorganization in the determination of transition probabilities, further enhancing the convergence of the path integral.

  1. Path Loss Channel Model for Inland River Radio Propagation at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Yu


    Full Text Available In this paper, a propagation path loss model for inland river is proposed by three improvements compared with the Round Earth Loss (REL model for open-sea environment. Specifically, parameters optimization uses Okumura-Hata model in dB scale to replace the equation transformed from the free space loss in REL model; secondly, diffraction loss caused by the obstacles (e.g., large buildings, bridges, or some other facilities near the river bank is also taken into account; mixed-path methodology as another improvement is used for Inland River (IR model because the actual propagation environment between transmitter (TX antenna and receiver (RX antenna contains both land part and water part. The paper presents a set of 1.4 GHz measurements conducted along the Yangtze River in Wuhan. According to the comparison between path loss models and experimental results, IR model shows a good matching degree. After that, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Grey Relation Grade and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (GRG-MAPE, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (PCC-MAPE are employed to implement quantitative analysis. The results prove that IR model with consideration of mixed path and deterministic information is more accurate than other classic empirical propagation models for these scenarios.

  2. Generalization of the coherent-state path integrals and systematic derivation of semiclassical propagators (United States)

    Koda, Shin-Ichi; Takatsuka, Kazuo


    The coherent path integral is generalized such that the identity operator represented in a complete (actually overcomplete) set of the coherent states with the “time-variable” exponents are inserted between two consecutive short-time propagators. Since such a complete set of any given exponent can constitute the identity operator, the exponent may be varied from time to time without loss of generality as long as it is set common to all the Gaussians. However, a finite truncation of the coherent state expansion should result in different values of the propagator depending on the choice of the exponents. Furthermore, approximation methodology to treat with the exact propagator can also depend on this choice, and thereby many different semiclassical propagators may emerge from these combinations. Indeed, we show that the well-known semiclassical propagators such as those of Van Vleck, Herman-Kluk, Heller’s thawed Gaussian, and many others can be derived in a systematic manner, which enables one to comprehend these semiclassical propagators from a unified point of view. We are particularly interested in our generalized form of the Herman-Kluk propagator, since the relative accuracy of this propagator has been well established by Kay, and since, nevertheless, its derivation was not necessarily clear. Thus our generalized Herman-Kluk propagator replaces the classical Hamiltonian with a Gaussian averaged quantum Hamiltonian, generating non-Newtonian trajectories. We perform a numerical test to assess the quality of such a family of generalized Herman-Kluk propagators and find that the original Herman-Kluk gives an accurate result. The reason why this has come about is also discussed.

  3. Rapid, parallel path planning by propagating wavefronts of spiking neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Jan Ponulak


    Full Text Available Efficient path planning and navigation is critical for animals, robotics, logistics and transportation. We study a model in which spatial navigation problems can rapidly be solved in the brain by parallel mental exploration of alternative routes using propagating waves of neural activity. A wave of spiking activity propagates through a hippocampus-like network, altering the synaptic connectivity. The resulting vector field of synaptic change then guides a simulated animal to the appropriate selected target locations. We demonstrate that the navigation problem can be solved using realistic, local synaptic plasticity rules during a single passage of a wavefront. Our model can find optimal solutions for competing possible targets or learn and navigate in multiple environments. The model provides a hypothesis on the possible computational mechanisms for optimal path planning in the brain, at the same time it is useful for neuromorphic implementations, where the parallelism of information processing proposed here can fully be harnessed in hardware.

  4. Excitation of Structures Near Railway Tracks-Analysis of the Wave Propagation Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard


    the passengers as close as possible to the city centers. Therefore, railway tracks have to go through densely populated urban areas, which causes a number of issues. One of the biggest complaints from the inhabitants living near such infrastructures is the high vibration and noise levels caused by the passing...... trains. Unfortunately, the prediction of vibrations in nearby structures is difficult, as wave propagation from the vibration source to the structure is a complex phenomenon. The behaviour of the structure is highly dependent on the path along which the vibrations travel between their source....... This work aims to analyse how different features in the wave propagation path affect the excitation of a structure. A numerical model is constructed to account for the track structure and the underlying soil. The model utilizes a finite-element model for the structures together with a semi-analytical model...

  5. High frequency based detection of TIDs in the Net-TIDE project: challenges and opportunities for long HF paths (United States)

    Verhulst, Tobias


    Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) are the ionospheric signatures of atmospheric gravity waves. TIDs carry along information about their sources of excitations which may be either natural (energy input from the auroral region, earthquakes/tsunamis, hurricanes, solar terminator, and others) or artificial (ionospheric modification experiments, nuclear explosions, and other powerful blasts like industrial accidents). TIDs contribute to the energy and momentum exchange between different regions of the ionosphere, especially during geomagnetic storms. Their tracking is important because the TIDs affect all services that rely on predictable ionospheric radio wave propagation. Although a number of methods have been proposed to measure TID characteristics, none is able to operate in real time for monitoring purposes. In the framework of a new NATO Science for Peace and Security multi-year project (2014--2017) we are exploiting for the first time the European network of high precision ionospheric DPS4D sounders and the related software to directly identify TIDs over Europe and specify in real-time the gravity wave parameters based on measuring the variations of the angles-of-arrival and Doppler frequencies of ionospherically reflected HF radio signals. The project will run until 2017 and is expected to result in a pilot network of DPS4D ionospheric sounders in Europe, enhanced with a system to process the TID observations for real-time diagnostics and issue warnings for TIDs and the potential disturbance over the area. Based on these warnings the end-users can put in action specific mitigation techniques to protect their systems. The technical challenges of operating long distance ionospheric HF radio links for the detection of TIDs will be discussed.

  6. Theoretical and numerical investigation of HF elastic wave propagation in two-dimensional periodic beam lattices (United States)

    Tie, B.; Tian, B. Y.; Aubry, D.


    The elastic wave propagation phenomena in two-dimensional periodic beam lattices are studied by using the Bloch wave transform. The numerical modeling is applied to the hexagonal and the rectangular beam lattices, in which, both the in-plane (with respect to the lattice plane) and out-of-plane waves are considered. The dispersion relations are obtained by calculating the Bloch eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. The frequency bandgaps are observed and the influence of the elastic and geometric properties of the primitive cell on the bandgaps is studied. By analyzing the phase and the group velocities of the Bloch wave modes, the anisotropic behaviors and the dispersive characteristics of the hexagonal beam lattice with respect to the wave propagation are highlighted in high frequency domains. One important result presented herein is the comparison between the first Bloch wave modes to the membrane and bending/transverse shear wave modes of the classical equivalent homogenized orthotropic plate model of the hexagonal beam lattice. It is shown that, in low frequency ranges, the homogenized plate model can correctly represent both the in-plane and out-of-plane dynamic behaviors of the beam lattice, its frequency validity domain can be precisely evaluated thanks to the Bloch modal analysis. As another important and original result, we have highlighted the existence of the retropropagating Bloch wave modes with a negative group velocity, and of the corresponding "retro-propagating" frequency bands.

  7. Ionospheric Modification by High Power, Obliquely Propagated HF Radio Wave Transmissions. Part 1. Experimental (United States)


    frequency of the disturbing transmitter is greater than the i.. asma frequency in the ionospheric interaction region. In fact, with many practical radio...NY) lay in the Gulf of Mexico and it was not possible to use an oblique probe system similar to- the technique used by the Soviets in their...using a vertical incidence sounder at Albuquerque, New Mexico (35.11N, 106.8 0W) at the midpoint of the 2400 km path. This technique insures that the

  8. Path loss modelling and comparison based on the radio propagation measurement at 3.5GHz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping; Li Yingzhe; Chang Ruoting; Sun Kun; Xu Hui


    Wideband IMT-Advanced mobile communication systems tend to operate in the high frequency bands due to a relatively large capacity available. Thus, Measurement and modelling methods of radio propagation characteristics are proposed for the field test of Chinese 4th generation (4G) trial system. The measurement system is established for 3.5GHz based on the sophisticated measurement instruments and the virtual instrument technology. The characteristic parameters of radio propagation such as path loss (PL) exponent and shadow fading standard deviation are extracted from measurement data, which result in the path loss model finally. The comparisons with other existing international models results validate our measurement in terms of path loss model. Based on the analysis of the existing extension model assumed for the microwave frequency at 3.5GHz, we find that the Stanford University Interim (SUI) model fits very well with the measurement result in the hotspot scenario, while the COST 231 model is closer to the measurement result in the suburban scenario. This result provides a measurement-based channel reference for the development of the future IMT-Advanced systems in China.

  9. Path integral polymer propagator of relativistic and non-relativistic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Morales-Técotl, Hugo A; Ruelas, Juan C


    A recent proposal to connect the loop quantization with the spin foam model for cosmology via the path integral is hereby adapted to the case of mechanical systems within the framework of the so called polymer quantum mechanics. The mechanical models we consider are deparametrized and thus the group averaging technique is used to deal with the corresponding constraints. The transition amplitudes are written in a vertex expansion form used in the spin foam models, where here a vertex is actually a jump in position. Polymer Propagators previously obtained by spectral methods for a nonrelativistic polymer particle, both free and in a box, are regained with this method. Remarkably, the approach is also shown to yield the polymer propagator of the relativistic particle. This reduces to the standard form in the continuum limit for which the length scale parameter of the polymer quantization is taken to be small. Some possible future developments are commented upon.

  10. HF wave propagation and induced ionospheric turbulence in the magnetic equatorial region (United States)

    Eliasson, B.; Papadopoulos, K.


    The propagation and excitation of artificial ionospheric turbulence in the magnetic equatorial region by high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves injected into the overhead ionospheric layer is examined. EM waves with ordinary (O) mode polarization reach the critical layer only if their incidence angle is within the Spitze cone. Near the critical layer the wave electric field is linearly polarized and directed parallel to the magnetic field lines. For large enough amplitudes, the O mode becomes unstable to the four-wave oscillating two-stream instability and the three-wave parametric decay instability driving large-amplitude Langmuir and ion acoustic waves. The interaction between the induced Langmuir turbulence and electrons located within the 50-100 km wide transmitter heating cone at an altitude of 230 km can potentially accelerate the electrons along the magnetic field to several tens to a few hundreds of eV, far beyond the thresholds for optical emissions and ionization of the neutral gas. It could furthermore result in generation of shear Alfvén waves such as those recently observed in laboratory experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles Large Plasma Device.

  11. A Radio Propagation Technique for Geolocating Ionospheric Irregularities along Radio Occultation Ray-Paths (United States)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Rino, C. L.; McNeil, W. J.


    Radio occultations (RO) with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signas have been widely used for remote sensing of tropospheric parameters and to provide ionospheric electron density profiles for the purpose of improving terrestrial and space weather forecasts. Radio occultations have also been used to investigate the morphology of irregularities that cause radio wave scintillation. Spaced-based monitoring of ionospheric irregularities is advantageous because it can be performed continuously and globally, including over ocean regions not easily monitored with ground-based instruments. Nevertheless, the radio propagation path of an occultation through the ionosphere can be very long (up to several thousand km), such that it can be challenging to infer the geographic location and extent of the irregularities from the scintillations they produce. Unlike RO retrievals of slant TEC which are dominated by the contribution near the tangent point, scintillations can be generated by irregularities distributed anywhere along the propagation path between transmitting and receiving satellites. In this paper, we propose a new technique for characterizing and geolocating ionospheric irregularities using radio occultation observations of amplitude scintillation. The approach taken is to solve an inverse problem for the propagation of radio waves through a phase changing screen. Referred to as Irregularity Parameter Estimation (Carrano and Rino, Radio Sci, 2016), this inverse technique estimates the irregularity turbulence strength, spectral index, and Fresnel frequency from measurements of amplitude scintillation. A new model for the effective velocity at which the radio occultation ray-path scans through the irregularity region is used to map the estimated Fresnel frequency to Fresnel spatial scale, which yields the distance from the receiver to the irregularities. Additional geophysical factors such as apex altitude and background electron density along the ray-path can

  12. Multi-path propagation of acoustical wave and time reversal field in a solid plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; ZHANG Bixing; WANG Chenghao


    The multi-path effect of the acoustical wave in a solid plate is studied. The multireflection and wave conversion of the cylindrical compressional and shear waves, which are excited by an infinite strip on a free surface of the solid plate, are analyzed thoroughly by the far-field approximation method. The concise analytical representations of the cylindrical waves are obtained. The time reversal processing is then applied to the propagation of the cylindrical waves and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the waves coming from different array elements and different paths all arrive at the original place after the time reversal operation. It indicates that the time reversal can compensate automatically the wave aberration caused by the multi-path effect. The self-adaptive focusing of the time reversal field is also analyzed quantificationally by the focusing gain and the ratio of the principal to the second lobe. The effects of the focus position and the aperture of the transducer array on the focused field are also investigated. It shows that theoretical and experimental results are consistent to each other very well.

  13. Observations of small- to large-scale ionospheric irregularities associated with plasma bubbles with a transequatorial HF propagation experiment and spaced GPS receivers (United States)

    Saito, Susumu; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru; Kubota, Minoru; Ma, Guanyi; Chen, Yanhong; Li, Jinghua; Ha Duyen, Chau; Le Truong, Thanh


    The results from simultaneous observations of the nighttime transequatorial propagation (TEP) of HF radio waves between Australia and Japan and the GPS scintillation measurements in south China and Vietnam are presented in this paper. The results showed that there was good correspondence between the nighttime eastward traveling off-great circle propagation (OGCP) of broadcasting waves of Radio Australia from Shepparton, Australia, measured at Oarai, Japan, and the scintillations in GPS radio waves at Hainan, China. This shows that the nighttime eastward traveling OGCP in HF TEP is caused by a large-scale ionospheric structure associated with a plasma bubble. The zonal drift velocities of the large-scale ionospheric structure estimated by the change in the direction of arrival of the OGCP were similar to those of the small-scale irregularities associated with plasma bubbles measured by the GPS scintillation spaced-receiver technique. Our results show that the HF TEP measurement is quite useful for monitoring the plasma bubble occurrence over a wide area and for forecasting the arrival of the plasma bubble at places located to the east of it.

  14. Mathematical analysis study for radar data processing and enchancement. Part 2: Modeling of propagation path errors (United States)

    James, R.; Brownlow, J. D.


    A study is performed under NASA contract to evaluate data from an AN/FPS-16 radar installed for support of flight programs at Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of this study is to provide information necessary for improving post-flight data reduction and knowledge of accuracy of derived radar quantities. Tracking data from six flights are analyzed. Noise and bias errors in raw tracking data are determined for each of the flights. A discussion of an altitude bias error during all of the tracking missions is included. This bias error is defined by utilizing pressure altitude measurements made during survey flights. Four separate filtering methods, representative of the most widely used optimal estimation techniques for enhancement of radar tracking data, are analyzed for suitability in processing both real-time and post-mission data. Additional information regarding the radar and its measurements, including typical noise and bias errors in the range and angle measurements, is also presented. This report is in two parts. This is part 2, a discussion of the modeling of propagation path errors.

  15. Anisoplanatic image propagation along a slanted path under lower atmosphere phase turbulence in the presence of encrypted chaos (United States)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Mohamed, Ali A.


    In recent research, anisoplanatic electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation along a slanted path in the presence of low atmosphere phase turbulence (modified von Karman spectrum or MVKS) has been investigated assuming a Hufnagel-Valley (HV) type structure parameter. Preliminary results indicate a strong dependence on the slant angle especially for long range transmission and relatively strong turbulence. The investigation was further divided into two regimes, viz. (a) one where the EM source consisted of a plane wave modulated with a digitized image, which is propagated along the turbulent path and recovered via demodulation at the receiver; and (b) transmit the plane wave without modulation along the turbulent path through an image transparency and a thin lens designed to gather the received image in the focal plane. In this paper, we reexamine the same problem (part (a) only) in the presence of a chaotic optical carrier where the chaos is generated in the feedback loop of an acousto-optic Bragg cell. The image information is encrypted within the chaos wave, and subsequently propagated along a similar slant path and identical turbulence conditions. The recovered image extracted via heterodyning from the received chaos is compared quantitatively (through image cross-correlations and mean-squared error measures) for the non-chaotic versus the chaotic approaches. Generally, "packaging" the information in chaos improves performance through turbulent propagation, and results are discussed from this perspective. Concurrently, we will also examine the effect of a non-encrypted plane EM wave propagation through a transparency-lens combination. These results are also presented with appropriate comparisons with the cases involving lensless transmission of imagery through corresponding turbulent and non-turbulent layers.

  16. Modeling the effects of Multi-path propagation and scintillation on GPS signals (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Wilson, S. J.


    GPS signals traveling through the earth's ionosphere are affected by charged particles that often disrupt the signal and the information it carries due to "scintillation", which resembles an extra noise source on the signal. These signals are also affected by weather changes, tropospheric scattering, and absorption from objects due to multi-path propagation of the signal. These obstacles cause distortion within information and fading of the signal, which ultimately results in phase locking errors and noise in messages. In this work, we attempted to replicate the distortion that occurs in GPS signals using a signal processing simulation model. We wanted to be able to create and identify scintillated signals so we could better understand the environment that caused it to become scintillated. Then, under controlled conditions, we simulated the receiver's ability to suppress scintillation in a signal. We developed a code in MATLAB that was programmed to: 1. Create a carrier wave and then plant noise (four different frequencies) on the carrier wave, 2. Compute a Fourier transform on the four different frequencies to find the frequency content of a signal, 3. Use a filter and apply it to the Fourier transform of the four frequencies and then compute a Signal-to-noise ratio to evaluate the power (in Decibels) of the filtered signal, and 4.Plot each of these components into graphs. To test the code's validity, we used user input and data from an AM transmitter. We determined that the amplitude modulated signal or AM signal would be the best type of signal to test the accuracy of the MATLAB code due to its simplicity. This code is basic to give students the ability to change and use it to determine the environment and effects of noise on different AM signals and their carrier waves. Overall, we were able to manipulate a scenario of a noisy signal and interpret its behavior and change due to its noisy components: amplitude, frequency, and phase shift.

  17. HF radar transmissions that deviate from great-circle paths: new insight from e-POP RRI (United States)

    Perry, G. W.; Miller, E. S.; James, H. G.; Howarth, A. D.; St-Maurice, J. P.; Yau, A. W.


    Significant deviations of SuperDARN radar transmissions from their expected great-circle paths have been detected at ionospheric altitudes using the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP). Experiments between SuperDARN Rankin Inlet and e-POP RRI were conducted at similar local times over consecutive days. Customized experiment modes which incorporated the agile frequency switching capabilities of each system were used. The RRI measurements show deviations of radar transmissions from their expected paths by as much as 2 or 3 SuperDARN beam widths, equivalent to 6° - 10° in bearing from Rankin Inlet. The deviations displayed a dependence on the radar carrier frequency and a day-to-day variability, suggesting that the deviations were transient in nature. We will discuss the deviations in the context of 3D ray trace modeling and measurements from the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar - North (RISR-N). The latter provided diagnostic information of the ionosphere along the ray path between RRI and Rankin Inlet during the experiments.

  18. Investigation of Prediction Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Parameter Stability of Large-Scale Propagation Path Loss Models for 5G Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Shu; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Thomas, Timothy


    This paper compares three candidate large-scale propagation path loss models for use over the entire microwave and millimeter-wave (mmWave) radio spectrum: the alpha–beta–gamma (ABG) model, the close-in (CI) free-space reference distance model, and the CI model with a frequency-weighted path loss...

  19. Prediction of three-dimensional crack propagation paths taking high cycle fatigue into account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Dhondt


    Full Text Available Engine components are usually subject to complex loading patterns such as mixed-mode Low Cycle Fatigue Loading due to maneuvering. In practice, this LCF Loading has to be superimposed by High Cyclic Fatigue Loading caused by vibrations. The changes brought along by HCF are twofold: first, the vibrational cycles which are superposed on the LCF mission increase the maximum loading of the mission and may alter the principal stress planes. Secondly, the HCF cycles themselves have to be evaluated on their own, assuring that no crack propagation occurs. Indeed, the vibrational frequency is usually so high that propagation leads to immediate failure. In the present paper it is explained how these two effects can be taken care of in a standard LCF crack propagation procedure. The method is illustrated by applying the Finite Element based crack propagation software CRACKTRACER3D on an engine blade.

  20. Examination of the Cooray-Rubinstein (C-R) formula for a mixed propagation path by using FDTD (United States)

    Zhang, Qilin; Li, Dongshuai; Fan, Yanfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jinge


    In this paper we extend the Cooray-Rubinstein (C-R) formula into a mixed propagation path (vertically stratified conductivity) and estimate the lightning horizontal electric fields over the mixed path, and we have examined its accuracy at distances of 100 m to 1000 m from the lightning channel by using finite difference time domain (FDTD). When the ground conductivity near the observation point is less than that near the strike point, it is noted that the C-R formula predicts a satisfactory accuracy in the initial several microseconds after the beginning of the return stroke. However, when the ground conductivity near the observation point is larger than that near the strike point, the initial negative excursion predicted by the C-R formula is underestimated, and the error increases with the increase of the difference between the two sections conductivity.

  1. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels. (United States)

    Rahim, H A; Abdulmalek, M; Soh, P J; Rani, K A; Hisham, N; Vandenbosch, G A E


    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade.

  2. A Deterministic and Random Propagation Study with the Design of an Open Path 320 GHz to 340 GHz Transmissometer (United States)

    Scally, Lawrence J.

    This program was implemented by Lawrence J. Scally for a Ph.D. under the EECE department at the University of Colorado at Boulder with most funding provided by the U.S. Army. Professor Gasiewski is the advisor and guider for the entire program; he has a strong history decades ago in this type of program. This program is developing a more advanced than previous years transmissometer, called Terahertz Atmospheric and Ionospheric Propagation, Absorption and Scattering System (TAIPAS), on an open path between the University of Colorado EE building roof and the mesa on owned by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); NIST has invested money, location and support for the program. Besides designing and building the transmissometer, that has never be accomplished at this level, the system also analyzes the atmospheric propagation of frequencies by scanning between 320 GHz and 340 GHz, which includes the peak absorption frequency at 325.1529 GHz due to water absorption. The processing and characterization of the deterministic and random propagation characteristics of the atmosphere in the real world was significantly started; this will be executed with varies aerosols for decades on the permanently mounted system that is accessible 24/7 via a network over the CU Virtual Private Network (VPN).

  3. True propagation paths of surface waves from regional and teleseismic earthquakes across AlpArray Austria (United States)

    Kolínský, Petr; Fuchs, Florian; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group


    We utilize array beamforming techniques to investigate deterministic surface waves from regional and teleseismic earthquakes. Because the signal is well recognized and the fundamental mode for both Love and Rayleigh waves is separated before the beamforming, instead of searching for energy of all possible signals, we identify the frequency dependence of surface wave phase velocity and the true backazimuths of propagation. Using the dense AlpArray seismic broadband network distributed in the greater Alpine region across Europe with interstation distances around 40 km, we consider each station as a centre of an array of neighboring 5 to 6 stations. This allows us to calculate the local phase velocity dispersion curves for individual regions with diameter of approximately 80 - 100 km. By the beamforming, phase velocities are corrected for the true propagation backazimuth, which is slightly frequency dependent for each event. We invert the dispersion curves for S and P wave velocity distribution with depth. Measuring the phase velocity from different events distributed around the world, azimuthal dependence of the phase velocity is estimated and thus anisotropy constrained for particular depths. Beamforming of the signals in the time window sliding along the coda after the fundamental mode allows us to detect deterministic late surface-wave signals coming from certain directions dissimilar from the direct fundamental mode backazimuths for some of the events - these can be considered as surface wave reflections from lateral heterogeneities and vertical boundaries.

  4. A Study on Multi-Path Channel Response of Acoustic Propagation in Northwestern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Qiao


    Full Text Available Multi-path interference due to boundary reflection and variation of sound speed profile in underwater water acoustic communication pose the major barrier to reliable high-speed underwater communication system. Based on the sound speed profiles and the bathymetry data of northwestern Arabian Sea, Multipath impulse response profiles of the area have been obtained using Bellhop. The derived parameters like delay structure, effective transmit and receive angles suitable depths etc. from the obtained impulse responses have also been discussed. The impulse responses have been obtained for different scenarios of transmitter and receiver geometry to arrive at optimal configuration of wireless Acoustic communication/telemetry system for that area. This work can be used as a guide for the practical design of underwater acoustic wireless communication/telemetry system to be operated in this area which is critical to world oil exports.

  5. Crack initiation and propagation paths in small diameter FSW 6082-T6 aluminium tubes under fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tovo


    Full Text Available This paper reports results of fatigue tests of friction stir welded (FSW aluminium tubes. Relatively small 38 mm diameter tubes were used and hence an automated FSW process using a retracting tool was designed for this project, as the wall thickness of the aluminium tube was similar to the diameter of the FSW tool. This is a more complex joint geometry to weld than the more usual larger diameter tube reported in the literature. S-N fatigue testing was performed using load ratios of R = 0.1 and R = -1. Crack path analysis was performed using both low magnification stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, in order to identify crack initiation sites and to determine the direction of crack propagation. Work is still in progress to follow the crack path through the various microstructural zones associated with the weld. A simple statistical analysis was used to characterize the most typical crack initiation site. This work forms part of a wider project directed at determining multiaxial fatigue design rules for small diameter 6082-T6 aluminium tubes that could be of use in the ground vehicle industry.

  6. Intensity moments by path integral techniques for wave propagation through random media, with application to sound in the ocean (United States)

    Bernstein, D. R.; Dashen, R.; Flatte, S. M.


    A theory is developed which describes intensity moments for wave propagation through random media. It is shown using the path integral technique that these moments are significantly different from those of a Rayleigh distribution in certain asymptotic regions. The path integral approach is extended to inhomogeneous, anisotropic media possessing a strong deterministic velocity profile. The behavior of the corrections to Rayleigh statistics is examined, and it is shown that the important characteristics can be attributed to a local micropath focusing function. The correction factor gamma is a micropath focusing parameter defined in terms of medium fluctuations. The value of gamma is calculated for three ocean acoustic experiments, using internal waves as the medium fluctuations. It is found that all three experiments show excellent agreement as to the relative values of the intensity moments. The full curved ray is found to yield results that are significantly different from the straight-line approximations. It is noted that these methods are applicable to a variety of experimental situations, including atmospheric optics and radio waves through plasmas.

  7. Joint effect of polarization and the propagation path of a light beam on its intrinsic structure. (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Sarkew; Kundikova, Nataliya


    The well-known effects of the spin-orbit interactions of light are manifestations of the pair's mutual influence of the three types of angular momentum (AM) of light, namely, the spin AM, the extrinsic orbital AM and the intrinsic orbital AM. Here we propose a convenient classification of the effects of the spin-orbit interactions of light and we observe one of the new effects in the frame of this classification, which is determined by the joint influence of two types of the AM on the third type of the AM, namely, the influence of the spin AM and the extrinsic orbital AM on the intrinsic orbital AM. We experimentally studied the propagation of circularly polarized light through an optical fiber coiled into a helix. We have found that the spin AM and the helix parameters affect the spatial structure of the radiation transmitted through the optical fiber. We found out that the structure of the light field rotates when changing the sign of circular polarization. The angle of rotation depends on the parameters of the helix. The results can be used to develop the general theory of spinning particles and can find application in metrology methods and nanooptics devices.

  8. Joint effect of polarization and the propagation path of a light beam on its intrinsic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Abdulkareem, Sarkew


    The well-known effects of the spin-orbit interaction of light are manifestations of pair mutual influence of the three types of the angular momentum of light, namely, the spin angular momentum, the extrinsic orbital angular momentum and the intrinsic orbital angular momentum. Here we propose the convenient classification of the effects of the spin-orbit interaction of light and we observe one of the new effects in the frame of this classification, which is determined by the joint influence of two types of the angular momentum on the third type of the angular momentum, namely, the influence of the spin angular momentum and the extrinsic orbital angular momentum on the intrinsic orbital angular momentum. We experimentally studied the propagation of circularly polarized light through an optical fiber coiled into a helix. We have found that the spin angular momentum and the helix parameters affect the spatial structure of the radiation transmitted through the optical fiber. We found out that the structure of the ...

  9. TID measurement using oblique transmissions of HF pulses (United States)

    Galkin, Ivan; Reinisch, Bodo; Huang, Xueqin; Paznukhov, Vadym; Hamel, Ryan; Kozlov, Alexander; Belehaki, Anna


    The Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID), a wave-like signature of moving plasma density modulation in the ionosphere, is widely acknowledged for its utility in backtracking the anomalous events responsible for the TID generation, and as a major inconvenience to high-frequency (HF) operational systems because of its deleterious impact on the accuracy of navigation and geolocation. The pilot project "Net-TIDE" for the real-time detection and evaluation of TIDs began its operation in 2016 based on the remote-sensing data from synchronized, network-coordinated HF sounding between pairs of DPS4D ionosondes at five participating observatories in Europe. Measurement of all signal properties (Doppler frequency, angle of arrival, and time-of-flight from transmitter to receiver) proved to be instrumental in detecting the TID and deducing the TID parameters: amplitude, wavelength, phase velocity, and direction of propagation. Processing of the measured HF signal data required a specialized signal processing technique that is capable of consistently extracting different signals that have propagated along different ionospheric paths. The multi-path signal environment proved to be the greatest challenge for the reliable TID specification by Net-TIDE, demanding the development of an intelligent system for "signal tracking". The intelligent system is based on a neural network model of a pre-attentive vision capable of extracting continuous signal tracks from the multi-path signal ensemble. Specific examples of the Net-TIDE algorithm suite operation and its suitability for a fully automated TID warning service are discussed.

  10. Types of propagation of radio waves of the decameter range, according to observations by the OBS method on Cuba--Soviet Union paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdeyans, D.; Bocharov, V.I.; Lobachevskii, L.A.; Martinez, R.; Suares, H.; Tushentsova, I.A.


    Ionosphere observations by the OBS method were performed to study ionospheric conditions under which radio waves in the decameter range propagate on Cuba--Soviet Union paths. The results of observations in the summer of 1973 are reported. The distance--frequency and distance--time characteristics of back-scattered signals in the sounding direction for each day of observation are discussed. (JFP)

  11. HF Interference, Procedures and Tools (Interferences HF, procedures et outils) (United States)


    such sources. The existing HF background noise possibly may be increased via ground wave and/or sky wave propagation. Increase of the existing HF...télécommunications filaires à large bande. Les télécommunications via le réseau électrique courant, dites PowerLine Communications (PLT ou PLC) et diverses...cumulative de nombreuses sources de même type. Le bruit de fond HF existant risque d’être augmenté par propagation de l’onde terrestre et/ou aérienne

  12. Special Topics in HF Propagation (United States)


    Instituto Superiore Tecnico . Ava Rovisco Pals, IO00 Lisboa, Portugal Prof. FERNANDES, Manual C’arvalho, Mr Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica, Rua...frequency (channel) assignments which are based onl prediction services information must be used. The user in this case either manually or automatically...programmsed to provide full automatic frequency decision making and selection, if desired. Current plans include a limited manual capability. The

  13. A new wideband HF technique for MHz-bandwidth spread-spectrum radio communications (United States)

    Perry, B. D.


    The one-way results are seen as demonstrating that equalized MHz-bandwidth skywave HF channels can be achieved using long-range one-hop F-layer propagation paths. It has thus become possible to use direct-sequence pseudo-noise or coherent fast-frequency-hop signaling at HF with processing gains of several orders of magnitude for teletype data rates. Possibilities are seen for using the spread spectrum in covert and/or jam-resistant communications. What is more, the equalized wideband HF channel is not subject to the fading caused by multiple propagation modes; as a consequence, it is substantially more reliable than the traditional narrow-band HF channel. Conversely, reliability comparable to traditional HF can be attained at greatly reduced signal margins. Since the time stability of the wideband HF channel is of the order of 10 s, very little channel-transmission time is needed for initializing and maintaining the equalizer. It is noted that probe signals similar to the channel-measuring waveform described here or spread-spectrum training sequences at the beginning of each message are adequate. Results from the 1982 two-way experimentation show that N(omega) is not reciprocal between terminals 2000 km apart.

  14. A Microwave Radiometric Method to Obtain the Average Path Profile of Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Structure Parameters and Its Application to Optical Propagation System Assessment (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.; Vyhnalek, Brian E.


    The values of the key atmospheric propagation parameters Ct2, Cq2, and Ctq are highly dependent upon the vertical height within the atmosphere thus making it necessary to specify profiles of these values along the atmospheric propagation path. The remote sensing method suggested and described in this work makes use of a rapidly integrating microwave profiling radiometer to capture profiles of temperature and humidity through the atmosphere. The integration times of currently available profiling radiometers are such that they are approaching the temporal intervals over which one can possibly make meaningful assessments of these key atmospheric parameters. Since these parameters are fundamental to all propagation conditions, they can be used to obtain Cn2 profiles for any frequency, including those for an optical propagation path. In this case the important performance parameters of the prevailing isoplanatic angle and Greenwood frequency can be obtained. The integration times are such that Kolmogorov turbulence theory and the Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis must be transcended. Appropriate modifications to these classical approaches are derived from first principles and an expression for the structure functions are obtained. The theory is then applied to an experimental scenario and shows very good results.

  15. Light emission from conductive paths in nanocrystalline CdSe embedded Zr-doped HfO{sub 2} high-k stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chou; Kuo, Yue [Thin Film Nano and Microelectronics Research Laboratory, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3122 (United States)


    Electrical and optical properties of the solid state incandescent light emitting devices made of zirconium doped hafnium oxide high-k films with and without an embedded nanocrystalline CdSe layer on the p-type Si wafer have been studied. The broad band white light was emitted from nano sized conductive paths through the thermal excitation mechanism. Conductive paths formed from the dielectric breakdown have been confirmed from scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images and the secondary ion mass spectrometric elemental profiles. Si was diffused from the wafer to the device surface through the conductive path during the high temperature light emission process. There are many potential applications of this type of device.

  16. Examination of the Cooray-Rubinstein (C-R) formula for a mixed propagation path by using FDTD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qilin Zhang; Dongshuai Li; Yanfeng Fan; Yuanyuan Zhang; Jinge Gao


    ... (vertically stratified conductivity) and estimate the lightning horizontal electric fields over the mixed path, and we have examined its accuracy at distances of 100 m to 1000 m from the lightning channel by using finite difference time domain (FDTD...

  17. On the accuracy of approximate techniques for the evaluation of lightning electromagnetic fields along a mixed propagation path

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdolhamid Shoory; Abdenabi Mimouni; Farhad Rachidi; Vernon Cooray; Marcos Rubinstein


      In this paper we review simplified analytical expressions derived by Wait using the concept of attenuation function for the analysis of the propagation of lightning-radiated electromagnetic fields...

  18. Sensing propagation events and fade statistics at C-band for two over-water, line-of-sight propagation paths over a one year period (United States)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Dockery, G. Daniel; Musiani, Bert H.


    We examine signal fading statistics over a year period corresponding to two over-water, line-of-site, propagation links in the mid-Atlantic coast of the US. These links are comprised of a transmitter on a tower at Parramore Island, VA operating at 4.7 GHz sending simultaneous cw signals to two receiver systems located on a lighthouse and a lookout tower on Assateague Beach, VA at distances of 44 and 39 km, respectively. The receiving sites are separated by approximately 5 km. Cumulative fade distributions corresponding to yearly, monthly, and diurnal time scales were derived. Fade duration statistics correspond to sustained attenuation events were also derived. These events, which were arbitrarily defined as having fades relative to free space powers in excess of 20 dB for durations of two hours or more, are believed to be generally due to subrefraction. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions and nearby rawindsonde data during two sustained deep fading periods showed atmospheric conditions consistent with extreme subrefraction, where the refractivity-height profile had a positive lapse rate. The efficacy of employing the links as indicators of real time conditions of atmospheric propagation was also demonstrated by a telephone call-up procedure which enabled displays of time series of the fading at remote locations to be generated.

  19. Variational path integral molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo algorithms using a fourth order propagator with applications to molecular systems (United States)

    Kamibayashi, Yuki; Miura, Shinichi


    In the present study, variational path integral molecular dynamics and associated hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) methods have been developed on the basis of a fourth order approximation of a density operator. To reveal various parameter dependence of physical quantities, we analytically solve one dimensional harmonic oscillators by the variational path integral; as a byproduct, we obtain the analytical expression of the discretized density matrix using the fourth order approximation for the oscillators. Then, we apply our methods to realistic systems like a water molecule and a para-hydrogen cluster. In the HMC, we adopt two level description to avoid the time consuming Hessian evaluation. For the systems examined in this paper, the HMC method is found to be about three times more efficient than the molecular dynamics method if appropriate HMC parameters are adopted; the advantage of the HMC method is suggested to be more evident for systems described by many body interaction.

  20. Time-resolved photoelectron signals from bifurcating electron wavepackets propagated across conical intersection in path-branching dynamics (United States)

    Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo


    A computational scheme of energy- and geometry-dependent photoelectron signals from the dynamics near a conical intersection based on a simplified path-branching representation of nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics is proposed. Taking the NO2 X / A conical intersection as an example, the results of the present scheme compared to those from previous study based on the method of full quantum vibrational wavepacket shows qualitative agreement suggesting promising application to computation in larger systems intractable to full quantum exact methods.

  1. Measurement of scintillation and link margin for laser beam propagation on 3.5-km urbanised path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Pan; Qiqi Han; Jing Ma; Liying Tan


    An experiment of laser propagation was carried out at the urban terrain range of 3.5 km during the period of March to May of 2006. The received intensity scintillations and atmosphere turbulence strength in complex urban atmosphere circumstance were simultaneously measured concentratively. The results show the statistical characteristics of irradiance scintillation and atmosphere turbulence strength and link fade margin for urban free-space optical links.

  2. Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space. (United States)

    Toyoshima, Morio; Takenaka, Hideki; Shoji, Yozo; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kunimori, Hiroo


    The polarization characteristics of an artificial laser source in space were measured through space-to-ground atmospheric transmission paths. An existing Japanese laser communication satellite and optical ground station were used to measure Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization of the laser beam transmitted from the satellite. As a result, the polarization was preserved within an rms error of 1.6 degrees, and the degree of polarization was 99.4+/-4.4% through the space-to-ground atmosphere. These results contribute to the link estimation for quantum key distribution via space and provide the potential for enhancements in quantum cryptography worldwide in the future.

  3. The effect of the jet-stream on the intensity of laser beams propagating along slanted paths in the upper layers of the turbulent atmosphere (United States)

    Korotkova, Olga; Farwell, Nathan; Mahalov, Alex

    Calculations of the second-order statistical characteristics of a polarized, lowest-order Gaussian beam which propagates through a jet-stream layer, in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) environment, are carried out. Comparison of the results based on the refractive-index structure parameter img style="vertical-align: text-bottom;" class="inlinematheqn" src="/ampp/image?path=/716100762/916167779/twrm_a_412938_o_ilm0001.gif" alt="TWRM_A_412938_O_XML_IMAGESTWRM_A_412938_O_ILM0001.gif" border="0" /> as predicted by a Hufnagel-Valley model and based on data taken at a recent campaign of measurements and high-resolution numerical simulations shows that the jet-stream can significantly affect the intensity distribution and spreading of the beam, especially at high zenith angles.

  4. Ionospheric heating with oblique HF waves (United States)

    Field, Edward C., Jr.; Bloom, Ron M.


    Calculations of ionospheric electron density perturbations and ground-level signal changes produce by intense oblique high frequency (HF) transmitters are presented. This analysis considers radio field focusing at caustics, the consequent joule-heating of the surrounding plasma, heat conduction, diffusion, and recombination processes: these being the effects of a powerful oblique 'modifying' wave. It neglects whatever plasma instabilities might occur. Then effects on a secondary 'test' wave that is propagated along the same path as the first are investigated. Calculations predict ground-level field-strength reductions of several dB in the test wave for modifying waves having ERP in the 85 to 90 dBW range. These field-strength changes are similar in sign, magnitude, and location to ones measured in Soviet experiments. The results are sensitive to the model ionosphere assumed, so future experiments should employ the widest possible range of frequencies and propagation conditions. An effective power of 90 dBW seems to be a sort of threshold that, if exceeded, results in substantial rather than small signal changes. The conclusions are based solely on joule-heating and subsequent defocusing of waves passing through caustic regions.

  5. Performance Evaluation of AODV, DSR, DYMO & ZRP in Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami Path Loss Propagation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit JAIN


    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc NETwork is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self configuring network of mobile routers connected by wireless links. Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a wireless network without infrastructure. Self configurability and easy deployment feature of the MANET resulted in numerous applications in this modern era. Efficient routing protocols will make MANETs reliable. Various research communities are working in field of MANET and trying to adopt the protocols and technology in other applications as well. In this work, we present investigations on the behavior of various routing protocol of MANET with a Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami Propagation Model. We evaluate the performance of four different ad-hoc routing protocols on four performance metrics such as Average Jitter, Average End-to-End Delay, Throughput, and Packet Delivery Fraction with varying Pause Time. From the simulation results it is concluded that DSR is better in transmission of packets per unit time and maximum number of packets reached their destination successfully with some delays, i.e. PDF & Throughput is more and Average jitter & end-to-end delay is less. Whereas AODV & ZRP having almost same values in all of the performance metrics, they transmit packets with very less delay but transmits less packets to their destination as compare to DSR

  6. Path Sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵著行; 闵应骅; 等


    For different delay models,the concept of sensitization can be very different.Traditonal concepts of sensitization cannot precisely describe circuit behavior when the input vectors change very fast.Using Boolean process aporoach,this paper presents a new definition of sensitization for arbitrary input waveforms.By this new concept it is found that if the inputs of a combinational circuit can change at any time,and each gate's delay varies within an interval (bounded gate delay model),then every path,which is not necessarily a single topological path,is sensitizable.From the experimental results it can be seen that,all nonsensitizable paths for traditional concepts actually can propagate transitions along them for some input waveforms.However,specified time between input transitions(STBIT) and minimum permissible pulse width(ε)are two major factors to make some paths non-sensitizable.

  7. Stochastic model in microwave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranfagni, A. [“Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, CNR Florence Research Area, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Mugnai, D., E-mail: [“Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, CNR Florence Research Area, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    Further experimental results of delay time in microwave propagation are reported in the presence of a lossy medium (wood). The measurements show that the presence of a lossy medium makes the propagation slightly superluminal. The results are interpreted on the basis of a stochastic (or path integral) model, showing how this model is able to describe each kind of physical system in which multi-path trajectories are present. -- Highlights: ► We present new experimental results on electromagnetic “anomalous” propagation. ► We apply a path integral theoretical model to wave propagation. ► Stochastic processes and multi-path trajectories in propagation are considered.

  8. Relative impact of meteor scatter and other long-distance high-latitude propagation modes on VHF communication systems (United States)

    Cannon, Paul S.; Weitzen, Jay A.; Ostergaard, Jens; Rasmussen, John E.


    We have analyzed the duty cycle, due to ionospheric propagation, of very high frequency sounding signals for both polar cap and auroral paths. We find that at 35 and 45 MHz the propagation is often sustained by sporadic E layers and other nonmeteoric modes rather than by meteor scatter. At the higher frequencies of 65 and 85 MHz we find that the path is generally dominated by meteor scatter modes. These results have important ramifications for frequency reuse and security in meteor burst communications systems and for the development of extended frequency range HF systems (above 30 MHz) with a capability to operate on any available propagation mode. The diurnal, seasonal, and geomagnetic variations of the nonmeteoric duty cycle have been examined. A polar cap path model is presented for the nonmeteoric duty cycle as a function of geomagnetic activity.

  9. Comparative study of partially coherent vortex beam propagations through atmospheric turbulence along a uplJnk path and a downlink path%部分相干涡旋光束通过大气湍流上行和下行传输的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋红; 吕百达


    基于广义惠更斯一菲涅耳原理,以高斯-谢尔模型(GSM)涡旋光束作为典型的部分相干涡旋光束,推导出GSM涡旋光束通过大气湍流斜程传输的平均光强、均方根束宽和交叉谱密度函数的解析表达式,并用以研究了大气湍流中上行和下行对GSM涡旋光束传输和对相干涡旋的影响.结果表明,在相同条件下,GSM涡旋光束下行传输受大气湍流的影响要小于上行传输,下行传输时相干涡旋拓扑电荷守恒距离要长于上行传输.对所得结果做了物理解释.%Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the propagations of a partially coherent vortex beam through atmospheric turbulence along an uplink path and a downlink path are studied, where the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beam is taken as a typical example of partially coherent vortex beam. The analytical expressions for the average intensity, rms width and cross-spectral density function of GSM vortex beam propagating through atmospheric turbulence along a slant path are derived and used to study the influence of atmospheric turbulence along an uplink path and a downlink path on GSM vortex beam propagation and on coherence vortex. It is shown that under the same conditions the influence of atmospheric turbulence along a downlink path on GSM vortex beam propagation is smaller than that along a uplink path, and the conservation distance of the topological charge of GSM vortex beam along a downlink path is longer than that along a uplink path. The results are explained in physics.

  10. [Cu(HF{sub 2}){sub 2}(pyrazine)]{sub n} : a rectangular antiferromagnetic lattice with a spin exchange path made up of two different FHF{sup -} bridges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, J. L.; Warter, M. L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Lancaster, T.; Steele, A. J.; Blundell, S. J.; Pratt, F. L.; Singleton, J.; McDonald, R. D.; Lee, C.; Whangbo, M.-H.; Plonczak, A. (Materials Science Division); (Eastern Washington Univ.); (Oxford Univ.); (Rutherford Appleton Lab.); (LANL); (North Carolina State Univ.)


    The two-dimensional antiferromagnet [Cu(HF{sub 2}){sub 2}(pyz)]{sub n} (pyz=pyrazine) has a rectangular lattice (see picture) displaying two types of FHF{sup -} bridging modes. The spin exchange through Cu-(FHF){sub 2}-Cu is about 90% stronger than through Cu-pyz-Cu, and the {mu}{sub 1,1}-coordinated FHF{sup -}, which is close in nature to F{sup -}---HF, is largely responsible for the exchange. C black, Cu red, F green, H cyan.

  11. Mitigating Doppler shift effect in HF multitone data modem (United States)

    Sonlu, Yasar


    Digital communications over High Frequency (HF) radio channels are getting important in recent years. Current HF requirements are for data transmission at rates 2.4 kbps or more to accommodate computer data links and digital secure voice. HF modems which were produced to meet these speeds are, serial modems and parallel modems. On the other hand, the HF sky-wave communication medium, the ionosphere, has some propagation problems such as multipath and Doppler shift. The effect of Doppler shift in a parallel modem which employs Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation is considered and a correction method to mitigate the Doppler Shift effect is introduced.

  12. ExtraHF survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Binno, Simone; Corrà, Ugo


    AIMS: In heart failure (HF), exercise training programmes (ETPs) are a well-recognized intervention to improve symptoms, but are still poorly implemented. The Heart Failure Association promoted a survey to investigate whether and how cardiac centres in Europe are using ETPs in their HF patients...... of evidence on safety or benefit was cited. When implemented, an ETP was proposed to all HF patients in only 55% of the centres, with restriction according to severity or aetiology. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to previous surveys, there is evidence of increased availability of ETPs in HF in Europe, although too...

  13. Study on the Generalization Phenomenon of Network KUSO and Its Viral Propagation Path%网络恶搞泛化现象及其病毒式传播路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 龙真梓; 李甜


    网络恶搞作为一个当今流行的网络文化现象,其传播速度之快、传播范围之广、传播内容之丰富都引起了社会的广泛关注,而这些特点的形成都离不开其“病毒式传播”的传播过程。从传播学角度出发,研究网络恶搞“病毒式传播”的路径和特点,并结合具体案例分析其形成“病毒式传播”的深层原因。%As a popular cultural phenomenon in the network,the Network KUSO spreads at an alarming rate,in a wider range and with abundant contents,which has aroused widespread concerns in the society. These characteristics cannot form without the "viral" propagation process. Therefore,this paper has studied the path and features of internet KUSO "viral" propagation from the perspective of communication,and analyzed the deep causes of forming "viral" propagation combined with the specific cases.

  14. The investigation of ionospheric response to total eclipses on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 based on HF oblique sounding data (United States)

    Vertogradov, G. G.; Vertogradova, E. G.


    The investigation of ionosphere response to solar eclipses was carried out. Maximum observable frequencies were analyzed during two eclipses on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 on several oblique sounding paths which were within the range of solar flux obscuration. The model describing local changes in the ionosphere, caused by the obscuration of solar flux during eclipse, is suggested. The computer simulation of HF radiowave propagation during the eclipses was carried out on the basis of this model, while quiet ionosphere was described by IRI-2012 model. It is shown that this approach gives adequate description of HF channel during eclipses for all propagation paths under consideration while the parameters of the model were the same for all paths. As the result of computer simulation time delays of ionosperic responses during eclipses were obtained (~1800-2000 s). It was found that maximum depletion of electron concentration reached 85% in D-region for both eclipses. The electron density depletions at height of F2-peak were 48% and 34% for eclipse on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duraiswamy


    Full Text Available The moving object or vehicle location prediction based on their spatial and temporal information is an important task in many applications. Different methods were utilized for performing the vehicle movement detection and prediction process. In such works, there is a lack of analysis in predicting the vehicles location in current as well as in future. Moreover, such methods compute the vehicles movement by finding the topological relationships among trajectories and locations, whereas the representative GPS points are determined by the 30 m circular window. Due to this process, the performance of the method is degraded because such 30 m circular window is selected by calculating the error range in the given input image and such error range may vary from image to image. To reduce the drawback presented in the existing method, in this study a heuristic moving vehicle location prediction algorithm is proposed. The proposed heuristic algorithm mainly comprises two techniques namely, optimization GA algorithm and FFBNN. In this proposed technique, initially the vehicles frequent paths are collected by monitoring all the vehicles movement in a specific period. Among the frequent paths, the vehicles optimal paths are computed by the GA algorithm. The selected optimal paths for each vehicle are utilized to train the FFBNN. The well trained FFBNN is then utilized to find the vehicle movement from the current location. By combining the proposed heuristic algorithm with GA and FFBNN, the vehicles location is predicted efficiently. The implementation result shows the effectiveness of the proposed heuristic algorithm in predicting the vehicles future location from the current location. The performance of the heuristic algorithm is evaluated by comparing the result with the RBF classifier. The comparison result shows our proposed technique acquires an accurate vehicle location prediction ratio than the RBF prediction ratio, in terms of accuracy.

  16. Video monitoring reveals pulsating vents and propagation path of fissure eruption during the March 2011 Pu'u 'Ō'ō eruption, Kilauea volcano (United States)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.


    Lava fountains are a common eruptive feature of basaltic volcanoes. Many lava fountains result from fissure eruptions and are associated with the alignment of active vents and rising gas bubbles in the conduit. Visual reports suggest that lava fountain pulses may occur in chorus at adjacent vents. The mechanisms behind such a chorus of lava fountains and the underlying processes are, however, not fully understood. The March 2011 eruption at Pu'u 'Ō'ō (Kilauea volcano) was an exceptional fissure eruption that was well monitored and could be closely approached by field geologists. The fissure eruption occurred along groups of individual vents aligned above the feeding dyke. We investigate video data acquired during the early stages of the eruption to measure the height, width and velocity of the ejecta leaving eight vents. Using a Sobel edge-detection algorithm, the activity level of the lava fountains at the vents was determined, revealing a similarity in the eruption height and frequency. Based on this lava fountain time series, we estimate the direction and degree of correlation between the different vents. We find that the height and velocity of the eruptions display a small but systematic shift in time along the vents, indicating a lateral migration of lava fountaining at a rate of 11 m/s from W to E. This finding is in agreement with a propagation model of a pressure wave originating at the Kilauea volcano and propagating through the dyke at 10 m/s from W to E. Based on this approach from videos only 30 s long, we are able to obtain indirect constraints on the physical dyke parameters, with important implications for lateral magma flow processes at depth. This work shows that the recording and analysis of video data provide important constraints on the mechanisms of lava fountain pulses. Even though the video sequence is short, it allows for the confirmation of the magma propagation direction and a first-order estimation of the dyke dimensions.

  17. 手机文化传播机制形成路径及其形式%Formation Path of Mobile Culture Propagation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建秋; 夏光富


    手机被称为“带着体温的媒体”。从朋友、同事、家人之间的人际传播,到单位、地区、国家的群体传播及全球传播,以手机为主的移动互联网正式进入了主流媒体序列,重构了各种文化、社会、政治体系内外媒介传播的权力关系。手机媒体技术与传播形态主要体现在媒介形态创新和使用形式创新两个方面,手机文化传播方式的不断创新与普及,很大程度上改变了人类的思维方式、社交方式和消费方式,带来了文化传播的丰富和繁荣。充分的用户基础、快速的技术创新、网络的安全治理、全媒体的深度融合将使手机发展成为最具竞争力、最有传播效果的主流文化媒体。%Mobile is often called “The Media with human temperature”.The Mobile Internet which is mostly formed by mobile phones has promoted to the fifth position of Media.It reconstitutes the power relations of media propagation for multiple culture,society and politic systems.Mobile media technology and propagation forms are mainly reflected by the innovation of media form and usage.The constant innovation and popularity of the usage of mobile culture has changed the way of human thinking,socialization,and consumption to a great extent.Moreover,it brings the prosperity of culture propagation.The sufficient of user base,rapid technology development,network security mechanisms,and omnimedia integration will lead mobiles to become the mainstream of culture media which is mostly competitive and propagation ef-fective.

  18. Frederiksberg HF kursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos


    Notatet bygger på et interviewmateriale med dimitterede HF-kursister 3 måneder efter endt eksamen. Notatet undersøger dels, hvad der har hjulpet til at gennemføre, dels hvad der har været negativt og vanskeligt ved uddannelsen. Endvidere belyser notatet hvad kursisterne oplever at tage med fra de...

  19. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere (United States)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.


    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  20. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky


    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  1. The Modulation of Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator on Heating HF Waves and the Doppler Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Bin-bin; Zhao Zheng-yu; Xie Shu-guo


    Abstract: The propagation of HF waves in IAR can produce many nonlinear effects, including the modulation effect of IAR on HF waves and the Doppler effect. To start with the dependence of the ionospheric electron temperature variaof the modulation effect and lucubrate possible reasons for the field can have an observable modulation effect on HF waves while its mechanism is quite different from that of Schumann resonant field on HF waves. The depth of modulation of IAR field, which directly inspires the formation of cross-spectrum between ULF waves and HF waves and results in spectral peaks at some gyro-frequencies of IAR. With respect to the Doppler effect during the propagation of HF waves in IAR, it is mainly caused by the motion of the high-speed flyer and the drifting electrons and the frequency shift from the phase variation of the reflected waves can be neglected when the frequency of HF incident wave is high enough.

  2. Path Dependency


    Mark Setterfield


    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  3. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, M.A.E.


    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core. (au)

  4. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path du...... during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core....

  5. ELF Waves Generated by Modulated HF Heating of the Auroral Electrojet and Observed at a Ground Distance of Approximately 4400 km (United States)


    HAARP ) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska, and detected after propagating more than 4400 km in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to Midway Atoll. The...conductivity variation (created by modulated HF heating) and radiating 4–32 W. The HF-ELF conversion efficiency at HAARP is thus estimated to be...Program ( HAARP ) research station in Gakona, Alaska. The HAARP HF transmitter (or heater), which JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 112, A05309, doi

  6. Mapping ionospheric backscatter measured by the SuperDARN HF radars – Part 1: A new empirical virtual height model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman


    Full Text Available Accurately mapping the location of ionospheric backscatter targets (density irregularities identified by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN HF radars can be a major problem, particularly at far ranges for which the radio propagation paths are longer and more uncertain. Assessing and increasing the accuracy of the mapping of scattering locations is crucial for the measurement of two-dimensional velocity structures on the small and meso-scale, for which overlapping velocity measurements from two radars need to be combined, and for studies in which SuperDARN data are used in conjunction with measurements from other instruments. The co-ordinates of scattering locations are presently estimated using a combination of the measured range and a model virtual height, assuming a straight line virtual propagation path. By studying elevation angle of arrival information of backscatterred signals from 5 years of data (1997–2001 from the Saskatoon SuperDARN radar we have determined the actual distribution of the backscatter target locations in range-virtual height space. This has allowed the derivation of a new empirical virtual height model that allows for a more accurate mapping of the locations of backscatter targets.

  7. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  8. Empirical Study of the Multiaxial, Thermomechanical Behavior of NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloys (United States)

    Shukla, Dhwanil; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stebner Aaron P.


    An empirical study was conducted to characterize the multiaxial, thermomechanical responses of new high temperature NiTiHf alloys. The experimentation included loading thin walled tube Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 29.7)Hf(sub 20) alloy samples along both proportional and nonproportional axial-torsion paths at different temperatures while measuring surface strains using stereo digital image correlation. A Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 33.7)Hf(sub 16) alloy was also studied in tension and compression to document the effect of slightly depleting the Hf content on the constitutive responses of NiTiHf alloys. Samples of both alloys were made from nearly texture free polycrystalline material processed by hot extrusion. Analysis of the data shows that very small changes in composition significantly alter NiTiHf alloy properties, as the austenite finish (Af) temperature of the 16-at Hf alloy was found to be approximately 60 C less than the 20-at Hf alloy (approximately 120 C vs. 180 C). In addition, the 16-at Hf alloy exhibited smaller compressive transformation strains (2 vs. 2.5 percent). Multi-axial characterization of the 20-at % Hf alloy showed that while the random polycrystal transformation strains in tension (4 percent) and compression (2.5 percent) are modest in comparison with binary NiTi (6 percent, 4 percent), the torsion performance is superior (7 vs. 4 shear strain width to the pseudoelastic plateau).

  9. Propagation Effects in Space/Earth Paths. (United States)


    at the incidence of lightning strokes 34, 40 Incoherent emissions Received incoherent energy will raise the noise background for coherent radio...1 fmR -*-tl ESsgt...s Us8. Lawtim7 DATE. 3-9/4-9- 1979 * 80 COPOLAR 7 z a .4 1- 4 z 2 1 2321 2230123 4 TIME (GMT) Fig. 12 B 0 copolar level during...A. Dr DFVLR Institut fMr Hochfrequenztechnik, 8031 Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany SCHMITH, B.G. Dr Smiths Associates, 45/57 High Street, Cobham, Surrey, UK

  10. The Modulation of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator on Heating HF Waves and the Doppler Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NiBin-bin; ZhaoZheng-yu; XieShu-guo


    The propagation of HF waves in IAR can produce many nonlinear effects, including the modulation effect of IAR on HF waves and the Doppler effect. To start with the dependence of the ionospheric electron temperature varia-tions on the Alfven resonant field, We discuss the mechanism of the modulation effect and lucubrate possible reasons for the Doppler effect. The results show that the Alfven resonant field can have an observable modulation effect on HF waves while its mechanism is quite different from that of Schumann resonant field on HF waves. The depth of modulation of IAR on HF waves has a quasi-quadratic relation with the Alfven field, which directly inspires the formation of cross-spectrum between ULF waves and HF waves and results in spectral peaks at some gyro-frequencies of IAR. With respect to the Doppler effect during the propagation of HF waves in IAR, it is mainly caused by the motion of the high-speed flyer and the drifting electrons and the frequency shift from the phase vari-ation of the reflected waves can be neglected when the frequency of HF incident wave is high enough.

  11. A Note on the Stochastic Nature of Feynman Quantum Paths (United States)

    L. Botelho, Luiz C.


    We propose a Fresnel stochastic white noise framework to analyze the stochastic nature of the Feynman paths entering on the Feynman Path Integral expression for the Feynman Propagator of a particle quantum mechanically moving under a time-independent potential.

  12. A Note on the Stochastic Nature of Feynman Quantum Paths (United States)

    Botelho, Luiz C. L.


    We propose a Fresnel stochastic white noise framework to analyze the stochastic nature of the Feynman paths entering on the Feynman Path Integral expression for the Feynman Propagator of a particle quantum mechanically moving under a time-independent potential.

  13. A node-disjoint multi-path routing protocol based on location ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: Multi-path Routing Protocol, Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Location Prediction, Node ... stress the need to use similar paths for multi-path data propagation. ..... maintained for every source with which the destination is in communication.

  14. Propagation Impact on Modern HF (High Frequency) Communications System Design (United States)


    US Gvt Printing Office, Washington DC. Piggot, W.R., Rawer, K. (1972). URSI Handbook for lonogram Interpretation and... Handbook ", Communications Research Centre Report No. 1255, 1974. Widrow B., Mantey P.E., Griffiths L.J. and Goode B.B., "Adaptive Antenna Systems...implemented in modified form by the terminal node controller (TNC). In the U.S., Amateur Radio Relay League ( ARRL ) radio amateurs have held four annual

  15. Modeling of HF Propagation and Heating in the Ionosphere (United States)


    limits. It can be run with the recombination rate updated in time (because Te is changing), it can be run with the recombination rate constant in time (in...line at a low altitude. The second model is that of Hansen[12]. The recombination rate remains constant in time , but is a function of position. This constant in time , and when the recombination rate is zero, respectively. Clearly, when there is recombination, the modification saturates. These

  16. The Role of the Propagation Environment in HF Electronic Warfare. (United States)


    pacing item. 5.1 The Jamming Problem The objective of Jamming is to deny communication, radar coverage, or navigation services to the intended customer...NOSC in conjunction with the PROPHET terminal (Rose, 1982; Argo and Rothmuller, 1981]. The work of Hayden was based upon raytracing through idealized...SIGSEC, and related areas as well as communication frequency management. In addition it may have application in the OTH- Radar arena but this discipline has

  17. Path integration in relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Redmount, I H; Redmount, Ian H.; Suen, Wai-Mo


    The simple physics of a free particle reveals important features of the path-integral formulation of relativistic quantum theories. The exact quantum-mechanical propagator is calculated here for a particle described by the simple relativistic action proportional to its proper time. This propagator is nonvanishing outside the light cone, implying that spacelike trajectories must be included in the path integral. The propagator matches the WKB approximation to the corresponding configuration-space path integral far from the light cone; outside the light cone that approximation consists of the contribution from a single spacelike geodesic. This propagator also has the unusual property that its short-time limit does not coincide with the WKB approximation, making the construction of a concrete skeletonized version of the path integral more complicated than in nonrelativistic theory.

  18. Culminating paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Bousquet-Mélou


    Full Text Available Let a and b be two positive integers. A culminating path is a path of ℤ 2 that starts from (0,0, consists of steps (1,a and (1,-b, stays above the x-axis and ends at the highest ordinate it ever reaches. These paths were first encountered in bioinformatics, in the analysis of similarity search algorithms. They are also related to certain models of Lorentzian gravity in theoretical physics. We first show that the language on a two letter alphabet that naturally encodes culminating paths is not context-free. Then, we focus on the enumeration of culminating paths. A step by step approach, combined with the kernel method, provides a closed form expression for the generating function of culminating paths ending at a (generic height k. In the case a = b, we derive from this expression the asymptotic behaviour of the number of culminating paths of length n. When a > b, we obtain the asymptotic behaviour by a simpler argument. When a < b, we only determine the exponential growth of the number of culminating paths. Finally, we study the uniform random generation of culminating paths via various methods. The rejection approach, coupled with a symmetry argument, gives an algorithm that is linear when a ≥ b, with no precomputation stage nor non-linear storage required. The choice of the best algorithm is not as clear when a < b. An elementary recursive approach yields a linear algorithm after a precomputation stage involving O (n 3 arithmetic operations, but we also present some alternatives that may be more efficient in practice.

  19. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF) (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  20. Excitation of small-scale waves in the F region of the ionosphere by powerful HF radio waves (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Chernyshev, M. Y.; Kornienko, V. A.


    Ionospheric small-scale waves in the F region, initiated by heating facilities in Nizhniy Novgorod, have been studied by the method of field-aligned scattering of diagnostic HF radio signals. Experimental data have been obtained on the radio path Kiev-N. Novgorod-St. Petersburg during heating campaigns with heater radiated power ERP = 20 MW and 100 MW. Observations of scattered HF signals have been made by a Doppler spectrum device with high temporal resolution. Analysis of the experimental data shows a relation between the heater power level and the parameters of ionospheric small-scale oscillations falling within the range of Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations. It is found that the periods of wave processes in the F region of the ionosphere, induced by the heating facility, decrease with increasing heating power. The level of heating power also has an impact on the horizontal east-west component of the electric field E, the vertical component of the Doppler velocity Vd and the amplitude of the vertical displacements M of the heated region. Typical magnitudes of these parameters are the following: E = 1.25 mVm, Vd = 6 ms, M = 600-1500 m for ERP = 20 MW and E = 2.5-4.5 mVm, Vd = 11-25 ms, M = 1000-5000 m for ERP = 100 MW. The results obtained confirm the hypothesis of excitation of the Alfvén resonator by powerful HF radio waves which leads to the generation of magnetic field oscillations in the heated region giving rise to artificial Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations and ionospheric small-scale wave processes. In this situation an increase of the heater power would lead to a growth of the electric field of hydromagnetic waves propagating in the ionosphere as well as the amplitude of the vertical displacements of the heated region.

  1. Hf Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Labby, Z E; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J; Ivans, I I


    Radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements, accurate to about +/- 5 percent, are reported for 41 odd-parity levels of Hf II. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 150 lines of Hf II. Approximately half of these new transition probabilities overlap with recent independent measurements using a similar approach. The two sets of measurements are found to be in good agreement for measurements in common. Our new laboratory data are applied to refine the hafnium photospheric solar abundance and to determine hafnium abundances in 10 metal-poor giant stars with enhanced r-process abundances. For the Sun we derive log epsilon (Hf) = 0.88 +/- 0.08 from four lines; the uncertainty is dominated by the weakness of the lines and their blending by other spectral features. Within the uncertainties of our analysis, the r-process-rich stars possess constant Hf/La and Hf/Eu abundance ratios, log epsilon (Hf...

  2. Propagation handbook for wireless communication system design

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, Robert K


    PROPAGATION PHENOMENA AFFECTING WIRELESS SYSTEMS Types of SystemsDesign Criteria Antenna Considerations Propagation Effects Propagation Models Model Verification Statistics and RiskList of Symbols ReferencesPROPAGATION FUNDAMENTALSMaxwell's EquationsPlane Waves Spherical Waves Reflection and Refraction Geometrical OpticsRay TracingScalar Diffraction Theory Geometrical Theory of Diffraction List of Symbols ReferencesABSORPTION Molecular Absorption Absorption on a Slant Path ACTS Statistics List of Symbols ReferencesREFRACTION Ray BendingPath Delay ScintillationList of Symbols ReferencesATTENUAT

  3. Path integral for inflationary perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopec, T.; Rigopoulos, G.


    The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and

  4. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation (United States)


    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  5. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  6. The Internet's unexploited path diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Arjona-Villicaña, Pedro David; Stepanenko, Alexander S


    The connectivity of the Internet at the Autonomous System level is influenced by the network operator policies implemented. These in turn impose a direction to the announcement of address advertisements and, consequently, to the paths that can be used to reach back such destinations. We propose to use directed graphs to properly represent how destinations propagate through the Internet and the number of arc-disjoint paths to quantify this network's path diversity. Moreover, in order to understand the effects that policies have on the connectivity of the Internet, numerical analyses of the resulting directed graphs were conducted. Results demonstrate that, even after policies have been applied, there is still path diversity which the Border Gateway Protocol cannot currently exploit.

  7. Path Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter; Garud, Raghu


    This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts. Competenc......This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts....... Competencies emerged through processes and mechanisms such as co-creation that implicated multiple learning processes. The process was not an orderly linear one as emergent contingencies influenced the learning processes. An implication is that public policy to catalyse clusters cannot be based...

  8. Spin Observables and Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    López, J A


    We discuss the formulation of spin observables associated to a non-relativistic spinning particles in terms of grassmanian differential operators. We use as configuration space variables for the pseudo-classical description of this system the positions $x$ and a Grassmanian vector quantum amplitudes as path integrals in this superspace. We compute the quantum action necessary for this description including an explicit expression for the boundary terms. Finally we shown how for simple examples, the path integral may be performed in the semi-classical approximation, leading to the correct quantum propagator.

  9. Environmentally friendly HF (DF) lasers (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.


    Dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician A M Prokhorov, this paper reviews the physics of self-sustained volume discharge without preionization—self-initiated volume discharge (SIVD)—in the working mixtures of non-chain hydrofluoride HF (deuterofluoride (DF)) lasers. The dynamics of SIVD in discharge gaps with different geometries is thoroughly described. The mechanisms for the restriction of current density in a diffuse channel in electric discharges in SF6 and SF6 based mixtures (which determines whether SIVD is possible) are proposed and analyzed using simple models. The most probable mechanisms are the electron impact dissociation of SF6 and other mixture components, electron-ion recombination and electron attachment to vibrationally excited SF6 molecules. Starting from a comparative analysis of the rate coefficients of these processes, it is shown that electron-ion recombination is capable of compensating for electron detachment from negative ions via electron impact. It is also established that SIVD is not only observed in SF6, but also in other strongly electronegative gases. The factors that determine the uniformity of the active medium in non-chain HF (DF) lasers are analyzed. Some special features of non-chain HF (DF) lasers with different apertures operating are carefully examined. Consideration is given to the problem of increasing the aperture and discharge volume of non-chain HF (DF) lasers. Based on our experimental results, the possibility of increasing the energy of such lasers to ~1 kJ and above is shown.

  10. Discrete Coherent State Path Integrals (United States)

    Marchioro, Thomas L., II


    The quantum theory provides a fundamental understanding of the physical world; however, as the number of degrees of freedom rises, the information required to specify quantum wavefunctions grows geometrically. Because basis set expansions mirror this geometric growth, a strict practical limit on quantum mechanics as a numerical tool arises, specifically, three degrees of freedom or fewer. Recent progress has been made utilizing Feynman's Path Integral formalism to bypass this geometric growth and instead calculate time -dependent correlation functions directly. The solution of the Schrodinger equation is converted into a large dimensional (formally infinite) integration, which can then be attacked with Monte Carlo techniques. To date, work in this area has concentrated on developing sophisticated mathematical algorithms for evaluating the highly oscillatory integrands occurring in Feynman Path Integrals. In an alternative approach, this work demonstrates two formulations of quantum dynamics for which the number of mathematical operations does not scale geometrically. Both methods utilize the Coherent State basis of quantum mechanics. First, a localized coherent state basis set expansion and an approximate short time propagator are developed. Iterations of the short time propagator lead to the full quantum dynamics if the coherent state basis is sufficiently dense along the classical phase space path of the system. Second, the coherent state path integral is examined in detail. For a common class of Hamiltonians, H = p^2/2 + V( x) the path integral is reformulated from a phase space-like expression into one depending on (q,dot q). It is demonstrated that this new path integral expression contains localized damping terms which can serve as a statistical weight for Monte Carlo evaluation of the integral--a process which scales approximately linearly with the number of degrees of freedom. Corrections to the traditional coherent state path integral, inspired by a

  11. Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Giorgio


    Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics

  12. Artificial Ionization and UHF Radar Response Associated with HF Frequencies near Electron Gyro-Harmonics (Invited) (United States)

    Watkins, B. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Secan, J. A.


    We present new results from O-mode ionospheric heating experiments at the HAARP facility in Alaska to demonstrate that the magnitude of artificial ionization production is critically dependent on the choice of HF frequency near gyro-harmonics. For O-mode heating in the lower F-region ionosphere, typically about 200 km altitude, artificial ionization enhancements are observed in the lower ionosphere (about 150 - 220 km) and also in the topside ionosphere above about 500 km. Lower ionosphere density enhancements are inferred from HF-enhanced ion and plasma-line signals observed with UHF radar. Upper ionospheric density enhancements have been observed with TEC (total electron content) experiments by monitoring satellite radio beacons where signal paths traverse the HF-modified ionosphere. Both density enhancements and corresponding upward plasma fluxes have also been observed in the upper ionosphere via in-situ satellite observations. The data presented focus mainly on observations near the third and fourth gyro-harmonics. The specific values of the height-dependent gyro-harmonics have been computed from a magnetic model of the field line through the HF heated volume. Experiments with several closely spaced HF frequencies around the gyro-harmonic frequency region show that the magnitude of the lower-ionosphere artificial ionization production maximizes for HF frequencies about 1.0 - 1.5 MHz above the gyro-harmonic frequency. The response is progressively larger as the HF frequency is increased in the frequency region near the gyro-harmonics. For HF frequencies that are initially greater than the gyro-harmonic value the UHF radar scattering cross-section is relatively small, and non-existent or very weak signals are observed; as the signal returns drop in altitude due to density enhancements the HF interaction region passes through lower altitudes where the HF frequency is less than the gyro-harmonic value, for these conditions the radar scattering cross-section is

  13. ELF/VLF wave generation from the beating of two HF ionospheric heating sources (United States)

    Cohen, M. B.; Moore, R. C.; Golkowski, M.; Lehtinen, N. G.


    It is well established that Extremely Low Frequency (ELF, 0.3-3 kHz) and Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio waves can be generated via modulated High Frequency (HF, 3-10 MHz) heating of the lower ionosphere (60-100 km). The ionospheric absorption of HF power modifies the conductivity of the lower ionosphere, which in the presence of natural currents such as the auroral electrojet, creates an `antenna in the sky.' We utilize a theoretical model of the HF to ELF/VLF conversion and the ELF/VLF propagation, and calculate the amplitudes of the generated ELF/VLF waves when two HF heating waves, separated by the ELF/VLF frequency, are transmitted from two adjacent locations. The resulting ELF/VLF radiation pattern exhibits a strong directional dependence (as much as 15 dB) that depends on the physical spacing of the two HF sources. This beat wave source can produce signals 10-20 dB stronger than those generated using amplitude modulation, particularly for frequencies greater than 5-10 kHz. We evaluate recent suggestions that beating two HF waves generates ELF/VLF waves in the F-region (>150 km), and conclude that those experimental results may have misinterpreted, and can be explained strictly by the much more well established D region mechanism.

  14. A thirty second isomer in Hf-171

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, P; Billowes, J; Cochrane, ECA; Cooke, JL; Cooper, TG; Dendooven, P; Evans, DE; Grant, IS; Griffith, JAR; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Oinonen, M; Pearson, MR; Penttila, H; Persson, B.L.; Richardson, DS; Tungate, G; Wheeler, PD; Zybert, L; Aysto, J


    An isomer has been detected in Hf-171 with a half-life of T-1/2 = 29.5(9) s. The state was populated in the Yb-170(alpha,3n)Hf-171m reaction at a beam energy of E-alpha = 50 MeV in an on-line ion guide isotope separator. The isomeric Hf-17lm(+) beam was extracted from the ion guide, mass-analysed an

  15. The study of multilayers Fe/Hf and Ni/Hf by slow positron beam technique (United States)

    Tashiro, Mutsumi; Nakajyo, Terunobu; Murashige, Yusuke; Koizumi, Tomoya; Kanazawa, Ikuzo; Komori, Fumio; Soe, We-Hyo; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Ito, Yasuo


    The S-parameters versus the incident positron energy are measured in the Ni/Hf multilayer, thin Hf film, thin Fe film and the bilayer Fe/Hf. We have analyzed the change in vacancy-type defects in these multilayers and thin films with the deposition temperature in the MBE system.

  16. Proceedings of the Seventeenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 17) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)


    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX) is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investors from domestic and international organizations. NAPEX 17 was held on 15 June 1993. The meeting was organized into two technical sessions. The first session was dedicated to slant path propagation studies and experiments. The second session focused on propagation studies for mobile and personal communications. Preceding NAPEX 17, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop was held on 14 June 1993 to review ACTS propagation activities with emphasis on ACTS experiments status and data collection, processing, and exchange.

  17. HF radiation emitted by chaotic leader processes (United States)

    Mäkelä, J. S.; Edirisinghe, M.; Fernando, M.; Montaño, R.; Cooray, V.


    This paper presents direct measurements of narrowband 10 MHz HF radiation from so-called “chaotic leaders” associated with subsequent return strokes. Although the term is controversial and poorly defined, we find that more than 30% of subsequent strokes in close lightning flashes contain electric field characteristics that are best described as “chaotic”. In earlier studies, return strokes have consistently been observed to be the strongest sources of HF radiation, but the results for leader processes are less consistent. We also observe return strokes to be the main HF emitter, and the leaders before the first return stroke in a flash sequence also emit HF though somewhat less intensely. The leaders preceding subsequent strokes typically emit little or no HF radiation, whether they are dart or dart-stepped leaders. However, it was observed that the presence of a chaotic component increases the leader HF intensity dramatically Defining the HF intensity unequivocally can be problematic for processes like chaotic leaders which have a combination of continuous and impulsive phenomena. Two time-domain methods were used to measure the HF intensity, the peak energy and the RMS energy. In the frequency domain these correspond to the energy spectral density (ESD) and power spectral density (PSD), respectively. It was found that the methods are not necessarily compatible. Thus, it is suggested that to clarify future work, leader processes should be characterized by the PSD rather than the ESD.

  18. HfS, Hyperfine Structure Fitting Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Estalella, Robert


    HfS is a tool to fit the hyperfine structure of spectral lines, with multiple velocity components. The HfS_nh3 procedures included in HfS fit simultaneously the hyperfine structure of the NH$_3$ (J,K)= (1,1) and (2,2) transitions, and perform a standard analysis to derive $T_\\mathrm{ex}$, NH$_3$ column density, $T_\\mathrm{rot}$, and $T_\\mathrm{k}$. HfS uses a Monte Carlo approach for fitting the line parameters. Especial attention is paid to the derivation of the parameter uncertainties. HfS includes procedures that make use of parallel computing for fitting spectra from a data cube.

  19. Propagation models for non line-of-sight scenarios (United States)

    Tasu, A. S.; Anchidin, L.; Tamas, R.; Petrescu, T.


    The log-normal propagation model is usually applied for scenarios including a line-of-sight path. However, there are many cases that do not include such a propagation path, e.g. indoor transmission and disaster situations, when radio waves have to penetrate trough ruins. In this paper, we show that the log-normal model can also be applied for non line-of-sight transmission. Both indoor scenario and trough-ruins scenario, are investigated.

  20. A Complete Critical Path Algorithm for Test Generation of Combinational Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周权; 魏道政


    It is known that critical path test generation method is not a complete algorithm for combinational circuits with reconvergent-fanout.In order to made it a complete algorithm,we put forward a reconvergent-fanoutoriented technique,the principal critical path algorithm,propagating the critical value back to primary inputs along a single path,the principal critical path,and allowing multiple path sensitization if needed.Relationship among test patterns is also discussed to accelerate test generation.

  1. 新媒体时代中国梦在大学生群体中的传播路径探析%The Analysis of China Dream's Propagation Path in College Students in New Media Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 张建欣


    New media have a high penetration rate and a wide range of audiences in the college students' group. The China Dream propaganda education requires new media to act as an important role. In the practice of the education of university students and management work, the microblogging platform should be fully used to instantly transfer China Dream education information. The mobile Internet should be used to share the China Dream education resources. Social networks should be used to spread China dream education thought. Discussion network platform should be used to discuss the China Dream education content. These four effective paths can be used to carry out the"China Dream"publicity and education work. The purpose is to provide a way of thinking via new media for effective dissemination of the China Dream connotation and spiritual essence, publicity of its education thought and implementation of “My China Dream”theme activities. Moreover, it can help contemporary college students set up correct outlook of world, life and value, make them sow and light the dream, encourage them to dare to have dream, have the courage to pursue and interpret a dream, turn them into the socialist builders and successors who have ideal, morality, culture and discipline.%新媒休在大学生群体中具有较高的普及率和广泛的受众,中国梦宣传教育形式要求新媒体充当重要角色。在高校学生教育管理工作实践中要充分利用微博平台即时传递中国梦教育信息、利用移动互联网共享中国梦教育资源、利用社交网络传播中国梦教育思想、利用讨论组网络平台讨论中国梦教育内容等四种有效传播路径开展“中国梦”的宣传教育工作,旨在为新媒体时代有效传播中国梦内涵和精神实质、宣传其教育思想及开展“我的中国梦”主题活动提供思路,帮助当代大学生树立正确的世界观、人生观和价值观,为他们播种梦想、点燃梦想

  2. Millimeter Wave Radio Frequency Propagation Model Development (United States)


    assume that no excess attenuation or obstacles are present, and the signal propagates along a clear signal path directly between the transmitter and...performed by simple trigonometry . The angle is determined by: θ sin | |, (103) where CL is the channel length, hTX is the height of the

  3. HF Transverse Segmentation and Tagging Jet Capability

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, E A; Kuleshov, Sergey


    So called tagging jets and pile-up were simulated for the optimisation of the HF segmentation. The energy resolution, angular resolution and efficiency of jet reconstruction are defined for different calorimeter segmentation.

  4. Collisional quenching of highly rotationally excited HF

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Benhui; Forrey, R C; Stancil, P C; Balakrishnan, N


    Collisional excitation rate coefficients play an important role in the dynamics of energy transfer in the interstellar medium. In particular, accurate rotational excitation rates are needed to interpret microwave and infrared observations of the interstellar gas for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium line formation. Theoretical cross sections and rate coefficients for collisional deexcitation of rotationally excited HF in the vibrational ground state are reported. The quantum-mechanical close-coupling approach implemented in the nonreactive scattering code MOLSCAT was applied in the cross section and rate coefficient calculations on an accurate 2D HF-He potential energy surface. Estimates of rate coefficients for H and H$_2$ colliders were obtained from the HF-He collisional data with a reduced-potential scaling approach. The calculation of state-to-state rotational quenching cross sections for HF due to He with initial rotational levels up to $j=20$ were performed for kinetic energies from 10$^{-5}$ to 15000...

  5. Microhardness evaluation alloys Hf-Si-B; Avaliacao de microdureza de ligas Hf-Si-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigolotti, Joao Carlos Janio; Costa, Eliane Fernandes Brasil [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Rocha, Elisa Gombio; Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)


    The technological advance has generated increasing demand for materials that can be used under high temperature, what includes intermetallic MR-Si-B (MR = refractory metal) alloys with multiphase structures, that can also be applied in oxide environments. Thus, this work had for objective the micro hardness study of the Hf-Si-B system alloys, heat treated at 1600 deg C, in the Hf rich region. Hf-Si-B alloys had been produced with blades of Hf (min. 99.8%), Si (min. 99.998%) and B (min. 99.5%), in the voltaic arc furnace and heat treated at 1600 deg C under argon atmosphere. The relationship of the phases had been previously identified by X-ray diffraction and contrast in backscattered electron imaging mode. The alloys had their hardness analyzed by method Vickers (micro hardness) with load of 0.05 kgf and 0.2 kgf and application time of 20 s. The results, obtained from the arithmetic mean of measurements for each alloy on the heterogeneous region, showed a mean hardness of 11.08 GPA, with small coefficient of variation of 3.8%. The borides HfB2 (19.34 GPa) e HfB - 11.76 GPa, showed the hardness higher than the silicides Hf2Si (8.57 GPa), Hf5Si3 (9.63 GPa), Hf3Si2 (11.66 GPa), Hf5Si4 (10.00 GPa), HfSi (10.02 GPa) e HfSi2 (8.61 GPa). (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Experimental results indicate that propagation paths of cracks in geomaterials are often irregular, producing rough fracture surfaces which are fractal. A formula is derived for the fractal kinematics of crack propagation in geomaterials. The formula correlates the dynamic and static fracture toughnesses with crack velocity, crack length and a microstructural parameter, and allows the fractal dimension to be obtained. From the equations for estimating crack velocity and fractal dimension it can be shown that the measured crack velocity, Vo , should be much smaller than the fractal crack velocity, V. It can also be shown that the fractal dimension of the crack propagation path can be calculated directly from Vo and from the fracture toughness.

  7. Taguchi Analysis on the Effect of Process Parameters on Densification During Spark Plasma Sintering of HfB2-20SiC (Preprint) (United States)


    pressing and spark plasma sintering. J Alloys Compd 2007; 428:197–05. 2. Van Wie D.M., Drewry Jr. D.G., King D.E., Hudson C.M. The hypersonic environment...spark plasma sintering of HfB2/SiC and HfB2/HfC/SiC composite powders obtained by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. J Alloys Compd 2009...2008; 91:10:3448-50. 9. Carmen M Carney. Oxidation resistance of hafnium diboride—silicon carbide from 1400 to 2000 °C. J Mater Sci 2009; 44:20:5673-81

  8. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument (United States)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka


    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 ( The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  9. Theoretical Study on the Reaction Mechanism of F2+2HBr=2HF+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The gas phase reaction mechanism of F2 + 2HBr = 2HF + Br2 has been investigated by (U)MP2 at 6-311G** level, and a series of four-center and three-center transition states have been obtained. The reaction mechanism was achieved by comparing the activation energy of seven reaction paths, i.e. the dissociation energy of F2 is less than the activation energy of the bimolecular elementary reaction F2 + HBr → HF + BrF. Thus it is theoretically proved that the title reaction occurs more easily inthe free radical reaction with three medium steps.

  10. Wavefront Propagation and Fuzzy Based Autonomous Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Al-Jumaily


    Full Text Available Path planning and obstacle avoidance are the two major issues in any navigation system. Wavefront propagation algorithm, as a good path planner, can be used to determine an optimal path. Obstacle avoidance can be achieved using possibility theory. Combining these two functions enable a robot to autonomously navigate to its destination. This paper presents the approach and results in implementing an autonomous navigation system for an indoor mobile robot. The system developed is based on a laser sensor used to retrieve data to update a two dimensional world model of therobot environment. Waypoints in the path are incorporated into the obstacle avoidance. Features such as ageing of objects and smooth motion planning are implemented to enhance efficiency and also to cater for dynamic environments.

  11. Improving the algorithm of temporal relation propagation (United States)

    Shen, Jifeng; Xu, Dan; Liu, Tongming


    In the military Multi Agent System, every agent needs to analyze the temporal relationships among the tasks or combat behaviors, and it"s very important to reflect the battlefield situation in time. The temporal relation among agents is usually very complex, and we model it with interval algebra (IA) network. Therefore an efficient temporal reasoning algorithm is vital in battle MAS model. The core of temporal reasoning is path consistency algorithm, an efficient path consistency algorithm is necessary. In this paper we used the Interval Matrix Calculus (IMC) method to represent the temporal relation, and optimized the path consistency algorithm by improving the efficiency of propagation of temporal relation based on the Allen's path consistency algorithm.

  12. A numerical simulation of nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packet in three-dimension compressible atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Shaoping(吴少平); YI; Fan(易帆)


    By using FICE scheme, a numerical simulation of nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packet in three-dimension compressible atmosphere is presented. The whole nonlinear propagation process of the gravity wave packet is shown; the basic characteristics of nonlinear propagation and the influence of the ambient winds on the propagation are analyzed. The results show that FICE scheme can be extended in three-dimension by which the calculation is steady and kept for a long time; the increase of wave amplitude is faster than the exponential increase according to the linear gravity theory; nonlinear propagation makes the horizontal perturbation velocity increase greatly which can lead to enhancement of the local ambient winds; the propagation path and the propagation velocity of energy are different from the results expected by the linear gravity waves theory, the nonlinearity causes the change in propagation characteristics of gravity wave; the ambient winds alter the propagation path and group velocity of gravity wave.

  13. [Optimally control urban railway noise by sound propagation path]. (United States)

    Di, Guo-qing; Li, Zheng-guang; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Bang-jun


    In order to control railway noise pollution in urban areas, the residential district located near the Zhegan railway in Hangzhou urban was taken for example, and some controlling measures were proposed based on the investigation in railway noise impact as well as the planning of the district, the environmental scene and the project devises. The measures included setting man-made soil slopes, noise barriers and virescence. Combining some of them could be a typical noise reduction scheme. The professional software Cadna/A was used to predict the noise reduction results of every scheme. Results show that the maximal difference of noise reduction is 19.4 dB and the noise reduction effect of the second scheme is best. However, if only railway noise influence is considered, the first scheme is best. The research results can provide reference for residential districts planning and noise control near the railway in urban areas.

  14. Laser Propagation Research. Volume I. Slant Path Transmission Measurements. (United States)


    data set is much longer, due both to its size and to the fact that the operation is done in double precision . Rather than having the capability to...found that the values could be converted to two word real numbers 7 in thc ewlet-Packar& format without loss of precision . The previouslv used tape read...A Carson Astronomical Instruments 6-inch heliostat is available for solar tracking. How- ever, this device required minor modification for proper

  15. Head-Centric Body-Channel Propagation Paths Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne


    Wearable devices are experiencing a strong momentum. This leads to an ever increasing demand to ensure a stable link between the different nodes or sensor placed around the human body. In this sense, Body-Coupled Communication (BCC) has a high potential to support the development of Wireless Body...

  16. Head-Centric Body-Channel Propagation Paths Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne


    Wearable devices are experiencing a strong momentum. This leads to an ever increasing demand to ensure a stable link between the different nodes or sensor placed around the human body. In this sense, Body-Coupled Communication (BCC) has a high potential to support the development of Wireless Body...

  17. High time resolution observations of HF cross-modulation within the D region ionosphere (United States)

    Langston, J.; Moore, R. C.


    High-frequency cross-modulation is employed to probe the D region ionosphere during HF heating experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory. We have adapted Fejer's well-known cross-modulation probing method to determine the extent of ionospheric conductivity modification in the D region ionosphere with high (5 μsec) time resolution. We demonstrate that the method can be used to analyze D region conductivity changes produced by HF heating both during the initial stages of heating and under steady state conditions. The sequence of CW probe pulses used allow the separation of cross-modulation effects that occur as the probe pulse propagates upward and downward through the heated region. We discuss how this probing technique can be applied to benefit ELF/VLF wave generation experiments and ionospheric irregularities experiments at higher altitudes. We demonstrate that large phase changes equivalent to Doppler shift velocities >60 km/s can be imposed on HF waves propagating through the heated D region ionosphere.

  18. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter


    Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.

  19. Lunar Surface Propagation Modeling and Effects on Communications (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.


    This paper analyzes the lunar terrain effects on the signal propagation of the planned NASA lunar wireless communication and sensor systems. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate that the terrain geometry, antenna location, and lunar surface material are important factors determining the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless communication systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, operating frequency, and surface material. The analysis results from this paper are important for the lunar communication link margin analysis in determining the limits on the reliable communication range and radio frequency coverage performance at planned lunar base worksites. Key Words lunar, multipath, path loss, propagation, wireless.

  20. Research on Multi-Layer Distributed HF Radio Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dai; Chun-Jiang Wang; Quan Yu


    High frequency (HF) transmission is an important communication techniques. However, conventional point-to-point transmission can be easily destroyed, which limits its utilization in practice. HF networking communication has the capability against demolishment. The network structure is one of the key factors for HF networking communication. In this paper, a novel analysis method of the network connectedness based on the eigenvalue is derived, and a multi-layer distributed HF radio network structure is proposed. Both the theore tical analysis and the computer simulation results verify that the application of the proposed network structure in the HF radio communication can improve the anti demolishment ability of the HF network efficiently.

  1. Side transmission of radio waves on the Dushanbe-Leninabad radio-meteor path (Preliminary results) (United States)

    Karpov, A. V.; Kodirov, A.; Mirdzhamolov, K.; Rubtsov, L. N.

    Radio-wave propagation on the Dushanbe-Leninabad meteor path was studied experimentally in 1982, indicating that this path is suitable for ultrashort-wave communications. The selection of the optimal orientation of the antenna systems with respect to the path is examined, and it is shown that a maximum volume of data can be transmitted when the antennas are inclined at an angle of 70 deg from the path axis.

  2. Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States (United States)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, L.; Pogorzalek, S.; Eder, P.; Fischer, M.; Goetz, J.; Xie, E.; Wulschner, F.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Di Candia, R.; Las Heras, U.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.


    Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power.

  3. Deterministic simulation of UWB indoor propagation channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yang; Zhang Naitong; Zhang Qinyu; Zhang Zhongzhao


    A site-specific model of UWB pulse propagation in indoor environment is addressed. The simulation utilizes the principles of geometrical optics (GO) for direct and reflected paths' tracing and the time domain technique for describing the transient electromagnetic field reflected from wall, floor, ceiling, and objects. The polarization of the received waveform is determined by taking into account the radiation pattern of the transmitting and receiving antennas, as well as the polarization changes owing to every reflection. The model provides more intrinsical interpretations for UWB pulse propagation in realistic indoor environment.

  4. Ionization for Hf-and W-L-shell by electron impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dai-Lun; Luo Xiao-Bing; Fu Yu-Chuan; He Fu-Qing; Long Xian-Guan; Peng Xiu-Feng; Luo Zheng-Ming


    Electron-induced Hf-, W-L-shell partial, total production cross sections, mean ionization cross sections and HfLa-shell ionization cross sections (at two energies) have been measured as functions of electron energies (from near threshold to 36keV). The influence of electrons reflected from the backing of the thin targets on measured results was corrected using a model to relate to the electron transport process. The mean paths of electron multi-scattered in the target itself (including forward and backward scattering) were calculated by means of Monte Carlo program (EGS4)and they were used to correct measured results. A comparison with both theoretical predictions was given.

  5. Formation and disruption of conductive filaments in a HfO2/TiN structure (United States)

    Brivio, S.; Tallarida, G.; Cianci, E.; Spiga, S.


    The process of the formation and disruption of nanometric conductive filaments in a HfO2/TiN structure is investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy. The preforming state evidences nonhomogeneous conduction at high fields through conductive paths, which are associated with pre-existing defects and develop into conductive filaments with a forming procedure. The disruption of the same filaments is demonstrated as well, according to a bipolar operation. In addition, the conductive tip of the microscopy is exploited to perform electrical operations on single conductive spots, which evidences that neighboring conductive filaments are not electrically independent. We propose a picture that describes the evolution of the shape of the conductive filaments in the processes of their formation and disruption, which involves the development of conductive branches from a common root; this root resides in the pre-existing defects that lay at the HfO2/TiN interface.

  6. New Adaptive Data Transmission Scheme Over HF Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil H. Ahmad


    Full Text Available Acceptable Bit Error rate can be maintained by adapting some of the design parameters such as modulation, symbol rate, constellation size, and transmit power according to the channel state.An estimate of HF propagation effects can be used to design an adaptive data transmission system over HF link. The proposed system combines the well known Automatic Link Establishment (ALE together with variable rate transmission system. The standard ALE is modified to suite the required goal of selecting the best carrier frequency (channel for a given transmission. This is based on measuring SINAD (Signal plus Noise plus Distortion to Noise plus Distortion, RSL (Received Signal Level, multipath phase distortion and BER (Bit Error Rate for each channel in the frequency list. Channel condition evaluation is done by two arrangements. In the first an FFT analysis is used where a pilot signal is transmitted over the channel, while the data itself is used in the second arrangement. Passive channel assessment is used to avoid bad channels hence limiting the frequency pool size to be used in the point to point communication and the time required for scanning and linking. An exchange of channel information between the transmitting and receiving stations is considered to select the modulation scheme for transmission. Mainly MPSK and MFSK are considered with different levels giving different data rate according to the channel condition. The results of the computer simulation have shown that when transmitting at a fixed channel symbol rate of 1200 symbol/sec, the information rate ranges from 2400 bps using 4FSK up to 3600 bps using 8PSK for SNR ranges from 11dB up to 26dB.

  7. Experimental Research of HF Passive Radar Based on DRM Digital AM Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Xian-rong


    Full Text Available This paper gives the experimental research of HF Passive Bistatic Radar (HFPBR based on Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM digital AM broadcasting that have been first carried out in China, using the newly-developed all-digital active/passive integrated HF surface wave radar system. The principle, key techniques, experimental equipment, and preliminary results are introduced about this new radar system. Based on analysis of the measurement data, experimental results under different scenarios including surface-wave, sky-wave, and hybrid sky-surface propagation modes are presented, which have proved, for the first time worldwide, the technical feasibility of using DRM broadcasting signal for over-the-horizon detection by field experiment and formed the theoretical and experimental basis for the further development of HFPBR.

  8. Systematic Comparison of HF CMOS Transconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram


    Transconductors are commonly used as active elements in high-frequency (HF) filters, amplifiers, mixers, and oscillators. This paper reviews transconductor design by focusing on the V-I kernel that determines the key transconductor properties. Based on bandwidth considerations, simple V-I kernels wi

  9. Electron impact on vibrationally cold {{HF}}^{+} (United States)

    Cristian Stroe, Marius; Fifirig, Magda


    The dissociative recombination and vibrational excitation processes induced by electron impact on vibrationally cold {{HF}}+ are investigated in the framework of the multichannel quantum defect theory for electron energies below 1 eV. The thermal rate coefficients for the electron temperature range from 10 to 5000 K are reported.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Kristine; Connelly, James Norman; Bizzarro, Martin


    After considerable controversy regarding the (176)Lu decay constant (lambda(176)Lu), there is now widespread agreement that (1.867 +/- 0.008) x 10(-11) yr(-1) as confirmed by various terrestrial objects and a 4557 Myr meteorite is correct. This leaves the (176)Hf excesses that are correlated with...

  11. Path Integrals and Hamiltonians (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.


    1. Synopsis; Part I. Fundamental Principles: 2. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics; 3. Operators; 4. The Feynman path integral; 5. Hamiltonian mechanics; 6. Path integral quantization; Part II. Stochastic Processes: 7. Stochastic systems; Part III. Discrete Degrees of Freedom: 8. Ising model; 9. Ising model: magnetic field; 10. Fermions; Part IV. Quadratic Path Integrals: 11. Simple harmonic oscillators; 12. Gaussian path integrals; Part V. Action with Acceleration: 13. Acceleration Lagrangian; 14. Pseudo-Hermitian Euclidean Hamiltonian; 15. Non-Hermitian Hamiltonian: Jordan blocks; 16. The quartic potential: instantons; 17. Compact degrees of freedom; Index.

  12. Path Problems in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Baras, John


    The algebraic path problem is a generalization of the shortest path problem in graphs. Various instances of this abstract problem have appeared in the literature, and similar solutions have been independently discovered and rediscovered. The repeated appearance of a problem is evidence of its relevance. This book aims to help current and future researchers add this powerful tool to their arsenal, so that they can easily identify and use it in their own work. Path problems in networks can be conceptually divided into two parts: A distillation of the extensive theory behind the algebraic path pr

  13. Viscothermal wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, Marten Jozef Johannes


    In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects a

  14. Multi-Dimensional Path Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    We present the path-relationship model that supports multi-dimensional data modeling and querying. A path-relationship database is composed of sets of paths and sets of relationships. A path is a sequence of related elements (atoms, paths, and sets of paths). A relationship is a binary path...... to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments...

  15. First results of HF radio science with e-POP RRI and SuperDARN (United States)

    Perry, G. W.; James, H. G.; Gillies, R. G.; Howarth, A.; Hussey, G. C.; McWilliams, K. A.; White, A.; Yau, A. W.


    The first results from coordinated experiments between the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) and the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) Saskatoon high frequency (HF) radar are examined for a conjunction on 8 July 2014. e-POP, a payload on the CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer spacecraft, was located at 380 km altitude, approximately 10° north (geographic) and 2° west of Saskatoon, Canada, moving in a southeast direction. We use a matched filter technique to extract individual received SuperDARN pulses from the RRI data stream. The pulses show characteristics of propagation through the F region ionosphere: they are heavily dispersed, they show significant pulse-to-pulse variability in magnitude, and there is clear evidence that they experienced multipath propagation. We calculate the polarization parameters of the pulses and use them to identify magnetoionic phenomena such as mode-splitting and single-mode fading. These first RRI results provide compelling insight into HF radio wave propagation and show RRI's potential to significantly advance radio science.

  16. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.


    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  17. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  18. Assimilative model for ionospheric dynamics employing delay, Doppler, and direction of arrival measurements from multiple HF channels (United States)

    Fridman, Sergey V.; Nickisch, L. J.; Hausman, Mark; Zunich, George


    We describe the development of new HF data assimilation capabilities for our ionospheric inversion algorithm called GPSII (GPS Ionospheric Inversion). Previously existing capabilities of this algorithm included assimilation of GPS total electron content data as well as assimilation of backscatter ionograms. In the present effort we concentrated on developing assimilation tools for data related to HF propagation channels. Measurements of propagation delay, angle of arrival, and the ionosphere-induced Doppler from any number of known propagation links can now be utilized by GPSII. The resulting ionospheric model is consistent with all assimilated measurements. This means that ray tracing simulations of the assimilated propagation links are guaranteed to be in agreement with measured data within the errors of measurement. The key theoretical element for assimilating HF data is the raypath response operator (RPRO) which describes response of raypath parameters to infinitesimal variations of electron density in the ionosphere. We construct the RPRO out of the fundamental solution of linearized ray tracing equations for a dynamic magnetoactive plasma. We demonstrate performance and internal consistency of the algorithm using propagation delay data from multiple oblique ionograms (courtesy of Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia) as well as with time series of near-vertical incidence sky wave data (courtesy of the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity HFGeo Program Government team). In all cases GPSII produces electron density distributions which are smooth in space and in time. We simulate the assimilated propagation links by performing ray tracing through GPSII-produced ionosphere and observe that simulated data are indeed in agreement with assimilated measurements.

  19. Eu-doped ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded low-loss glass-ceramic waveguides. (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; Bhaktha B N, Shivakiran


    We report on the sol-gel fabrication, using a dip-coating technique, of low-loss Eu-doped 70SiO2 -[Formula: see text] HfO2-xZnO (x = 2, 5, 7 and 10 mol%) ternary glass-ceramic planar waveguides. Transmission electron microscopy and grazing incident x-ray diffraction experiments confirm the controlled growth of hybrid nanocrystals with an average size of 3 nm-25 nm, composed of ZnO encapsulated by a thin layer of nanocrystalline HfO2, with an increase of ZnO concentration from x = 2 mol% to 10 mol%  in the SiO2-HfO2 composite matrix. The effect of crystallization on the local environment of Eu ions, doped in the ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded glass-ceramic matrix, is studied using photoluminescence spectra, wherein an intense mixed-valence state (divalent as well as trivalent) emission of Eu ions is observed. The existence of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) in the SiO2-HfO2-ZnO ternary matrix is confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Importantly, the Eu[Formula: see text]-doped ternary waveguides exhibit low propagation losses (0.3 ± 0.2 dB cm(-1) at 632.8 nm) and optical transparency in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which makes ZnO-HfO2 nanocrystal-embedded SiO2-HfO2-ZnO waveguides a viable candidate for the development of on-chip, active, integrated optical devices.

  20. Free path groupoid grading on Leavitt path algebras


    Goncalves, Daniel; Yoneda, Gabriela


    In this work we realize Leavitt path algebras as partial skew groupoid rings. This yields a free path groupoid grading on Leavitt path algebras. Using this grading we characterize free path groupoid graded isomorphisms of Leavitt path algebras that preserves generators.

  1. Electron dominated thermoelectric response in MNiSn (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) half-Heusler alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala


    We solve the transport equations of the electrons and phonons to understand the thermoelectric behaviour of the technologically important half-Heusler alloys MNiSn (M: Ti, Zr, Hf). Doping is simulated within the rigid band approximation. We clarify the origin of the electron dominated thermoelectric response and determine the carrier concentrations with maximal figures of merit. The phonon mean free path is studied to calculate the grain size below which grain refinement methods can enforce ballistic heat conduction to enhance the figure of merit. © The Owner Societies 2016.

  2. Large scale propagation intermittency in the atmosphere (United States)

    Mehrabi, Ali


    Long-term (several minutes to hours) amplitude variations observed in outdoor sound propagation experiments at Disneyland, California, in February 1998 are explained in terms of a time varying index of refraction. The experimentally propagated acoustic signals were received and recorded at several locations ranging from 300 meters to 2,800 meters. Meteorological data was taken as a function of altitude simultaneously with the received signal levels. There were many barriers along the path of acoustic propagation that affected the received signal levels, especially at short ranges. In a downward refraction situation, there could be a random change of amplitude in the predicted signals. A computer model based on the Fast Field Program (FFP) was used to compute the signal loss at the different receiving locations and to verify that the variations in the received signal levels can be predicted numerically. The calculations agree with experimental data with the same trend variations in average amplitude.

  3. Perfect Derived Propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Christian


    When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear equations both with and without coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance. This paper shows how to use variable views, previously introduced for an implementation architecture, to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and channeling are developed for several variable domains. We evaluate the massive impact of derived propagators. Without derived propagators, Gecode would require 140000 rather than 40000 ...

  4. Room Acoustical Simulation Algorithm Based on the Free Path Distribution (United States)



    A new algorithm is presented which provides estimates of impulse responses in rooms. It is applicable to arbitrary shaped rooms, thus including non-diffuse spaces like workrooms or offices. In the latter cases, for instance, sound propagation curves are of interest to be applied in noise control. In the case of concert halls and opera houses, the method enables very fast predictions of room acoustical criteria like reverberation time, strength or clarity. The method is based on a low-resolved ray tracing and recording of the free paths. Estimates of impulse responses are derived from evaluation of the free path distribution and of the free path transition probabilities.

  5. REMPI Spectroscopy of HfF

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, Huanqian; Yahn, Tyler S; Looser, Herbert; Field, Robert W; Cornell, Eric A


    The spectrum of electronic states at 30000--33000 cm$^{-1}$ in hafnium fluoride has been studied using (1+1) resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and (1+1$'$) REMPI. Six $\\Omega' = 3/2$ and ten $\\Pi_{1/2}$ vibronic bands have been characterized. We report the molecular constants for these bands and estimate the electronic energies of the excited states using a correction derived from the observed isotope shifts. When either of two closely spaced $\\Pi_{1/2}$ electronic states is used as an intermediate state to access autoionizing Rydberg levels, qualitatively distinct autoionization spectra are observed. The intermediate state-specificity of the autoionization spectra bodes well for the possibility of using a selected $\\Pi_{1/2}$ state as an intermediate state to create ionic HfF$^+$ in various selected quantum states, an important requirement for our electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) search in HfF$^+$.

  6. Path Creation, Path Dependence and Breaking Away from the Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jens Erik; Hedman, Jonas; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina


    The explanation of how and why firms succeed or fail is a recurrent research challenge. This is particularly important in the context of technological innovations. We focus on the role of historical events and decisions in explaining such success and failure. Using a case study of Nokia, we develop...... the importance of intermediate outcomes, which in the case of Nokia was the importance of software ecosystems and adaptable mobile devices. Furthermore, we show how the layers of path dependence mutually reinforce each other and become stronger....

  7. Digitally Driven Antenna for HF Transmission (United States)


    the 1-MHz carrier signal. This signal is then fed into the base terminals of an NPN/ PNP transistor pair arranged in a push–pull configura- tion. A dual...negative voltage connected to the collector terminal of the PNP transistor . Since it was not possible to explicitly simulate the radia- tion of the time...complementary pair of switching transistors is driven with a pulsewidth modulated HF signal, eliminating the requirement for a frequency-dependent

  8. RFID UHF i HF w bibliotekach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gładysz Bartłomiej


    Full Text Available The potential of the innovative Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology to be applied for support, acceleration and automation of the circulation process of library collection is presented. Technology basics, and hardware and software components are described. Two different radio standards used in libraries are compared. The goal is to present the potential of RFID technology for libraries, to highlight the differences and to build a basis for further consideration of UHF and HF alternatives.

  9. Zero-Slack, Noncritical Paths (United States)

    Simons, Jacob V., Jr.


    The critical path method/program evaluation and review technique method of project scheduling is based on the importance of managing a project's critical path(s). Although a critical path is the longest path through a network, its location in large projects is facilitated by the computation of activity slack. However, logical fallacies in…

  10. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya


    Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.

  11. Teleconnection Paths via Climate Network Direct Link Detection (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Gozolchiani, Avi; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo


    Teleconnections describe remote connections (typically thousands of kilometers) of the climate system. These are of great importance in climate dynamics as they reflect the transportation of energy and climate change on global scales (like the El Niño phenomenon). Yet, the path of influence propagation between such remote regions, and weighting associated with different paths, are only partially known. Here we propose a systematic climate network approach to find and quantify the optimal paths between remotely distant interacting locations. Specifically, we separate the correlations between two grid points into direct and indirect components, where the optimal path is found based on a minimal total cost function of the direct links. We demonstrate our method using near surface air temperature reanalysis data, on identifying cross-latitude teleconnections and their corresponding optimal paths. The proposed method may be used to quantify and improve our understanding regarding the emergence of climate patterns on global scales.

  12. Large ionospheric disturbances produced by the HAARP HF facility (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Briczinski, Stanley J.; McCarrick, Mike; Michell, Robert G.


    The enormous transmitter power, fully programmable antenna array, and agile frequency generation of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska have allowed the production of unprecedented disturbances in the ionosphere. Using both pencil beams and conical (or twisted) beam transmissions, artificial ionization clouds have been generated near the second, third, fourth, and sixth harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. The conical beam has been used to sustain these clouds for up to 5 h as opposed to less than 30 min durations produced using pencil beams. The largest density plasma clouds have been produced at the highest harmonic transmissions. Satellite radio transmissions at 253 MHz from the National Research Laboratory TACSat4 communications experiment have been severely disturbed by propagating through artificial plasma regions. The scintillation levels for UHF waves passing through artificial ionization clouds from HAARP are typically 16 dB. This is much larger than previously reported scintillations at other HF facilities which have been limited to 3 dB or less. The goals of future HAARP experiments should be to build on these discoveries to sustain plasma densities larger than that of the background ionosphere for use as ionospheric reflectors of radio signals.

  13. Propagation considerations in the American Mobile Satellite system design (United States)

    Kittiver, Charles; Sigler, Charles E., Jr.


    An overview of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) mobile satellite services (MSS) system with special emphasis given to the propagation issues that were considered in the design is presented. The aspects of the voice codec design that effect system performance in a shadowed environment are discussed. The strategies for overcoming Ku-Band rain fades in the uplink and downlink paths of the gateway station are presented. A land mobile propagation study that has both measurement and simulation activities is described.

  14. Approximating ambient D-region electron densities using dual-beam HF heating experiments at the high-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) (United States)

    Agrawal, Divya

    Dual-beam ELF/VLF wave generation experiments performed at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are critically compared with the predictions of a newly developed ionospheric high frequency (HF) heating model that accounts for the simultaneous propagation and absorption of multiple HF beams. The dual-beam HF heating experiments presented herein consist of two HF beams transmitting simultaneously: one amplitude modulated (AM) HF beam modulates the conductivity of the lower ionosphere in the extremely low frequency (ELF, 30 Hz to 3 kHz) and/or very low frequency (VLF, 3 kHz to 30 kHz) band while a second HF beam broadcasts a continuous waveform (CW) signal, modifying the efficiency of ELF/VLF conductivity modulation and thereby the efficiency of ELF/VLF wave generation. Ground-based experimental observations are used together with the predictions of the theoretical model to identify the property of the received ELF/VLF wave that is most sensitive to the effects of multi-beam HF heating, and that property is determined to be the ELF/VLF signal magnitude. The dependence of the generated ELF/VLF wave magnitude on several HF transmission parameters (HF power, HF frequency, and modulation waveform) is then experimentally measured and analyzed within the context of the multi-beam HF heating model. For all cases studied, the received ELF/VLF wave magnitude as a function of transmission parameter is analyzed to identify the dependence on the ambient D-region electron density (Ne) and/or electron temperature ( Te), in turn identifying the HF transmission parameters that provide significant independent information regarding the ambient conditions of the D-region ionosphere. A theoretical analysis is performed to determine the conditions under which the effects of Ne and Te can be decoupled, and the results of this analysis are applied to identify an electron density profile that can reproduce the unusually high level of ELF

  15. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.


    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  16. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A


    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  17. Stereological characterization of crack path transitions in ceramic matrix composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parag Bhargava; B R Patterson


    All ceramic composites involve a mismatch in physical properties the extent of which differs from one composite to another. Mismatch in thermal expansion ( ) and elastic modulus (E) is known to produce stresses that influence the path of a propagating crack. Thus, the relative effect of thermal and elastic mismatch on the crack path is expected to change with change in stress intensity. We propose that the crack path in ceramic composites should undergo a transition with the crack being strongly influenced by the thermal mismatch stresses at low stress intensity and elastic mismatch stresses at high stress intensities. Thus, a material in use under different applications each with its own loading conditions is expected to exhibit different crack propagation tendencies which may be reflected in the – characteristics of the composite material. In the present work several model composites with different combinations of thermal and elastic mismatch have been considered. Cracks propagating at different sub-critical stress intensities (velocities) were generated by a novel indentation technique. Each indentation was performed at a constant displacement rate and a peak load. A range of displacement rates were used to produce cracks propagating at different velocities. The indentations were made using a Vickers indentor fitted in a universal mechanical testing machine. The crack paths in composites were quantified by stereological technique and the proposed theory was verified.

  18. On Duru-Kleinert Path Integral In Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarizadeh, M A; Rastegar, A R


    We show that the Duru-Kleinert fixed energy amplitude leads to the path integral for the propagation amplitude in the closed FRW quantum cosmology with scale factor as one degree of freedom. Then, using the Duru-Kleinert equivalence of corresponding actions, we calculate the tunneling rate, with exact prefactor, through the dilute-instanton approximation to first order in

  19. Path Optimization Using APSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Goyal


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the malicious node detection and path optimization problem for wireless sensor networks. Malicious node detection in neighborhood is a needed because that node may cause incorrect decisions or energy depletion. In this paper APSO (combination of Artificial bee colony and particular swarm optimization is used to choose an optimized path. Through this improved version we will overcome the disadvantage of local optimal which comes when we use PSO approach.

  20. Multipath Separation-Direction of Arrival (MS-DOA) with Genetic Search Algorithm for HF channels (United States)

    Arikan, Feza; Koroglu, Ozan; Fidan, Serdar; Arikan, Orhan; Guldogan, Mehmet B.


    Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) defines the estimation of arrival angles of an electromagnetic wave impinging on a set of sensors. For dispersive and time-varying HF channels, where the propagating wave also suffers from the multipath phenomena, estimation of DOA is a very challenging problem. Multipath Separation-Direction of Arrival (MS-DOA), that is developed to estimate both the arrival angles in elevation and azimuth and the incoming signals at the output of the reference antenna with very high accuracy, proves itself as a strong alternative in DOA estimation for HF channels. In MS-DOA, a linear system of equations is formed using the coefficients of the basis vector for the array output vector, the incoming signal vector and the array manifold. The angles of arrival in elevation and azimuth are obtained as the maximizers of the sum of the magnitude squares of the projection of the signal coefficients on the column space of the array manifold. In this study, alternative Genetic Search Algorithms (GA) for the maximizers of the projection sum are investigated using simulated and experimental ionospheric channel data. It is observed that GA combined with MS-DOA is a powerful alternative in online DOA estimation and can be further developed according to the channel characteristics of a specific HF link.

  1. Paths to nursing leadership. (United States)

    Bondas, Terese


    The aim was to explore why nurses enter nursing leadership and apply for a management position in health care. The study is part of a research programme in nursing leadership and evidence-based care. Nursing has not invested enough in the development of nursing leadership for the development of patient care. There is scarce research on nurses' motives and reasons for committing themselves to a career in nursing leadership. A strategic sample of 68 Finnish nurse leaders completed a semistructured questionnaire. Analytic induction was applied in an attempt to generate a theory. A theory, Paths to Nursing Leadership, is proposed for further research. Four different paths were found according to variations between the nurse leaders' education, primary commitment and situational factors. They are called the Path of Ideals, the Path of Chance, the Career Path and the Temporary Path. Situational factors and role models of good but also bad nursing leadership besides motivational and educational factors have played a significant role when Finnish nurses have entered nursing leadership. The educational requirements for nurse leaders and recruitment to nursing management positions need serious attention in order to develop a competent nursing leadership.

  2. The Wheeler Propagator


    Bollini, C. G.; Rocca, M. C.


    We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators. We show with some examples tha...

  3. Geospace ionosphere research with a MF/HF radio instrument on a cubesat (United States)

    Kallio, E. J.; Aikio, A. T.; Alho, M.; Fontell, M.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Kauristie, K.; Kestilä, A.; Koskimaa, P.; Makela, J. S.; Mäkelä, M.; Turunen, E.; Vanhamäki, H.


    Modern technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and its ionosphere, using spacecraft and and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We present computational simulation results and measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in 2017 ( We have modelled the propagation of the radio waves, both ground generated man-made waves and space formed space weather related waves, through the 3D

  4. Quantum cosmology based on discrete Feynman paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Geoffrey F.


    Although the rules for interpreting local quantum theory imply discretization of process, Lorentz covariance is usually regarded as precluding time quantization. Nevertheless a time-discretized quantum representation of redshifting spatially-homogeneous universe may be based on discrete-step Feynman paths carrying causal Lorentz-invariant action--paths that not only propagate the wave function but provide a phenomenologically-promising elementary-particle Hilbert-space basis. In a model under development, local path steps are at Planck scale while, at a much larger ''wave-function scale'', global steps separate successive wave-functions. Wave-function spacetime is but a tiny fraction of path spacetime. Electromagnetic and gravitational actions are ''at a distance'' in Wheeler-Feynman sense while strong (color) and weak (isospin) actions, as well as action of particle motion, are ''local'' in a sense paralleling the action of local field theory. ''Nonmaterial'' path segments and ''trivial events'' collaborate to define energy and gravity. Photons coupled to conserved electric charge enjoy privileged model status among elementary fermions and vector bosons. Although real path parameters provide no immediate meaning for ''measurement'', the phase of the complex wave function allows significance for ''information'' accumulated through ''gentle'' electromagnetic events involving charged matter and ''soft'' photons. Through its soft-photon content the wave function is an ''information reservoir''.

  5. Extracting the invariant model from the feedback paths of digital hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Guilin; Gran, Fredrik; Jacobsen, Finn;


    Feedback whistling is a severe problem with hearing aids. A typical acoustical feedback path represents a wave propagation path from the receiver to the microphone and includes many complicated effects among which some are invariant or nearly invariant for all users and in all acoustical environm...

  6. The Propagation Characteristics of the Electron Beam with Initial Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun(张军); Zhong Huihuang(钟辉煌)


    The propagation characteristics of the beam under various initial conditions are investigated by means of PIC method. The influences of density modulation and velocity modulation on the propagation characteristics are discussed and compared. The results reveal that by changing the amplitude of the two kinds of modulations and the phase difference between them, the distribution property of the first harmonic of the current density can be adapted along the beam propagating path, which is a feasible method to enhance the beam-wave interaction efficiency in Cerenkov HPM devices.

  7. The effect of varying path properties in path steering tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Liere, R. van


    Path steering is a primitive 3D interaction task that requires the user to navigate through a path of a given length and width. In a previous paper, we have conducted controlled experiments in which users operated a pen input device to steer a cursor through a 3D path subject to fixed path propertie

  8. Path Integral Quantization of Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, Rodrigo; Zambrano, German Enrique Ramos


    It is shown in this paper a complete covariant quantization of Generalized Electrodynamics by path integral approach. To this goal we first studied the hamiltonian structure of system following Dirac's methodology, and then we follow the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to attain the amplitude transition. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) on correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation on one-loop approximation of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  9. Lu-Hf geochronology and trace element distribution in garnet: implications for uplift and exhumation of ultra-high pressure granulites in the Sudetes, SW Poland.


    Anczkiewicz, R.; Szczepanski, J.; Mazur, S.; Storey, C.; Crowley, Quentin; Villa, IM; Thirlwall, M; Jeffries, TE


    Combining Lu–Hf garnet geochronology with in situ trace element analyses in garnet allowed us to gain new insight into the metamorphic evolution of UHP–UHT rocks in the Stary Gierałtów region, in the Polish Sudetes. Prograde garnet growth recorded by Rayleigh-type heavy REE (HREE) zoning in the felsic granulites indicates that the obtained 386.6±4.9 Ma Lu–Hf age represents the time of garnet crystallization on a prograde UHP metamorphic path. The surrounding rocks were metamorphosed at the sa...

  10. Simulation and experiments of ultrasonic propagation in nickel-based alloy weldments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to obtain good understanding of complicated beam propagation behaviors in nickel-based alloy weldments, ray tracing simulation is established to predict the ultrasonic beam path in a special welded structure of dissimilar steels. Also experimental examinations are carried out to measure the ultrasonic beam paths in the weldment. Then comparisons of the modeling predictions with experimental results are presented to reveal the complicated beam propagation behaviors.

  11. Improvements on Signal Processing for HF Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongtan; SHEN Yiying


    In this paper improvements on signalprocessing are achieved to enhance the performancesof H-F radar system, being unobtainable by the con-ventional signal processing. Using the improved sig-nal processing both high range resolution and longcoherent integration time may be obtained for goodbenefit to the target resolution and weak signal de-tection. Modification to the unmatched correspon-dence between range delay samples and range resolu-tion ceils saves an additional accumulation loss in therange processing. Finally, comparisons between theimproved and the conventional signal processing aregiven by numerical simulation.

  12. Microwave Propagation Through Cultural Vegetation Canopies (United States)

    Tavakoli, Ahad

    The need to understand the interaction of microwaves with vegetation canopies has markedly increased in recent years. This is due to advances made in remote sensing science, microwave technology, and signal processing circuits. One class of the earth's vegetation cover is man-made canopies, such as agricultural fields, orchards, and artificial forests. Contrary to natural vegetation terrain, location, spacing, and density of plants in a man-made vegetation canopy are deterministic quantities. As a result, the semi-deterministic nature of cultural vegetation canopies violate the random assumption of the radiative transfer theory and leads to experimented results that are in variance with model calculations. Hence, an alternative approach is needed to model the interaction of microwaves with such canopies. This thesis examines the propagation behavior through a canopy of corn plants. The corn canopy was selected as a representative of cultural vegetation canopies that are planted in parallel rows with an approximately fixed spacing between adjacent plants. Several experimental measurements were conducted to determine the transmission properties of a corn canopy in the 1-10 GHz range. The measurements which included horizontal propagation through the canopy as well as propagation at oblique incidence, were performed for defoliated canopies and for canopies with leaves. Through experimental observations and model development, the propagation behavior was found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength and the path length. At a wavelength in the neighborhood of 20 cm, for example, it was found that scattering by the stalks was coherent in nature for waves propagating horizontally through the canopy, which necessitated the development of a coherent-field model that uses Bragg scattering to account for the observed interference pattern in the transmitted beam. As the wavelength is made shorter, the semi-random spacing between plants becomes significant relative to the

  13. Shallow-Water Propagation (United States)


    Shallow- Water Propagation William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, New York 12180-3590 phone: (518) 276...ocean_acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS Develop methods for propagation and coherence calculations in complex shallow- water environments, determine...intensity and coherence. APPROACH (A) Develop high accuracy PE techniques for applications to shallow- water sediments, accounting for

  14. Systematic Study on Triaxial Superdeformed Bands of Hf Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-Li; DING Bin-Gang


    Properties of the triaxial superdeformed (TSD) bands of Hf isotopes are investigated systematically within the supersymmetry scheme including many-body interactions and a perturbation possessing the SO(5) (or SU(5)) symmetry on the rotational symmetry. Quantitatively good results of the γ-ray energies, the dynamical moments of inertia,and the spin of the TSD bands in Hf isotopes are obtained. It shows that this approach is quite powerful in describing the properties of the triaxial superdeformation in Hf isotopes.

  15. Determining Energy Distributions of HF-Accelerated Electrons at HAARP (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0383 Determining energy distributions of HF-accelerated electrons at HAARP Christopher Fallen University of Alaska Fairbanks...2012 - 11/14/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Determining energy distributions of HF-accelerated electrons at HAARP 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0424...transmitted from the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) transmitter in Alaska. For a given fixed HF-plasma interaction altitude

  16. Physics of the Geospace Response to Powerful HF Radio Waves (United States)


    studies of the response of the Earth’s space plasma to high-power HF radio waves from the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ...of HF heating and explored to simulate artificial ducts. DMSP- HAARP experiments revealed that HF-created ion outflows and artificial density the topside ionosphere appeared faster than predicted by the models, pointing to kinetic (suprathermal) effects. CHAMP/GRACE- HAARP experiments

  17. Shortest Paths in Microseconds

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Rachit; Godfrey, P Brighten; Zhao, Ben Y


    Computing shortest paths is a fundamental primitive for several social network applications including socially-sensitive ranking, location-aware search, social auctions and social network privacy. Since these applications compute paths in response to a user query, the goal is to minimize latency while maintaining feasible memory requirements. We present ASAP, a system that achieves this goal by exploiting the structure of social networks. ASAP preprocesses a given network to compute and store a partial shortest path tree (PSPT) for each node. The PSPTs have the property that for any two nodes, each edge along the shortest path is with high probability contained in the PSPT of at least one of the nodes. We show that the structure of social networks enable the PSPT of each node to be an extremely small fraction of the entire network; hence, PSPTs can be stored efficiently and each shortest path can be computed extremely quickly. For a real network with 5 million nodes and 69 million edges, ASAP computes a short...

  18. Faster Replacement Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Virginia Vassilevska


    The replacement paths problem for directed graphs is to find for given nodes s and t and every edge e on the shortest path between them, the shortest path between s and t which avoids e. For unweighted directed graphs on n vertices, the best known algorithm runtime was \\tilde{O}(n^{2.5}) by Roditty and Zwick. For graphs with integer weights in {-M,...,M}, Weimann and Yuster recently showed that one can use fast matrix multiplication and solve the problem in O(Mn^{2.584}) time, a runtime which would be O(Mn^{2.33}) if the exponent \\omega of matrix multiplication is 2. We improve both of these algorithms. Our new algorithm also relies on fast matrix multiplication and runs in O(M n^{\\omega} polylog(n)) time if \\omega>2 and O(n^{2+\\eps}) for any \\eps>0 if \\omega=2. Our result shows that, at least for small integer weights, the replacement paths problem in directed graphs may be easier than the related all pairs shortest paths problem in directed graphs, as the current best runtime for the latter is \\Omega(n^{2.5...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Biyantoro


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMISAHAN Zr – Hf SECARA SINAMBUNG MENGGUNAKANMIXER SETTLER. Telah dilakukan pemisahanZr – Hf secara sinambung menggunakan pengaduk pengenap (mixer settler 16 stage. Larutan umpan adalah zirkon nitrat dengan kadar Zr = 30786 ppm dan Hf = 499 ppm. Ekstraktan dipakai adalah solven 60 % TBP dalam kerosen dan larutan scrubbingyang dipakai adalah asam nitrat 1 M. Umpan masuk pada stageke 5 dikontakkan secara berlawanan arah dengan solven masuk pada stage ke 16 dan larutan scrubbing masuk pada stage ke 1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memisahkan unsur Zr dan Hf dari hasil olah pasir zirkon menggunakan solven TBP dengan alat mixer settler16 stage. Analisis umpan dan hasil proses pemisahan untuk zirkonium (Zr dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat pendar sinar-X, sedangkananalisis unsur hafnium (Hf menggunakan Analisis Pengaktifan Neutron (APN. Parameter penelitian dilakukan dengan variasi keasaman asam nitrat dalam umpan dan variasi waktu pada berbagai laju pengadukan. Hasil penelitian pemisahan unsur Zr dengan Hf diperolehkondisi optimum pada keasaman umpan 4 N HNO3, keseimbangan dicapai setelah 3jam dan laju pengadukan 3300 rpm. Hasil ekstrak  unsur zirkon (Zr diperoleh kadar sebesar 28577 ppm dengan efisiensi 92,76 % serta kadar pengotor hafnium (Hf sebesar 95 ppm. Kata Kunci: pemisahan Zr, Hf, ekstraksi, mixer settler, alat pendar sinar-X, APN. ABSTRACT SEPARATION of Zr - Hf CONTINUOUSLY USE THE MIXER SETTLER. Separation of Zr - Hf continuously using mixer settler 16 stage has been done. The feed solution is zircon nitrate concentration of Zr = 30786 ppm  and Hf = 499 ppm. As the solvent used extractant 60 % TBP in 40 % kerosene. Nitric acid solution used srubbing 1 M. The feed entered into stage to 5 is contacted with solvents direction on the stage to 16 and the scrubbing solution enter the stage to 1. The purpose of this study is to separate Zr and Hf of the results from the process of zircon sand using solvent TBP using 16 stage

  20. Epitaxial Thin Films of Y doped HfO2 (United States)

    Serrao, Claudy; Khan, Asif; Ramamoorthy, Ramesh; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    Hafnium oxide (HfO2) is one of a few metal oxides that is thermodynamically stable on silicon and silicon oxide. There has been renewed interest in HfO2 due to the recent discovery of ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity in doped HfO2. Typical ferroelectrics - such as strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) and lead zirconium titanate (PZT) - contain elements that easily react with silicon and silicon oxide at elevated temperatures; therefore, such ferroelectrics are not suited for device applications. Meanwhile, ferroelectric HfO2 offers promise regarding integration with silicon. The stable phase of HfO2 at room temperature is monoclinic, but HfO2 can be stabilized in the tetragonal, orthorhombic or even cubic phase by suitable doping. We stabilized Y-doped HfO2 thin films using pulsed laser deposition. The strain state can be controlled using various perovskite substrates and controlled growth conditions. We report on Y-doped HfO2 domain structures from piezo-response force microscopy (PFM) and structural parameters via X-ray reciprocal space maps (RSM). We hope this work spurs further interest in strain-tuned ferroelectricity in doped HfO2.

  1. Microstructural characterization of as-cast hf-b alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Jânio Gigolotti


    Full Text Available An accurate knowledge of several metal-boron phase diagrams is important to evaluation of higher order systems such as metal-silicon-boron ternaries. The refinement and reassessment of phase diagram data is a continuous work, thus the reevaluation of metal-boron systems provides the possibility to confirm previous data from an investigation using higher purity materials and better analytical techniques. This work presents results of rigorous microstructural characterization of as-cast hafnium-boron alloys which are significant to assess the liquid composition associated to most of the invariant reactions of this system. Alloys were prepared by arc melting high purity hafnium (minimum 99.8% and boron (minimum 99.5% slices under argon atmosphere in water-cooled copper crucible with non consumable tungsten electrode and titanium getter. The phases were identified by scanning electron microscopy, using back-scattered electron image mode and X-ray diffraction. In general, a good agreement was found between our data and those from the currently accepted Hafnium-Boron phase diagram. The phases identified are αHfSS and B-RhomSS, the intermediate compounds HfB and HfB2 and the liquide L. The reactions are the eutectic L ⇔ αHfSS + HfB and L ⇔ HfB2 + B-Rhom, the peritectic L + HfB2 ⇔ HfB and the congruent formation of HfB2.

  2. A DFT study of temperature dependent dissociation mechanism of HF in HF(H2O)7 cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swatantra K Yadav; Hirdyesh Mishra; Ashwani K Tiwari


    We report a Density Functional Theoretical (DFT) study of dissociation of Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) in HF(H2O)7 cluster, using B3LYP functional and empirical exchange correlation functional M06-2X along with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set. Dissociation constant, KRP, of HF dissociation and pKa values of HF in cluster at various temperatures have been reported. It has been found that both KRP and pKa are highly dependent on temperature. The variation of pKa with temperature suggests that HF is strong acid at lower temperatures. Our study also reveals that HF is a stronger acid in water cluster than in bulk water. Further, the results obtained by DFT calculations have been compared with the earlier reported results obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. It is found that DFT results are qualitatively consistent with the results of MC simulation but quantitatively different.

  3. Smoothing of Piecewise Linear Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Waringo


    Full Text Available We present an anytime-capable fast deterministic greedy algorithm for smoothing piecewise linear paths consisting of connected linear segments. With this method, path points with only a small influence on path geometry (i.e. aligned or nearly aligned points are successively removed. Due to the removal of less important path points, the computational and memory requirements of the paths are reduced and traversing the path is accelerated. Our algorithm can be used in many different applications, e.g. sweeping, path finding, programming-by-demonstration in a virtual environment, or 6D CNC milling. The algorithm handles points with positional and orientational coordinates of arbitrary dimension.

  4. Northern Exposure 92: An Investigation of Transauroral HF Radio Skywave Propagation (United States)


    The Gerson overlays are a convenient representation of the "Feldstein ovals" (Feldstein and Starkov , 1967) over a map of the northern polar region in... Starkov . 1967. "Dynamics of auroral belt and polar geomagnetic disturbances," Planet. Space Sci., 15, 209-229. Heelis, R.A. 1982. "The polar


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Joshila Grace


    Full Text Available In the fast improving society, people depend on online purchase of goods than spending time physically. So there are lots of resources emerged for this online buying and selling of materials. Efficient and attractive web sites would be the best to sell the goods to people. To know whether a web site is reaching the mind of the customers or not, a high speed analysis is done periodically by the web developers. This works helps for the web site developers in knowing the weaker and stronger section of their web site. Parameters like frequency and utility are used for quantitative and qualitative analysis respectively. Addition to this down loads, book marks and the like/dislike of the particular web site is also considered. A new web path trace tree structure is implemented. A mathematical implementation is done to predict the efficient pattern used by the web site visitors.

  6. Hf-W chronometry of primitive achondrites (United States)

    Schulz, T.; Münker, C.; Mezger, K.; Palme, H.


    Metal segregation and silicate melting on asteroids are the most incisive differentiation events in the early evolution of planetary bodies. The timing of these events can be constrained using the short-lived 182Hf- 182W radionuclide system. Here we present new 182Hf- 182W data for major types of primitive achondrites including acapulcoites, winonaites and one lodranite. These meteorites are of particular interest because they show only limited evidence for partial melting of silicates and are therefore intermediate between chondrites and achondrites. For acapulcoites we derived a 182Hf- 182W age of Δ tCAI = 4.1 +1.2/ -1.1 Ma. A model age for winonaite separates calculated from the intercept of the isochron defines an age of Δ tCAI = 4.8 +3.1/ -2.6 Ma (assuming a bulk Hf/W ratio of ˜1.2). Both ages most likely define primary magmatic events on the respective parent bodies, such as melting of metal, although metal stayed in place and did not segregate to form a core. A later thermal event is responsible for resetting of the winonaite isochron, yielding an age of Δ tCAI = 14.3 +2.7/ -2.2 Ma, significantly younger than the model age. Assuming a co-genetic relationship between winonaites and silicates present in IAB iron meteorites (based on oxygen isotope composition) and including data by Schulz et al. (2009), a common parent body chronology can be established. Magmatic activity occurred between ˜1.5 and 5 Ma after CAIs. More than 5 Ma later, intensive thermal metamorphism has redistributed Hf-W. Average cooling rates calculated for the winonaite/IAB parent asteroid range between ˜35 and ˜4 K/Ma, most likely reflecting different burial depths. Cooling rates obtained for acapulcoites were ˜40 K/Ma to ˜720 K and then ˜3 K/Ma to ˜550 K. Accretion and subsequent magmatism on the acapulcoite parent body occurred slightly later if compared to most achondrite parent bodies (e.g., angrites, ureilites and eucrites), in this case supporting the concept of an inverse

  7. Euclidean shortest paths

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fajie


    This unique text/reference reviews algorithms for the exact or approximate solution of shortest-path problems, with a specific focus on a class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms. Discussing each concept and algorithm in depth, the book includes mathematical proofs for many of the given statements. Topics and features: provides theoretical and programming exercises at the end of each chapter; presents a thorough introduction to shortest paths in Euclidean geometry, and the class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms; discusses algorithms for calculating exact or approximate ESPs i

  8. Pressure induced novel compounds in the Hf-O system from first-principles calculations



    Using first-principles evolutionary simulations, we have systematically investigated phase stability in the Hf-O system at pressure up to 120 GPa. New compounds Hf5O2, Hf3O2, HfO and HfO3 are discovered to be thermodynamically stable at certain pressure ranges and a new stable high-pressure phase is found for Hf2O with space group Pnnm and anti-CaCl2-type structure. Both P62m-HfO and P4m2-Hf2O3 show semimetallic character. Pnnm-HfO3 shows interesting structure, simultaneously containing oxide...

  9. Ferroelectricity of nondoped thin HfO2 films in TiN/HfO2/TiN stacks (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomonori; Xu, Lun; Shibayama, Shigehisa; Yajima, Takeaki; Migita, Shinji; Toriumi, Akira


    We report on the impact of TiN interfaces on the ferroelectricity of nondoped HfO2. Ferroelectric properties of nondoped HfO2 in TiN/HfO2/TiN stacks are shown in capacitance-voltage and polarization-voltage characteristics. The Curie temperature is also estimated to be around 500 °C. The ferroelectricity of nondoped HfO2 clearly appears by thinning HfO2 film down to ˜35 nm. We directly revealed in thermal treatments that the ferroelectric HfO2 film on TiN was maintained by covering the top surface of HfO2 with TiN, while it was followed by a phase transition to the paraelectric phase in the case of the open surface of HfO2. Thus, it is concluded that the ferroelectricity in nondoped HfO2 in this study was mainly driven by both of top and bottom TiN interfaces.

  10. Exact propagator for an electron in a quadratic saddle-point potential and a magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Tao; Zhai Zhi-Yuan; Pan Xiao-Yin


    We study the propagator for an electron moving in a two-dimensional(2D)quadratic saddle-point potential, in the presence of a perpendicular uniform magnetic field. A closed-form expression for the propagator is derived using the Feynmann path integrals.

  11. The Wheeler Propagator

    CERN Document Server

    Bollini, C G


    We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators. We show with some examples that perturbative unitarity holds, whatever the mass (real or complex). Some possible applications are discussed.

  12. Anomalous propagation of Omega VLF waves near the geomagnetic equator (United States)

    Ohtani, A.; Kikuchi, T.; Nozaki, K.; Kurihara, N.; Kuratani, Y.; Ohse, M.


    Omega HAIKU, REUNION, and LIBERIA signals were received and anomalous propagation characteristics were obtained near the geomagnetic equator. Short-period fluctuations were found in the phase of the HAIKU 10.2 kHz signal in November 1979 and in the phase and amplitude of the HAIKU 13.6 kHz signal in November 1981. These cyclic fluctuations are in close correlation with the phase cycle slippings, which occur most frequently when the receiver is located at 6 S geomagnetic latitude. On the basis of anisotropic waveguide mode theory indicating much less attenuation in WE propagation than in EW propagation at the geomagnetic equator, it is concluded that the short-period fluctuations in the phase and amplitude are due to interference between the short-path and the long-path signals.

  13. A Novel Path Delay Fault Simulator Using Binary Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananta K. Majhi


    Full Text Available A novel path delay fault simulator for combinational logic circuits which is capable of detecting both robust and nonrobust paths is presented. Particular emphasis has been given for the use of binary logic rather than the multiple-valued logic as used in the existing simulators which contributes to the reduction of the overall complexity of the algorithm. A rule based approach has been developed which identifies all robust and nonrobust paths tested by a two-pattern test , while backtracing from the POs to PIs in a depth-first manner. Rules are also given to find probable glitches and to determine how they propagate through the circuit, which enables the identification of nonrobust paths. Experimental results on several ISCAS'85 benchmark circuits demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  14. An Unplanned Path (United States)

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.


    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  15. Reparametrizations of Continuous Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli; Raussen, Martin


    compare it to the distributive lattice of countable subsets of the unit interval. The results obtained are used to analyse the space of traces in a topological space, i.e., the space of continuous paths up to reparametrization equivalence. This space is shown to be homeomorphic to the space of regular...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz


    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  17. Path integrals, SUSY QM and the Atiyah-Singer index theorem for twisted Dirac

    CERN Document Server

    Fine, Dana


    Feynman's time-slicing construction approximates the path integral by a product, determined by a partition of a finite time interval, of approximate propagators. This paper formulates general conditions to impose on a short-time approximation to the propagator in a general class of imaginary-time quantum mechanics on a Riemannian manifold which ensure these products converge. The limit defines a path integral which agrees pointwise with the heat kernel for a generalized Laplacian. The result is a rigorous construction of the propagator for supersymmetric quantum mechanics, with potential, as a path integral. Further, the class of Laplacians includes the square of the twisted Dirac operator, which corresponds to an extension of N=1/2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. General results on the rate of convergence of the approximate path integrals suffice in this case to derive the local version of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem.

  18. Axion-photon Propagation in Magnetized Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Chen


    Oscillations between photons and axion-like particles (ALP) travelling in intergalactic magnetic fields have been invoked to explain a number of astrophysical phenomena, or used to constrain ALP properties using observations. One example is the anomalous transparency of the universe to TeV gamma-rays. The intergalactic magnetic field is usually modeled as patches of coherent domains, each with a uniform magnetic field, but the field orientation changes randomly from one domain to the next ("discrete-$\\varphi$ model"). We show in this paper that in more realistic situations, when the magnetic field direction varies continuously along the propagation path, the photon-to-ALP conversion probability $P$ can be significantly different from the discrete-$\\varphi$ model. In particular, $P$ has a distinct dependence on the photon energy and ALP mass, and can be as large as 100 percent. This result may affect previous constraints on ALP properties based on ALP-photon propagation in intergalactic magnetic fields.

  19. Synthesis of Freestanding HfO2 Nanostructures (United States)


    Tang J, Fabbri J, Robinson RD, Zhu Y, Herman IP, Steigerwald ML, Brus LE: Solid-solution nanoparticles:use of a nonhydrolytic sol-gel synthesis to...colloidal HfO2 nanorods. Adv Mater 2007, 19:2608-2612. Page 21 5. Qiu X, Howe JY, Cardoso MB, Polat O, Heller W: Size control of highly ordered HfO2

  20. Parametric excitation of whistler waves by HF heater (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Lee, M. C.


    Possible generation of whistler waves by Tromso HF heater is investigated. It is shown that the HF heater wave can parametrically decay into a whistler wave and a Langmuir wave. Since whistler waves may have a broad range of frequency, the simultaneously excited Langmuir waves can have a much broader frequency bandwidth than those excited by the parametric decay instability.

  1. Study of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnevsky, I. N.; Zheltonozhsky, V. A., E-mail:; Savrasov, A. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Mazur, V. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Electronic Physics (Ukraine)


    Isomeric ratios of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2,g} yields in the (γ, n) reaction and the cross section for the {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} population in the (α, p) reaction are measured for the first time at the end-point energies of 15.1 and 17.5 MeV for bremsstrahlung photons and 26 MeV for alpha particles. The results are σ = (1.1 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −27} cm{sup 2} for the {sup 176}Lu(α, p){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction and Y{sub m2}/Y{sub g} = (6.1 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −6} and (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup −6} for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m22} reaction at E{sub ep} =15.1 and 17.5 MeV, respectively. The experimental data on the relative {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} yield indicate a single-humped shape of the excitation function for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction. Simulation is performed using the TALYS-1.4 and EMPIRE-3.2 codes.

  2. Diffusion of Hf and Nb in Zr-19%Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Hood, G.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Schultz, R.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Matsuura, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Roy, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Jackman, J.A. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada). Met. Sci. and Technol.


    Diffusion of Hf and Nb in large-grained bcc Zr-19%Nb has been studied. Diffusion coefficients of Hf, D(Hf), were measured in the range 620-1173 K and D(Nb) was measured at 920 and 1167 K. The Hf diffusion profiles were determined by SIMS and the Nb profiles by microtome sectioning and radio-tracer counting. The Hf data show a smooth, temperature-dependent behaviour through the monotectoid temperature, 875 K, and may be characterised by D{approx}10{sup -9}.exp-1.4 (eV/kT) m{sup 2}/s. D(Nb) tends to be lower than the corresponding values for D(Hf). Overall, diffusion of Hf and Nb are characteristic of diffusion in bcc Zr. Surface hold-up (oxide film) at low temperatures was overcome by using ion-implanted Hf diffusion sources. The results are compared with earlier work and discussed in terms of diffusion mechanisms and the {beta}-phase transformation of commercial Zr-2.5Nb. (orig.).

  3. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory: Analysis of Shadow Zone Arrivals and Acoustic Propagation in Numerical Ocean Models (United States)


    numerical ocean models. Another look at the 1960 Perth to Bermuda antipodal acoustic propagation test In preparing a review talk on long-range acoustic...with the acoustic propagation over antipodal distances, based on a test in 1960 (American Geophysical Union 1960; Shockley et al. 1982, Munk et Perth, Australia was detected at the antipode near Bermuda. A closer look at the propagation paths, however, found that if the horizontal

  4. Oxygen Recovery in Hf Oxide Films Fabricated by Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ran; LI Zi-Feng


    The chemical structure of ultrathin Hf oxide films (< 10 nm) fabricated by a standard sputtering method is investigated using x-ray spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. According to the experiments,oxygen species are impacted to the HfO2/Si interface during the initial sputtering, and then released back to the upper Hf02 region driven by the oxygen concentration grads. A vacuum annealing can greatly enhance this recovery process. Additionally, significant SiO2 reduction in the interface is observed after the vacuum annealing for the thick HfO2 films in our experiment. It might be an effective method to confine the interracial layer thickness by sputtering thick HfO2 in no-oxygen ambient.

  5. Crystal structure of Si-doped HfO2 (United States)

    Zhao, Lili; Nelson, Matthew; Aldridge, Henry; Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Fancher, Chris M.; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Nishida, Toshikazu; Moghaddam, Saeed; Jones, Jacob L.


    Si-doped HfO2 was prepared by solid state synthesis of the starting oxides. Using Rietveld refinement of high resolution X-ray diffraction patterns, a substitutional limit of Si in HfO2 was determined as less than 9 at. %. A second phase was identified as Cristobalite (SiO2) rather than HfSiO4, the latter of which would be expected from existing SiO2-HfO2 phase diagrams. Crystallographic refinement with increased Si-dopant concentration in monoclinic HfO2 shows that c/b increases, while β decreases. The spontaneous strain, which characterizes the ferroelastic distortion of the unit cell, was calculated and shown to decrease with increasing Si substitution.

  6. The (178m2)Hf Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Schiffer, J P; Wilhelmy, J B


    Since its discovery in the 1960's the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer has garnered high attention from both the basic and applied communities in nuclear science. It's combination of high spin (16+), long half life (31 yrs), and high excitation energy (2.446 MeV) offer unique possibilities as an energy storage medium. Interest in the isomer was rekindled beginning in 1999 when a series of publications began to appear from a group (referred to here as the ''Texas collaboration'') primarily based at the University of Texas, Dallas [1]. They reported observations that some of the stored energy could be released (''triggered'') when the isomer was exposed to a fluence of photons in the energy range {approx}10 to {approx}60 keV. The implications of this observation are profound. Even though the claimed cross section for the process was {approx}7 orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted from the known systematics of photon absorption by nuclei in this mass range [2], such a highly efficient method for triggering the isomeric deexcitation immediately suggested applications utilizing the explosive or the controlled gradual energy release from a very compact source. The prospect of such applications has focused considerable interest on realizing the promise that is implicit in the reported observations. However, two experiments performed by a group from ANL/LANL/LLNL at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (the ''APS collaboration'') reported negative results for the observation of any photon-triggered deexcitation of the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer [3]. This has led to a continued controversy, where both sides have adamantly defended their observations. At this point an outsider has difficulty determining whether there is indeed a triggering effect that should be pursued energetically with substantial resources, or whether the phenomenon consists of overly optimistic interpretation of data.

  7. A morphological adaptation approach to path planning inspired by slime mould (United States)

    Jones, Jeff


    Path planning is a classic problem in computer science and robotics which has recently been implemented in unconventional computing substrates such as chemical reaction-diffusion computers. These novel computing schemes utilise the parallel spatial propagation of information and often use a two-stage method involving diffusive propagation to discover all paths and a second stage to highlight or visualise the path between two particular points in the arena. The true slime mould Physarum polycephalum is known to construct efficient transport networks between nutrients in its environment. These networks are continuously remodelled as the organism adapts its body plan to changing spatial stimuli. It can be guided towards attractant stimuli (nutrients, warm regions) and it avoids locations containing hazardous stimuli (light irradiation, repellents, or regions occupied by predatory threats). Using a particle model of slime mould we demonstrate scoping experiments which explore how path planning may be performed by morphological adaptation. We initially demonstrate simple path planning by a shrinking blob of virtual plasmodium between two attractant sources within a polygonal arena. We examine the case where multiple paths are required and the subsequent selection of a single path from multiple options. Collision-free paths are implemented via repulsion from the borders of the arena. Finally, obstacle avoidance is implemented by repulsion from obstacles as they are uncovered by the shrinking blob. These examples show proof-of-concept results of path planning by morphological adaptation which complement existing research on path planning in novel computing substrates.

  8. Cosmological Feynman Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Geoffrey F


    Arrowed-time divergence-free rules or cosmological quantum dynamics are formulated through stepped Feynman paths across macroscopic slices of Milne spacetime. Slice boundaries house totally-relativistic rays representing elementary entities--preons. Total relativity and the associated preon Fock space, despite distinction from special relativity (which lacks time arrow), are based on the Lorentz group. Each path is a set of cubic vertices connected by straight, directed and stepped arcs that carry inertial, electromagnetic and gravitational action. The action of an arc step comprises increments each bounded by Planck's constant. Action from extremely-distant sources is determined by universe mean energy density. Identifying the arc-step energy that determines inertial action with that determining gravitational action establishes both arc-step length and universe density. Special relativity is accurate for physics at laboratory spacetime scales far below that of Hubble and far above that of Planck.

  9. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling (United States)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.


    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.

  10. Ferroelectricity-modulated resistive switching in Pt/Si:HfO2/HfO2-x /Pt memory (United States)

    Ran, Jiang; Xianghao, Du; Zuyin, Han


    It is investigated for the effect of a ferroelectric Si:HfO2 thin film on the resistive switching in a stacked Pt/Si:HfO2/highly-oxygen-deficient HfO2-x /Pt structure. Improved resistance performance was observed. It was concluded that the observed resistive switching behavior was related to the modulation of the width and height of a depletion barrier in the HfO2-x layer, which was caused by the Si:HfO2 ferroelectric polarization field effect. Reliable switching reproducibility and long data retention were observed in these memory cells, suggesting their great potential in non-volatile memories applications with full compatibility and simplicity. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11374182), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2012FQ012), and the Jinan Independent Innovation Projects of Universities (No. 201303019).

  11. Comparison of Radio Propagation Models for Long Term Evolution (LTE) Network

    CERN Document Server

    Shabbir, Noman; Kashif, Hasnain; Ullah, Rizwan


    This paper concerns about the radio propagation models used for the upcoming 4th Generation (4G) of cellular networks known as Long Term Evolution (LTE). The radio wave propagation model or path loss model plays a very significant role in planning of any wireless communication systems. In this paper, a comparison is made between different proposed radio propagation models that would be used for LTE, like Stanford University Interim (SUI) model, Okumura model, Hata COST 231 model, COST Walfisch-Ikegami & Ericsson 9999 model. The comparison is made using different terrains e.g. urban, suburban and rural area.SUI model shows the lowest path lost in all the terrains while COST 231 Hata model illustrates highest path loss in urban area and COST Walfisch-Ikegami model has highest path loss for suburban and rural environments.

  12. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.


    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  13. S-Band propagation measurements (United States)

    Briskman, Robert D.


    A geosynchronous satellite system capable of providing many channels of digital audio radio service (DARS) to mobile platforms within the contiguous United States using S-band radio frequencies is being implemented. The system is designed uniquely to mitigate both multipath fading and outages from physical blockage in the transmission path by use of satellite spatial diversity in combination with radio frequency and time diversity. The system also employs a satellite orbital geometry wherein all mobile platforms in the contiguous United States have elevation angles greater than 20 deg to both of the diversity satellites. Since implementation of the satellite system will require three years, an emulation has been performed using terrestrial facilities in order to allow evaluation of DARS capabilities in advance of satellite system operations. The major objective of the emulation was to prove the feasibility of broadcasting from satellites 30 channels of CD quality programming using S-band frequencies to an automobile equipped with a small disk antenna and to obtain quantitative performance data on S-band propagation in a satellite spatial diversity system.

  14. Path planning in dynamic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.P. van den


    Path planning plays an important role in various fields of application, such as CAD design, computer games and virtual environments, molecular biology, and robotics. In its most general form, the path planning problem is formulated as finding a collision-free path for a moving entity between a start

  15. Power-Stepped HF Cross Modulation Experiments at HAARP (United States)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.; Langston, J. S.


    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. In this paper, we apply experimental observations of HF cross-modulation to the related problem of ELF/VLF wave generation. HF cross-modulation measurements are used to evaluate the efficiency of ionospheric conductivity modulation during power-stepped modulated HF heating experiments. The results are compared to previously published dependencies of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF peak power. The experiments were performed during the March 2013 campaign at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Observatory. HAARP was operated in a dual-beam transmission format: the first beam heated the ionosphere using sinusoidal amplitude modulation while the second beam broadcast a series of low-power probe pulses. The peak power of the modulating beam was incremented in 1-dB steps. We compare the minimum and maximum cross-modulation effect and the amplitude of the resulting cross-modulation waveform to the expected power-law dependence of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF power.

  16. Propagation dynamics on the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Zongqiang


    The spatiotemporal propagation of a momentum excitation on the finite Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices is investigated. The competition between the solitary wave and phonons gives rise to interesting propagation behaviors. For a moderate nonlinearity, the initially excited pulse may propagate coherently along the lattice for a long time in a solitary wave manner accompanied by phonon tails. The lifetime of the long-transient propagation state exhibits a sensitivity to the nonlinear parameter. The solitary wave decays exponentially during the final loss of stability, and the decay rate varying with the nonlinear parameter exhibits two different scaling laws. This decay is found to be related to the largest Lyapunov exponent of the corresponding Hamiltonian system, which manifests a transition from weak to strong chaos. The mean-free-path of the solitary waves is estimated in the strong chaos regime, which may be helpful to understand the origin of anomalous conductivity in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D. B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Khomenko, Elena, E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)


    Recent high-resolution observations of sunspot oscillations using simultaneously operated ground- and space-based telescopes reveal the intrinsic connection between different layers of the solar atmosphere. However, it is not clear whether these oscillations are externally driven or generated in situ. We address this question by using observations of propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal fan loop system. In addition to the generally observed decreases in oscillation amplitudes with distance, the observed wave amplitudes are also found to be modulated with time, with similar variations observed throughout the propagation path of the wave train. Employing multi-wavelength and multi-instrument data, we study the amplitude variations with time as the waves propagate through different layers of the solar atmosphere. By comparing the amplitude modulation period in different layers, we find that slow magnetoacoustic waves observed in sunspots are externally driven by photospheric p-modes, which propagate upward into the corona before becoming dissipated.

  18. Stochastic relation between anomalous propagation in the line-of-sight VHF radio band and occurrences of earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Motojima


    Full Text Available This paper was intended to find out any relation between anomalous line-of-sight propagation on the VHF band and occurrences of earthquakes near the VHF propagation paths. The television and FM radio broadcasting waves on the VHF band were monitored continuously over the long term. For that purpose, a multidirectional VHF band monitoring system was established and utilized. Anomalous line-of-sight propagation on the VHF band was distinguished from the monitored wave by using a statistical analysis. After the stochastic consideration, it was found out that earthquakes associated with anomalous propagation were characterized by magnitude of earthquakes M ≥ 4.5, and distances from epicenters L ≤ 75 km. The anomalous propagation was monitored on the VHF band a few days earlier the associated earthquakes occurred. Moreover, the anomaly appeared on multidirectional propagation paths simultaneously. The anomaly on the line-of-sight propagation indicates possibility of narrow focusing the area of epicenter of earthquake.

  19. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J


    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  20. HF dissociation in water clusters by computer simulations


    Elena, Alin Marin


    We perform Restrained hybrid Monte Carlo simulations to compute the equilibrium constant of the dissociation reaction of HF in HF(H2O)7. We find that, like in the bulk, hydrofluoric acid, is a weak acid also in the cubic HF(H2O)7 cluster, and that its acidity is higher at lower T. This latter phenomenon has a (vibrational) entropic origin, namely it is due to the reduction of the (negative) T∆S contribution to the variation of free energy between the reactant and product. We found also ...

  1. DBEM crack propagation for nonlinear fracture problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Citarella


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional crack propagation simulation is performed by the Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM. The Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs along the front of a semi elliptical crack, initiated from the external surface of a hollow axle, are calculated for bending and press fit loading separately and for a combination of them. In correspondence of the latter loading condition, a crack propagation is also simulated, with the crack growth rates calculated using the NASGRO3 formula, calibrated for the material under analysis (steel ASTM A469. The J-integral and COD approaches are selected for SIFs calculation in DBEM environment, where the crack path is assessed by the minimum strain energy density criterion (MSED. In correspondence of the initial crack scenario, SIFs along the crack front are also calculated by the Finite Element (FE code ZENCRACK, using COD, in order to provide, by a cross comparison with DBEM, an assessment on the level of accuracy obtained. Due to the symmetry of the bending problem a pure mode I crack propagation is realised with no kinking of the propagating crack whereas for press fit loading the crack propagation becomes mixed mode. The crack growth analysis is nonlinear because of normal gap elements used to model the press fit condition with added friction, and is developed in an iterative-incremental procedure. From the analysis of the SIFs results related to the initial cracked configuration, it is possible to assess the impact of the press fit condition when superimposed to the bending load case.

  2. Propagation of waves

    CERN Document Server

    David, P


    Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear

  3. On the collocation between dayside auroral activity and coherent HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    Full Text Available The 2D morphology of coherent HF radar and optical cusp aurora has been studied for conditions of predominantly southward IMF conditions, which favours low-latitude boundary layer reconnection. Despite the variability in shape of radar cusp Doppler spectra, the spectral width criterion of > 220 m s–1 proves to be a robust cusp discriminator. For extended periods of well-developed radar backscatter echoes, the equatorward boundary of the > 220 m s–1 spectral width enhancement lines up remarkably well with the equatorward boundary of the optical cusp aurora. The spectral width boundary is however poorly determined during development and fading of radar cusp backscatter. Closer inspection of radar Doppler profile characteristics suggests that a combination of spectral width and shape may advance boundary layer identification by HF radar. For the two December days studied the onset of radar cusp backscatter occurred within pre-existing 630.0 nm cusp auroral activity and appear to be initiated by sunrise, i.e. favourable radio wave propagation conditions had to develop. Better methods are put forward for analysing optical data, and for physical interpretation of HF radar data, and for combining these data, as applied to detection, tracking, and better understanding of dayside aurora. The broader motivation of this work is to develop wider use by the scientific community, of results of these techniques, to accelerate understanding of dynamic high-latitude boundary-processes. The contributions in this work are: (1 improved techniques of analysis of observational data, yielding meaningfully enhanced accuracy for deduced cusp locations; (2 a correspondingly more pronounced validation of correlation of boundary locations derived from the observational data set; and (3 a firmer physical rationale as to why the good correlation observed should theoretically be expected.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionospheric

  4. Thermoelectric Properties of the XCoSb (X: Ti,Zr,Hf) Half-Heusler Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala


    We investigate the thermoelectric properties of the half-Heusler alloys XCoSb (X: Ti,Zr,Hf) by solving Boltzmann transport equations and discuss them in terms of the electronic band structure. The rigid band approximation is employed to address the effects of doping. While many half-Heuser alloys show excellent thermoelectric performance, the materials under study are special by supporting both n- and p-doping. We identify the reasons for this balanced thermoelectric transport and explain why experimentally p-doping is superior to n-doping. We also determine the spectrum of phonon mean free paths to guide grain refinement methods to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit.

  5. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaer A. Abdulla


    Full Text Available    HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq. Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee, affecting the results within (0.1-58% variation for the most cases.        The simulated results show that about 4% of paraffin (C10 & C11 presents at the top stream, which may cause a problem in the LAB production plant. The major variations were noticed for the total top vapor flow rate with bottom temperature and with feed composition. The column profiles maintain fairly constants from tray 5 to tray 18. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with HYSYS because the results correspond with the real plant operation data.

  6. The (178m2) Hf Controversy

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, J A; Schiffer, J P; Wilhelmy, J


    Since its discovery in the 1960's the sup 1 sup 7 sup 8 sup m sup 2 Hf isomer has garnered high attention from both the basic and applied communities in nuclear science. It's combination of high spin (16+), long half life (31 yrs), and high excitation energy (2.446 MeV) offer unique possibilities as an energy storage medium. Interest in the isomer was rekindled beginning in 1999 when a series of publications began to appear from a group (referred to here as the ''Texas collaboration'') primarily based at the University of Texas, Dallas [1]. They reported observations that some of the stored energy could be released (''triggered'') when the isomer was exposed to a fluence of photons in the energy range approx 10 to approx 60 keV. The implications of this observation are profound. Even though the claimed cross section for the process was approx 7 orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted from the known systematics of photon absorption by nuclei in this mass range [2], such a highly efficient method fo...

  7. Grindability of cast Ti-Hf alloys. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Sato, Hideki; Okuno, Osamu; Nunn, Martha E; Okabe, Toru


    As part of our systematic studies characterizing the properties of titanium alloys, we investigated the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Hf alloys. Alloy buttons with hafnium concentrations up to 40 mass% were made using an argon-arc melting furnace. Each button was cast into a magnesia-based mold using a dental titanium casting machine; three specimens were made for each metal. Prior to testing, the hardened surface layer was removed. The specimens were ground at five different speeds for 1 min at 0.98 N using a carborundum wheel on an electric dental handpiece. Grindability was evaluated as the volume of metal removed per minute (grinding rate) and the volume ratio of metal removed compared to the wheel material lost (grinding ratio). The data were analyzed using ANOVA. A trend of increasing grindability was found with increasing amounts of hafnium, although there was no statistical difference in the grindability with increasing hafnium contents. We also found that hafnium may be used to harden or strengthen titanium without deteriorating the grindability.

  8. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey


    Programming languages theory is full of problems that reduce to proving the consistency of a logic, such as the normalization of typed lambda-calculi, the decidability of equality in type theory, equivalence testing of traces in security, etc. Although the principle of transfinite induction...... an induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...

  9. JAVA PathFinder (United States)

    Mehhtz, Peter


    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  10. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters


    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  11. Path Through the Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton


    Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...

  12. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  13. The magnetic properties of $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and $^{\\rm 180}$Hf in the strong coupling deformed model


    Muto, S.; Stone, N. J.; Bingham, C. R.; STONE, J.R; Walker, P. M.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Köster, U.(Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, France); Nikolov, J.; Nishimura,K; Ohtsubo, T.; Podolyak, Z.; Risegari, L.; Simpson, G.S.; Veskovic, M.


    This paper reports NMR measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of two high-K isomers, the 37/2$^-$, 51.4 m, 2740 keV state in $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and the 8$^-$, 5.5 h, 1142 keV state in $^{\\rm 180}$Hf by the method of on-line nuclear orientation. Also included are results on the angular distributions of gamma transitions in the decay of the $^{\\rm 177}$Hf isotope. These yield high precision E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios for transitions in bands built on the 23/2$^+$, 1.1 s, isomer at 1315 keV ...

  14. DROMO propagator revisited (United States)

    Urrutxua, Hodei; Sanjurjo-Rivo, Manuel; Peláez, Jesús


    In the year 2000 an in-house orbital propagator called DROMO (Peláez et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 97:131-150, 2007. doi: 10.1007/s10569-006-9056-3) was developed by the Space Dynamics Group of the Technical University of Madrid, based in a set of redundant variables including Euler-Rodrigues parameters. An original deduction of the DROMO propagator is carried out, underlining its close relation with the ideal frame concept introduced by Hansen (Abh der Math-Phys Cl der Kon Sachs Ges der Wissensch 5:41-218, 1857). Based on the very same concept, Deprit (J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect B Math Sci 79B(1-2):1-15, 1975) proposed a formulation for orbit propagation. In this paper, similarities and differences with the theory carried out by Deprit are analyzed. Simultaneously, some improvements are introduced in the formulation, that lead to a more synthetic and better performing propagator. Also, the long-term effect of the oblateness of the primary is studied in terms of DROMO variables, and new numerical results are presented to evaluate the performance of the method.

  15. Shallow Water Propagation (United States)


    response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...these modes decay much more slowly than leaky modes as they propagate. The initial focus is on modal phase and group velocity formulas, obtained from...acoustic quantities such as transmission loss and scintillation index. (C) Both physical understanding and reasonable estimates of

  16. Experimental data for groundwave propagation over cylindrical surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Ray J.; Cho, Se.; Jaggard, D.


    path cases. For both homogeneous and mixed paths the residue series theory agrees well with the experimental data in the shadow and penumbra regions, but the agreement becomes poorer as the observation point moves into the illuminated region where an excess number of residue terms is needed...... the boundary where the residue series converges poorly. It is concluded that if the constitutive electrical parameters of the earth are precisely known and constant, the theory can be reliably applied to LF and VLF groundwave propagation over the earth where the constraints are even less severe....

  17. A thirty second isomer in {sup 171}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.; Billowes, J.; Cooper, T.G.; Grant, I.S.; Pearson, M.R.; Wheeler, P.D. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cochrane, E.C.A.; Cooke, J.L.; Evans, D.E.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Persson, J.R.; Richardson, D.S.; Tungate, G.; Zybert, L. [School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dendooven, P.; Honkanen, A.; Huhta, M.; Oinonen, M.; Penttilae, H.; Aeystoe, J. [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, PL 35 Jyvaeskylae SF-403 51 (Finland)


    An isomer has been detected in {sup 171}Hf with a half-life of T{sub 1/2} 29.5(9) s. The state was populated in the {sup 170}Yb({alpha},3n){sup 171m}Hf reaction at a beam energy of E{sub {alpha}} = 50 MeV in an on-line ion guide isotope separator. The isomeric {sup 171m}Hf{sup +} beam was extracted from the ion guide, mass-analysed and implanted in the surface of a microchannel-plate. The half-life of the collected activity was measured from the decay of the microchannel-plate count rate. We associate the isomer with the first excited state in {sup 171}Hf with spin 1/2{sup -} at an excitation energy of 22(2) keV. (author)

  18. HF fiber stuffing in building 186 at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Tiziano Camporesi


    Each of the 36 HF wedges comprise ca 12000 quartz fibers which are the active element of the calorimeter. The fibers are produced by Polymicro (USA), cleaved and bundled at KFKI, Budapest, Hungary and inserted at CERN.

  19. Near-infrared LIF spectroscopy of HfF

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, Matt; Loh, Huanqian; Sinclair, Laura C; Stutz, Russel P; Yahn, Tylser S; Cornell, Eric A


    The molecular ion HfF$^+$ is the chosen species for a JILA experiment to measure the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM). Detailed knowledge of the spectrum of HfF is crucial to prepare HfF$^+$ in a state suitable for performing an eEDM measurement\\cite{Leanhardt}. We investigated the near-infrared electronic spectrum of HfF using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of a supersonic molecular beam. We discovered eight unreported bands, and assign each of them unambiguously, four to vibrational bands belonging to the transition $[13.8]0.5 \\leftarrow X1.5$, and four to vibrational bands belonging to the transition $[14.2]1.5 \\leftarrow X1.5$. Additionally, we report an improved measurement of vibrational spacing of the ground state, as well as anharmonicity $\\omega_e x_e$.

  20. Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F


    This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

  1. A Comparison of High-Latitude Ionosphere Propagation Predictions from AMBCOM with Measured Data (United States)


    radar . The point-to-point mode performs raytracing from a transmitter to a receiver and was used for this thesis. RIAYTRA co,-,putes grokil times... RADAR C and AMBCOM....... 9 3. Thc Naval Postgraduate School Studies ......................... 9 II. THE AMBIENT COMMUNICATIONS MO0DEL (AMBCOM...the transpolar path such as the a communications blackout on 12 November 1986. [Ref. 11] 2. Hi2h-Latitude HF Predictions From RADAR C and AMBCOM

  2. Propagation effects handbook for satellite systems design. A summary of propagation impairments on 10 to 100 GHz satellite links with techniques for system design (United States)

    Ippolito, Louis J.


    The NASA Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design provides a systematic compilation of the major propagation effects experienced on space-Earth paths in the 10 to 100 GHz frequency band region. It provides both a detailed description of the propagation phenomenon and a summary of the impact of the effect on the communications system design and performance. Chapter 2 through 5 describe the propagation effects, prediction models, and available experimental data bases. In Chapter 6, design techniques and prediction methods available for evaluating propagation effects on space-Earth communication systems are presented. Chapter 7 addresses the system design process and how the effects of propagation on system design and performance should be considered and how that can be mitigated. Examples of operational and planned Ku, Ka, and EHF satellite communications systems are given.

  3. Model Development For Wireless Propagation In Forested Environments (United States)


    ABSTRACT Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540–01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2–89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239–18 ii...using a model with four layered media,” IEE Proc. Microw. Antennas Propag., vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 361–368, 1987. [17] S. S. Seker, “Radio pulse...transmission along mixed paths in a stratified forest,” IEE Proc. Microw. Antennas Propag., vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 1989. [18] S. Haykin and M

  4. Integrated magnetics design for HF-link power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    This paper deals with the design of integrated magnetics for HF-link converters, where the integrated magnetic components do not necessarily belong to the same voltage loop. Depending on the specific HF-link converter topology, the proposed integrated magnetics can either alleviate the derivation...... of independent auxiliary supply voltages from the main transformer or integrate other magnetic structures, thus saving board space and cutting costs....

  5. Integrated magnetics design for HF-link power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.


    This paper deals with the design of integrated magnetics for HF-link converters, where the two integrated magnetic components on the same core do not necessarily belong to the same voltage loop. Depending on the specific HF-link converter topology, the proposed integrated magnetics can either alleviate the derivation of independent auxiliary supply voltages from the main transformer or integrate other magnetic structures, thus saving board space and cutting costs. (au)

  6. Alternative Method for Determining the Feynman Propagator of a Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanical Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moshinsky


    Full Text Available A direct procedure for determining the propagator associated with a quantum mechanical problem was given by the Path Integration Procedure of Feynman. The Green function, which is the Fourier Transform with respect to the time variable of the propagator, can be derived later. In our approach, with the help of a Laplace transform, a direct way to get the energy dependent Green function is presented, and the propagator can be obtained later with an inverse Laplace transform. The method is illustrated through simple one dimensional examples and for time independent potentials, though it can be generalized to the derivation of more complicated propagators.

  7. Surface wave propagation in central Asia: Observations of scattering and multipathing with the Kyrgyzstan broadband array (United States)

    Pavlis, Gary L.; Mahdi, Hanan


    We studied the propagation of Rayleigh waves at regional distances in central Asia using a combination of array processing techniques and surface wave analysis. We present results from the detailed analysis of three representative events recorded by a 10-station, broadband network that has been running in the central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan since 1991: an Ms = 5.1 event near Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan; an Ms = 5.8 event in south central Tibet; and the October 7, 1994, nuclear explosion at Lop Nor. We find there is a remarkable difference in the propagation characteristics of surface waves along these three paths. The path from the event in Turkmenistan is simple and is well approximated by propagation through a laterally homogeneous medium. Array processing shows the entire Rayleigh wave train stacks coherently and arrives from an azimuth close to that predicted by a great circle path. Furthermore, estimates of dispersion curves and fundamental mode signals determined for individual stations show little variation across the array. The Tibet and Lop Nor paths are completely different. We find strong evidence for complicated multipathing and scattering effects along both of these paths. We observe a three-stage pattern in the Tibet case: (1) the early, lowest-frequency part of the Rayleigh wave packet arrives as a coherent signal from close to the great circle path azimuth; (2) this is overpowered in the period range around 20 s by a strong multipath signal that propagates across the array from a much more southerly azimuth; and (3) periods below 20 s rapidly become incoherent, and the signal does not have a well-defined direction of propagation. The Lop Nor path shows similar complexity. On this path there is little dispersion for measurable periods greater than 10 s, so the low-frequency energy arrives in an Airy phase. The Airy phase stacks somewhat coherently (it stacks, but significant power is lost in the best beam), and slowness analysis shows it arrives from

  8. Synthesis of freestanding HfO2 nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Kayla


    Full Text Available Abstract Two new methods for synthesizing nanostructured HfO2 have been developed. The first method entails exposing HfTe2 powders to air. This simple process resulted in the formation of nanometer scale crystallites of HfO2. The second method involved a two-step heating process by which macroscopic, freestanding nanosheets of HfO2 were formed as a byproduct during the synthesis of HfTe2. These highly two-dimensional sheets had side lengths measuring up to several millimeters and were stable enough to be manipulated with tweezers and other instruments. The thickness of the sheets ranged from a few to a few hundred nanometers. The thinnest sheets appeared transparent when viewed in a scanning electron microscope. It was found that the presence of Mn enhanced the formation of HfO2 by exposure to ambient conditions and was necessary for the formation of the large scale nanosheets. These results present new routes to create freestanding nanostructured hafnium dioxide. PACS: 81.07.-b, 61.46.Hk, 68.37.Hk.

  9. The isobutylene-isobutane alkylation process in liquid HF revisited. (United States)

    Esteves, P M; Araújo, C L; Horta, B A C; Alvarez, L J; Zicovich-Wilson, C M; Ramírez-Solís, A


    Details on the mechanism of HF catalyzed isobutylene-isobutane alkylation were investigated. On the basis of available experimental data and high-level quantum chemical calculations, a detailed reaction mechanism is proposed taking into account solvation effects of the medium. On the basis of our computational results, we explain why the density of the liquid media and stirring rates are the most important parameters to achieve maximum yield of alkylate, in agreement with experimental findings. The ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics calculations show that isobutylene is irreversibly protonated in the liquid HF medium at higher densities, leading to the ion pair formation, which is shown to be a minimum on the potential energy surface after optimization using periodic boundary conditions. The HF medium solvates preferentially the fluoride anion, which is found as solvated [FHF](-) or solvated F(-.)(HF)(3). On the other hand, the tert-butyl cation is weakly solvated, where the closest HF molecules appear at a distance of about 2.9 Angstrom with the fluorine termination of an HF chain.

  10. Dual HF radar study of the subauroral polarization stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Makarevich


    Full Text Available The dual HF radars comprising the Tasman International Geophysical Environment Radar (TIGER system often observe localized high-velocity F-region plasma flows (≥1500 m/s in the midnight sector (20:00–02:00 MLT at magnetic latitudes as low as Λ=60° S. The flow channels exhibit large variability in the latitudinal extent and electric field strength, and are similar to the subauroral polarization stream or SAPS, a plasma convection feature thought to be related to the polarization electric field due to the charge separation during substorm and storm development. In this study, the 2-D plasma drift velocity within the channel is derived for each of the two TIGER radars from the maximum velocities measured in all 16 radar beams within the latitudinally narrow channel, and the time variation of the subauroral electric field is examined near substorm onset. It is demonstrated that the flow channel often does not have a clear onset, rather it manifests differently in different phases of its evolution and can persist for at least two substorm cycles. During the growth phase the electric fields within the flow channel are difficult to distinguish from those of the background auroral convection but they start to increase near substorm onset and peak during the recovery phase, in contrast to what has been reported previously for auroral convection which peaks just before the substorm onset and falls sharply at the substorm onset. The response times to substorm onset range from −5 to +40 min and show some dependence on the substorm location with longer delays observed for substorms eastward of the radars' viewing area. The propagation velocity of the high-velocity region is also investigated by comparing the observations from the two closely-spaced TIGER radars. The observations are consistent with the notion that the polarization electric field is established with the energetic ions drifting westward and equatorward from the initial substorm

  11. Hf impurity and defect interactions in helium-implanted NiHf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaraj, R. E-mail:; Gopinathan, K.P.; Viswanathan, B


    TDPAC measurements on the reference and untreated sample indicate a loss in anisotropy which is attributed mainly to the association of probe atoms with defects produced by (n,{gamma}) reactions with isotopes of Ni and experiencing combined magnetic and quadrupole interactions of comparable strengths. Evolution of defect free and substitutional fraction of probe atoms experiencing Larmor frequency characteristic of Ni matrix has been studied as a function of isochronal annealing temperature in helium free {alpha}-irradiated and homogeneously helium-implanted samples. No defect associated Larmor precession frequency and/or quadrupole frequency could be deduced in these uncorrelated damage studies. Comparison of recovery stages in {alpha}-irradiated and helium-implanted samples indicates the binding of helium associated defects by Hf impurities. Segregation of Hf atoms is observed in the helium free {alpha}-irradiated sample for annealing treatment at 973 K, while no such effect is observed in the helium-implanted sample for isochronal annealing treatments up to 1273 K.

  12. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.


    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  13. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.


    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  14. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation (United States)

    Koivisto, J.; Dalbe, M.-J.; Alava, M. J.; Santucci, S.


    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible.

  15. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation. (United States)

    Koivisto, J; Dalbe, M-J; Alava, M J; Santucci, S


    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible.

  16. Path integration in the field of a topological defect: the case of dispiration

    CERN Document Server

    Inomata, Akira; Raynolds, James


    The motion of a particle in the field of dispiration (due to a wedge disclination and a screw dislocation) is studied by path integration. By gauging $SO(2) \\otimes T(1)$, first, we derive the metric, curvature, and torsion of the medium of dispiration. Then we carry out explicitly path integration for the propagator of a particle moving in the non-Euclidean medium under the influence of a scalar potential and a vector potential. We obtain also the winding number representation of the propagator by taking the non-trivial topological structure of the medium into account. We extract the energy spectrum and the eigenfunctions from the propagator. Finally we make some remarks for special cases. Particularly, paying attention to the difference between the result of the path integration and the solution of Schr\\"odinger's equation in the case of disclination, we suggest that Schr\\"odinger equation may have to be modified by a curvature term.

  17. Reconciliation of the excess 176Hf conundrum in meteorites: Recent disturbances of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics (United States)

    Bast, Rebecca; Scherer, Erik E.; Sprung, Peter; Mezger, Klaus; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Taetz, Stephan; Böhnke, Mischa; Schmid-Beurmann, Hinrich; Münker, Carsten; Kleine, Thorsten; Srinivasan, Gopalan


    The long-lived 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd radioisotope systems are commonly used chronometers, but when applied to meteorites, they can reveal disturbances. Specifically, Lu-Hf isochrons commonly yield dates up to ∼300 Myr older than the solar system and varying initial 176Hf/177Hf values. We investigated this problem by attempting to construct mineral and whole rock isochrons for eucrites and angrites. Meteorites from different parent bodies exhibit similar disturbance features suggesting that a common process is responsible. Minerals scatter away from isochron regressions for both meteorite classes, with low-Hf phases such as plagioclase and olivine typically being most displaced above (or left of) reference isochrons. Relatively Hf-rich pyroxene is less disturbed but still to the point of steepening Lu-Hf errorchrons. Using our Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data, we tested various Hf and Lu redistribution scenarios and found that decoupling of Lu/Hf from 176Hf/177Hf must postdate the accumulation of significant radiogenic 176Hf. Therefore early irradiation or diffusion cannot explain the excess 176Hf. Instead, disturbed meteorite isochrons are more likely caused by terrestrial weathering, contamination, or common laboratory procedures. The partial dissolution of phosphate minerals may predominantly remove rare earth elements including Lu, leaving relatively immobile and radiogenic Hf behind. Robust Lu-Hf (and improved Sm-Nd) meteorite geochronology will require the development of chemical or physical methods for removing unsupported radiogenic Hf and silicate-hosted terrestrial contaminants without disturbing parent-daughter ratios.

  18. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada (United States)

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.


    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  19. Affinity Paths and Information Diffusion in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis; 10.1016/j.socnet.2010.11.003


    Widespread interest in the diffusion of information through social networks has produced a large number of Social Dynamics models. A majority of them use theoretical hypothesis to explain their diffusion mechanisms while the few empirically based ones average out their measures over many messages of different content. Our empirical research tracking the step-by-step email propagation of an invariable viral marketing message delves into the content impact and has discovered new and striking features. The topology and dynamics of the propagation cascades display patterns not inherited from the email networks carrying the message. Their disconnected, low transitivity, tree-like cascades present positive correlation between their nodes probability to forward the message and the average number of neighbors they target and show increased participants' involvement as the propagation paths length grows. Such patterns not described before, nor replicated by any of the existing models of information diffusion, can be e...

  20. Path integral quantization corresponding to the deformed Heisenberg algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Souvik, E-mail: [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata 700108 (India); Moussa, Mohamed, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)


    In this paper, the deformation of the Heisenberg algebra, consistent with both the generalized uncertainty principle and doubly special relativity, has been analyzed. It has been observed that, though this algebra can give rise to fractional derivative terms in the corresponding quantum mechanical Hamiltonian, a formal meaning can be given to them by using the theory of harmonic extensions of function. Depending on this argument, the expression of the propagator of the path integral corresponding to the deformed Heisenberg algebra, has been obtained. In particular, the consistent expression of the one dimensional free particle propagator has been evaluated explicitly. With this propagator in hand, it has been shown that, even in free particle case, normal generalized uncertainty principle and doubly special relativity show very much different result.

  1. Determination of isothermal section of Ni-Re-Hf ternary system at 1173 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王日初; 柳春雷; 金展鹏


    The phase equilibriua in the Ni-Re-Hf ternary system at 1173K were investigated by means of diffusion triple technique and electron microprobe analysis(EMPA). The experimental results indicate that two ternary intermetallics (α and β) and five binary intermetallics (Ni3Hf, Ni10Hf7, Ni11Hf9, NiHf and NiHf2) exist in the Ni-Re-Hf system at 1173 K. A tentative isothermal section of this system at 1173 K was constructed on the basis of experimental results. The isothermal section consists of nine three-phase regions, five of which are supported by the experimental data.

  2. Propagating Instabilities in Solids (United States)

    Kyriakides, Stelios


    Instability is one of the factors which limit the extent to which solids can be loaded or deformed and plays a pivotal role in the design of many structures. Such instabilities often result in localized deformation which precipitates catastrophic failure. Some materials have the capacity to recover their stiffness following a certain amount of localized deformation. This local recovery in stiffness arrests further local deformation and spreading of the instability to neighboring material becomes preferred. Under displacement controlled loading the propagation of the transition fronts can be achieved in a steady-state manner at a constant stress level known as the propagation stress. The stresses in the transition fronts joining the highly deformed zone to the intact material overcome the instability nucleation stresses and, as a result, the propagation stress is usually much lower than the stress required to nucleate the instability. The classical example of this class of material instabilities is L/"uders bands which tend to affect mild steels and other metals. Recent work has demonstrated that propagating instabilities occur in several other materials. Experimental and analytical results from four examples will be used to illustrate this point: First the evolution of L=FCders bands in mild steel strips will be revisited. The second example involves the evolution of stress induced phase transformations (austenite to martensite phases and the reverse) in a shape memory alloy under displacement controlled stretching. The third example is the crushing behavior of cellular materials such as honeycombs and foams made from metals and polymers. The fourth example involves the axial broadening/propagation of kink bands in aligned fiber/matrix composites under compression. The microstructure and, as a result, the micromechanisms governing the onset, localization, local arrest and propagation of instabilities in each of the four materials are vastly different. Despite this

  3. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye


    As an acoustic signal travels from the source to a receiver, it is affected by a variety of physical processes, all dictated by properties of the signal and the environment. The signal energy is weakened by geometric attenuation as well as absorption by the medium. The temporal and spectral...... properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  4. Path Integrals in Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfelder, R


    These lectures aim at giving graduate students an introduction to and a working knowledge of path integral methods in a wide variety of fields in physics. Consequently, the lecture notes are organized in three main parts dealing with non-relativistic quantum mechanics, many-body physics and field theory. In the first part the basic concepts of path integrals are developed in the usual heuristic, non-mathematical way followed by standard examples and special applications including numerical evaluation of (euclidean) path integrals by Monte-Carlo methods with a program for the anharmonic oscillator. The second part deals with the application of path integrals in statistical mechanics and many-body problems treating the polaron problem, dissipative quantum systems, path integrals over ordinary and Grassmannian coherent states and perturbation theory for both bosons and fermions. Again a simple Fortran program is included for illustrating the use of strong-coupling methods. Finally, in the third part path integra...

  5. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown.......This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...

  6. Path integrals for awkward actions

    CERN Document Server

    Amdahl, David


    Time derivatives of scalar fields occur quadratically in textbook actions. A simple Legendre transformation turns the lagrangian into a hamiltonian that is quadratic in the momenta. The path integral over the momenta is gaussian. Mean values of operators are euclidian path integrals of their classical counterparts with positive weight functions. Monte Carlo simulations can estimate such mean values. This familiar framework falls apart when the time derivatives do not occur quadratically. The Legendre transformation becomes difficult or so intractable that one can't find the hamiltonian. Even if one finds the hamiltonian, it usually is so complicated that one can't path-integrate over the momenta and get a euclidian path integral with a positive weight function. Monte Carlo simulations don't work when the weight function assumes negative or complex values. This paper solves both problems. It shows how to make path integrals without knowing the hamiltonian. It also shows how to estimate complex path integrals b...

  7. Entanglement by Path Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Krenn, Mario; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton


    Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional photonic systems, exploiting an idea introduced by the group of Leonard Mandel 25 years ago. The two ingredients are 1) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and 2) aligning photon paths such that they emerge from the same output mode. We explain examples for the creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces -- starting only from separable (non-entangled) photon pairs. For two photons, we show how arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. Interestingly, a common source for two-photon polarization entanglement is found as a special case. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm designing quantum experiments, and generalized it ...

  8. innovation path exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian


    Full Text Available The world has entered the information age, all kinds of information technologies such as cloud technology, big data technology are in rapid development, and the “Internet plus” appeared. The main purpose of “Internet plus” is to provide an opportunity for the further development of the enterprise, the enterprise technology, business and other aspects of factors combine. For enterprises, grasp the “Internet plus” the impact of the market economy will undoubtedly pave the way for the future development of enterprises. This paper will be on the innovation path of the enterprise management “Internet plus” era tied you study, hope to be able to put forward some opinions and suggestions.

  9. Investigation of the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, J; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne


    The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head. The investi......The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head...

  10. Spallation and fission products in the (p+{sup 179}Hf) and (p+{sup nat}Hf) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamian, S.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Ur, C.A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Induced Gamma Emission Foundation, P.O. Box 34-81, Bucharest 010044 (Romania)], E-mail:; Adam, J. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez, Prague CZ-25068 (Czech Republic); Kalinnikov, V.G.; Lebedev, N.A.; Vostokin, G.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Collins, C.B. [Center for Quantum Electronics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Popescu, I.I. [Induced Gamma Emission Foundation, P.O. Box 34-81, Bucharest 010044 (Romania)


    Production of Hf and Lu high-spin isomers has been experimentally studied in spallation reactions induced by intermediate energy protons. Targets of enriched {sup 179}Hf (91%) and {sup nat}Hf were bombarded with protons of energy in the range from 90 to 650 MeV provided by the internal beam of the Dubna Phasotron synchrocyclotron. The activation yields of the reaction products were measured by using the {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and radiochemistry methods. The production cross-sections obtained for the {sup 179m2}Hf, {sup 178m2}Hf and {sup 177m}Lu isomers are similar to the previously measured values from the spallation of Ta, Re and W targets. Therefore, the reactions involving emission of only a few nucleons, like (p,p'), (p,p'n) and (p,2pn), can transfer high enough angular momentum to the final residual nuclei with reasonable large cross-sections. A significant gain in the isomeric yields was obtained when enriched {sup 179}Hf targets were used. The mass distribution of the residual nuclei was measured over a wide range of masses and the fission-to-spallation ratio could be deduced as a function of the projectile energy. Features of the reaction mechanism are briefly discussed.

  11. Path integral in Snyder space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignemi, S., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)


    The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.

  12. Path indexing for term retrieval



    Different methods for term retrieval in deduction systems have been introduced in literature. This report eviews the three indexing techniques discrimination indexing, path indexing, and abstraction tree indexing. A formal approach to path indexing is presented and algorithms as well as data structures of an existing implementation are discussed. Eventually, experiments will show that our implementation outperforms the implementation of path indexing in the OTTER theorem prover.

  13. Vegetative propagation of jojoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, C.B.; Hackett, W.P.


    Development of jojoba as an economically viable crop requires improved methods of propagation and culture. Rooting experiments were performed on cutting material collected from wild jojoba plants. A striking seasonal fluctuation in rooting potential was found. Jojoba plants can be successfully propagated from stem cuttings made during spring, summer, and, to some extent, fall. Variability among jojoba plants may also play a role in rooting potential, although it is not as important as season. In general, the use of auxin (4,000 ppm indolebutyric acid) on jojoba cuttings during periods of high rooting potential promotes adventitious root formation, but during periods of low rooting potential it has no effect or is even slightly inhibitory. In the greenhouse, cutting-grown plants apparently reproductively matured sooner than those grown from seed. If this observation holds true for plants transplanted into the field, earlier fruit production by cutting--grown plants would mean earlier return of initial planting and maintenance costs.

  14. Propagation of Tau aggregates. (United States)

    Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia


    Since 2009, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau aggregates form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Propagation of Tau aggregates is often called prion-like, which refers to the capacity of an assembled protein to induce the same abnormal conformation in a protein of the same kind, initiating a self-amplifying cascade. In addition, prion-like encompasses the release of protein aggregates from brain cells and their uptake by neighbouring cells. In mice, the intracerebral injection of Tau inclusions induced the ordered assembly of monomeric Tau, followed by its spreading to distant brain regions. Short fibrils constituted the major species of seed-competent Tau. The existence of several human Tauopathies with distinct fibril morphologies has led to the suggestion that different molecular conformers (or strains) of aggregated Tau exist.

  15. Stochastic wave propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Sobczyk, K


    This is a concise, unified exposition of the existing methods of analysis of linear stochastic waves with particular reference to the most recent results. Both scalar and vector waves are considered. Principal attention is concentrated on wave propagation in stochastic media and wave scattering at stochastic surfaces. However, discussion extends also to various mathematical aspects of stochastic wave equations and problems of modelling stochastic media.

  16. Bidirectional beam propagation method (United States)

    Kaczmarski, P.; Lagasse, P. E.


    A bidirectional extension of the beam propagation method (BPM) to optical waveguides with a longitudinal discontinuity is presented. The algorithm is verified by computing a reflection of the TE(0) mode from a semiconductor laser facet. The bidirectional BPM is applicable to other configurations such as totally reflecting waveguide mirrors, an abruption transition in a waveguide, or a waveguide with many discontinuities generating multiple reflections. The method can also be adapted to TM polarization.

  17. Gauge engineering and propagators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Axel


    The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  18. An introduction to critical paths. (United States)

    Coffey, Richard J; Richards, Janet S; Remmert, Carl S; LeRoy, Sarah S; Schoville, Rhonda R; Baldwin, Phyllis J


    A critical path defines the optimal sequencing and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other staff for a particular diagnosis or procedure. Critical paths are developed through collaborative efforts of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others to improve the quality and value of patient care. They are designed to minimize delays and resource utilization and to maximize quality of care. Critical paths have been shown to reduce variation in the care provided, facilitate expected outcomes, reduce delays, reduce length of stay, and improve cost-effectiveness. The approach and goals of critical paths are consistent with those of total quality management (TQM) and can be an important part of an organization's TQM process.

  19. Unified interpretation of superluminal behaviors in wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranfagni, A. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Viliani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Ranfagni, C. [Facolta di Scienze Matematiche Fisiche e Naturali, Corso di Laurea in Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Mignani, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Edoardo Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi di Roma ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Ruggeri, R. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail:; Ricci, A.M. [Istituto per le Telecomunicazioni e l' Elettronica della Marina Militare ' Giancarlo Vallauri' (Mariteleradar), Viale Italia 72, 57100 Livorno (Italy)


    By using two approaches, we demonstrate that superluminal behaviors in wave propagation can be attributed to mechanisms acting in the near-field limit. One approach is based on complex waves, while the other relies on a path-integral treatment of stochastic motion. The results of the two approaches are comparable, and suitable for interpreting the data obtained in microwave experiments; these experiments, over a wide range of distances, show a time advance which, in any case, is limited to nanoseconds.

  20. Ion Concentration Polarization by Bifurcated Current Path. (United States)

    Kim, Junsuk; Cho, Inhee; Lee, Hyomin; Kim, Sung Jae


    Ion concentration polarization (ICP) is a fundamental electrokinetic process that occurs near a perm-selective membrane under dc bias. Overall process highly depends on the current transportation mechanisms such as electro-convection, surface conduction and diffusioosmosis and the fundamental characteristics can be significantly altered by external parameters, once the permselectivity was fixed. In this work, a new ICP device with a bifurcated current path as for the enhancement of the surface conduction was fabricated using a polymeric nanoporous material. It was protruded to the middle of a microchannel, while the material was exactly aligned at the interface between two microchannels in a conventional ICP device. Rigorous experiments revealed out that the propagation of ICP layer was initiated from the different locations of the protruded membrane according to the dominant current path which was determined by a bulk electrolyte concentration. Since the enhancement of surface conduction maintained the stability of ICP process, a strong electrokinetic flow associated with the amplified electric field inside ICP layer was significantly suppressed over the protruded membrane even at condensed limit. As a practical example of utilizing the protruded device, we successfully demonstrated a non-destructive micro/nanofluidic preconcentrator of fragile cellular species (i.e. red blood cells).

  1. Particle production and complex path analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, K


    This paper discusses particle production in Schwarzchild-like spacetimes and in an uniform electric field. Both problems are approached using the method of complex path analysis. Particle production in Schwarzchild-like spacetimes with a horizon is obtained here by a new and simple semi-classical method based on the method of complex paths. Hawking radiation is obtained in the (t,r) co-ordinate system of the standard Schwarzchild metric {\\it without} requiring the Kruskal extension. The co-ordinate singularity present at the horizon manifests itself as a singularity in the expression for the semi-classical propagator for a scalar field. We give a prescription whereby this singularity is regularised with Hawking's result being recovered. In the case of the electric field, standard quantum field theoretic methods can be used to obtain particle production in a purely time-dependent gauge. In a purely space-dependent gauge, however, the tunnelling interpretation has to be resorted to. We attempt, in this paper, t...

  2. High-order Path Integral Monte Carlo methods for solving quantum dot problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Siu A


    The conventional second-order Path Integral Monte Carlo method is plagued with the sign problem in solving many-fermion systems. This is due to the large number of anti-symmetric free fermion propagators that are needed to extract the ground state wave function at large imaginary time. In this work, we show that optimized fourth-order Path Integral Monte Carlo methods, which use no more than 5 free-fermion propagators, can yield accurate quantum dot energies for up to 20 polarized electrons with the use of the Hamiltonian energy estimator.

  3. Hf-Nd isotope and trace element constraints on subduction inputs at island arcs: Limitations of Hf anomalies as sediment input indicators (United States)

    Handley, Heather K.; Turner, Simon; Macpherson, Colin G.; Gertisser, Ralf; Davidson, Jon P.


    New Nd-Hf isotope and trace element data for Javanese volcanoes are combined with recently published data to place constraints on subduction inputs at the Sunda arc in Indonesia and assess the value of Hf anomalies (expressed as Hf/Hf* and Sm/Hf ratios) as tracers of such inputs. Hf anomaly does not correlate with Hf isotope ratio in Javanese lavas, however, Hf/Hf* and Sm/Hf ratios do correlate with SiO 2. Contrary to previous work, we show that Hf anomaly variation may be controlled by fractionation of clinopyroxene and/or amphibole during magmatic differentiation and does not represent the magnitude or type of subduction input in some arcs. Correlation of Sm/Hf with indices of differentiation for other arcs (e.g., Vanuatu, New Britain, and Mariana) suggests that differentiation control on Sm/Hf ratios in volcanic arc rocks may be a relatively common phenomenon. This study corroborates the use of Nd-Hf isotope co-variations in arc volcanic rocks to ascertain subduction input characteristics. The trajectories of regional volcano groups (East, Central and West Java) in Nd-Hf isotope space reveal heterogeneity in the subducted sediment input along Java, which reflects present-day spatial variations in sediment compositions on the down-going plate in the Java Trench. The high Sm/Hf ratio required in the sediment end-member for some Javanese basalts suggests that partial melting of subducted sediment occurs in the presence of residual zircon, and is inconsistent with residual monazite or allanite.

  4. Investigation and Development of Data-Driven D-Region Model for HF Systems Impacts (United States)

    Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.; Sojka, J. J.; Hunsucker, R. D.


    Space Environment Corporation (SEC) and RP Consultants (RPC) are to develop and validate a weather-capable D region model for making High Frequency (HF) absorption predictions in support of the HF communications and radar communities. The weather-capable model will assimilate solar and earth space observations from NASA satellites. The model will account for solar-induced impacts on HF absorption, including X-rays, Solar Proton Events (SPE's), and auroral precipitation. The work plan includes: I . Optimize D-region model to quickly obtain ion and electron densities for proper HF absorption calculations. 2. Develop indices-driven modules for D-region ionization sources for low, mid, & high latitudes including X-rays, cosmic rays, auroral precipitation, & solar protons. (Note: solar spectrum & auroral modules already exist). 3. Setup low-cost monitors of existing HF beacons and add one single-frequency beacon. 4. Use PENEX HF-link database with HF monitor data to validate D-region/HF absorption model using climatological ionization drivers. 5. Develop algorithms to assimilate NASA satellite data of solar, interplanetary, and auroral observations into ionization source modules. 6. Use PENEX HF-link & HF-beacon data for skill score comparison of assimilation versus climatological D-region/HF absorption model. Only some satellites are available for the PENEX time period, thus, HF-beacon data is necessary. 7. Use HF beacon monitors to develop HF-link data assimilation algorithms for regional improvement to the D-region/HF absorption model.

  5. Serpentinization Changes Nd, but not Hf Isotopes of Abyssal Peridotites (United States)

    Bizimis, M.; Frisby, C. P.; Mallick, S.


    Serpentinization of the oceanic lithosphere is a known sink for fluid mobile elements (B, Cl, Li, Sr, etc.), while high field strength elements (HFSE: e.g., Hf, Zr, Ti, Nb) are thought to be unaffected by it. In contrast, the fate of REE during serpentinization is equivocal. Correlations between REE and HFSE concentrations in abyssal peridotites suggest control by magmatic processes (Niu, 2004, J. Pet), while some LREE enrichments in serpentinized peridotites compared to their clinopyroxene (cpx) and Nd, Sr isotope data (Delacour et al., 2008, Chem. Geol.) imply seawater-derived REE addition to the mantle protolith (Paulick et al., 2006, Chem. Geol). To further constrain peridotite-seawater interaction during serpentinization we compare bulk rock and cpx Hf and Nd isotope data in partially (up to ~70%) serpentinized abyssal peridotites (9-16°E South West Indian Ridge). We also present a new method that improves yields in Hf, Nd and Pb separations from depleted (90% of Hf, Zr, Ti are retained in the residue. LA-ICPMS data shows that serpentine after olivine typically has higher LREE/HREE ratios than cpx, pronounced negative Ce anomalies, high U, Sr concentrations and low HFSE, unlike the coexisting cpx. These data are consistent with some seawater-derived LREE addition to peridotite during serpentinization, localized in the serpentine and other secondary phases, while cpx retains the magmatic value. This process will lower the Sm/Nd relative to Lu/Hf ratio in the peridotite and can lead to decoupled radiogenic Hf and unradiogenic Nd isotopes upon recycling and aging. Our data further testifies to the fidelity of Hf isotopes in tracing mantle processes, even in serpentinized rocks.

  6. Joint Efforts Towards European HF Radar Integration (United States)

    Rubio, A.; Mader, J.; Griffa, A.; Mantovani, C.; Corgnati, L.; Novellino, A.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.; Quentin, C.; Wyatt, L.; Ruiz, M. I.; Lorente, P.; Hartnett, M.; Gorringe, P.


    During the past two years, significant steps have been made in Europe for achieving the needed accessibility to High Frequency Radar (HFR) data for a pan-European use. Since 2015, EuroGOOS Ocean Observing Task Teams (TT), such as HFR TT, are operational networks of observing platforms. The main goal is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of HFR data access and tools. Particular attention is being paid by HFR TT to converge from different projects and programs toward those common objectives. First, JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatory - Novel European eXpertise for coastal observaTories, H2020 2015 Programme) will contribute on describing the status of the European network, on seeking harmonization through exchange of best practices and standardization, on developing and giving access to quality control procedures and new products, and finally on demonstrating the use of such technology in the general scientific strategy focused by the Coastal Observatory. Then, EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) Physics started to assemble HF radar metadata and data products within Europe in a uniform way. This long term program is providing a combined array of services and functionalities to users for obtaining free of charge data, meta-data and data products on the physical conditions of European sea basins and oceans. Additionally, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) delivers from 2015 a core information service to any user related to 4 areas of benefits: Maritime Safety, Coastal and Marine Environment, Marine Resources, and Weather, Seasonal Forecasting and Climate activities. INCREASE (Innovation and Networking for the integration of Coastal Radars into EuropeAn marine SErvices - CMEMS Service Evolution 2016) will set the necessary developments towards the integration of existing European

  7. First-principles study of the Hf-based Heusler alloys: Hf2CoGa and Hf2CoIn (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Min


    The electronic structures and magnetic properties of the new Heusler alloys Hf2CoGa and Hf2CoIn have been studied by using the first-principles projector augmented wave (PAW) potential within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Both Hf2CoGa and Hf2CoIn Heusler alloys have the half-metallic character and completely (100%) spin polarization at the Fermi level (EF) and the indirect band gaps of 0.733 eV and 0.654 eV, respectively, in the minority spin channel. The total magnetic moments μt are all 2μB per formula unit, linearly scaled with the total number of valence electrons (Zt) by μt=Zt-18 and the atomic magnetic moments have localized character due to less affected by deformations. The origin of the indirect band gaps for these two new Heusler alloys is well understood. These two new Heusler alloys are the ideal candidates for spintronic devices.

  8. Investigation of the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, J; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne


    The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head. The investi......The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head....... The investigation is done by SAM head phantom measurements and HFSS simulations. The investigations include setups where some propagation paths are blocked by an absorbing material. It is found that the characteristics of the head may cause constructive or destructive interference that may result in up to 10 d...

  9. Efficient Geometric Sound Propagation Using Visibility Culling (United States)

    Chandak, Anish


    Simulating propagation of sound can improve the sense of realism in interactive applications such as video games and can lead to better designs in engineering applications such as architectural acoustics. In this thesis, we present geometric sound propagation techniques which are faster than prior methods and map well to upcoming parallel multi-core CPUs. We model specular reflections by using the image-source method and model finite-edge diffraction by using the well-known Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin (BTM) model. We accelerate the computation of specular reflections by applying novel visibility algorithms, FastV and AD-Frustum, which compute visibility from a point. We accelerate finite-edge diffraction modeling by applying a novel visibility algorithm which computes visibility from a region. Our visibility algorithms are based on frustum tracing and exploit recent advances in fast ray-hierarchy intersections, data-parallel computations, and scalable, multi-core algorithms. The AD-Frustum algorithm adapts its computation to the scene complexity and allows small errors in computing specular reflection paths for higher computational efficiency. FastV and our visibility algorithm from a region are general, object-space, conservative visibility algorithms that together significantly reduce the number of image sources compared to other techniques while preserving the same accuracy. Our geometric propagation algorithms are an order of magnitude faster than prior approaches for modeling specular reflections and two to ten times faster for modeling finite-edge diffraction. Our algorithms are interactive, scale almost linearly on multi-core CPUs, and can handle large, complex, and dynamic scenes. We also compare the accuracy of our sound propagation algorithms with other methods. Once sound propagation is performed, it is desirable to listen to the propagated sound in interactive and engineering applications. We can generate smooth, artifact-free output audio signals by applying

  10. HF omnidirectional spectral CW auroral radar (HF-OSCAR) at very high latitude. Part 1: Technique (United States)

    Olesen, J. K.; Jacobsen, K. E.; Stauning, P.; Henriksen, S.


    An HF system for studies of very high latitude ionospheric irregularities was described. Radio aurora from field-aligned E-region irregularities of the Slant E Condition type were discussed. The complete system combines an ionosonde, a 12 MHz pulse radar and a 12 MHz bistatic CW Doppler-range set-up. The two latter units use alternately a 360 deg rotating Yagi antenna. High precision oscillators secure the frequency stability of the Doppler system in which the received signal is mixed down to a center frequency of 500 Hz. The Doppler shift range is max + or - 500 Hz. The received signal is recorded in analog form on magnetic tape and may be monitored visually and audibly. Echo range of the CW Doppler signal is obtained by a 150 Hz amplitude modulation of the transmitted signal and phase comparison with the backscattered signal.

  11. Comparison of HfAlO, HfO2/Al2O3, and HfO2 on n-type GaAs using atomic layer deposition (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Lv, Hongliang; Zhang, Yuming; Zhang, Yimen; Liu, Chen


    Different high-permittivity (high-k) gate dielectric structures of HfO2, HfAlO, and HfO2/Al2O3 deposited on HF-etched n-GaAs using ALD have been investigated. It has been demonstrated that the stacked structure of HfO2/Al2O3 has the lowest interface state density of 8.12 × 1012eV-1 cm-2 due to the "self-cleaning" reaction process, but the sample of HfAlO shows much better frequency dispersion and much higher dielectric permittivity extracted from the C-V curves. The investigation reveals that the electrical properties of gate dielectrics are improved by introducing alumina into HfO2.

  12. FEM Modeling of Crack Propagation in a Model Multiphase Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihe QIAN; Seishi NISHIDO; Hiroyuki TODA; Tosliro KOBAYASHI


    In this paper, several widely applied fracture criteria were first numerically examined and the crack-tip-region Jintegral criterion was confirmed to be more applicable to predict fracture angle in an elastic-plastic multiphase material. Then, the crack propagation in an idealized dendritic two-phase Al-7%Si alloy was modeled using an elastic-plastic finite element method. The variation of crack growth driving force with crack extension was also demonstrated. It is found that the crack path is significantly influenced by the presence of α-phase near the crack tip, and the crack growth driving force varies drastically from place to place. Lastly, the simulated fracture path in the two-phase model alloy was compared with the experimentally observed fracture path.

  13. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten


    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  14. Two Generations of Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

      Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...

  15. Wave propagation in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Jan


    The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat

  16. Mechanical properties of cast Ti-Hf alloys. (United States)

    Sato, Hideki; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Komatsu, Masashi; Okuno, Osamu; Okabe, Toru


    This study examined the mechanical properties of a series of Ti-Hf alloys. Titanium alloys with 10 to 40 mass % Hf were made with titanium and hafnium sponge in an argon-arc melting furnace. Specimens cast into magnesia-based investment molds were tested for yield strength, tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus of elasticity. Vickers microhardness was determined at 25 to 600 microm from the cast surface. X-ray diffractometry was also performed. Commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) and pure Ti prepared from titanium sponge were used as controls. The data (n = 5) were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (alpha = 0.05). The diffraction peaks of all the metals matched those for alpha Ti; no beta phase peaks were found. Alloys with Hf > or = 25% had significantly (p 0.05) in elongation among all the Ti-Hf alloys and CP Ti, whereas the elongation of alloys with Hf > or = 30% was significantly (p alloys tested can be considered viable alternatives to CP Ti because they were stronger than CP Ti and had similar elongation.

  17. Geometric Aspects of Artificial Ionospheric Layers Driven by High-Power HF-Heating (United States)

    Milikh, G. M.; Eliasson, B.; Shao, X.; Djordjevic, B.; Mishin, E. V.; Zawdie, K.; Papadopoulos, K.


    We have generalized earlier developed multi-scale dynamic model for the creation and propagation of artificial plasma layers in the ionosphere [Eliasson et al, 2012] by including two dimensional effects in the horizontal direction. Such layers were observed during high-power high frequency HF heating experiments at HAARP [Pedersen et al., 2010]. We have numerically investigated the importance of different angles of incidence of ordinary mode waves on the Langmuir turbulence and the resulting electron acceleration that leads to the formation of artificial ionospheric layers. It was shown that the most efficient electron acceleration and subsequent ionization is obtained at angles between magnetic zenith and the vertical, where strong Langmuir turbulence dominates over weak turbulence. A role played by the heating wave propagation near caustics was also investigated. Eliasson, B. et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res. 117, A10321, doi:10.1029/2012JA018105. Pedersen, T., et al. (2010), Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L02106, doi:10.1029/2009GL041895.

  18. Sustainable Energy Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yamamoto


    Full Text Available The uses of fossil fuels cause not only the resources exhaustion but also the environmental problems such as global warming. The purposes of this study are to evaluate paths toward sustainable energy systems and roles of each renewable. In order to realize the purposes, the authors developed the global land use and energy model that figured the global energy supply systems in the future considering the cost minimization. Using the model, the authors conducted a simulation in C30R scenario, which is a kind of strict CO2 emission limit scenarios and reduced CO2 emissions by 30% compared with Kyoto protocol forever scenario, and obtained the following results. In C30R scenario bioenergy will supply 33% of all the primary energy consumption. However, wind and photovoltaic will supply 1.8% and 1.4% of all the primary energy consumption, respectively, because of the limits of power grid stability. The results imply that the strict limits of CO2 emissions are not sufficient to achieve the complete renewable energy systems. In order to use wind and photovoltaic as major energy resources, we need not only to reduce the plant costs but also to develop unconventional renewable technologies.

  19. Temporal scaling in information propagation. (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi


    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  20. Temporal scaling in information propagation (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi


    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  1. Propagation of Vortex Electron Wave Functions in a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Gallatin, Gregg M


    The physics of coherent beams of photons carrying axial orbital angular momentum (OAM) is well understood and such beams, sometimes known as vortex beams, have found applications in optics and microscopy. Recently electron beams carrying very large values of axial OAM have been generated. In the absence of coupling to an external electromagnetic field the propagation of such vortex electron beams is virtually identical mathematically to that of vortex photon beams propagating in a medium with a homogeneous index of refraction. But when coupled to an external electromagnetic field the propagation of vortex electron beams is distinctly different from photons. Here we use the exact path integral solution to Schrodingers equation to examine the time evolution of an electron wave function carrying axial OAM. Interestingly we find that the nonzero OAM wave function can be obtained from the zero OAM wave function, in the case considered here, simply by multipling it by an appropriate time and position dependent pref...

  2. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing


    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  3. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing


    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  4. PIV uncertainty propagation (United States)

    Sciacchitano, Andrea; Wieneke, Bernhard


    This paper discusses the propagation of the instantaneous uncertainty of PIV measurements to statistical and instantaneous quantities of interest derived from the velocity field. The expression of the uncertainty of vorticity, velocity divergence, mean value and Reynolds stresses is derived. It is shown that the uncertainty of vorticity and velocity divergence requires the knowledge of the spatial correlation between the error of the x and y particle image displacement, which depends upon the measurement spatial resolution. The uncertainty of statistical quantities is often dominated by the random uncertainty due to the finite sample size and decreases with the square root of the effective number of independent samples. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to assess the accuracy of the uncertainty propagation formulae. Furthermore, three experimental assessments are carried out. In the first experiment, a turntable is used to simulate a rigid rotation flow field. The estimated uncertainty of the vorticity is compared with the actual vorticity error root-mean-square, with differences between the two quantities within 5-10% for different interrogation window sizes and overlap factors. A turbulent jet flow is investigated in the second experimental assessment. The reference velocity, which is used to compute the reference value of the instantaneous flow properties of interest, is obtained with an auxiliary PIV system, which features a higher dynamic range than the measurement system. Finally, the uncertainty quantification of statistical quantities is assessed via PIV measurements in a cavity flow. The comparison between estimated uncertainty and actual error demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed uncertainty propagation methodology.

  5. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions (United States)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.


    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  6. Ionospheric Radio Propagation (United States)


    applies Chapter 2 presents in simple form the mathe - principles which have been found to work in prac- matical theory underlying the propagation of...6.17, which was described under sec- L713 412 812.111 410.511171IS1&41&716.3 A& tion 6.5 above, and read the value of the muf for muFi .-f------ - 01...twepse, 71. mathe 1measuring virtual 6elghts, is world contour charts. 57; zero distance, 73. Se .1.. Contour chairt MCNiII, A. 0., 106 G Median value

  7. Sequential Back—Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 刘大有; 等


    In this paper we consider the problem of sequential processing and present a sequential model based on the back-propagation algorithm.This model is intended to deal with intrinsically sequential problems,such as word recognition,speech recognition,natural language understanding.This model can be used to train a network to learn the sequence of input patterns,in a fixed order or a random order.Besides,this model is open- and partial-associative,characterized as “resognizing while accumulating”, which, as we argue, is mental cognition process oriented.

  8. HfO2 Gate Dielectrics for Future Generation of CMOS Device Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y.Yu; J.F.Kang; Ren Chi; M.F.Li; D.L.Kwong


    The material and electrical properties of HfO2 high-k gate dielectric are reported.In the first part,the band alignment of HfO2 and (HfO2)x(Al2O3)1-x to (100)Si substrate and their thermal stability are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and TEM.The energy gap of (HfO2)x(Al2O3)1-x,the valence band offset,and the conduction band offset between (HfO2)x(Al2O3)1-x and the Si substrate as functions of x are obtained based on the XPS results.Our XPS results also demonstrate that both the thermal stability and the resistance to oxygen diffusion of HfO2 are improved by adding Al to form Hf aluminates.In the second part,a thermally stable and high quality HfN/HfO2 gate stack is reported.Negligible changes in equivalent oxide thickness (EOT),gate leakage,and work function (close to Si mid-gap) of HfN/HfO2 gate stack are demonstrated even after 1000℃ post-metal annealing(PMA),which is attributed to the superior oxygen diffusion barrier of HfN as well as the thermal stability of the HfN/HfO2 interface.Therefore,even without surface nitridation prior to HfO2 deposition,the EOT of HfN/HfO2 gate stack has been successfully scaled down to less than 1nm after 1000℃ PMA with excellent leakage and long-term reliability.The last part demonstrates a novel replacement gate process employing a HfN dummy gate and sub-1nm EOT HfO2 gate dielectric.The excellent thermal stability of the HfN/HfO2 gate stack enables its use in high temperature CMOS processes.The replacement of HfN with other metal gate materials with work functions adequate for n- and p-MOS is facilitated by a high etch selectivity of HfN with respect to HfO2,without any degradation to the EOT,gate leakage,or TDDB characteristics of HfO2.

  9. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.


    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  10. Radio propagation for space communications systems (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J.


    This paper presents a review of the most recent information on the effects of the earth's atmosphere on space communications systems. Models and techniques used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission are discussed. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the effects of precipitation on the earth-space path, including rain attenuation, and rain and ice-particle depolarization. Sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence are also discussed. The impact of the various propagation factors on communications system design criteria is presented. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contributions, modulation and polarization factors, channel crosstalk, error-rate, and bandwidth limitations.

  11. Pressure-induced novel compounds in the Hf-O system from first-principles calculations (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Oganov, Artem R.; Li, Xinfeng; Xue, Kan-Hao; Wang, Zhenhai; Dong, Huafeng


    Using first-principles evolutionary simulations, we have systematically investigated phase stability in the Hf-O system at pressure up to 120 GPa. New compounds Hf5O2,Hf3O2 , HfO, and HfO3 are discovered to be thermodynamically stable at certain pressure ranges. Two new high-pressure phases are found for Hf2O : one with space group Pnnm and anti-CaCl2-type structure, another with space group I 41/amd. Pnnm-HfO3 shows interesting structure, simultaneously containing oxide O2 - and peroxide [O-O]2 - anions. Remarkably, it is P 6 ¯2 m -HfO rather than OII-HfO2 that exhibits the highest mechanical characteristics among Hf-O compounds. Pnnm-Hf2O , Imm2-Hf5O2 ,P 3 ¯1 m -Hf2O , and P 4 ¯m 2 -Hf2O3 phases also show superior mechanical properties; theoretically these phases become metastable phases to ambient pressure and their properties can be exploited.

  12. The Effect of Refractivity on Propagation at UHF and VHF Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alam


    Full Text Available This paper is using weather parameters to investigate the effect of refractivity on propagation in the first kilometer of the atmosphere over the English Channel for a long transhorizon path of 140 km. Different refractivity profiles are constructed based on meteorological data taken from the UK Meteorological Office in order to investigate the effects of refractivity on propagation. The analysis is made for the hourly experimental path loss between the transmitter and receiver obtained from the experimental setup comprised of two communication links. The frequency of operation of the first link is 2015 MHz and that of the second link is 240 MHz. Parabolic equation method is modelled to get an hourly modelled path loss corresponding to each hourly experimental path loss to be analyzed for the said communication links. The correlation between the modelled path loss and experimental path loss is computed for refractivity distribution recommended by the ITU and predicted profiles. It is inferred from the simulated and experimental results that little or no influence exists by the evaporation duct upon path loss at 2015 MHz specifically for a long path of 140 km over the sea.

  13. Impact of nonlinear absorption on propagation of microwave in a plasma filled rectangular waveguide (United States)

    Sobhani, H.; Vaziri, M.; Rooholamininejad, H.; Bahrampour, A. R.


    In collisional and ponderomotive predominant regimes, the propagation of microwave in rectangular waveguide filled with collisional plasma is investigated numerically. The dominant mode is excited through an evacuated waveguide and then enters a similar and co-axis waveguide filled with plasma. In collisional predominant regime, the amplitude of electric field is oscillated along propagation path; outset of propagation path due to the electron-ion collision, the intensity oscillations are reduced. Afterward, under competition between the collisional nonlinearity and absorption, the intensity is increased, so the electron density peak is created in middle of waveguide. In ponderomotive predominant regime, the intensity is slowly decreased due to collision, so the electron density is ramped. Control parameters, like the frequency, input power, collision frequency, and background electron density are surveyed that can be used to control propagation characteristics of microwave. This method can be used to control heating of fusion plasma and accelerate charged particle.

  14. Three-Dimensional Gear Crack Propagation Studied (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.


    Gears used in current helicopters and turboprops are designed for light weight, high margins of safety, and high reliability. However, unexpected gear failures may occur even with adequate tooth design. To design an extremely safe system, the designer must ask and address the question, "What happens when a failure occurs?" With gear-tooth bending fatigue, tooth or rim fractures may occur. A crack that propagates through a rim will be catastrophic, leading to disengagement of the rotor or propeller, loss of an aircraft, and possible fatalities. This failure mode should be avoided. A crack that propagates through a tooth may or may not be catastrophic, depending on the design and operating conditions. Also, early warning of this failure mode may be possible because of advances in modern diagnostic systems. One concept proposed to address bending fatigue fracture from a safety aspect is a splittooth gear design. The prime objective of this design would be to control crack propagation in a desired direction such that at least half of the tooth would remain operational should a bending failure occur. A study at the NASA Lewis Research Center analytically validated the crack-propagation failsafe characteristics of a split-tooth gear. It used a specially developed three-dimensional crack analysis program that was based on boundary element modeling and principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Crack shapes as well as the crack-propagation life were predicted on the basis of the calculated stress intensity factors, mixed-mode crack-propagation trajectory theories, and fatigue crack-growth theories. The preceding figures show the effect of the location of initial cracks on crack propagation. Initial cracks in the fillet of the teeth produced stress intensity factors of greater magnitude (and thus, greater crack growth rates) than those in the root or groove areas of the teeth. Crack growth was simulated in a case study to evaluate crack-propagation paths. Tooth

  15. Effect of HF leaching on 14C dates of pottery (United States)

    Goslar, Tomasz; Kozłowski, Janusz; Szmyt, Marzena; Czernik, Justyna


    This paper presents the experiments with 14C dating of two potsherds, which contained carbon dispersed rather homogeneously in their clay fabric. After AAA treatment, the potsherds still appeared to be contaminated with young carbon, presumably connected with humic acids. To make removal of humic acids more effective, we treated the sherds with HF acid of different concentration. The 14C results obtained demonstrate that HF treatment indeed helps to remove humic contaminants, but it also mobilizes carbon bound to raw clay, which may make 14C dates too old. We conclude therefore, that using a simple combination of HF and AAA treatment seems insufficient in reliable 14C dating of carbon homogeneously dispersed in the volume of potsherds.

  16. Light Propagation Volumes


    Mikulica, Tomáš


    Cílem diplomové práce je popsat různé metody výpočtu globálního osvětlení scény včetně techniky Light Propagation Volumes. Pro tuto metodu jsou podrobně popsány všechny tři kroky výpočtu: injekce, propagace a vykreslení. Dále je navrženo několik vlastních rozšíření zlepšující grafickou kvalitu metody. Části návrhu a implementace jsou zaměřeny na popis scény, zobrazovacího systému, tvorby stínů, implementace metody Light Propagation Volumes a navržených rozšíření. Práci uzavírá měření, porovná...

  17. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends... completed; and (1) The takeoff path must be based on the procedures prescribed in § 23.45; (2) The...

  18. Geodesic flows on path spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG; Kainan


    [1] Cruzeiro, A. B., Malliavin, P., Renormalized differential geometry on path spaces: Structural equation, curvature, J. Funct. Anal., 1996, 139: 119-181.[2] Stroock, D. W., Some thoughts about Riemannian structures on path spaces, preprint, 1996.[3] Driver, B., A Cameron-Martin type quasi-invariance theorem for Brownian motion on a compact manifold, J. Funct. Anal., 1992, 109: 272-376.[4] Enchev, O., Stroock, D. W., Towards a Riemannian geometry on the path space over a Riemannian manifold, J. Funct. Anal., 1995, 134: 392-416.[5] Hsu, E., Quasi-invariance of the Wiener measure on the path space over a compact Riemannian manifold, J. Funct. Anal., 1995, 134: 417-450.[6] Lyons, T. J., Qian, Z. M., A class of vector fields on path space, J.Funct. Anal., 1997, 145: 205-223.[7] Li, X. D., Existence and uniqueness of geodesics on path spaces, J. Funct. Anal., to be published.[8] Driver, B., Towards calculus and geometry on path spaces, in Proc. Symp. Pure and Appl. Math. 57 (ed. Cranston, M., Pinsky, M.), Cornell: AMS, 1993, 1995.

  19. The Status of Rotational Nonequilibrium in HF Chemical Lasers (United States)


    later study from the same laboratory, Copeland et al. 5 3 used a NdYAG dye laser to pump HF into v = 2, j, and an HF pulsed laser to probe various P 2(J... Weston , Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 77, 4776 (1982). 51. J. J. Hinchen and R. H. Hobbs, Appl. Phys. 50, 628 (1979). 52. j. K. Lambert, G. M. Jursich, and F. F...Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 71, 258 (1980). 53. R. A. Copeland , D. J. Pearson, and F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 81, 541 (1981). 54. T. J. Foster and F. F

  20. HF-induced airglow at magnetic zenith: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mishin


    Full Text Available Observations of airglow at 630nm (red line and 557.7nm (green line during HF modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP heating facility are analyzed. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding the generation of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves during magnetic zenith injections. We show that observations of HF-induced airglow in an underdense ionosphere as well as a decrease in the height of the emitting volume are consistent with this scenario.

  1. HF-hash : Hash Functions Using Restricted HFE Challenge-1

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Dhananjoy; Gupta, Indranath Sen


    Vulnerability of dedicated hash functions to various attacks has made the task of designing hash function much more challenging. This provides us a strong motivation to design a new cryptographic hash function viz. HF-hash. This is a hash function, whose compression function is designed by using first 32 polynomials of HFE Challenge-1 with 64 variables by forcing remaining 16 variables as zero. HF-hash gives 256 bits message digest and is as efficient as SHA-256. It is secure against the differential attack proposed by Chabaud and Joux as well as by Wang et. al. applied to SHA-0 and SHA-1.

  2. Hf--Co--B alloys as permanent magnet materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Michael Alan; Rios, Orlando; Ghimire, Nirmal Jeevi


    An alloy composition is composed essentially of Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 0Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 0.ltoreq.X<2 and 0

  3. First HF radar measurements of summer mesopause echoes at SURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Karashtin

    Full Text Available HF sounding of the mesosphere was first carried out at SURA in summer 1994 at frequencies in the range 8–9 MHz using one of the sub-arrays of the SURA heating facility. The observations had a range resolution of 3 km. Almost all measurements indicated the presence of strong radar returns from altitudes between 83 and 90 km with features very similar to VHF measurements of mesopause summer echoes at mid-latitudes and polar mesopause summer echoes. In contrast to VHF observations, HF mesopause echoes are almost always present.

  4. First HF radar measurements of summer mesopause echoes at SURA (United States)

    Karashtin, A. N.; Shlyugaev, Y. V.; Abramov, V. I.; Belov, I. F.; Berezin, I. V.; Bychkov, V. V.; Eryshev, E. B.; Komrakov, G. P.


    HF sounding of the mesosphere was first carried out at SURA in summer 1994 at frequencies in the range 8-9 MHz using one of the sub-arrays of the SURA heating facility. The observations had a range resolution of 3 km. Almost all measurements indicated the presence of strong radar returns from altitudes between 83 and 90 km with features very similar to VHF measurements of mesopause summer echoes at mid-latitudes and polar mesopause summer echoes. In contrast to VHF observations, HF mesopause echoes are almost always present.

  5. European coordination for coastal HF radar data in EMODnet Physics (United States)

    Mader, Julien; Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Griffa, Annalisa; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Montero, Pedro; Montovani, Carlo; Ayensa, Garbi; Vila, Begoña; Rubio, Anna; Sagarminaga, Yolanda


    Historically, joint effort has been put on observing open ocean, organizing, homogenizing, sharing and reinforcing the impact of the acquired information based on one technology: ARGO with profilers Argo floats, EuroSites, ESONET-NoE, FixO3 for deep water platforms, Ferrybox for stations in ships of opportunities, and GROOM for the more recent gliders. This kind of networking creates synergies and makes easier the implementation of this source of data in the European Data exchange services like EMODnet, ROOSs portals, or any applied services in the Blue economy. One main targeted improvement in the second phase of EMODnet projects is the assembling of data along coastline. In that sense, further coordination is recommended between platform operators around a specific technology in order to make easier the implementation of the data in the platforms (4th EuroGOOS DATAMEQ WG). HF radar is today recognized internationally as a cost-effective solution to provide high spatial and temporal resolution current maps (depending on the instrument operation frequency, covering from a few kilometres offshore up to 200 km) that are needed for many applications for issues related to ocean surface drift or sea state characterization. Significant heterogeneity still exists in Europe concerning technological configurations, data processing, quality standards and data availability. This makes more difficult the development of a significant network for achieving the needed accessibility to HF Radar data for a pan European use. EuroGOOS took the initiative to lead and coordinate activities within the various observation platforms by establishing a number of Ocean Observing Task Teams such as HF-Radars. The purpose is to coordinate and join the technological, scientific and operational HF radar communities at European level. The goal of the group is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of

  6. Path integrals and quantum processes

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, Marc S


    In a clearly written and systematic presentation, Path Integrals and Quantum Processes covers all concepts necessary to understand the path integral approach to calculating transition elements, partition functions, and source functionals. The book, which assumes only a familiarity with quantum mechanics, is ideal for use as a supplemental textbook in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory courses. Graduate and post-graduate students who are unfamiliar with the path integral will also benefit from this contemporary text. Exercise sets are interspersed throughout the text to facilitate self-

  7. Path Integration in Conical Space


    Inomata, Akira; Junker, Georg


    Quantum mechanics in conical space is studied by the path integral method. It is shown that the curvature effect gives rise to an effective potential in the radial path integral. It is further shown that the radial path integral in conical space can be reduced to a form identical with that in flat space when the discrete angular momentum of each partial wave is replaced by a specific non-integral angular momentum. The effective potential is found proportional to the squared mean curvature of ...

  8. On the Reaction Path Hamiltonian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家钟; 李泽生


    A vector-fiber bundle structure of the reaction path Hamiltonian, which has been introduced by Miller, Handy and Adams, is explored with respect to molecular vibrations orthogonal to the reaction path. The symmetry of the fiber bundle is characterized by the real orthogonal group O(3N- 7) for the dynamical system with N atoms. Under the action of group O(3N- 7). the kinetic energy of the reaction path Hamiltonian is left invariant. Furthermore , the invariant behaviour of the Hamiltonian vector fields is investigated.

  9. Hybrid location determination technology within urban and indoor environment based on Cell-ID and path loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; LEI Jian-jun; XIA Ying; GE Jun-wei; BAE Hae-young


    The location determination technology based on simple delay evaluations or GPS is not accurate enough or even impossible in urban and indoor environments due to the multi-path propagation. To enhance the location accuracy and reduce the operation cost within these environments, this paper proposes a novel hybrid location determination technology which combines CELL-ID with the database correlation method. The proposed method generate the prediction database of path loss according to CELL-ID, and after the computation the smallest squared error of measured path loss and the prediction path loss,the location of the mobile terminal is decided by the coordinates of the best matching matrix entry.

  10. Propagation behavior of acoustic wave in wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huadong Xu; Guoqi Xu; Lihai Wang; Lei Yu


    We used acoustic tests on a quarter-sawn poplar timbers to study the effects of wood anisotropy and cavity defects on acoustic wave velocity and travel path, and we investigated acoustic wave propagation behavior in wood. The timber specimens were first tested in unmodified condition and then tested after introduction of cavity defects of varying sizes to quantify the transmitting time of acoustic waves in laboratory conditions. Two-dimensional acoustic wave contour maps on the radial section of specimens were then simulated and analyzed based on the experimental data. We tested the relationship between wood grain and acoustic wave velocity as waves passed in various directions through wood. Wood anisotropy has significant effects on both velocity and travel path of acoustic waves, and the velocity of waves passing longitudinally through timbers exceeded the radial velocity. Moreover, cavity defects altered acoustic wave time contours on radial sections of timbers. Acous-tic wave transits from an excitation point to the region behind a cavity in defective wood more slowly than in intact wood.

  11. Transition Path Theory (United States)

    vanden-Eijnden, E.

    The dynamical behavior of many systems arising in physics, chemistry, biology, etc. is dominated by rare but important transition events between long lived states. For over 70 years, transition state theory (TST) has provided the main theoretical framework for the description of these events [17,33,34]. Yet, while TST and evolutions thereof based on the reactive flux formalism [1, 5] (see also [30,31]) give an accurate estimate of the transition rate of a reaction, at least in principle, the theory tells very little in terms of the mechanism of this reaction. Recent advances, such as transition path sampling (TPS) of Bolhuis, Chandler, Dellago, and Geissler [3, 7] or the action method of Elber [15, 16], may seem to go beyond TST in that respect: these techniques allow indeed to sample the ensemble of reactive trajectories, i.e. the trajectories by which the reaction occurs. And yet, the reactive trajectories may again be rather uninformative about the mechanism of the reaction. This may sound paradoxical at first: what more than actual reactive trajectories could one need to understand a reaction? The problem, however, is that the reactive trajectories by themselves give only a very indirect information about the statistical properties of these trajectories. This is similar to why statistical mechanics is not simply a footnote in books about classical mechanics. What is the probability density that a trajectory be at a given location in state-space conditional on it being reactive? What is the probability current of these reactive trajectories? What is their rate of appearance? These are the questions of interest and they are not easy to answer directly from the ensemble of reactive trajectories. The right framework to tackle these questions also goes beyond standard equilibrium statistical mechanics because of the nontrivial bias that the very definition of the reactive trajectories imply - they must be involved in a reaction. The aim of this chapter is to

  12. Light Front Boson Model Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki


    stract The scope and aim of this work is to describe the two-body interaction mediated by a particle (either the scalar or the gauge boson) within the light-front formulation. To do this, first of all we point out the importance of propagators and Green functions in Quantum Mechanics. Then we project the covariant quantum propagator onto the light front time to get the propagator for scalar particles in these coordinates. This operator propagates the wave function from x+ = 0 to x+ > O. It corresponds to the definition of the time ordering operation in the light front time x+. We calculate the light-front Green's function for 2 interacting bosons propagating forward in x+. We also show how to write down the light front Green's function from the Feynman propagator and finally make a generalization to N bosons.

  13. Gauge engineering and propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Axel


    Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  14. Gauge engineering and propagators (United States)

    Maas, Axel


    Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  15. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam


    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  16. Evolution of E2 transition strength in deformed hafnium isotopes from new measurements on $^{172}$Hf, $^{174}$Hf, and $^{176}$Hf

    CERN Document Server

    Rudigier, M; Dannhoff, M; Gerst, R-B; Jolie, J; Saed-Samii, N; Stegemann, S; Régis, J-M; Robledo, L M; Rodríguez-Guzmán, R; Blazhev, A; Fransen, Ch; Warr, N; Zell, K O


    The available data for E2 transition strengths in the region between neutron-deficient Hf and Pt isotopes are far from complete. More and precise data are needed to enhance the picture of structure evolution in this region and to test state-of-the-art nuclear models. In a simple model, the maximum collectivity is expected at the middle of the major shell. However, for actual nuclei, this picture may no longer be the case, and one should use a more realistic nuclear-structure model. We address this point by studying the spectroscopy of Hf. We remeasure the 2^+_1 half-lives of 172,174,176Hf, for which there is some disagreement in the literature. The main goal is to measure, for the first time, the half-lives of higher-lying states of the rotational band. The new results are compared to a theoretical calculation for absolute transition strengths. The half-lives were measured using \\gamma-\\gamma and conversion-electron-\\gamma delayed coincidences with the fast timing method. For the determination of half-lives i...

  17. Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory (United States)

    Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.


    Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.

  18. Study of the Wheeler Propagator


    Bollini, C. G.; Rocca, M. C.


    We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators.

  19. The impact of PMSE and NLC particles on VLF propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nunn


    Full Text Available PMSE or Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes are a well-known phenomenon in the summer northern polar regions, in which anomalous VHF/UHF radar echoes are returned from heights ~85km. Noctilucent clouds and electron density biteouts are two phenomena that sometimes occur together with PMSE. Electron density biteouts are electron density depletion layers of up to 90%, which may be several kms thick. Using the NOSC Modefndr code based on Wait's modal theory for subionospheric propagation, we calculate the shifts in received VLF amplitude and phase that occur as a result of electron density biteouts. The code assumes a homogeneous background ionosphere and a homogeneous biteout layer along the Great Circle Path (GCP corridor, for transmitter receiver path lengths in the range of 500–6000km.

    For profiles during the 10h about midnight and under quiet geomagnetic conditions, where the electron density at 85km would normally be less than 500el/cc, it was found that received signal perturbations were significant, of the order of 1–4dB and 5–40° of phase. Perturbation amplitudes increase roughly as the square root of frequency. At short range perturbations are rather erratic, but more consistent at large ranges, readily interpretable in terms of the shifts in excitation factor, attenuation factor and v/c ratios for Wait's modes. Under these conditions such shifts should be detectable by a well constituted experiment involving multiple paths and multiple frequencies in the north polar region in summer. It is anticipated that VLF propagation could be a valuable diagnostic for biteout/PMSE when electron density at 85km is under 500el/cc, under which circumstances PMSE are not directly detectable by VHF/UHF radars.

    Key words. Electromagnetism (wave propagation – Ionosphere (polar ionosphere – Radioscience (ionospheric propagation

  20. Scattering theory with path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfelder, R. [Particle Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

  1. Scattering Theory with Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfelder, R


    Starting from well-known expressions for the $T$-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

  2. An Introduction to Path Analysis (United States)

    Wolfe, Lee M.


    The analytical procedure of path analysis is described in terms of its use in nonexperimental settings in the social sciences. The description assumes a moderate statistical background on the part of the reader. (JKS)

  3. Comparative study of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2/Al2O3, Hf0.8Al0.2Ox and Hf0.5Al0.5Ox on N-GaAs (United States)

    Yu, Xinjiang; Lv, Hongliang; Zhang, Yuming; Zhang, Yimen; Qin, Zaiyang


    Interfacial properties of n-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOSCAPs) with the gate dielectrics of HfO2/Al2O3, Hf0.8Al0.2Ox and Hf0.5Al0.5Ox are investigated. The results reveal that Hf0.5Al0.5Ox has larger permittivity and lower interface trap density than that of HfO2/Al2O3. In order to explain the result from the physical perspective, the XPS tests of all three samples are performed. It is found that the main reason to form interface trap of three samples treated with 500 °C post-deposition annealing, is attributed to the interfacial component of Ga2O3 and The Hf0.5Al0.5Ox dielectric is beneficial to reducing the formation of Ga2O3.

  4. Underwater Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea: Intensity Fluctuations (United States)

    White, Andrew W.

    In the spring of 2009, broadband transmissions from a ship-suspended source with a 284 Hz center frequency were received on a moored and navigated vertical array of hydrophones over a range of 107 km in the Philippine Sea. During a 60-hour period over 19 000 transmissions were carried out. The observed wavefront arrival structure reveals four distinct purely refracted acoustic paths: one with a single upper turning point near 80 m depth, two with a pair of upper turning points at a depth of roughly 300 m, and one with three upper turning points at 420 m. Individual path intensity, defined as the absolute square of the center frequency Fourier component for that arrival, was estimated over the 60-hour duration and used to compute scintillation index and log-intensity variance. Monte Carlo parabolic equation simulations using internal-wave induced sound speed perturbations obeying the Garrett-Munk internal-wave en- ergy spectrum were in agreement with measured data for the three deeper-turning paths but differed by as much as a factor of four for the near surface-interacting path. Estimates of the power spectral density and temporal autocorrelation function of intensity were attempted, but were complicated by gaps in the measured time-series. Deep fades in intensity were observed in the near surface-interacting path. Hypothesized causes for the deep fades were examined through further acoustic propagation modeling and analysis of various available oceanographic measurements.

  5. Equivariant Localization of Path Integrals


    Szabo, Richard J.


    We review equivariant localization techniques for the evaluation of Feynman path integrals. We develop systematic geometric methods for studying the semi-classical properties of phase space path integrals for dynamical systems, emphasizing the relations with integrable and topological quantum field theories. Beginning with a detailed review of the relevant mathematical background -- equivariant cohomology and the Duistermaat-Heckman theorem, we demonstrate how the localization ideas are relat...

  6. Path Integrals in Quantum Physics



    These lectures aim at giving graduate students an introduction to and a working knowledge of path integral methods in a wide variety of fields in physics. Consequently, the lecture notes are organized in three main parts dealing with non-relativistic quantum mechanics, many-body physics and field theory. In the first part the basic concepts of path integrals are developed in the usual heuristic, non-mathematical way followed by standard examples and special applications including numerical ev...

  7. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.


    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  8. First 100 ms of HF modification at Tromso, Norway (United States)

    Djuth, F. T.; Isham, B.; Rietveld, M. T.; Hagfors, T.; La Hoz, C.

    Experiments were performed with the high-power high-frequency HF facility at Troms o Norway to test theoretical predictions for the excitation of ion and Langmuir oscillations in the ionosphere The principal diagnostic of wave-plasma interactions was the VHF radar at the European Incoherent Scatter EISCAT facility High resolution radar techniques were used to monitor the temporal development of the ion and Langmuir oscillations HF pulses 100 ms in duration were periodically transmitted into a smooth background F region plasma Measurements of the radar backscatter spectra show that all key spectral features predicted by strong Langmuir turbulence SLT theory modified Zakharov model are simultaneously present in the plasma and that their evolution is in agreement with theoretical expectations However several new features have been observed that cannot be anticipated by current theory because of limitations in the electric field strength within the simulations The experimental results reinforce the notion that new theoretical developments are needed to accommodate the large HF electric fields produced at Troms o and HAARP Gakona Alaska and to treat the electron acceleration process in a self-consistent fashion The F region response to two HF effective radiated power levels sim 58 MW and sim 125 MW was investigated at Troms o These ERP values include absorptive losses resulting from the sunlit D region In general the results at 58 MW ERP and 125 MW ERP are consistent with many of the SLT

  9. The multilayer Fe/Hf studied with slow positron beam (United States)

    Murashige, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Nakajyo, T.; Koizumi, T.; Kanazawa, I.; Komori, F.; Ito, Y.


    The positron annihilation parameter versus the incident positron energy is measured in the thin Fe films and the Fe/Hf bilayer on silica substrate, by means of the variable energetic slow-positron beam technique. We have analyzed the change in open-volume spaces and vacancy-type defects among the Fe microcrystals in these thin films with the deposition temperature.

  10. A CMOS OTA for HF filters with programmable transfer function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Zwan, Eric J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Seevinck, E.; Seevinck, Evert


    A CMOS operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) for programmable HF filters is presented. When used in an OTA-C integrator, the unity-gain frequency phase error remains less than 0.3° for frequencies up to more than one tenth of the OTA bandwidth. The OTA has built-in phase compensation, which

  11. Hf isotope evidence for a hidden mantle reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Simonetti, A.; Stevenson, R.K.


    High-precision Hf isotopic analyses and U-Pb ages of carbonatites and kimberlites from Greenland and eastern North America, including Earth's oldest known carbonatite (3 Ga), indicate derivation from an enriched mantle source. This previously unidentified mantle reservoir-marked by an unradiogeni...

  12. Origin of excess 176Hf in meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Kristine; Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin


    After considerable controversy regarding the (176)Lu decay constant (lambda(176)Lu), there is now widespread agreement that (1.867 +/- 0.008) x 10(-11) yr(-1) as confirmed by various terrestrial objects and a 4557 Myr meteorite is correct. This leaves the (176)Hf excesses that are correlated with...

  13. Self-diffusion of Er and Hf inpure and HfO/sub 2/-doped polycrystalline Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/. [Hf-175 and Er-169

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidecker, R.W.


    Using a tracer technique, self-diffusion of Er and Hf was measured over the approximate temperature interval of 1600 to 1970/sup 0/C in pure and HfO/sub 2/-doped polycryatalline Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Up to about 10 m/o HfO/sub 2/ dopant level, the Er self-diffusion coefficients followed a relationship based on cation vacancies. Above 10 m/o HfO/sub 2/, deviation from this relationship occurred, apparently due to clustering of cation vacancies and oxygen interstitials around the dopant hafnia ion. The activation energy for the self-diffusion of Er in pure Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was 82.2 Kcal/mole and increased with the HfO/sub 2/ dopant level present. Self-diffusion of Hf was measured in pure Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/ having two impurity levels, and a separation of the grain boundary. The volume diffusion of Hf showed both extrinsic and intrinsic behavior with the transition temperature increasing with the impurity level present in Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The activation energy for Hf volume diffusion in the intrinsic region was high, i.e. 235 -+ 9.5 Kcal/mole. The grain boundary diffusion was apparently extrinsic over the entire temperature interval Very low Hf self diffusion rates were found in both pure and HfO/sub 2/ doped Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/ compositions. Despite a clustering effect, the HfO/sub 2/ dopant increased the Hf volume diffusion coefficients.

  14. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa


    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  15. Fretting fatigue crack propagation rate under variable loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gandiolle


    Full Text Available Fretting fatigue experiments aim to represent industrial problems and most of them endure variable loading. Being able to assess lifetime of assemblies, especially for low propagation rate conditions, is essential as experimental validation is often too expensive. Both experimental and numerical approaches are proposed to follow the crack propagation rate of steel on steel cylinder/plane fretting fatigue contact submitted to variable loading conditions. An original experimental monitoring has been implemented on the fretting-fatigue test device to observe crack propagation using a potential drop technique. A calibration curve relating crack length and electrical potential was established for the studied contact. It allows direct knowledge of the crack length and crack propagation rate. It was applied to mixed load test showing crack arrest for the last loading condition. To explain this behavior, a 2-dimensional FE modeling was implemented to simulate the complexes multi-axial contact stressing. The crack propagation rate was formalized using an effective stress intensity factor amplitude ΔKeff coupled with Paris law of the material. The crack arrest condition for a given loading was related to ΔKeff along the expected crack path crossing the material crack arrest threshold ΔK0. The failure was related to ΔKeff reaching the critical stress intensity factor KIC. A good correlation with experiments was observed allowing to predict the crack arrest condition although the model tends to overestimate the final crack length extension.

  16. Beaconless operation for optimal laser beam propagation through turbulent atmosphere (United States)

    Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir


    Corruption of the wavefront, beam wondering and power density degradation at the receiving end are the effects typically observed at laser beam propagation through turbulent atmosphere. Compensation of these effects can be achieved if the reciprocal conditions for the propagating wave are satisfied along the propagation range. Practical realization of these conditions requires placing a localized beacon at the receiving end of the range and high-performance adaptive optics system (AOS). The key condition for an effective performance of AOS is a high value of the reciprocal component in the outgoing wave, since only this component is getting compensated after propagating turbulence perturbed path. The nonreciprocal components that is present in the wave directed toward the target is caused by three factors (detailed in this paper) that determine the partial restoration of the structure of the beacon beam. Thus solution of a complex problem of focusing the laser beam propagating through turbulent media can be achieved for the share of the outgoing wave that has a reciprocal component. This paper examines the ways and means that can be used in achieving the stated goal of effective laser power delivery on the distant image-resolved object.

  17. Feynman path integral application on deriving black-scholes diffusion equation for european option pricing (United States)

    Utama, Briandhika; Purqon, Acep


    Path Integral is a method to transform a function from its initial condition to final condition through multiplying its initial condition with the transition probability function, known as propagator. At the early development, several studies focused to apply this method for solving problems only in Quantum Mechanics. Nevertheless, Path Integral could also apply to other subjects with some modifications in the propagator function. In this study, we investigate the application of Path Integral method in financial derivatives, stock options. Black-Scholes Model (Nobel 1997) was a beginning anchor in Option Pricing study. Though this model did not successfully predict option price perfectly, especially because its sensitivity for the major changing on market, Black-Scholes Model still is a legitimate equation in pricing an option. The derivation of Black-Scholes has a high difficulty level because it is a stochastic partial differential equation. Black-Scholes equation has a similar principle with Path Integral, where in Black-Scholes the share's initial price is transformed to its final price. The Black-Scholes propagator function then derived by introducing a modified Lagrange based on Black-Scholes equation. Furthermore, we study the correlation between path integral analytical solution and Monte-Carlo numeric solution to find the similarity between this two methods.

  18. Helium implanted $\\rm\\underline{Al}$Hf as studied by 181Ta TDPAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Govindaraj; K P Gopinathan; B Viswanathan


    Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurement on $\\rm\\underline{Al}$Hf reference sample has shown that a fraction 0.88 of probe nuclei are defect free and are occupying the substitutional sites in fcc Al matrix, and the remaining are associated with Hf solute clusters. Measurements on helium implanted sample indicate the binding of helium associated defects by Hf solute clusters. Isochronal annealing measurements indicate the dissociation of the helium implantation induced defects from Hf solute clusters for annealing treatments beyond 650 K. On comparison of the present results with that reported in $\\rm\\underline{Cu}$Hf subjected to identical helium implantation, it is inferred that the Hf solute clusters in $\\rm\\underline{Al}$Hf bind less strongly the helium associated defects than in $\\rm\\underline{Cu}$Hf.

  19. Processing and crystallographic structure of non-equilibrium Si-doped HfO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dong; Fancher, Chris M.; Esteves, Giovanni; Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Zhao, Lili [School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127 (China)


    Si-doped HfO{sub 2} was confirmed to exist as a non-equilibrium state. The crystallographic structures of Si-doped HfO{sub 2} were studied using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld refinement method. Incorporation of Si into HfO{sub 2} and diffusion of Si out of (Hf,Si)O{sub 2} were determined as a function of calcination temperature. Higher thermal energy input at elevated calcination temperatures resulted in the formation of HfSiO{sub 4}, which is the expected major secondary phase in Si-doped HfO{sub 2}. The effect of SiO{sub 2} particle size (nano- and micron-sized) on the formation of Si-doped HfO{sub 2} was also determined. Nano-crystalline SiO{sub 2} was found to incorporate into HfO{sub 2} more readily.

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CLMA-2HF5A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  1. Geographic variations in the PARADIGM-HF heart failure trial. (United States)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Martinez, Felipe; Jhund, Pardeep S; Arango, Juan Luis; Bĕlohlávek, Jan; Boytsov, Sergey; Cabrera, Walter; Gomez, Efrain; Hagège, Albert A; Huang, Jun; Kiatchoosakun, Songsak; Kim, Kee-Sik; Mendoza, Iván; Senni, Michele; Squire, Iain B; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wong, Raymond Ching-Chiew; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R; Packer, Milton; McMurray, John J V


    The globalization of clinical trials has highlighted geographic variations in patient characteristics, event rates, and treatment effects. We investigated these further in PARADIGM-HF, the largest and most globally representative trial in heart failure (HF) to date. We looked at five regions: North America (NA) 602 (8%), Western Europe (WE) 1680 (20%), Central/Eastern Europe/Russia (CEER) 2762 (33%), Latin America (LA) 1433 (17%), and Asia-Pacific (AP) 1487 (18%). Notable differences included: WE patients (mean age 68 years) and NA (65 years) were older than AP (58 years) and LA (63 years) and had more coronary disease; NA and CEER patients had the worst signs, symptoms, and functional status. North American patients were the most likely to have a defibrillating-device (54 vs. 2% AP) and least likely prescribed a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (36 vs. 65% LA). Other evidence-based therapies were used most frequently in NA and WE. Rates of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death or HF hospitalization (per 100 patient-years) varied among regions: NA 13.6 (95% CI 11.7-15.7) WE 9.6 (8.6-10.6), CEER 12.3 (11.4-13.2), LA 11.2 (10.0-12.5), and AP 12.5 (11.3-13.8). After adjustment for prognostic variables, relative to NA, the risk of CV death was higher in LA and AP and the risk of HF hospitalization lower in WE. The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan was consistent across regions. There were many regional differences in PARADIGM-HF, including in age, symptoms, comorbidity, background therapy, and event-rates, although these did not modify the benefit of sacubitril/valsartan. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: Unique identifier: NCT01035255. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  2. A formalism for cosmic ray propagation studies. [model based on continuity equation of multiply charged nuclei (United States)

    Golden, R. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Stephens, S. A.


    The continuity equation for cosmic ray propagation is used to derive a set of linear equations interrelating the fluxes of multiply charged nuclei as observed at any particular part of the galaxy. The derivation leads to model independent definitions for cosmic ray storage time, mean density of target nuclei and effective mass traversed. The set of equations form a common framework for comparisons of theories and observations. As an illustration, it is shown that there exists a large class of propagation models which give the same result as the exponential path length model. The formalism is shown to accommodate dynamic as well as equilibrium models of production and propagation.

  3. Beam wandering statistics of twin thin laser beam propagation under generalized atmospheric conditions. (United States)

    Pérez, Darío G; Funes, Gustavo


    Under the Geometrics Optics approximation is possible to estimate the covariance between the displacements of two thin beams after they have propagated through a turbulent medium. Previous works have concentrated in long propagation distances to provide models for the wandering statistics. These models are useful when the separation between beams is smaller than the propagation path-regardless of the characteristics scales of the turbulence. In this work we give a complete model for these covariances, behavior introducing absolute limits to the validity of former approximations. Moreover, these generalizations are established for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric models.

  4. Effect of High-Frequency Electric Field on Propagation of Electrostatic Wave in a Non-Uniform Relativistic Plasma Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The effect of a high frequency (HF) electric field on the propagation of electrostatic wave in a 2D non-uniform relativistic plasma waveguide is investigated. A variable separation method is applied to the two-fluid plasma model. An analytical study of the reflection of electro-static wave propagation along a magnetized non-uniform relativistic plasma slab subjected to an intense HF electric field is presented and compared with the case of a non relativistic plasma. It is found that, when the frequency of the incident wave is close to the relativistic electron plasma frequency, the plasma is less reflective due to the presence of both an HF field and the effect of rel-ativistic electrons. On the other hand, for a low-frequency incident wave the reflection coefficient is directly proportional to the amplitude of the HF field. Also, it is shown that the relativistic electron plasma leads to a decrease in the value of reflection coefficient in comparison with the case of the non relativistic plasma.

  5. Filtered backprojection proton CT reconstruction along most likely paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rit, Simon; Dedes, George; Freud, Nicolas; Sarrut, David; Letang, Jean Michel [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard, 69008 Lyon (France)


    Purpose: Proton CT (pCT) has the potential to accurately measure the electron density map of tissues at low doses but the spatial resolution is prohibitive if the curved paths of protons in matter is not accounted for. The authors propose to account for an estimate of the most likely path of protons in a filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Methods: The energy loss of protons is first binned in several proton radiographs at different distances to the proton source to exploit the depth-dependency of the estimate of the most likely path. This process is named the distance-driven binning. A voxel-specific backprojection is then used to select the adequate radiograph in the distance-driven binning in order to propagate in the pCT image the best achievable spatial resolution in proton radiographs. The improvement in spatial resolution is demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations of resolution phantoms. Results: The spatial resolution in the distance-driven binning depended on the distance of the objects from the source and was optimal in the binned radiograph corresponding to that distance. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed pCT images decreased with the depth in the scanned object but it was always better than previous FBP algorithms assuming straight line paths. In a water cylinder with 20 cm diameter, the observed range of spatial resolutions was 0.7 - 1.6 mm compared to 1.0 - 2.4 mm at best with a straight line path assumption. The improvement was strongly enhanced in shorter 200 Degree-Sign scans. Conclusions: Improved spatial resolution was obtained in pCT images with filtered backprojection reconstruction using most likely path estimates of protons. The improvement in spatial resolution combined with the practicality of FBP algorithms compared to iterative reconstruction algorithms makes this new algorithm a candidate of choice for clinical pCT.

  6. Mid-Latitude Mobile Wideband HF- NVIS Channel Analysis: Part 1 (United States)


    communications (SATCOM) for beyond line-of- sight (LOS) links. However, standard HF systems operating over a 3-kHz bandwidth do not provide sufficient...wideband mid-latitude HF channel soundings and three-dimensional (3-D) ray-tracing simulations to develop a statistical model of a particular nearly...46 5 THE HF-NVIS CHANNEL SOUNDING SYSTEM ...................................................................... 47 5.1 TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE HF

  7. Anomalous paths in quantum mechanical path-integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsmo, Arne L., E-mail: [Department of Physics, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Department of Physics, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Klauder, John R., E-mail: [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Skagerstam, Bo-Sture K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California at Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics at the University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)


    We investigate modifications of the discrete-time lattice action, for a quantum mechanical particle in one spatial dimension, that vanish in the naïve continuum limit but which, nevertheless, induce non-trivial effects due to quantum fluctuations. These effects are seen to modify the geometry of the paths contributing to the path-integral describing the time evolution of the particle, which we investigate through numerical simulations. In particular, we demonstrate the existence of a modified lattice action resulting in paths with any fractal dimension, d{sub f}, between one and two. We argue that d{sub f}=2 is a critical value, and we exhibit a type of lattice modification where the fluctuations in the position of the particle becomes independent of the time step, in which case the paths are interpreted as superdiffusive Lévy flights. We also consider the jaggedness of the paths, and show that this gives an independent classification of lattice theories.

  8. Path integral quantization of the relativistic Hopfield model

    CERN Document Server

    Belgiorno, F; Piazza, F Dalla; Doronzo, M


    The path integral quantization method is applied to a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model, which represents a very interesting mesoscopic framework for the description of the interaction between quantum light and dielectric quantum matter, with particular reference to the context of analogue gravity. In order to take into account the constraints occurring in the model, we adopt the Faddeev-Jackiw approach to constrained quantization in the path integral formalism. In particular we demonstrate that the propagator obtained with the Faddeev-Jackiw approach is equivalent to the one which, in the framework of Dirac canonical quantization for constrained systems, can be directly computed as the vacuum expectation value of the time ordered product of the fields. Our analysis also provides an explicit example of quantization of the electromagnetic field in a covariant gauge and coupled with the polarization field, which is a novel contribution to the literature on the Faddeev-Jackiw procedure.

  9. HF Radar observations of the Dardanelles outflow current in North Eastern Aegean using validated WERA HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A two-site WERA HF radar station was installed in November 2009 at the eastern coast of Lemnos Island in North Aegean Sea, aiming to monitor the surface inflow of Black Sea waters exiting from the Dardanelles Strait, as well as to constitute a coastal management tool for incidents of oil-pollution or save-and-rescue operations. Strong interference by foreign transmissions is a source of noise deteriorating the quality of the backscattered signal, thus significantly reducing the HF radar’s effective data return rate. In order to ameliorate this problem, further quality-control and data gap interpolating procedures have been developed and applied, to be used in addition to the procedures incorporated and used by the manufacturer’s signal processing software. The second-level processing involves traditional despiking in the temporal domain, preceding Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis. The latter is used not only to filter high-frequency noise but also to fill data gaps in time and space. The data reconstruction procedure has been assessed via comparison of (a HF radial with CODE-type drifter radial velocities as well as (b HF-derived virtual drifter tracks with actual drifter tracks. The main circulation features and their variability, as revealed by the reconstructed fields, are presented.

  10. HF Radar observations of the Dardanelles outflow current in North Eastern Aegean using validated WERA HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A two-site WERA HF radar station was installed in November 2009 at the eastern coast of Lemnos Island in North Aegean Sea, aiming to monitor the surface inflow of Black Sea waters exiting from the Dardanelles Strait, as well as to constitute a coastal management tool for incidents of oil-pollution or save-and-rescue operations. Strong interference by foreign transmissions is a source of noise deteriorating the quality of the backscattered signal, thus significantly reducing the HF radar’s effective data return rate. In order to ameliorate this problem, further quality-control and data gap interpolating procedures have been developed and applied, to be used in addition to the procedures incorporated and used by the manufacturer’s signal processing software. The second-level processing involves traditional despiking in the temporal domain, preceding Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis. The latter is used not only to filter high-frequency noise but also to fill data gaps in time and space. The data reconstruction procedure has been assessed via comparison of (a HF radial with CODE-type drifter radial velocities as well as (b HF-derived virtual drifter tracks with actual drifter tracks. The main circulation features and their variability, as revealed by the reconstructed fields, are presented.

  11. Comparative Study of Path Loss Models in Different Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilotma Yadav,


    Full Text Available By using propagation path models to estimate the received signal level as a function of distance, it becomes possible to predict the SNR for a mobile communication system. Both theoretical andmeasurement-based propagation models indicate that average received signal power decreases logarithmically with distance. For comparative analysis we use Okumura’s model, Hata model, COST231 Extension to Hata model,ECEC-33 model,SUI model along with the practical data. Most of these models are based on a systematic interpretation of theoretical data service area like urban(Built-up city or largetown crowded with large buildings, suburban (having some obstacles near the mobile radio car, but still not very congested and rural (No obstacles like tall trees or buildings like farm-land, rice field, open fields in INDIA at 900MHz & 1800MHz frequency .

  12. The stability of the bifluoride ion (HF - 2) in the gas phase (United States)

    Heni, Martin; Illenberger, Eugen


    The bifluoride ion (HF-2) has been generated by dissociative electron attachment to trans-1,2-difluorethylene and cis-1,2-difluoroethylene. Evaluation of the energetics for these reactions leads to ΔH0f (HF-2) ≤-6.9 eV and E. A. (HF2)≥4.8 eV.

  13. Photon strength function in the Hf-181 nucleus by method of two-step cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Le Hong Khiem


    The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade gamma ray spectra determining Photon Strength Function (PSF) of Hf-181 induced from Hf-180 (n,2 gamma) Hf-181 reaction is presented. Up to 80% intensity of the primary gamma ray transitions in a wide energy range have been deduced and compared to model calculation.

  14. Suppression Factor of ~(182)W for ~(182)Hf AMS at CIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Suppression factor of 182W is an important index in the measurement of 182Hf with AMS method. This factor is defined as the value of 182W/180Hf in blank samples divised by the measured value of 182 W/180Hf with AMS method. In order to satisfy a

  15. 40 CFR 180.1273 - Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1273 Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Beauveria bassiana HF23 are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance on all...

  16. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans


    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  17. The Path Integral Quantization corresponding to the Deformed Heisenberg Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pramanik, Souvik; Moussa, Mohamed; Ali, Ahmed Farag


    In this paper, we analyze a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra consistent with both the generalized uncertainty principle and doubly special relativity. We observe that this algebra can give rise to fractional derivatives terms in the corresponding quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. However, a formal meaning can be given to such fractional derivative terms, using the theory of harmonic extensions of functions. Thus we obtain the expression of the propagator of path integral corresponding to this deformed Heisenberg algebra. In fact, we explicitly evaluate this expression for a free particle in one dimension and check its consistency.

  18. General Path Planning Methodology for Leader-Follower Robot Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Garrido


    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust algorithm for mobile robot formations based on the Voronoi Fast Marching path planning method. This is based on the propagation of a wave throughout the model of the environment, the wave expanding faster as the wave's distance from obstacles increases. This method provides smooth and safe trajectories and its computational efficiency allows us to maintain a good response time. The proposed method is based on a local-minima-free planner; it is complete and has an O(n complexity order where n is the number of cells of the map. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm generates good trajectories.

  19. Thermomechanical analysis of nodule damage in HfO2/SiO2 multilayer coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongguang Shan; Hongbo He; C haoyang Wei; Ying Wang; Yuan'an Zhao


    Samples with nodular defects grown from gold nanoparticles are prepared, and laser-induced damage tests are conducted on them. Nodular defects, which are in critical state of damage, are cross-sectioned by focusing on the ion beam and by imaging using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The cross-sectional profile shows that cracks are generated and propagated along the nodular boundaries and the HfO2/SiO2 interface, or are even melted. The thermomechanical process induced by the heated seed region is analyzed based on the calculations of temperature increase and thermal stress. The numerical results give the critical temperature of the seed region and the thermal stress for crack generation, irradiated with threshold fluence. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.%Samples with nodular defects grown from gold nanoparticles are prepared,and laser induced damage tests are conducted on them.Nodular defects,which are in critical state of damage,are cross-sectioned by focusing on the ion beam and by imaging using a field emission scanning electron microscope.The crosssectional profile shows that cracks are generated and propagated along the nodular boundaries and the HfO2/SiO2 interface,or are even melted.The thermomechanical process induced by the heated seed region is analyzed based on the calculations of temperature increase and thermal stress.The numerical results give the critical temperature of the seed region and the thermal stress for crack generation,irradiated with threshold fluence.The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.Nodular defect,a typical defect in multilayer coatings,largely limits the improvement of the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the nanosecond regime and thus has been widely investigated.Electric field enhancement in the nodule,induced by the microlens effect of the dome structure of nodular defects,is an important factor in reducing the LIDT[1-5].Recently

  20. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid


    Wireless communications has seen explosive growth in recent decades, in a realm that is both broad and rapidly expanding to include satellite services, navigational aids, remote sensing, telemetering, audio and video broadcasting, high-speed data communications, mobile radio systems and much more. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications deals with the basic principles of radiowaves propagation for frequency bands used in radio-communications, offering descriptions of new achievements and newly developed propagation models. The book bridges the gap between theoretical calculations and approaches, and applied procedures needed for advanced radio links design. The primary objective of this two-volume set is to demonstrate the fundamentals, and to introduce propagation phenomena and mechanisms that engineers are likely to encounter in the design and evaluation of radio links of a given type and operating frequency. Volume one covers basic principles, along with tropospheric and ionospheric propagation,...

  1. View-based Propagator Derivation

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Christian


    When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear constraints both with unit and non-unit coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance than resorting to constraint decomposition. This paper shows how to use views to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and type conversion are developed. The paper introduces an implementation architecture for views that is independent of the underlying constraint programming system. A detailed evaluation of views implement...

  2. Two-dimensional semiconductor HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} van der Waals heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aretouli, K. E.; Tsipas, P.; Tsoutsou, D.; Marquez-Velasco, J.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Giamini, S. A.; Vassalou, E.; Kelaidis, N.; Dimoulas, A., E-mail: [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310, Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)


    Using molecular beam epitaxy, atomically thin 2D semiconductor HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} van der Waals heterostructures are grown on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates. Details of the electronic band structure of HfSe{sub 2} are imaged by in-situ angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy indicating a high quality epitaxial layer. High-resolution surface tunneling microscopy supported by first principles calculations provides evidence of an ordered Se adlayer, which may be responsible for a reduction of the measured workfunction of HfSe{sub 2} compared to theoretical predictions. The latter reduction minimizes the workfunction difference between the HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2} layers resulting in a small valence band offset of only 0.13 eV at the MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} heterointerface and a weak type II band alignment.

  3. Medium frequency propagation characteristics of different transmission lines in an underground coal mine. (United States)

    Li, Jingcheng; Waynert, Joseph A; Whisner, Bruce G

    A medium frequency (MF) communication system operating in an underground coal mine couples its signals to a long conductor, which acts as an MF transmission line (TL) in a tunnel to permit communications among transceivers along the line. The TL is generally the longest signal path for the system, and its propagation characteristics will have a major impact on the performance of the MF communication system. In this study, the propagation characteristics of three types of MF TLs in two layouts-on the roof and on the floor of a coal mine tunnel-were obtained in an effort to understand the propagation characteristics of different TLs in different locations. The study confirmed a low MF signal loss on all of these TLs. The study also found that the TLs in different layouts had substantially different propagation characteristics. The propagation characteristics of these different TLs in different layouts are presented in the paper.

  4. Evolution of branch points for a laser beam propagating through an uplink turbulent atmosphere. (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Xuan; Guo, Cheng-Shan


    Evolution of branch points in the distorted optical field is studied when a laser beam propagates through turbulent atmosphere along an uplink path. Two categories of propagation events are mainly explored for the same propagation height: fixed wavelength with change of the turbulence strength and fixed turbulence strength with change of the wavelength. It is shown that, when the beam propagates to a certain height, the density of the branch-points reaches its maximum and such a height changes with the turbulence strength but nearly remains constant with different wavelengths. The relationship between the density of branch-points and the Rytov number is also given. A fitted formula describing the relationship between the density of branch-points and propagation height with different turbulence strength and wavelength is found out. Interestingly, this formula is very similar to the formula used for describing the Blackbody radiation in physics. The results obtained may be helpful for atmospheric optics, astronomy and optical communication.

  5. Directed HK propagator (United States)

    Kocia, Lucas; Heller, Eric J.


    We offer a more formal justification for the successes of our recently communicated "directed Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay" (DHK) time propagator by examining its performance in one-dimensional bound systems which exhibit at least quasi-periodic motion. DHK is distinguished by its single one-dimensional integral—a vast simplification over the usual 2N-dimensional integral in full Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay (for an N-dimensional system). We find that DHK accurately captures particular coherent state autocorrelations when its single integral is chosen to lie along these states' fastest growing manifold, as long as it is not perpendicular to their action gradient. Moreover, the larger the action gradient, the better DHK will perform. We numerically examine DHK's accuracy in a one-dimensional quartic oscillator and illustrate that these conditions are frequently satisfied such that the method performs well. This lends some explanation for why DHK frequently seems to work so well and suggests that it may be applicable to systems exhibiting quite strong anharmonicity.

  6. Range Information Propagation Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向荣; 朱志刚; 等


    A novel method of model-based object recognition is presented in this paper.Its novelty stems from the fact that the gray level image captured by a camera is merged with sparse range information in an active manner.By using a projective transform, which is determined by the sparse range data,festures(e.g.edge points)related to a single planar surface patch of figure in the scene can be assignew with their corresponding range values respectively.As a result,the shape of the very planar patch or figure can be recovered and various kinds of description in the Euclidean space can be calculated.Based on these descriptions values,the hypothesis about the identification of the object and its pose in space can be obtained with a high probability of success,and a high efficiency of hypothesis-verification process can be expected.Another advantage of this method is that the edge detection process can be navigated to the proper location hinted by the sparse range image.In consequence edge features can be extracted even in the regions with low contrast.In this paper the principle of range information propagation transform(RIPT)is explained,and some implementation issues,such as the algorithms using calibrated or uncalibrated gray level image for object recognition,are discussed.The preliminary experimental results are presented to indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  7. Characteristics of VLF wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere in the presence of an artificial density duct (United States)

    Pasmanik, Dmitry; Demekhov, Andrei

    We study the propagation of VLF waves in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere in the presence of large-scale artificial plasma inhomogeneities which can be created by HF heating facilities like HAARP and ``Sura''. A region with enhanced cold plasma density can be formed due to the action of HF heating. This region is extended along geomagnetic field (up to altitudes of several thousand km) and has rather small size across magnetic field (about 1 degree). The geometric-optical approximation is used to study wave propagation. The plasma density and ion composition are calculated with the use of SAMI2 model, which was modified to take the effect of HF heating into account. We calculate ray trajectories of waves with different initial frequency and wave-normal angles and originating at altitudes of about 100 km in the region near the heating area. The source of such waves could be the lightning discharges, modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, or VLF transmitters. Variation of the wave amplitude along the ray trajectories due to refraction is considered and spatial distribution of wave intensity in the magnetosphere is analyzed. We show that the presence of such a density disturbances can lead to significant changes of wave propagation trajectories, in particular, to efficient guiding of VLF waves in this region. This can result in a drastic increase of the VLF-wave intensity in the density duct. The dependence of wave propagation properties on parameters of heating facility operation regime is considered. We study the variation of the spatial distribution of VLF wave intensity related to the slow evolution of the artificial inhomogeneity during the heating.

  8. A database for propagation models (United States)

    Kantak, Anil V.; Suwitra, Krisjani; Le, Choung


    The NASA Propagation Program supports academic research that models various propagation phenomena in the space research frequency bands. NASA supports such research via school and institutions prominent in the field. The products of such efforts are particularly useful for researchers in the field of propagation phenomena and telecommunications systems engineers. The systems engineer usually needs a few propagation parameter values for a system design. Published literature on the subject, such as the Cunsultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) publications, may help somewhat, but often times, the parameter values given in such publications use a particular set of conditions which may not quite include the requirements of the system design. The systems engineer must resort to programming the propagation phenomena model of interest and to obtain the parameter values to be used in the project. Furthermore, the researcher in the propagation field must then program the propagation models either to substantiate the model or to generate a new model. The researcher or the systems engineer must either be a skillful computer programmer or hire a programmer, which of course increases the cost of the effort. An increase in cost due to the inevitable programming effort may seem particularly inappropriate if the data generated by the experiment is to be used to substantiate the already well-established models, or a slight variation thereof. To help researchers and the systems engineers, it was recommended by the participants of NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) 15 held in London, Ontario, Canada on 28-29 June 1991, that propagation software should be constructed which will contain models and prediction methods of most propagation phenomenon. Moreover, the software should be flexible enough for the user to make slight changes to the models without expending a substantial effort in programming.

  9. Gulf of Mexico Loop Current path variability (United States)

    Donohue, K. A.; Watts, D. R.; Hamilton, P.; Leben, R.; Kennelly, M.; Lugo-Fernández, A.


    Loop Current, LC, path variability exhibits a continuum of spatial and temporal scales, all are called meanders in this work. They arise from a variety of processes, including short and long waves, frontal eddies with or without closed cores and developing baroclinic instability. They have been extensively studied with satellite sea surface temperature SST, and height, SSH. Yet, these systems provide an incomplete view into LC meandering: SST measurements are hampered by cloud coverage and low thermal contrast in summer months and SSH measurements by altimeter temporal and spatial resolution. In an effort to resolve LC meander temporal and spatial scales, they are investigated using a mesoscale resolving in situ array deployed in the Gulf of Mexico. The array, which consisted of twenty-five inverted echo sounders with pressure gauges, PIES, and current meter moorings, was deployed April 2009 and recovered in October-November 2011. The broad extent of the array, nominally 89° W to 85° W, 25° N to 27° N, enabled quantitative mapping of the regional circulation. LC meander properties are characterized as a function of spatial distribution of energy, frequency, wavenumber, and phase speed. Dispersion characteristics and meander scales are comparable to those found in the Gulf Stream. Phase speeds increase with frequency and range from 8 to 50 km d-1. Wavelengths associated with each band are as follows: 460 km for the 100 to 40 d band, 350 km for the 40 to 20 d band, 270 km for the 20 to 10 d band and 230 km for the 10 to 3 d band. The strongest variability is in the 100 to 40 d band. Spatially the 100 to 40 d variability is concentrated to east of the Mississippi Fan, growing and propagating downstream along the eastern portion of the LC. Meanders between 40 and 20 d propagate along the full encompassed length of the LC. Their temporal amplitudes peak at the time of LC eddy detachment and separation. Meanders with shorter periods than 20 d do not always propagate

  10. Progress in Body-Worn Antennas for On-Body Propagation (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne


    On-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented. The onbody communications rely on creeping waves launched and received by the antennas, respectively. Path gain and bandwidth at 2.4 GHz for different types of body-worn antennas for head-centric comm...

  11. On the relation of the infinitesimal particle propagator to the nature of mass. (United States)

    Hoyle, F.; Narlikar, J. V.


    From consideration of the nature of mass, in a Machian cosmological sense, it is shown that an infinitesimal particle propagator can be derived in relativistic quantum mechanics. The method used for this derivation is similar to that used in a nonrelativistic path integral.

  12. A Monte Carlo approach for simulating the propagation of partially coherent x-ray beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prodi, A.; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter Kjær


    by sampling Huygens-Fresnel waves with Monte Carlo methods and is used to propagate each source realization to the detector plane. The sampling is implemented with a modified Monte Carlo ray tracing scheme where the optical path of each generated ray is stored. Such information is then used in the summation...

  13. New sufficient conditions for Hamiltonian paths. (United States)

    Rahman, M Sohel; Kaykobad, M; Firoz, Jesun Sahariar


    A Hamiltonian path in a graph is a path involving all the vertices of the graph. In this paper, we revisit the famous Hamiltonian path problem and present new sufficient conditions for the existence of a Hamiltonian path in a graph.

  14. Population Monotonic Path Schemes for Simple Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.


    A path scheme for a simple game is composed of a path, i.e., a sequence of coalitions that is formed during the coalition formation process and a scheme, i.e., a payoff vector for each coalition in the path.A path scheme is called population monotonic if a player's payoff does not decrease as the pa

  15. Gas-path seal technology (United States)

    Zuk, J.


    Improved gas-path seals are needed for better fuel economy, longer performance retention, and lower maintenance, particularly in advanced, high-performance gas turbine engines. Problems encountered in gas-path sealing are described, as well as new blade-tip sealing approaches for high-pressure compressors and turbines. These include a lubricant coating for conventional, porous-metal, rub-strip materials used in compressors. An improved hot-press metal alloy shows promise to increase the operating surface temperatures of high-pressure-turbine, blade-tip seals to 1450 K (2150 F). Three ceramic seal materials are also described that have the potential to allow much higher gas-path surface operating temperatures than are possible with metal systems.

  16. Rainbow paths with prescribed ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alishahi, Meysam; Taherkhani, Ali; Thomassen, Carsten


    It was conjectured in [S. Akbari, F. Khaghanpoor, and S. Moazzeni. Colorful paths in vertex coloring of graphs. Preprint] that, if G is a connected graph distinct from C-7, then there is a chi(G)-coloring of G in which every vertex v is an element of V(G) is an initial vertex of a path P with chi......(G) vertices whose colors are different. In[S. Akbari, V. Liaghat, and A. Nikzad. Colorful paths in vertex coloring of graphs. Electron. J. Combin. 18(1):P17, 9pp, 2011] this was proved with left perpendicular chi(G)/2right perpendicular vertices instead of chi(G) vertices. We strengthen this to chi(G) - 1...

  17. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.

  18. A Mid-Latitude Skywave Propagation Experiment: Overview and Results (United States)

    Munton, D. C.; Calfas, R. S.; Gaussiran, T., II; Rainwater, D.; Flesichmann, A. M.; Schofield, J. R.


    We will describe a mid-latitude HF skywave propagation experiment conducted during 19-27 January, 2014. There were two primary goals to the experiment. First, we wanted to build an understanding of the impact that medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances have on the angles of arrival of the HF signals. The second goal was to provide a diverse data set that could serve as a baseline for propagation model development and evaluation. We structured individual tests during the experiment to increase the knowledge of temporal and spatial length scales of various ionospheric features. The experiment was conducted during both day and night periods and spanned a wide range of ionospheric states. We conducted the experiment at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and in the surrounding area. As part of the experiment, we deployed a number of active HF transmitters, and an array of dipole antennas to provide angle of arrival measurements. We also deployed a smaller array of more novel compact electro-magnetic vector sensors (EMVSs). Other instrumentation specific to the remote sensing of the ionosphere included digisondes, GNSS receivers, beacon satellite receivers, and optical instruments. We will provide a complete description of the experiment configuration and the data products.Finally, we will provide a discussion of experimental results, focusing on ionospheric conditions during the angle-of-arrival determinations, and the impact ionospheric disturbances can have on these measurements. We use the angle-of-arrival determinations to estimate TID properties, including velocity and direction.This research is based upon work supported in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), via US Navy Contract N00024-07-D-6200. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements

  19. Charge storage characteristics and tunneling mechanism of amorphous Ge-doped HfOx films (United States)

    Qiu, X. Y.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhang, T.; Wang, R. X.; Li, L. T.; Zhang, Y.; Dai, J. Y.


    Amorphous Ge-doped HfOx films have been deposited on p-Si(100) substrates by means of RF magnetron sputtering. Microstructural investigations reveal the partial oxidation of doped Ge atoms in the amorphous HfOx matrix and the existence of HfSiOx interfacial layer. Capacitance-voltage hysteresis of the Ag-/Ge-doped HfOx/Si/Ag memory capacitor exhibits a memory window of 3.15 V which can maintain for >5 × 104 cycles. Current-voltage characteristics reveal that Poole-Frenkel tunneling is responsible for electron transport in the Ge-doped HfOx film.

  20. Innovative development path of ethnomedicines: the interpretation of the path. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Fu, Dehuan; Gui, Yali; Cui, Tao; Wang, Jingkun; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhizhong; Niu, Yanfei; She, Zhennan; Wang, Li


    One of the primary purposes of the innovative development of ethnomedicines is to use their excellent safety and significant efficacy to serve a broader population. To achieve this purpose, modern scientific and technological means should be referenced, and relevant national laws and regulations as well as technical guides should be strictly followed to develop standards and to perform systemic research in producing ethnomedicines. Finally, ethnomedicines, which are applied to a limited extent in ethnic areas, can be transformed into safe, effective, and quality-controllable medical products to relieve the pain of more patients. The innovative development path of ethnomedicines includes the following three primary stages: resource study, standardized development research, and industrialization of the achievements and efforts for internationalization. The implementation of this path is always guaranteed by the research and development platform and the talent team. This article is based on the accumulation of long-term practice and is combined with the relevant disciplines, laws and regulations, and technical guidance from the research and development of ethnomedicines. The intention is to perform an in-depth analysis and explanation of the major research thinking, methods, contents, and technical paths involved in all stages of the innovative development path of ethnomedicines to provide useful references for the development of proper ethnomedicine use.

  1. Path Decomposition of Graphs with Given Path Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-qing Zhai; Chang-hong Lü


    A path decomposition of a graph G is a list of paths such that each edge appears in exactly one path in the list. G is said to admit a {Pl}-decomposition if G can be decomposed into some copies of Pl, where Pl is a path of length ι - 1. Similarly, G is said to admit a {Pl, Pκ}-decomposition if G can be decomposed into some copies of Pl or Pκ. An κ-cycle, denoted by Cκ, is a cycle with κ vertices. An odd tree is a tree of which all vertices have odd degree. In this paper, it is shown that a connected graph G admits a {P3, P4}-decomposition if and only if G is neither a 3-cycle nor an odd tree. This result includes the related result of Yan, Xu and Mutu. Moreover, two polynomial algorithms are given to find {P3}-decomposition and {P3, P4}-decomposition of graphs, respectively. Hence, {P3}-decomposition problem and {P3, P4}-decomposition problem of graphs are solved completely.

  2. Clinical trials update from the Heart Failure Society of America Meeting 2009: FAST, IMPROVE-HF, COACH galectin-3 substudy, HF-ACTION nuclear substudy, DAD-HF, and MARVEL-1. (United States)

    Lainscak, Mitja; Coletta, Alison P; Sherwi, Nasser; Cleland, John G F


    This article presents findings and a commentary on late-breaking trials presented during the meeting of the Heart Failure Society of America in September 2009. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, since analyses may change in the final publication. The FAST trial showed somewhat better performance of intrathoracic impedance for prediction of deterioration in patients with heart failure (HF) when compared with daily weighing. The IMPROVE-HF study reported the benefits of education on the management of patients with systolic HF. Galectin-3 appeared a useful method for improving risk stratification of patients with chronic HF in a substudy of the COACH trial. A nuclear substudy of the HF-ACTION trial failed to demonstrate that resting myocardial perfusion imaging, a measure of myocardial scar and viability, was clinically useful. A small randomized controlled trial (DAD-HF) suggested that the use of low-dose dopamine in patients with acutely decompensated HF was associated with less deterioration in renal function and less hypokalaemia. The MARVEL-1 trial raises further concerns about the safety of myoblast transplantation in ischaemic HF.

  3. Paths of algebraic hyperbolic curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-juan LI; Li-zheng LU; Guo-zhao WANG


    Cubic algebraic hyperbolic (AH) Bezier curves and AH spline curves are defined with a positive parameter α in the space spanned by {1, t, sinht, cosht}. Modifying the value of α yields a family of AH Bezier or spline curves with the family parameter α. For a fixed point on the original curve, it will move on a defined curve called "path of AH curve" (AH Bezier and AH spline curves) when α changes. We describe the geometric effects of the paths and give a method to specify a curve passing through a given point.

  4. Strings, paths, and standard tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Dasmahapatra, S


    For the vacuum sectors of regime-III ABF models, we observe that two sets of combinatorial objects: the strings which parametrize the row-to-row transfer matrix eigenvectors, and the paths which parametrize the corner transfer matrix eigenvectors, can both be expressed in terms of the same set of standard tableaux. Furthermore, the momenta of the strings, the energies of the paths, and the charges of the tableaux are such that there is a weight-preserving bijection between the two sets of eigenvectors, wherein the tableaux play an interpolating role. This bijection is so natural, that we conjecture that it exists in general.

  5. Laser beam propagation generation and propagation of customized light

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Andrew


    ""The text is easy to read and is accompanied by beautiful illustrations. It is an excellent book for anyone working in laser beam propagation and an asset for any library.""-Optics & Photonics News, July 2014

  6. The anisotropy of Hf diffusion in {alpha}-Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, G.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Zou, H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Roy, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Schultz, R.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Matsuura, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Jackman, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Hf diffusion coefficients (D) have been measured ({proportional_to}870-1100 K) in directions parallel (D{sub pa}) and perpendicular (D{sub pe}) to the c-axis of double-faced, single-crystal specimens of both high purity (HP) and nominally pure (NP) {alpha}-Zr. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Hf diffusion in HP {alpha}-Zr is characterised by an activation energy of about 3.0 eV and a pre-exponential factor of about 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/s. The anisotropy ratio, D{sub pa}/D{sub pe}, is {proportional_to}<1.0 for the HP specimens and mostly >1.0 for the NP specimens. A dependence of D on diffusion time/depth is indicated for some experiments on NP Zr. (orig.).

  7. Photodetachment of HF-in an Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Hua


    @@ Photdetachment of a negative HF-ion in an electric field is studied by using the two-centre model and the closed orbit theory.An analytic formula is presented for the electron flux of HF- in the presence of an electric field.The results show that the oscillation in the electron flux distribution is caused by the rescattering effect of the molecular ion core and the interference betweed the two nuclei.In addition,the interference between the orbits passing through the given spatial point also plays an important role in the electron flux distribution.This study provides a new understanding of the photodetachment of polar molecules in the presence of external field.

  8. Generation of ionospheric ducts by the HAARP HF heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J A; Pradipta, R; Burton, L M; Labno, A; Lee, M C [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Watkins, B J; Fallen, C [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Kuo, S P [New York University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Burke, W J [Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States); Mabius, D; See, B Z, E-mail: [Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)


    We report an investigation of ionospheric ducts having the shape of large plasma sheets, generated by vertically transmitted HAARP HF heater waves in several experiments conducted in Gakona, Alaska. Theory predicts that O-mode heater wave-created ionospheric ducts form parallel-plate waveguides within the meridional plane, and those generated by the X-mode heater waves are orthogonal to the meridional plane. Our theoretical prediction is supported by measurements of ionosonde data (namely ionograms), range-time-intensity (RTI) plots of UHF and HF backscatter radars, as well as magnetometer data analyses. When these plasma sheets experienced ExB drifts, they were intercepted by the HAARP UHF radar and seen as slanted stripes in the RTI plots. This striking feature was also observed in our earlier experiments using the Arecibo UHF radar.

  9. Use of GPS network data for HF Doppler measurements interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova, Inna R; Latypov, Ruslan R


    The method of measurement of Doppler frequency shift of ionospheric signal - HF Doppler technique - is one of well-known and widely used methods of ionosphere research. It allows to research various disturbances in the ionosphere. There are some sources of disturbances in the ionosphere. These are geomagnetic storms, solar flashes, metrological effects, atmospheric waves. This method allows to find out the influence of earthquakes, explosions and other processes on the ionosphere, which occur near to the Earth. HF Doppler technique has the high sensitivity to small frequency variations and the high time resolution, but interpretation of results is difficult. In this work we make an attempt to use GPS data for Doppler measurements interpretation. Modeling of Doppler frequency shift variations with use of TEC allows to separate ionosphere disturbances of medium scale.

  10. Imaging HF-induced large-scale irregularities above HAARP (United States)

    Djuth, Frank T.; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Kitrosser, David F.; Elder, John H.; Snyder, A. Lee; Sales, Gary S.


    The University of Massachusetts-Lowell digisonde is used with the HAARP high-frequency (HF), ionospheric modification facility to obtain radio images of artificially-produced, large-scale, geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities. F region irregularities generated with the HAARP beam pointed in the vertical and geomagnetic field-aligned directions are examined in a smooth background plasma. It is found that limited large-scale irregularity production takes place with vertical transmissions, whereas there is a dramatic increase in the number of source irregularities with the beam pointed parallel to the geomagnetic field. Strong irregularity production appears to be confined to within ~5° of the geomagnetic zenith and does not fill the volume occupied by the HF beam. A similar effect is observed in optical images of artificial airglow.

  11. Performance Analysis of HF Band FB-MC-SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Stephen Andrew Laraway; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny


    Abstract—In a recent paper [1] the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) waveform was proposed for wideband spread spectrum HF communications. A significant benefit of this waveform is robustness against narrow and partial band interference. Simulation results in [1] demonstrated good performance in a wideband HF channel over a wide range of conditions. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the bit error probably for this system. Our analysis tailors the results from [2] where BER performance was analyzed for maximum ration combining systems that accounted for correlation between subcarriers and channel estimation error. Equations are give for BER that closely match the simulated performance in most situations.

  12. Radial propagators and Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, S; Leupold, Stefan; Weigert, Heribert


    We present a relation which connects the propagator in the radial (Fock-Schwinger) gauge with a gauge invariant Wilson loop. It is closely related to the well-known field strength formula and can be used to calculate the radial gauge propagator. The result is shown to diverge in four-dimensional space even for free fields, its singular nature is however naturally explained using the renormalization properties of Wilson loops with cusps and self-intersections. Using this observation we provide a consistent regularization scheme to facilitate loop calculations. Finally we compare our results with previous approaches to derive a propagator in Fock-Schwinger gauge.

  13. Particle propagation in cosmological backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, Daniel


    We study the quantum propagation of particles in cosmological backgrounds, by considering a doublet of massive scalar fields propagating in an expanding universe, possibly filled with radiation. We focus on the dissipative effects related to the expansion rate. At first order, we recover the expected result that the decay rate is determined by the local temperature. Beyond linear order, the decay rate has an additional contribution governed by the expansion parameter. This latter contribution is present even for stable particles in the vacuum. Finally, we analyze the long time behaviour of the propagator and briefly discuss applications to the trans-Planckian question.

  14. Light Propagation For Accelerated Observers

    CERN Document Server

    Adewole, A I A


    We show that for an observer in translational, rotational or gravitational motion, a linearly polarized plane wave has two modes of propagation in a stationary, homogeneous and isotropic medium according to Hertz's version of Maxwell's theory. The first mode is characterized by polarization at right angles to the direction of propagation and has a phase velocity that is controlled by the material constants of the medium. The second mode is characterized by polarization along the propagation direction and has a phase velocity that is controlled by the motion of the observer. We outline some applications of the second mode in emerging technologies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Marchuk


    Full Text Available This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numerical experiments show that the highest waves are detected above a ridge with flat sloping sides. Examples of tsunami propagation along bottom ridges of the Pacific Ocean are presented.

  16. Volcanotectonic earthquakes induced by propagating dikes (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Agust


    Volcanotectonic earthquakes are of high frequency and mostly generated by slip on faults. During chamber expansion/contraction earthquakes are distribution in the chamber roof. Following magma-chamber rupture and dike injection, however, earthquakes tend to concentrate around the dike and follow its propagation path, resulting in an earthquake swarm characterised by a number of earthquakes of similar magnitudes. I distinguish between two basic processes by which propagating dikes induce earthquakes. One is due to stress concentration in the process zone at the tip of the dike, the other relates to stresses induced in the walls and surrounding rocks on either side of the dike. As to the first process, some earthquakes generated at the dike tip are related to pure extension fracturing as the tip advances and the dike-path forms. Formation of pure extension fractures normally induces non-double couple earthquakes. There is also shear fracturing in the process zone, however, particularly normal faulting, which produces double-couple earthquakes. The second process relates primarily to slip on existing fractures in the host rock induced by the driving pressure of the propagating dike. Such pressures easily reach 5-20 MPa and induce compressive and shear stresses in the adjacent host rock, which already contains numerous fractures (mainly joints) of different attitudes. In piles of lava flows or sedimentary beds the original joints are primarily vertical and horizontal. Similarly, the contacts between the layers/beds are originally horizontal. As the layers/beds become buried, the joints and contacts become gradually tilted so that the joints and contacts become oblique to the horizontal compressive stress induced by a driving pressure of the (vertical) dike. Also, most of the hexagonal (or pentagonal) columnar joints in the lava flows are, from the beginning, oblique to an intrusive sheet of any attitude. Consequently, the joints and contacts function as potential shear

  17. Near Sea-Surface Mobile Radiowave Propagation at 5 GHz: Measurements and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Hui Lee


    Full Text Available Near sea-surface line-of-sight (LoS radiowave propagation at 5 GHz was investigated through narrowband measurements in this paper. Results of the received signal strength with a transmission distance of up to 10 km were examined against free space loss model and 2-ray path loss model. The experimental results have good agreements with the predicted values using the 2-ray model. However, the prediction ability of 2-ray model becomes poor when the propagation distance increases. Our results and analysis show that an evaporation duct layer exists and therefore, a 3-ray path loss model, taking into consideration both the reflection from sea surface and the refraction caused by evaporation duct could predict well the trend of LoS signal strength variations at relatively large propagation distances in a tropical maritime environment.

  18. Investigation of new type Cu-Hf-Al bulk glassy alloys (United States)

    Nagy, E.; Rontó, V.; Sólyom, J.; Roósz, A.


    In the last years new type Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloys were developed with high glass forming ability and ductility. The addition of Al to Cu-Hf alloys results in improvements in glass formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of these alloys. We have investigated new Cu-based bulk amorphous alloys in Cu-Hf-Al ternary system. The alloys with Cu49Hf42Al9, Cu46Hf45Al9, Cu50Hf42.5Al7.5 and Cu50Hf45Al5 compositions were prepared by arc melting. The samples were made by centrifugal casting and were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Thermodynamic properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and the structure of the crystallising phases by scanning electron microscopy. The determination of liquidus temperatures of alloys were measured by differential thermal analysis.

  19. First-principles studies of HF molecule adsorption on intrinsic graphene and Al-doped graphene (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Feiwu; Li, Daoyong; Pan, Hongzhe; Ye, Jun


    In the search for a high-sensitivity sensor for HF gas, the adsorption of HF molecules on both intrinsic and Al-doped graphene sheets is studied by first-principles calculations. We find that the adsorption mechanisms of HF molecules are different for intrinsic graphene and Al-doped graphene. Al-doped graphene has higher adsorption energy and shorter connecting distance to the HF molecule than intrinsic graphene. The calculated net electron transfers, electronic density difference images and densities of states give evidence that the adsorption of HF molecules on Al-doped graphene is by chemisorption, while there is weak physisorption on intrinsic graphene. Therefore, Al-doped graphene can be expected to have applications as a novel sensor for the detection of HF gas. The HF molecules adsorbed on Al-doped graphene material can be reactivated by applying an external electric field of 0.013 a.u.

  20. Ferroelectric HfO2 for Emerging Ferroelectric Semiconductor Devices (United States)

    Florent, Karine

    The spontaneous polarization in ferroelectrics (FE) makes them particularly attractive for non-volatile memory and logic applications. Non-volatile FRAM memories using perovskite structure materials, such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) have been studied for many years. However, because of their scaling limit and incompatibility with CMOS beyond 130 nm node, floating gate Flash memory technology has been preferred for manufacturing. The recent discovery of ferroelectricity in doped HfO2 in 2011 has opened the door for new ferroelectric based devices compatible with CMOS technology, such as Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor (FeFET) and Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions (FTJ). This work began with developing ferroelectric hysteresis characterization capabilities at RIT. Initially reactively sputtered aluminum doped HfO 2 films were investigated. It was observed that the composition control using co-sputtering was not achievable within the existing capabilities. During the course of this study, collaboration was established with the NaMLab group in Germany to investigate Si doped HfO2 deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Metal Ferroelectric Metal (MFM) devices were fabricated using TiN as the top and bottom electrode with Si:HfO2 thickness ranging from 6.4 nm to 22.9 nm. The devices were electrically tested for P-E, C-V and I-V characteristics. Structural characterizations included TEM, EELS, XRR, XRD and XPS/Auger spectroscopy. Higher remanant polarization (Pr) was observed for films of 9.3 nm and 13.1 nm thickness. Thicker film (22.9 nm) showed smaller Pr. Devices with 6.4 nm thick films exhibit tunneling behavior showing a memristor like I-V characteristics. The tunnel current and ferroelectricity showed decrease with cycling indicating a possible change in either the structure or the domain configurations. Theoretical simulations using the improved FE model were carried out to model the ferroelectric behavior of

  1. Centrifugal stretching of 170Hf in the interacting boson model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner V.


    Full Text Available We present the results of a recent experiment to deduce lifetimes of members of the ground state rotational band of 170Hf, which show the effect of centrifugal stretching in this deformed isotope. Results are compared to the geometrical confined beta-soft(CBS rotor model, as well as to the interacting boson model (IBM. Two methods to correct for effects due to the finite valence space within the IBM are proposed.

  2. Electrochemical characterization of cast Ti-Hf binary alloys. (United States)

    Cai, Z; Koike, M; Sato, H; Brezner, M; Guo, Q; Komatsu, M; Okuno, O; Okabe, T


    This study characterized the electrochemical behavior of Ti-Hf binary alloys in a simulated oral environment. Ti-Hf alloys (10, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 mass% Hf) were prepared by arc-melting titanium sponge and hafnium sponge. Specimens of each alloy (n = 4) were prepared using a dental titanium casting system with a MgO-based investment. Specimens were inspected with X-ray radiography to ensure minimal internal porosity. Castings (n = 4) made from pure titanium and commercially pure titanium were used as controls. The ground flat surface (10 mm x 10 mm) on each specimen where approximately 30 microm was removed was used for the characterization. Sixteen-hour open-circuit potential (OCP) measurement, linear polarization and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed sequentially in aerated (air + 10% CO2) MTZ synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was conducted in the same medium but deaerated (N2 + 10% CO2) 2 h before and during testing. Polarization resistance (R(P)) and Tafel slopes were determined, as were corrosion current density (I(CORR)) and passive current density (I(PASS)). Results were subjected to nonparametric statistical analysis (alpha = 0.05). The OCP stabilized (mean values -229 mV to -470 mV vs. SCE) for all specimens after the 16-h immersion. Similar passivation was observed for all the metals on their anodic polarization diagrams. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences in OCP among the test groups (p = 0.006). No significant differences were found in R(P), I(CORR) or I(PASS) among all the metals (p>0.3). Results indicate that the electrochemical behavior of the Ti-Hf alloys examined resembles that of pure titanium.

  3. Self-healing structural properties of thermoplastics in HF field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Filippenko


    Full Text Available The article concerns one of the possible ways for safe operation of polymer products with initiating a process of their self-healing. This is especially true for products from polymer materials, used in hard-to-reach areas and units of machines and mechanisms. In this regard, the aim of this study was to develop techniques for a self-healing process of the mechanical properties of products from polymer materials.To achieve this goal, the author has solved problems to define a complex method of HF self-healing of polymer material: damage detection in products from polymer materials, determination of signal initiating the recovery process, determining the efficiency of material regeneration. The present study uses proposed and developed by the author methods for the determination of necessary and sufficient indicators of the strength characteristics of products under realmeteorological and climatic conditions of their operation.To determine the practical results of the developed algorithm for self-healing the polymer products in the HF field, a series of experimental studies has been conducted to regenerate the polyamide cage fatigue destruction of the rolling stock axle equipment of Russian Railways JSC.The obtained results of the strength characteristics of the material under investigation prove the self-healing process of polymer materials in HF field.According to research results, the conclusion is drawn that it is required to provide a technological HF self-healing process of products from polymer materials. The created algorithm of regeneration enables a new approach to study the effects of electromagnetic fields on polymer and polymer-based composite materials when solving the practical tasks to improve the quality of repairing parts from thermoplastics.

  4. Hf--Co--B alloys as permanent magnet materials (United States)

    McGuire, Michael Alan; Rios, Orlando; Ghimire, Nirmal Jeevi


    An alloy composition is composed essentially of Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 0B.sub.Y, wherein 0.ltoreq.X<2 and 0

  5. Ionizing wave via high-power HF acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Mishin, Evgeny


    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60 km. This paper presents a physical model of an ionizing wavefront created by suprathermal electrons accelerated by the HF-excited plasma turbulence.

  6. Study on Preparation of 182Hf AMS Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINXin-yi; JIANGShan; HEMing; ZHANGChun-hua; ZHANGSheng-dong


    The neutron-rich isotope 182Hf with its half-life of (9±2)×106 a produced by neutron activation can be used to determine the neutron flux of some places, in order to study the transport of radioactive nuclides and the safe disposal of nuclear waste. AMS is a kind of relative measurement method with high sensitivity (10-15), it requires corresponding standard samples.

  7. Ionizing wave via high-power HF acceleration


    Mishin, Evgeny; Pedersen, Todd


    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60 km. This paper presents a physical model of an ionizing wavefront created by suprathermal electrons accelerated by the HF-excited plasma turbulence.

  8. On the Onset of HF-Induced Airglow at HAARP (United States)


    AFRL-VS-HA-TR-2005-1061 JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 109, A02305, doi:10.1029/2003JA010205, 2004 On the onset of HF-induced airglow at HAARP ...line) during the February 2002 campaign at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) heating facility are analyzed. We find that... HAARP , J. Geophys. Res., 109, A02305, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010205. 1. Introduction known as the parametric decay (PDI) or oscillating two- [2] A

  9. HF Over-the-Horizon Radar System Performance Analysis (United States)


    target detection technique and radar equations are applied. Chapter V uses PROPLAB model simulation to bring in the principle of raytracing and... RADAR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS by Bin-Yi Liu September 2007 Thesis Co-Advisors: Phillip E. Pace Jeffrey B. Knorr THIS PAGE...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HF Over-the-Horizon Radar System Performance Analysis 6. AUTHOR(S) Bin-Yi Liu 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING

  10. Wideband high frequency (HF) skywave channel parameters from narrowband measurements (United States)

    Hausman, Cynthia L.; Uffelman, Donald R.; Walton, Thomas L.

    The HF wideband channel allow the use of spread-spectrum techniques to provide covert communications with low probability of intercept (LPI) and antijam protection. The objective of this work is to determine the extent to which oblique narrowband channel measurements can be used to infer effects in the wideband skywave channel. If oblique narrowband channel measurements can be used as a basis for developing wideband channel models, a large number of existing narrowband measurements can be made available for this task.

  11. Signal processing techniques for phase-coded HF-VHF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Baskaradas


    Full Text Available HF-VHF radar techniques are easy to employ and commonly used in geophysical applications. They include deep radio soundings, used for probing the ionosphere, stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast and radio-glaciology. Fast algorithms and powerful processors facilitate the development of several kinds of low power radars, but the reduction of the transmitted power has to be compensated by on-line processing of an encoded signal to maintain a favorable signal-to-noise ratio suitable for detection. Moreover, radars have to reconstruct return echoes with different travel times due to various origins (multi-path, adjacent objects, etc.. Such needs can be accomplished by means of signal phase coding and one of the most attractive is the reversal phase code. The composite echo signal must be processed to extract the physical information useful for the measurement considered. In this paper some algorithms used for on-line processing of phase-coded signals will be described, both in time and frequency domain.

  12. Detection of HCl and HF by TTFMS and WMS. (United States)

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Pesce, Giuseppe; Rusciano, Giulia; Sasso, Antonio


    In this work we discuss on a compact spectrometer based on DFB diode lasers for detection of chloridric and fluoridric acids. HCl and HF concentrations are determined through optical absorption of the P(4) line (lambda=1.7 microm) and the R(3) line (lambda=1.3 microm), respectively. Both lines belong to first overtone vibrational bands and their line strengths are 7.8 x 10(-21)cm/molecule for HCl and 2.8 x 10(-20)cm/molecule for HF. We chose these lines for their relative high intensities and because they are quite far from water vapour lines which represent the main interfering gas for trace-gases analysis. To detect these species we used two different high frequency modulation techniques: two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy (f(1)=800 MHz and f(2)=804 MHz) was used for HCl while for HF we followed a simpler approach based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (f=600 kHz). We demonstrate that the two techniques provide comparable detection limit of about 80 ppbV at atmospheric pressure. Positive testing of our spectrometer makes it suitable for in situ measurements of exhaust gases coming from waste incinerators.

  13. Multiple excitation modes in 163Hf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Rachita; Ma, J.C.; Marsh, J.C.


    Excited states of Hf163 were populated using the Zr94(Ge74,5n) reaction and the decay γ rays were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two previously known bands were extended to higher spins, and nine new bands were identified. In addition to bands associated with three- and five-quasipar......Excited states of Hf163 were populated using the Zr94(Ge74,5n) reaction and the decay γ rays were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two previously known bands were extended to higher spins, and nine new bands were identified. In addition to bands associated with three- and five......-quasiparticle configurations, two γ−vibrational bands coupled to the i13/2 excitation were also observed. The lowest level of a newly identified, negative-parity band is proposed to be the ground state of the nucleus. A systematic delay of the high-spin proton crossing frequency with increasing quadrupole deformation from Hf...

  14. Electronic structures and properties of Ti, Zr and Hf metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The electronic structures of pure Ti, Zr and Hf metals with hcp structure were determined by one-atom (OA) theory. According to the electronic structures of these metals,their potential curves, cohesive energies, lattice constants, elasticities and the temperature dependence of linear thermal expansion coefficients were calculated. The electronic structures and characteristic properties of these metals with bcc and fcc structures and liquids were also studied. The results show that the electronic structures of Ti, Zr and Hf metals are respectively [Ar](3dn)0.481 0(3dc)2.085 7(4sc)1.000 0(4sf)0.433 3, [Kr](4dn)0.396 8(4dc)2.142 8(5sc)1.262 0(5sf)0.198 4, [Xe](5dn)0.368 0(5dc)2.041 4(6sc)1.406 6(6sf)0.184 0. It is explained why the pure Ti, Zr and Hf metals with hcp and bcc structures can exist naturally, while those with fcc structure can not.

  15. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik E.; Mezger, Klaus


    are similar among grains having radii larger than 1.3 mm (weighted mean: 2714±6 Ma2714±6 Ma; 2 s.d.) and up to 20 Myr younger for finer fractions. In contrast, Sm–Nd dates are equal to or younger than the 2641–2637 Ma age of peak metamorphism. The roles of concurrently digested inclusions and core–rim Lu......To investigate the systematics of the 176Lu–176Hf and 147Sm–143Nd garnet chronometers, we performed REE and isotope analyses on garnet crystals of different size (0.55–3.1 mm radius) from a single granulite specimen (Archean Pikwitonei Granulite Domain, Manitoba, Canada). The Lu–Hf dates....../Sm fractionation are quantitatively evaluated and excluded as causes for the observed age heterogeneity. Instead, the isotope dates are interpreted to reflect partial loss of radiogenic 176Hf and 143Nd, and are used to constrain the systematics of the garnet chronometers at high temperature. The data constrain...

  16. IR finite graviton propagators in de Sitter spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad


    Graviton propagator diverges in certain gauges in de Sitter spacetime. We address this problem in this work by generalizing the infinitesimal BRST transformations in de Sitter spacetime to finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformations. These FFBRST transformations are symmetry of the classical action, but do not leave path integral measure invariant for the graviton theory in de Sitter spacetime. Due to the non-trivial Jacobian of such finite transformation the path integral measure changes and hence FFBRST transformation is capable of relating theories in two different gauges. We explicitly construct FFBRST transformation which relates theory with diverging graviton two-point function to theory with infrared (IR) finite graviton. The FFBRST transformation thus establishes that divergence in graviton two-point function may be only a gauge artifact.

  17. IR finite graviton propagators in de Sitter spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Varanasi (India)


    The graviton propagator diverges in certain gauges in de Sitter spacetime. We address this problem in this work by generalizing the infinitesimal BRST transformations in de Sitter spacetime to finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformations. These FFBRST transformations are a symmetry of the classical action, but they do not leave the path integral measure invariant for the graviton theory in de Sitter spacetime. Due to the non-trivial Jacobian of such a finite transformation the path integral measure changes and hence the FFBRST transformation is capable of relating theories in two different gauges. We explicitly construct the FFBRST transformation which relates the theory with a diverging graviton two-point function to a theory with an infrared finite graviton. The FFBRST transformation thus establishes that the divergence in a graviton two-point function may be only a gauge artifact. (orig.)

  18. High-spin positive-parity states in 179Hf studied by the 180Hf(τ, α) 179Hf reaction AT 32 MeV (United States)

    Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Løvhøiden, G.; Vaagen, J. S.; Bjørnberg, A.; Burke, D. G.


    Full angular distributions are presented for states populated in the reaction 180Hf(τ, α) 179Hf at 32 MeV beam energy. Positive-parity states associated with the i {13}/{2} unique parity intruder orbital are given special attention. Thus, angular distributions for the five first members of the [624 {9}/{2}] groundstate sequence are given, as well as for a number of more highly excited states, some being new assignments. The distribution of l = 6 transfer strength is quite characteristic, two {13}/{2}+ states being substantially more populated than the rest. The characteristic features of the data are explained by a quasiparticle-rotor calculation employing deformed Woods-Saxon orbitals, but only if the hexadecapole shape parameter of the nuclear potential is β 4 ˜ -0.08. The often anomalous differential cross sections for I π ≠ {13}/{2}+ band members are well accounted for by a rotor model CCBA calculation employing transfer form factors extracted from the orbitals of the deformed Woods-Saxon field, and including non-adiabatic Coriolis mixing effects.

  19. Hf isotopic compositions of the standard zircons for U-Pb dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ping; WU Fuyuan; XIE Liewen; YANG Yueheng


    Using the newly published Yb isotopic abundances and the mass bias relationship between Yb and Hf, we carried out an analysis of Hf isotopes in the standard zircon 91500 by means of 193 nm laser attached to Neptune multi-collector ICP-MS (LA-MC-ICPMS). The obtained Hf isotopic data, in either in situ or line scan modes, are not only identical for different spot sizes, but also are consistent with previously published results obtained on TIMS or other MC-ICPMS machines within errors. This indicates that it is possible to obtain reliable 176Hf/177Hf isotopic ratios for zircon in either in situ or line scan conditions on LA-MC-ICPMS machine, and the applied procedures in our study for elemental interfering correction are appropriate for the purpose of acquiring satisfactory accuracy for Hf isotope analyses. The Hf isotopic compositions of four zircon standards in high spatial resolution U-Pb dating, 91500, CZ3,CN92-1 and TEMORA, are measured, respectively. The obtained 176Hf/177Hf ratios are 0.282316+4 (n = 34, 2σ) for 91500, 0.281704±6 (n = 16, 2σ) for CZ3, 0.282200±6 (n = 20,2σ-) for CN92-1 and 0.282684±14 (n = 24, 2σ) for TEMORA,respectively, with 176Lu/177Hf ratios of ~0.00031, 0.000036,0.00083 and 0.00127. Zircons 91500 and CZ3 show narrower variations in 176Hf/177Hf and 176Lu/177Hf ratios than those of zircons CN92-1 and TEMORA, and thus are appropriate standards for the Hf isotope analysis.

  20. A simple and accurate algorithm for path integral molecular dynamics with the Langevin thermostat (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Dezhang; Liu, Xinzijian


    We introduce a novel simple algorithm for thermostatting path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) with the Langevin equation. The staging transformation of path integral beads is employed for demonstration. The optimum friction coefficients for the staging modes in the free particle limit are used for all systems. In comparison to the path integral Langevin equation thermostat, the new algorithm exploits a different order of splitting for the phase space propagator associated to the Langevin equation. While the error analysis is made for both algorithms, they are also employed in the PIMD simulations of three realistic systems (the H2O molecule, liquid para-hydrogen, and liquid water) for comparison. It is shown that the new thermostat increases the time interval of PIMD by a factor of 4-6 or more for achieving the same accuracy. In addition, the supplementary material shows the error analysis made for the algorithms when the normal-mode transformation of path integral beads is used.

  1. Path Planning and Tracking for Vehicle Parallel Parking Based on Preview BP Neural Network PID Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季学武; 王健; 赵又群; 刘亚辉; 臧利国; 李波


    In order to diminish the impacts of external disturbance such as parking speed fluctuation and model un-certainty existing in steering kinematics, this paper presents a parallel path tracking method for vehicle based on pre-view back propagation (BP) neural network PID controller. The forward BP neural network can adjust the parameters of PID controller in real time. The preview time is optimized by considering path curvature, change in curvature and road boundaries. A fuzzy controller considering barriers and different road conditions is built to select the starting po-sition. In addition, a kind of path planning technology satisfying the requirement of obstacle avoidance is introduced. In order to solve the problem of discontinuous curvature, cubic B spline curve is used for curve fitting. The simulation results and real vehicle tests validate the effectiveness of the proposed path planning and tracking methods.

  2. A simple and accurate algorithm for path integral molecular dynamics with the Langevin thermostat. (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Dezhang; Liu, Xinzijian


    We introduce a novel simple algorithm for thermostatting path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) with the Langevin equation. The staging transformation of path integral beads is employed for demonstration. The optimum friction coefficients for the staging modes in the free particle limit are used for all systems. In comparison to the path integral Langevin equation thermostat, the new algorithm exploits a different order of splitting for the phase space propagator associated to the Langevin equation. While the error analysis is made for both algorithms, they are also employed in the PIMD simulations of three realistic systems (the H2O molecule, liquid para-hydrogen, and liquid water) for comparison. It is shown that the new thermostat increases the time interval of PIMD by a factor of 4-6 or more for achieving the same accuracy. In addition, the supplementary material shows the error analysis made for the algorithms when the normal-mode transformation of path integral beads is used.

  3. Crack Propagation in Honeycomb Cellular Materials: A Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paggi


    Full Text Available Computational models based on the finite element method and linear or nonlinear fracture mechanics are herein proposed to study the mechanical response of functionally designed cellular components. It is demonstrated that, via a suitable tailoring of the properties of interfaces present in the meso- and micro-structures, the tensile strength can be substantially increased as compared to that of a standard polycrystalline material. Moreover, numerical examples regarding the structural response of these components when subjected to loading conditions typical of cutting operations are provided. As a general trend, the occurrence of tortuous crack paths is highly favorable: stable crack propagation can be achieved in case of critical crack growth, whereas an increased fatigue life can be obtained for a sub-critical crack propagation.

  4. Wave propagation in non-Gaussian random media (United States)

    Franco, Mariano; Calzetta, Esteban


    We develop a compact perturbative series for acoustic wave propagation in a medium with a non-Gaussian stochastic speed of sound. We use Martin-Siggia and Rose auxiliary field techniques to render the classical wave propagation problem into a ‘quantum’ field theory one, and then frame this problem within the so-called Schwinger-Keldysh of closed time-path (CTP) formalism. Variation of the so-called two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action (EA), whose arguments are both the mean fields and the irreducible two point correlations, yields the Schwinger-Dyson and the Bethe-Salpeter equations. We work out the loop expansion of the 2PI CTP EA and show that, in the paradigmatic problem of overlapping spherical intrusions in an otherwise homogeneous medium, non-Gaussian corrections might be much larger than Gaussian ones at the same order of loops.

  5. Atmospheric propagation of two CO2 laser pulses (United States)

    Autric, M.; Caressa, J.-P.; Dufresne, D.; Bournot, Ph.


    At the intensity and fluence levels reached in an experimental investigation of high-energy laser beam propagation, air breakdown occurs through the interaction of the intense radiation with aerosol particles naturally suspended in the path of the beam. The air plasma created is found to expand rapidly and have a detrimental effect on energy propagation. It is determined that the energy transmitted through the breakdown plasma as a function of the incident average energy density is less than 15 percent for fluences greater than 300 J/sq cm, and that incident energy transmission may be increased through the generation of a precursor pulse as a function of double pulse separation times ranging from a few microsec to 0.1 sec. Maximum effects have been obtained at pulse separation intervals of 100-200 microsec, and these are ascribed to the vaporization of aerosol particles by the first pulse.

  6. On the path to differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Uygur, Ayca


    by examining the ‘path to differentiation’ within EU working time regulation as it has unfolded over time. It identifies the ‘opt-out’ as a means of differentiation adopted to overcome policy deadlocks within collective decision-making, albeit one with unforeseen consequences. In particular, the contribution...

  7. Career Paths in Environmental Sciences (United States)

    Career paths, current and future, in the environmental sciences will be discussed, based on experiences and observations during the author's 40 + years in the field. An emphasis will be placed on the need for integrated, transdisciplinary systems thinking approaches toward achie...

  8. Geodesic flows on path spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On the path space over a compact Riemannian manifold, the global existence and the global uniqueness of the quasi-invariant geodesic flows with respect to a negative Markov connection are obtained in this paper. The results answer affirmatively a left problem of Li.

  9. Methodologies for tracking learning paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Gilje, Øystein; Lindstrand, Fredrik


    The article concerns the design of a collaborative research project (2008-09) entitled Making a Filmmaker, which examines how young Scandinavian filmmakers create their own learn- ing paths in formal and/or informal contexts. Our interest is how learning experiences and contexts motivate the young...

  10. Determinants of weighted path matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Talaska, Kelli


    We find rational expressions for all minors of the weighted path matrix of a directed graph, generalizing the classical Lindstrom/Gessel-Viennot result for acyclic directed graphs. The formulas are given in terms of certain flows in the graph.

  11. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Julian L


    This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro­ magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self­ contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...

  12. Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation (United States)

    Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie


    Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.

  13. Propagation engineering in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid


    This book covers the basic principles for understanding radio wave propagation for common frequency bands used in radio-communications. This includes achievements and developments in propagation models for wireless communication. This book is intended to bridge the gap between the theoretical calculations and approaches to the applied procedures needed for radio links design in a proper manner. The authors emphasize propagation engineering by giving fundamental information and explain the use of basic principles together with technical achievements. This new edition includes additional information on radio wave propagation in guided media and technical issues for fiber optics cable networks with several examples and problems. This book also includes a solution manual - with 90 solved examples distributed throughout the chapters - and 158 problems including practical values and assumptions.

  14. Propagation of light and fluids in string backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R


    The propagation of light in area metric spacetimes, which emerge as refined backgrounds from string theory, is studied from first principles. In the geometric-optical limit, the path taken by light rays is found to be governed by a Finsler geometry derived from the area metric spacetime structure. It is shown that precisely the same Finsler geometry determines the motion of string fluids that admit a point particle fluid limit. Based on these phenomenologically important results, we study light deflection and planetary motion in spherically symmetric situations, and obtain experimental bounds on the non-metricity of spacetime in the solar system.

  15. Quantum propagator approach to heavy-ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, J.D. [Beijing Univ., BJ (China). Dept. of Physics; Boiley, D.; Bao, J.D. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)


    The real-time path integral propagator approach is used to study the fusion probability of massive nuclei including quantum effect. An analytical expression of the probability to pass over barrier of an inverted harmonic potential is obtained, in which both height and curvature of the barrier are controlled by the neck degree of freedom. The fusion probability of three systems in central collision as a function of the center of mass energy are calculated and compared to experimental results. It is shown that the quantum fluctuation enhances the fusion probability at low energies, and the neck fluctuation makes the slope of the fusion probability curve become flatter. (author)

  16. Electrical characteristics of MOS capacitor with HfTiON gate dielectric and HfTiSiON interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei-Bing; Xu Jing-Ping; Lai Pui-To; Li Yan-Ping; Xu Sheng-Guo; Chan Chu-Lok


    The paper reports that HfTiO dielectric is deposited by reactive co-sputtering of Hf and Ti targets in an Ar/O2 ambience, followed by an annealing in different gas ambiences of N2, NO and NHa at 600°C for 2 min. Capacitance-voltage and gate-leakage properties are characterized and compared. The results indicate that the NO-annealed sample exhibits the lowest interface-state and dielectric-charge densities and best device reliability. This is attributed to the fact that nitridation can create strong Si≡N bonds to passivate dangling Si bonds and replace strained Si- O bonds, thus the sample forms a hardened dielectric/Si interface with high reliability.

  17. Crack path simulation for cylindrical contact under fretting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Cardoso


    Full Text Available In this work different strategies to estimate crack path for cylindrical contacts under fretting conditions are carried out. The main goal is to propose and to evaluate methodologies not only to estimate the direction of crack initiation but also the subsequent propagation in its earlier stages, where the stress field is multiaxial, non-proportional and decays very fast due to the proximity with the contact interface. Such complex conditions pose a substantial challenge to the modelling of crack path. The numerical simulations are provided by a 2D Finite Element Analysis taking into account interactions between the crack faces. The results show that, under fretting conditions, models based on the critical plane method are not effective to estimate the crack initiation orientation, while models based on a so called “critical direction” applied along a critical distance provide better results. Regarding the subsequent crack propagation orientation, it was possible to see that stress intensity factor based models where one considers an infinitesimal virtual crack emerging from an original preexistent crack are powerful mechanisms of crack orientation estimation.

  18. Ultra High Energy Nuclei Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, Roberto


    We discuss the problem of ultra high energy nuclei propagation in astrophysical backgrounds. We present a new analytical computation scheme based on the hypothesis of continuos energy losses in a kinetic formulation of the particles propagation. This scheme enables the computation of the fluxes of ultra high energy nuclei as well as the fluxes of secondaries (nuclei and nucleons) produced by the process of photo-disintegration suffered by nuclei.

  19. Frozen Gaussian approximation for three-dimensional seismic wave propagation (United States)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu


    We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in three-dimensional earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a three-dimensional (3D) seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3D crust-over-mantle model.

  20. Frozen Gaussian approximation for 3-D seismic wave propagation (United States)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu


    We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3-D earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a 3-D seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3-D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model, respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3-D crust-over-mantle model.